Colonial Administration Reports 1904-1919





1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL

1

No. 451.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1904.

(For Report for 1903, see No. 421.)

Presented to both Mouses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty.

July, 1905.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE,.

BY DARLING & SON, L., 34-40, BACON STREET, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C.,

and 32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.;

or OLIVER & BOYD, EDINBURGH;

or E. PONSONBY, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.

1905.

[Cd. 2238-28.] Price 1d.

2

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

:

...

:

PAGE. 3

:

...

...

:

...

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, Industries, Fisheries, Agriculture,

AND LAND

...

 

...

...

...

5

1. FINANCIAL

III. LEGISLATION

...

IV. EDUCATION

...

:

...

:

:

V. PUBLIC WORKS

:.

...

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

VI. GOVERNMEnt InstitUTIONS

:

12

12

...

:

:

...

13

...

...

...

...

14

VII, INSTITUTIONS NOT Supported by Government

VIII. CRIMINAL and POLICE

IX.

VITAL STATISTICS .....

...

:

X. POSTAl Service

***

...

...

:

...

:

:

:

15

...

16

:

:

...

...

:

:

:

...

XI. MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE...

XIL GENERAL ORSERVATIONS

....

17

:

...

....

...

19

...

:

20

21

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 451.

HONG

KONG.

(For Report for 1903, see No. 421.)

GOVERNOR SIR M. NATHAN to MR. LYTTELTON.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

Co

3

2nd June, 1905.

SIR, I have the honour to submit for your information the following general Report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1904.

I.-FINANCES.

The revenue for the year, exclusive of Land Sales, amounted to $6,322,949.35, or $1,594,257.18 more than the previous year Land Sales amounted to $486,098.64, or $24,067.07 less than in 1903. The total revenue from all sources was therefore $6,809,047.99, or $1,570,190.11 greater than in any previous year, and $200,739.99 more than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1903 with the exception of the Post Office, Miscellaneous Receipts, Water Account and Land Sales, and all items similarly show an excess of actual over estimated receipts, with the exception of Post Office, Mis cellaneous Receipts, and the Water Account.* Licences and Internal Revenue, not otherwise specified show an excess of $283,757.78, while Fees of Court or Office, &c., and Rent of Government Property yielded over $25,000 and slightly under $6,000 respectively over the estimate:

*

The expenditure for the year was $4,993;421.18 exclusive of Public Works Extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $6,376,235.30, or $979,565.82 more than the total expenditure of 1903. Deducting from the actual expenditure for 1904 the total actual receipts, there was a surplus of $432,812.69 on the actual working of the year.

This account was formerly credited with 2 per cent. of the rates levied in those Districts which are supplied with filtered water.

75 Wt 23792 7/1905 D & S 5 22023*

A 2

4

4

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(A.) GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following is a brief abstract of revenue and expenditure for the years 1903 and 1904:-

Revenue.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

$

C.

C.

Light Dues...

***

Licences and internal revenue

not otherwise specified.

Fees of Court, &c.

Post Office

...

74,960.00 72,380.16

2,819,936.09 | 4,509,162.78 |1,659,226.69

C.

$ 2,629.84

C.

852,719.02

403,854.60

51,135.58

414,867.20

408,458.92

6,408.28

Rent of Government property Interest

615.683.01

688,321.41

72.638.40

5,964.73

7,813.48

1,848.70

Miscellaneous

Water Account

178,602.00

167,059.66

11,542.34

235,960.12

65,948.39

170,011.73

Land sales

510,165.71

486,098.64

24,007.07

Total

:

$5235,857.886,809,047.99|1,784,849.37 | 214,659.26

Deduct decrease

214,659.26

Nett increase ...

1,570,190.11

Expenditure.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

Non-effective charges General administration

891,893.89 951.837.14

$ C. 372,154.46

C.

$

19.739.48

900,784.82

51,052.32

Law and order

Public health...

Public instruction

Public works ..... Defence

...

€66,206.38

855,506.25

10,700.13

685.206.11

647,926.69

37,279.42

132,619.74 155,189.34

22,569.60

|1,369,532,14 2,129,900.58

760.368.44

099,374.08 1,314,773.16

$5,396,669.48 6,876,235.30 | 1,098,337.12 | 118,771.30

315,399.08

Total

Deduct decrease

118,771.30

Nett increase

...

$ 979,565.82

 The following shows the total revenue and expenditure for the 'five years 1900-1904:-

Revenue Expenditure

Surplus

Jeficit

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

*

4,202,587.40 |4,213,893.22 |4,901,073.70 | 5,238,857.88 6,809,047.99 3,628,147.13 4,111,722.49 | 5,909,548.51 | 5,396,669.48 |6,376,235.30

:

...

574,140.27 102,170.78

432,812.69

...

1,008,474.81 157,811.60

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

(B.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

5.

At the end of the year 1904, the assets of the Colony amounted to $1,445,381.80, exclusive of arrears of revenue, which,. with the sum just mentioned bring the total assets up to $1,651,470.98. The total liabilities were $1,147,658.97, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $503,812.01.

(C.) PUBLIC DEBT.

There is a public debt of £341,799 15s. 1d. outstanding. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Re- clamation, the Central Market, and Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works.

Interest at 3 per cent. is payable on the loan, which is being paid off by a sinking fund now amounting to £34,375 7s. 6d.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE AND LAND.

(A.) TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The following table shows the principal articles of import in the year 1904 in vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1903. The figures represent the ton-

nage:

Articles.

1903.

1904. Increase. Decrease.

Beans Bones

...

...

3,120

750

2,370

...

400

400

Coal

Flour

...

...

Cotton yarn and cotton

Hemp Kerosine (bulk)

1,186,86

1,152,454

34,232

20,795

-19,350

1,445-

...

...

120,430

115,921

4,509

24,149

19,382

4,767

40,607

56,965

16,358

"}

(case)

Lead

...

Opium

82,960

.100,692

17,732

550

3,563

3,013

4,997

2,955

2,042

Liquid fuel

...

1,000

9,727 8,727

Rattan

...

...

...

...

4,020

5.080

1,060

Rice

...

...

597,730

823,339 225,609

Sandalwood

***

...

..

4,713

3,300

1,413

Sulphur

...

Sugar

...

...

...

Teil Timber General

***

...

961 229,946 1,746

187

774

205,696

24,250

1,746

...

...

...

...

::

64,400

€6,200

1,800

...

1,594,600 | 1,564,678

29,922

Total Transit

3,983,410 4,150.639 274,699

107,470

...

2,874,950

3,151,926| 276,976

Grand Total

6,858,360 7,302,565 | 551,675

107,470

Nett

...

**

444,205

22023

A 3

5

6

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1904 amounted to 24,754,042 tons, being an increase, compared with 1903, of 714,180 tons, and the same number in excess of any previous year.

 There were 58,093 arrivals of 12,388,892 tons, and 58,099 de- partures of 12,365,150 tons.

 Of British ocean-going tonnage, 3,862,802 tons entered, and 3,845,932 tons cleared.

 Of British river steamers, 2,849,896 tons entered, and 2,847,464 tons cleared.

 Of foreign ocean-going tonnage, 2,679,908 tons entered, and 2,670,939 tons cleared.

 Of foreign river steamers, 235,144 tons entered, and 235,227 tons cleared.

Of steam launches trading to ports outside the Colony, 52,892 tons entered, and 52,892 tons cleared.

 Of junks in foreign trade, 1,524,874 tons entered, and 1,547,396 tons cleared.

 Of junks in local trade, 1,183,376 tons entered, and 1,165,300 tons cleared.

Thus:

British ocean-going tonnage represented British river tonnage represented

***

Foreign ocean going tonnage represented... Foreign river tonnage represented ...

Steam launches in foreign trade represented Junks in foreign trade represented Junks in local trade represented

...

...

...

Total

***

...

Per cent.

***

31.2

...

23.1 21.3

...

1.9

..

...

0.5

...

12.5

...

9.5

:.

...

100.0

22023

£34.

A comparison between the years 1903 and 1904 is given in the following table; steam launches are not included:→

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

1903.

1904.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships.

Tonnage.

Ships.

Tonnage.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships.

Tonnage.

British

8,449

11,250,296

10,190

13,406,094

1,741 2,155,798

Foreign

6,040

7,768,115

4,732

Junks in Foreign 'T'rade

...

31,766

2,698,459

36,251

Total

..

46,255 21,716,870

51,173

Junks in Local Trade

...

....

Grand Total

...

104,470

58,215* 2,136,514° 62,965+ 23,853,384 114,138

2,348,676+

24,648,258

5,821,218 3,072,270. 4,485 373,811 22,299,582 6,226 2,529,609

4,750 212,162

10,976 2,741,771

1,308

1,946,897

1,308

1,946,897

1,308 1,946,897

Net

...

...

9,668

794,874

A 4

Including 17,210 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 6-7,052 tons. † Including 32,424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons.

2

7

8

-8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 For vessels under the British flag, this table shows a total increase of 1,741 ships of 2,155,798 tons, viz., an increase of 352 ships of 930,300 tons to ocean-going, and an increase of 1,389 ships of 1,225,498 tons to river trade.

 The above increase in ocean-going trade is principally due to a large influx of colliers and other tramp steamers in ballast, attracted to the Far East by the war.

 The increase in river trade is due to 10 new vessels having started to ply during the year.

 Under foreign flags, the table shows a decrease of 1,308 ships of 1,946,897 tons, of which 159 ships are river steamers. The river steamers tonnage, however, shows an increase of 36,008 tons, giving a net decrease in foreign ocean shipping of 1,149 ships of 1,910,889 tons.

This decrease is due to:-

(1.) The disappearance of all Russian and almost all

Japanese ships from the run since the war began. (2.) The transfer of a large number of small German and Norwegian vessels to the Japanese coast trade.

(3.) A considerable decrease in numbers (but increase in tonnage) of vessels under United States of America colours.

 The decrease in numbers of foreign river steamers is due to the smaller number of individual vessels plying, while the

increased tonnage is accounted for by their larger size.

 The actual number of ships of European construction (ex- clusive of river steamers and steam launches) entering the port during 1904 was 860, of which 498 were British and 362 foreign. These 860 ships entered 3,981 times, giving a total tonnage entered of 6,509,919 tons. Thus, compared with 1903, 119 more ships entered 38 times less and with a total tonnage decreased by 499,262 tons.

STEAMERS.

British Austrian Belgian Chinese

Danish

Dutch

French

→German

Italiau

Ships.

No. of times

entered.

Total tonnage.

Flag.

1903. 1904. 1903. 1904.

1903.

1904.

...

...

331

498 1,982 2,151

3,368,788

3,843,355

15

13 42

32

106,944

102,349

...

1

1

2,047

14

...

...

15

172

180

222,164

241,085

8

4

27

13

48.676

26,817

11

9

21

44

34,575

84,379

42

...

36

262

238 246,837

234,977

126

...

147

937 861

1,345,567

1,268,835

3

6

12

20

32,732

38,212

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

Steamers-cont.

Ships.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

Flag.

1903. 1904. 1903. 1904.

1903.

1904.

.Japanese

Norwegian Portuguese Russian

69 30 467

51

60

...

...

...

: Spanish...

...

...

Swedish

4

...

...

ANGA88

51

1,017,263

114,951

318

253

319,685

276,211

30

53

7,110

12,167

19

5

30,781

14,578

2

6,017

31

12

26,093

8,582

United States

24

24

61

64

...

200,706

232,857

No flag.

1

1

2

1

...

...

1,260

2,500

Total

709

...

...

|

Flag

British Dutch French

...

...

100

***

...

-German

Italian

..Japanese

...

Norwegian

Sarawak

Swedish

United States No Flag

859 4,383 3,981 7,009,181 6,509,919

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

1903. 1904.] 1903. 1904. 1903.

1904

13

11

14

11

...

...

1

1

M

4

2

2

...

1

1

...

...

1

12

21

1

1

22

...

1

...

...

...

27,525 19,417 84

7,194 3,444

2,045

47

994

120

1,498

3,651

2,676

1,338

1,271

9

4

11,177 2,867

1

1,498

919

Total

32

25 36 26 55,004❘ 32,791

During the year 1904, 14,922 vessels of European construc- tion, of 19,227,312 tons (nett register), reported having carried 10,572,844 tons of cargo, as follows:

Tons.

Import cargo

...

...

...

Export cargo

...

...

...

Transit cargo

...

...

...

...

...

4,150,639 2,605,861 3,151,926

Bunker coal shipped

Total

664,418

10,572,844

9

10

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

In imports there is an increase reported of 167,229 tons. In exports there is an increase reported of 360,742 tons. In transit cargo there is an increase reported of 276,976 tons.. The total reported import trade of the port for 1904 amounted to 26,588 vessels of 11,205,516 tons, carrying 7,889,978 tons of cargo, of which 4,738,052 tons were discharged at Hong Kong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of junks or steam launches employed in local trade.

 Similarly, the export trade from the port was represented by 26,639 vessels of 11,199,850 tons, carrying 3,436,726 tons. of cargo, and shipping 670,811 tons of bunker coal.

 Seventy-six thousand three hundred and four (76,304) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year; of these, 52,496 were carried by British ships and 23,808 by Foreign ships; 149,195 were reported as having been brought to Hong Kong from those places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 121,735 were brought in British ships and 27,460- by Foreign ships.

 The total revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $300,933.95, being an increase of $15,645.53 on the previous year:-

·

1. Light dues

2. Licences and internal revenue

3. Fees of Court and office

Amount.

$

C.

72,330.16

:::

62,418.00 166,185.79

Total

..$

300,933.95

(B.) INDUSTRIES.

-For the first ten months of 1904 the cotton spinning industry suffered severely from the abnormally high price of raw cotton, and during the whole of that period short-time was resorted to. From November onwards a good demand was experienced for yarn and full-time again adopted, but it was not until the middle of December that, as a result of large crops of cotton in the chief producing countries, the cost of the raw material. declined to a figure that permitted of spinning being carried on at a profit. At the end of 1904 the outlook for the industry was encouraging, and, provided the price of cotton keeps at a reasonable level, the result of the working for 1905 is expected to be highly satisfactory.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1934.

11.

The sugar industry in the Colony during 1904 resulted in large profits to the two local refineries. Owing to the scarcity of supplies in consequence of the large deficiency in the European beet crop, prices gradually advanced throughout the year, without checking demand; the quantity of refined sugar con- sumed in China largely exceeding that of any previous year, whilst there was also a good demand from other markets.

Forty-one steam launches and other vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 7,290 were built during the year.

The other large industries in the Colony connected with repairing and docking ships and the manufacture of cement and rope, are in a prosperous condition.

(C.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territory are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Freshwater fish is imported from Canton and the West River. Rules for the regulation, control, and licensing of oyster fisheries in the New Territory were made during the year.

(D.) Forestry, BOTANICAL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE.

111,198 trees were planted in Hong Kong during the year including 105,645 pine and 1,978 camphor trees. It was pro- posed at the commencement of the year to introduce a scheme for felling and re-planting pine forests on the block system with a twenty-five years rotation. But as the scheme was looked upon with ill-favour by the public and as the opinion was expressed in well-informed quarters that a longer period of rotation was preferable, it was decided to suspend felling operations while the advice of the Indian Government was obtained. A scheme of issuing forestry licences in the New Territories was initiated in the hope of inducing the Chinese to adopt more economical methods in dealing with the consider- able plantations of pine trees formed before the cession of the Territories, and with the object of tempting them to take up fresh areas of waste lands for further planting. The small area available for rice cultivation and the unfertility of the soil combine to prevent agriculture from becoming a prominent industry in the Colony. The low-lying land in the New 'Territories is probably utilised to nearly the fullest extent possible, and it is therefore from the profitable cultivation of the steep hill slopes that any increase in the productiveness of the Territories may be derived. In this connection the cultivation -of pine apple and experiments that are being made with sisal

hemp are of much interest.

11

12

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(E.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

 The amount received from sales of Crown land was over $486,000, being some $24,000 less than the receipts for the previous year.

 Building land in the urban portion of the Colony and in the Peak District is limited in extent and steadily increasing in. value. The natural consequence is that house-rents, especially on the higher levels, have advanced to an extent probably un- known in other British Colonies.

III.-LEGISLATION.

 Sixteen Ordinances were passed during 1904, of which six were measures for the amendment of existing Ordinances. The most important measure was the Sugar Convention Ordin- ance (No. 14 of 1904) giving effect to Article VIII of the Brussels Sugar Convention, 1902. By the Hill District Reservation Ordinance (No. 4) a residential area is preserved at the Peak. The Opium Monopoly was further protected by an Ordinance (No. 10) controlling the importation and sale of compounds of opium. By the Pilots Ordinance (No. 3) provision. was made for the examination and licensing of Pilots, who must be British subjects.

IV.-EDUCATION.

 The number of Government and Grant Schools including Queen's College, is 81, of which 23 are Upper Grade Schools- in which at least part of the staff is European, and 58 are Lower Grade Schools, under purely native management. Broadly speaking the Upper Grade Schools teach in English,. and the Lower Grade Schools teach in the vernacular.

 The total number of scholars in average attendance at Government and Grant Schools was 4,970. Of these, 1,665 were in Government and 3,305 in Grant Schools; 2,906 scholars received instruction in English, and 2,064 in the vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,236 to 1,734, or a little less thas two to one.

 A small Anglo-Chinese School was opened at Un Long in the New Territory early in 1904; and arrangements were made to open a new school for children of British parentage at Caroline Hill; East Point. The Kowloon School for children or similar

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

13

13

parentage, opened is 1902, has had an average attendance of 548 as against 46'4 in 1903.

The New Code for Grant Schools has been in force during the year, and has worked very satisfactorily.

It was decided to introduce the study of Hygiene into all Government and Grant Schools and a suitable text book was prepared.

The revenue derived from School Fees was $36,251.50. The expenditure was $151,589, being 2.32% of the total expenditure -of the Colony.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year were the Tytam Tuk Water Works (1st Section) commenced in March and consisting of a storage reservoir with a capacity of 194 million gallons, two sets of engines and pumps capable -of lifting 1 million gallons a day each with 18" pipe line;

the construction of a new 20-foot road to accommodate the mains of the Tytam Tuk Water Works, and improve the road com- munications of the Island; the Kowloon Water Works, pre- viously described, on which good progress was made; the New Law Courts, Harbour Office, Western Market, Bacterio- logical Institute, Disinfecting Station at Kowloon, Gunpowder Depôt at Green Island; the further extension of the Cattle Depôt, and the foundations for the New Post Office and Government Offices. A commencement was made with quarters for officers at Taipo, and a Public School at Yaumati. Another bath-house for both sexes in the western part of the town was completed. An area in Kau U Fong, Victoria, recom- mended by the sanitary experts for resumption, was purchased by the Government at a cost of over $220,000. Good progress was made with the scheme of 100-foot thoroughfares in Kowloon, the road through the King's Park being completed and portions of several lots resumed for the extension of Robinson Road northwards. About $40,000 was spent on Nullah Training in the Colony and $20,000 on the re-construction of street gullies to improve the city drainage system. A beginning was made towards improving the lighting of the harbour approaches by arranging for the transfer of the 1st order light at Cape D'Aguilar to a new tower on Green Island. Reclamation was undertaken at Tai-kok-tsui, in conjunction with a private owner, "by which that locality will be much improved. New rifle ranges near Kowloon were constructed by the Military Autho- rities at the expense of the Colony. The laying of a heavy ::specially wound cable for telephonic purposes across the

14

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

harbour was successfully undertaken during the year. The work of laying rider-mains was also commenced.

 The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary, exclusive of the Praya East Reclamation and rider-mains, was $1,264.351.30 and on works annually recurrent $532,751.85.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(A.) HOSPITALS.

 Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hos- pital for Women and Children, the Kennedy Town Infectious- Diseases Hospital, and the hulk" Hygeia" used mainly for the treatment of small-pox.

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,585 in- patients and 13,106 out-patients were treated during the year 1904. 223 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 346 in 1903 and 349 in 1902. The Maternity Hospital contains 4 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 61 confinements occurred during the year with two deaths. The Victoria Hospital, opened in November, 1903, by Sir Henry Blake, is situated at the Peak and contains 41 beds. During 1904, 111 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26- beds in the main building. In 1904, 87 cases were treated, of which 78 were plague and 5 cholera. On the "Hygeia" 40" cases were treated, of which 32 were small-pox.

(B.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

 The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separate, the European portion containing 8 bede in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 166- patients of all races were treated during 1904, and there were 13 deaths.

(C.) THE TUNG WA HOSPITAL.

·

This Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by

· voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual: grant of $6,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor- house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute, and is administered by an annually-elected body of 15 Chinese direc- tors. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are- employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the

:

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

15

patients or their friends. The Hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appoint- ment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation. The financial position of the Hospital was improved during the year and its title to its investments in land was secured by Ordinance.

OTHER GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

The Prison, Observatory, Post Office, Educational Establish- ments, and other Government institutions are dealt with under separate heads.

VII-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be men- tioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall.

The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar-General and an annually-elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the home receive daily instruc- tion in elementary subjects, and are allowed to earn pocket- money by needle-work. During 1904, a total of 676 persons were admitted. Of these, 287 were released after enquiry, 38 were released under bond, 138 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents or relations, eight were placed in charge of the Japanese Consul, 76 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 15 were sent to school, convent or refuge, 11 were adopted, 29 were married, and two died. In consequence of an -epidemic of beri-beri during the summer, the women's quarters were vacated, and the inmates temporarily distributed between Tung Wa Hospital and the Italian Convent.

The Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded in 1887, for the purpose of teaching surgery, medicine, and -obstetrics to Chinese. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. Eighty-seven students have been enrolled up to the end of 1904, and of these 19 have become qualified licentiates, and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of cer- tain of the licentiates in the public service, the senior students

15

16

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from. Government. It contains a reference library and museum.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

 The total of all cases reported to the police. was 11,812, an. increase of 560 or 4.97 per cent. over those reported in 1903.. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences, there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year from 4,862 to 3,532, that is of over 27 per cent., occurring in every nature of crime with the exception of offences against women and girls.

 The number of serious offences reported was 334 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1900.

 The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 1,890 over the number for 1903, mainly in offences against the Prepared Opium Ordinance, due to a considerable rise in the price of opium and consequent surreptitious manufacture and smuggling of the drug, and in offences against the sanitary bye- laws, which were more stringently enforced as the public became "better acquainted with the provisions of the Public Health and

Buildings Ordinance of the previous year.

 The number of minor offences reported was 1,640 over the average of the quinquennial period.

 The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 7,464, as compared with 7,273 in 1903, but of these only 4,027 were committed for criminal offences, against 4,644 in 1903. 'Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 439 more. under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 133 more for in- fringement of Sanitary By-laws.

 The daily average of prisoners, confined in the Gaol was 726, the highest previous average being 653 in 1903. The per- centage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 0-201 as compared with 0.189, the average percentage for the last ten years. The Prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1·1, as compared with 2:34 in 1903 and. 342 in 1902. The continued overcrowding of the Gaol emphasises the necessity for the proposed new Convict Prison, and the question of a fresh site has for some time past been under consideration.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

17

The remunerative labour carried on in the Gaol consists of printing, bookbinding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net- making, painting and whitewashing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c., the value of the work done being $47,938.13.

The total strength of the Police. Force for 1904 was Europeans 133, Indians 375, Chinese 485, making a total of 993, as com- pared with 921 in 1903 exclusive in each case of the four Superior officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. Of this Force an Assistant Superintendent, who also acted as Magis- trate, and 20 Europeans, 81 Indians and 43 Chinese were stationed in the New Territory during the greater part of the

year.

The force of District Watchmen to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum was well supported by Chinese during the year and its strength increased by 13 to a total: of 95.

17

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(A.) POPULATION.

The population of the Colony according to the census taken in 1897 was 248,880 and according to the census of 1901 it was 283,975 exclusive of New Kowloon and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review was 361,206, as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil Community

Chinese Population-

Hong Kong

...

Old Kowloon

...

New Kowloon (approximate)..... Floating population

:

Army Navy

Total

...

::

...

...

...

:

Population.

10,181

206 304

...

65,072 20,000 50,930

...

342,306.

...

4,359 4,360

8,719

351,206

New Kowloon was brought under the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board in 1904, and its estimated population has accordingly been included. The population of the remainder.

B

22023

18

.18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

of the New Territories according to the census of 1901 was 85.011 making when added to the present estimate a grand total of 446,217.

 The total strength of the British Fleet on the China Station was estimated at 10,067, as compared with 8,905 in the previous year. At the census taken in 1901 the actual number of members of the Navy present in the Colony was 5,597 and the estimated average number resident in Hong Kong during 1904 is put at 4,360.

 The total number of births registered in the Colony was 1,205, and of deaths 6,118. This gives an annual birth-rate

· of 3·3 and a death-rate of 16'94 per 1,000, as compared with 3.2 and 189 in 1903. The death-rates both in the Chinese and non-Chinese sections of the community were lower than any recorded in the last 15 years. The excess of deaths over births is explained by the fact that thousands of Chinese families are represented in Hong Kong by men only, there being a very large floating population of adult males, and that many of the Chinese in case of illness return to their own country. It should also be remembered that a large proportion of births among the Chinese remains unregistered, though steps are being taken to remedy this irregularity as far as possible.

(B.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

It is satisfactory to note that during the year under review better acquaintance on the part of the Chinese with the requirements of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903 has resulted in a marked decrease in the opposition, especially with regard to the cleansing and disinfection of houses, that at first did much to impede its successful operation.

The houses that are in course of erection in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance show considerable improvement -on the existing type of house as regards adequate lighting and ventilation. The question of overcrowding is still an urgent one, the number of persons per acre in the built-over area of the Central Districts having increased from 562 in 1902 to 608 in 1994. It was hoped that the electric tramway, opened early in the year, would cause the coolie classes to move to the outskirts of the City, but it has rather had the opposite effect, the tendency being for labourers to come into the centre of the City to live and to take advantage of the cheap fares to go out to their work.

 Under the Insanitary Properties Resumption Scheme an area of 24,898 square feet has been resumed in one of the most densely populated areas of the City for the purpose of forming a wide street through the existing block of houses, and a further

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1901.

19

open space has been given to the public by the opening of Blake Park in the Western Taipingshan District.

There were 495 deaths from plague; this was 756 less than in 1903 and except for the years 1895 and 1897 the lowest mortality since the first outbreak of the disease in 1894. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1,394 deaths among the Chinese, or 237 of the total number of Chinese deaths. The deaths from beri-beri were high, totalling 735 for the year. The result of the measures adopted for the prevention of malaria is seen in the continuous reduction in the number of deaths from this disease from 574 in 1901 to 301 in 1904.

(C.) CLIMATE.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 71-6° F. as compared with 71.5° F. in 1903 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum monthly temperature was attained in August, when it reached 86·0° F.,. and the minimum monthly temperature was recorded in January, when it was 55-4° F. The highest recorded tempera- ture during the year was 91-1° F. on the 26th of June, and the lowest 44-8° F. on December 24th.

The total rainfall for the year was 80-41 inches as compared with an average of 77-33 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was August, with 27.64 inches, the dryest, January, with only 0.12 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 11-135 inches on the 25th August, while no rain fell on 137 days of the year. The relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 77 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the past ten years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5.2 hours being 46 per cent. of the possible duration.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1904 by the Postal Department amounted to $532,742.94 from which sum $124,282 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $408,418.92 as Revenue of the Postal Service. The net profit: of the Postal Department after deducting $316,756.56 as ex-- penditure, amounted to $91,702.36 being an increase of: $11,012.56 more than that realised in 1903.

Books containing 1, 2 and 4-cent stamps to the value of $1. were available from the beginning of the year and were purchased to the number of 3,040. A direct exchange of money orders.

22023

B 2;

19

20

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

with the Transvaal Post Office was arranged. British Postal Orders are now cashed in Hong Kong and the British Postal Agencies in China.

 The Parcel Post Convention concluded with the United States of America came into force at the beginning of the year.

All branches continue to show an increase over the returns for the previous year.

XI-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(A.) REGULAR FORCES.

The following return show the number and composition of the forces employed in the Colony during 1904:

Europeans. Indians.

Chinese.

Corps.

General Staff

5

Garrison Staff

3

Royal Garrison Artillery

Hong Kong-Singapore Bn. R. G. A. 10

Royal Engineers

...

Chinese S. M. M. Co., R. E.

1st Sherwood Foresters

Army Service Corps

Royal Army Medical Corps

A. O. Department and Corps

A. P. Department and Corps 110th Mahratta L. I.

17 625

9

13

196

11

...

446

4 20

12

|||

Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s & Men.

Native Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s, & Men.

N. C. O.'s & Men.

Totals.

389

69

10 30

| | | 118

5

3

642

415

209

69

457

24.

10

41

51

7

31

38

3

11

8

14 698

720

93rd Burma Infantry

114th Mahrattas

2nd Royal West Kent Regiment

Totals

14

690

712

14 189

716

47

48

...

105 1,426 492,466 69

4,115

(B.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $1,270,741.03 (being the statutory .contribution of 20 per cent. of revenue) towards the cost and maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony and Barrack Services.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

(C.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

21

The total establishment of the Corps is 426 of all ranks. The strength on the 31st December, 1904, was 272, made up as follows:-Staff, 8; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 202; one Engineer Company, 32; Band 3; Troop 27.

A small mounted Corps was formed in the latter part of the year under the designation of the Hong Kong Volunteers Troop, for purposes of scouting and to act as orderlies in time of war.

An association called the Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve Association was also formed. Members, who must be over 35 years of age, are required to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volun- teer Ordinance in the event of hostilities. The Association numbered ninety-six members at the close of the year.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $44,032.13.

21

XII.-GENERAL

OBSERVATIONS.

The outbreak of war between Russia and Japan on the 8th February was not without effect on the shipping trade of Hong Kong. The percentage of British to total tonnage entering and clearing, which had fallen continuously from 75 to 59 in the previous ten years, rose to 70 in 1904 owing to causes already given in this report. The war brought in its train various questions, involving recourse to the law courts of the Colony, relating to its effect on charter parties and to the refusal of duty by seamen on the ships carrying contraband. Speculation in blockade running resulted in some heavy losses to the Chinese and there was tightness of money at the end of the year. After the naval action at Chemulpo on the 9th Feb- ruary some Russian wounded were treated in the Hong Kong Hospitals pending removal to Europe and the attention paid to them was duly recognised by the Russian Government. Later 4 officers and 61 men from a Russian torpedo boat destroyer, who had taken refuge at Weihaiwei, were trans- ferred to Hong Kong and arrangements for their maintenance here made in consultation with the Russian Consul.

 An attempt was made in the latter half of the year to start the shipment to South Africa via Hong Kong of indentured labourers recruited in the Kwang Si and Kwang Tung Provinces on similar conditions as regards terms of engagement and arrangements for transport to those embodied in the Convention for shipment of labourers to South Africa from the Treaty Ports, which was signed in London on the 13th May, 1904. An agreement was made by the Acting Consul General at

22

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Canton with the Viceroy of the Two Kwang for despatching- to Hong Kong labourers recruited at Wuchow by the Chinese officials. The class of recruits obtained in this manner was not satisfactory nor were the numbers obtainable from the two Provinces, in the face of opposition from persons interested in recruiting for other countries, sufficient to justify the maintenance of the depôt here. The attempt was therefore abandoned after 1,746 labourers had been despatched.

 A rebellion in Kwang Si, which died down towards the end of the year, enabled Hong Kong to render a service to China by rigorously maintaining restrictions on the export of arms and ammunition from the Colony.

 The construction of a railway from Canton to the frontier of the territory under British jurisdiction, for which the British and China Corporation had made a preliminary agreement with the Chinese Government on the 28th March, 1899, formed the subject of discussion in London with the Directors of the Corporation with a view to an arrangement being made for working this railway with one to be constructed from the frontier of the New Territories to the sea at British Kowloon. The strong feeling of the Government and of the entire com- mercial community of the Colony as to the importance of the complete undertaking to the prosperity of Hong Kong was. expressed in the Report on the Blue Book for 1903.

During the year the work of the New Territories Land Court, established in 1900, and subsequently reconstituted, was com- pleted. 354,277 separate lots had been demarcated and their ownership determined at a cost of $143,615. Appropriate titles to these lots have been since issued.

 The rice crops in the New Territories were good, and an increase in the number of houses in nearly all the villages- evidenced increased prosperity. The peasants appeared to appreciate the greater security they derived from adequate police protection and showed willingness to assist in improving road communications.

 Building activity in old Kowloon and Yaumati gives hope- that in time the considerable available area on the mainland south of the hills will furnish relief to the congested districis of Victoria. This relief will probably be accelerated when the proposed railway is in hand.

On the Island satisfactory progress was made on the two large docks under construction by the Admiralty and by Messrs. Butterfield & Swire. The 3' 6" electric Tramway from Kennedy Town through Victoria to Shau-ki-wan village (94 miles of route) was opened to traffic and in spite of fares that are high for China is largely used by Chinese of all classes.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1904.

23

Generally the year was a healthy one marked by steady development but not characterized by any event of great importance.

The Government was administered by Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G., from the commencement of the year until my arrival on the -29th July.

I have, &c.,

M. NATHAN.

Governor, &c.

23

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL

No. 485.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1905.

(For Report for 1904, see No. 451.)

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty,

June, 1906.

DROIT

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 34-40, Bacon STREET, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C., and 32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.; or OLIVER & BCYD, EDINBURGH ;

or E. PONSONBY, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.

1906.

[Cd. 2684-31.] Price 2d.

25

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

...

:

:

:

...

...

...

PAGE.

3

II. TRADE ANd Shipping, Industries, Fisheries, Agriculture,

AND LAND

I. FINANCIAL

III. LEGISLATION

...

IV. EDUCATION

:

:.

V. PUBLIC WORKS

...

...

***

VI. GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS

:

:

:

...

5

12

100

...

13

13

...

...

VII. INSTITUTIONS NOT Supported by GOVERNMENT

VIII. CRIMINAL and POLICE

IX. VITAL STATISTICS...

...

•••

...

:

:..

***

:

:

:

X. POSTAL SERVICE

...

...

14

:

:

XI. MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE...

XII. GENERAL ORSERVATIONS

...

:

:

15

16

17

...

:

...

:

:

...

:

19

...

20

:

...

:..

:

21

MY LORD,

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 485.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1904, see No. 451.)

THE GOVERNOR to THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

27th April, 1906.

122

27

3.

I HAVE the honour to submit for your Lordship's. information the following general report on the Annual Blue Book for the year 1905.

I.-FINANCES.

The revenue for the year, exclusive of Land Sales, amounted to $6,526,144.09, or $203,194.74 more than the previous year. Land Sales amounted to $392,259.76, or $93,838.88 less than in 1904. The total revenue from all sources was, therefore,. $6,918,403.85, or $109,355.86 greater than in any previous year, and $280,207.15 less than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1904, with the exception of "Rent of Government Property, ""Miscellaneous Receipts,"

and "Land Sales."

"""

"Post Office Receipts," "Interest," and "Water Account" brought in together $34,933.55 more than was estimated. The receipts under the remaining heads of revenue were altogether $315,140.70 less than were anticipated when the estimates were drawn up.

The expenditure for the year was $5,277,834.45 exclusive of "Public Works Extraordinary "; inclusive of that item it was $6,951,275.26, or $575,039.96 more than the total expenditure of 1904, and $223,916.74 less than the estimates for 1905.

Deducting from the actual receipts for 1905 the total actual expenditure, there was a deficit of $32,871.41 on the actual: working of the year.

75 Wt 23907 6/1906 D & S 5 25081*

A 2

28

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(A.) GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

 The following is a brief abstract of revenue and expenditure for the years 1904 and 1905: -

Revenue.

1904.

1905.

Increase. Decrease.

C.

Licences and internal

Interest

Light Dues

not otherwise specified.

Fees of Court, &c.

Post Office

...

Rent of Government property

Miscellaneous

Water Account

Land sales

...

ૐ C. 72,330.16 74,233.45

C.

C.

revenue 4,509,162.784,725,906.25

1.903.29 216,743.47

403,854.60 417,417.37

13,562.77

408.458.92

414,838.19

6,379.27

...

688,321.41

672,161.89

16,159.59

7,813.43

10,073.12 2.259.69

167,059.66

121,491.65

45,568.01

65,948.39

90,022.24 24,073.85

486,098.64

392,259.76

93,838.88

Total

6,809,047.99 | 6.918,403.85

264.922.34 | 155,566.48

155,556.48

Non-effective charges General administration

Law and order

Public health...

Public instruction

Public works ...

Defence

Total

:::

:

Deduct decrease

Nett increase

Expenditure.

109,355.86

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

C.

372,154.46 365,108,59

C.

C.

$

C.

7,045.87

900,784.82 | 1,226,584.57

325,799.75

855,506.25 846,275.69

9,230.56

647,926.69 653,420.65

5,493.96

155,189.34 162,277.58

7,088.24

2,129,900.582,276,646.79 146,746.21

1,314,773.16 | 1,420,961.39

106,188.23

6,376,235.30 |.6,951,275.26 591,316.39 16,276.43

Deduct decrease

Nett increase

...

16,276.43

575,039.96

 The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1901-1905:-

...

...

Revenue Expenditure

Surplus

...

Deficit

...

***

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

4,213,893.22 | 4,901,073.70 |5,238,857.88 | 6,809,047.99 | 6,918.403.85 |4,111,722.49 | 5,909,548.515,396,669.48 | 6,376,235.30|6,951,275.26

102,170.78

1,008,474.81 157,811.60

432,812.69

32,871.41

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

(B.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

 At the end of the year 1905 the assets of the Colony amounted to $15,560,894.98, or including arrears of revenue $15,891,606.13. The total liabilities were $15,119,399.32, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $772,206.81.

(C.) PUBLIC DEBT.

5.

 There is a public debt of £341,799 15s. ld. outstanding. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Reclamation, the Central Market, and Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works. Interest at 3 per cent. is payable on the loan, which is being paid off by a sinking fund now amounting to £37,611 14s. 4d.

 An advance by the Crown Agents of £1,100,000 for the pur- poses of a loan to the Viceroy of the Hu-Kuang Provinces is referred to under the heading of "General Observations" at the end of this report.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND. (A.) TRADE AND SHIPPING.

The following table, in which the figures represent tonnage,. shows the principal articles of import in the year 1905 in vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1904:

Articles.

1904.

1905. Increase. Decrease.

Beans Bones

...

...

750

2,113

1,363

...

400

400.

Coal

...

Cotton yarn and cotton

...

1,152,454

1,083,987

68,467

...

Flour

Hemp

...

...

19,350 115,921

32,949 13,599

54,508

61,413.

...

...

19,382

...

26,784 7,402

Kerosine (bulk)

19

Lead

(case)

***

56,965

43,411

13,554

...

100,692

74,506

26,186

...

3,563

800

2,763.

Opium Liquid fuel

Rattan

2,955

...

...

2,983

28

9,727

850

8,877

...

...

...

5,080

3,430

1,650.

Rice

...

823,339)

566,171

257,168

Sandalwood

Sulphur Sugar Tea Timber General

...

...

...

...

3,300

3,386

£6

...

...

...

...

187 205,696

187

311,787 106,091

900

900

...

66,200 1,564,678

66,324

124

1,594,262 30,184

Total Transit

...

Grand Total

::

4,150.639 3,869,751 | 159,777

440,665

3,151,926 3,415,418 263,492

|

7,302,565 7,285,169 423,269

|

440,665

Nett

...

17,396

25081

A 3

29

30

.6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The total tonnage entering and clearing during the year 1905 amounted to 34,185,091 tons, being an increase, compared with 1904, of 622,305 tons, and the highest tonnage yet recorded.

There were 227,909 arrivals of 17,142,393 tons, and 224,849 departures of 17,042,698 tons.

 Of British ocean-going tonnage, 3,839,080 tons entered and 3,833,274 tons cleared.

Of British river steamers, 2,776,982 tons entered and 2,777,040 tons cleared.

 Of foreign ocean-going tonnage, 2,917,550 tons entered and 2,903,235 tons cleared.

Of foreign river steamers, 329,743 tons entered and 329,854 tons cleared.

 Of steamships under 60 tons trading to ports outside the Colony, 35,724 tons entered and 35,724 tons cleared.

 Of junks in foreign trade, 1,428,966 tons entered and 1,446,474 tons cleared.

 Of steamships under 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony, 4,622,661 tons entered and 4,546,651 tons cleared.

Of junks in local trade, 1,191,717 tons entered and 1,170,446 tons cleared.

Thus :

...

British ocean-going vessels represented Foreign ocean going vessels represented British river steamers represented

...

...

...

•••

Foreign river steamers represented...

...

Steamships under 60 tons foreign trade represented Junks in foreign trade represented

...

...

Steamships under 60 tons local trade represented Junks in local trade represented

...

Total

:

Per ent.

22.4

17.0

***

16.2

2.0

...

:

:

...

...

...

:

0.2

8.5 26.7 7.0

100.0

25081

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1904 and 1905,

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

1904.

1905.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships.

Tonnage.

Ships.

Tonnage.

Ships. Tonnage.

Ships.

Tonnage.

British ocean going

Foreign ocean going

4,318

...

***

British river steamers

...

:::

7,708,734

3,995

7,672,324

323

3,696

5,350,847

3,845

5,820,785

149

469,938

5,872

5,697,360

7,488

5,554,022

1,616

36,410

S

143,338

Foreign river steamers

...

1,036

470,371

975

659,597

189,226

61

Steamships under 60 tons (foreign

2,054

105,784

1,800

71,448

254

34,336

trade).

Junks in Foreign Trade

36,251

3,072,270

33,475

2,875,440

2,776

196,830

...

Total

...

...

53,227

22,405,366 51,578

22,653,616

1,765

659,164

3,414

410,914

Steam launches plying in the Colony 307,502 Junks in Local Trade

8,808,744 337,913

9,169,312

30,411

360,568

62,965°

2,348,676* 63,267*

2,362,163*

302

13,487

Grand Tutal

...

+ ...

423,694

33,562,786 452,758

34,185,091

32,478

1,033,219

3,414

410,914

}

Net

29,064

622,305

...

...

...

A 4.

Q • Including 32,424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons,

7

31

32

-8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 For ocean vessels under the British flag, this table shows a decrease of 320 ships of 36,410 tons. This decrease loses any significance it may at first sight appear to possess when viewed in conjunction with my report for 1904, where an increase appeared of 352 ships of 930,300 tons, which was shown to be practically due to special circumstances connected with the late war. These special circumstances being removed with the advent of the Baltic fleet in Far Eastern waters in April, 1905, the shipping tended to return to its normal state, and we are left with a net increase over the figures for 1903 (neglecting those for 1904) of 32 ships and 893,890 tons.

In British river steamers there is an increase shown of 1,616 ships, which is due to the additional small steamers put on to the West River run, and to two very small craft plying between here and Mirs Bay, which have been treated as river steamers, though they do not strictly satisfy the definition. The decrease in tonnage, of 143,338 tons, is accounted for by the fact that three moderate sized vessels were taken off the run early in the year, and much smaller craft substituted.

 For foreign ocean vessels an increase of 149 ships of 469,938 tons is shown. Here, again, reference to my 1904 report is necessary in order properly to appreciate the significance of the figures. During that year, on account of the war, there was the enormous decrease of 1,149 ships of 1,910,589 tons, of which Japanese shipping accounted for 834 ships of 1,809,000 tons. The causes militating against the employment of Japanese ships were not removed until late in 1905, indeed, they are not completely removed even now, so that the increase now shown is but the partial restoration to normal conditions, and should really be read as a net decrease, on the figures for 1903, of 1,000 ships of 1,440,951 tons.

 In foreign river steamers the decrease of 61 ships is due to the fact that two small Chinese vessels have become British, and the increase in tonnage to the more frequent running of two moderate sized French steamers.

 The remaining increases and decreases do not present any points of importance, with the exception of the large increase in steam launches plying within the waters of the Colony, which affords good evidence of the enhanced internal traffic in the Colony.

 The actual number of ships of European construction (exclusive of river steamers and steam launches) entering during the year was 889, being 506 British and 383 foreign.

 These 889 ships entered 3,926 times, and gave a total ton- nage of 6,756,600 tons. Thus, compared with 1904, four more ships entered 61 less times, and gave a collective tonnage in- creased by 212,890 tons.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

The following tables show the nationality of the steamers and sailing vessels that visited the port:-

British

Austrian Belgian Chinese

STEAMERS.

Ships.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

Flag.

1904. 1905. 1904. 1905.

1904.

1905.

333

498

490

...

...

2,1511,983

3,843,355

3,806,792

13

10

32

26

102,349

88,326

...

1

1

1

1

...

2,047

1,794

1.5

14

180

165

...

241,085

214,720

4

7

13

18

26,817

24,206

9

10

44

35

84,379

77,205

36

39

238

207

234,977

288,911

147

163

861

S87

1,268,835 | 1,394,255

G

8

20

56

38,212 51,492

30

10

51

29

...

114,951

34,573

60

85

253

346

276,211

381,479

53

69

...

12,167

11,800

5

1

...

14,578

2,903

...

...

2

6,017

2

12

19

24

...

22 64 62

68

8,582

20,210

232,857

314,101

1

1

2,500

:

859

867 3,981 3,904 6,509,919 6,712,767

Danish

Dutch

French

German

Italian

Japanese

Norwegian

Portuguese

Russian

Spanish...

Swedish

...

United States

No flag

Total

British Dutch

Flag.

...

...

...

French

German

Italian

144

...

...

Norwegian

Sarawak

...

...

United States

No Flag

...

Total

SAILING VESSELS.

Ships.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

1904. 1905. 1904. 1905. 1904.

1905

16

112122241d

112122141

11

16

19,447

32,258

84

3,444

47

2,193

994

3,651

1.199

1,338

2,867

8,183

919

25

22

26

22

22

32,791 43,833

34

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 During the year 1905, 16,303 vessels of European construc- tion, of 19,706,728 tons (net register), reported having carried 10,277,939 tons of cargo, as follows:

Import cargo

Export cargo

Transit cargo

...

Bunker coal shipped

...

...

Tons.

...

...

...

3,869,751

...

...

2,343,701 3,415,418

649,069

Total

:

...

10,277,939

In imports there is a decrease reported of 280,888 tons. In exports there is a decrease reported of 262,160 tons.

In transit cargo there is an increase reported of 263,492 tons.

In bunker coal there is a decrease of 15,349 tons.

 The total reported import trade of the port for 1905 amounted to 25,764 vessels of 11,328,015 tons, carrying 7,830,424 tons of cargo, of which 4,415,006 tons were discharged at Hong Kong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of vessels in local trade.

 Similarly, the export trade from the port was represented by 25,814 vessels of 11,325,601 tons, carrying 3,011,305 tons of cargo, and shipping 651,523 tons of bunker coal.

 64,341 emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year; of these, 48,289 were carried by British ships and 16,052 by foreign ships; 140,483 were reported as having been brought to Hong Kong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 113,796 were brought in British ships and 25,586 by foreign ships.

 The total revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year showed a decrease of $366.19 on that of the previous year, and was as follows:-

1. Light dues

2. Licences and internal revenue

3. Fees of Court and office

E

Total

:::

Amount.

C.

74,233.45

62,668.45 163,665.86

300,567.76

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1935.

(B.) INDUSTRIES.

35:

11

During 1905 supplies of all sugars were greater than during 1904, and in sympathy with other markets local prices con- tinued to decline throughout the year. There was however a good demand for refined sugar in China, resulting in a profit- able business for the two local refineries, but demand from other markets fell off owing to their being overstocked with European sugars.

As was anticipated at the end of 1904 the cotton spinning industry worked under very satisfactory conditions during the whole of 1905, and the comparatively low price of cotton, com- bined with an active demand for yarn, allowed of good profits being realised all through the twelve months.

The increased demand for cement from the "Green Island" Company's factory at Hok Un necessitated the raising of further capital and the provision of new plant to increase the output from 150 to 240 tons a day.

The rope factory at Kennedy Town did good business, but was not working to its full output of 20,000 lb. a day through- out the year.

There was some falling off in the repairing and docking of ships at Hong Kong, probably due to increased competition from other places.

Forty-three steam launches and other vessels with an aggre- gate tonnage of 3,695 were built during the year.

A new industry under European direction-that of silvering mirrors-was started at Causeway Bay.

(C.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territory are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(D.) FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE, AND AGRICULTURE.

116,780 trees were planted in Hong Kong during the year and 50,052 in the New Territory. Further experiments were initiated with a view to utilising the more barren portions of the Colony, notably with the tea-oil tree (Camellia oliefera) and the wood-oil tree (Aleurites cordata). Cotton was tried in various representative situations, but with very meagre results.

36

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Control of the plantations of pine licensed to Chinese in 1904 was maintained; the few breaches of the rules that occurred were dealt with by withdrawal of the licence. On the whole the licensing scheme seems to have suited the Chinese.

(E.) Land Grants and GENERAL VALUE of Land.

 The amount received from sales of Crown Land was $392,259.76, being some $94,000 less than the recipts for the previous year. This falling off may be attributed to the general depression of business throughout the year and the consequent tightness of the money market.

 In the early part of the year the intricate questions connected with military lands and reserves in the Colony, which since 1883 had formed the subject of continual discussion between the Military and Civil Authorities, were comprehensively dealt with by Major J. F. Lewis, late R.E., deputed for that purpose by the War Department. An equitable settlement was pro- posed by that Officer, based on principles of which the adoption should minimise the chance of similar difficulties arising in the future. This settlement, accepted by the Governor and the General Officer Commanding, was approved by the Colonial Office, War Office, and Treasury.

 Building land in the urban portion of the Colony and in the Peak District is limited in extent with the natural consequence that house-rents, especially on the higher levels, have advanced to an extent probably unknown in other British Colonies.

III.

LEGISLATION.

 Twelve Ordinances were passed during 1905, the most im- portant measure being the New Territories Land Ordinance, No. 3 of 1905, which together with an amending Ordinance, No. 9 of 1905, is designed to facilitate the transfer of land in the New Territories and to provide a simple and inexpensive procedure for settling land disputes therein.

An amendment of the Vagrancy Ordinance, No. 2 of 1905, increases the liability of shipowners and masters who bring undesirable persons into the Colony, and enables rules to be made for the more rigorous treatment of vagrants in the House of Detention.

Provision is made under the Merchant Shipping Amendment Ordinance, No. 5 of 1905, for the carrying of suitable lights by junks, and the same Ordinance extends greater facilities in respect of the navigation of steamships of small size plying between Hong Kong and the neighbouring ports of the Canton Province by lightening the somewhat onerous conditions hitherto imposed.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

IV.-EDUCATION.

37

13

The number of Government and Grant Schools, including Queen's College, is 83, of which 25 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of Standard VII., and 58 are Lower Grade Schools, under purely native management. Broadly speaking the Upper Grade Schools are taught in English, and the Lower Grade Schools are taught in vernacular.

The total number of pupils in average attendance at Govern- ment and Grant Schools was 5,353 against 4,970 in 1904. Of these, 1,797 were in Government and 3,556 in Grant Schools: 3,207 pupils received instruction in English, and 2,146 in the vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,401 to 1,952.

 The Victoria School for children of British parentage was opened at Caroline Hill in 1904. The average attendance at this and the corresponding British School at Kowloon, taken together, was 93.

 Lower Grade Anglo-Chinese Schools were opened at Tang- lungchau and Aberdeen.

 Hygiene has been made a compulsory subject, and has been taught with satisfactory results in all Government and Grant Schools. 1,524 children received instruction in it during the year.

 The revenue derived from school fees was $41,170.50. The expenditure was $158,677.58, being 2.28 per cent. of the total expenditure of the Colony.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

 The principal public works in progress during the year were the Tytam Tuk Waterworks (1st Section) and the Kowloon Waterworks, both of which have been described in previous reports. The former made good progress, and the latter fair; a contract for two miles of the catchwaters in connection with it was let and was well advanced at the end of the year.

 Of the larger buildings, the new Law Courts, Harbour Office, and Western Market were all under construction, and the foundations of the new Government Offices were almost completed; the decision to erect a clock tower necessitating extra foundations prevented this contract being entirely closed. The new Light and Tower at Green Island, the Disinfecting. Station in Kowloon, Mongkoktsui Market, and Yaumati

3888

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

School were finished, and the Gunpowder Depôt, extension to Staff Quarters Government Civil Hospital, Taipo Quarters, and Bacteriological Institute approached completion. The works of reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000 being spent on the former and over $20,000 on the latter-the Albany Nullah being one of the watercourses dealt with.

 The Taikoktsui Reclamation was finished. $150,000 was spent on further resumption of insanitary property in the. vicinity of Mee Lun Lane. The system of 100-foot roads in Kowloon was extended; the section of Robinson Road, running north and south between the sea and the Yaumati Theatre, was finished, and also the branch to the westward (Sixth Street), and some progress was made with a further extension of this system near the Disinfecting Station, without expense to the Colony, as the spoil from this road excavation was used for private reclamation in front of the Pumping Station.

 The excavation of the sites for the new Albany Filter Beds was completed, and the new Watchmen's House built.

 The work on the Rider-Main system was continued, and Districts Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 were completed and brought under control.

 The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary, exclusive of the Praya East Reclamation and Rider-Mains, was $1,775,138.58, and on works annually recurrent, $383,798.06.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS. (A.) HOSPITALS.

 Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia," used mainly for the treatment of small-pox.

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,704 in-patients and 14,976 out-patients were treated during the year 1905; 267 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 223 in 1904 and 346 in 1903. The Maternity Hospital contains six beds for Europeans and four for Asiatics. Sixty-four con- finements occurred during the year with two deaths. The Victoria Hospital, opened in November, 1903, by Sir Henry Blake, is situated at the Peak, and contains 41 beds. During 1905, 212 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26 beds. In 1905, 42 cases were treated, of which 33 were plague. On the Hygeia 50 cases were treated, of which 48 were small-pox.

"

""

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

(B.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

39

15

 The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separate, the European portion containing eight beds in separate wards, and the Chinese portion sixteen beds. 178 patients of all races were treated during 1905, and there were eight deaths.

(C.) THE TUNG WAH HOSPITAL.

 This Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $6,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution, which takes the place of a poor- house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute, and is ad- ministered by an annually-elected body of 15 Chinese directors. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed. in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. The Hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation.

VII-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

 Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be men- tion the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall.

 The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar-General and an annually-elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects, and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needle-work. During 1905 a total of 528 persons were admitted. Of these, 143 were released after enquiry, 19 were released under bond, 99 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents or relations, 3 were placed in charge of the Japanese Consul, 84 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 52 were sent to school, convent or refuge, 15 were adopted, 60 were married, and 3 died.

The Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded in 1897, for the purpose of teaching surgery, medicine, and obstetrics to Chinese. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. Ninety-five students have been enrolled up to the end of 1905, and of these 24 have become qualified licentiates, and have obtained various

40

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service, the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes. during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from. Government. It contains a reference library and museum.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

 The total of all cases reported to the police was 11,517, being a decrease of 295, or 2:49 per cent., over those reported in 1904. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is a decrease in the former, as compared with the previous year, from 3,532 to 2,984, that is of 15:51 per cent., occurring in every nature of crime with the exception of assault with intent to rob.

 The number of serious offences reported was 772 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1901.

 The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 253 over the number for 1904, mainly in offences against the Spirits and Prepared Opium Ordinances.

 The number of minor offences reported was 1,454 over the average of the quinquennial period.

 The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 6,323, as compared with 7,464 in 1904, but of these only 2,816 were committed for criminal offences, against 4,027 in 1904. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 121 more under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 132 less for infringement of Sanitary By-laws.

 The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 697, the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was ·184, as compared with 214, the average percentage for the last ten years. The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 147, as compared with 1'1 in 1904 and 2·34 in 1903. The continued overcrowding of the gaol emphasises the necessity for the proposed new convict prison, and the question of a fresh site has for some time past been under consideration.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

17

The remunerative labour carried on in the gaol consists of printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net- making, painting and whitewashing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c., the value of the work done being $45,762.40.

The total strength of the police force for 1905 was, Europeans. 133, Indians 382, Chinese 503, making a total of 1,018, as. compared with 993 in 1904, exclusive in each case of the four superior officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. Of this force an assistant superintendent, who also acted as magistrate, and 19 Europeans, 85 Indians, and 44 Chinese were stationed in the New Territory during the greater part of the year.

The force of district watchmen, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the- Chinese during the year.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS. (A.) POPULATION.

The population of the Colony according to the census taken: in 1897 was 248,880, and according to the census of 1901 it was 283,975, exclusive of New Kowloon and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review was 377,850, as follows:

Non-Chinese Civil Community ...

Chinese Population-

Hong Kong

...

...

Old Kowloon

...

...

• New Kowloon (approximate).. Floating population

Army (average strength)

Navy (average strength)...

:

...

Total

...

Population.

:

...

...

10,452

...

**4.

...

211,246 73,473

***

...

21,000 54,154

359,873

...

::

...

::

:

4,274

3,251

7,525

377,850

41

New Kowloon was brought under the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board in 1904, and its estimated population has accordingly been included. The population of the remainder of the New Territories, according to the census of 1901, was 85,011, making, when added to the present estimate, a grand total of 462,861.

At the census taken in 1901 the actual number of members. of the Navy present in the Colony was 5,597, and the estimated. average number resident in Hong Kong during 1905 is put at 3.251.

25081

R

42

38

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(B.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

 During the year under review considerable progress has been made in providing existing domestic buildings with increased window area as required under the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903, 2,512 houses having been thus dealt with.

 New buildings (domestic) to the number of 260 were erected during the year, and in these the effect of the present Ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space, about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce surface crowding.

 Under the Insanitary Properties Resumption scheme an area of 18,092 square feet has been resumed during the year in one of the most densely populated areas of the City.

During the year there were 287 deaths from plague, being 208 less than in 1904, and, except for the years 1895 and 1897, the lowest number of deaths from this disease since its appear- .ance in 1894.

 There were 1,585 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the Chinese, or 25.1 per cent. of all Chinese deaths.

 Beri-beri caused 678 deaths a high figure, but slightly lower (57 less) than that for 1904.

 The deaths from malaria were 287, as against 301 in 1904. The figure for the annual deaths from this disease has fallen from 574 in 1901 to 287 in the year under review.

(C.) CLIMATE.

 The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 71.60 F., as compared with 71-6° F. in 1904 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum monthly temperature was attained in July, when it reached 87.80 F., and the minimum monthly temperature was recorded in Feb- ruary, when it was 51-60 F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 91.3° F. on the 18th July, and the lowest 42.80 on the 10th February.

:

 The total rainfall for the year was 70-95 inches, as compared with an average of 74.94 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was June, with 19.70 inches, the driest; November, with only 0.28 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 7.955 inches on the 1st June, while no rain fell on 220 days of the year: The relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 80 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the past ten years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 51 hours, being 45 per cent. of the possible duration:

++

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

19

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

 The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1905 by the Postal Department amounted to $574,840.87, from which sum $160,002.68 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $114,838.19 as revenue of the Postal Service. The total expenditure amounted to $585,449.25, which, after deducting $414,838.19 as revenue, leaves a deficit of $170,611.06, due to adjustment of the amount payable by this Colony towards the cost of the P. & O. Mail Service for the period from 1st Feb- ruary, 1898, to 31st January, 1905.

 This Colony's share of the contribution towards the P. & O. Mail Subsidy under the new contract has been fixed at £12,529 per annum, as from the 1st February, 1905.

The arrangement concluded with Germany as regards the exchange of postal parcels between this Colony and the German South Sea Islands came into force on 1st June. Direct money orders were exchanged with Transvaal and the Federated Malay States during the year.

Postage on letters to Australia was reduced from 10 cents to 4 cents per oz. from 15th July.

 The postal arrangement with China came into force during the year.

B 2

25031

43

44

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

XI.-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(A.) REGULAR FORCES.

 The following return shows the number and composition of the forces employed in the Colony during 1905:-

Corps.

Europeans. Indians.

Chinese.

...

16

615

9

9

7

11

194

11

11

27

43

31

1

111 !

USA||||

**

78497*H*

552

1311111

fficers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s & Mer.

Native Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s, & Men.

N. C. O.'s & Men.

Totals

4

2

631

379

404

205

69

646

664

£35

554

31.

52

38

11

282

291

276

285

102

105

11 441

452

***

:

...

98 1,370 41| 2,220

69

3,798

General Staff Garrison Staff

...

...

Royal Garrison Artillery

Hong Kong-Singapore Bn. R. G. A.

Royal Engineers

...

...

· Chinese S. M. M. Co., R. E. 119th Infantry

129th (D.C.O.) Baluchis Army Service Corps

10.

...

Royal Army Medical Corps A. O. Department and Corps A. P. Department and Corps 110th Mahratta L. I.

93rd Burma Infantry 114th Mahrattas

...

...

2nd Royal West Kent Regiment

...

Totals

(B.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $1,362,650.27 (being the statutory .contribution of 20 per cent. of the estimated revenue including arrears on account of 1904) towards the cost of the maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony and barrack service.

(C.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

 The total establishment of the Corps is 431 of all ranks. The .strength on the 31st December, 1905, was 276, made up as follows:-Staff, 7; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 205; -one Engineer Company, 35; Troop, 29.

 The members of the Corps are now all armed with the new M.L.E. short rifle and the latest pattern equipment.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905,

175

45

21

 The period for the annual camp of instruction was extended from 10 days to 16; it was held in October, 1905, and was very well attended.

The Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve Association numbered 213 members at the close of the year, an increase of 113 mem- bers, as compared with 1904.

Members of this Association, who must be over 35 years of age, are required to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting, and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volun- teer Ordinance in the event of hostilities.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $58,311.12.

·

XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS..

The war between Russia and Japan continued during the first half of the year to affect disadvantageously the trade. of the Colony and to be productive of incidents involving im- portant questions of law. The position of one of the belligerent fleets from the middle of April to the middle of May within three days' steam of Hong Kong necessitated stringent measures being taken to prevent any use of the port not in accordance with British neutrality laws, and in several instances the severe penalties involved by the despatch of any ship with reasonable cause to believe that the same would be employed on the naval service of a foreign State at war with a friendly State had to be brought to the special notice of shipping agents. The departure northwards of that fleet relieved anxiety in this matter, but was followed by the capture, on the grounds of carrying contraband of war, of two British ships-the Oldhamia in the Bashee Channel on May 18th, and the St. Kilda a few hours out of Hong Kong on June 4th. The latter capture was the last incident of the naval operations which directly affected Hong Kong, though it was not till nearly three months later that the armistice protocol was signed, on September 1st. The opportunity was taken of the first visit to the port after the conclusion of peace of a Russian war vessel-the Almaz- to embark on her on November 30th for repatriation the two officers and 53 men of the former Russian torpedo boat destroyer Burni, who had arrived in the Colony from Wei- Hai-Wei on the 22nd August, 1904. Two officers and eight men, who had formed part of the same crew, had previously been sent to Europe on grounds of ill-health.

The lessening of Imperial expenditure in the Colony resulting from the withdrawal of the all the battleships from the British fleet on the China Station and a reduction in the number of - cruisers has necessarily been disadvantageous to its trade.

1

46

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941.

·OLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 This was more seriously affected by the organised attempt : of the Chinese in the last half of the year to boycott American goods as a protest against the administration of the United States law, excluding Chinese labourers from that country.. The attempt to extend the organisation of the movement to this Colony was not supported by the principal Chinese mer-: chants here, but its strength in Canton adversely affected the business in American goods which passes through Hong Kong, and further tended to the development of anti-foreign feeling and consequent unrest in that part of China with which Hong Kong does most trade. Advantage was taken of the visit in September of Mr. William H. Taft, United States Secretary for War, to give that gentleman an opportunity of hearing the views of some of the leading Chinese of the Colony as to the Chinese objections to the provisions and administration of the exclusion law.

 Uncertainty of exchange is always a factor adverse to trade, and the year under review was not exceptional in this respect, the range of variation being slightly greater than in 1904. The year started with the dollar at 1s. 11%d. It fell to 1s. 10 d. at the end of March, rose irregularly to 2s. 1d. at the end of November, and stood at 2s. 01. in the last days of December. The maximum of the year was the highest value - that had been attained since early in 1897.

 Probably the most important factor in making the year a bad one for trade was the loss of confidence in Hong Kong Chinese dealers, owing to the speculation of 1904, which had the natural result of making it difficult for these dealers to get money with which to carry on their business in 1905. As regards imports, trade was particularly slack in fancy cotton and woollen goods and metals, while but a limited business was done in Manchester piece-goods. Yarns did fairly well, especially for importers. Australian flour entered into serious competition with American, of which the importation fell off largely; American kerosine also suffered from the boycott. As regards exports, trade in silk was adversely affected by various causes, and in other articles, especially ginger and soy, com- pared unfavourably with that of preceding years.

In spite of indifferent trade, several local stocks stood higher at the end than at the commencement of the year. Hong Kong. and Shanghai Banking Corporation shares advanced $150 against an advance of $50 in 1904. Local shipping companies retrograded. Marine insurance shares generally improved. Of the local land and building companies the shares of one operating at Kowloon slightly appreciated, the others declined; and the decision of holders of marine lots on the East Praya not to undertake for the present the reclamation of the sea bed in front of their properties was probably a wise one. The dock companies did not do well, and the increase of dock accommo- dation in the Far East promises severer competition in the

47

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

23

future. As regards other industrial undertakings, though there was no heavy fall, only in a few unimportant instances was there any advance on the value of shares at the end of the preceding year.

The maintenance of existing and the creation of new industrial undertakings are becoming a matter of very great importance to the Colony, threatened as it is by serious com- petition from other places in some if its principal sources of wealth in the past. A satisfactory feature of the year was, therefore, the initiation of arrangements to start one such new enterprise in the New Territories; a flour mill on a large scale is in course of construction at a favourable site in Junk Bay, and is to be combined with an extensive farm for the rearing of pigs on the refuse material. Serious attempts to prospect for metals in those Territories were also put in hand during the year.. If these prove the existence of minerals in quantities that will pay for their extraction, the future development of the Territories will be greatly assisted.

Various projects that have been mooted for the construction of railways to ports on the mainland of South China have main- tained and enhanced the desire of Hong Kong to have as soon as possible a trunk line through that country with a terminus in the Colony.

On the 6th October, with the approval of His Majesty's Government and under sanction of an Imperial decree, the Government of Hong Kong lent and the Viceroy of the Hu Kuang Provinces borrowed a sum of £1,100,000, repayable in ten annual instalments. The security for the loan was the opium revenue of Hupei, Hunan, and Kwangtung, and the interest on it 41 per cent. payable half-yearly. The money was advanced to Hong Kong by the Crown Agents at Bank rate-then 4 per cent.-and on being paid over to the Chinese Ambassador at Washington, was at once utilised to redeem the Canton-Hankow railway concession from the various per- sons who had acquired interests in it from the original con-

· cessionaires. With the object of raising a loan to repay the Crown Agents' advance, and at the same time to provide funds for the British section of the Canton-Kowloon railway, and to meet other railway needs that might arise, an Ordinance (No. 11 of 1905) was passed on the 16th October to empower the Governor to raise, as occasion required, loans not exceeding two million pounds in all. No loan was however raised before the end of the year.

Throughout the year attempts were being made in conjunc- tion with His Majesty's Minister at Peking to get the Chinese authorities, and particularly the Viceroy of the Liang Kuang Provinces, to negotiate arrangements for the construction and subsequent working of the Chinese" section of the proposed Canton-Kowloon railway on the basis of Loan and, Joint

48

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL..

Working Agreements which had been drafted by the British- and Chinese Corporation in consultation with the Colonial Office in London. These attempts had not succeeded at the close of the year.

In the meantime, however, the Hong Kong Government, with the approval of the Legislative Council, expressed at a meeting on the 21st September, decided that the British section of the line should be put in hand without waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations with regard to the Chinese_sec- tion. By that date a preliminary survey and estimate of alter- native routes had been completed by Mr. J. C. Bruce, an engineer, who had been sent from England for the purpose- and had arrived in the Colony on the 16th June, and a route 21 miles in length, which passed through the Kowloon hills by a low-level tunnel 2,460 yards long, along the west shore of Tide Cove, and south shore of Tolo Harbour, and by the villages of Tai Po, Ha Wai, Fan Ling, and Sheung Shui to the Sham Chün River, near the Lo Fu ferry, had been selected as the most economical, both as regards construction and working expenses, and as best answering the requirements of

section of a trunk line through China.

 Pending the completion of the final survey, it was decided to commence throwing up the bank as soon as the centre line - was located along the part of the line, 7 miles in length, which traverses the low-lying ground north of Tai Po. The negotiations and clerical work involved in the resumption of the large number of small padi fields required before con- struction could be started, was expeditiously carried out by Mr. C. Clementi, the Assistant Land Officer, and the first sod was turned on December 9th. The decision to use labour- supplied by the elders of the surrounding villages for the earth- work was found, as had been anticipated, to obviate local difficulties, arising from removal of graves, "feng shui," pre- judices, &c.

 The introduction of a new rent roll to take the place of the rough one on which rents had previously been collected in the New Territories, and at the same time of a new scale of rents, produced several petitions from the village elders and some hesitancy to pay rents due. Regulations for the collection of Crown rents in arrear in the New Territories made in Septem- ber and re-enacted with slight modifications at the end of November, enabled these difficulties to be got over, and the- payment of considerable sums for work on the railway bank,. doubtless, assisted in getting in arrears shortly after the end of the year. Fears entertained at one time that the second crop of rice would suffer from want of rain were fortunately not realised, and the New Territories remained prosperous and on the whole quiet throughout the year.

 In conclusion I would refer to a few changes in personnel that occurred in the Colony in 1905. The Right Reverend

+

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1905.

25

Bishop Domenico Pozzoni succeeded the late lamented Bishop Piazzoli as head of the Roman Catholic Church, and was con- secrated on the 1st October. Commodore H. P. Williams took over the charge of the naval dockyard from Rear-Admiral C. G. Dicken on 29th September, 1905. Sir Paul Chater, Kt., C.M.G., resigned his appointment on the Legislative Council after serving on it for 18 years, and has been succeeded by Mr. H. E. Pollock, K.C., as representative of the ratepayers. In the Colonial Service Mr. (now Sir) Francis Piggott, formerly Procureur-General in Mauritius, arrived on the 23rd May to succeed Sir William Meigh Goodman as Chief Justice; and since 2nd August Mr. T. Sercombe Smith has ably acted in the appointment of Colonial Secretary, temporarily vacated by Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G., who proceeded on leave on that date.

I have, &c.,

M. NATHAN,

49

Governor, &c..

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 521.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1906.

(For Report for 1905, see No. 485.)

51

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. June, 1907.

DROKA

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 34-40, Bacon STREET, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C.,

and 32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.

or OLIVER & BOYD, EDINBURGH;

or E. PONSONBY, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.

1907,

[Cd. 3285-8.] Price 2d.

52

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

:.

...

...

...

...

:.

PAGE. 4

:

...

13

...

TRADE AND SHIPPING, IndusTRIES, FISHERIES, Agriculture, and

LAND

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

FINANCIAL

...

...

...

***

***

...

LEGISLATION .......

EDUCATION

...

:

PUBLIC WORKS

...

:

:

:

:

GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS

:

...

:

:

...

...

100

:.

INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT

CRIMINAL AND POLICE

...

...

VITAL STATISTICS

...

...

POSTAL SERVICE

...

...

14

15

:

:

:

:

16

...

:

17

18

19

...

... 21

...

:.

:

:

:

:..

:

:

:

...

...

:.

:

MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

...

...

...

:

:.

...

:

123

21

22

22

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 521.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1905, see No. 485.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

5th April, 1907.

53

3

MY LORD,

I HAVE the honour to submit for your Lordship's in- formation the following general report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1906.

75 Wt 21282 6/07 D & S 5 28412*

A 2

54

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

I.-FINANCES.

 The revenue for the year, exclusive of land sales and an amount transferred from the Praya Reclamation Fund amounted to $6,622,070.25, or $95,926.16 more than the pre- vious year. Land sales amounted to $315,733.21, or $76,526.55 less than in 1905. The amount transferred from the Praya Reclamation Fund was $97,208.32. The total revenue from all sources was therefore $7,035,011.78, or $116,607.93 greater than in any previous year, though $312,383.22 less than the estimate. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1905 with the exception of "Interest," "Miscellaneous Receipts," "Land Sales," and "Water Account."

 "Light Dues," "Licences," "Post Office Receipts," "Rent of Government Property," and "Interest" brought in together $111,451.48 more than was estimated. The receipts under the remaining heads of revenue were altogether $521,043.02 less than were anticipated when the estimates were drawn up.

 The expenditure for the year was $5,328,820.92 exclusive of "Public Works Extraordinary"; inclusive of that item it was $6,832,610.68, or $118,664.58 less than the total expenditure of 1905 and $224,344.32 less than the estimate for 1906.

 Deducting from the actual receipts for 1906 the total actual expenditure, there was a surplus of $202,401.10 on the actual working of the year.

(A.) GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

 The following is a brief abstract of revenue and expenditure for the years 1905 and 1906:-

Light Dues

Licences and internal revenue

not otherwise specified.

Fees of Court, &c.

Post Office

...

***

...

Rent of Government property

Interest

MiscellaneoUS

Water Account

Revenue.

1905.

1906.

Increase. Decrease.

$

C.

C.

74,233.45 77,722.04 4,725,906.25 | 4,765,227.78

$ C. 3.488.59

C.

39,321.53

417,417.37 470,151.53

52,734.16

414,833.19

420,454.04

5,615.85

672,161.82

826,699.20

154,537.38

10,073.12

8,068.42

2,004.70

121,491.65

53,747.24

67,744.41

90,022.24

90,022.24

392,259.76

315,733.21

76,526.55

97,208.32 397,208,32

Land sales

Amount transferred from Praya

Reclamation Fund.

Total

6,918,403.85 7,035,011.78 352,905.83 236,297.90

Deduct decrease

...

236,297.90

Nett increase...

116,607.93

Non-effective charges General administration Law and order

Public health.....

Public instruction Public works ... Defence

Total

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

Expenditure.

10

5

1905.

1906.

Increase.

Decrease.

...

...

...

...

***

...

...

...

:

$ C.

365,108,59 333,823.31

C.

C.

177,702.85

| 1,226,584,57 |1,404,287,42

846,278.69 832,919.87 653,420.66 659,413.66 162,277.58 162,978.32

|2,276,646.79|2,086,655.96 |1,420,961.39 | 1,352,587.14

$6,951,275.26 | 6,832,610.68

5,993.01 695.74

$

C.

31,285.23

13,355.82

189,990.ER 68,424.25

184,391.60 303,056.18

Deduct increase

184,391.60

Nett decrease

118,664.58

The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1902-6:-

...

***

Revenue Expenditure

Surplus

Deficit

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

1906.

$ C.

C.

C.

C. $ C. 4,901,073.70 5,238,857.88 6,809,047.99 6,918,403.85 7,035,011.78 5,909 548.515,396,669.48 | 6,376,235.30 |6,951,275.26 6.832,610.68

-

452,812.69

202,401.10

1,008,474.81 157,81 1.60

32,871.41

(B.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1906, the assets of the Colony amounted to $1,665,328.59, or including arrears of revenue $1,808,589.24. The total liabilities were $1,013,092.48, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $795,496.76.

(C.) PUBLIC DEBT.

There is an ordinary public debt of £341,799 15s. 1d. out- standing. The original debt was incurred in connection with the Praya Reclamation, the Central Market, and water, drainage, and sewerage works. Interest at 3 per cent. is payable on the loan, which is being paid off by a Sinking Fund, now amounting to £42,298 0s. 10d.

Towards the close of 1905 the Government lent to the Viceroy of Wuchang a sum of £1,100,000 bearing interest at 4 per cent. for purposes connected with the Canton-Hankow Railway. To meet this expenditure a loan was raised in London in February, 1906, at an average price of £99 1s. per cent., bearing interest at the rate of 3 per cent., the total cost, including expenses of issue, being £1,143,933 1s. 4d. A sum of £110,000

55

56

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

has been repaid by the Viceroy, and has been credited to a fund provided to defray the cost of the Kowloon-Canton Rail- way, now in course of construction.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(A.) Trade anD SHIPPING.

 The total tonnage entering and clearing at ports of the Colony during the year 1906 amounted to 32,747,268 tons, being a decrease, compared with 1905, of 1,437,823 tons. This decrease is more than accounted for by the falling off in local and foreign junk trade and in local launch and river steamer trade, due mainly to the total loss or temporary disablement of a large number of small-sized vessels in the typhoon of the 18th September.

 A comparison between the years 1905 and 1906 is given in the following table:-

28112.

Comparative Shipping Return for the Years 1905 and 1906.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

1905.

1906.

Increase.

Decrease.

Ships. Tonnage. Ships. Tonnage.

Ships.

Tonnage.

Ships. Tonnage.

British ocean going

3,995

...

7,672,324 3,697 7,189,471

298

482,853

Foreign ocean going .......

...

3,845

5,820,785

4,287

7,093,495

442

1,272,710

British river steamers

...

7,488

5,554,022

6,464

4,842,501

1,042

711,521

Foreign river steamers

975

...

659,597

1,071

667,917

96

8,320

Steamships under 60 tons (foreign

1,800

71,448

878

40,282

922

31,166

trade'.

Junks in Foreign Trade

...

23,475

2,875,440

28,153

2,619,411

5,322

256,029

Total

...

51,578

22,653,616 44,550 22,453,077

528 1,281,030

7,566

1,481,569

Steam launches plying in the Colony 337,913 Junks in Local Trade

9,169,312

...

...

63,267*

2,362,163°

333,560

51,616†

Grand Total

...

...

452,758

34,185,091

8,251,536

2,042,655+

429,726 32,747,268

4,353

917,776

11,651

319,508

538

1,281,030

23,570

2,718,853

Nett

23,032

1,437,823

...

...

A 1

* Including 32,424 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 1,176,625 tons. + Including 23,430 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 858,746 tons.

57

58

8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 For ocean vessels under the British flag, this table shows a decrease of 298 ships of 482,853 tons, mainly due to the dis- appearance of vessels which had been attracted to these waters on account of the temporary withdrawal of Japanese ships during the Russo-Japanese War.

 In British river steamers there is a decrease of 1,024 ships of 711,521 tons shown, which is due to the serious disasters that befell these vessels during the typhoon on the 18th Sep- tember, and to the gutting by fire of the steamship "Hankow in the following month. Pending the necessary repairs of the crippled vessels, coasting steamers of small size were utilised in some instances by the different companies.

 For foreign ocean vessels an increase of 442 ships of 1,272,710 tons is shown, due almost wholly to Japanese vessels resuming their accustomed routes. 594 Japanese ships of 1,275,640 tons entered and cleared in 1906, compared with 58 ships of 69,146 tons in 1905, an increase of 536 ships of 1,206,494 tons. Fur- ther, Corean steamers for the first time since 1901 entered the port, and assisted in the increase by 30 ships of 61,596 tons. Vessels under the Norwegian flag show a decrease of 135 ships of 186,093 tons.

For foreign river steamers an increase of 96 ships, represent- ing 8,320 tons, is shown, and can be ascribed to more trips being made by vessels under the French and Portuguese flags, supplemented by vessels under the German and Japanese flags which did not compete in this trade before.

 The actual number of ships of European construction (exclu- sive of river steamers and steam-launches) entering during the year was 870, being 417 British and 453 foreign.

These 870 ships entered 4,012 times and gave a total tonnage of 7,151,328 tons. Compared with 1905, 19 less ships entered 86 more times, and gave an aggregate tonnage increased by 404,728 tons.

 There were 214,556 arrivals of 16,394,508 tons, and 215,170 departures of 16,352,760 tons.

 Of British ocean-going vessels, 3,595,879 tons entered, and 3,593,592 tons cleared.

 Of foreign ocean-going vessels, 3,565,449 tons entered, and 3,528,046 tons cleared.

 Of British river steamers, 2,424,961 tons entered, and 2,417,540 tons cleared.

 Of foreign river steamers, 334,831 tons entered, and 333,086 tons cleared.

Of steamships under 60 tons trading to ports outside the waters of the Colony, 20,141 tons entered, and 20,141 tons cleared. These figures do not include private steam-launches.

 Of junks in foreign trade, 1,307,972 tons entered, and 1,311,439 tons cleared.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

9

Of steamships under 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony, 4,125,768 tons entered, and 4,125,768 tons cleared. These figures are incomplete, as the "Star" Ferry Company's craft are not included, the Company stating that no record is kept of the number of trips made, or passengers carried, by their vessels.

Of junks in local trade, 1,019,507 tons entered, and 1,023,148 tons cleared.

Of the total tonnage that entered and cleared: -- British ocean-going vessels represented

Per cent.

21.9

Foreign ocean-going vessels represented British river steamers represented... Foreign river steamers represented

21.6

...

14.7

2.3

Steamships under 60 tons, foreign trade repre-

sented

0.1

Junks in foreign trade represented

8.0

Steamships under 60 tons, local trade represented 25.2 Junks in local trade represented

6.2

100.0

The following tables show the nationality of the steamers and sailing vessels that visited the port:-

STEAMERS.

Steamers.

No. of times

entered.

Total tonnage.

Flag.

1905. 1906. | 1905. | 1906.

1905.

1906.

British

Austrian Belgian Chinese Corean

...

***

490

413 1,983 1,846

3,806,792 | 3,580,508

10

10

26

27

88,326

...

100,929

1

1

1,794

14

21

165

203

***

214,720

251,400

2

15

......

...

30,798

Danish

7

9

18

18

24,206

...

40,734

Dutch

10

18

35

...

64

77,205

130,864

French

39

41

207

218

...

288,911

324,668

German

163

143

887

...

...

846

1,394,255

1,343,420

Italian

8

2

56

12

...

51,492

33,012

Japanese

10

68

29

298

...

...

34,573

640,715

Norwegian

85

...

...

80

346

279

381,479

289,857

Portuguese

5

...

7

69

74

11,800

13,181

Russian

1

11

1

13

...

2,903

31,129

Swedish

4

19

27

...

...

20,210

24,800

United States ...

No flag.

Total

:

...

22

28

***

62 57

314,101

299,079

1

1

178

...

867

...

:.

858 3,904 3,998 6,712,767 7,135,272

59

60

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

SAILING VESSELS.

Sailing Vessels.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

Flag.

1905. 1906. 1905. 1906.

1905. 1906.

16

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

BI14

4

16

1

6

6114

6

32,258 15,371

1

2,193

1,880

1,199

6

8,183

8,333

...

1

1

1

472

...

...

Total

22

1222

22

14 43,833 26,056

British. German

Norwegian

United States

No Flag

 The following table, in which the figures represent tonnage, shows the principal articles of import in the year 1906 in vessels of European construction, compared with similar returns for 1905:-

Articles.

1905.

1906. Increase. Decrease.

Beans Coal

Cotton yarn and cotton

Flour

***

Hemp Kerosine (bulk)

11

Liquid fuel

Lead

Opium Rattan

Rice

...

....

--

Sandalwood

Sulphur

Sugar

...

+44

...

...

2,113 1,083,987

3,360 1,247

971,365.

112,622

32;949

41,871

8,922

54,508

79,635. | 25,127

26,784

23,356.

3,428

43;411

43,932

521

(case)

...

444

74,506

28,937

45,569

850

...

5,850 5,000

800

800

2,983

3,286

303

...

3,430

12,531

9,101

566,171

624,369

58,198

...

...

3,386

2,561

825

100

100

...

311,787

482,178 170,391

Tea

Timber General

+4

*.4

900

900

66,324

52,242

14,082

....

1,594,862

1,653,604 58,742

Total Transit

: !

3,869,751 4,029,177 337,652 4,029,177337,652

178,226

3,415,418 2,878,360

537,058

Grand Total

+

7,285,169 6,907,537, 337,652

715,284

Nett

377,632

 During the year 1906, 15,519 vessels of European construc- tion of 19,793,354 tons (net register), reported having carried 9,759,648 tons of cargo, as follows:-

Import cargo Export Transit

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1996.

...

...

...

...

""

"J

...

Bunker Coal shipped

4,029,177 tons. 2,163,344 2,878,360

688,767

""

61

11

9,759,648 tons.

In imports there is an increase reported of 159,426 tons. In exports there is a decrease reported of 232,864 tons. In transit cargo there is a decrease reported of 537,058 tons. In bunker coal there is an increase of 24,349 tons.

The total reported inport trade of the port for 1906 amounted to 22,408 vessels of 11,249,233 tons, carrying 7,372,075 tons of cargo, of which 4,493,715 tons were discharged at Hong Kong. This does not include the number, tonnage, or cargo of vessels in local trade.

Similarly, the export trade from the port was represented by 22,142 vessels of 11,203,844 tons, carrying 2,778,441 tons of cargo, and shipping 690,689 tons of bunker coal.

Seventy-six thousand seven hundred and twenty-five (76,725) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year. Of these 63,830 were carried by British ships, and 12,895 by foreign ships; 134,912 were reported as having been brought to Hong Kong from places to which they had emigrated, and of these, 105,780 were brought in British ships and 25,586 by foreign ships.

The total revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $274,008.78, as against $302,787.76 (in- cluding $2,220 collected under the Sugar Convention Ordin- ance) collected in the previous year, showing a decrease of $28,778.98:

1. Light Dues

...

2. Licences and Internal Revenue 3. Fees of Court and Office 4. Miscellaneous Receipts

Total

...

(B.) INDUSTRIES.

...

$77,722.04 61,748.33 134,533.21

5.20

$274,008.78

During 1906 the decline in the selling prices of sugar con- tinued as the local refineries had to face keen competition in all markets. The amount of sugar refined was also much less than in 1905.

The demand for yarn was most unsatisfactory during the greater part of 1906, and the local cotton mill worked on an average only four days a week during the whole year, with very disappointing results.

There was a strong demand throughout the year for cement, and the local factory was kept fully employed. Two more

62

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

rotary kilns are now being added at the "Green Island" Com- pany's works at Hok Un, which will bring the output up to over 400 tons a day.

The profits of the rope factory at Kennedy Town were slightly higher than in 1905, but the business was restricted both by the high price of raw material at Manila and the rise in ex- change.

 The engineering and shipbuilding trade remained normal during the first half of 1906, but the disastrous typhoon of the 18th September, which wrought great havoc among the ship- ping in harbour at the time, kept the dockyards working at full pressure for the remainder of the year.

 Four hundred and forty-nine (449) vessels of 1,063,454 tons, and 70 launches, lighters, &c., were docked and repaired, com- pared with 412 vessels of 975,174 tons and 43 lighters, launches, &c., in 1905. Of the vessels damaged, sunk, or stranded in the typhoon, all, with three exceptions, were repaired locally. Of the three exceptions, one was sold to Japanese owners in her damaged condition, one has been salved and is awaiting con- tracts for repair, while the third still remains stranded, all en- deavours to get the vessel off having, so far, failed.

 Forty-two steam launches and other vessels, with an aggre- gate tonnage of 7,634 were built during the year.

 A new and important industry, the Hong Kong Milling Com- pany, situated at Junk Bay, in the New Territories, was in- augurated at the end of the year, the premises including reclamation, erection of buildings and installation of machinery, having been completed in a period of less than twenty months. The mill, which is of the very latest design and is under Euro- pean management, is capable of turning out 8,000 bags of flour a day. The demand for the flour is far in excess of this amount, and it is contemplated to double the capacity of the mill during 1907.

(C.) FISHERIES.

 A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territories are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

D.) FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE, AND AGRICULTURE. Forty-four thousand five hundred and seventy-seven (44,577) pine trees were planted in Hong Kong, and 15,116 were sown in sites. In the New Territories 82,960 were planted, and 73,021 sown in sites. One thousand five hundred camphor trees were planted in the New Territories. Three hundred and thirty-one shade trees were planted in the streets. The nucleus

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

13

of a collection of Chinese economic products was formed. Pro- gress was made with the purchase of Chinese pine plantations, which are suitably placed to augment Government planting. Investigations were continued with a view to utilizing waste ground in the New Territories, and attention was in particular directed to the possibilities of tea and candlenut trees for this purpose.

(E.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

The amount received from sales of Crown land was $315,733.21, being some $76,500 less than the receipts for the previous year. This falling off may be attributed to the general depression of business throughout the year, and the consequent tightness of the money market. The principal items were for extensive pier-rights at Kowloon Point for Messrs. Butterfield & Swire, sites for workmen's dwellings in connection with Messrs. Butterfield & Swire's shipyard at Quarry Bay, and land for extensions of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company's premises at Hunghom.

III.--LEGISLATION.

Seventeen Ordinances were passed during 1906, two of which, the Married Women's Property Ordinance, No. 5 of 1906, and the Criminal Evidence Ordinance, No. 14 of 1906, are designed to bring the law of the Colony into line with English Statutes. The former accords to married women in Hong Kong the like protection with regard to their property as is enjoyed by married women in England and other parts of the Empire. The latter introduces the amendment made in the law of England by the Imperial Enactment 61 and 62 Victoria, Cap. 36, by which in all criminal proceedings an accused person and the wife or husband, as the case may be, of such person are made competent witnesses for the defence.

The discovery of iron ore in considerable quantities in the New Territories led to the introduction of the Prospecting and Mining Ordinance, No. 7 of 1906, under which the Govern- ment is empowered to grant licences to search for and prove minerals and to grant licences and leases of land for the purpose of working mines and minerals.

The Prepared Opium Amendment Ordinance, No. 15 of 1906, was passed to remove any doubt as to whether the provisions of the Prepared Opium Ordinance, 1901, applied to morphine and all compounds of opium in addition to prepared opium. The Ordinance at the same time makes better provision for the establishment of bonded warehouses for morphine and com- pounds of opium.

63

64

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL reports-ANNUAL.

The Merchant Shipping Amendment Ordinance, No. 16 of 1906, makes provision for the prevention of obstruction of vessels and landing places, and for the better regulation of junks and similar craft.

IV.-EDUCATION.

The number of Government and Grant Schools, including Queen's College, is 85, of which 24 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of Standard VII., and 61 are Lower Grade Schools under purely native management. Generally speaking, the Upper Grade Schools are taught in English, and the Lower Grade Schools are taught in the vernacular.

Of

The total number of pupils in average attendance at Govern- ment and Grant Schools was 5,496, agaist 5,323 in 1905. these, 1,932 were in Government and 3,564 in Grant Schools; 3,350 pupils received instruction in English, and 2,146 in the vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,531 to 1,965.

 The revenue derived from school fees was $46,383.25, $31,478.50 of which was received from Queen's College.

 The expenditure, including that on Queen's College, was $159,373, being 2.33 per cent. of the total expenditure of the Colony.

The teaching of hygiene has again received much attention. It is a compulsory study in the four highest classes in all schools where English is taught. Steps have also been taken towards the preparation of a syllabus suited to the Vernacular schools.

Progress was again tested by a competitive examination between the schools for prizes and a shield offered by His Excellency the Governor.

For the Advanced Course there were 64 competitors, com- posed of 36 boys from five schools, and 28 girls from five schools. The result was highly satisfactory. Taking the three best candidates from each school as a basis of calcula- tion, eight schools out of 10 obtained 80 per cent of full marks or over, and one of the remaining schools nearly as many. There were entered for the Elementary Course 123 competitors. Their work was not proportionately so good. Five scholars obtained over 60 per cent., and four over 40 per cent.

Evening Continuation Classes were opened towards the end of the year.

The following table shows the subjects taught and the number of students attending each class:-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

Subjects Taught and Number of Students Attending.

Subject.

15

No. of Students.

65

Engineering

Mathematics Applied Mechanics

Section,

Building Construction Machine Drawing...

Science

Chemistry

...

...

Section.

Physics

Hygiene

***

***

39

...

...

...

28

...

...

...

...

***

...

25 16

...

...

11

18

...

...

...

5

...

15

...

...

7

***

...

...

2

...

...

...

...

35

...

...

10

...

...

...

15

...

...

15

...

8

...

...

***

12

...

...

17

...

10

[Book-keeping. Elementary

Advanced

Do.

Commercial Arithmetic

English Junior

Commercial

Do. Senior

***

Section.

French. Elementary

Do. Advanced

German

Japanese

Shorthand. Elementary..

Do.

Advanced

During the year illustrated lectures were delivered at most of the schools on facts relating to the Empire. The lectures, which, together with the slides, were provided by Mr. Mac- kinder, were greatly appreciated by the scholars, whose interest in the various subjects was increased by the ocular demonstra- tion of them. With the exception of minor matters, such as the darkening of rooms to make the lantern slides clearly visible, which was a somewhat difficult matter, and the length of the lectures, which had to be given in two parts as they were too lengthy for one sitting, the teachers are full of praise for the courses of lectures supplied, and are satisfied that they have proved highly instructive to their pupils.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year, exclusive of the railway, dealt with in Section XII. of this despatch, were the Tytam Tuk Waterworks (1st Section) and the Kowloon Waterworks, both of which have been described in previous reports. The former made good progress and the latter fair. Though not completed, the Kowloon Waterworks were sufficiently advanced to enable them to be utilised for the supply of the Kowloon Peninsula, the water being turned on on the 24th December. The extension of the distribution system to the important villages of Sham Shui Po, Kowloon City, and Taikoktsui was undertaken towards the end of the year.

66

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 Of the larger buildings, the Harbour Office and Western Market were completed, and the new Law Courts and new Government Offices were under construction. The Gunpowder Depôt, extension to Staff Quarters (Government Civil Hosptial), Taipo Quarters, Bacteriological Institute, and Volunteer Head- quarters were completed. A branch Post Office in Kowloon and another in Shanghai were completed, and a Public Mor- tuary near Yaumati and Time Ball Tower on Blackhead's Hill, Kowloon, were begun. The works of reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000 being spent on the former and over $16,000 on the latter. A large tank for flushing a portion of the sewerage system of the City was constructed in Blake Garden; a rifle range for the use of the Volunteer Reserve Association was laid out at the Peak; and the extensions of the waterworks at Lai Chi Kok for the supply of the shipping were completed.

 The Mee Lun Lane Improvement Scheme was undertaken and was well advanced at the close of the year. The system of 100-ft. roads in Kowloon was extended; Salisbury Road was opened as far as Robinson Road in connection with the new Star Ferry landing place; a mass of rock was removed to enable Des Voeux Road to be extended past Messrs. Blackhead's lots; and a commencement was made with the removal of the hill north of Yaumati Theatre, the material being used for private reclamation work north of the Naval Coaling Depôt. Some property in Hunghom Village was resumed to admit of further extension of the system. Important extensions of Con- duit Road in easterly and westerly directions, and of the road past Kowloon City were undertaken, substantial progress being made with both works. The latter road is being further extended to join the military roads which have been con- structed in this neighbourhood.

 The extension and reconstruction of the Albany Filter Beds was continued, fair progress being made with the work.

 The work on the Rider Main System was completed in all the districts to which it is intended to apply it.

 The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary, exclusive of Rider Mains and other Advance Accounts, was $1,463,868.66, and on works annually recurrent, $393,751.40.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS. (A.) HOSPITALS.

 Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hos- pital for women and children, the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia," used mainly for the treatment of small-pox.

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. Two thousand seven hundred and forty-five in-patients and 16,768

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

17

out-patients were treated during the year 1906. Two hundred and thirty-nine cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 267 in 1905 and 223 in 1904. The Maternity Hospital contains six beds for Europeans and four for Asiatics. Sixty- four confinements occurred during the year. The Victoria Hospital, at the Peak, contains 41 beds. During 1906, 278 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town Hospital con- tains 26 beds. In 1906, 78 cases were treated, of which 49 were plague. On the "Hygeia" 73 cases were treated, of

which 66 were small-pox.

(B.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are sepa- rate, the European portion containing eight beds in separate wards, and the Chinese portion 16 beds. One hundred and eighty-four patients of all races were treated during 1906, a.id there were nine deaths.

(C.) The TunG WAH HOSPITAL.

1

This Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $6,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor- house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute, and is administered by an annually-elected body of 15 Chinese direc- tors. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. The Hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported by Government, may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall.

The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar-General and an annually- elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needlework. During 1906, a total of 349 persons were admitted. Of these, 82 were released after enquiry, eight were released under bond, 106 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents, or relations, three were placed in charge of the Japanese Consul, 26 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 24 were sent to school, convent, or refuge, six were adopted, 53 were married, and one died.

28412

B

67

68

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1897. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. Ninety-six students have been enrolled up to the end of 1906, and of these, 29 have become qualified licentiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service, the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemics. A Govern- ment grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the College, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers.

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a Reference Library and Museum.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

 The total of all cases reported to the police was 11,144, being a decrease of 373 or 3·23 per cent. as compared with 1905. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences, there is an increase in the former, as compared with the pre- vious year, from 2,984 to 3,333, that is of 11.69 per cent., occurring mainly in unlawful possession.

 The number of serious offences reported was 408 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1902.

 The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease of 722 as compared with 1905.

 The number of minor offences reported was 324 below the average of the quinquennial period.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 5,799, as compared with 6,227 in 1905, but of these, only 2,575 were committed for criminal offences, against 2,816 in 1905. Of committals for non-criminal offences, there were 199 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance, and 25 more for infringe- ment of Sanitary By-laws.

The per-

 The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 518, the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. centage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 161 as compared with 183, the average percentage for the last ten years. The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1.21, as compared with 147 in 1905 and 1·1 in 1904.

 The remunerative labour carried on in the gaol consists of printing, bookbinding, washing, carpentry, bootmaking, net- making, painting and whitewashing, matmaking, tailoring,

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

19

oakum picking, &c., the profit on

on the work done being $37,495.56.

The total strength of the police force for 1906 was Europeans, 133; Indians, 410; Chinese, 504; making a total of 1,047; as compared with 1,018 in 1905, exclusive in each case of the four superior officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. Of this force, an Assistant Superintendent, who also acted as Magistrate, and 19 Europeans, S5 Indians, and 44 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year.

The force of district watchmen, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(A.) POPULATION.

The population of the Colony, according to the Census taken in 1901, was 283,975, while at the Census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of New Kowloon and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review was 326,961, as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil Community

Chinese population-

Hong Kong

Old Kowloon

...

New Kowloon (approximate) Floating population

Mercantile marine

Army (average strength)

Navy (average strength

Total

...

12,174

191,815

51,600

17,790

...

42,550

2,375

306,130

3,959

...

4,698

8,657

326,961

New Kowloon was brought under the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board in 1903, and its estimated population has accordingly been included. The population of the remainder of the New Territories according to the Census of 1901 was 85,011, making, when added to the present estimate, a grand total of 411,972.

At the Census taken in 1906 the actual number of members of the navy present in the Colony was 4,698.

(B.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

During the year under review considerable progress has been made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat proof, as a

28412

B 2

69

70

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

preventive of plague, 837 ground surfaces of houses having been made good with concrete and cement, while rat runs have been filled up with cement in 286 buildings.

 New buildings (domestic) to the number of 162 were erected during the year, and in these the effect of the present Ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes, which have to be provided in the rear of new houses, also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce surface crowding.

 Under the Insanitary Properties Resumption Scheme 21 houses and a portion of one other have been resumed during the year, and these, together with thirty others which had been previously resumed were demolished. The total area covered by these buildings was 29,502 square feet.

During the year there were 842 deaths from plague, compared with 287 in 1905 and 495 in 1904.

 There were 1,634 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the Chinese, or 20-2 per cent. of all Chinese deaths; 795 of these deaths were due to phthisis.

Beri-beri caused 561 deaths-a high figure, but considerably lower (117 less) than that for 1905 and 174 less than in 1904.

 The deaths from malaria were 448, as against 287 in 1905, the increase being chiefly due to the prevalence of the disease among the coolies employed on the railway works.

The aver-

age number of deaths from this disease has fallen from 552 in the quinquennium 1897 to 1901, to 354 in the quinquennium 1902 to 1906.

(C.) CLIMATE.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 71.8° F., as compared with 71-6° F. in 1905 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum monthly temperature was attained in August, when it reached 88.8° F., and the minimum monthly temperature was recorded in January, when it was 54.8° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 93.7° F., on the 28th August, and the lowest 46.8° F. on the 2nd January.

The total rainfall for the year was 77.80 inches, as compared with an average of 77:46 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was September, with 30-60 inches; the driest, November, with only 0-18 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 5·265 inches, on the 29th September, while no rain fell on 215 days of the year. The relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 78 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the past 10 years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5-3 hours, being 47 per cent. of the possible duration.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

21

The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1906 by the Postal Department amounted to $557,278.26, from which sum $136,824.22 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $420,454.04 as revenue of the Postal Service. The total expen- diture amounted to $359,484.08, which, after deducting $420,454.04 as revenue, leaves a profit of $60,969.96.

An arrangement for the transmission of insured letters direct between the Straits Settlements and Hong Kong came into force on the 1st December, 1906.

A direct exchange of money orders with Cape Colony came into force on 1st January.

The new Post Office at Kowloon was occupied in September. The Western Branch Post Office was re-opened on 1st October.

Shanghai British Post Office was enlarged.

A postal agency was opened at Tientsin on 1st October.

The pillar box system in Hong Kong was considerably ex- tended during the year.

XI-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(A.) REGULAR FORCES.

The following return shows the number and composition of the forces employed in the Colony during 1906:

Corps.

Europeans.

Indians.

Chinese.

Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s

& Men.

Native Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s, & Men.

N. C. O.'s & Men.

Totals.

General Staff (Officers only)

Garrison Staff (W. O., N. C.

Officers only).

Royal Garrison Artillery

Royal Engineers

...

2nd Royal West Kent Regiment

Army Service Corps

Royal Army Medical Corps A. O. Department and Corps

A. P. Department and Corps

4

...

6

19

664

11

243

9

419

...

27

43

31

8

པ་.

...

48620NGG

Hong Kong & Singapore Bn. R.G.A. 10 9 7

3rd Middlesex Regiment 119th Infantry

129th (D.C.O.) Baluchis

...

...

Indian Subordinate Medical De-

1991

| |

46

1811

683

65

319

428

31

51

37

10

405

431

75

77

9

15

750

...

774

9

15

753

...

777

4

5

partment.

Total

....

....

93 1,525 38 1,912

65

3,633

71

72

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(B.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

 The Colony contributed $1,305,185.80 (being the statutory contribution of 20 per cent. of the estimated revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony and barrack service.

(C.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

 The total esablishment of the Corps is 443 of all ranks. The strength on the 31st December, 1906, was 297, made up as follows:-Staff, 6; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 211; one Engineer Company, 39; Troop, 41.

 The members of the corps are now all armed with the new M.L.E. short rifle and the latest pattern equipment.

 The period for the annual camp of instruction was extended from 10 days to 16; it was held in October, 1906, and was very well attended.

 The Mounted Troop camp was held at Fan Ling, in the New Territories. The camp took place during the Christmas holi- days, and was well attended. Much useful work was done.

 The Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve Association numbered 251 members at the close of the year, an increase of 38 members as compared with 1905.

 Members of this Association, who must be over 35 years of age, are required to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting, and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volunteer Ordin- ance in the event of hostilities.

 A small Cadet Corps was commenced in May, 1906, with boys from the Victoria British School; there are now 13 of them, instructed in squad drill and semaphore signalling. They at- tended camp, and are already very efficient signallers.

 The new headquarter building was opened in December, 1906, and is already very popular. A well-equipped gymnasium will shortly be installed, the necessary apparatus having been ordered from England.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $47,351.34, compared with $58,311.12 in 1905.

XII-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

 The year 1906 is likely to be known by the present generation in Hong Kong as the year of the great typhoon. Between S.30 and 11 a.m. on the 18th September a storm of narrow diameter but great violence passed over the Colony. In the absence of warning, no preparations had been made to meet it, and great loss of life and property resulted. Fifteen Europeans were drowned, including the Right Reverend Dr. John Charles Hoare, Bishop of Victoria, who was on a tour of

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

23

diocesan inspection. Captain L. A. W. Barnes-Lawrence, R.N., the Harbour Master, died on the 2nd October as the result of exposure during and overwork after the storm. Two thousand three hundred and eighty-five Chinese were actually reported missing, but the loss of Chinese life is believed to have been much greater than this, and probably exceeded 5,000. Fifty-nine European-built merchant vessels, of 72,185 aggregate tonnage, foundered, grounded, or otherwise received injuries which in the case of 18 vessels, of 8,198 agregate tonnage, amounted to or resulted in total loss. In addition, SO steam launches were more or less damaged, including 32 that were sunk, of which most were, however, afterwards raised. H.M.S. "Phoenix," a sloop of 1,050 tons, went ashore and has since been broken up; the French torpedo-boat destroyer "Fronde," though broke in two by a similar accident, was considered worth repairing; a number of Colonial Government vessels were damaged; 796 junks, 798 cargo boats, 275 sampans and 544 other boats, making a total of 2,413 Chinese craft, were reported lost or missing. All the temporary and some of the permanent piers in Victoria and Kowloon were destroyed, and much injury was.done to sea walls in both places and to dykes protecting cultivation in the eastern part of the New Territories. Eighteen houses in Victoria, 122 in Kowloon, and about 50 in the New Territories were blown down wholly or in part or ren- dered unsafe for habitation. Considerable injury was done to the roads in various parts of the Colony, to the telephone sys- tems, to public buildings in progress, to the pine plantations on the Island, and to the crops on the low-lying grounds on the shores of Tide Cove and Tolo Harbour. Two days after the typhoon a relief fund was started, of which the principal object was to enable the boating people to again carry on the work of the harbour. The sum raised amounted ultimately to $279,903, of which $127,494, mainly subscribed by European firms, residents and sympathisers, was collected by the Relief Fund Committee, and $152,409, subscribed by Chinese in Hong Kong and elsewhere, was collected by the Committee of the Tung Wa Hospital. Of the aggregate sum, $244,892 has been expended in buying, rebuilding, and repairing 1,600 junks, sampans and other boats, in recovering and burying corpses, in maintaining destitutes, in relief to widows and orphans, &c.

The great typhoon called forth expressions of sympathy from His Majesty the King, from His Majesty's Government and from various British and foreign governments and communities in the Far East. Another bright aspect of it were the acts of heroism and duty performed in the rescue and aid of sufferers and in the clearing away of the more gruesome evidence of the catastrophe. The latter work and the putting in hand of the salvage operations in the harbour and of the heavy repairs on shore were delayed by subsequent storms of which one on the night of the 19th to 20th September passed within 300 miles and a second on the 23rd passed just beyond this distance of the

73

74

21

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Colony. The centre of a third moving from South East to West on the 28th and 29th passed not far from Gap Rock and resulted in considerable further damage. On October 1st the tyhpoon signal was hoisted for the last time in the year.

 A disaster on a smaller scale than the typhoon but not less horrid in its details occurred about 3 a.m. on the morning of October 14th, when the s.s. "Hankow" (3,073 tons), of the Hong Kong, Canton and Macao Steamboat Company, within a few minutes of tying up to the company's pier and with some 800 persons still on board burst into flames. Ninety bodies, in- eluding those of 52 women and 19 children, were recovered of persons who had sought but failed to find safety by jumping into the water, and the charred remains of 19 others were found on board, while two persons died in hospital from injuries re- ceived. A valuable cargo was lost, and the whole interior of the ship destroyed. The cause of the fire was not definitely ascertained, but is believed to have been a coolie smoking on a heap of matting on deck.

 Apart from these calamities various occurrences outside the Colony tended to make the year a bad one for trade. Piracy in the waterways leading to Canton was rife, culminating in an attack on the British steamer "Sainam," of 349 tons, belonging to the Hong Kong, Canton and Macao Steamboat Company, which took place on the evening of the 13th July near Sam Shui, on the West River, when the ship was on her way from Canton to Wu Chow. In this attack the master and several Indian watchmen belonging to the ship were wounded, and a missionary-the Revd. R. J. J. Macdonald, M.D.-killed. The Chinese authorities, stimulated by H.B.M. Consul-General at Canton, showed some vigour in detecting and punishing the persons egaged in this outrage, but the problem, in which the mercantile community of the Colony took an active interest, of how to prevent the occurrence of similar incidents in the future had received no solution by the end of the year.

 Bad as were the effects on trade of the insecurity of the waterways, far greater evils resulted from the direct action of the Canton authorities in issuing from the provincial mint vast quantities of subsidiary coins containing about 10 per cent. Tess silver than the dollar of which they purported to represent frac- tional parts. This over-issue, bringing down the value of stocks of similar coins already in the country by about 5 per cent. greatly reduced the purchasing power of the Kwang Tung con- sumer of foreign goods. It incidentally brought down the dollar value of the Hong Kong subsidiary coins, to the incon- venience of various trading concerns in the Colony and of its Government who were unable to get rid of a large stock of this coin purchased in the preceding year and had eventually to return $3,398 000 of it to England for sale as bullion. The Hong Kong Government decided as a result of this lesson to eliminate from their future financial policy the idea of making

75

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

25

profit from the supply of subsidiary coins to the two Kwang Provinces and then took steps, which since the end of the year have had some result, to impress on the Government of those provinces the imperative necessity for checking the output from the Canton mint.

Other matters outside the Colony adversely affecting its pros- perity were the failure, due to floods, of the first rice crop in the neighbouring provinces of China and the continued appre- ciation of silver.

In the China trade of Hong Kong and as regards imports very heavy losses had to be faced at the end of the year, owing to the large stocks of Indian yarn which were held at prices above their true value. Neither in Manchester, fancy, or wool goods was business satisfactory, and in metals it was dull. Im- portations of Australian flour continued to increase largely. Exports did not do so badly. There was a good yield of silk and fair demand for it, and native dealers were satisfied with the results of the year as regards ginger and soy.

The rise in the sterling value of the dollar, which has been going on since early in 1903, continued in 1906, the range of variation in the year being slightly greater than in 1905. At the commencement of January the dollar stood at 2s. 0}d. It fell to 2s. 0d. for a short time at the end of that month and again at the end of February, rose irregularly to 2s. 31d. in the middle of November, and was worth 2s. 3 d. at the end of the year. The maximum of the year was the highest value that had been attained since the end of 1893. The rise is said to have involved some withdrawal of capital from the Colony for investment in gold-using countries and consequent depreciation in the value of local stocks.

 Certainly those stocks dealt with in the Colony which give the best indication of the state of its business decreased con- siderably in value during the year. The shares of four land companies went down on an average over 10 per cent., while those of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company, Limited, in spite of business brought by the typhoon, fell nearly 12 per cent., and of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company 13 per cent. The shares in nearly every industrial undertaking, including the two sugar refineries, the Cement Company and the Rope Manufacturing Company, shrunk in value.

 The depreciation in the value of land and buildings evidenced by the fall in the shares of the land companies was attributed by some to the manner in which the provisions of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903 were being enforced by the officials of the Sanitary and Public Works Departments. Complaints in the local newspapers and at the meetings of the Sanitary Board that the Ordinance was not being properly or reasonably administered were so numerous in the early part of the year that it appeared to the Government advisable to institute an enquiry into them and also into certain suggestions

28/12

C

76

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

as to corruption that had made themselves heard. A com- mittee, consisting of the unofficial members of the Sanitary Board, was appointed on the 28th April to carry out this enquiry under the Chairmanship of the Honourable Mr. H. E. Pollock, K.C. As, however, it presently seemed necessary that there should be power to enforce the attendance of wit- nesses, compel the production of documents, &c., the Committee was converted into a Commission on the 10th May. Mr. Pollock's resignation of the Chairmanship shortly afterwards required an amended Commission, dated the 26th May, appoint- ing the Honourable Mr. E. A. Hewett to the post. The Com- mission were directed to enquire into and report:-

(1.) Whether the administration of the Sanitary and Building Regulations enacted by the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance, 1903, as now carried out is satisfactory, and, if not, what improvements can be made,

(2.) Whether any irregularity or corruption exists or has existed among the officials charged with the administration of the aforesaid regulations,

The Commission had not reported by the end of the year, but had brought to the notice of the Government several cases of corrupt practices which were dealt with by the Executive Council of the Colony.

 In the early part of the year also, numerous petitions were presented by elders in the New Territories through the Regis- trar-General on the subject of Crown Rent for agricultural lands and buildings. These resulted in the Government, after full consideration declining to reduce but promising not to increase for the 75 years term of lease the rents in question and in their making several minor concessions. This result appears to have given satisfaction, and the former difficulties in col- lecting rent have nearly disappeared.

 In other respects the territories were quiet and apparently prosperous during the year. Crops were good except for the typhoon, damage to which reference has already been made.

 Mining operations there remained in the prospecting stage, but the discovery of iron ore, which competent engineers report to be present in large quantities, led the promoters to apply for the mining lease of a square mile of territory in the Sha Tin District. This was granted by the Government to Sir Paul Chater, Kt., C.M.G., on the 21st January, 1907. Analysis shows that the ore is composed of magnetite iron ranging from 53 per cent. to 60 per cent. metal, entirely free from phosphorus or sulphur, and therefore the very best ore for the manufacture of steel. Japanese buyers are in treaty for the purchase of the ore, but the Company, recently formed by Sir Paul Chater, desire if possible to establish smelting works in the Colony, and are now negotiating with English iron-masters on the subject.

Railway matters continued to be of special interest, and made some progress in 1906.

77

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

27

The attempts of His Britannic Majesty's Consul at Canton and Minister at Peking and of the Hong Kong Government to get the Chinese authorities to open negotiations for the con- clusion of a Final Loan Agreement for the Chinese section of the Canton-Kowloon Railway and of an agreement for the joint working of that with the British section resulted in four meetings being held at Canton, in March and April, between representatives of the Viceroy there and of the British and Chinese Corporation, in the Viceroy recognising the Prelimi- nary Agreement made by the Corporation with the Chinese Government on the 28th March, 1899, and in his proposing arrangements which, though they differed materially from those of the preliminary loan agreement and included none for joint working, were accepted as the basis for the further negotiations. These, after many delays, were carried on at Peking between T'ang Shao-yi, the Chinese Director-General of Railways, two representatives of the Canton Viceroy, and Mr. J. O. P. Bland representing the Corporation. Ten meet- ings were held between the 23rd August and the 7th November, and on the 10th of the latter month a Final Loan Agreement was signed by Tang Shao-yi and Mr. Bland. It provides for the Corporation issuing a 5 per cent. loan of £1,500,000 for the construction and equipment of the Chinese section of the railway. A first mortgage on the railway is to be the security of the loan, the duration of which is to be 30 years. The con- struction is to be under the direction of a Chinese Managing Director with whom are to be associated a British Engineer-in- Chief and a British Chief Accountant. The agreement provides that a further one for the joint working of the British and Chinese sections of the railway should be arranged between the Viceroy of Canton and the Governor of Hong Kong. Negotia- tions for this further agreement were not started before the end of the year.

The Final Loan Agreement for the Canton-Kowloon Railway also lays it down that "it is understood that the Chinese Government will not build another line competing with this railway to its detriment." In this connection, it may be men- tioned that a proposal of the Chinese authorities to build a line towards Amoy, which for some 40 miles must have fol- lowed approximately the same course as the Canton-Kowloon Railway, called forth considerable opposition from Hong Kong, where it was held that the construction of such a line was contrary to the preliminary agreement of March, 1899.

While the survey work on the British section of the Canton- Kowloon Railway was being completed in the early part of the year, construction was proceeding on the line between Tai Po and Lo Fu Ferry under the Public Works Department, and by the end of April about 2 miles of bank had been formed, not including, however, any bridge or heavy earthwork. On the 23rd March Mr. W. G. Eves, who had been appointed by the Consulting Engineers-Sir John Wolfe Barry and Company-

78

28

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

to be Chief Resident Engineer, arrived in the Colony and took charge of the work, being assisted by an engineering staff of one executive and four assistant engineers, who arrived sub- sequently. During the summer, sickness among staff and workmen and some difficulties with labour delayed the pro- gress of the work, which consisted at first in preparing for the piercing of the tunnel through the Kowloon Hills. By the end of the year quarters for staff and labourers, and workshops were completed on the south, but were still under construction on the north side of the tunnel. A store yard, with arrange- ments for landing plant and material, had been formed at Tai Kok Tsui and connected by about 3,000 yards of temporary metre-gauge railway with the south face, while a service road, some 1,500 yards long, formed, with part of the existing Public Works Department Road, a communication to the north face from a temporary landing place at Lok Lo Ha in Tide Cove. As regards permanent work, by the end of the year a heading had been started from the open at either end of the tunnel, but in neither case had advanced more than a few feet inside what will be the ultimate tunnel face. A shaft 90 feet deep had been sunk 330 feet inside this face at the south end, and headings commenced in both directions from it. Another shaft to be 268 feet deep, 5,100 feet from the first, and 1,350 feet inside the north face, had been decided on but not yet started. At the end of the year work was also proceeding on four bridges south of the tunnel and on two north of it in the Shatin Valley. A considerable portion of the earthwork for about a mile on either side of the tunnel and about half of that between Tai Po and the Lo Fu Ferry had been completed. The reclamation for the station site in Hung Hom Bay had been put in hand. The total expenditure that had actually been incurred by the 31st December was $599,546.

Turning to the minor incidents of the year and reverting to commercial matters it may be mentioned that with a view to making Hong Kong products better known in England and also to assisting the general trade of the Colony, collections of specimens of its manufactures and also of the various articles which are included in its export trade have been sent to England to constitute a permanent exhibition in the Imperial Institute buildings at South Kensington.

In the Colony itself, two exihibitions were held which it is hoped will be repeated annually. On the 1st and 2nd Feb- ruary the new Horticultural Society, revived on the lines of the old Society which organised annual flower shows from 1873 to 1883, successfully held its first show in the Botanical Gardens. On the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd November an "Arts and Crafts" exhibition collected in the City Hall some good speci- mens of local photography, needlework, book printing and binding, and domestic furniture and some fine pieces of pottery and other works of art lent by European and Chinese Residents. An interesting event in the early part of the year was the visit of the mission with His Royal Highness Prince Arthur of

79

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1906.

29

Connaught at its head, which was conveying the Garter to His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Japan. The mission was in Hong Kong from the 9th to the 13th February. In March advantage was taken of the presence of a Japanese squadron to return some of the hospitality that had been shown in the previous summer to the British fleet in Japanese waters, and of the visit of the French squadron of the Far East to bear witness to the cordial understanding between England and France. In September a joint Naval and Military Committee under the presidency of Sir John Owen, K.C.B., visited the Colony for the consideration of certain matters connected with its defence. Changes during the year in personnel outside the Colony, but closely affecting it, were the substitution of Chou Fu, formerly Acting Governor-General Liang Kiang, for Ts'ên Ch'un-hsüan as Governor-General Liang Kuang, and the appointments in May of Sir John N. Jordan, K.C.M.G., to replace Sir Ernest Satow, G.C.M.G., as Minister at Peking, and in April of Mr R. W. Mansfield, C.M.G., to replace Mr. J. Scott as Consul- General at Canton. During the year the British Naval and Military Commanders were both changed. Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur W. Moore, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., C.M.G,, succeeding Admiral Sir Gerard H. U. Noel, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., as Com- mander-in-Chief of the China Station in March, and Major- General R. G. Broadwood, C.B., following Major-General V. Hatton, C.B., in command of the troops in South China in December.

Reference has already been made to the lamented deaths of Bishop Hoare and Captain Barnes-Lawrence. The latter has been succeeded as Harbour Master by Commander B. R. H. Taylor, R.N. On the 31st October, Sir Henry S. Berkeley, Kt., K.C., retired from the office of Attorney-General, Mr. W. Kees Davies, who did not arrive in the Colony before the end of the year, being appointed to succeed him. In the Legisla- tive Council, Mr. E. A. Hewett on the 30th April succeeded Mr. R. Shewan as elected representative of the Chamber of Commerce, and on the 1st June, Mr. W. J. Gresson, of Messrs. Jardine, Matheson, and Company, took the place of Mr. C. W. Dickson, of the same firm, as a nominated member. Mr. E. Osborne temporarily relieved Mr. G. Stewart in a similar position when the latter went on leave early in the year.

On the 15th December, Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G., who had arrived from England a week previously, took over the adminis- tration of the Colony on my having to proceed on short leave to Java for the recovery of health. Mr. Sercombe Smith, who had been acting as Colonial Secretary during the whole period of Mr. May's absence from the Colony, served in the same capacity on the latter assuming the charge of the Government.

I have, &c.,

The Right Honourable

The Earl of Elgin, K.G., &c., &c., &c.

M. NATHAN.

28412

A

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 570.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1907.

(For Report for 1906, see No. 521.)

81

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty.

August, 1908.

ON

DROSTA

PRINTED

LONDON:

FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 34-40, BACON STREET, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C., and 32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.; or

OLIVER & BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT, EDINBURGH; or E. PONSONBY, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.

1908.

[Cd. 3729-34.] Price 2d.

82

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

:.

...

:

...

PAGE

4

...

TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND

LAND

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

FINANCES

...

...

LEGISLATION

...

EDUCATION

...

:

:

...

:

:

PUBLIC WORKS

...

6

12

:

...

...

:

:

...

...

:

...

:

...

...

:

:

:

INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT

Government INSTITUTIONS

CRIMINAL AND POLICE

VITAL STATISTICS

...

:

12

...

14

...

...

:

...

...

...

16

...

:

...

...

...

:.

...

:

...

...

:

:

...

:

...

:

17

:

***

18

...

:

...

...

...

...

...

...

MILITARY Forces and EXPENDITURE

POSTAL SERVICE

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

19

...

:

21

...

...

:

223

22

...

23

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUALI..

No. 570.

H ONG K O N G. KONG.

(For Report for 1906, see No. 521.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

MY LORD,

Hong Kong,

24th June, 1908.

83

3

  I HAVE the honour to submit for Your Lordship's in- formation the following general Report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1907:-

75 Wt 24282 8/08 D & S 5 33198*

A 2

84

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

I.-FINANCES.

 The revenue for the year, exclusive of land sales, amounted to $6,442,529 or $179,540 less than the previous year. Land sales amounted to $159,750, or $155,982 less than in 1906. The total revenue from all sources was therefore $6,602,280, or $432,731 less than in the previous year. All the main sources of revenue show an excess over 1906 with the exception of licences, rent of Government property, interest, and land sales.

 Light dues, licences, fees of Court, Post Office receipts, and rent of Government property brought in together $300,504 more than was estimated. The receipts under the remaining heads of revenue were, all together, $146,249 less than were anticipated when the estimates were drawn up.

 The expenditure for the year was $5,028,553, exclusive of public works extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $5,757,203, or $1,075,407 less than the total expenditure of 1906.

 Deducting from the actual receipts for 1907 the total actual expenditure, there was a surplus of $845,076 on the actual working of the year.

(A.) GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

 The following is a brief abstract of revenue and expenditure for the years 1906 and 1907:-

Revenue.

1906.

1907.

Increase. Decrease.

...

420,454.04

826,699.20

Light Dues

...

...

...

Licences and internal revenue

 not otherwise specified. Fees of Court, &c.

Post Office

...

Rent of Government property

C.

C.

C.

2,666.96

234,759.03

77,722.04 80,389.00 4,765,227.78 | 4,530,468.75

470,151.53 498,621.05 28,469.52

$ C.

445,420.92 24,966.88

809,617.90

17,051.30

Interest

8,068.42

8,068.42

Miscellaneous

53,747.24

77,982.34 24,235.10

Water Account

Land sales

315,733.21

159,750.29

155,982.92

Amount transferred from Praya

97,208.32

97,208.32

Reclamation Fund.

Total

7,035,011.786,602,280.25

80,338.46 | 513,069.99.

Deduct increase

...

80,338.46

Nett decrease

...

***

432,731.53

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

Expenditure.

1906.

1907.

Increase. Decrease.

5

Non-effective charges

General administration Law and order

Public health

Public instruction

Public works

Defence

...

C.

333,823.31 313,658.67 1,404,287.42 1,034,695.00

C.

C.

C.

20,164.64 369,592.42

...

...

832,919.87 847,418.62

14,498.75

659,413.66 648,951.51

10,462.15

162,973.32 184,028.19

21,054.87

...

|2,086,655.96|1,468,857.48

617,798.48

...

1,352,537.14 | 1,259,594,00

92,943.14

Total

...

6,832,610.68 |5,757,203.47 35,553.62 | 1,110,960.83

Deduct increase

Nett decrease

35,553.62

1,075,407.21

The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1903-1907:-

1903.

1904.

1905.

1906.

1907.

C.

C.

$ C.

C.

C.

5,238,857.88 6,809,047.99 6,918,403.85 7,035,011.78 | 6,602,280.25 5,396,669.48 | 6,376,235.30 (6,951,275.26 |6,832,610.68 | 5,757,203.47

Revenue Expenditure

...

Surplus

...

Deficit

...

157,811.60

432,812.69

202,401.10

32,871.41

845,076.78

from which it will be seen that both revenue and expenditure for the year were lower than at any time since 1903.

(B.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1907, the assets of the Colony amounted to $2,650,733.99, or, including arrears of revenue, $2,739,712.32. The total liabilities were $1,205,995.13, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $1,533,717.19.

(C.) PUBLIC Debt.

Inscribed Stock at 3 per cent. interest, £341,799 15s. 1d. incurred for Praya Reclamation; Central Market; water, drainage, and sewerage works, &c., to be paid off on 15th April, 1943.

Inscribed Stock at 3 per cent. interest (loan of £1,100,000 at 4 per cent. to Viceroy of Wuchang) £1,143,933 1s. 4d. (Amount repaid by Viceroy placed to credit of Special Account £220,000, which has been advanced therefrom for Railway construction.) Sinking fund commences in 1911.

33198

A 3

85

86

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The amount paid into the Joint Sinking Fund with accrued interest reached £61,813 4s. 4d.* on the 31st of December, 1907.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(A.) Trade and Shipping.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1907 shows an increase of 77,908 vessels of 3,281,042 tons when compared with the correspond- ing figures for 1906, in which year there was a decrease of 1,437,823 tons due to loss of local vessels in the typhoon. The greater part of this is due to internal traffic-"steamships not exceeding 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony." If local trade be eliminated, it is found that the remaining figures show the respectable increase of 3,110 vessels of 579,814 tons.

This increase is distributed as follows:

British ocean-going vessels, 59 ships of 26,698 tons. Foreign ocean-going vessels, 334 ships of 627,380 tons. British River steamers, 364 ships with a decrease in

tonnage of 212,137 tons.

Foreign river steamers, 239 ships of 76,075 tons. Steamships not exceeding 60 tons, 703 ships of 29,739

tons.

  Junks in foreign trade, 1,411 vessels of 32,059 tons. The actual figures of arrivals and departures are as follows:-

Of British Ocean-

going. Of Foreign Ocean-

going.

Of British River

steamers.

Of Foreign River

steamers.

Of Steamships not f exceeding 60 tons.

Of Junks in Foreign

Trade.

Foreign Trade.

of 3,605,941 tons.

3,610,228 "" 3,861,570 ""

3,859,305 2,316,889 ""

1,876 arrivals 1,880 departures 2,306 arrivals 2,315 departures,, 3,412 arrivals 3,416 departures,,

655 arrivals 655 departures 791 arrivals 790 departures,, 14,782 arrivals

19

99

وو

2,313,475 55

371,996 ""

371,996 ""

""

99

99

3,015

99

3,006 99

1,320,892 1,330,578,,

14,782 departures,,

23,838 departures

11,512,303 ""

11,520,588

""

Total Foreign Trade 23,822 arrivals

وو

* This includes the sum of £14,352 88. 1d. surplus of interest paid by the

Viceroy on the loan of £1,100,000..

Of Steamships not exceeding 60 tons. Of Junks in Local

Trade.

Total Local Trade

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

f

Local Trade.

209,601 arrivals 209,601 departures,,

20,820 arrivals 19,952 departures

of

5,608,266 tons. 5,608,266 892,818 ""

"

39

""

586,069

""

230,421 arrivals

"9

6,501,084

""

229,553 departures 6,494,335

""

""

Grand Total Local

and Foreign.

(254,243 arrivals

""

18,013,387

253,391 departures,, 18,014,923

Thus in foreign trade:-

British ocean-going vessels represented Foreign ocean-going vessels represented British river steamers represented Foreign river steamers represented

Per cent..

31.4

...

33.5

20.1

...

...

3.2

0.3

11.5

100.0

Steamships not exceeding 60 tons represented... Junks represented

...

While in local trade:-

Steamships not exceeding 60 tons represented... 86-3 Junks represented

...

13.7

...

100.0

87

7

The movements of the "Star" Co.'s ferry launches, of private steam-launches, and of fishing junks do not appear in the above figures.

Eight thousand two hundred and thirty-nine (8,239) steamers, 10 sailing ships and 791 steamships not exceeding 60 tons, in foreign trade, entered during the year, giving an average daily entry of 24-77 European-constructed foreign- going ships, as compared with 22.5 in 1906.

The

The average tonnage of ocean-going vessels entered has increased slightly, from 1,784-9 to 1,785-6 tons, while that of river steamers has declined from 734 to 661 tons. The British ocean average has decreased from 1,945 to 1,921 tons. foreign ocean average has increased from 1,654 to 1,670 tons. The British river steamer average has declined from 749 to 678 tons and the foreign river steamer average has declined from 623 to 567 tons.

A comparison between the years 1906 and 1907 shows:

For ocean vessels under the British flag, an increase of 59 ships of 26,698 tons.

33198

A 4

888

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

In British river steamers an increase of 364 ships with a decreased tonnage of 212,137 tons, which is mainly due to the withdrawal of the large sized steamer Hankow and the addition of the two small Macao steamers Sui Tai and Sui An.

For foreign ocean vessels an increase of 334 ships of 627,380 tons is shown, which is wholly due to the Japanese firms in- creasing their carrying trade. Under this flag, an increase of 455 ships of 976,450 tons is found, with a general falling off under other flags.

 For foreign river steamers an increase of 238 ships of 76,075 tons is shown, which can be accounted for by vessels under the German, Chinese, and Portuguese flags making more trips in 1907 than in 1906.

 For junks in foreign trade, an increase of 1,411 vessels of 32,059 tons.

 A decrease in local junk trade, 10,844 vessels of 263,768 tons which may be ascribed to the cessation of the naval extension work and to the falling off in conservancy boats.

of

 The actual number of individual ocean-going ships European construction entering during the year was 800, being 362 British and 438 foreign.

 These 800 ships agrgegated 1,860,245 tons. They entered 4,182 times and gave a collective tonnage of 7,467,511 tons. Thus compared with 1906, 70 less ships of 73,514 less tons, entered 170 more times and gave a collective tonnage increased by 306,183 tons.

 The 800 vessels were divided as follows between the several nationalities:-

Vessels entered.

355 British Steamers

Times. 1,867

Total tonnage.

3,586,510

9 Austrian

""

1 Belgian

""

20 Chinese

2 Corean

""

9 Danish

18 Dutch

33 French

137 German

3 Italian

111 Japanese

30

106,523

1

2.903

...

214.

267,789

14

21,298

21

41,122

وو

69

142,100

202

...

294,461

790

دو

وو

...

1,246,053

12

...

31,704

534

""

...

1,126,517

59 Norwegian "

2 Portuguese,,

10 Russian

3 Swedish

"

20 United States Steamers

7 British Sailing Ships

1 United States

290

...

265,728

59

...

19,128

13

""

...

30,912

11

...

12,970

45

251,590

9

19,431

1

72

""

Total 800

4,182

7,467,511

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

9

The figures relating to the import and export trade of the port, given in previous years, have, as pointed out annually, been based upon information which can only be characterised as unsatisfactory and the results as erroneous and misleading. As it is obvious that such returns have no value, they are dis- continued in the form they have hitherto taken, but the aggre- gates of the reports received are shown, for purposes of com- parison, in round numbers. These include imports of sugar and imports and exports of opium, of which accurate returns are rendered.

The aggregates show an increase of about 360,000 tons in imports, of about 191,000 tons in exports, and of about 518,000 tons in transit cargo.

The total reported import and transit trade of the port for 1907 amounted to 23,819 vessels of 11,512,223 tons carrying about 8,237,000 tons of cargo of which about 4,841,000 tons were discharged at Hong Kong.

Similarly, the export trade of the port was represented. by 23,841 vessels of 11,520,668 tons, carrying about 3,049,000 tons of cargo, and shipping about 729,000 tons of bunker coal.

During the year 1907, 16,515 vessels of European and American construction of 20,311,400 tons (net register), reported having carried about 10,842,000 tons of cargo, as follows:-

Tons.

Import cargo

4,366,000

Export cargo

2,355,000

Transit cargo

...

3,396,000

Bunker coal shipped

725,000

10,842,000

One hundred and five thousand nine hundred and sixty- seven (105,967) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year. Of these 78,576 were carried in British ships and 27,391 in foreign ships. The year 1907 has proved to be the record year in the history of the Colony for the numbers of emigrants shipped.

 One hundred and forty-five thousand eight hundred and twenty-two (145,822) immigrants were reported as having been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports. This includes 905 returning from South Africa. Of the total number, 112,742 arrived in British ships and 33,080 in foreign ships.

The total revenue collected by the Harbour Department during the year was $348,300 (including $24,098 previously collected by the Registrar-General's Department for boat licences, the issuing of which was transferred to this depart-

89

90

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

ment from the 1st January, 1907), as against $298,106 collected in the previous year, showing an increase of $50,193:-

1. Light Dues

2. Licences and Internal Revenue... 3. Fees of Court and Office

4. Miscellaneous Receipts

Total

$ 80,389.00 116,122.40

151,746.30

...

42.40

$348,300.10

...

(B.) INDUSTRIES.

 During 1907 the price of refined sugars in the East still further declined, principally as a result of the lower cost of raw sugar, but also owing to the determined competition of Japanese refineries seeking to capture the local refineries' old established Chinese connections. The quantity of sugar refined in Hong Kong was however larger than for years past, and was disposed of in China and other markets, although at a loss in some instances, and on very small margins of profit in others. By the end of 1907 the strenuous competition from Japanese quarters had however, exhausted itself, and it is con- fidently expected by those best able to form an opinion that local industries will be able to maintain and improve their position.

 The demand for yarn during 1907 was even more unsatis- factory than during the previous year, which was undoubtedly due to the failure of almost every yarn shop in the Colony. These failures threw a quantity of yarn on the market which had to be disposed of at a reduction of $20/25 per bale on the contract price. Owing to the large stocks on hand it was found necessary to decrease the output of the local cotton mill by reducing the number of spindles running, and during the last three months of the year "short time" was also resorted

to.

 Both exchange and the price of raw material have been in favour of the rope factory, enabling them to reduce their sell- ing price to their customers to a lower limit than for some years. On the other hand the lower price induced a greater demand and the factory's turnover accordingly showed a fair increase.

No further additions have been made to the plant of the Cement Company, which with a good demand for cement has been kept continuously employed throughout the year.

 The flour mills at Junk Bay were kept running continuously night and day, including many Sundays.

 Four hundred and twenty-two (422) vessels of 1,001,001 tons and 112 launches, lighters, &c., were docked and repaired,

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

11

compared with 449 vessels of 1,063,454 tons and 79 launches, lighters, &c., in 1906. One hundred and eleven (111) steam- launches and other vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 6,311 were built during the year.

A small new industry has recently been established in this Colony, i.e., that pursued by the Wai San Knitting Co., Ltd., but the Company is still in its infancy.

Another recently established industry is carried on by the Imperial Brewing Co., Ltd. Large quantities of their products are being exported to the various ports in China. The capacity of the plant is 2,750,000 gallons per annum.

(C.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territories are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(D.) FORESTRY, BOTANICAL SCIENCE, AND AGRICULTURE.

In Hong Kong fifty-four thousand two hundred and ninety- five (54,295) pits were dug and sown with pine seeds by the departmental staff. Thirty thousand pits were sown by con- tract with no result in the majority of cases. In the New Territories 111,156 pits were dug by contract and sown by the department; while 24,557 were planted by the department, and 8,000 by contract. One hundred and fifty-two shade trees were planted in streets in Kowloon, and 45 in streets in Hong Kong; while 265 trees were planted along the newly formed banks of May Road and Conduit Road. Six hundred and ninety-six bamboos were planted along roads at the Peak and elsewhere, while 92 hydrangeas and 102 azaleas were planted out on Crown land in various parts of the peak.

(E.) Land GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE of Land.

The amount received from sales of Crown Land was $161,459, being $154,274 less than the receipts for the previous year. This falling off may be attributed to the continued depression of business throughout the year and to general tightness of the money market. The principal items were for sites for a cigar factory in Kowloon and for a brewery at Lai Chi Kok in the New Territories, a lot at North Point, and land for an extension of the Standard Oil Company's new premises at Lai Chi Kok.

91

92

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

III. LEGISLATION.

Sixteen Ordinances were passed during 1907, two of which, No. 9 of 1907 and No. 10 of 1907, afford facilities to certain foreign companies for carrying on their business in the Colony in the same manner as if they had been incorporated under the law of the Colony; whilst another, No. 6 of 1907, continued the incorporation granted under the Ordinance of 1866 of the leading local banking concern for a further period of 21 years and empowered it to increase its capital subject to certain conditions.

 A Life Insurance Companies Ordinance (No. 11 of 1907) was passed in accordance with Imperial precedent, to secure the solvency and permanency of companies carrying on the busi- ness of life insurance in the Colony.

 A Seditious Publications Ordinance (No. 15 of 1907) was enacted in order to prohibit the publication in the Colony of matter calculated to excite disorder, or to incite to crime, in China.

 A Companies (Local Registers) Ordinance (No. 16 of 1907) was passed based on the Imperial Act of 1883 and makes pro- vision for companies registered in the Colony but carrying on business elsewhere, to keep local registers of members.

IV.-EDUCATION.

 The number of Government and Grant Schools, including Queen's College, is 79, of which 25 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of Standard VII, and 54 are Lower Grade Schools under purely native management. Generally speaking, the Upper Grade Schools are taught in English, and the Lower Grade Schools are taught in the vernacular.

The total number of pupils in average attendance at Govern- ment and Grant Schools was 5,924 against 5,496 in 1906. Of these, 2,144 were in Government and 3,780 in Grant Schools: 3,569 pupils received instruction in English, and 2,355 in the vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,761 to

2,163.

The revenue derived from school fees was $49,223, $30,442 of which was received from Queen's College.

The expenditure including that on Queen's College was $184,028, being 3.19 per cent. of the total expenditure of the Colony.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

13

Hygiene has now become one of the regular subjects of study in all Government and Grant Schools, English and vernacular.

The manual on Hygiene issued to the English schools has been translated into Chinese and is in use in all the vernacular grant schools.

The annual competition for the challenge shield presented by Sir Matthew Nathan, K.C.M.G., took place in December. Seven teams entered for the competition. There was no com- petition in the advanced course this year.

Evening Continuation Classes opened in October, 1906, and were continued until the end of May, 1907, when they closed for the summer. Examinations were held at the end of the session, and certificates were granted to successful students.

In May a committee was appointed to inquire into the subject of instruction at the evening classes. A report was published in September with the result that the classes were reorganised and, under the title of the Hong Kong Technical Institute, reopened in October.

The object of the Institute is to afford facilities for a com- mercial and scientific training to students generally, and to enable those who have left school to continue their studies.

The following table shows the subjects taught at the Technical Institute, and the number of students who entered for each subject:-

(Building Construction

Field Surveying

Machine Drawing

...

...

...

28 21

•••

...

21

...

Engineering Section.

Steam...

...

...

...

23

Mechanics: Elementary

18

...

...

Do.

Do.

Commerce

...

Section.

German: Junior

...

Do. Senior

...

...

Shorthand: Elementary

Do.

Advanced

Mathematics: Elementary

English: Junior Do. Senior

French: Junior Do. Senior

12

...

9

Advanced

10

...

...

41

25

...

...

...

...

23

9

...

5

6

35

...

...

Science Section.

Advanced

Book-keeping

Chemistry: Theoretical

Do. Practical

Physics: Elementary Do. Advanced

9

...

...

19

•••

...

...

...

14

12

...

10

5

...

Total...

...

...

355

93

94

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The total expenditure during the first session of the Technical Institute was $4,412; total receipts (students' fees) were $1,377.

 The classes were attended for the most part by Chinese, but a considerable number of Europeans also attended. The students take a deep interest in their work and generally have made very great progress in their studies.

 There is a well equipped chemical laboratory. The lecturers are for the most part officers belonging to the public works, education, and medical departments and Queen's College who receive fees for their lectures.

 Visual Instruction.-Arrangements have now been made by which regular courses of lectures are delivered during the cool weather at the prominent Government and grant schools in the Colony, illustrated by the lanterns which were purchased in 1905.

 Many schools which had no opportunity of taking the course when the lanterns first arrived took the course for the first time this year, and to them the sets of slides were quite new, but in the case of several schools the lectures covered the same ground as last year. It will be necessary to vary these lectures, which have again been full of interest to all concerned, next year by the addition of some new sets of slides, and the sugges tion that they should illustrate emigrant life in Canada, Australia, and other parts of the Empire appears a very happy

one.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

 The principal public works in progress during the year, ex- clusive of the railway, were the Tytam Tuk Waterworks (1st section) and the Kowloon Waterworks, both of which have been described in previous reports. The former were prac- tically completed and fair progress was made with the latter, which are now in such a forward state as to be fully capable of supplying the whole peninsula with water. The extension of the distribution system to the important yillages of Sham Shui Po, Kowloon City, and Taikoktsui was completed and the substitution of mains of larger diameter for those originally laid at Kowloon Point was in progress to ensure an efficient supply of water for fire extinction purposes, the erection of large godowns being in progress there.

The new Law Courts and new Government Offices were still under construction, whilst the Public Mortuary near Yaumati and the Time Ball Tower on Blackhead's Hill, Kowloon, were completed.. A new building to accommodate the Land Office at Tai Po, which had hitherto been housed in a temporary

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

15

matshed structure, was in progress: a new market at Sai- Wan-Ho, near Shaukiwan, was practically completed: an extension of the staff quarters at the Government Civil Hospital was undertaken to afford accommodation for the nurses hitherto supported by the Nursing Institute; and a jinricksha shelter was erected close to the Star Ferry pier in Salisbury Road, Kowloon. As the construction of the railway involved the demolition of the slaughter house and cattle depôt at Hunghom, the erection of new slaughter houses and depôts was begun at Ma Tau Kok. Provision is made in the new establishments for considerable development beyond present requirements. The works of reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000 being spent on the former and over $23,500 on the latter. A large tank for flushing a portion of the sewerage system of the city was constructed at the junction of Water Street and Queen's Road West; the rifle ranges for the use of the Volunteer Reserve Association at the Peak and King's Park, Kowloon, were extended; a new service reservoir at West Point for supplying the high levels of the city was begun; a new cable reserve was established at North Point and the cables were transferred to it; an obelisk in memory of the French sailors lost in the typhoon of the 18th September, 1906, was erected; and the construction of a retaining wall behind Inland Lot 1,523 to obviate the risk of landslips which threatened to endanger the conduit conveying the water from Tytam to the city was completed.

The Mee Lun Lane Improvement Scheme was completed. Another section of Robinson Road, Kowloon, extending from Market Street to Waterloo Road was undertaken and the removal of the hill north of Yaumati Theatre was continued, the material being used for private reclamation work north of the Naval Coaling Depôt. The extensions of Conduit Road in easterly and westerly directions and of the road past Kowloon City mentioned last year were completed, and a further section of the latter road extending to its junction with the Chiu Lan Chu Road was undertaken. A new path, connecting Barker Road with May Road, as the extension of Conduit Road in an Easterly direction has been designated, was completed.

The extension and reconstruction of the Albany Filter Beds was continued, fair progress being made with the work.

The total amount expended on public works extraordinary, exclusive of advance accounts and deposits not available, was $784,320 and on works annually recurrent, $538,041. By the transfer of the item "typhoon and rainstorm damage" from the former head to the latter, the first-mentioned sum has been diminished by $106,659 whilst the last-mentioned has been correspondingly increased.

Good progress was made on the British section of the Hong Kong-Canton Railway the cost of which is being defrayed by a Loan.

95

96

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 During the year 1907 the re-alignment consequent on the detailed survey by the construction engineers was completed and work commenced over the whole length. The reclamation for a site for Kowloon station yard was started in June. The actual heading driving in Beacon Hill Tunnel may be said to have started on January 1st, 1907. During the year two thousand one hundred feet of heading was driven from both ends and from the shafts sunk at both the north and south sides and four hundred and sixty-five feet of tunnel fully lined. About two-thirds of the compressor plant was in working order, the headings not being far enough advanced to necessitate special ventilating plant. There was difficulty experienced at first in obtaining sufficient labour for work underground but towards the end of the year on the rates being raised slightly a large number of skilled mining coolies returned from South Africa flocked to the work.

 Bridge building progressed steadily all through the year as well as earthwork and the minor tunnels, there being no very great difficulties to contend with except in one of the latter." A temporary metre gauge line was laid from the sea front at Lokloha to the north face, the shaft (278 feet) was completed, and a considerable number of houses for staff erected. The systematic issue of quinine to all rail employés resulted in a diminution of malarial fever.

 The expenditure on the work during the year amounted to $2,314,915.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(A.) HOSPITAls.

 Government hospitals consist of the civil hospital, to which is attached an isolated maternity hospital, the Victoria hospital for women and children, the Kennedy Town infectious diseases hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia" used mainly for the treat- ment of small-pox.

The civil hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,711 in- patients and 17,302 out-patients were treated during the year 1907. 243 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 239 in 1906 and 267 in 1905. The maternity hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 87 confinements occurred during the year. The Victoria hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds. During 1907, 211 patients were under treat- ment. Kennedy Town hospital contains 26 beds. In 1907, 63 cases were treated, of which 16 were plague. On the Hygeia" 167 cases were treated, of which 96 were small-pox.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

(B.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

17

The asylum is under the direction of the superintendent of the civil hospital. European and Chinese patients are separate, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 222 patients of all races were treated during 1907, and there were 13 deaths.

(C.) THE TUNG WAH HOSPITAL.

This hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor- house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the Institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatria- tion of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treat- ment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods and the number is steadily in- creasing. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being sub- mitted to the Governor for confirmation; is under the direct charge of a Chinese Resident Surgeon, paid by the Govern- ment; and is under the supervision of a Visiting Physician who is a member of the Medical Department.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for Chinese, and the City Hall.

The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar General and an annually-elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women and children. The inmates of the home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needlework. During 1907, a total of 345 persons were admitted. Of these, 85 were released after en- quiry, 5 were released under bond, 131 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents, or relations, 1 was placed in charge of the Japanese Consul, 1 in charge of the French Consul, 22 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 16 were sent to school, convent, or refuge, 12 were adopted, and 38 were married. Thirty-four persons remained in charge of the Society at the end of the year.

97

98

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL reportsS-ANNUAL.

 The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887. The government of the college is vested in the Court, of which the rector of the college, who has always been a Government official, is president. 102 students have been enrolled up to the end of 1907, and of these 33 have become qualified licen- tiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a knowledge of Western medical science among the Chinese; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service and in the Chinese Dispensaries the senior students have frequently been made use of for various purposes during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the college, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers, who are either Government officials or medical prac- titioners in local practice. Steps are at present being taken for the provision of adequate buildings for the puposes of the College, which has hitherto carried on its work in various lecture-rooms and laboratories placed at its disposal by hospitals and other institutions in different parts of the City.

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a reference and circulating library and museum.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

 The total of all cases reported to the Police was 11,540, being an increase of 396 or 3.55 per cent. as compared with 1906. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year of 27 cases or 81 per cent.

 The number of serious offences reported was 297 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1903.

The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 423 as compared with 1906.

The number of minor offences reported was 385 above the average of the quinquennial period.

 The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 5,877, as compared with 5,799 in 1906, but of these only 2,460 were committed for criminal offences, against 2,575 in 1906. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 84 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 44 less for infringe- ment of Sanitary By-laws.

 The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 502, the average for 1906 being 518 and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 144, as compared with

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

19

161, the average percentage for the last ten years. The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1:50, as compared with 1.21 in 1906 and 1:47 in 1905.

The remunerative labour carried on in the gaol consists of printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting, and white-washing, mat-making, tailor- ing, oakum-picking, &c., the profit on the work done being $37,434, as against $34,495 in 1906.

The total strength of the police force for 1907 was, Europeans 135, Indians 410, Chinese 503, making a total of 1,048, as com- pared with 1,047 in 1906 exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway, private firms, and other Government departments. Of this force the District Officer and 13 Europeans, 101 Indians, and 45 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year.

The force of District Watchmen, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the city. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(A.) POPULATION.

The population of the Colony according to the census taken in 1901 was 283,975, while at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories, New Kowloon, and the army and navy establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review was 414,308, as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil Community Chinese Population-

Kong Kong

Kowloon

Floating Population Mercantile Marine

12,700

192,400

71,950

43,530

2,700

310,580

Army (average strength)

3,920

Navy (average strength)

2,157

6,077

New Territories (exclusive of Kowloon).

85,011

Total

...

414,368

At the census taken in 1906 the average strength of the navy

present in the Colony was 4,698.

99

100

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(B.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

 During the year under review considerable progress has been made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat proof as a preventive of plague; 370 ground surfaces of houses have been repaired, and 1,201 buildings have had rat-runs filled up with cement. In addition 44 basements illegally inhabited have been vacated:

 New buildings (domestic) to the number of 142 were erected during the year and in these the effect of the present ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce surface crowding.

 During the year there were 198 deaths from plague, com- pared with 842 in 1906, and 287 in 1905.

 There were 1,825 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the Chinese; 655 of these deaths were due to phthisis, a per- centage of 9.6 of the total deaths amongst that community.

Beri-beri caused 562 deaths-a high figure.

 The deaths from malaria were 579, as against 448 in 1906 and 287 in 1905, an increase which it is hoped will only be temporary. The average number of deaths from this disease- has fallen from 526 in the quinquennium 1898 to 1902 to 383 in the quinquennium 1903-1907. Military returns of admis- sions to hospital for malaria show a marked reduction in the incidence of this disease, as will be seen from the subjoined table:-

Year.

Admissions for Malaria: European Troops.

Strength. Admissions. Deaths.

Ratio per 1,000.

1898 :

.

1,569

595

10

1899

1,643

829

...

...

1900

...

1,484

629

1901

1,673

1,010

...

1902

...

1,381

1,523

1903

1,220

937.

.....

1904

**1,426

390

1905.

··1,370

3487

1906

1.525

480

1907

...

1,461

287<

OUTTONHOTO

379.3

504.6

4

428.8

603-7

6

1,102-8

2

768.0

273.5

254.0

4

314.75

196.00

(G.)-CLIMATE.

 The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 72-2° F., as compared with 71.8° F. in 1906 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum monthly temperature was attained in July, when it reached 87.1° F., and the

1904-1919

HONG KONG 1907.

21:

minimum monthly temperature was recorded in February, when it was 55.2° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 91.6° F. on the 29th August, and the lowest 45:0° F. on the 31st January.

The total rainfall for the year was 93.54 inches, as compared with an average of 77.96 inches during the past ten years. The wettest month was September, with 19:46 inches, the driest, February, with only 0:16 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 5·530 inches on the 15th September, while no rain fell on 215 days of the year. The relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was 77 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the past 10 years. The average daily amount of sun- shine was 5.2 hours, being 46 per cent. of the possible duration.

X-POSTAL SERVICE.

The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1907 by the Postal Department amounted to $586,375 from which sum $140,954 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $445,420. as revenue of the Postal Service. The total expenditure amounted to $366,452, which being deducted from the revenue of $445,420 leaves a profit of $78,968.

A direct exchange of Money Orders with Kiaochau came into force on 1st July.

A new Parcel Post arrangement with Japan came into operation on 1st October.

The Postal Convention of Rome, which was signed on 26th May, 1906, came into operation on 1st October, 1907; the principal changes introduced being the raising of the unit of weight of letters from oz. to 1 oz. in the case of letters posted in Hong Kong and Liu Kung Tau and from oz. (14-17325 grammes) to 20 grammes at the other Agencies-and the ex- change of International Reply Coupons with the principal countries included in the Postal Union.

The Tientsin Agency availed of the opportunity to send direct mails to Europe overland via Harbin from 17th October.

101

102

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL reports-ANNUAL.

XI.-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.

(A.) REGULAR FORCES.

 The following return shows the average number and com- position of the forces employed in the Colony during 1907:

Corps.

Europeans. Indians.

Chinese.

10

5

| |

Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s & Men.

Native Officers.

W. O.'s, N. C. O.'s, & Men.

N. C. O.'s & Men.

Totals.

General Staff (Officers only)

Garrison Staff (W. O., N. C.

Officers only).

Royal Garrison Artillery

...

Royal Engineers

Army Service Corps

...

Royal Army Medical Corps

A. O. Department and Corps

A. P. Department and Corps

Wa∞ la

LO LO

5

5

27

633

660

12

259

55

326

4

28

32

43

51

30

36

3

8

11

Hong Kong & Singapore Br. R.G.A. 11

7

435

460

3rd Middlesex Regiment

16

425

441

119th Infantry

10

15

748

773

129th (D.C.O.) Baluchis

11

14

734

759

Indian Subordinate- Medical De-

1

4

5

partment.

Total

...

1131,438 37 | 1,921 55

3,564

(B.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

 The Colony contributed $1,214,340.05 (being the statutory contribution of 20 per cent. of the Revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony in- cluding Barrack Service and Defence Works.

(C.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

 The total establishment of the corps is 443 of all ranks. The strength on the 31st December, 1907, was 289, made up as follows:-Staff 7; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 199; one Engineer Company, 45; Troop 38.

 The members of the Corps are now all armed with the new M.L.E. short rifle and the latest pattern equipment.

 The period for the annual Camp of Instruction was again 16 days; it was held in October, 1907, and was well attended.

 The Mounted Troop Camp was held at Fan Ling in the New Territories. The Camp took place during the Christmas holi- days. Much useful work was done.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

23

The Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve Association numbered two hundred and twenty-eight members at the close of the year, a decrease of 23 members as compared with 1906.

Members of this Association, who must be over 35 years of age, are afforded opportunity to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting, and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volunteer Ordinance in the event of hostilities.

A small Cadet Corps was commenced in May, 1906, with boys from the Victoria British School; there are now 18 in the school and 4 others. The Cadets are instructed in squad drill and semaphore signalling. They attended Camp, and many are already very efficient signallers.

The new headquarter building was opened in December, 1906, and is already very popular. A well equipped gymnasium has been installed, and classes are held regularly. The cost of the building has been entirely defrayed and no debt remains.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $45,253, compared with $47,351 in 1906.

XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The year was characterised by continued severe depression in trade.

The Colony appears to have recovered from the over-specula- tion indulged in in anticipation of the conclusion of the war between Russia and Japan, and her trade has resumed a healthier condition, though the volume is still restricted. The large stocks accumulated during the speculative period have taken a long time to work off, and fresh imports have been small, because for various reasons, one of which was caution induced by previous over-speculation, China has imported a smaller quantity of merchandise.

The assessment made in July for the year 1907-8 showed that the rateable value for the whole Colony has decreased by 2.52 per cent. In the Hill District, Shaukiwan, the Hong Kong villages, and in Kowloon except in the important District of Yaumati, the assessment showed an increase rang- ing from 1.07 per cent. to 11.76 per cent. But in the City of Victoria a decrease of 3.42 per cent. and in Yaumati a decrease of 5 65 per cent. were shown. In New Kowloon a remarkable increase from a rateable value of $38,930 to one of $61,835, or an increase of 58 83 per cent., was shown.

In the New Territories continued progress has been observ- able in the making of several roads by the private enterprise of villagers, and by the erection of new houses. The Crown Rent (Land Tax) was paid with an alacrity that was almost inconvenient; and there was a marked decrease in crime in spite of the large numbers of coolies employed on the Railway Works.

The loss and inconvenience caused by the depreciation of the

103

104

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

subsidiary currency by the over-issue of small coins by the Mint in Canton continued.

 The Hong Kong Government adopted the expedient of with- drawing from circulation all its subsidiary coin received as revenue, and succeeded in inducing the authorities at Canton to temporarily suspend the coining of small coins at the Mint at Canton. A Committee was appointed to consider the causes of the depreciation of the subsidiary coinage of the Colony and to advise what steps could be taken to rehabilitate it. As a result of the enquiry the Government addressed strong repre- sentations through the proper channels to the Chinese autho- rities both at Peking and Canton urging the suspension of the coinage of small coins at the Canton Mint until the coins had again reached par. No definite reply had been received to these representations at the close of the year.

 The Committee appointed in 1906 to collect funds and administer relief to the sufferers by the disastrous typhoon of 18th September, 1906, completed their labours early in the year and reported that they had collected $279,903, all but $11,000 of which was contributed by residents in the Colony and by firms doing business with it. Of this sum $198,002 were spent in replacing or repairing 1,601 cargo boats, junks, and other craft lost or damaged, while $46,668 were spent on the relief of destitutes (including 205 women and children) and the recovery and burial of dead. The balance of $33,768 has been placed in the custody of the Government as a fund for relief in similar circumstances. Thirty thousand dollars were also contributed by the Chinese Government to the Tung Wa Hospital and have been set apart by that institution to serve as a similar fund. A further sum of $106,659 was spent during the year out of Revenue in repairs to Govern- ment Works and Buildings caused by the typhoon of 18th September, 1906. In September a very heavy rain-storm caused considerable damage to the Kowloon catchwater and to other Government Works.

 The Commission which had been appointed in the previous year to enquire into the administration of the sanitary laws and the existence of corruption in the Sanitary Department issued their report in April. The Commissioners found that widespread corruption existed among the subordinate Sanitary Staff, and on the evidence furnished by the Commissioners several Sanitary Inspectors were tried by the Executive Council, suspended, and dismissed. Much of the dissatisfaction with the administration of the Public Health Ordinance was re- moved by the amendment of a section dealing with open spaces in the rear of existing houses, and by a free use of the power of exemption from the provisions of the law relating to cubicles in Chinese tenement houses. A Committee was appointed to enquire into this subject and their recommenda- tions with several suggestions made by the Commissioners and others are being embodied in amendments of the Public Health Ordinance. In the result it is anticipated that, thanks

105

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1907.

2.5

to the ungrudging labours of the Commissioners, the Sanitary Department will in future be more honestly served while many improvements will be effected in the Sanitary Law and the method of its application.

In consequence of the high rate of exchange, which reached more than 2s. 3d. to the dollar, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, with the concurrence of unofficial members of the Legislative Council, allowed the sterling salaries of Civil Servants to be paid at the rate of 2s. to the dollar when the rate of exchange is above that figure and at the rate of the day when it is below it.

During the year the claim for compensation on account of the lives lost in the piracy of the S.S. Sianam, referred to in the Report of last year, was settled; and the Provincial autho- rities have now adopted measures which it is hoped will be effective in the suppression of piracy in the Delta and on the West River.

Mr. F. Grove, Chief Resident Engineer, and a considerable staff were at work on the Chinese section of the Hong Kong- Canton Railway during the year. The survey was completed and steps were taken for beginning construction early in the current year.

His Excellency Cheng Yan-tsun succeeded His Excellency Chau Fuk as Governor-General of the Two Kwang Provinces.

Mr. H. H. J. Gompertz acted as Attorney-General until the arrival of Mr. W. Rees Davies in July.

Mr. E. Osborne was appointed a member of the Legislative Council vice Mr. G. Stewart who left the Colony, and Mr. H. Keswick took the place of Mr. W. J. Gresson absent on leave.

H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught accompanied by H. R. H. the Duchess of Connaught and the princess Patricia of Connaught visited the Colony early in the year. His Royal Highness unveiled statues of His Majesty the King-Emperor and of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales which had been presented to the Colony by Sir Paul Chater, C.M.G. and Mr. J. J. Bell- Irving respectively.

Their Royal Highnesses attended an entertainment given in their honour by the Chinese community at the Ko Shing Theatre.

Sir Matthew Nathan, K.C.M.G., Governor, left the Colony on the 20th April to take up the governorship of Natal, and the Colonial Secretary (Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G.) administered the Government until my arrival on the 29th July, 1907.

I have, &c.,

The Right Honourable

F. D. LUGARD,

Governor, &c.

The Earl of Crewe,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State

for the Colonies.

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 617.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1908.

(For Report for 1907, see No. 570.)

107

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. October, 1909.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 34-40, BACON STREET, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C., and

32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.; or

OLIVER & BOYD, TWEEDDALE Court, Edinburgh; or E. PONSONBY, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.

1909.

[Cd. 4448-26.] Price 4d.

108

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

I FINANCES...

***

...

400

...

...

PAGE.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICUlture, 5

AND LAND.

III. LEGISLATION

...

IV. EDUCATION

...

***

...

...

:

:.

***

...

:

...

:

...

13

13

...

...

...

14

16

...

...

V. PUBLIC Works

...

...

VI. GOVERNMEnt InstitutiONS

:.

...

:

...

***

:

:

VII. INSTITUtions not SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT

...

...

16

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE

...

...

:

IX. VITAL STATISTICS

:.

:

...

X. POSTAL SERVICE

...

***

:

:

XI. MILITARY EXPENDITURE

XII. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

SKETCH MAP.

***

...

...

:

...

***

:.

...

:

:

18

...

19

:

:

...

:

:.

:

***

21

...

21

...

:

22

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

109

.3

No. 617.

HONG KONG,

(For Report for 1907, see No. 570.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

MY LORD,

27th August, 1909.

I HAVE the honour to submit, for your Lordship's informa- tion, the following general report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1908.

110

4

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

I. FINANCES.

The revenue for the year, exclusive of land sales, amounted tơ $6,034,849, or $407,608 less than the previous year. Land sales amounted to $69,358, or $86,624 less than in 1907. The total revenue from all sources was therefore $6,104,207, or $498,073 less than in the previous year, and $123,683 less than the estimate. Light dues, fees of court, post office receipts, and miscellaneous receipts brought in together $150,378 more than was estimated. The receipts under the remaining heads of revenue were alto- gather $274,061 less than were anticipated when the Estimates were drawn up, of which the deficit on land sales accounted for $230,642.

 The expenditure for the year was $5,586,138, exclusive of public works extraordinary; inclusive of that item, but exclusive of expenditure on Railway Construction (Loan Account) it was $6,573,341, or $816,138 more than the total expenditure for 1907.

The principal cause of this increase of expenditure in spite of a falling revenue, was the loss due to the fall in exchange value of the dollar. The Estimates of 1907 had been calculated on a basis of 2s. for sterling salaries, and 2s. 1d. for other items, while the Estimates for 1908 were calculated at 1s. 9d. only. The expenditure of the year exceeded the estimate by $394,810, due, inter alia, to a still further fall in exchange, to heavy damages caused by typhoons, and to the purchase of a dredger for the con- struction of a refuge for small craft.

The decrease of $123,683 in the revenue, and the excess of $394,810 in expenditure, make a total shortage of $518,493, to meet which there was an expected surplus of $49,359 only, leaving a deficit on the year's working, to be charged to reserves, of $469,134.

The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1904-8:

Revenue Expenditure

...

...

Surplus

...

Deficit

...

***

1904.

1905.

1906.

1907.

1908.

$

$

6,809,047 6,918,403 6,376,235 6,951,275

|

7,035,011 6,602,280 6,104,207 6,832,610 5,757,203 6,573,341 | |

432,812

202,401

32,871

845;076

469,134

At the end of the year 1908, the assets of the Colony amounted to $506,437. The total liabilities were $789,532, so that the balance of liabilities over assets amounted to $283,095. Deduct- ing this sum from the reimbursement due by Railway Construc- tion Account the balance of Assets (General Account) was $1,073,041, a decrease of $460,676 as compared with the previous year, due to the deficit in the year's working.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

111

5

A loan, consisting of inscribed stock at 3 per cent. interest, £341,799 was incurred in 1893 for Praya Reclamation; Central Market; Water, Drainage, and Sewerage Works, &c., to be paid off on 15th April, 1943.

A second loan, consisting of inscribed stock, £1,143,933 at 3 per cent., was raised to cover a loan to the Viceroy of Wuchang of £1,100,000. The Viceroy in accordance with the terms of the loan had, up to the end of 1908, repaid £330,000 which was placed to the credit of a special account for construction of the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

The amount paid into the Joint Sinking Fund with accrued interest reached £74,674 14s. 8d. on the 31st of December, 1908.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

The total of the shipping entering and clearing in the Colony during the year 1908 amounted to 532,112 ships of 34,615,241 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1907, show an increase of 24,478 ships and a decrease of 1,413,069 tons.

Of this total 45,437 ships of 22,306,037 tons were engaged in foreign trade, and were distributed as follows:-

1907. Tonnage. Per cent.

1908.

Numbers.

Per cent.

Tonnage. Per cent.

British ocean vessels repre-

sented.

8.3

33.7

31.4

Foreign ocean vessels rep-

9.2

33.2

33.5

resented.

British river steamers rep-

13.8

19-2

20.1

resented.

Foreign river steamers

2.9

3.3

3.2

represented.

Steamships not exceeding

60 tons.

8.9

0.8

0.3

Trading junks

56.9

9.8

11.5

....

...

100.0

100.0

100.0

40,951 vessels of 1,848,522 tons were engaged in local trade and were distributed thus:-

Steamships not exceeding

60 tons.

Junks

...

...

1908.

Numbers. Per cent.

Tonnage. Per cent.

1907. Tonnage. Per cent.

91.58

84.98

86.31

8.42

15.02

13.69

100.00

100.00.

100.00

Class of Vessel.

112

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

.COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 Seven thousand seven hundred and fifty (7,750) steamers, eleven (11) sailing ships, and two thousand and thirty (2,030) steamships not exceeding 60 tons, in foreign trade, entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 26'8, as compared with 24-8 in 1907.

 The average tonnage of ocean vessels visiting the port has again increased, from 2,325-3 tons to 2,4486 tons. That of British vessels has increased from 2,552:2 tons to 2,593 06 tons, while that of foreigners has increased from 2,136:8 tons to 2,3099 tons.

In this connection it is interesting to note that during the past 20 years the average tonnage of ocean vessels visiting the Colony has risen from 1,1869 tons to 2,448.6 tons.

 The average tonnage of river steamers entered during 1908 was 6655 tons, as against 661 tons in 1907. British river steamers have increased in average tonnage from 678 tons to 686:5 tons, while foreigners have again decreased from 567 tons to 565.2 tons.

A comparison between the years 1907 and 1908 is given in the following table:

1907.

1908.

Increase.

Decrease.

No.

Tonnage.

No.

Tonnage..

British ocean-going

3,758 7,216,169 3,869 7,505,270

113 289,101

-

I

Foreign ocean-going

4,621

7,720,875 4,132 7.397,838

British river steamers

6,828

4,630,361 6,246 4,287,482

1 1

|

489 323,039

582

342,882

Foreign river steam-

1,310

ers.

Steamships under 60

1,581

  tons (foreign trade). Junks in foreign trade 29,564

Total

..

47,660

743,992 1,297

70,021 4,060

2,651,470 25,833

23,032,891 15,437

Colony..

Steam launches ply-419,202

ing in waters of the

Junks in local trade.... |*40,772 | *1,778 887 |†10.951

11,216,532 445,724

733,065

181.142 2,479 111,121

2,201,242

22,306,037

10,460,682 || 26,522

13

10,927

-

3,731

450,228

2,592 | 400,222 | 4,815 | 1,127,076

755,850

†1,848,522 179 69,635

Grand total.. 507,634

36,028,310 532,112

34,615,241 29,293 469,857 4.815 1.8$2,926

Nett

..

24,478

<<

1,413,069

* Including 18,990 conservancy and dust boats of 820,958 tons. † Including 16,808 conservancy and dust boats of 862,256 tons.

There is an increase in British ocean shipping, entered and cleared during the year, of 113 ships of 289,101 tons (59=26,698 increase in 1907). This increase appears to indicate a very con- siderable revival of trade during the last quarter of the year after the general depression, for in each of the first three quarters decreases were shown as compared with the corresponding periods of 1907.

British river steamers are shown to have decreased by 582 entries and clearances with a collective tonnage of 342,882 tons. This decrease is due to the loss of two large, regularly-running steamers, the "Powan" and Ying King," and the withdrawal of a third, the "Hoi Sang," from the run during the year.

No.

Tonnage.

No.

Tonnage.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

113

7

 Foreign ocean vessels, which increased by 334 ships of 627,380 tons in 1907, due to the resumption of the Japanese carrying trade, have decreased by 489 ships of 323,039 tons. This decrease is general, but is most noticeable under the Norwegian, Japanese, and German flags, and may undoubtedly be attributed to the general trade depression throughout the world.

 Foreign river steamers show a falling off of 13 ships of 10,927 tons, which is due to the laying up of several of these vessels after the typhoon of July 27, in which they were damaged. Had it not been for this, the number and tonnage would have been considerably in excess of those for 1907. The increase in 1907 was 238 ships of 76,075 tons.

 The typhoon, combined with the effects of the trade depression, which certainly has reacted upon junk traffic as it has upon ship- ping, may also be held responsible for the decrease in junks in foreign trade.

 The increase shown in steamships under 60 tons is due to the inclusion of unlicensed privately-owned steam-launches, which have not previously figured in the returns.

 The actual number of individual ocean vessels of European construction entering during 1908 was 745, being 365 British and 380 foreign. The figures in 1907 were, respectively, 800, 362, and 438.

 These 745 ships aggregated 1,824,237 tons. They entered 3,991 times and gave a collective tonnage of 7,452,498 tons. Thus, compared with 1907, 55 fewer ships, of 36,008 less tons, entered 191 fewer times, and gave a collective tonnage decreased by 15,013 tons.

Thus-

Steamers.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1907. 1908. 1907. 1908.

1907.

1908.

British Sailing

Austrian

Belgian Chinese Corean

...

...

...

...

Steamers

355

...

358

1,867 1,923

3,586,510

3,730,927

7

7

9

10

...

19,431

21,697

9

9

30

25

...

...

106,523

97,789

1

1

1

1

2,903

2,903

20

16

214

229

267,789

...

291,416

2

...

14

...

...

21,298

Danish

9

6

21

15

...

...

...

41,122

34,211

Dutch French

...

...

18

15

69

97

142,100

201,014

33

39

202

169

294,461

289,222

...

...

...

German

137

129

790

...

...

745

1,246,053 1,188,100

Italian

3

4

12

12

...

...

31,704 31,400

Japanese

111

93

534

...

...

***

434

1,126,517 | 1,049,540

Norwegian...

59

39

290 181

...

...

265,728

192,278

Portuguese

2

5

59

87

...

19,128

23,487

Russian

10

7 13

13

...

***

...

30,912

34,326

Swedish

3

...

3

11

11

***

12,970

18,099

United Steamers

States Sailing {Sailing

20

13

45

...

38

251,590

245,280

1

1

1

1

72

$09

...

Total

...

...

800

745 4,182 3,991 7,467,511 | 7,452,498

114

8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

It may not be out of place to draw a comparison here between these figures and those of 20 years ago. In 1888, 2,614 British ships, of 3,265,751 tons, entered the port, against 10,115 ships, of 11,792,752 tons, in 1908. For foreign ships the figures are in 1888, 1,206 ships, of 1,252,862 tons, and in 1908, 5,429 ships, of 8,130,901 tons. These figures are those for ocean and river steamers, which were not distinguished in 1888, and ocean-going sailing ships (not junks).

Since Hong Kong is a free port no accurate returns based on Customs entries can be given of the exports, imports, and goods in transit.

There are, however, certain items of cargo dealt with in the Colony, of which, either from their nature and the circumstances under which they are imported, or from the fact that they are required by law to be specially reported, substantially accurate returns can be given. These items are coal, kerosene oil (which includes all products of petroleum), opium, morphine, compounds of opium, and sugar.

1,018,753 tons of coal were imported during the year. This shows a negligible increase of 13,886 tons (13 per cent.) over the imports during 1907.

Of bulk oil 61,818 tons arrived, an increase of 17,938 tons, or 40.8 per cent. This appears to have no special significance, but to be entirely due to the cheap freights ruling and to the instal- Iation by the Standard Oil Company of oil tanks at Lai-chi-kok, which required filling.

40,018 tons of case oil arrived, being an increase of 3,289, or 8.9 per cent. over the 1907 figures. Here again the cheap freights

were taken advantage of to fill up stocks.

Liquid fuel, which has increased from 3,272 tons in 1907 to 13,832 tons in 1908, was probably affected by the same causes as were bulk and case oil, in addition to which there has been an increased demand for this product owing to more steamers using

· liquid fuel having visited the Colony during the year.

Although, as has been said, no reliable figures can be given for general cargo, it would appear from returns received that there has been a considerable decline in the imports of rice and flour. The falling off in rice is due to the exceptional crop in northern and central China, as a result of which, prices at Shanghai and the Yangtze ports were lower than in Siam and Annam, and the imports from those countries declined in conse quence. It is also stated that the rice merchants of Bangkok instituted a boycott against the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamers (late Scottish Oriental) which monopolise the carrying trade between that port and Hong Kong. The rice trade from the south having now reverted to its usual conditions, I see no reason to doubt that this year will see it restored to its former channels.

Flour shows a large decrease, from 147,000 to 91,000 tons, which appears to be due to the fact that the Colony is ceasing to be the distributing centre for this commodity. Shipments are now made -direct from ports on the Pacific Coast of North America to

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

115

9

Shanghai, Amoy, Singapore, &c., instead of transhipping here, as heretofore.

 There is however a possibility that the Hong Kong Milling Company being in liquidation some small recrudescence in this branch of trade may occur.

!

 The total reported imports during the year amounted to 4,170,000 tons, as against 4,366,000 tons in 1907, a decrease of 44 per cent. Exports also show a decrease from 2,354,000 tons to 2,103,000 tons, or 107 per cent. Transit cargo declined from 3,396,000 to 3,373,000 tons, or 0.7 per cent.

 Seventy-one thousand and eighty-one (71,081) emigrants left: Hong Kong for various places during the year. Of these 53,118. were carried in British ships and 17,963 in foreign ships. These figures show a decrease of 34,886 emigrants, or 32.9 per cent., coni- pared with those for 1907.

 It is difficult to account for this large decrease, but there were probably several contributing factors, such as the general depres- sion in trade and consequent decreased demand for labour, and the quarantine restrictions placed upon vessels from the Colony to other ports, which probably had a great effect. But the chief causes undoubtedly were:

1. The cessation of assisted emigrants to Banka and Billiton. ·

This emigration commenced in 1907, and served to largely swell the figures for that year. The demand for labour in those islands was not very large, and all the plantations there were fully manned before, the beginning of 1908.

2. The West River floods checked recruiting during the first

six months of the year.

3. There was a considerable demand for labour on the several railways under construction in China, which restricted the recruiting area.

  One hundred and fifty-seven thousand eight hundred and nine (157,809) returning emigrants were brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports. This includes 106 returning from South Africa. Of the total number 116,094 arrived in British ships and 41,715 in foreign ships.

INDUSTRIES.

 Sugar Refining Industry.-The year 1908 was more favourable for the sugar refining industry of the Colony than 1907 owing to the curtailment of supplies of Java white sugars and of Japanese refined in the China market. As a consequence of this, prices advanced during the year, and the local refineries were able to market their sugars under improved conditions. European beets were conspicuous by their absence doubtless owing to the low silver rate of exchange for sterling remittances.

 Yarn Trade. The extreme depression during the two preceding years adversely affected the market during the beginning of 1908,

116

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

and prices continued to rule below the parity of those at the pro- ducing centres. Later in the year the demand improved and prices rose steadily. Large sales were effected, leaving a fair margin of profit to importers, while the Chinese dealers did

                                     very well indeed on their purchases. Stocks became abnormally re- duced, and the year closed with an improving tendency. In May last the local cotton mill found it advisable to resume full working, but the difficulty in procuring adequate labour prevented the com- pany from taking full advantage of the improvement in demand. The bulk of the production was sold direct to Shanghai and the northern ports.

 Rope-Manufacturing Industry. The remarks made last year on the rope-manufacturing industry apply in some measures to the year 1908. Conditions have not altered much in either direction, prices have been reduced to customers, and there is a larger demand with increased output.

Cement Industry. The conditions under which this industry has been carried on have been much the same as in 1907, and there has been a good demand throughout the year.

 Hong Kong Milling Company, Limited.-The flour mills at Junk Bay were not running for the greater part of 1908.

 Oriental Brewery, Limited.-A recently-established industry is that of the Oriental Brewery, Limited, at Lai-chi-kok. This brewery will shortly place its product on the market, and its capacity is about 100,000 barrels per annum.

 Engineering and Shipbuilding. This section of the Colony's industry was carried on under adverse circumstances. The great trade depression from which the local shipping suffered severely made its influence felt in this industry, and the amount of new construction turned out by the local companies was not very encouraging.

 In regard to war vessels, the active operation of the floating docks at Tsingtau and at Olongapo in the Philippine Islands, in- stalled by the German and United States Governments respec- tively, was responsible for the continuance of a very large falling off in the docking and repairing of foreign war vessels, the tonnages dealt with by the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock for 1906, 1907, and 1908 being 64,318, 3,692, and 3,652 respectively, with apparently no prospect of future improvement. The tonnage of British war vessels docked was on a level with those prevailing during the year immediately preceding.

Work in the nature of large repairs to steamers was scarce dur- ing the earlier half of the year. The typhoon in July, however, contributed to a large extent towards the improvement experienced in this direction during the latter half.

 During the year a large dock, built by Messrs. Butterfield and Swire at Quarry Bay, was opened. It is 787 feet long, 88 feet wide at the top of the entrance, and 81 feet 8 inches at the sill. There are 35 feet over the sill at ordinary high water. In addition to the dock there are three slipways, one of them about 950 feet long and 80 feet broad, capable of lifting vessels up to 3,000 tons weight.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

117

11

The other two are about 900 feet long by 60 feet broad, and are capable of accommodating vessels up to 2,000 tons. There are also machine shops, boiler shops, a forge and smithy, a foundry, galvanising shop, saw-mill, and a wood-working department. The building yard is laid out for four big berths capable of taking on vessels up to 600 feet in length, and the machinery is adapted to dealing with this sort of work. The power is supplied by gas engines, and is transmitted throughout the yard electrically.

FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large num- ber of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territories are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River.

                                      There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURE.

Forestry work has consisted (1) in the formation of 400 acres of pine plantations in continuation of the harbour belt now extend- ing some seven miles from Lai-chi-kok towards Lyeemum, (2) the continuation of afforesting the catchment areas of Tytam, Pok- fulam, and Kowloon reservoirs, (3) the replanting of felled areas at Aberdeen and Mount Kellett, (4) the extension of the avenues of shade trees in Kowloon, (5) the care of existing plantations.

The year was marked by exceptionally good crops of fruits, vegetables, and rice in the New Territories; especially may be men- tioned the abundance and excellence of the output of pineapples, plums, pears, and peanuts.

 The chief economic works other than the above have been the successful establishment of the rare and valuable nanmu or coffin- wood tree in our nurseries from seeds obtained from Szechuen, and the collection of information and materials relating to the trade of the Colony in vegetable products.

 With a view to placing the botanical resources of the Botanical and Forestry Department as far as possible at the service of the mercantile community of Hong Kong, the Superintendent has been instructed to collect all possible information upon the vege table products of the neighbourhood, or for which Hong Kong is an emporium. This information is to refer chiefly to the raw or partly-manufactured products exported from China, and include the locality of their production, quantity available, country to which exported, price at port of export, and in the markets to which they eventually go. Considerable progress has been made during the year with this scheme, and information with regard to a few of our more important vegetable products, such as China- root and Galangal, was collected.

A considerable amount of scientific work upon the flora of the Colony and neighbouring parts of China has been done in England and other countries with materials supplied by the Forestry Department.

118

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

The net amount received from sales of Crown land and pier rights, after deducting expenses of the sales, was $69,358, a decrease of $92,101 on the previous year, and $218,481 less than the average amount received for each of the past five years. Of this amount $14,665 was received in respect of sales of pier rights and the right of extending existing piers; $7,078 was received in respect of sales of Crown land in the New Territories, and the balance from sales of new lots of Crown land and grants of exten- sion to existing lots in the Island of Hong Kong and Old Kowloon.

The chief items were for an extension to a soy factory at West Point (inland lot No. 1,300), and for a renewal of the lease of the Dairy Farm Company's premises in Wyndham Street for a period of 75 years, the existing lease of which is about to expire.

  The considerable decrease in revenue from sales of Crown land may be partly attributed to the fact that in the City of Victoria there is little available building land left, and partly to the fact that at the present time there is no great demand for new houses in the city and in Old Kowloon, a considerable number of Chinese shops and dwelling-houses being now unlet. The general depres- sion in the land market, which commenced a few years ago, still continues, and capitalists who invested in land and buildings at the high prices ruling some ten years ago have suffered very con- siderable losses; in many cases properties have been sold by mort- gagees at far less than the amount of their securities, while many other mortgagees are holding on awaiting a more favourable opportunity for realising their securities. There is, however, a very fair demand in the city for property at reduced prices. There appears to be no lack of money in the Colony, and a considerable number of transactions in land have taken place during the past year.

There have been a large number of sales of small lots of Crown land for native dwellings and industries in the New Territories, and the demand for these is likely to further increase, as the native population now realise the reasonable terms upon which Crown land can be obtained and the security of tenure afforded by holding under a long lease direct from the Crown.

Three areas of over 40 acres of land at Tai O in the Island of Lan Tao for use as salt pans were put up for auction on an 18 years' lease at the upset rental of $15 per acre per annum, and after considerable competition one lot of over 21 acres realised as much as $170 per acre per annum, which shows that salt pans in a good locality are apparently very remunerative undertakings. During the year a second area of one square mile in the New Terri- tories was leased to Sír Paul Chater for 75 years for mining purposes.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

III.-LEGISLATION.

119

13

 Twenty-two Ordinances were passed during 1908, of which nine were amendment Ordinances. A Fire Insurance Companies Ordinance (No. 3) was passed to authorise the removal of fire insurance companies from the Register of Companies in certain cases. Ordinances were also passed to enable foreign corporations to acquire and hold land in the Colony (No. 7); to provide for the grant of brewery licences (No. 8); to empower a magistrate to hold a Small Debts Court in the New Territories (No. 22); to provide for the registration of chemists and druggists and to regulate the sale of poisons (No. 12); to regulate theatres and other places of public resort (more especially in regard to precautions against fire) (No. 18); and to transfer the Widows' and Orphans' Pension Fund and its management to the Government of Hong Kong (No. 15).

IV. EDUCATION.

 There are 73 Government and Grant Schools, the most impor- tant of which is Queen's College. Of these 23 are upper grade schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all subjects of the seventh standard and above. These latter schools have an average attendance of 3,992, and the medium of instruction in all of them, with the exception of one girls' school, is English. The 50 remaining schools are all lower grade. They comprise one school for British Indians where English and Urdu are taught; five Government and one Grant Anglo-Chinese schools; and 43 Grant Vernacular schools. The average attendance at all these lower grade schools is 2,186. The total average daily attendance at both grades of school is 6,178.

 The revenue derived from school fees is $54,792 (of which $31,073 is from Queen's College), and is rapidly increasing. This is mainly to be accounted for by the increasing numbers of Chinese desirous of an English education.

 Higher education is represented by the Technical Institute, where instruction is given in the evening in mathematics, machine drawing, building construction, field surveying, and allied sub- jects; in chemistry and physics; in the English and French languages, book-keeping, and shorthand. There is also a teachers' class, at which the junior Chinese masters of Government schools are expected to attend. The Institute is furnished with a well- equipped laboratory. The lecturers are chiefly Civil Servants recruited from the European staffs of Queen's College and the Public Works Department. These officers receive fees for their services.

 Hong Kong is fortunate in including among its schools two limited to children of British parentage. Both these schools (one for boys, the other for girls) are under the Government. In 1908 the combined average attendance at them was 87. As might be expected, they have a strong patriotic bias; they are supporters of the Empire League, and the boys' school provides a small but 'efficient cadet corps.

120

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL,

V. PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year, exclu- sive of the railway, were the Kowloon Waterworks and the Typhoon Refuge for small craft opposite Mongkoktsui. The former was completed with the exception of the contract for the main dam, &c., and a few trifling details, but, as mentioned in last year's report, the works are in such a forward state that the reser- voir is fully capable of supplying the whole peninsula with water.

Work on the Typhoon Refuge was begun by dredging a trench to form the base for the breakwater, the hopped dredger "St. Enoch " being purchased locally for this purpose. Tytam Tuk Waterworks referred to in previous years' reports were fully completed.

The

 The new Law Courts and new Government Offices were still under construction, whilst the following works were completed :- Land Office at Tai Po; market at Sai Wan Ho; extension of staff quarters at Government Civil Hospital for Nursing Institute; extension of Wanchai and Saiyingpun district schools; extension of Mount Gough police-station; animal depôts and slaughter- houses at Ma Tau Kok; four houses at Tai Po for the native clerical staff, and the service reservoir at West Point (750 feet level) for supplying the high levels of the city. The lease of One Tree Island to Messrs. Jardine, Matheson, and Company for the storage of dynamite having expired, it was decided to require this explosive to be stored in the Government Depôt on Green Island, and arrangements were made accordingly, a small building for the storage of detonators being erected. The works of reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000 being spent on the former and $18,150 on the latter.

 The prolongation of Robinson Road, Kowloon, mentioned in last year's report, was completed, and a further section from Waterloo Road to near Soy Street was undertaken. The extension of the road past Kowloon City to its junction with the Chin Lan Chu Road was completed, and new roads from Kowloon City to Shatin Pass, and from Castle Peak Bay to Ping Shan were begun. Great improvements in the alignment and grading of several portions of the Shaukiwan Road adjoining the Taikoo Sugar Refinery and Shipyard were in progress, and a substantial improvement was made in the portion of Kennedy Road immediately west of the public laundries.

 Works in progress included a new market at Kowloon Point, the deepening of Causeway Bay to enable small craft to gain access to all parts of the Typhoon Shelter at low water, a roof over Blake Pier, an extension of Government Offices for the accommodation of the Public Works Department, the raising of Des Voeux Road, Kowloon, on account of the railway reclamation, and several other works of smaller magnitude.

 The extension and reconstruction of the Albany filter beds was continued, and good progress was made.

 The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,000,935, and on Works Annually Recurrent $512,336.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

15

The typhoon of July 27th caused great damage, and this to- gether with repairs still being executed on account of the typhoon of September, 1906, formed a very heavy charge on the recurrent

votes.

During the year 1908 considerable progress was made in the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

About 40 per cent. of the reclamation for a site for Kowloon Station Yard was completed, and a very large amount of earthwork was done north of the Kowloon Hills.

About 3,500 feet of heading was driven in Beacon Hill Tunnel making a total of 5,600 feet out of 7,212 feet, and a total of 2,700 feet of tunnel was lined complete and an extra 700 feet excavated to full section ready for lining. The other four tunnels made good progress, the three short ones being almost completed. The larger one at Taipo had 572 feet of heading driven leaving 350 feet to complete.

Nearly all the bridges were completed with the exception of the iron-work which, however, is all in the Colony. Only three bridges remain on which no work has been done.

Indents have been sent home for rails, sleepers, and rolling stock.

Malaria, beri-beri, dysentery, and other diseases were much less prevalent among the railway employés, due to better organi- zation.

The expenditure during the year was $3,372,832, making a total of $6,251,639 up to the end of 1908.

The large amount of rock-blasting with high explosives, especially in the long tunnel, where moreover drilling is carried on with very powerful compressed air rock-drills, coupled with the proverbial carelessness of the Chinese coolie, would lead to the expectation that a large number of accidents would occur among the 3,000 odd coolies employed on the works. It is, there- fore, very satisfactory to record the fact that from the inception of the railway in 1906 to the end of the year 1908 there were only 19 fatal accidents (1 in 1906, 9 in 1907, and 9 in 1908) and 13 other serious ones (8 in 1907 and 5 in 1908).

The Chinese section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway made considerable progress during 1908 under the able direction of Mr. Grove, C.R.E., who has stated that there is every prospect of opening a length from Canton of 30 miles by April, 1910, and anticipates that he will be able to run through trains for traffic with the British section on or before July 1st, 1911. Negotiations carried on at Peking for a Construction Loan for the northern portion of the Canton-Hankow line had not resulted in any loan agreement by the end of the year. The southern section from Canton northwards made some progress under a Chinese chief engineer, and with Chinese capital. By the end of the year about 40 miles were open to traffic.

121

122

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

 Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, the Kennedy Town Infec- tious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia" used mainly for the treatment of small-pox cases.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 29 wards. 2,527 in- patients and 18,207 out-patients were treated during the year 1908. 279 cases of malarial fever were admitted, as against 243 in 1907 and 239 in 1906. The Maternity Hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 60 confinements

occurred during the year. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds. During 1908 234 patients were under treat- ment. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26 beds. In 1908 59 cases were treated, of which 3 were plague. On the "Hygeia " 150 cases were treated, of which 86 were small-pox.

The Lunatic Asylum is under the direction of the Superin- tendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 212 patients of all races were treated during 1908, and there were 11 deaths.

The Tung Wah Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organi- sation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation, and is under the supervision of a Visiting Physician who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese Surgeon trained in European medicine is a member of the Hospital Staff.

The

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Hong Kong College of Medicine, and the City Hall.

 The Pó Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar General and an annually-elected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women

--

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

123

17

and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruc- tion in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needlework. During 1908 a total of 403 persons were ad- mitted. Of these, 86 were released after enquiry, 22 were released under bond, 150 were placed in charge of their husbands, parents, or relations, 14 were placed in charge of the French Consul, 20 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 22 were sent to school, convent, or refuge, 6 were adopted, and 28 were married. One died during the year, one absconded, and fifty-three remained in charge of the Society at the end of the

year...

An institution named the Eyre Refuge under Mission auspices, for the same general purposes, was re-organised during the year under a strong committee, and Government contributes a small grant. It is hoped that this institution will work in con- junction with the Po Leung Kuk.

The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. The Lecturers, who are Government officials or private medical practitioners, each receive a small honorarium, the funds being derived from the fees of the students and a Government grant-in-aid of $2,500. The mini- mum curriculum of study is five years, and a preliminary exam- ination in general accord with the regulations of the General Medical Council of Great Britain is required. 111 students have been enrolled up to date (May, 1909); and of these 37 have become qualified "licentiates." Most of the licentiates have settled in the Colony, and are exerting a most useful influence in the direction of displacing the native medical methods and popularising Western medical and sanitary knowledge, while a considerable number of them are employed as resident surgeons in the hospitals for Chinese, as medical officers in charge of the Public Dispensaries, and as assistant medical officers on the rail- way works. The work of the College has thus far been carried on in lecture-rooms and laboratories made available in various hospitals, &c., in different parts of the City. Steps were being taken to provide adequate buildings of its own; but action was suspended when the University Scheme was proposed. (See page 22.) If a University is established, the College will be merged into its Faculty of Medicine.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Govern- ment. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, &c., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large Reference and Lending Library, to which new volumes are added from time to time as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280), the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seaman's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

.

124

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the police was 9,562, being a decrease of 1,978 or 17-14 per cent., as compared with 1907. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year of 64 cases or 1.93 per cent.

The number of serious offences reported was 37 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1904. The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease of 1,914, as compared with 1907, and was 1,515 below the aver- age of the quinquennial period.

  The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 4,778, as compared with 5,877 in 1907, but of these only 1,975 were committed for criminal offences, against 2,460 in 1907. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 394 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 139 less for infringe- ment of Sanitary By-laws.

  The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 465, the average for 1907 being 502 and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 14, as compared with '14, the average percentage for the last ten years.

  Owing, however, to the large floating population which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton the percent- age of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. A large number of the riff-raffs and thieves of South China found their way to Hong Kong, and during the year 895 aliens were banished as undesirables-for the most part after conviction for crime.

  The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish- ments per prisoner being 127, as compared with 1.50 in 1907 and 1-21 in 1906.

  The prison is managed on the English prison system as regards first offenders (star class prisoners) who are when at labour and when located for the night kept apart from old offenders.

  Long-sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting, and white-wash- ing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c. The profit on the work done was $45,420, as against $37,434 in 1907.

  There was $5,012 received and credited to Government for non- Government work, against $5,790 in 1907.

  In consequence of the low number of prisoners in custody at the beginning of the year it was found possible to close the. branch prison.

  The prison was considerably damaged in the typhoon of the 27th July. The work of repairing was immediately taken in hand by the Public Works Department and completed by the end of October.

1904-1919

TONG KONG, 1908.

125

19

 The total strength of the Police Force for 1908 was Europeans 135, Indians 410, Chinese 501, making a total of 1,046, as com- pared with 1,048 in 1907, exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway, private firms, and other Government Departments. Of this force the District Officer, 15 Europeans, 112 Indians, and 47 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year.

 The force of District Watchmen, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the city. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

 The population of the Colony according to the census taken in 1901 was 283,975 while at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories, New Kowloon, and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the middle of the year under review was 421,499, as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil community Chinese population-

Hong Kong

Kowloon

Floating population Mercantile Marine

13,200

...

194,460

...

***

74,350

44,940

2,700

316,450

Army (average strength)

*0%

Navy (average strength)

4,483

2,355

6,838

New Territories (exclusive of Kowloon)

85,011

Total

...

421,499

 During the year under review considerable progress has been made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat proof as a preventive of plague, 103 ground surfaces of houses have been repaired, and 811 buildings have had rat-runs filled up with cement. In addition 49 basements illegally inhabited have been vacated.

..1

 New buildings (domestic) to the number of 148 were erected during the year and in these the effect of the present Ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce crowding.

15:

 During the year there were 986 deaths from plague, compared with 198 in 1907 and 842 in 1906.

126

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 There were 2,498 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the Chinese, 748 of which were due to phthisis,, a percentage of 83 of the total deaths amongst that community.

 Beri-beri caused 736 deaths-as against 562 in 1907-a very high figure:

The deaths from malaria were 499 as against 579 in 1907, and 448 in 1906. The average number of deaths from this disease has fallen from 480 in the quinquennium 1899 to 1903 to 422 in the quinquennium 1904-1908. Military returns of admissions to hospital for malaria show an increase in the incidence of this disease, as compared with the year 1907. There were 515 admissions in 1908, being a ratio per thousand of the garrison of 256, against 287 in 1907 (196 per thousand).

Changes were made during the year in the administration of the Sanitary Department by an Amending Public Health and Buildings Ordinance (No. 14 of 1908) whereby the Principal Civil Medical Officer ceased to be the Administrative Head of the Department and President of the Board, these duties being transferred to a cadet officer whose whole time is given to the work. At the same time the duty of dealing with all private drainage works and with structural defects of a sanitary nature, such as deficient window area, defective ground surfaces, obstructed open spaces, &c., was transferred to certain engineers of the Public Works Department who, as the Building Authority, are now entirely responsible for dealing with all structural defects on private premises.

This amending Ordinance also reduced somewhat the strin- gency of the law in regard to the erection of cubicles in Chinese tenement houses and reduced the required floor space per head from 50 square feet to 30 square feet in all such premises as do not contain cubicles. The Ordinance also made further pro- vision for dealing with blocks of insanitary property (s. 154a) and introduced the principle of an improvement rate for such

cases.

The transfer of duties to the Building Authority has greatly lessened the work of the Sanitary Department, and as a conse- quence it has been possible to reduce the Sanitary Staff one Surveyor and one Overseer of Drainage have been transferred to the Public Works Department and the number of Sanitary Inspectors has been materially reduced, while further reductions are contemplated as vacancies arise.

As a result of the final report of the Indian Plague Com- mission, issued in 1908, it has been possible to effect a very con- siderable economy in the matter of the disinfection of plague houses, a cheap pulicide only being now in use whereas formerly both pulicide and disinfectants were employed.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 71:8° F., as compared with 72-2° F. in 1907 and 720 F. during the ten preceding years. The mean maximum monthly tem perature was attained in August, when it reached 87-3° F., and the mean minimum monthly temperature was recorded in February, when it was 54.9° F. The highest recorded tempera-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

127

21

ture during the year was 92-6° F. on the 16th July, and the lowest 43-7° F. on the 19th February.

The total rainfall for the year was 91-87 inches, as compared with an average of 77-31 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was July, with 22:26 inches, the driest, November, with 0.15 inch. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 70 inches on the 23rd July, while no rain fell on 213 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 79 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the ten preceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5.2 hours, being 47 per cent. of the possible duration.

 These figures are those recorded at the Observatory, Kowloon, and there is a very considerable divergence between that place and Hong Kong (low levels), the Peak District, or Tai Po (New Territories), both in rainfall, temperature, and humidity.

X. POSTAL SERVICE.

 The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1908 by the Postal Department amounted to $601,967, from which sum $189,535 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in postage stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $412,431 as the approximate revenue from the Postal Service. The total expenditure amounted to $371,486 which, being deducted from the revenue of $412,431, leaves a profit of $40,945.

 The Siberian route for transmission of mails to Europe has become increasingly popular with residents in Hong Kong as well as in China. The Shanghai Agency commenced to forward mails to Europe viâ Dalny and Harbin on September 3rd. The approximate time occupied in transmission of letters by this route from London to Shanghai was 16 to 18 days, to Tientsin 16 days, Weihaiwei 18 days, and Hong Kong 20 to 23 days.

XI.-MILITARY EXPENDITURE.

 The Colony contributed $1,250,168 (being the statutory con- tribution of 20 per cent. of the revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony, including bar- rack services and defence works.

 The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $45,554, compared with $45,253 in 1907.

128

-22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

XII-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The assessment made in July, 1907, for the year 1907-8 was adopted for the year 1908-9, the difference in rateable value being the result of interim-assessments and appeals. The rate- able value of the whole Colony increased by 0.93 per cent. In the City of Victoria, the Hill District, Shaukiwan, the Hong Kong villages, Mongkoktsui, and the Kowloon villages there was an increase ranging from 0.84 per cent. to 2.92 per cent. In Kowloon Point and Yaumati there was a decrease of 1·21 per cent. and 145 per cent. respectively. New Kowloon showed an in- crease of 0.77 per cent. Notices of appeal were given against the assessments of 249 tenements with an aggregate rateable value of $452,180. The Court ordered reductions amounting to $36,195.

Throughout the year negotiations were in progress between this Government and the Chinese authorities, both at Canton and at Peking, on the subject of the loss and inconvenience caused by the depreciation of the Colony's subsidiary currency owing to the over-issue of small coins by the Mint in Canton, which circulate freely in the Colony at a heavy discount and cause the legal (sub- sidiary) currency to fall to a nearly corresponding discount. This Government adopted the expedient of withdrawing from circulation $780,000 of subsidiary silver coin and $30,000 of bronze coin. These coins were shipped to London where they were melted down and sold as bullion for £60,501 1s. 4d. and £1,190 1s. respectively. Up to the close of the year the nego- tiations with the Chinese Government had not produced any satis- factory result. The average annual loss to revenue from this source as calculated for the last three years has been $184,204, including the loss by demonetization of unissued stocks. The average loss on the same period, which would have been incurred by payment of discount instead of demonetization, was $26,777.

The rate of exchange fell from over 2s. to the dollar at the end of 1907 to an average throughout the year of ls. 9'6d. This involved considerable loss to Government and disorganised the budget which had been calculated on a basis of 2s. for salaries and 2s. 1d. for other items.

Piracy in the Canton Delta was much less rife than it has been during recent years.

Mr. R. Mansfield, Consul-General at Canton, handed over charge of the Consulate to Mr. H. H. Fox on the 1st June.

Mr. H. N. Mody generously offered to present the Colony with the buildings necessary to start a university. His original offer was to give a sum of $150,000 for this purpose and a further sum of $30,000 towards endowment. Plans of the necessary buildings were prepared and, as the Director of Public Works estimated that the buildings proposed would not cost less than $290,000, Mr. Mody undertook to provide them in accordance with the plans which he had approved, no matter what the cost might be, stipulating, however, that he should use on the buildings the $30,000 originally given for endowment, if it should be required.-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1908.

129

23

It is intended that the proposed Hong Kong University shall have at the outset two Faculties, viz., Medicine and Engineering, and that the existing College of Medicine, the Technical Institute, and the local branch of the Sanitary Institute shall be incor- porated in it. It is hoped that an Arts Course may be added. A Committee has been formed, with myself as Chairman, to promote the undertaking.

 On the 6th May, a telegram was received from your Lordship to the effect that His Majesty's Government had decided "that. steps must be taken to close opium dens in Hong Kong, as they recognise it is essential in dealing with the opium question in Hong Kong we must act up to the standard set by the Chinese Government." As the result of this telegram the opium ques- tion was debated in the Legislative Council on several occasions during the year, and careful investigations were made by the Government. It had not, however, been decided by the end of the year what steps should be taken in the matter, as the result of the International Opium Commission to be held in Shanghai was awaited.

 In the month of June there were very serious floods in the valleys of the West and North Rivers, causing distress and famine in many districts of the Kuangtung and Kuangsi Provinces; and on the 2nd of July the Legislative Council unanimously adopted a resolution conveying the deep sympathy of the Colony to the Governor-General of the provinces concerned, and authorizing the payment of a sum of $30,000 from the general revenue as a donation for the relief of the sufferers. A cheque for that amount was handed to the Governor-General by H.B.M.'s Acting Consul- General at Canton on the 15th July, and transmitted by His Excellency to the Charitable Guilds to whom the distribution of organized relief was entrusted. In addition to this donation, there was collected by the Tung Wa Hospital the sums of $91,528 locally and $371,069 from abroad; while a Chinese bazaar held in the Colony in aid of the Flood Relief Fund realized $81,690. The bazaar was interesting as being the first of the kind organized and managed entirely by the Chinese community; Chinese ladies took charge of the stalls and both Chinese and European firms sent large quantities of goods, free of charge, to the Bazaar Com- mittee for sale.

A sum of $1,000 was subscribed by the colonists of Saigon for the relief of the distress caused by the severe typhoon of the 18th September, 1906, and it had originally been the intention of Sir M. Nathan to appropriate this sum for the erection of a memorial to the French sailors of the French destroyer "Fronde." who lost their lives in this harbour during that typhoon. As, however, the Committee of the Typhoon Relief Fund unani- mously decided that it was not within their power to make any grant from the funds for this purpose nor to appropriate thereto the sum of $1,000 received from Saigon, that money having gone into the general fund, a special subscription of $2,550 was raised to defray the cost of erecting an obelisk in Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, as a memorial to the French sailors in question. The 'ceremony of unveiling the memorial took place on the 14th of

130

21

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

June, and Mlle. Morel, daughter of the Lieutenant-Governor of Tongking, unveiled the obelisk.

The proposal to construct a new Typhoon Refuge at Mong- koktsui, which had originally been made in 1904, and which, since the typhoon of the 18th September, 1906, had been before the Typhoon Relief Committee, was favourably reported on by the Public Works Committee of the Legislative Council, who further recommended that pending its construction the accom- modation in the Causeway Bay shelter should be increased by deeping the area therein which dries at low water. It was esti- mated that the latter work would cost $70,000, and that a break- water at Mongkoktsui to enclose 166 acres of sheltered water would cost $1,540,000. The matter was discussed in Legislative Council on the 6th August, and with a view to financing the works a resolution was passed by the Council on that day in- creasing the dues:-(a) for all river steamers entering the waters of the Colony to five-sixths of a cent per ton register; and (b) for all other ships entering the waters of the Colony (excepting British and foreign ships of war) to two cents per ton register. It is hoped by this means to defray half the cost of the Mongkoktsui Breakwater, the other half being paid out of the reserve funds of the Colony; and in the Colonial Estimates for 1909, passed by the Legislature on the 15th October, a sum of $200,000 is pro- vided for the Mongkoktsui Typhoon Shelter, and a sum of 20,000 for deepening the shallow area of Causeway Bay to one foot below Ordnance Datum.

""

In the meantime, on the night of the 27th to 28th July, the Colony was struck by another disastrous typhoon in which 26 privately-owned buildings collapsed, with a loss of 59 lives, and damage was done to 77 Government buildings, with a loss of one life. The river steamer Ying King" foundered with a loss of 424 lives, including those of the master and three European passengers. Inside and outside the harbour limits 17 European and 125 native craft were sunk, many more being wrecked or damaged. The loss of Government property alone was estimated at $100,000. The storm swept on to Canton where great destruc- tion of river craft and much loss of life occurred.

Under instructions from your Lordship a Bill was introduced into the Legislative Council to provide for the transfer to the Government of Hong Kong of the Widows' and Orphans' Pension Fund and of the management and control of the pensions of widows and orphans. The Bill was passed on the 80th July and the fund, amounting to a sum of $371,321, was transferred to the general revenue of the Colony, out of which the pensions in ques- tion will in future be paid.

..

A riot broke out in the town of Victoria on the 1st and 2nd of November in connection with a boycott of Japanese goods by the Cantonese. This boycott was due to the feeling excited in China by the Tatsu Maru" affair, and was actively organized by the National Disgrace Society" at Canton. It soon spread to Hong Kong, where the Government from the first took active steps to combat it, with the result that by the autumn several Chinese

1904-1919

HỒNG KONG, 1908.

131

25

merchants in the Colony had again begun to trade in Japanese goods. This gradual failure of the boycott movement in Hong Kong dissatisfied the more violent agitators in Canton, who, there- · upon, made this Colony the scene of an organized riot, which had for its object the destruction of the shops and goods of such Chinese merchants as had abandoned the anti-Japanese boycott. The affair was arranged with such secrecy and skill that the police of the Colony were completely taken by surprise, and for the purpose of restoring law and order it was necessary to call upon the military authorities for assistance. A proclamation' was forthwith issued declaring the Colony subject to the pro- visions of the Peace Preservation Ordinance, and with the help of the troops order was restored by the evening of the 2nd Novem- ber. After that date there was no further outbreak, and drastic steps were taken to deal with the instigators of the outrage. In no instance was a Japanese shop or a Japanese subject attacked.

The Right Honourable

I have, &c.,

F. D. LUGARD,

Governor, &c.

The Earl of Crewe,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of

State for the Colonies,

&c., &c., &c.

132

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

30-

45'

CHUKIAN GOR

15'

22*

CANTON

RIVER

Sa-tsiang

* Fuk-yun

HONG-KONG, KOWLOON A

A-po-ki

Wu-shak-ngam

114"

Shak-ky

TUNG-KWAN

Liong-tu-l

Kon-lan

Long-heu Ŏ

Chong-hang-

Lung-fa d

Hsin-hi

Yong-tai-shan

Pan-ten

Li-long

Ma-hám

Pak-shak-lung

Pu-kak

Ha-t

Ha-taaj

•• TAI-CHAM

Sai-Heung

NAM-TAO

BAY

Ping Cheng

Tai-san

vaimiao

Sha tàu

Moi-lim

HSIN NGAN

(SUN-ON) Sam

Lungtsubhy

Ma-chau

Wan-had

Chak-wan

DEEP BAY

OR HAU-HOI

sin-ten

a-ten

Mi-puo

AND

wan-teu

Chuk-y

SHA

Un-long

Ping shan

Lim-chun

Kam-tin

Lin-tin

113 52' E. LONG, OF GREENWICH

Lung-ku

\ Sa-chau

• Tai-shui-hang

Chin-shan Pet-long

o Nam-long

YdShui-leu

Chon-mun

(Castle Peak Bay)

Chu-Ju-kok

Tung chung

Tai-lam-chung

Ma-wan

Tai

Chung

L

-hue

Shui Mun

Cheum Sham

Stonecutters Island

HON

Lighthouse Kenne

Ping-chau Green Mo

Town

Kow-Chau

Chau-kung.

LAN-TAO (TAI-U SHAN),

Silver Mine,

Bay

Tai-o

Tai-ku-chau

Cheung-Chau

St-A-Chau

EST LAMMA CHAN

Abe

Tai-wand

Lamma

(Pok-Liu)

0

Отуто

Ty-lo 1$

Lap-sap-mi I$

45

Chi

Chi-chau Is

114"

ساد

LI

› ADJACENT TERRITORIES.

15'

Piang-ti

1904-1919

30*

Tong-lak

Shak-kong

I

Hsin-hi

Lung-kong

o Tai-Tong-tu

KUI

S HAN

Ten-teu

• Tong-poi

BIAS

Ten

Piang-san

teu-shap

Tong hang

Pa-konga

Tisam-kai

Ki-chun o

Wang-kong o

Shong-tungs

Sa-

Tai-wo-chun

I-tong o

Sha-tauk

Kaichung &

Sha-tao

Yam-ten &

Sa-ng-chung

TAI-PUNG-SANG

Z

Wong-muo

BAY

MI

Tipfuk

Haaha

Kat-c

Kuk-pu

› Crookede Harbour

Crooked I.

Song-chau Crescent I.

Peng-cha

S

Pit-chau

Namo

Bluff Hd

Mira

ang-kwuft-teu Shui

ROAD

Wo-hang

Tin-koko

Shon-wan

Tai-po

RAILWAY

TOLO

Wang-ling-tau

Plover Cove

HARBOUR

White Head

Tolo Channel

n

an

Lok Lo

ΤΑΙ

Tide Cove

Shatin

Kau-lung.

-shan

KOWLOON CITY

the

Naval

Depot

Mongkok

NG HAR

NGAU

Ko-tongo

tsa

Long Harbour

Chak-kang

Port Island

Grass I. Tap-mun

Tan-ka-wan

Shak-hang Hei-wang

Tai-shui-hang

Pet-kong

Sai-kungg

Yam-ten

Pake

-88 wand

SHLWAN

Tai- -pu-tsaio

O

Port Shelter

Cheung-Kwan-O.

Hung-hom Kon-

aim-Sha Tsui

tong

Lyes-mun

Chin-hang

Ping-ong-wan

Hang Hau LS

O

Junk Ha-yong Bay,

Tau-Chau

Collinson

HONG KONG Lighthous

tuk

Tai-long

Fung Head

Fung 3ay

Lan-nai-wan Ping Pț

She-wan

High L

Town 1.

Basalt I.

Ninepin

A Group

Stank

-ku-wan

            LAMMA CHAN. ?

22 9' N. LAT.

Ta-tong

Lam-tong I.

Bay

Chan

Tai-long Head (C.d'Aguilar)

Wong-ma-kok Fury Rocks

Lo-chau

✔Wag-lan

Sun-kong

Lighthouse

A CHANNEL

11430 E. LONG, OF GREENWICH

NOTE

o Kak-ten

Territory under Convention of 1860 Boundary under Convention 1898

2

3 4 B

English Miles (89-18 m‹1′′)

1

8

30

133

Samun

45'

30

15

22*

Ordnance Survey Office. Southampton, 1912.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 659.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1909.

(For Report for 1908, see No. 617.)

135

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty.

November, 1910.

DROIT

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 34-40, BACON STREET, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C., and 32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.; or

OLIVER & BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT, EDINBURGH; or E. PONSONBY, LTD., 116, GRAFTON STREET, Dublin.

1910.

[Ca. 4964-33.] Price 4d

136

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

:.

:

...

PAGE.

...

***

4

II. TRADE AND Shipping, InduSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE,

AND LAND

...

...

...

...

...

...

5

I. FINANCES

***

III. LEGISLATION.....

IV. EDUCATION

...

V. PUBLIC WORKS

...

...

:

***

:

...

VI. GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS

...

:

...

...

:.

:

...

:

:

16

16

:

...

17

:

:

:.

VII. INSTITUTIONS NOT Supported by Government

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE

IX. VITAL STATISTICS

...

X. POSTAL SERVICE

:

:

XI. MILITARY EXPENDITURE

:

***

19

...

20

...

...

...

:

XI. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

...

SKETCH MAP.

223

:.

***

...

...

23

...

...

:

:

24

...

:

25

...

:

:

...

:

25

25

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 659.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1908, see No. 617.)

THE ACTING GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

MY LORD,

20th July, 1910.

137

3

تن

   I HAVE the honour to submit, for your Lordship's informa- tion, the following general report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1909.

I have, &c.,

F. H. MAY,

Officer Administering the Government.

The Right Honourable

The Earl of Crewe,

His Majesty's Principal

Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

(17876-2.) Wt. 27349-387. 1125 & 85. 11/10. D & S.

A 2

138

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

I.-FINANCES.

(a.)-GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The revenue for the year, exclusive of Extraordinary Revenue and Widows' and Orphans' Fund and Contributions amounted to $6,286,833 or $251,984 more than for the previous year. The Extraordinary Revenue (Land Sales, Widows' and Orphans' Pension Contributions and special Light Dues) amounted to $536,134 or $468,776 more than in 1908, when, however, no col- lection was made an account of the last two items. The total revenue from all sources was $6,822,967 or $718,760 more than in the previous year, and $113,971 more than the estimate.

There were increases under every head of ordinary revenue, and receipts under the remaining heads were altogether $119,166 less than were anticipated, with a deficit on land sales accounting for $118,403.

The expenditure for the year was $5,313,386 exclusive of public works extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $6,542,839 or $1,386,639 less than the total expenditure for 1908, which, how- ever, included railway construction disbursements now entered in a separate account.

  Rate of exchange for both years was taken at ls. 9d. The expenditure of the year was less than the estimate by $238,327, due, inter alia, to crediting charge on account of public debt with reimbursements of interest paid in previous years on account of advances for railway construction, and to no such charge having been debited in 1909.

  The increase of $113,971 in the revenue, and the decrease of $238,327 in expenditure make a total surplus of $280,128 instead of an anticipated deficit of $72,170. The above figures exclude a reimbursement of $354,065 from railway account.

The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1905-1909:

1905.

1906.

1907.

1908.

1909.

$

$

Revenue⭑ Expenditure*

$ 6,918,404 7,035.011 6,602,280 6.104.207 6,822,967

|

| | 6,951,275 6,832,610 5,757,203 6,573,341 6,542,639

|

$

Surplus

-

202,401 845,077

280,128

Deficit

...

...

32,871

469,134

* Railway Account Disbursements and Reimbursements omitted.

(b.)-COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

The Colony contributed $1,226,441 (being the statutory contri- Dution of 20 per cent. of the estimated revenue for 1909 together with the ascertained excess of revenue over the estimates on

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

139

5

account of 1908), towards the cost of the maintenance of military forces in the Colony including barrack services and defence works.

(c.)-ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

 At the end of the year 1909, the assets of the Colony amounted to $615,438. The total liabilities were $264,340, so that the balance of assets over liabilities amounted to $351,098. The sum to be re-imbursed by Railway Construction Account was on 31st December $1,002,071 which added to balance above makes the balance of assets in general account up to $1,353,169 a sum greater than in December, 1908, by the surplus revenue in 1909, viz., $280,128.

(d.)-PUBLIC DEBT.

 A loan consisting of inscribed stock at 3 per cent. interest, £341,799 was incurred in 1893 for Praya Reclamation; Central Market; Water, Drainage, and Sewerage Works, &c., to be paid off on 15th April, 1943.

 A second loan consisting of inscribed stock £1,143,933 at 3 per cent. was raised in 1906 to cover a loan to the Viceroy of Wuchang of £1,000,000. The Viceroy, in accordance with the terms of the loan, had up to the end of 1909 repaid £440,000, which was placed to the credit of a special account for construc tion of the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

 The contributions paid into the Joint Sinking Fund, with accrued interest from investments thereof, came to £86,980 2s. 5d. on the 31st of December, 1909, but the value of the fund, accord- ing to market prices, was £86,577 7s. 9d.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.)-TRADE AND SHIPPING.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1909 amounted to 527,280 vessels of 34,830,845 tons which, compared with that for 1908, shows a decrease in numbers of 4,832 vessels, with an increase in tonnage of 215,604 tons.

Of this total, 43,794 vessels of 22,415,125 tons were engaged in foreign trade, and were distributed as follows:-

British

ocean-

going ships represented

Foreign ocean- going ships

1909.

1908.

9.3% in Nos. and 34.5% in tonnage. 33·7%

represented

9.8

35.1

33.2

...

""

"}

"

river

British

steamers re- presented

13.2

16.5

""

19.2

140

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS- ANNUAL.

1909.

1908.

Foreign

river

steamers re-

presented

3.2% in Nos. and

3.3% in tonnage.

3.3%

Steam-launches

(under

60

tons) repre-

sented

7.2

0.6

0.8

99

Trading

junks

represented

57.3

10.0

9.8

...

""

100.0

100-0

100.0

The movements of fishing junks are not included in the above figures.

Of ships of European construction, 4,191 ocean steamers, 7 sailing ships, 3,576 river steamers, and 1,580 steam-launches, (i.e., steamships not exceeding 60 tons) entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 25.6, as compared with 26 8 in 1908.

The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels visiting the port has slightly decreased-from 2,4486 tons to 2,390-4 tons. That of British vessels has remained stationary-2,594 as against 2,593-while that of foreign vessels has decreased from 2,30949 to 2,205.3 tons.

In this connection it is interesting to note that during the past twenty years the average tonnage of ocean vessels visiting the Colony has risen from 1,182-3 tons to 2,390-4 tons.

The average tonnage of river steamers entered during the year decreased from 665-5 tons to 620 6 tons, that of British river steamers from 687 to 640-4 tons, and that of foreign river steamers from 565.2 to 538-1 tons.

A comparison between the years 1908 and 1909 is given in the following table:-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

1908.

1909.

Class of Vessels.

No.

Tonnage.

No.

Increase.

Decrease.

Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

British, Ocean-going

Foreign, Ocean-going

...

...

British, River Steamers

Foreign, River Steamers

Junks (Foreign Trade)

...

...

3,869

7,505,870

4,076

7,735,927

207

230,657

...

4,132

7,397,836

4,318

7,857,908

186

460,072

...

6,246

4,287,482

5,780

3,701,754

466

585,728

...

1,297

733,065

1,370

735,682

73

2,617

Steamships under 60 tons (Foreign Trade)...

Total Foreign Trade

Steam-launches plying in waters of Colony Junks, Local Trade

4,060

181,142

3,160

140,481

900

40,658

...

..

25,833

2,201,242

25,080

2,243,370

42,128

743

...

...

45,437

22,306,637 | 43,794

22,415,125 466

735,474

2,109 626,386

...

...

::

...

445,724

40,951*

Grand Total

...

10,460,682 439,988 1,848,522*

532,112 34,615,841

10,328,400

5,736

132,282

43,498+

2,087,320+

2,087,320† | 2,547

238,798

527,280

34,830,845

3,013

974,272

7,845

758,668

Net

...

...

...

215,604

4,832

*Including 16,808 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 862,256 tons.

† Including 19,094 Conservaucy and Dust Boats of 1,022,676 tons.

This table shows an increase in British ocean shipping of 207 ships of 230,657 net register tons, or of 5.3 per cent. in numbers and 3 per cent in tonnage, which points to a continuance of the revival of trade noted in my report for 1908. The improvement has been continuous throughout the year.

British river steamers have decreased by 466 ships of 585,728 tons, or 74 per cent. in numbers and 13 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the loss of two large steamers, the "Powan" and "Ying-king" which rau for half of 1908; to the withdrawal of two smaller steamers, the "Hoi Sang" and "Kwong Fat," and to the laying up, during three months of 1909, of another small steamer, the "Tak Hing.'

""

141

7

142

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Foreign ocean vessels have increased by 186 ships of 460,072 tons, or 4.5 per cent. in numbers and 6.2 per cent. in tonnage. This increase is due almost entirely to Japanese shipping, which has increased by 118 ships of 459,292 tons. Increases are also shown under the Norwegian and Swedish flags-of 58 ships of 64,400 tons, and 47 ships of 70,265 tons, respectively. Portu- guese and Dutch flags also show small increases. The principal decreases are under French and German colours-of 45 ships of 58,133 tons, and 19 ships of 16,848 tons, respectively-small decreases being shown under Russian, Austrian, and Italian flags. Under the United States flag there was an increase of 7 ships with a decrease in tonnage of 42,211 tons; while there was a similar fall in the average size of Chinese ships, an increase of 2 ships being accompanied by a decrease of 3,503 tons.

Foreign river steamers increased by 73 ships of 2,617 tons, or 5.6 per cent. in numbers and 0.35 per cent. in tonnage, which is explained by the smaller vessels running more frequently and the larger less often. Two small river steamers under Chinese colours were added to the West River run during the year. These vessels run only as far as Kong Mun, thus making many more trips than those running up to Wuchow.

 It may not be out of place to draw a comparison here between these figures and those of twenty years ago.

                           In 1889, 2,591 British ships of 3,242,953 tons entered the port, against 9,856 ships of 11,437,681 tons in 1909. For foreign ships the figures are for 1889, 1,144 ships of 1,206,983 tons and in 1909, 5,688 ships of 8,593,590 tons. These figures are those for ocean and river steamers, which were not distinguished in 1889, and ocean sailing ships (not junks).

The actual number of individual ocean vessels of European con- struction entering during 1909 was 704, being 336 British and 368 foreign. The corresponding figures for 1908 were respec- tively 745, 365, and 380.

 These 704 ships aggregated 1,682,845 tons. They entered 4,198 times, and gave a collective tonnage of 7,796,376 tons. Thus, compared with 1908, 41 less ships entered 207 more times, and gave a collective tonnage increased by 343,878 tons.

Thus:

Steamers.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

Flag.

1908. 1909. 1908. 1909.

1908.

1909.

British

Austrian Belgian Chinese

...

...

Steamers... Sailing

358

331 1,923 2,034

3,730,927

3,854,571

7

10

7

21,697

...

17,683

9

7

25

24

97,789

94,288

1

1

2,903

...

...

...

...

...

16

24

229

232

291,416

290,936

Corean

...

...

Danish

...

***

1

1

1

796

6

5

15

16

34,211

31,426

Dutch

15

17

97 105

201,014

207,190

...

French

39

32

169

148

289,222

262.459

...

...

...

German

129

108 7+5

...

...

735

1,188,100 | 1,176,322

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

Steamers.

No. of times entered.

Total tonnage.

143

9

Flag.

1908. 1909.| 1908. | 1909.

1908.

1909.

Italian

...

Japanese Norwegian Portuguese...

Russian

...

Swedish

...

United States

Total

::

...

4

93

98

39

...

43

5

7

...

3

2002045

12

11

31.400

28,470

434 493

1,049,540 | 1,283,330

181 212

192,278

227,341

87 94

23,487

36,927

13

9

34.326

19,584

11

35

18,099

53,726

13 1

17

38

42

245,280

211,327

1

809

...

745

***

...

Steamers...

{Sailing

704 3.991 4,198 7.452,498 7,796,376

TRADE.

 As pointed out last year, and in many previous years, the figures which used to appear under this heading were, as a whole, never accurate, and, in some cases, actually misleading. However, in the few items of import trade of which substantially accurate details can be given, the following remarks may prove of interest. These items are coal, kerosene oil (including all products of petro- leum), opium, morphine, compounds of opium, and sugar.

 Coal. I find that 1,126,836 tons were imported into the Colony during the year. This shows an increase over the imports of 1908 of 108,083 tons, or 10'6 per cent. This would appear to be due to nothing more phenomenal than an increased demand, and to a general improvement in business and manufactures.

                                   It is a curious fact that although the imports of coal have increased to this extent, the shipment of bunker coal in the Colony has decreased. This is due to the fact that an increasing number of vessels, calling at Hong Kong, prefer to take their bunker coal else- where, e.g., Japanese and most transpacific liners in Japan, Chinese in Canton-whither a considerable quantity of coal passes through Hong Kong in transit-and many vessels on the home run at Singapore, &c. This may be due in part to the fear of detention in Hong Kong, enhanced by the prevalence of typhoons of late years.

Kerosene Oil.-Decreases are shown in all classes of this pro- duct, viz.:-26,235 tons of bulk oil, 3,858 tons of case oil, and 9,493 tons of liquid fuel. These decreases are only what might have been expected after the phenomenal increases in 1908, (indeed, my remarks on the subject foreshadowed them), and do not indicate any falling off in the trade. Liquid fuel has increased considerably (32 per cent.) over the figures for 1907-the last normal year.

Opium. The imports of raw opium show a decrease of 6,087 chests, or 14.5 per cent., while the exports declined by 3,620 chests, or 9.7 per cent. During the year 1909, the raw opium trade of the Colony is described by the following figures:

144

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

10

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Stock in hand, 1st January, 1909

5,808 chests.

Imported during the year

35,734

Total

...

41,542

""

Boiled by opium farmer

1,044

"

Spurious opium destroyed

51

...

""

Exported during the year

35,938

Total

Stock remaining on 31st December, 1909

37,033 4,509

""

""

Of the several varieties of opium exported, Malwa decreased by 348 chests, or 6·1 per cent., Patna by 1,674 chests, or 7-8 per cent., Benares by 1,228 chests, or 12.6 per cent., Persian by 410 chests, or 13 per cent., while no Turkish opium was either imported or exported, and Chinese opium has never formed any appreciable part of the trade of the Colony. It is obvious from the above figures that the supply does not meet the demand, as 1,300 more chests were disposed of than were imported. China took 92.4 per cent. of the exports.

Imports of compounds of opium increased, as compared with 1908, by 2,543 lbs., or 23.83 per cent., and exports by 1,613 lbs., or 19.56 per cent., while the amount which remained in the Colony for consumption increased by 930 lbs., or 38.1 per cent. Imports of morphia showed an increase of 356 lbs., or 506 per cent. Imports and exports of cocaine were recorded for the first time, and for the period from April 22nd to 31st December showed 68 lbs. imported and 12 lbs. exported.

Sugar. The imports of sugar show a considerable increase of 89,766 tons, or 36 per cent. This article is peculiarly liable to sudden fluctuations, and the increase may be due to increase of stocks owing to favourable prices.

The following remarks upon other items in connection with which there are no official figures may be of interest.

Cotton and Yarn.-With scant yarn supplies all round and consumers both in the southern and northern provinces favoured with bountiful rice and other crops, the year 1909 opened with bright prospects. A fairly extensive business was transacted in the beginning, but as the year advanced the continually increas- ing price of cotton considerably enhanced yarn values and con- sumption became in the end slightly reduced. On the whole the year was particularly remunerative to importers and Chinese dealers alike, seeing that the market ruled over on an upward tendency. On the other hand, owing to the increasing cost of manufacture, as the result of extraordinarily dear raw material, the mills fared very badly. The year closed with stocks light and prices abnormally high.

 A new feature in the yarn trade of the Colony was the floating of several limited liability companies with Chinese capital for the transaction of business in cotton and cotton yarns, which have given a new life to the trade.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

145

11

 Piece Goods.-The year was a good one for dealers in piece goods. The large orders placed towards the close of 1908 went, with one or two exceptions, rapidly into consumption.

 Silk. The year opened with but little demand from Europe and America and the market for the first quarter of the year ruled quiet. There was a slight activity in the middle of the year, and the year closed with better prospects in the immediate future.

 Matting.-Owing to the uncertainty which prevailed in the United States during the first half of the year as to what new rate of duty would result from the tariff revision, the trade was much interfered with. Business done showed a considerable decrease.

 Mats and Carpets.-The market was fairly active during the year, the largest exports being to Europe.

 Metals. Prices ruled fairly low with consequent increase in business.

 Flour. The total reported imports of flour during the year amounted to 58,583 tons, as against 91,312 tons in 1908, a decrease of 35.8 per cent. The decrease is due to the fact, noted last year, that direct shipments to coast ports are now made. Another dis- posing cause for the decrease is the fact that the Shanghai flour mills, which obtain their raw material locally, are now success- fully competing with American flour at the coast ports, Foo- chow, Amoy, Swatow, &c., and are even sending through cargoes to Canton.

 Rice. In spite of a hopeful outlook last year, rice has failed to come back to its previous figure. It has again declined from 721,254 tons to 541,078 tons, or 25 per cent. This is due to a partial failure of the crops in Cochin China, and to the fact that many cargoes of rice from Saigon have been sent direct to coast ports without touching, must less transhipping, at Hong Kong.

 The total reported imports during the year amounted to 4,195,968 tons as against 4,169,856 in 1908, an increase of 0.6 per cent. Exports also show an increase, from 2,102,857 tons to 2,239,731 tons, or 6.5 per cent.; and transit cargo increased from 3,372,993 tons to 3,991,347 tons or 19 per cent., but, for the reason given, these figures are not reliable.

Emigration and Immigration.

Seventy-seven thousand four hundred and thirty (77,430) emi- grants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1909. Of these, 52,923 were carried in British ships and 24,507 in foreign ships. These figures show an increase, compared with those for 1908, of 6,349 (or 8.93 per cent.), which may be accounted for by the return of the business to normal conditions, and to the resump- tion of emigration to Banka and Billiton.

 It may be well to note the increasing proportion of emigrants carried in foreign vessels. This appears to be due to the increas- ing numbers going to Hawaii, who can only travel in United States ships, as well as to the resumption of emigration to the Dutch Indies, which is carried in Dutch vessels.

 One hundred and forty-four thousand eight hundred and twenty-one (144,821) returning emigrants are reported to have been

146

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

12

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 157,809 in 1908. Of these 109,633 arrived in British ships and 35,188 in foreign ships.

(b.)-INDUSTRIES.

(Under European Management.)

 Engineering and Shipbuilding. This is one of the most impor- tant industries in the Colony. The principal establishments are the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company, Limited, and the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company, Limited. There are a number of smaller yards, some under European and others under Chinese management, which do a large amount of work.

The Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company is an old esta- blished company. The establishment is equipped with six dry docks, the largest of which is 700 feet in length with an entrance breadth of 86 feet and a depth over sill of 30 feet; two patent slips and workshops fitted with the most modern appliances for every class of constructional and general engineering work in- cluding locomotives and railway rolling stock.

The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company is a newly established company. The establishment possesses a dry dock 787 feet in length with breadth of 88 feet and depth over sill of 34 feet 6 inches besides three slipways and engine and boiler shops capable of dealing with the heaviest classes of engines. Two vessels of over 13,000 tons (gross) each were docked by this com- pany during the year.

The building yard is laid out with furnaces and plant suitable for building vessels up to 20,000 tons.

The depression which existed in 1908 in this industry was continued during the year under review.

Sugar-Refining. The year 1909 was a favourable one for the sugar-refining industry of the Colony as there was a good demand in the China markets throughout that period, and in consequence of a general advance in sugar all over the world a satisfactory margin of profit was obtainable.

As was the case in 1908 beetroot sugar did not find its way into the China market in any appreciable, quantity.

Cotton-Spinning.-During the earlier part of the year the local mill was handicapped owing to the inadequate supply of labour, but this difficulty was overcome. Further difficulty was expe- rienced in obtaining the raw material at the beginning of the cotton season as the crop, although large, was a late one.

Rope Manufacturing.-Business has kept steady and prices have remained the same throughout the year.

  Cement. The conditions under which this industry has been carried on have been much as in 1908, and there has been a good demand throughout the year.

Brewing. The Oriental Brewery was at work during the year and its beer, in spite of the strong competition of the imported article, is gradually finding favour with the public. Its capacity is about 100,000 barrels per annum.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

147

13

soap

 Soap-Boiling.-Messrs. Blackhead & Co. manage a factory at Shaukiwan. It was established in 1896 and is equipped with modern plant capable of turning out 1,800,000 lbs. of soap per month. The principal manufactures are soft soap, salt water soap, toilet soap, and tar soap, which are locally consumed or exported to north China.

(b.)-INDUSTRIES.

(Under Chinese Management.)

 Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-The making of rattan chairs has been an important industry in Hong Kong for many years. There has also been lately a large development in the use of what is called sea grass (arundo mitis) and hemp string. The ordinary rattan easy and garden chairs are used all over the Far East and are exported to Australia and latterly to South Africa, and sea grass "and" linen fibre " furniture is exported to India, Copen- hagen, and America.

66

Tobacco.-There are thirteen or fourteen native factories which do a small manufacturing business, importing the tobacco leaf from Pakhoi and the Canton delta.

 Tinned Goods.-The manufacture of tinned goods in Hong Kong and parts of the neighbouring province of Kwongtung has acquired considerable dimensions. The products of the factories are consumed locally and exported to other parts of China and to countries where there is a Chinese population.

 Samshu.-Samshu or Chinese spirit is made from rice, the fermenting material being a substance composed of rice, bean flour, red earth, and leaves which are stated to be cassia leaves. Various well-known beverages are prepared by flavouring the spirit with plums, oranges, and other fruits.

The retail price of the ordinary Chinese spirit is under 7 cents a catty. The most expensive beverage distilled locally and com- posed of roses, ordinary spirits, and sugar costs 40 cents a catty. Medicated spirits have a considerable sale among the Chinese. The spirit principally used is one distilled from millet and obtained from the north of China. To this spirit are added various drugs and the mixture is used as a tonic.

There are seven Chinese distilleries exclusive of the village distilleries in the New Territories, which have an annual output of some 300,000 gallons, about one-tenth of which is exported.

Vests and Socks.-There are three small factories for the making of underwear and socks, and a fourth is shortly to open. This industry appears by now to be an established one. The first factory was opened five years ago, has increased the number of machines, and is now beginning to pay its way.

Hides and Leather.-There are seven or eight tanneries where an inferior kind of leather is manufactured. Gall-nuts from Japan are used in the manufacture. The greater part of the hides that reach Hong Kong from the interior is sent to the Straits Settlements, where suitable bark can be procured, to be tanned and sent back to Hong Kong as leather. There is an occasional export of hides by local dealers to Italy.

148

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Preserved Ginger.-Canton has long been noted for its preserved ginger. The manufacture has now been transferred to Hong Kong where there are a number of factories, three of which do a large export busines.

Soy.-Soy is a sauce made by boiling the beans of the "Glycine hispida, Maxim," adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley and leaving the mass to ferment. A layer of salt and three times as much water as beans are afterwards added, and the whole com- pound stirred daily for two months, when the liquid is pressed and strained. Seven or eight Chinese factories are engaged in the manufacture of soy in Hong Kong, and three firms export it to Europe. It is also exported to America. The wholesale price is about $20 the cask of 700 lbs. Business during the year has been dull.

  Paper.-There is one paper mill capable of turning out 9,000 lbs. of paper in 24 hours. At present only half the machinery is used and about 100 men are employed. The mill is lighted by electricity. Most of the paper is exported to China; a little goes to the Straits Settlements and elsewhere to the South. The rags are collected from all over south China; the other materials are imported from England.

Vermilion. There are three vermilion factories. Their average annual output is stated to be about 830 piculs. There is a demand for the vermilion all over the Far East from Japan to Calcutta. This business is falling off, owing, probably, to the primitive methods of manufacture.

Lard. There are seven lard factories in existence the largest turning out about 60,000 piculs a year and the remaining six about 12,000. The lard is exported to the Philippines, the Straits Set- tlements, &c., and to Rangoon. Business during the year showed no increase.

(c.)-FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shau- kiwan, and many others in the New Territories are largely depen- dent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d.)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

The formation of pine tree plantations in the Harbour Belt between Lai-chi-kok and Lyemun has been continued to the extent of 300 acres, and failures in the older plantations in this area, in the catchment areas of Kowloon and Tytam Reservoirs, and in th felled areas of Mount Kellet and Aberdeen have been made good. A few seedlings of the Nanmu or coffin-wood tree have been planted on the north side of Mount Victoria, the south side of Mount Kellet, and at Aberdeen. A few eucalyptus seedlings have also been planted at the latter place.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

149

15

Shade trees in Kowloon and Hong Kong have been replanted where necessary. Large quantities of brushwood have been removed from the plantations in various parts of the Colony and given to the villagers as payment for work done by them for the Government. A contract extending over three years has been made whereby 710 acres of old pine tree plantations at Mount Davis, Aberdeen, and Tytam have been sold for felling. Several bundred thousand square feet of brushwood have been cleared in the neighbourhood of dwellings at Shaukiwan, West Point, the Peak, and elsewhere, in connection with the crusade against mos- quitoes and malaria.

The crops of vegetables, rice, and fruits in the New Territories have not been so good as in the previous year.

 Lists and samples of local plants and vegetable drugs were pre- pared and submitted to the Honourable Dr. Ho Kai, who was good enough to make a prolonged investigation into their uses by Chinese druggists and herbalists. The lists with Dr. Ho Kai's recommendations as to which of the plants and drugs were worthy of scientific investigation were then forwarded to the Director of the Imperial Institute, London, for report as to whether any of them contained medicinal or toxic qualities, or had economic value. The lists were sent by the Imperial Institute to the Phar- macopoeia Committee.of the General Medical Council, who reported that there were not sufficient indications of the extent or employ- ment of individual plants to justify the inclusion of any of them in the Colonial Addendum to the British Pharmacopoeia. Pro- fessor Dunstan added that none of the plants seemed likely to yield products of economic value which are not already known.

 Seeds of Aleurites Fordii, Aleurites cordata, Soja hispida, and Perilla ocymoides, barks of Aleurites Fordii, Aleurites cordata, and Aleurites triloba, as well as several kinds of vegetable oils were also sent to the Director of the Imperial Institute for a report as to their commercial value and suitability for the English market.

 Work on the flora of Hong Kong the New Territories and province has been carried on during the year, and a list with a key to the species, genera, and orders is now nearly complete.

(e.)-LAND GRANTS AND GENEral Value of Land.

 The net amount received from sales of Crown Land and pier rights after deducting expenses of sales was $40,665, a decrease of $28,693 on the previous year and $155,230 less than the average amount received for the last 5 years. Of this amount $14,401 was received in respect of the sale of various pier sites and extensions to existing piers, $5,318 was received in respect of sales of land in the New Territories, and the remainder from sales of new lots of Crown Land and grants of extensions to existing lots in the island of Hong Kong and Old Kowloon. The chief items were received in respect of sales of building lots in Hollywood Road (Inland Lot No. 1836) and at Shaukiwan (Shaukiwan Inland Lot No. 418).

 There has been little demand for new building sites in the City but a general improvement in the land market appears to have

150

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

commenced and it is generally reported that better prices are obtained than in the previous year.

  There has been a considerable number of sales of small build- ing sites for native dwellings and industries in the New Terri- tories where, except in the districts easily accessible to the City of Victoria, land is generally sold at the price of one cent per square foot with an annual Crown Rent at the rate of $50 or $100 per acre according to locality. With the opening up of the Territory by the Railway and the new roads now being con- structed, the demand is likely to increase.

There has also been a considerable increase in the amount of waste or uncultivated lands let on annual or short term leases. This system has been adopted to meet the frequent demands of cultivators in the New Territories, who were unable or unwilling to pay a premium for a long lease.

The whole of the extensive oyster beds in Deep Bay formerly held on annual permits have now been granted on leases for 21 years to the occupiers, special stipulations being inserted in the leases for the proper working of the beds.

III.-LEGISLATION.

Forty-six Ordinances were passed during 1909. This number has only once been exceeded in the history of the Colony, namely in 1902, when 47 Ordinances were passed. But of the 1902 Ordinances no less than ten were for the naturalization of certain persons, a matter which, under the Ordinance relating to the Naturalization of Aliens (No. 44 of 1902), no longer requires legis- lation in each case. Thirty-two of the 1909 Ordinances were Amendment Ordinances. The laws relating to opium were con- solidated (No 23), and the law as to trade marks was recast (No. 40). Ordinances were also passed to regulate the con- struction and management of railways (No. 21); to authorize the construction and maintenance of a harbour of refuge, the necessity for which was demonstrated by the disastrous typhoon of 1906, at Mong-kok-tsui, in Kowloon, (No. 39); to provide for the periodical inspection of steam boilers and prime movers (No. 32); and to provide for the collection of duties upon intoxi- cating liquors (No. 27).

IV.-EDUCATION.

There are 71 Government and Grant Schools, the most im- portant of which is Queen's College. Of these 22 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction on all subjects of the 7th Standard, and above. These latter schools have an average attendance of 4,337, and the medium of instruc- tion in all of them with the exception of five girls' schools, is English. The 49 remaining schools are all Lower Grade. They

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

151

17

comprise one school for British Indians, where English and Urdu are taught; four Government and one Grant Anglo-Chinese Schools; and 43 Grant Vernacular Schools. The average attend- ance at all these Lower Grade Schools is 2.223. The total average attendance, at both Grades of School, is 6,560.

The revenue derived from school fees is $68,204 (of which $40,792 is from Queen's College) and is rapidly increasing; this is mainly to be accounted for by the increasing numbers of Chinese desirous of an English education.

Hongkong is fortunate in including among its schools two limited to children of British parentage. Both these schools (one for boys, the other for girls) are under the Government. In 1909 the combined average attendance at them was 80. As might be expected they have a strong patriotic bias; they are supporters of the Empire League, and the boys' school provides a small but effi- cient cadet corps.

Higher education is represented by the Technical Institute, where instruction is given in the evening in Mathematics, Machine Drawing, Building Construction, Field Surveying, and allied subjects; in Chemistry and Physics; in the English and French languages, Book-keeping, and Shorthand. There is also a Teachers' Class, at which the junior Chinese masters of Govern- ment and Grant Schools are expected to attend. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped laboratory. The lecturers are chiefly Civil Servants recruited from the European staffs of Queen's College and the Public Works Department. These officers receive fees for their services.

A scheme for the foundation of a University is rapidly being matured, the building fund having been furnished by the generosity of Mr. H. N. Mody and the endowment fund by private subscription. It is hoped that the University will be opened with chairs of Medicine, Engineering, and Arts by the beginning of 1912.

V-PUBLIC WORKS.

Of the principal works in progress, the Kowloon Waterworks Reservoir was not finished as anticipated, owing to the necessity of having to cancel the contract and procure fresh tenders for completion. The trench for the Mongkoktsui breakwater was also not quite completed, owing to special repairs to the dredger St. Enoch caused by the typhoon in October. The new Govern- ment Offices and Law Courts made fair progress.

The following works were completed :-Extension to Public Works Offices (Annexe); Staff Quarters at Tai Po; alterations for Quarantine Station at Lai Chi Kok; permanent stairway from ball room at Government House; Wongneichong and Tai Kok Tsui latrines; Blake pier shelter; and the following were in hand or under construction :-Market at Kowloon Point; extension to Tai Po land office; additional pupil teachers' room at Queen's College.

152

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL reports-ANNUAL.

The work on reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training, Waterloo Road, Kowloon, and nullah near North Point was continued; the former being practically completed. Pro- gress was made in substitution of iron pipes for defective earthen- ware ones. The extension of Argyle Street was in hand and the raising of Des Voeux (Chatham) Road was completed. In the New Territories the Kowloon City-Shatin Road was completed and the Castle Peak-Ping Shan was nearly finished.

The extension of Green Island Lighthouse Pier was completed; the new reinforced concrete Pier at Kowloon City was under con- struction and piles were prepared for the Gunpowder Depôt Pier.

 The deepening of Causeway Bay was nearly completed. The Albany Filter Beds Extension was finished and good progress was made with the large main to extend the Tytam Waterworks westwards. A section of 3-inch pipe on the Shaukiwan Water System was replaced by a 6-inch pipe.

Much useful work was done under the "Miscellaneous Works" vote; under the votes "Forming and Kerbing Streets" and Drainage Works, Miscellaneous," the raising of a considerable section of sunken sewers in Connaught Road being carried out.

""

Compensation was paid for scavenging lanes extension, and land resumed for the new street between Praya East and Queen's Road was paid for.

The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,254,456·93 and on Works Annually Recurrent $409,902.85. In the sum expended under the former head is included an amount of $438,699.25 which was paid for the acquisition by Government of Kowloon Inland Lots Nos. 443 and 1,140 as a site for the Kowloon-Canton Railway terminus.

 The typhoon of October caused damage to the extent of over $50,000, chiefly to roads, telephones, and piers.

Good progress has been made on the earthwork of the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway and north of Beacon Hill tunnel and at the end of the year it was practically completed. South of this there remained a good deal to be done to complete Cutting No. 1, the reclamation in Hunghom Bay, and the heavy approaches at the Gascoigne Road Bridge.

·

 The headings of Beacon Hill tunnel met on the 17th May and the tunnel is now finished. Those of Taipo tunnel met on the 28th April and this tunnel is also completed. The other tunnels were completed during the year.

 All bridges, with the exception of 2, 3, 4, 8, and certain addi- tions to existing ones, are ready for rails.

 The engines arrived in the Colony early in the current year and plate-laying was begun.

 The general health of the employees has steadily improved during the year under review. The number of cases necessitating removal to hospital showed a marked decrease in compari with previous years.

 The expenditure during the year was $3,365,860, making a total of $9,617,499.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(a.)-HOSPITALS.

153

19

 Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for women and children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. The Small-pox Hospital Hulk Hygeia was sold during the year and its place will now be taken by the Kennedy Town Hospital. There is an Observation Station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an out- break of infectious disease in a ship arriving in the harbour.

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 20 wards. 2,384 in- patients and 16,981 out-patients were treated during 1909. 188 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 279 in 1908 and 243 in 1907. The Maternity Hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 98 confinements occurred during the year. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds. During 1909 219 patients, were under treatment. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26 beds. In 1909 2 cases were treated, both small-pox. On the Hygeia 10 cases were treated of which 8 were small-pox.

(b.)-LUNATIC ASYLUM.

 The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital: European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 176 patients of all races were treated during 1909 and there were 26 deaths.

(c.) THE TUNG WAII AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

 This hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The Hospital is managed by a Committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for con- firmation, and is under the supervision of a visiting physician who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon trained in medicine is a member of the hospital staff.

 The Alice Memorial and affiliated hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society. They consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital opened in 1906.

The

154

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

number of in-patients in 1909 was 1,201 and the expenditure $12,600. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 198. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which a removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, three District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by these Chinese in various parts of the Colony and a fourth is being built. They are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

  Work on the hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Peninsula has commenced and at the close of the year good progress had been made with the building. The hospital occupies a site having an area of 3 acres and as designed will ultimately provide accommodation for 210 patients. The buildings in course of erection will contain 70 beds. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Registrar General, but when completed the hospital will form part of the Tung Wah Hospital and be under the same management. This hospital will when opened receive a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Hongkong College of Medicine, and the City Hall; and the Chinese Public Dispensaries which receive no pecuniary assistance from Government.

The Pó Leung is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Registrar- General and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society.

The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance and almost all persons detained by the Registrar-General under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1909 the number of persons admitted was 515 and at the close of the year 66 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immedi charge of a Chinese matron and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution under mission auspices founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from the Government and also a contribution from the Pó Leung Kuk.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

155

21

The Hongkong College of Medicine was founded in 1887. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. The lecturers, who are Government officials or private medical practitioners, each receive a small honorarium, the funds being derived from the fees of the students and a Government grant-in-aid of $2,500. The minimum curriculum of study is five years, and the preliminary examination has been accepted by the General Medical Council of Great Britain. 118 students have been enrolled up to date (January, 1910); and of these 39 have become qualified "licentiates." Most of the licentiates have settled in the Colony, and are exerting a most. useful influence in the direction of displacing the native medical methods and popularising Western medical and sanitary know- ledge, while a considerable number of them are employed as resident surgeons in the hospitals for Chinese, as medical officers in charge of the Public Dispensaries, and as assistant medical officers on the railway works. The work of the College has thus far been carried on in lecture-rooms and laboratories made avail- able in various hospitals, &c., in different parts of the City. Steps were being taken to provide adequate buildings of its own; but action was suspended when the University scheme was proposed. When the University is established, the College will be merged into its Faculty of Medicine.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Govern- ment. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, &c., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280), the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

 The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths and with the services of interpreters who can assist the inmates of houses where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the mortuary. The dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are seven dispensaries in existence, including one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscriptions, was $34,100. The dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Registrar-General.

156

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the police was 9,819, being an increase of 257 or 2-68 per cent. as compared with 1908. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is an increase in the former as compared with the previous year of 103 or 3-17 per cent.

The number of serious offences reported was 103 over the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1905. The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 154 as compared with 1908, and was 1,000 below the average of the quinquennial period.

 The total strength of the Police Force for 1909 was, Europeans 132, Indians 411, Chinese 511, making a total of 1,054 as com- pared with 1,046 in 1908, exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway, private firms, and other Government Departments. Of this force the District Officer, 13 Europeans, 114 Indians, and 46 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year.

The force of District Watchmen to which the Government con- tributes $2,000 per annum was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the City. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 5,215 as compared with 4,778 in 1908. Of these 1,325 were com- mitted for criminal offences, against 1,312 in 1908. Of commit- tals for non-criminal offences there were 35 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 30 more for infringement of. sanitary by-laws.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 560, the average for 1908 being 465, and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 14 as compared with 14, the average percentage for the last ten years.

 Owing, however, to the large floating population which is con- stantly moving between the Colony and Canton the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the com- parative criminality of the residents of the Colony.

 The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish- ments per prisoner being 1·38 as compared with 127 in 1908 and 1.50 in 1907.

 Long-sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting, and white-washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c. The profit on the work done was $43,946 as against $45,420 in 1908.

There was $4,809 received and credited to Government for non- Government work against $5,012 in 1908.

 The use of the Belilios Reformatory as an overflow prison having been discontinued, it became necessary to consider an

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

157

23

extension of Victoria Gaol and it was found possible by pulling down the offices and stores and re-erecting them in another position with economy of space, to make room for a ward con- taining 78 cells with yard attached. A contract for this work was let at the beginning of the current year.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.)-POPULATION.

 The population of the Colony according to the census taken in 1901 was 283,975, while at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories, New Kowloon, and the Army and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the

middle of the year under review was 428,888, as follows:-

Non-Chinese Civil Community

Chinese Population-

Hong Kong

Kowloon

Floating Population Mercantile Marine

Army (average strength) Navy (average strength)

...

14,000

199,550

74,600

...

46,240

...

...

2,770

323,160

4,500

2,217

6,717

85,011

428,888

...

...

New Territories (exclusive of Kowloon)

Total

...

(b.)-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

 During the year under review considerable progress has been made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat-proof as a pre- ventive of plague, 391 ground surfaces of houses have been repaired, and 1,048 buildings have had rat-runs filled up with cement. In addition 20 basements illegally inhabited have been vacated.

 New buildings (domestic) to the number of 128 were erected during the year and in these the effect of the present Ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce overcrowding.

 The general death-rate for the year was 21 68 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 12:45 per 1,000 among the Non- Chinese community as compared with 28-35 and 14.78 respec- tively during 1908.

During the year there were 108 deaths from plague compared with 986 in 1908 and 198 in 1907.

158

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONT

REPCRI -ANNUAL.

 There were 2,514 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the Chinese, 751 of which were due to phthisis, a percentage of 10-7 of the total deaths amongst that community.

Beri-beri caused 545 deaths-as against 736 in 1908.

 The deaths from malaria were 420 as against 499 in 1908 and 579 in 1907. Military returns of admissions to hospital for malaria show a reduction in the incidence of this disease, as com- pared with the year 1908. There were 268 admissions in 1909 being a ratio per thousand of the garrison of 59, against 515. in 1908 (115 per thousand).

 Owing to the general improvement in the sanitary condition of the Colony and to the simplification of the methods of dealing with plague cases and plague-infected houses since the pub- lication of the final Report of the Indian Plague Commission in 1908, it has been found possible to reduce the number of Sanitary Inspectors by the abolition of five special Plague Inspectors whose duties are now performed by the District Inspectors. It has also been possible to effect a very considerable economy in the matter of the disinfection of plague-infected houses, as a cheap pulicide is now used in the place of the more expensive disinfectants.

(c.)-CLIMATE.

 The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 72-7° F. as compared with 71-8° F. in 1908 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The mean maximum monthly tem- perature was attained in August, when it reached 87.5° F., and the mean minimum monthly temperature was recorded in February, when it was 57·0° F. The highest recorded tempera- ture during the year was 90.8° F. on the 30th July, and the lowest 48-7° F. on the 8th February.

 The total rainfall for the year was 75-72 inches as compared with an average of 80-79 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was October with 23-98 inches, the driest, December, when no rainfall was recorded. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 6-37 inches on the 19th October, while no rain fell on 220 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 77 per cef as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the ten mo ceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5-4 hours, being 48 per cent. of the possible duration.

 These figures are those recorded at the Observatory, Kowloon, and there is a very considerable divergence between that place and Hong Kong (low levels), the Peak district, or Tai Po (New Territories), both in rainfall, temperature, and humidity.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

 The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1909 by the Postal Department amounted to $657,027.65 from which sum $212,981.07 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

159

25

fees and duties are paid in postage stamps, which are now sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $444,046.58 as the approximate revenue from the Postal Service. The total expenditure amounted to $510,729.99. The result of the year's working shows a deficit of $66,683.41 which is due to the fourth quarterly payment of the P. & O. subsidy for the year 1908 being made in 1909 instead of in the year in which it was due, to increased transit payments on the basis of the weight of corres- pondence despatched during November, 1907, under the Con- vention of Rome, and to increase in the volume of correspondence sent by the trans-Siberian Railway.

 This Colony commenced to forward direct closed mails to the United Kingdom and Germany viâ Shanghai, Dalny and the trans-Siberian Railway on 24th April. The parcel post arrange- ment between this Colony and China came into operation on 1st October. The cash on delivery service in connection with parcels exchanged with the United Kingdom was adopted by this Colony on 1st May.

XI.-MILITARY EXPENDITURE.

(a.)-COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

 The Colony contributed $1,226,441 (being the statutory contri- bution of 20 per cent. of the Revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony including Barrack Services and Defence Works.

(b.)-VOLUNTEER CORPS.

 The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $38,393 compared with $45,554 in 1908.

XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

 The assessment made for the year 1909-1910 (1st July to 30th June), shows a slight decrease in the rateable value of the whole Colony of 0.60 per cent. In Shaukiwan, the Hong Kong villages, Kowloon Point, Yaumati, Hunghom, and Kowloon villages there is an increase ranging from 0.44 per cent. to 10:53 per cent., but a decrease is shown in the City of Victoria of 200 per cent., in the Hill District of 0-31 per cent., and in Mongkoktsui of 9·73 per cent. There is a noticeable increase in New Kowloon of $41,543 or 66.66 per cent.

 The average rate of exchange (demand on London) which had been 1s. 9.6727d. to the dollar for 1908 fell to 1s. 9-0601d. for 1909.

160

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The position with regard to subsidiary coins remained unsatis- factory, and during 1909 the Government withdrew from circu- lation silver subsidiary coin amounting to the face value of $779,712 and copper to the face value of $40,646. These coins were shipped to England where they were melted down and sold as bullion for £57,757 Is. 4d. and £1,535 0s. 1d. respectively. The loss to revenue by this transaction amounted to $76,863.17. The discount during the year on Hong Kong subsidiary coin varied between 4 per cent. and 7 per cent., and on Chinese subsidiary coin 4 per cent. and 8 per cent. Hong Kong copper cents were from 105 to 120 per $1, and Chinese copper cents from 112 to 123 per $1. Negotiations continued without success between this Government and the Chinese authorities with a view to decreasing the excess of Chinese subsidiary coin.

In pursuance of the policy of His Majesty's Government, 26 opium divans were closed on the 1st March, 1909, and compensa- tion amounting to $11,613 was paid to the divan-keepers. All remaining divan-keepers both in the Colony and the New Terri- tories were notified that no licences would be renewed after the 28th February, 1910. The opium laws of the Colony were con- solidated in September last, and were amended so as to give full effect to the recommendations made by the International Opium Conference, which sat at Shanghai during February, 1909, and to the policy of His Majesty's Government. Tenders for the lease of a new opium farm for three years from the 1st March, 1910, were called for, and the lease was granted to Messrs. Ho Kom- tong, Ng Li-ling, Lau Chü-pak and Ch'an K'ai-meng, at an annual rental of $1,183,200. This means a loss to the revenue of $225,860 during 1910 and of $270,660 during each of the years 1911 and 1912.

  The restrictions on the consumption of opium both inside and outside the Colony are as follow:-

(1.) The smoking of opium is restricted in Hong Ko primarily by the existence of a monopoly under which the sole right of preparing opium for smoking and of selling the prepared drug is vested in a monopolist who is thus enabled to charge a very high price for the drug. The selling price of prepared opium and dross opium is $4.50 and $2.00, respectively, per Chinese ounce (=1 oz.) The monopolist alone can import prepared opium.

(2.) Opium divans (or opium dens as they are called by some) have been closed, as explained in the preceding para- graph. Heavy penalties are imposed for the illicit opening of a divan. Persons found smoking in a divan are liable to fine, and persons found in, or escaping from, a divan are, under the law, presumed to have been smoking therein.

(3.) Penalties are imposed on any person who administers by injection or furnishes morphine to any other person except under prescription from a qualified medical practitioner.

(4.) The importation for sale or use within the Colony, the preparatiɗa, manufacture, and sale, of morphine and com- pounds of opium are restricted by licence.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

161

27

 Licences are restricted to a few chemists and druggists of good repute, who have to pay a royalty to the monopolist referred to in (1) of ten dollars per tael of morphine and four dollars per tael of compound of opium other than morphine. The price is thereby enhanced. Under the conditions of these licences morphine and compounds of opium may not be sold to the general public in quantities less than of the value of 20 cents. The vendor must supply the purchaser at the time of sale with a counterfoil certifi- cate.

The possession of morphine and compounds of opium without such certificate is illegal, and in quantities exceeding 12 official doses whether covered by certificates or not.

 Supervision of the trade in these drugs is ensured by the com- pulsory keeping of books by the licensees, which are open to inspection.

 Opium, morphine, and compounds of opium are declared to be poisons under the Pharmacy Ordinance. Under the provisions of that Ordinance the seller must mark in English and Chinese the bottle or other package containing any such article with the name of the article, the word "poison" and the name and address of the seller. In addition, under the conditions of the licence above referred to, medicines purporting to be for the cure or relief of the opium habit, or to be substitutes for opium smoking or taking or for the morphine habit, and themselves containing opium, morphine, or any compound of opium must bear a label to such effect in Chinese writing for the information of the purchaser.

 The import, for purposes of export, of morphine and compounds of opium is regulated by licence under conditions for storage in a bonded warehouse and for the keeping of books, whereby the trade is supervised.

 The export of prepared opium or dross opium by any person (including the monopolist of the preparation and sale of prepared opium) to China, French Indo-China, or any country which pro- hibits the import of prepared opium or dross opium, is illegal.

 The export of prepared opium and dross opium to countries to which it is lawful to export them, is only allowed under permit.

 Similarly the export of morpine and compounds of opium to countries which prohibit their import is illegal.

 Stringent regulations are in force for regulating the trade in cocaine, its derivatives and compounds, with a view to prevent their use as substitutes for opium.

 In order to replace the revenue lost on opium, a law was passed on the 17th of last September imposing duties on intoxicating liquors consumed in the Colony, and in this connection the Imports and Exports Office was reorganized, Lieut. Beckwith, R.Ñ., the Assistant Harbour Master, being appointed Superin- tendent. By the close of the year a sum of $101,844.20 had been realized from the new liquor duties.

 Much progress was made with the collection of an endowment fund for the proposed Hong Kong University. The Government of Macao made a donation of $8,422 and the Chinese Government one of $13,608. Messrs. Butterfield and Swire and their allied firms contributed £40,000, and His Excellency Cheung Yan-tsun,

162

28

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS ---- ANNUAL.

Governor-General of the Liang Kuang Provinces, $200,000; Chinese residents in Weichow, through Mr. Chang Pat-sze, $92,764; Chinese residents in Hong Kong, $198,000; Chinese residents in Canton, $13,971; Chinese residents in Saigon, $10,000; the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, $50,000; Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., $25,000; and Messrs. David Sassoon & Co., Messrs. E. D. Sassoon & Co., the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China, and Messrs. Chater and Mody, $10,000 each. Other sums have been promised. Mr. Ng Li-hing, a resident in the Colony, has undertaken to transfer a sum of $50,000 originally intended for the Hong Kong College of Medicine to the Univer- sity, and the Chinese residents of Saigon have promised a second subscription of $31,000. The total fund at the close of the year stood at $1,279,164. His Majesty's Government, as a token of their sympathy with the undertaking, granted a sum of £300 per annum for the endowment of a scholarship at the proposed University, and His Majesty the King was graciously pleased to permit the holders of this scholarship to be designated as

                                "King Edward the Seventh Scholars." A site for the University was selected at the junction of the Pokfulam and Bonham roads, and at the beginning of the current year the foundation stone was laid by Sir Frederick Lugard.

Between the 19th and 20th of October a very severe typhoon struck the Colony. Timely warning of the approaching storm was fortunately given from the Observatory. The damage done to Government property cost over $50,000 in repairs. Private property also suffered severely. The destroyers H.M.S. Handy" and H.M.S. "Janus" were kindly sent by Commo- dore (now Rear-Admiral) Lyon to the assistance of a number of disabled junks which were reported to the south-west of the Gap Rock lighthouse. These towed in four disabled junks and dis- tributed rice and water to other junks which were short of pro- visions. A tug hired by Government was also sent out, and brought in 52 shipwrecked Chinese and one junk. Later, the destroyers, accompanied by H.M.S. Cadmus," made a further and more extended search in consequence of a report that there were other derelict junks in need of assistance. They returned after a three days' cruise without having found any more vessels. It is presumed that with a change of wind these would have gained the mainland. In addition to these rescues, the Ocean Steamship Company's S.S. "Telemachus" brought in 11 shipwrecked Chinese; and a German steamer, the S.S." Mathilde" towed in six junks-a very creditable performance. Two other steamers brought in 16 men and a junk. The total saved was 82 men and 11 junks.

..

In June General Sir J. Machado, K.C.M.G., and Kao Erh Chün, Portuguese Commissioner and Chinese Commissioner respectively for the delimitation of the boundaries of Macao, arrived in Hong Kong, where they held their deliberations in the house of the Consul-General for Portugal. The Conference closed on the 13th November.

The Victoria Recreation Club, which, under the style of the Victoria Regatta Club, held its first regatta in 1849, and is the

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1909.

163

29

oldest athletic club in the Colony, successfully celebrated its sixtieth anniversary on the 10th of July at its handsome new club house on an extension, adjoining the Naval Yard, of what was formerly Murray Pier.

 On the 27th of November the Club Germania commemorated its fiftieth anniversary, a large number of the English community, including His Excellency the Governor, being present.

 On the 21st of April Mr. George Murray Bain, who has been aptly called the doyen of the Press in the Far East, passed away after some months of precarious health. Mr. Murray Bain came to the Colony in 1864 as sub-editor of the "China Mail." In 1872 he became proprietor of the paper with which he was success- fully and honourably identified up to the time of his death.

164

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

45

30

15'

22'

45'

CHUKIANG OR

CANTON

RIVER

Sa-tsiang

8 Fuk-yun

HONG-KONG, KOWLOON

Wu-shak-ngam

114'

Shak-ky

TUNG-KWAN

Liong-tu-t

Kon-lan

Chong-hang-

A-po-ki

Long-heu o

Lung-fac

Hsin-hi

Yong-tai-shan

Pan-ten

Li-longo

Ma-hámo

8 Pak-shak-lung

Pu-kak

Sai-Heung

NAM-TAO

Moi-lim

O

Ha-tsai

0(c) TAI-CHAM

BAY

Ping Cheng

Tai-san

Ma-chau

Lin-tin

113°52′ E. LONG, OF GREENWICH

HSIN NGAN

(SUN-ON)

Lungtauphy

Sha-tau

Sam

SHA

vaimiao

Wan-had

Chak-wan

DEEP BAY OR HAU-HOI

Swan-teu

{Chuk-yen

-Un-long

ASTLE

Hsin-ten Mi-puo

PEAK

AND

Ping shan

Lim-chun

Kam-tin

Tai-shui-hang

Tai

Lung-ku

( Sachau

Chin-shan Pet-long

Nam-long

Chon-mun

(Castle Peak

dShui-leu

chu-Ju-kok

Tung-chung

Tai-lam-chung

Ma-wan

Shui Mun

Chung

-hue

Cheum Sham

Stonecutters Island

HON

Lighthouse Kennet

Town

Ping-chau Green M

Kow-Chau

Abe

Chau-kung "O

LAN-TAO

(TAI-U SHAN),

Silver Mine

Bay

"ai-o

Tai-ku-chau

CHAN.

Cheung-Chau

St-A-Chau

0

Ty-lo 19

Lap-sap-mi Iş

45

chichau1

Chichau 17

114*

Tai-wand

Lamma I) (Pok-Liu)

EST LAM

LI

ADJACENT TERRITORIES.

15.

1904-1919

Piang-ti

Lung-kong

o Tai-Tong-tu

Tong-lak

Hsin-hi

Shak-1

k-kong

Wang-kongo

Sa-wan

KUI

SHAN

SO'

Tan-tau

o Tong-poi

BIA S

Ten

Piang-san

Tongthang

Pa-kongo

Ki-chun o

Tisam-kai

Tai-wo-chun

Kaichung &

Shong-tungs

Sa-ng-chung

TAI-PUNG-SANG

2

BAY

Sha-tao

Wong-muo

Yam-ten &

Kat-o

Crooked I.

Song-chau Crescent I.

MIR

Tipfuk

Hasha

Peng-chat

S

Pit-chau

*Kuk-pu

· Crookede Harbour)

Nam

Bluff Hd

-tong o

Sha-task,

Mira

n

Long Harbour

ng-kwuut-tey

Shu

ROAD

Wo-hang

Tin-koko

Shon-wan

Tai-po

|an

RAILWAY

Lok Lo

Wang-ling-tau

Plover Cove

TOLO HARBOUR

100

White

Head

Tide Cove

Tolo Channel

Ko

Tam-taa

Chak-kang

PChin-hang

Kok Kau-lung

-shan

Shatin

KOWLOON CITY

-ti

Nave

Depot

NG

Mongkok

Tai-shui-hang

Shak-hang

Pet-kong

Sai-kung

-sa wand

NGAU SHEWAN ROAD4

Tu-kwa-wan

Tai- -pu-tsaio

Yam-ten&

VPort Shelter

Cheung-Kwan-O.

Hung-hom Kon-

             Lighthouse "sim-Sha Taur

Hang Hau

tong

1.yes-mun-Chan.,

Jurk Bay,

Ping-ong-wan

Ha-yong

4-76

bu-Chau

Lighthouse

SC.Collinson

Port Island

Grass I. Tap-mun

Tan-ka-wan

Tai-long

Hai-wang

Fung Head

Fung 3ay

Lan-nai-wad Ping Pt

She wan

J

ܚܐ High'

Town 1.

Basalt I.

tatuk

Ta-tong

Ninepin

A Group

Lam-tong I.!

Stani

LAMMA CHAN.

ku-wan

Tai-tam

Tai-tam

Bay

Chan

Tai-long Head (C. Aguilar)

Wong-ma-kok Fury

ury Rocks ✔Wag-lan

Lo-chau

Sun-kong

Lighthouse

22 9 A. LAT.

A CHANNEL

15'

114°30′ E. LONG. OF GREENWICH

NOTE

o Kak-ten

Territory under Convention of 1860 Boundary under Convention 1898

• 2.

English Miles (89-10m+1′′)

30

Samun

165

45'

30

13

22*

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 691.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1910.

(For Report for 1909, see No. 659.)

167

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. October, 1911.

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C., and

32, ABINGDON STREET, S.W.; or

OLIVER AND BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT, EDINBURGH; or E. PONSONBY, LTD., 116, Grafton StreET, DUBLIN.

PRINTED BY

DARLING AND SON, LIMITED, BACON STREET, E.

[Cd. 5467-27.] Price 4d.

1911.

168

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

I.-FINANCES

:

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE,

AND LAND...

...

III.-LEGISLATION

...

...

IV.-EDUCATION

...

PAGE

3

...

...

...

***

5

13

V.-PUBLIC Works

:.

...

...

:.

:

:.

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS

...

...

:

:.

:...

:

.::.

:

:

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPorted by GovERNMENT .....

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS

X-POSTAL SERVICE

XI.-MILITARY EXPENDITURE

XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

SKETCH MAP.

:

...

***

:.

14

14

16

18

19

...

...

...

:

...

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

...

20

22

23

...

23

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 691.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1909, see No. 659.)

169

3

SIR,

THE GOVERNOR to THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

12th August, 1911.

I HAVE the honour to submit, for your information, the following general report on the annual Blue Book for the year 1910.

I.-FINANCES.

(a.) GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The Revenue for the year, exclusive of Extraordinary Revenue and Widows' and Orphans' Fund Contributions, amounted to $6,628,183 or $341,350 more than for the previous year. The extraordinary revenue amounted to $332,686 or $203,448 less than in 1909. The total revenue from all sources was $6,960,869 or $137,902 more than in the previous year, and $52,072 more than the estimate.

Compared with the previous year's returns there were increases under every head of ordinary revenue with the exception of Interest and Miscellaneous Receipts. Of the increase of $239,295. in Licences and Internal Revenue the item Companies Local Registers accounts for $18,001 and Stamps Duties for $127,812. The principal increases under Fees of Court are Companies Regis- tration $12,823 and Deeds Registration $5,837. Post Office shows an improvement of $75,019. These various items seem to indicate the beginning of a revival in trade as does also the increase of $31,090 in Land Sales.

The expenditure for the year was $5,702,290 exclusive of Public Works Extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $6,907,113 or $364,274 more than the total expenditure for 1909.

The average rate of exchange for the year was 1s. 9·6d.

170

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The expenditure of the year was more than the estimate by $44,429.

The year's working resulted in a surplus of $53,655 instead of the anticipated deficit of $42,745.

The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1906-10:-

 Revenue* Expenditure*

Surplus

...

1906.

1907.

1908.

1909.

1910.

• $

7,035,011 6,602,280 | 6,832,610 5,757,203

|

6,104,207 6,822,967 | 6,960,869 6,573,341 6,542,839 6,907,113 | |

...

...

202,401 845,077

280,128

469,134

Deficit

...

53,756

* Railway Account Disbursements and Reimbursements omitted.

(b.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION FOR DEFENCE.

The Colony contributed $1,372,486 (being the statutory con- tribution of 20 per cent. of the estimated revenue for 1910, together with $46,629 arrears on account of under-estimate in 1909), towards the cost of the maintenance of military forces in the Colony, including barrack services and defence works.

(c.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

At the end of the year 1910, the assets of the Colony amounted to $6,551,129. The total liabilities were $5,144,204, so that the balance of assets over liabilities amounted to $1,406,925.

(d.) PUBLIC DEBT.

A loan consisting of inscribed stock at 3 per cent. interest, £341,799, was incurred in 1893 for Praya Reclamation, Central Market, Water, Drainage, and Sewerage Works, &c., to be paid off on 15th April, 1943.

A second loan, consisting of inscribed stock £1,143,933 at 3 per cent., was raised in 1906 to cover a loan to the Viceroy of Wuchang of £1,100,000. The Viceroy, in accordance with the terms of the loan, had up to the end of 1910 repaid £550,000, which was placed to the credit of a special account for construc- tion of the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

The contributions paid into the Joint Sinking Fund, with accrued interest from investments thereof, came to £98,892 4s. 1d. on the 31st of December, 1910, but the value of the fund, according to market prices, was £97,759 6s. 10d.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

171

5

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.) SHIPPING and Trade.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1910 amounted to 547,164 vessels of 36,534,361 tons, which, compared with figures for 1909, shows an increase in numbers of 19,884 vessels, with an increase of 1,703,516 tons. These totals are the largest yet reached, exceeding all previous records by 15,052 vessels and 506,051 tons.

 Of the above, 40,714 vessels of 23,160,256 tons were engaged in foreign trade, as against 43,794 of 22,415,125 tons in 1909, and were distributed as follows:

1910.

1909.

1910. Numbers. Numbers. Tonnage.

1909. Tonnage.

Per cent. Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

British ocean-going ships repre-

sented.

10.5

9.3

35.0

34.5

Foreign ocean-going ships repre-

10.6

9.8

35.0

35 1

sented.

British river steamers repre-

16.0

13,2

17.3

16.5

sented.

Foreign river steamers repre-

3.3

3.2

3.0

3.3

sented..

Steamships (not exceeding 60

tons) represented.

7.7

7.2

0.6

0.6

Trading junks represented

51.9

57.3

9.1

10:0

...

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

 The movements of fishing junks are not included in the above figures.

 Of ships of European construction, 4,276 ocean steamers, 8 sailing ships, 3,910 river steamers, and 1,569 steamships not exceeding 60 tons entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 26-7 ships, as compared with 25-6 in 1909 and 26.8 in 1908.

 The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has once more increased-from 2,3904 tons to 2,4573 tous. That of British ships has increased (2,594-5 tons as against 2,494 tons) while that of foreign ships has increased from 2,205.3 tous to 2,324 1 tons.

 During the past 20 years, the average tonnage of ocean vessels has increased from 1,179 tons to 2,457-3 tons.

 The average tonnage of river steamers entered during the year has again decreased, from 620-6 tons to 602·1 tons. That of British river steamers has decreased from 640-4 tons to 617 tons and that of foreign river steamers from 5381 tons to 529 tons.

 A comparison between the years 1909 and 1910 is given in the following table:-

172

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

1909.

1910.

Increase.

Decrease.

Class of Vessels.

British ocean-going... Foreign ocean-going British river steam-

ers.

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. | Tonnage.

4,076 7,735,927 4,262 8,111,946| 4,318 7,857,008| 4,312 | 8.103,969 5,780 3,701,754|| 6,483 | 4,000,073

186 376,019

246,061 6

703 298,319

1,370

735,682 1,334 706,616

36 29,066

Steamships under 60

3,160

140,484 3,153 136,765

I

7

3,719

tons (Foreign

trade).

Forcign river steam-

ers.

Junks (Foreign trade) 25,090 | 2,243,370|121,170| 2,100,887|

[3,920| 142,483

Total Foreign 43,794 |22,415,125|| 40,714 |23,160,256| 889 920,399 3,969 | 175,268

trade.

Steam-launches ply-439,988 10,328,400 466,014 10,986,234|26,026 | 657,834

ing in waters of

Junks, Local trade ... *43,498 *2,087,320 †40,436 |†2,387,871

Colony.

·

Grand Total

300,551 3,062

|527,280 34,830,845|547,164 |36,534,361|26,915 | 1,878,784 7,031 | 175,268

Net

19,884 1,703,516

* Including 19,094 Conservancy and Dust boats of 1,022,676 tons.

21,056

+

1,540,984,

From October, 1910, Dust boats are eliminated and will not be recorded in future returns, the work being done by Government craft.

Decrease owing to low rate of freights ruling in river steamers.

The figures shown represent number of trips made within and without the Harbour.

  This table shows an increase in British ocean shipping of 186 ships of 376,019 tons, or of 45 per cent. in numbers, and of 4.8 per cent. in tonnage. This seems to indicate a resumption of the usual small annual increase in British shipping which has been so constant a feature in each normal year.

  British river steamers have recovered from the large decrease shown in 1909, and have added considerably in numbers to the figures for 1908, though the tonnage does not come up to that for the earlier year. The increase shown over the figures for 1909-703 ships of 298,319 tons or 12.1 per cent. in numbers, and 8 per cent. in tonnage is due to the fact that the large Canton river steamers have made more trips; that some of the small steamers have been transferred from the West River to the Canton run, and so run more frequently, and that many of the smaller steamers have made periodical excursion runs to ports other than their usual ones, while continuing to ply regularly on their usual

runs.

  Foreign ocean vessels have decreased by 6 ships, or 0.14 per cent., while their collective tonnage has increased by 246,061 tons, or 3.1 per cent. This result is due to increases of 27, 19, and 42 ships under Japanese, Norwegian, and Chinese respectively, which are counterbalanced by decreases of 26, 55, 14, 8, and 7 ships under German, Portuguese, Swedish, French, and United States respectively; but the tonnage has generally increased, except under Portuguese, Swedish, and United States. The loss in numbers is due chiefly to Portuguese, where a fall of 55 ships

1904-1919

HONG KONG. 1910.

173

7

involved only 14,655 tons, while that under German, of 26 ships,. was accompanied by a rise in tonnage of 54,193 tons.

 Foreign river steamers have decreased by 36 ships (or 26 per cent.) of 29,066 tons or 3.9 per cent.). This is accounted for by the laying up for some four months of a Portuguese river steamer, the "Sui Cheong," which previously plied regularly.

 As in former years, I here insert a comparison between the shipping of the port twenty years ago and to-day. In 1890, 2,772 British ships of 3,507,945 net register tons entered the port, against 10,745 ships of 12,112,019 net register tons in 1910-an increase of 287-6 per cent. in numbers and of 245.2 per cent. in tonnage. These figures include ocean and river steamers and ocean-going sailing ships (not junks). In the same way foreign shipping during the same period has increased from 1,442 ships of 1,385,788 net register tons in 1890 to 5,646 ships of 8,810,585 net register tons-an increase of 291.3 per cent. in numbers and of 535.8 per cent. in tonnage.

 The actual number of individual ocean vessels of European type of construction entering during 1910 was 734, being 365 British and 369 foreign. The corresponding figures for 1909 were 704, 336, and 368 respectively.

These 734 ships aggregated 1,804,675 tons.

Thus,

                         They entered 4,284 times, giving a collective tonnage of 8,112,985 tons. compared with 1909, 30 more ships, with a tonnage increased by 121,836 tons, entered 86 more times, and gave a collective tonnage greater by 316,609 tons.

Thus :

Steamers.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1909. 1910. | 1909. 1910. 1909.

1910.

Austrian Chinese Corean Danish

British-

Steamers Sailing German

Japanese-

Steamers Sailing Norwegian

...

...

:::

:::

:.

331

5

5

7

108

113

735

7 722

360 2,054 2,124 | 3,854,571 | 4,041,557

1,176,322 | 1,206,757

17,683

17,663

...

98

101

493

507

1,283,330 1,341,083

1

1

138

...

43

34

212

223

227,341

236,334

7

7

***

...

24

24

94,288

95,062

24

22

...

...

:::

232

250

290,936

314,879

1

0

1

796

5

6

16

20

31,426

33,165

Dutch French

17

...

...

...

16 105

108

207,190

214,737

32

35

148 144

262,459

262,670

Italian

2

...

Portuguese

...

4

Russian

...

Swedish

...

...

...

5

U.S.A.

No Flag

...

...

17

337551

11

13

28,470

34,496

94

66

36,927

29,478

9 10

19,584

28,803

35

27

53,726

45,398

42

37

211,327

210,466

1

299

Total

704

...

734 4,198 4,284 7,796,376 8,112,985

174

8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

TRADE.

  As pointed out in previous reports, the figures which used to appear under this heading were, as a whole, so inaccurate as to be, in some cases, most misleading. They have, therefore, been omitted from this, as from my three previous annual reports. However, in certain items of the import trade, fairly accurate details are available, and as to these the following remarks may be of interest,

Coal.-1,115,120 tons were imported during the year. This quantity, compared with the imports for 1909, shows a decrease of 11,716 tons, or 104 per cent. This decrease is so small as to be negligible, but is explained by the dull tone of the market in the Colony throughout the year 1910, and the necessity of adjusting stocks after the somewhat largely increased imports of 1909. Of the various varieties of coal imported, Japanese heads the list. Next comes that from North China and Manchuria, which holds. its own, it not actually increasing. Cardiff, though only used by men-of-war, and imported almost solely by the Admiralty, comes third. There have been increased shipments from Hongay; but from Australia and India large decreases appear, while no Labuan coal was imported during the year.

  I remarked last year upon the fact that, in spite of the large in- crease in coal imported, the shipments of bunker coal in the Colony had fallen off considerably. This year, the opposite occurred. There is a falling off in imports, but an increase of 22,140 tons, or 3.5 per cent., in the quantity of bunker coal shipped. But, of the total amount of coal imported, little more than half is shipped as bunker coal, the remainder being re-exported.

Kerosene Oil.-Here, enormous increases are reported in bulk oil of 20,559 tons or 577 per cent., and in case oil of 13,899 tons or 38.6 per cent., while liquid fuel has increased by 5,089 tons or 117.2 per cent. These increases appear to be due to competition between the Asiatic Petroleum Company and the Standard Oil Company, whose business is largely increasing in the interior of China in consequence of their activity in opening up new dis- tributing centres.

  As last year, I add a few remarks about certain other items of import of which I have been able to collect information.`

Opium.-The imports of raw opium show a decrease of 3,990) chests, or 111 per cent., while 1909 showed a decrease of 6,087 chests or 14.5 per cent. The exports declined by 7,641 chests, or 212 per cent., in 1909 the decrease was 3,620 chests, or 97 per cent. During the last three years the raw opium trade of the Colony is described by the following figures:

Stock in hand 1st January

Imported during the year

Total

:

:

1910.

1909.

1908.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

4,509

5,808

4,707

31,743

35,734

41,821

36,252

41,542

46,528

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

1910.

1909.

1908.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Boiled by opium farmer

782

:

1,044

864

Spurious opium destroyed

14

51

247

Exported during the year

28,333

35.938

39,609

Total

29,129

37,033

40,720

Stock remaining on 31st December...

7,123

1,509

5,808

175

9

 Of the several varieties of opium imported, Malwa decreased by 315 chests, or 6 per cent., Patna by 3,241 chests, or 16.6 per cent., Benares by 1,885 chests, or 22-5 per cent., and Persian increased by 249 chests. Of Chinese opium 1,223 chests were imported from Shanghai and re-exported to Haiphong.

 Of the several varieties of opium exported, Malwa decreased by 7354 chests or 13.8 per cent., Patna by 5,317 chests or 27 per cent., Benares by 2,273 chests or 26-8 per cent., and Persian by 517 chests or 18.8 per cent.

 The trade in compounds of opium and morphia also declined considerably. In the former imports fell by 43 per cent. and exports by 47 per cent., while in the latter the decreases were 9.6 per cent. and 44 per cent. respectively.

 Sugar.-The imports of sugar show a considerable decrease of 94,528 tons, or 27.8 per cent., as against an increase of 89,766 tons last year. This seems to be due to an overstocked market with prices ruling low.

 Cotton and Cotton Yarn.-Here is shown, again, a large increase of 10,114 tons, or 15.7 per cent., added to the increase reported last year. This seems to be borne out by facts, though the increase was in yarn entirely, hardly any cotton having been imported (owing to the high prices ruling in India, and the Chinese product being exceptionally cheap and of good quality this year). The yarn market, though considerable fluctuations in price occurred during the year, was strong, and, the demand being great and prices generally favourable, large imports were made.

 Flour. Here our returns show the enormous falling-off of 26,279 tons or 44.9 per cent. This was due to the virtual cessation of the flour trade in the Colony during the first six months of the year, owing to high prices of American flour, and the competition of the Shanghai Mills, which shipped their products direct to Chinese ports, instead of to Hong Kong for distribution. Matters improved during the last six months, owing to the Shanghai Mills being short of wheat, while such as they had was of poor quality. The result was a recrudescence of trade with Hong Kong on the part of Canton, Amoy, Foochow, &c., which ports had previously been served by Shanghai, and the import of American flour im- mediately recommenced in unusually large quantities.

 Rice.-There is an increase in this item of 183,662 tons, or 33.9 per cent. This large rise is undoubtedly due to the almost total failure of the Chinese first crops, owing to the continued drought in the spring and summer, and to the partial failure of the second crop in parts of Kwangtung. The demand for Saigon and Bangkok

176

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

rice was consequently unusually large, and the supply was equal to the demand. However, during November shipments declined, because the local supply was sufficient for the needs of the districts. In December, shipments increased, owing to renewed demands from the interior.

The total reported imports during the year amounted to 4,298,194 tons, as against 4,195,968 tons in 1909, an increase of 102,226 tons or 2-4 per cent. Exports also show an increase of 23,000 tons, or 10-2 per cent. Transit cargo shows a decrease of 12,039 tons, or 0.3 per cent. These figures are not, however, reliable, there being no means of collecting accurate information, in the absence of any Customs staff.

Emigration and Immigration.

One hundred and eleven thousand and fifty-eight (111,058) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1910, (77,430 in 1909). Of these 79,851 were carried in British ships and 31,207 in foreign ships. These figures show a large increase, compared with those for 1909, of 33,628 (or 434 per cent.), which is accounted for by the largely increased emigration to the Federated Malay States to provide labour for the rubber plantations.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements 1906 to 1910 compared with Total Chinese

Emigration 1906 to 1910.

No. of Emigrants to

Straits Settlements.

Total No. of Emigrants. 76,725

1906

1907

1908

1909

1910

...

60,320

83,048

49,639

48,016

76,705

105,967

71,081

77,430

111,058

  One hundred and forty-nine thousand five hundred and sixty- four (149,564) returning emigrants are reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 144,821 in 1909. Of these 108,346 arrived in British ships, and 41,218 in foreign ships.

(b.) INDUSTRIES.

(i.).-Under European Management.

Engineering and Shipbuilding.-This industry has improved during the year under review.

1910.

:

Vessels.

Gross tons.

I.H.P.

14

...

84432

2,231 715

1,718

2,070

121

200

169

160

317

150

31

3,553

4,298

:

 Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ld. Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ld.

...

...

W. S. Bailey & Co. Macdonald & Co. Ulderup and Schluter...

...

...

...

...

Total

...

:

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

1909.

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ld. Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ld. W. S. Bailey & Co.

...

Ulderup and Schluter

Total

Vessels.

Gross tons.

I.H.P.

10

15

17

037

380

400

1,554

750

58

60

146

200

45

2,138

1,410

177

11

 Sugar Refining.-The year 1910 was not a favourable one for the sugar refining industry of the Colony as there was not a good demand in the China markets, while the growers in Java have lately made arrangements for shipping their produce direct to the markets without transhipment in Hong Kong.

As was the case in 1908 and 1909 beetroot sugar did not find its way into the China market in any appreciable quantity.

 Cotton Spinning.-This industry has been satisfactory through- out the year. The supply of raw material was good.

 Rope Manufacturing.-Business steady, and prices have re- mained the same.

Cement.-There has been a good demand throughout the year. Brewing. The Oriental Brewery continued working through- out the year, and there seems every prospect of their getting a firm hold on the Eastern markets. Over 100,000 gallons of beer and -stout were brewed during the year.

(ii.).-Under Chinese Management.

  Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-Business remained about the same. There are 41 firms, large and small, in the trade.

  Native Tobacco.-There are 26 factories in existence. Business has fallen off owing to the competition in China of foreign tobacco corporations and the greatly increased sale of foreign cigarettes. The local tobacco crop was also below the average.

Tinned Goods.-This business increased moderately.

  Samshu.-The local manufacturers of native spirits report having had a good year on the whole. The institution of liquor duties has improved the position of the local producer vis à vis the producer in Chinese Territory who has to pay the various transit duties of his own country as well as the new Hong Kong duties. In September there was a temporary flooding of the market by large importations from Kwong Tung, due to the proposal of the Chinese Authorities to establish a liquor tax in the province.

The total local output of all kinds of native spirits (including the New Territories) was over 800,000 gallons.

Vinegar.-All the large native distilleries produce vinegar as well as samshu. The yearly output or the seven largest firms amounted to some 2,000,000 gallons.

  Knitted Vests and Socks. There are four factories in existence, and a fifth in course of erection. There is a large local demand for these articles.

178

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Leather. There are eight local tanneries. An increase in the price of hides affected the business adversely.

Ginger and Preserves.-The volume of business done showed a slight decrease and profits were affected by a rise in the price of sugar. There are 14 factories in the Colony.

Soy. There is no improvement to report in this trade, which remains dull.

Paper. The mill produced more paper, and the prices obtained were higher than last year.

Vermilion.-There was a further falling off in this trade. Lard. Much of the lard manufactured in the Colony is ex- ported to the Philippines, where new regulations were introduced during the year requiring the purity of animal products to be certified. The local manufacturers of lard, made from animals killed in the Colony, have found no difficulty in complying with the regulations. The output has increased considerably, and the price has also risen.

(c.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. There will soon be steam trawlers engaged in this industry, and regulations have been made by the Government for their control. Fresh-- water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d.) FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

The formation of pine tree plantations in the Harbour Belt between Lai-chi-kok and Lyemun has been continued to the ex- tent of about 400 acres, and sites which failed in the area sown in 1909 have been resown. About 2,000 broad-leaved trees of different kinds have been planted on the hills at Shaukiwan, and 400 tristanias and 200 eucalyptus at Quarry Bay.

  Shade trees in Hong Kong and Kowloon have been renewed where necessary, and flowering trees and shrubs have been planted in various places on the roads and hills in Hong Kong, where they will be readily seen when in flower. Banian trees have been planted on the approach roads to Yaumati and Taipo railway stations. Under the timber contract, 200 acres of pine forest at Mount Davis, and 70 acres at Aberdeen have been felled. Approximately 2,000,000 square feet of undergrowth have been cleared at the cost of the Government, 300,000 square feet at the cost of the Military Authorities, and 300,000 square feet at the cost of private individuals in connection with the crusade against. mosquitoes and malaria.

  The first crop of rice in the New Territories was poor owing to the drought, but the second crop was good, and other vegetable and fruit crops have been up to the average.

A sample of Chinese peppermint oil has been submitted to the Director of the Imperial Institute at his own request. It has

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

179

13

been reported on favourably, but owing to its cost it is not thought that it can be exported profitably to England.

 The account of the flora of Hong Kong, the New Territories, and Kuangtung Province has been completed, and arrangements have been made for its publication in the Journal of Botany during the current year.

(e.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

 The net amount received from sales of Crown land and pier rights after deducting expenses of sales was $62,686, an increase of $22,021 on the previous year, and $67,294 less than the average amount received for the last five years. Of this amount $28,373 was received in respect of the sale of various pier sites and extensions to existing piers, $11,416 was received in respect of sales of land in the New Territories, and the remainder from sales of new lots of Crown land, and grants of extensions to existing lots in the island of Hong Kong and Old Kowloon. The chief item was received in respect of the sale of the right of erecting a pier opposite Ice House Street in the City of Victoria, for which $17,900 was paid.

 There has been an increase in the number of Crown lots sold for building purposes in the City and adjacent district during the year, but the demand for new sites still remains small.

 A considerable increase has taken place both in the number and value of private properties which have changed hands during the year, prices are generally considered steady, and rents are generally being increased as existing leases and tenancies expire.

 The demand for small building sites in the New Territories is increasing, as is also that for short and annual leases for agricultural purposes.

 With the opening of the railway, several enquiries have been made in connection with the building of European dwellings at Tai Po, and it is considered that there will probably be a consider- able development in this neighbourhood in the future.

 The re-arrangement of the whole of the extensive properties of the Tai Koo Sugar Refinery Co., Ltd., and the Tai Koo Dock- yard and Engineering Co., Ltd., at Shaukiwan and Quarry Bay, involving very extensive surveys, was completed during the year.

 The settlement of the remaining claims of squatters in the Island of Hong Kong and Kowloon was completed during the year, and Crown leases granted to those whose titles had been approved by the Squatters Board.

III.-LEGISLATION.

Thirty-four Ordinances were passed during 1910, twenty-four of which were Amendment Ordinances. The principal matters dealt with were the consolidation of the New Territories Ordinances, the laws of Copyright, the law re Crown Suits, the segregation of lepers, the training of midwives, and the Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve.

180

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

IV.-EDUCATION.

There are 70 Government and grant schools, the most important of which is Queen's College. Of these 21 are upper grade schools, with a staff competent to give instruction on all subjects of the seventh standard, and above. These latter schools have an average attendance of 4,102, and the medium of instruction in all of them, with the exception of five girls' schools, is English. The 49 remaining schools are all lower grade. They comprise one school for British Indians, where English and Urdu are taught; six Government schools and one grant English school for Chinese; and 41 grant vernacular schools. The average attendance at all these lower grade schools is 2,257. The total average attendance, at both grades of school, is 6,359.

The revenue derived from school fees is $75,448.50 (of which $39,212 is from Queen's College), and is rapidly increasing: this is mainly to be accounted for by the increasing numbers of Chinese desirous of an English education.

Two schools are limited to children of British parentage. Both these schools (one for boys, the other for girls) are under the Government. In 1910 the combined average attendance at them was 78. The boys' school provides a small but efficient cadet corps.

Higher education is represented by the Technical Institute, where instruction is given in the evening in mathematics, machine drawing, building construction, field surveying, and allied sub- jects; in chemistry and physics; in the English and French languages, book-keeping, and shorthand. There is also a teachers' class, which the junior Chinese masters of Government and grant schools are expected to attend. A kindergarten class has also been started for teachers in girls' schools. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped laboratory. The lecturers are chiefly civil servants recruited from the European staffs of Queen's College and the Public Works Department. These officers receive fees for their services.

The Hong Kong University building, the gift of Sir Hormusjee Mody, is in course of construction, and will probably be open by the middle of 1912. The foundation stone was laid on the 16th March. The first chairs will be those of medicine, engineering, and arts. The equipment and endowment funds were raised by public subscriptions, and stood at $1,239,828 (exclusive $96,460 promised) on the 31st December.

of

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

Of the principal works in progress, the Kowloon Waterworks. reservoir was completed, and the new Government Offices and Law Courts made fair progress. A contract for the construction of the Mongkoktsui Breakwater and contingent works was let in October, and a substantial start with the work was made before.. the close of the year.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

181

15

 The following buildings were completed: -Extension of Tai Po Land Office; slaughter house, Shaukiwan; prison extension; an additional room at Queen's College for pupil teachers; a coalshed at Tsim Sha Tsui Police Basin; a fruit market on the triangular space behind the old Harbour Office; a latrine in Nelson Street, Kowloon, and a urinal in Queen's Road, East, near Arsenal Street. The following were in progress:-Kowloon Market; additions to No. 2 Police Station; staff quarters, Kennedy Town Hospital; Police Station, Tsün Wan; rebuilding of Government Pavilions; hospital at the Quarantine Station, Lai Chi Kok; workshops and sheds for ambulances, &c., at the City Disinfecting Station; latrines in Mee Lun Lane and Rutter Street (the latter to replace one demolished on account of the extension of the Tung Wah Hospital premises) and a trough closet in Queen's Road, West, under the ramp leading to the Government Civil Hospital.

 One of the bungalows at Tai Po, constructed for the accommoda- tion of the staff engaged on the construction of the railway, was taken over by the Public Works Department for the accom- modation of its officers.

 The extension of Argyle Street, referred to in last year's report, and a road of a somewhat temporary description to connect it with the existing road to Kowloon City were completed, as was also a short length of road to westward of the Kowloon Cricket Club's allotment in King's Park. In Victoria, a pathway to connect Kennedy Road with Queen's Road, East, near Arsenal Street was completed, and diversions of Caine Road past No. 2 Tank, and of Wongneichong Road past Inland Lot 1698 were in progress. Outside the city, some important improvements in the Shaukiwan Road in the vicinity of Quarry Bay were undertaken, the electric tramway being taken up and relaid where necessary. In the New Territories, the section of road from Castle Peak to Ping Shan was completed, and extensions to Un Long and Au Tau were undertaken. Another section of the same road, which will ultimately connect Castle Peak with Sha Tau Kok, extending from San Tin by way of Fan Ling Railway Station to Au Ha Gap, was also undertaken and was nearing completion at the close of the year.

 The reconstruction of gullies and the training of the large nullah, west of the University site, from Hill Road to the Pokfulam Conduit, were completed. Progress was made in sub- stitution of iron pipes for defective earthenware ones.

 The new ferro-concrete piers at Kowloon City and at the Gun- powder Depôt on Green_Island were completed, as was also the deepening of Causeway Bay. The completion of the reclamation at Gillies Avenue, Hunghom, was undertaken, a number of low- lying areas being filled in at the same time. A reclamation to provide a site for a market and a slaughter house at Aberdeen was in progress. A considerable section of Tai Hang Village was reconstructed, the level of the area dealt with being raised about. five feet.

""

 Much useful work was done under the votes "miscellaneous works,' " forming and kerbing streets," and drainage works miscellaneous," and the raising of a considerable section. of sunken sewers in Connaught Road was carried out.

182

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORts- -ANNUAL.

 Compensation was paid for a number of scavenging lanes or portions of same.

The large main to facilitate the distribution of Tytam water to the western district of the city was completed, and a four-inch main for supplying the village of Tai Hang with filtered water was laid. Sundry mains for extending and improving the dis- tribution system in Kowloon were laid.

The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,223,909.83, and on works annually recurrent $429,835.24. In the sum expended under the former head is included an amount of $309,479, which was paid for the acquisition by Government of Kowloon Inland Lots, No. 442 and 618, as a site for the Kowloon-Canton Railway Terminus. The proposal to utilise the lots in this manner was, however, subsequently held in abeyance.

The Colony fortunately escaped visitation by any typhoon or rainstorm of a serious nature.

Railway.

  All the earthwork of the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway was completed during the year. The Hung Hom cutting was handed over by the contractors in September for the laying of the permanent way. The Gascoigne Road diversion and the reclamation were finished early in December. North of Taipo the troublesome cutting at Mile 16 (Gill's Cutting) was revetted and drained. The lining of Beacon Hill and Taipo Tunnels was completed early in February. Bridges 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and the additions to others were finished in time, and did not delay the platelaying. The laying of permanent way began in March and was completed by the middle of May, the ballasting taking some time longer, as is usual. All stations, staff quarters, and buildings were completed by June. The engines and rolling stock arrived at various periods of the year, and were duly erected before the end of September. The site for the workshops was levelled early in the year, and the erection of workshops began at the end of November.

The health of the staff and the workmen engaged during con- struction was good.

The section was opened for public traffic on the 1st October, and the takings to the end of December have been $33,980.33.

The expenditure against the Loan Account during the year was aproximately $1,965,338.50, making a total to end of 1910 of $11,884,427.76.

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a.) HOSPITALS.

Government hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an observation station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease in a ship arriving in the harbour.

1904-1919

HONG KONG; 1910.

183

17

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,644 in- patients and 17,759 out-patients were treated during 1910. 340 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 188 in 1909, and 279 in 1908. The Maternity Hospital contains 6 beds for Euro- peans, and 4 for Asiatics. 107 confinements occurred during the year. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds. Dur- ing 1910, 344 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town. Hospital contains 26 beds. In 1910, 19 cases were treated, 9 being small-pox.

(b.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

 The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards, and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 195 patients of all races treated during 1910, and there were 9 deaths.

(c.) THE TUNG WAH AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

This hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed, in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirma- tion. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician who is a member of the medical department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon, trained in Western medicine, is a member of the hospital staff.

The

The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society. They consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1910 was 1,253 and the expenditure $12,600. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 244. Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which a removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infec- tious Diseases Hospital entailed, three District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony and a fourth is being built. They are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

The erection of the new "Kwong Wa" hospital for Chinese, in the Kowloon Peninsula, is complete, all but the servants' quarters.

184

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

It occupies a site having an area of 3 acres and as designed will ultimately provide accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain accommodation for 70 patients. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were under- taken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Registrar-General, but, when completed, the hospital will form. part of the Tung Wah Hospital, and be under the same manage- ment. This hospital will receive a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS

NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the Hong Kong College of Medicine, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Registrar-General and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society.

The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance and almost all women and girls detained by the Registrar-General under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1910 the number of persons admitted was 504, and at the close of the year 46 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution under mission auspices founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from the Government and also a contribution from the Pó Leung Kuk.

The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. The lecturers, who are Government officials or private medical practitioners, each receive a small honorarium, the funds being derived from the fees of the students and a Govern- ment grant-in-aid of $2,500. The minimum curriculum of study is five years, and the preliminary examination has been accepted by the General Medical Council of Great Britain. 124 students have been enrolled up to date (March, 1911); and of these 43 have become qualified "licentiates." Most of the licentiates have settled in the Colony, and are exerting a most useful influence in

""

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

185

19

the direction of displacing the native medical methods and popu- larising Western medical and sanitary knowledge, while a con- siderable number of them are employed as resident surgeons in the hospitals for Chinese, as medical officers in charge of the public dispensaries, and as assistant medical officers on the railway works. The work of the College has thus far been carried on in lecture- rooms and laboratories made available in various hospitals, &c., in different parts of the city. Steps were being taken to provide adequate buildings of its own; but action was suspended when the University scheme was proposed. When the University is opened the College will be merged into its Faculty of Medicine.

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Govern- ment. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, &c., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building. was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

 Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280), the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seaman's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters who can assist the inmates of houses where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the mortuary. The dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given, and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight dispensaries in existence, including one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay.

The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscription, was $35,272. The dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Registrar-General.

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 9,789, being a decrease of 30 or 0.3 per cent. as compared with 1909. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is an increase in the former as compared with the previous year of 263 or 7.86 per cent.

The number of serious offences reported was 242 over the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1906. The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease of 293 as compared with 1909, and was 823 below the average of the quin- quennial period.

186

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The total strength of the Police Force for 1910 was: Europeans 133, Indians 384, Chinese 525; making a total of 1,042 as com- pared with 1,054 in 1909, exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway and other Government Departments, and by private firms. Of this force 13 Europeans, 99 Indians, and 47 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year, under the District Officer.

The District Watchmen Force, numbering 124, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the City. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 4,867 as compared with 5,215 in 1909. Of these 1,212 were com- mitted for criminal offences, against 1,325 in 1909. Of commitals for non-criminal offences there were 296 more under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 21 less for infringement of Sanitary Bylaws. The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 547, the average for 1909 being 560 and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, accord- ing to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter was 14, which is the average percentage for the last ten years. Owing, however, to the large floating population, which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton, the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. The gaol, as the result of recent extensions, has now accommodation for 590 prisoners.

The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish- ments per prisoner being 1·33 as compared with 1:38 in 1909 and 1.27 in 1908.

Long sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting and white-washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c. The profit on the work done was $48,902 as against $43,946 in 1909.

 There was $4,253 received and credited to Government for non- Government work against $4,809 in 1909.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.) POPULATION.

 The population of the Colony according to the census taken in 1901 was 283,975, while at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967, exclusive of the New Territories, New Kowloon, and the Army and Navy establishments. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 435,986 as follows:-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

187

21

Non-Chinese civil

community

14,260

Hong Kong

198,720

...

Chinese popula-

tion ...

Kowloon (New and Old)

80,200

Floating population

...

48,010

Mercantile marine

2,990

329,920

Army (average strength)

4,433

Navy (average strength)

2,362

6,795

New Territories (exclusive of Kowloon)

85,011

Total ...

435,986

(6.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

 During the year under review further progress has been made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat-proof as a preventive of plague; 324 ground surfaces of houses have been repaired, and 1,675 buildings have had rat-runs filled up with cement.

 The cubicle question has for many years been one of the most difficult problems in connection with the sanitary welfare of the Colony, but it would seem that, at last, it has been solved in a satisfactory manner by a judicious combination of stringent regu- lations with administrative discretion. The Public Health law of the Colony prohibits the erection of cubicles in ground floor rooms and limits those on upper floors to two in number, while it also limits the height of the partition walls to six feet and regulates their construction in certain other directions, but a discretionary power is granted by the Ordinance which has now been vested in the Medical Officer of Health and the Assistant Medical Officer of Health and they have thus been enabled to permit the erection of a larger number of cubicles on any floor, wherever the lighting and ventilation of the premises has been found to warrant such a concession.

 New buildings (domestic) to the number of 93 were erected during the year, and in these the effect of the present Ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to reduce overcrowding.

 The general death-rate for the year was 22.50 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 10.04 per 1000 among the non-Chinese community as compared with 21-68 and 12:45 respectively during 1909.

 During the year there were only 23 deaths from plague compared with 108 in 1909 and 986 in 1908.

 There were 2,603 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the Chinese, 765 of which were due to phthisis, a percentage of 10.3 of the total deaths amongst that community.

Beri-beri caused 566 deaths-as against 545 in 1909.

 The deaths from malaria were 591 as against 422 in 1909, and 499 in 1908. The temporary increase is regarded as being partly due to large building works on the confines of the city, where there

188

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

are untrained mountain streams which contain anopheles mos- quitoes, and partly to the intermittent nature of the rainfall during the year. The streams are being trained pari passu with the completion of the building works.

(c.) CLIMATE.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 72.0° F. as compared with 72-7° F. in 1909 and 72.0° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum mean monthly temperature was attained in July, when it reached 87·0° F., and the mean minimum monthly temperature was recorded in December, when it was 54.9° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 91.3° F. on the 29th August, and the lowest 44.2° F. on the 25th January.*

The total rainfall for the year was 70 12 inches as compared with an average of 81·10 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was June, with 18-19 inches, the dryest, October, when 0.04 inch was recorded. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 8'11 inches on the 1st July, while no rain fell on 254 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 77 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the ten preceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 60 hours, being 53 per cent. of the possible duration.

These figures are those recorded at the Observatory, Kowloon, and there is a very considerable divergence between that place and Hong Kong (low levels), the Peak District, or Tai Po (New Terri- tories), both in rainfall, temperature, and humidity.

X. POSTAL SERVICE.

The total amount paid into the Treasury in 1910 by the Postal Department was $756,295.02 from which sum $237,228.48 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which fees and duties are paid in postage stamps, which are now sold ex- clusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $519,066.54 as the approximate revenue from the Postal Service. The total expen- diture amounted to $470,984.35. The result of the year's working shows a profit $48,082.19.

The Colony commenced to forward parcels viâ Shanghai, Dalny, and the Trans-Siberian railway on 1st September. The following agreements were entered into and came into operation during the year, viz.:

. Direct exchange of money orders with Indo-China on 1st October; direct exchange of parcels with New Zealand on 1st August; "parcel post agreements with the Straits Settlements on 1st August, and with the Philippine Islands (revised) on 7th October..

* These are the temperatures recorded by the Observatory at sea-level. The temperature in the high levels at the Peak averages some 10° less.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1910.

189

23

 As from the last day of 1910 the Hong Kong Government was relieved by the Imperial Authorities of the charge of the Postal Agencies in China.

XI. MILITARY EXPENDITURE.

(a.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION.

 The Colony contributed $1,372,486 (being the statutory contri- bution of 20 per cent. of the revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony, including barrack services and defence works.

(b.) VOLUNTEER CORPS.

 The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $34,744 compared with $38,393 in 1909.

XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

 The assessment made for the year 1910-1911 (1st July to 30th June) shows an increase in the rateable value of the whole Colony of 317 per cent. In the City of Victoria, the Hill District, Shaukiwan, Saiwanho, Quarry Bay, Hunghom, Hokun, Mong- koktsui, New Kowloon, and Kowloon Villages there is an increase ranging from 0.17 per cent. to 112.18 per cent., but in the Hong Kong Villages, Kowloon Point, and Yaumati a decrease ranging from 0.43 per cent. to 6.88 per cent. is shown. In the Shaukiwan, Saiwanho, and Quarry Bay Districts there is an increase of $181,911 or 112-18 per cent.

 The average rate of exchange (demand on London) which had been 1/9-0601 to the dollar for 1909 rose to 1/9-6021 for 1910.

 The position with regard to subsidiary coins remained unsatisfac- tory, and during 1910 the Government withdrew from circulation silver subsidiary coin amounting to the face value of $314,300 and copper to the face value of $114,800. These coins were shipped to England, where they were melted down and sold as bullion for £23,787 5s. 6d. and £4,205 9s. Od. respectively. The loss to revenue by this transaction amounted to $119,294.37. The dis- count during the year on Hong Kong subsidiary coin varied between 4 per cent. and 7 per cent., and on Chinese subsidiary coin 4 per cent. and 8 per cent. Hong Kong copper cents were from 105 to 120 per $1, and Chinese copper cents from 112 to 123 per $1.

Negotiations continued without success between this Government and the Chinese Authorities with a view to decreasing the excess of Chinese subsidiary coin.

 In pursuance of the policy of His Majesty's Government, all opium divans in the Colony and the New Teritories were closed on the 1st March, 1910, and on that date all the provisions of

190

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

the Ordinance to amend and consolidate the laws relating to opium and its compounds (No. 23 of 1909) came into force. The general scope of that Ordinance was described in Sir F. H. May's report on the Blue Book for 1909,* and I need only add here that during last year two further Ordinances (No. 11 and No. 33) were passed with a view to making its provisions more effective, while the Pharmacy Amendment Ordinance (No. 9 of 1910) increased the powers possessed by this Government in controlling poisons, including morphine and cocaine.

The export of morphine and compounds of opium from Hong Kong to Siam, the Netherlands-India, French Indo-China, Japan, the United States of America, and the Philippine Islands is not permitted except on production of an official certificate from the country concerned that such morphine or compounds of pium are required for medical purposes or by the Government of the country. These measures took effect on the 1st April, 1910.

His Majesty's Government made the Colony a grant of £9,000 for the year 1910, on account of a loss of $225,860 incurred during that year in respect of opium revenue.

I proceeded to England on leave on May 1st, returning on November 1st. During my absence the Government was ad- ministered by Sir F. H. May, Colonial Secretary.

The Right Honourable

&c.,

Lewis Harcourt, M.P.,

&c..

I have, &c.,

F. D. LUGARD,

Governor.

&c.

* Colonial Report [Annual], No. 659.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

192

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

45

30

45°

CHUKIANGOR

15'

22'

CANTON

RIVER

Sa-tsiang

* Fuk-yun

HONG-KONG, KOWLOON

A⚫ po-ki

114"

TUNG

Shak-ku WAN

Liong-tu-

Kon-lan

Wu-shak-ngam

Long-heu Ŏ

Chong-hang

Lung-fa

Hsin-hi

Yong-tai-shan

Pan-ten

Li-long

Ma-hámo

ð Pak-shan-lung

Pu-kak

Moi-lim

HSIN-NG AN

(SUM-ON)

Lungteubhy

Sha-tau

Sai-Heung

NAM-TAO

Ha-tsai

TẠI CHAM

BAY

Ping Cheng

Tai-san

&Waimiso

Ma-chau

Wan-had

DEEP BAY

Lin-tin

13°52′ E. LONG, OF OREENWICH

Chak-wan

OR HAU-HOI

buwan-teu

[Chuk-yen

Hain-ten Mi-puo

AND

SHA

Lim-chun

-Un-lope

Ping shan

Kam-tin

Lung-ku

( Sachau

rai-o

• Tai-shui-habg

Chin-shan * Pet-long

Nam-long

Chon-mun

(Castle Peak

dShui-leu

-kok

Попилико

Tung chung

LAN-TAO (TAI-U SHAN),

Tai-lam-chung

Ma-wan

Shui Mun"

Τε

Chung -hue

Chewi Shar

Stonecutter Island

HON

Lighthouse Kenn

Ping-chau GreenMo Tow

Silver Mine,

Bay

Cheung-Chau

St-A-Chau

Kow-Chau

Ab

Chau-kung

Tai-ku-chau

EST LAM MA CHAN

Tai-wane

Lamma (Pok-Liu

Ty-lo 13

О

Lap-sap-mi 15

43

Chi chau lộ

114*

L

ADJACENT TERRITORIES.

15'

Piang-ti

1904-1919

Lung-kong

o Tai-Tong-tu

Tong-la

Hsin-hi

KUI

SHAN

30°

Shak-kong

Ten-teu

• Tong-poi

BIA S

Ten

Piang-san

Tongthang

Wang-kong o

>

Sa-wan-

*Tai-wo-chun

Yam-ten &

Pa-kongo

Tisam-kai

Ki-chun o

Shong-tungs

Kaichung

Sha-tao

tong o

Sha-tau

Kat-o

Crooked I.

TAI-PUNG-SANG

Sa-ng-chung

BAY

Wong-muo

Tipfuk

Hasha

Peng-ch

Pit-chau

Namo

ng-kwut-tey

huj

✔ ROAD

Wo-hang

Tin-koko

Shon-wan

RAWAY

Kuk-pu

Harbour

· Crookede

Wang-ling-tau

Plover Cove

TOLO HARBOUR

White Head

Tolo Channel

Song-chau Crescent 1.

Bluff Hd

:

Long Harbour

R S

BAY

Port Island

Grass I. Tap-mun

Tan-ka-wan

Mira

เก

Lok Lo

H

Tide Cove

Shatin

Fox Kau-lung.

-shan

SWVLOON] CITY

Mongkok

IG HAR

Hung

Tam-t

Ko-tongo

Chak-kang

Tai-long

Shak-hang Hei-wang

Tai-shui-hang

Pet-kong

Sai-kung

Yam-ten

Pak

-za wan

NGAU SHEWAN

ROAD

Tai-

"pu-tazio

VPort Shelter

Cheung-Kwan-O.

-hom Kon-

Lighthqua "sim-Sha Taur

tong

PChin-hang

Ping-ong-wan

Hang Hau S

unk Ha-yong

5.Tau-Chau

Bay

Lyes-mun-Chan,

KONG

Lighthou

Fung Head

Fung 3ay

Lan-nai-wan

wad Ping Pt

She-wan

High L

Town I.

✔Basalt I.

Lam-tong I.

Ninepin Group

Ta-tong

Stan

Taitam

Chan

Tai-long Head (c. Aquilar) Wong-ma-kok Fury Rocks

Bay

tu-wan

LAMMA CHAN.

Lo-chau

✔Wag-lan

Sun-kong

Lighthouse

22°9′N, LAT.

A CHANNEL

15'

LONG, OF GREENWICH

NOTE

o Kak-ten

Territory under Convention of 1860

Boundary under Convention 1898

1

3

English Miles (89-18 m+1)

1

30

45

Samun

193

30

13

22

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 723.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1911.

(For Report for 1910, see No. 691.)

195

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty

August, 1912.

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WŸMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, FETTER LANE, E.C., and

32, ABINGDON STREET, S.W.; or

OLIVER AND BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT, EDINBURGH; or E. PONSONBY, LIMITED, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN; or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America, the Continent of Europe and Abroad of T. FISHER UNWIN, LONDON, W.C.

PRINTED BY

DARLING AND SON, LTD., BACON STREET, E.

1912.

[Ca. 6007-23.] Price 4d.

196

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

4

...

***

...

4

I.-FINANCES

...

...

:

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE,

AND LAND

...

III.-LEGISLATION

...

IV.-EDUCATION

***

V.-PUBLIC WORKS..

:

...

...

...

:.

...

:.

:

:.

...

:

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND Aided InstitUTIONS

:

13

...

:

14

15

...

...

17

:

:

...

...

20

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT .....

...

...

18

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE

....

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS

X-POSTAL SERVICE

...

XI.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

SKETCH MAP.

:

...

:

:

:

:

...

:

21

23

...

...

23

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 723.

HONG KONG,

(For Report for 1910, see No. 691.)

197

3.

SIR,

THE ACTING GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

2nd July, 1912.

I HAVE the honour to transmit the Report on the Blue- Book of Hong Kong for the year 1911, which has been furnished. by the Acting Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.,

CLAUD SEVERN,

Officer Administering the Government..

The Right Honourable

Lewis Harcourt, M.P.,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

(25692-2.) Wt. 29478-571. 1125 & 90. 8/12. D & S.

A 2:

198

4

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUal.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1911.

I.-FINANCES.

In 1911 the revenue amounted to $7,497,231, exceeding the estimate by $410,848, while the expenditure amounted to $7,077,177, or $308,143 less than the estimate. Thus the balance for the year's working was $420,054, bringing the balance of assets and liabilities up to $1,826,979 in the Colony's favour.

The total capital expenditure on the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway amounted on the 31st December, 1910, to a sum of $11,884,427.76, and a further sum of $137,075.01 was added to the capital expenditure during 1911, making a total expenditure of $12,021,502.77 down to the end of last year. Additional expenditure will be necessary during 1912 for the construction of a terminal station and for the resumption of land on which to build it. The payments made up to the end of 1911 have more than exhausted the existing Railway Loan, and it is probable, therefore, that in 1912 a further loan will have to be raised.

The amount of the Consolidated Loan (Inscribed Stock Loans of 1893 and 1906) stands at £1,485,732, and in addition at the end of the year the advances by the Crown Agents for railway construction amounted to £340,000. Against these items, however, should be placed the sum at credit of the Sinking Fund, viz., £118,267, and the sum of £440,000, being the unpaid balance of the loan to the late Viceroy at Wuchang.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.) SHIPPING AND TRADE.

The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1911 amounted to 543,570 vessels of 36,179,153 tons, which, compared with figures for 1910, shows a decrease in numbers of 3,594 vessels, with a decrease of 355,209 tons.

 Of the above, 44,978 vessels of 23,063,108 tons were engaged in foreign trade, as against 40,714 of 23,160,256 tons in 1910, and were distributed as follows:-

1911.

1910. Numbers. Numbers.

1911.

1910. Tonnage. | Tonuage.

British ocean-going ships repre-

sented

Per cent. Per cent.

8.7

Per cent. Per cent.

10.5

32-9

35.0

Foreign ocean-going ships repre-

sented

9.3

10.6

34.3

35.0

British river steamers repre-

15.3

16.0

17.8

17.3

sented

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911. .

1911.

1910. Numbers. Numbers.

1911. Tonnage. | Tonnage.

1910.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent. Per cent.

Foreign river steamers repre-

3.1

3.3

3.2

3.0

sented

Steamships (not exceeding 60

7.2

7.7

0.6

0.6

 tons) represented Trading junks represented

...

56.4

51.9

11.2

9.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

199

5

 The movements of fishing junks are not included in the above figures.

 Of ships of European construction, 4,042 ocean steamers, 7 sailing ships, 4,147 river steamers, and 1,617 steamships not exceeding 60 tons entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 26·9 ships, as compared with 267 in 1910 and 25.6 in 1909.

 The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has once more increased-from 2,457.3 tons to 2,495.1 tons. That of British ships has increased (2,633.5 tons as against 2,594.5 tons) while that of foreign ships has increased from 2,324 1 tons to 2,365-7 tons.

 During the past 20 years the average tonnage of ocean vessels has increased from 1,181-1 to 1,915.5 tons.

The average tonnage of river steamers entered during the year has again decreased from 6021 tons to 5849 tons. That of British river steamers has further decreased from 617 tons to 599 tons, and that of foreign river steamers from 529 tons to 518 tons. A comparison between the years 1910 and 1911 is given in the following table:-

1910.

1911.

Increase.

Decrease.

Class of Vessel.

No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage. No.

Ton- nage.

No.

Ton- nage.

British ocean-going

...

Foreign ocean-going

British river steamers

4,262 8,111,946 3,907 7,589,995 4,312 8,103,969 4,180 7,917,640 6,483 4,000,073

355 521,951 132 186,329

Foreign river steamers

Steamships under 60

1,334 706,616 3,153 136,765

6,871 | 4,116,736 1,423 736,057 8,263 130,092 110

388 116,663

89 29,441

*6,673

tons (foreign trade).

Junks (foreign trade)... | 21,170 | 2,100,887 25,334 2,572,588 4,164 471,701

Total foreign trade

40,714 23,160,256 44,978 23.063,108 4,751 617,805 | 487|714,953 Steam launches plying 466,014 10,986,234 461,984 10,981,990

|4,030 †4,224

in waters of Colony. Junks (local trade)

the

...

140,436 |†2,387,871 §36,608 §2,134,054

Grand Total

...

8,828 253,817

547,164 36,534,361 543,570 36,179,162 4,751 617,805 8,345 | 973,014

3,594 355,209

Net

...

* Decrease owing to a number of smaller sized launches being employed. + Small decrease in tonnage owing to larger sized launches being employed.

Including 21,056 conservancy and dust boats of 1,540,984 tons.

"2

13,980

""

19

"

818,292 "1

200

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

This table shows a decrease in British ocean shipping of 355 ships of 521,951 tons, or of 83 per cent. in numbers, and of 6-4 per cent. in tonnage.

  British river steamers have increased from 6,483 ships of 4,000,073 tons to 6,871 ships of 4,116,736 tons or 2-3 per cent. in ships and 2.9 per cent. in tonnage. This is explained by the new steamer "Wing On" contributing 295 trips, also to the increased number of trips made by the Canton steamers, particularly at the time of the unrest in Canton.

  Foreign ocean vessels have decreased by 132 ships or 3 per cent. in numbers and 23 per cent. in tonnage. This result is due to increases of 66, 47, 26, 20, 15, and 4 ships under United States, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, French, and Japanese flags respectively, which are counterbalanced by decrease of 141, 121, 27, 18, 2, and 1 ships under German, Chinese, Swedish, Nor- wegian, Italian, and Danish flags respectively. The increase shown under the United States flag is explained by the steamers "Rubi" and "Zafiro " being transferred from British colours, and the increase shown under the Dutch flag is explained by the fact that four steamers which called at this port in 1911 did not call in 1910. The decrease under the German flag is chiefly accounted for by the falling off in trade from Bangkok; while the decrease under the Chinese flag is due to the loss of the "Meefoo" and to the stoppage of two steamers which previously traded to this port.

Foreign river steamers have increased by 89 ships (or 6'6 per cent.) of 29,441 tons (or 4'1 per cent.). This is mainly accounted for by the new steamers "Shing Ping" and "Licorne" con- tributing 72 trips, and to an increase in trips of vessels under the Portuguese flag.

As in former years, a comparison is inserted between the ship- ping of the port twenty years ago and to-day. In 1891, 2,856 British ships of 3,593,223 net register tons entered the port, against 10,778 ships of 11,706,731 net register tons in 1911, an increase of 2773 per cent. in numbers and of 223 per cent. in tonnage. These figures include ocean and river steamers and ocean-going sailing ships (not junks). Similarly, foreign ship- ping, during the same period, has increased from 1,495 ships of 1,545,404 net register tons in 1891 to 5,603 ships of 8,653,697 net register tons-an increase of 275-7 per cent. in numbers and of 459.9 per cent. in tonnage.

The actual number of individual ocean vessels of European type of construction entering during 1911 was 720, being 348 British and 372 foreign. The corresponding figures for 1910 were 734, 365, and 369 respectively.

These 720 ships aggregated 1,796,498 tons. They entered 4,049 times, giving a collective tonnage of 7,756,033 tons. Thus, as shown in the following table, in 1911, as compared with 1910, 14 less ships with a tonnage decreased by 8,177 tons entered 235 less times, and gave a collective tonnage less by 356,952 tons.

Flag.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

Steamers.

No. of times entered.

Total Tonnage.

1910. 1911. 1910. 1911. 1910.

1911.

201

7

British-

Steamers Sailing

German

...

Japanese- Steamers Sailing Norwegian...

...

:::

...

360 5

4

7

6

113

111

722

657

344 2,124 1,952 4,041,557 3,781,622 3442,124

17,663 16,534 1,206,757 1,133,786.

|

101

106

507

509

1,341,083 | 1,354,362

1

1

138

34

36

223

210

236,334

221,039

Austrian

Chinese

...

Danish

6

24

24-

95,062

96,380

...

...

22

20

250

192

***

314,879

241,362

Dutch

...

...

French

...

Italian

...

...

•••

Portuguese

...

Russian

...

Swedish

***

~+ww&Hal

6

8

20

20

33,165

45,928

16

16

108

130

214,737

235,881

35

27

144

152

262,670

242,469

3

3

24

2

13

12

34,496

31,188.

4

66

79

29,478

32,842

7

11

10

20

28,803

53,080.

6

27

14

45,398

25,778

U.S.A.-

Steamers Sailing No flag

15

18

37

71

...

...

210,466

243,619

1

1

163

...

...

...

1

1

299

...

734

7204,2844,049 8,112,985 7,756.033

1

TRADE.

 As pointed out in previous reports, the figures which used to appear under this heading were misleading, being inaccurate in some cases. However, in the few items of import trade of which substantially accurate details can be given, the following remarks may be of interest:

 Coal.-1,046,290 tons were imported during the year. This quantity, compared with the imports for 1910, shows a decrease of 68,830 tons or 66 per cent. This decrease may be ascribed to greater quantities of coal (principally Japanese, North China, and Hongay) passing through Hong Kong direct to Canton than heretofore, also to the falling off in ocean tonnage.

 Of the many varieties of coal imported, Japanese heads the list. Next come North China and Hongay. The importation from Pulo Laut is increasing.

 There was only one cargo of Cardiff coal commercially imported. No Australian coal was discharged throughout the

year.

 Kerosene Oil shows a big increase in bulk oil of 62,367 tons or 111-1 per cent., and in case oil an increase of 4,112 tons or 8.8 per cent., while liquid fuel has increased by 7,759 tons or 82-3 per cent.

     The huge increase in bulk oil can be attributed to a great extent to the cutting of rates between the Standard Oil and Asiatic Petroleum Companies, also to the fact that stocks were left short in 1910, and that much oil hitherto shipped direct to

202

8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

coast ports was last year transhipped in Hong Kong, because the revolution in China caused a restriction of sales in the interior. The increase in liquid fuel tends to show that this class of fuel is now-becoming popular in steamers which hitherto exclusively consumed coal.

Opium.-The imports of raw opium show a decrease of 10,457 chests or 32.9 per cent., as compared with a decrease of 11·1 per cent. in 1910 and 14.5 per cent. in 1909. The exports show a decrease of 8,272 chests or 29-2 per cent., as compared with a decrease of 212 per cent. in 1910 and 9.7 per cent. in 1909. During the last four years the raw opium trade of the Colony is described by the following figures:-

1911.

1910. 1909. 1908.

Stock in hand, 1st January Imported during the year

Total

Boiled by opium farmer Spurious opium destroyed Exported during the year

Total

...

Chests.

7,123

...

Chests. Chests. Chests.

4,509 21,286 31,743 35,734

5,808

4,707

41,821

28,409

36,252

41,542

46,528

761

782

1,044

864

14

51

247

20,061 28,333 35,938

39,609

::

:

:::

::

:

:::

Stock remaining on 31st December

...

20,802 29,129 37,033 40,720

7,587 7,123 4,509 5,808

Of the several varieties of opium imported, Malwa decreased by 454 chests or 9.2 per cent., Patna by 6,443 or 397 per cent., Benares by 1,249 or 19-3 per cent., Persian by 1,090 or 27.6 per cent.

Of the several varieties of opium exported, Malwa decreased by 2,000 chests or 43-5 per cent., Patna by 4,196 or 29.7 per cent., Benares by 926 or 14.9 per cent. The export of Persian opium increased by 56 chests or 2.5 per cent.

The trade in compounds of opium shows a decrease, the imports being 38.8 per cent. less than in 1910, and the exports 14.5 per cent. less. In morphine there is also a decrease of 39 per cent. in the imports and 19.5 per cent. in the exports. The figures for cocaine show a considerable increase, the imports being 451 lbs. as compared with 145 lbs. in 1910, and the exports being 445 lbs. as compared with 201 lbs. in 1910. During the latter half of the year, however, there has been very little trade in either morphine or cocaine owing to further restrictions placed on the import of these drugs at the various ports in China and the neighbouring countries.

 Sugar. The imports of sugar show a decrease-42,076 tons or 16.7 per cent.

Cotton and Cotton Yarn.-Here is shown a large decrease amounting to 34,730 tons or 87.5 per cent., chiefly due to high prices ruling for cotton during the year, which made it pro-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

203

hibitive to the poorer Chinese and so checked business. The last two or three months of the year were particularly bad for business owing to the Revolution.

Flour. Our returns show a great increase of 49,679 tons or 153.8 per cent. due to the poor rice and wheat crops in China throughout the year. Districts which were supplied last year from the abundant crops of China have this year been compelled to fall back on the American products. The price of rise has also enhanced the demand for American flour, this being used as a substitute for rice and rice-flour. The prices of rice through- out the year have practically stood at about 40 per cent. over normal prices, and possibly the high prices of flour in Australia have to some extent inflated our imports of flour here, inasmuch as such high prices have curtailed that country's shipments to ports south of Hong Kong which are large consumers (Java, Straits, Burmah, &c.), and the southern ports have come to us for their supplies. Hong Kong is the distributing centre of American flour for those ports.

Rice. Here our returns show a falling off of 152,224 tons or 26.6 per cent. The failure of the southern crops in general, as evidenced by the high prices which have ruled on the markets for the last half year, has, of course, been the reason of the decline.

Summary.-The total reported imports during the year amounted to 3,995,793 tons, as against 4,292,194 tons in 1910, a decrease of 296,401 tons or 74 per cent. Exports show an increase of 71,672 tons or 3.1 per cent. Transit cargo shows an increase of 66,109 tons or 16 per cent. These figures are not, however, reliable there being no means of collecting accurate information in the absence of any Customs staff.

Emigration and Immigration.

 135,565 emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1911 (111,058 in 1910). Of these 92,691 were carried in British ships and 42,874 in foreign ships. These figures show a substantial increase of 24,507 (or 22 per cent.) over 1910, and can be accounted for in the same way as last year, namely, by the demand for labour in the rubber plantations of the Malay States.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements 1907 to 1911 compared with total Chinese Emigration 1907 to 1911.

1907

1908

...

No. of Emigrants

Total No. of

Straits Settlements. Emigrants.

to

83,048

49,639

48,016

76,705

100,906

1909

1910

1911

...

...

...

...

...

105,967

71,081

77,430

111,058

135,565

 149,894 returning emigrants are reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had

204

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

10

COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.

emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 149,564 in 1910. Of these 112,328 arrived in British ships and 37,566 in foreign ships.

(b.) IndustriES.

(i.) -Under European Management.

Engineering and Shipbuilding.-This industry has improved during the year under review.

1911.

Gross

Vessels.

I.H.P.

Tons.

...

...

...

WIwwerowe

9

2,281

3,650

13

552

703

8

5

30

1

ខ្លួនប្អូនខ្លះទន

206

413

50

173

408

860

55

250

210

192

45

48

76

320

73

:

3,883

6,609

 Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ld. Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ld.

...

***

...

...

W. S. Bailey & Co. Macdonald & Co. Ulderup and Schluter Tung Hing Lung Kwong Tak Hồng W. C. Jack & Co. Kwong Hip Lung Co., Ld.

...

...

...

***

...

...

***

Total

...

:

:

1910.

8

2,231

1,718

14

715

2,070

4

121

200

...

3

169

160

317

150

...

:

31

3,553

4,298

 Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Lḍ. Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ld. W. S. Bailey & Co.

...

...

Macdonald & Co.

Ulderup and Schluter

Total

...

...

...

Sugar Refinery.-Various circumstances combined to cause the year 1911 to be an unfavourable one for this industry. In the early part of the year the world's prices assumed a strong down- ward tendency, due to heavy crops being anticipated in the main sugar-producing centres. This affected prices unprofitably in Hong Kong and the East. Later a reaction in prices took place, due to shortness in the European beet crops, and values mounted up here in common with other parts of the world, but the more prosperous results which these circumstances placed within the reach of the Hong Kong refineries were nullified by the outbreak of the Revolution, which reduced local demand to a minimum.

Cotton-Spinning.-Owing to the high prices required for cotton. during the early part of last year it was impossible to work at a profit and one mill was closed for nine months. Towards the end of the year the Revolution in China dislocated business and the outlook is still unsatisfactory.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

205

11

 Rope Manufacturing.-There is very little requiring special comment, and the trade for the year has gone on without any distinguishing feature. The power of absorption of the local and adjacent markets seems to vary very little. The price of hemp has been fairly steady throughout the year, the extreme fluctuation not exceeding $3 per picul in Manila.

Cement.-There has been a fair demand throughout the year. Brewing. The Oriental Brewery, of which hopes of success were confidently expressed in 1910, was unfortunately unable to compete with other breweries and has passed into liquidation.

(ii.)--Under Chinese Management.

Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-Business showed a slight falling off. There are 41 firms, large and small, in the trade.

 Native Tobacco.-There are 26 factories in existence. Busi- ness is still unsatisfactory owing to the competition in China of foreign tobacco corporations and the sale of foreign cigarettes. The local tobacco crops were fairly good.

Tinned Goods.-This business increased moderately, and con- siderable exports have been made to Annam and Singapore.

 Samshu.-The local manufacturers of native spirits report having had a good year. The total output of all kinds of native spirits (including the New Territories) was nearly 1,100,000 gallons, as against 800,000 gallons in 1910. This increase is due to a decrease in import from China consequent on the recent unrest.

Vinegar. All the large native distilleries produce vinegar as well as samshu. The yearly output of the seven largest firms amounted to some 850,000 gallons. The figures given for 1910 (two million gallons) were probably wrong.

Knitted Vests and Socks.-There are five factories in existence. A large local demand, which has lately still further increased, exists for these articles.

Leather. There are eight local tanneries. The high price of hides affected the business adversely, and the volume of trade fell off by about 10 per cent.

 Ginger and Preserves.-The volume of business done still showed a decrease and was affected by the price of sugar. There are 14 factories in the Colony.

 Soy. There is no improvement to report in this trade, which remains dull.

Paper. The trade still shows satisfactory progress.

Vermilion.-The volume of this trade has again fallen off and at the end of the year the demand for this commodity was almost non-existent.

Lard.-Much of the lard manufactured in the Colony is exported to the Philippines, where regulations require the purity of animal products to be certified. The local manufacturers of lard made from animals killed in the Colony willingly comply with the regulations. The output still increases. During 1911 a lard and meat factory was started purely in the interests of the Philippine trade.

206

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(c.) FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Since the middle of last year a steam trawler has been engaged in fishing over various grounds, and has contributed its hauls to the local markets. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d.) FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

The formation of pine tree plantations in the Harbour Belt. between Laichikok and Lyemun has been continued to the extent of about 300 acres, and sites which failed in the area sown in the previous year have been resown. This Belt has now been completed.

  Mount Davis, and an area of about 70 acres at Aberdeen where pine trees were felled in 1910 under the timber contract, have been resown with pine tree seeds.

  The areas cleared by fire last year on the slope of Mount Kellett, which descends to Aberdeen, have also been resown with pine tree seeds.

  On Mount Gough, where a fire occurred last year, about 1,800- sites have been sown with seeds of broad-leaved trees.

Experiments have been made in planting broad-leaved trees and sowing seeds of shrubs on the bare hills on the southern slopes of the Kowloon range of hills.

  In Hong Kong and Kowloon shade trees have been renewed where required, and flowering trees have been planted in suitable places. Altogether 800 trees have been used for these purposes.

Trees have been planted alongside the Castle Peak-Shataukok Road to the number of 4,800.

  At Aberdeen pine tree felling under the timber contract has been carried out in two blocks. Seventy acres have been felled east of the paper mill and 140 acres west of the Aberdeen New Road.

  Undergrowth to the extent of about 2,950,000 square feet has been cleared at the cost of the Government, 1,000,000 square feet at the cost of the Military Authorities, and 250,000 square feet at the cost of private individuals in connection with the fight against mosquitoes and malaria. About 300,000 square feet of undergrowth have been cleared for the Public Works Department for the purposes of survey.

  Several kinds of fodder grass have been experimented with, but nothing has been found equal to the guinea grass which is so much grown in the Colony.

  The first and second rice crops were good. Lichis were a good crop and the railway carried some of the crop to Hong Kong.

  Several samples of vegetable products have been submitted to the Director of Imperial Institute for investigation. His report.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

207

13.

on the majority of the articles has not yet been received. In a report on tea-seed cake, however, he stated that the article was likely to lead to business, as two firms were satisfied with the price and wished to be put in communication with exporters of the cake.

 The key to the flora of Hong Kong, the New Territories, and Kwang-tung Province is now in course of publication. The editor of the Journal of Botany was unable at the last minute to accept it for publication and it is now being published by the Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew as an additional series of the Kew Bulletin.

(c.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

 The net amount received from sales of Crown land and pier rights after deducting expenses of sales was $270,005, an increase of $207,319 on the previous year and $149,170 more than the average amount received for the last five years. Of this amount $4,741 was received in respect of the sale of various pier sites and extensions to existing piers, $5,899 was received in respect of sales of land in the New Territories, and the remainder from sales of new lots of Crown land and grants of extensions to existing lots in the island of Hong Kong and Old Kowloon. The chief items were received in respect of the sales of in- land lots 1892 and 1901, which realised $34,600 and $80,100 respectively.

 There has been a considerable increase in the number of build- ing lots in the city sold by the Government during the year, 18 lots having an area of 7a. 3r. 354p. having been sold for a premium of $234,767, as against six lots with an

area of Ir. 191p. and at a premium of $4,776 for the previous year.

 There has again been a very considerable increase both in number and value of private properties which have changed hands during the year, the purchase moneys having exceeded those of the previous year by over six million dollars. There is a good demand for residental houses on the lower levels and in many instances a considerable rise in prices has been obtained, which may be accounted for by the large number of Chinese gentry who have invested in house property in the Colony during the latter part of the year. There is a considerable demand for good mortgage securities with a tendency to accept a reduced rate of interest.

 Sales of vacant Crown lands in the New Territories continue even and consist chiefly of small building sites at prices ranging from 1 to 2 cents a foot and land for purposes of cultivation at from to cents a foot.

III.-LEGISLATION.

 Sixty-five Ordinances were passed during 1911, of which 41 were amendments to other Ordinances and five were connected with the revision of the Ordinances of Hong Kong now being carried out by the Chief Justice (Sir F. T. Piggott, Kt.). This

208

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

14

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

is the largest number of Ordinances ever passed by the Hong- Kong Legislative Council in one year.

The most important Ordinances were:-The Defence (Sketch- ing Prevention) Ordinance (No. 3), the Consolidation of the Liquor Laws (No. 9), the University Ordinance (No. 10), the Stamp Duties Management Ordinance (No. 35), the Code of Civil Procedure Amendment (No. 36), the Societies Ordinance (No. 47), the Chinese Partnerships Ordinance (No. 53), and the law relating to Companies (No. 58).

IV. EDUCATION.

There are 67 Government and grant schools, the most important of which is Queen's College. Of these 20 are upper grade schools, with a staff competent to give instruction in all subjects of the- seventh standard and above. These latter schools have an average attendance of 4,107, and the medium of instruction in all of them, with the exception of four girls' schools, is English. The 47 remaining schools are all lower grade. They comprise one school for British Indians, where English and Urdu are taught, six Government schools, and 40 grant vernacular schools. The average attendance at all these lower grade schools is 2,196. The total average attendance at both grades of school is 6,303.

The revenue derived from school fees was $76,056.25 (of which $40,435 was from Queen's College).

+

Two schools are limited to children of British parentage. Both these schools (one for boys, the other for girls) are under the- Government. In 1911 the combined average attendance at them was 76.

Higher education is represented by the Technical Institute, where instruction is given in the evening in mathematics, machine drawing, building construction, field surveying, and allied subjects; in chemistry and physics; in the English and French languages, book-keeping and shorthand. There is also. a teachers' class, at which the junior Chinese masters of Govern- ment and grant schools are expected to attend. A kindergarten class has also been started for teachers in girls' schools. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped laboratory. The lecturers are chiefly civil servants recruited from the European staffs of Queen's College and the Public Works Department. These officers receive fees for their services.

The Hong Kong University building, the gift of Sir Hormusjee Mody, was almost completed at the end of the year, and was opened in March, 1912. It is expected to be open for teaching in the autumn of this year. The first Chairs will be those of medicine, engineering, and arts. On 31st December, 1911, the- endowment fund amounted to $839,970.11 in Hong Kong currency and a sum £40,098 7s. 3d. in sterling.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

209

15

 Of the important works in progress, the Post Office was com- pleted by the middle of the year and the following departments were accommodated on three floors of the building :-Post Office, Treasury, Registrar-General's Department, Sanitary Department, Education Department, the District Office for the South of the New Territories, and the Audit Department. The extensive basement was partly utilized for postal purposes and partly for the storage of materials required by the Sanitary Department. A fourth floor, which is intended to provide for future expansion, remains unoccupied; but it has been decided to let it for offices in the meanwhile. The Law Courts were practically completed. Sub- stantial progress was made with the Mongkoktsui Breakwater, but all the work executed was invisible, being below low water level. A contract for the reconstruction of the old Western Market was let in September, and fair progress with the founda- tions had been made by the close of the year.

 The following buildings were completed:-Kowloon Market; additions to No. 2 Police Station; Staff Quarters, Kennedy Town Hospital; Police Station, Ts'ün Wan; reconstruction of Govern- ment Pavilions; Hospital at the Quarantine Station, Lai Chi Kok; workshops and sheds for ambulances at the City Disinfect- ing Station; coal shed, Tai Po; latrines in Mee Lun Lane and Rutter Street; and a trough closet in Queen's Road West under the ramp leading to the Government Civil Hospital. The follow- ing building works were in erection :-Sanitary office in Wantsai District; additional storey and extensions, Yaumati English School; market and slaughter house, Aberdeen; stables, Yaumati Disinfecting Station; quarters for searchers, Imports and Exports Office; lighthouse and quarters, Kap Sing Island; an extension of the Maternity Hospital; and the reconstruction of coolie quarters at the City Slaughter Houses to admit of the provision of further accommodation for slaughtering pigs.

 The diversion of Wongneichong Road past Inland Lot 1698 was completed and extended northwards to join the permanent alignment of that section of the road which had previously been formed. The area formerly occupied by No. 2 Tank was filled in. A path from Bowen Road to May Road, bifurcating towards the latter road, was completed, and paths from Boundary Path to Kennedy Road and from Chamberlain Road to Plantation Road were in progress. A diversion of Bonham Road to admit of an extension of Inland Lot 754 was also in progress, the neces- sary works being executed at the expense of the lessees of the lot mentioned. A road to the site of a proposed Japanese Crema- torium in Sookunpoo Valley was completed. In the New Territories, the sections of road extending from Ping Shan to Au Tau and from San Tin to Au Ha Gap were completed. As it was decided to utilize the last-named section for a light railway, to extend from Fan Ling railway station to Sha Tau Kok, the necessary extension of the road to the latter place was abandoned, a track for the light railway taking its place. The construction of this track and the laying of the light railway were carried out by the Railway Administration. A pier was constructed in

210

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

16

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Castle Peak Bay and connected with the road to Ping Shan and Au Tau.

The training of some of the nullahs between Bowen Road and Magazine Gap to the eastward of the Military Hospital was com- pleted, and a considerable amount of such work was executed to the south of Magazine Gap in the valley below the Military Sana- torium, the military authorities sharing the cost of the latter work. A considerable length of the nullah at No. 12 Bridge, Shaukiwan, was also trained and the stream past Pokfulam Village was channelled and otherwise. improved. In Kowloon, an extension of the nullah in Waterloo Road to the north of No. 4 Railway Bridge was carried out. Underground tanks were constructed at the junction of Arbuthnot Road and Wyndham Street and in Stone Nullah Lane for the purpose of flushing the low-level sewers, the necessary connections with the sewerage system being made. The laying of a sewer in Cragmin Road to intercept the drainage from houses on the southern slopes of Mount Gough, &c. was undertaken and connections with a number of the houses were carried out. Extensive drainage works were also executed in Shaukiwan West and Shamshuipo.

The reclamations at the end of Gillies Avenue, Hunghom, and for the market and slaughter house at Aberdeen were completed; the reconstruction and raising. of Tai Hang Village was con- tinued; similar work of a more extensive nature at Ap Liu Village, near Shamshuipo, was undertaken and the reclamation of the area in front of Kowloon Marine Lots 29 to 31, at Yaumati, was begun.

The work of providing scavenging lanes was continued, com- pensation being paid where necessary.

  The Tytam East or Mount Parker Catchwater was extensively repaired or reconstructed, and a considerable extension of the Shaukiwan Water Works, for the purpose of augmenting the supply to that village, was undertaken. An 8" water main was.. substituted for the 3" and 4" previously existing from Percival Street to the Asiatic Petroleum Company's Works (Marine Lot 277).

  Extensive illuminations of the principal public buildings were carried out on the occasion of the Coronation of His Majesty King George V.

  The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,094,817.93 and on works annually recurrent $486,940.80.

  Several typhoons of considerable severity occurred, one of these, which occurred in August, being accompanied by a severe rain- storm, 15 inches of rain falling in two days and causing con- siderable damage to roads, retaining walls, &c.

Railway.

  Little construction work was carried out during 1911 with the- exception of building the workshops, erecting machinery, and pitching the slopes of No. 1 Cutting. Nothing was done towards. the building of the terminal station at Kowloon, but negotiations were carried on for the acquisition of the necessary land and it is anticipated that the work will be put in hand at an early date. A two-foot gauge branch line from Fan Ling to Sha Tau Kok, a distance of 7 miles, was commenced in May, 1911, and three-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911,

211

17:

sections were opened for traffic on 21st December. The fourth and last section had not been opened at the end of the year.

 In October last through traffic between Hong Kong and Canton was established but, owing to the disturbances in Chinese terri- tory, traffic on the Chinese section was suspended at the request of the late Viceroy on November 7th and was not resumed until the 14th December. Thereafter the traffic to the end of the year- was below normal. The local traffic was steady during the year and receipts were more than was anticipated.

 Passengers carried between 5th October and 31st December are- as follows:-

British Section to China

...

China to Hong Kong and Kowloon...

...

29,338 27,653

VI. GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a.) HOSPITALS.

 Government hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an observation station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease on board a ship arriving in the harbour.

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,370 in- patients and 15,489 out-patients were treated during 1911 as. against 2,644 and 17,759 respectively in 1910. 112 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 340 in 1910 and 188 in 1909. The Maternity Hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 138 confinements occurred during the year as against 107 in 1910. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak con- tains 41 beds, and during 1911 309 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 22 cases were treated in 1911, 21 being small-pox.

(b.) LUNATIC ASYLUM.

 The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 220 patients of all races were treated during 1911 and there were 14 deaths.

(c.) THE TUNG WA AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European

212

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes: expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirma- tion. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon, trained in Western medicine, is a member of the. hospital staff. There are 323 beds in the buildings and 3,649 patients were accommodated during 1911.

The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital opened in 1904 and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital opened in 1906. The number of in- patients in 1911 was 1,399 and the expenditure $16,600. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 249. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hos- pitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Peninsula was opened on the 9th October. It occupies a site having an area of 3 acres and as designed will ultimately provide accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds, and 169 patients were accommodated during, 1911. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Registrar-General, but when completed the hospital will form part of the Tung Wa Hospital and be under the same management. The hospital will receive a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

VII. INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported, by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the Hong Kong College of Medicine, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Registrar- General and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

213

19

buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Registrar-General under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1911 the number of persons ad- mitted was 514, and at the close of the year 72 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

 The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from the Government as well as a contribution from the Pó Leung Kuk.

 The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887. The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government official, is President. The lecturers, who are Government officials or private medical practitioners, each receive a small honorarium, the funds being derived from the fees of the students, a Govern- ment grant-in-aid of $2,500, and certain legacies and bequests. The minimum course of study is five years, and the preliminary examination has been accepted by the General Medical Council of Great Britain. 125 students had been enrolled up to last December, and of these 43 have become qualified licentiates. Most of the licentiates have settled in the Colony, and are exert- ing a most useful influence in the direction of displacing native medical methods and popularising Western medical and sanitary knowledge, while a considerable number are employed as resident surgeons in the hospitals for Chinese and as medical officers in charge of the Public Dispensaries. The work of the College has thus far been carried on in lecture-rooms and laboratories made available in various hospitals, &c., in different parts of the City. When the Hong Kong University is open, the College will be merged into its Faculty of Medicine.

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Govern- ment. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, &c., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

 Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280), the French Convent, (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hos- pital, and other charitable institutions.

The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters who can assist the inmates of houses where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies arc engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hos- pital and dead bodies to the Mortuary. The Dispensaries receive

214

20.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

sick infants and send them to one or other of the Convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight Dispensaries in existence, including one for the boat popu- lation on a hulk in Causeway Bay. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscription, was $33,434. The Dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairman- ship of the Registrar-General.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 9,289 being a decrease of 500 or 5 per cent. as compared with 1910. There was in 1911 a decrease in serious offences of 25 or 069 per cent. as compared with the previous year. The number of serious offences reported was 167 over the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1907. The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease of 475 as compared with 1910, and was 877 below the average of the quinquennial period.

The total strength of the Police Force in 1911 was Europeans 134, Indians 399, Chinese 547, making a total of 1,080 (as com- pared with 1,042 in 1910) exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway and other Government departments, and by private firms. Of this force 13 Europeans, 92 Indians, and 47 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year, under the District Officer.

  The District Watchmen Force, numbering 124, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the City. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

  The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 4,178 as compared with 4,867 in 1910. Of these 1,191 were com- mitted for criminal offences, against 1,212 in 1910. Of com- mittals for non-criminal offences there were 9 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance, and 13 less for infringement of sanitary laws, than in 1910.

  The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 595, the average for 1910 being 547, and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 0.14, which is the average percentage for the last ten years. Owing, however, to the large floating population, which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton, the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. The gaol has accommodation for 590 prisoners.

  The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish- ments per prisoner being 1'61 as compared with 1:33 in 1910 and 1.38 in 1909.

1904-1919

HONG KONG. 1911.

215

21

Long-sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c. The profit on the work done was $51,833 as against $48,902 in 1910. There was $4,627 received and credited to Government for non-Government work against $4,253 in 1910.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.) POPULATION.

 The civil population of the Colony, according to the Census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the Census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 464,277, but this includes the New Territories; and, as the death figures given below do not include those from this area (with the exception of New Kowloon), the population for the purposes of calculating death-rates is estimated at 373,627, of whom 18,837 were non-Chinese.

 The distribution of the population at the Census was as follows:

Non-Chinese civil community

Chinese

Population.

City of Victoria (including

Peak)

-

Villages of Hong Kong

Kowloon (including New Kow-

loon)

New Territories

Population afloat

Total Chinese population

Total Civil population

...

...

12,075

219,386

...

16,106

...

67,602

...

...

80,622

...

60,948

444,664

...

456,739

(b.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

The gradual replacement of the old type of Chinese dwelling by the new premises erected in accordance with the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance, 1903. is effecting a slow, but certain, improvement in the healthiness of the native quarters; but this has been somewhat discounted during the past year by an abnormal influx of Chinese refugees from the Canton district, which was coincident with the revolutionary movement in South China. It has been estimated that at least twenty thousand people arrived in Hong Kong within a period of a few weeks during the months of April and May from this cause, and although some of these fugitives had no doubt returned to China before the close of the year, yet there is ample evidence that a sufficient number have remained to throw a considerable strain

216

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNual.

upon the housing accommodation of the Colony. A further, but. smaller, influx due to similar causes occurred during the month of November. The chief' sufferers from this cause would seem to be the Portuguese, who are largely employed as clerks, account- ants, &c., in both Government and private offices. This section of the community has for some years past occupied dwellings of European type in the neighbourhood of Caine Road, Shelley Street, Mosque Terrace, &c., but they have recently been dis- possessed by more wealthy Chinese tenants from Canton. At the same time the poorer classes of refugees have crowded into the native quarters of the City and of Kowloon, with the result that there has no doubt been some amount of overcrowding of a tem- porary nature. This has been dealt with, where it has been found. that premises unfit for habitation-such for instance as base- ments have been occupied, or where the overcrowding has been. excessive; but it has been felt that the conditions were for the time being abnormal, and a rigid enforcement of the overcrowd- ing laws has not been attempted.

There can be little doubt, moreover, that this influx of refugees. has contributed largely to the increase in the number of cases of plague and to the considerable outbreak of small-pox which occurred at the latter end of the year.

The general death-rate for the year was 21 13 per 1,000 among the Chinese community, and 13:38 among the non-Chinese com- munity, as compared with 22:50 and 10·04 during 1910.

The number of deaths from malaria (338) is considerably lower than it has been for the previous five years, and Kowloon still maintains the low average which it assumed on the completion of the railway works. The deaths from this cause in the city of Victoria numbered 176 out of a population of 218,000; but more than 26 per cent. of these deaths occurred in Health District No. 9, in close proximity to which extensive building operations. have been in progress during the past year.

The deaths from plague numbered 253, as compared with 23 in 1910, and 108 in 1909. All the cases of plague were Chinese, with the exception of one Indian constable, who died.

Small-pox deaths numbered 198-all Chinese, with the excep- tion of one British missionary lady, who succumbed to the hæmorrhagic type of the disease; only ten of these were returned as having been previously vaccinated.

 There were 2,487 deaths from respiratory diseases among the Chinese, as compared with 2,603 in 1910. Phthisis claimed 753. Chinese victims, while other forms of tuberculosis represent an additional 426 deaths, making a total of 1,179 or 15.7 per cent.. of the total deaths among that community.

 Beri-beri was responsible for 320 deaths, as compared with 566 during 1910, and 555 in 1909. During the past year circulars have been distributed to all large employers of coolie labour call- ing their attention to the fact that beri-beri is produced by the consumption of white rice as the staple article of diet without a sufficiency of other foods, and advising that beans should be supplied with the rice when fresh meat or fresh fish cannot be afforded, and it is possible that the dissemination of this informa- tion may have had some influence in reducing the mortality from this disease.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911

(c.) CLIMATE.

217

23.

 The average monthly temperature throughout the year was 72.1° F. as compared with 720° F. in 1910 and an average of 72-1° F. during the ten preceding years. The maximum mean monthly temperature was attained in June, when it reached 87.2° F., and the mean minimum monthly temperature was recorded in January, when it was 55.5° F. The highest recorded temperature during the year was 93.1° F. on the 25th August, and the lowest 47.10 F. on the 24th February.*

 The total rainfall for the year was 90.55 inches, as compared with an average of 80:73 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was August with 30'06 inches, the driest, February, when no rain was recorded. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 8.61 inches on the 5th August, while no rain fell on 220 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 79 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent. during the ten preced- ing years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 57 hours, being 50 per cent, of the possible duration.

These figures are those recorded at the Observatory, Kowloon, and there is a very considerable divergence between that place and Hong Kong (low levels), the Peak District, or Tai Po (New 'Territories), both in rainfall, temperature, and humidity.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

The total revenue from the postal service in 1911 was $399,217.15 and total expenditure $422,267.97. The result of the year's working shows a deficit of $23,050.82. Direct exchange of money orders with the Philippine Islands commenced on 1st July, and a revised parcel arrangement with Siam came into operation. -on 26th September.

XI. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

 During the past year no general assessment was made. The existing valuation for 1910-11 was ordered to be adopted as the valuation for 1911-12, the difference in rateable value being the result of interim assessments. There is an increase in the rate- able value of the whole Colony of 0.71 per cent. In the city of Victoria, the Hill District, Shaukiwan, Saiwanho, Quarry Bay, Hong Kong villages, Kowloon Point, Yaumati, Mongkoktsui, and New Kowloon there is an increase ranging from 10:59 to 0.29 per cent., the largest increase being in New Kowloon. There is no

 * These are the temperatures recorded by the Observatory at sea-level. The temperature in the high levels at the Peak averages some 10° less.

218

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

change in Hunghom and Hokun. Kowloon villages show a de- crease of 1.76 per cent.

The average rate of exchange (demand on London) which had been 1s. 9-6021d. to the dollar for 1910 rose to 1s. 9.754808d, for 1911.

 The position with regard to subsidiary coins still remained unsatisfactory. The discount during the year on Hong Kong silver subsidiary coin varied between per cent. on 50 cent pieces and 7 per cent. on 10 cent pieces, that on Hong Kong copper cents varied from 9 to 12 per cent. The loss on such coin col- lected as revenue came to $49,434.96.

His Majesty's Government made the Colony a grant of £12,000 for the year 1911-12 on account of an estimated loss of $225,860 incurred during that year in respect of opium revenue.

By the agreement of the 8th May, 1911, between Great Britain and China, no Indian opium can be imported into China, unless accompanied by a certificate issued by the Indian Government that such opium has been exported from India for consumption in China. To prevent attempts to smuggle non-certificated Indian opium from Hong Kong into China, an Ordinance was passed on 1st September, 1911, prohibiting the import of non-certificated Indian opium into Hong Kong except for the use of the Hong Kong opium farmer.

In August, 1911, the port of Macao was added to the list of places to which the export of morphine and compounds of opium is not permitted except on production of an official certificate from the country concerned that such import is for legitimate purposes. The import of morphine and compounds of opium for export practically ceased towards the end of the year, and con- siderable quantities lying in Hong Kong were shipped back to London.

The 22nd June, being the day fixed for the Coronation of His Majesty King George V, was observed as a holiday and the whole of the population joined in celebrating the occasion. A review of the troops was held, at which about 3,500 soldiers and sailors paraded. A short service was held by the Chaplain and cheers were raised for His Majesty. Subsequently the troops marched through the principal streets of the city. The European, Chinese, and Indian communities all combined to show their loyalty and devotion. Services were held in the Protestant and Roman Catholic cathedrals and other churches. The Parsee and Sikh communities also held special services. The children of the Colony were entertained and were addressed by Sir F. D. Lugard, and sports of all kinds were arranged for them. The whole of the Colony was illuminated for three nights, all the men- of-war in harbour, of whatever nationality, combining in the dis- play. A reception and fête was held at Government House in the evening, at which practically the whole of the European population and many Chinese and Indians attended.

 From July, 1910, the audit of the Colony's expenditure has been carried out locally instead of in London. The new arrange ment has proved very satisfactory and the additional staff required has been very small, viz., one fourth grade and one fifth grade

clerk.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1911.

219

25

 The preparation of a revised edition of the Ordinances of Hong Kong to the end of the year 1911 was considered necessary, and the revision was entrusted to the Chief Justice, Sir F. T. Piggott, who commenced work in March, 1911. At the close of the year the revision work was still in progress.

 On the 7th September, 1911, a Board of Chinese Vernacular Primary Education was constituted by the Governor-in-Council with the following duties:-

(1) to promote efficient Chinese vernacular education in the-

Colony;

(2) to collect funds to supplement a Government subsidy

made to the Board.

The Board consists of the Registrar-General and the Director of Education (ex officio) and of five Chinese gentlemen nominated by the Governor. The Government subsidy to the Board for the year 1912 will be $4,100.00, which the Board intend to distribute after a survey of the general situation and after inspection in the month of December of schools selected from the list of applicants for assistance. The Board is giving attention in the first instance to boys' schools in the city of Victoria and other parts of the old Colony. Its operations do not extend to the New Territories.. Girls' schools are also for the present not placed under the super- vision of the Board.

The

 The Grant Code was amended in September in certain par- ticulars. The amendments, which took effect on the 1st January, 1912, reduced the rates of capitation grants for such Vernacular Schools as are without immediate English supervision. practice of giving grants in aid of rent to vernacular boys' schools occupying leased premises is being discontinued. The reason for this restriction of expenditure is that the grant hitherto offered to vernacular schools was too high for the standard of work attained.

 On 4th October, the Chinese section of the Kowloon-Canton railway was opened for through traffic, thus completing direct communication by rail between Kowloon and Canton.

The revolutionary movement in China was reflected in the Colony on 6th November by an ebullition among the Chinese community, which for some days was in a state of great excite- ment. A proclamation under the Peace Preservation Ordinance, 1886, as amended by Ordinance No. 52, of 1911, was issued on 29th November and was still in force at the end of the year. The police succeeded in preventing any serious outbreak of lawless- ness, though the influx of undesirable characters from Canton and other parts of China was disagreeably apparent and many cases of disorderliness, assaults, and petty thieving were reported. Military assistance was provided in the form of armed patrols, and the police force was temporarily augmented by enlisting 20 special constables.

On 21st January, Sir Henry May vacated the office of Colonial Secretary to take up the office of Governor of Fiji and High Commissioner for the Southern Pacific. His place was filled by the appointment of Mr. W. D. Barnes from the Federated Malay

220

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

States Service, whose untimely death on the 28th October again rendered the Colonial Secretaryship vacant. Mr. Claud Severn, of the Federated Malay States Service, was subsequently ap- pointed, but did not assume his duties during the year. Mr. C. Clementi was in charge of the Colonial Secretary's department from 22nd January to 21st February, and acted as Colonial Secretary from 22nd February to 6th June and again from 29th November to the end of the year under review. Mr. Brewin acted from 30th October to 28th November.

C. CLEMENTI, Acting Colonial Secretary.

22nd June, 1912.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

222

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

45

30

45'

CHUKIAN GOR

15'

22

CANTON

RIVER

Sa-tsiang

* Fuk-yun

HONG-KONG, KOWLOON

A-po-ki

Wu-shak-ngam

114"

Shak-ku

TUNG KWAN

Liong.tu

Kon-lan

Long-heu Ŏ

Chong-han!

Lung-fa

Hsin-hi

Yong-tai-shan

Pan-ten

Li-long

Ma-hámo

¿ Pak-sha

Pak-shak-lung

Pu-kak

O

Moi-lim

NAM-TAO

HSIN

-

NG AN

Sai-Heung

Ha-tani

TAI-CHĂM BAY

Ping Cheng

Tai-san

Ma-chau

Lin-tin

113°52′ E. LONG. OF GREENWICH

aimiso

DEEP

Wan-had

Chak-wan

OR HAU-HOI

Dwan-teu

(SUM-QN)

Lungtauphy

Sha-tau

SHA

BAY

[Chuk-yen

Un-long

Hain-ten

Mi-puo

ASTLE

PEAK

AND

Ping shan

Lim-chun

Kam-tin

Lung-ku

Tai-shui-hang

Chin-shan Pet-long

o Nam-long,

( Se-chau

dShui-leu

Chon-mun

(Castle Peak Bay)

7Chu-lu-kok

Tung-chung

Tai-lam-chung

Ma-wan

T

Chung

-hue

Chat Sha

Island

HO

Lighthouse

Keni Tor

Shui MunStonecutter

Ping-chau Green

Row-Chal

Chau-kung

LAN-TAO

(TAI-U SHAN),

Silver Mine,

Bay

ai-o

Tai-ku-chau

Cheung-Chau

SieA-Chau

EST LAM MA CHAN

At

Tai-wane

Lamma 1.

(Pok-Liu

От

Ty-lo 13

Lap-sap-mi Is

Chichau I

114*

L

ADJACENT TERRITORIES.

1904-1919

15'

Piang-ti

30'

223

45

Lung-kong

Tong-lak

Hsin-hi

Ten-teu

Shak-kong

Ten-t

Piang-san

U-shap

Tong hang

Wang-kong o

Sa-w

*Tai-wo-chun

Yam-ten &

Kaichung

Tai-Tong-tu

KUI

SHAN

• Tong-poi

BIAS

Ki-chun o

Pa-kongo -Tisam-kai

Shong-tungs

Sa-ng-chung

TAI-PUNG-SANG

22

BAY

Sha-tao

Wong-muo

M

Tipfuk

Hasha

tong o

Kat-o

ه

Crooked I.

✔Song-chau ¡Crescent I.

Pens

Peng-chau)

Pit-chau

Kuk-pu

Namo

Mira

Shu

wt-teu

& ROAD

Wo-hang

Tin-koko

Shon-wan

RAILWAY

TOLO

| Crookedę Harbour

Wang-ling-tau

Plover Cove

4

HARBOUR

White Head

Tolo Channel

in

Lok Lo

Tide Cove

Shatin

Kok Kau-lung.

.shan

LOON CITY

Mongkok

VG HAR

NGAU

Tu-kwa-wan

Tam-tsai

Ko-tongo

Bluff Hd

Long Harbour

Port Island

Grass 1. Tap-mun

Tan-ka-wan

Chak-kang

Shak-hang

Tai-shui-hang

Pet-kong

+

Sai-kung

-8a want

SHEWAN

Tai- pu-taaio

Yam-ton M

Port Shelter

Cheung-Kwan-O.

Hung-hom Kon-

             2-ighthgua "aim-Sha Taur

HONG KONG

tong

Hang Hau

Tai-long

Hai-wang

PChin-bang

Ping-ong-wan

O

unk Ha-yong

5.Tau-Chau

Bay,

Lyee-pin-Chan.

Lighthouse

Collinson

tuk

Fung Head

Fung Bay

Lan-nai-wan Ping Pt

She wan

High L

Town I.

✔Basalt I.

Lam-tong I.

Ninepin

¿ Group

Ta-tong

Stan

LAMMA CHAN.

ku-wan

Bay

Chan

Tai-long Head c.'Aquilar)

Yong-ma-kok Fury Rocks

Wag-lan

Lo-chau

Sun-kong

Lighthouse

22'9 K. LAT,

A CHANNEL

15'

LONG. OF GREENWICH

NOTE

• Kak-ten

Territory under Convention of 1860

Boundary under Convention 1898

0

· 34 6

7

8

English Miles (89-16 m 1")

Samun

30

13'

22*

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 762.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1912.

(For Report for 1911. see No. 723.)

225

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty.

August, 1913.

LONDON:

PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

By DARLING AND SON, LTD., BACON STREET, E.

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, FETTER LANE, E.C., and 32, ABINGDON STREET, S.W., and 54, ST. MARY STREET, CARDIFF; or H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (SCOTTISH BRANCH),

23, FORTH STREET, EdinbuRGH; or

E. PONSONBY, LIMITED, 116, GRAFTON STREET, Dublin or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America, the Continent of Europe and Abroad ef T. FISHER UNWIN, LONDON, W.Ć.

[Cd. 7050-3.] Price 43d.

1913.

226

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

PAGE

...

...

4

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE

I. FINANCES

AND LAND

...

III. LEGISLATION

IV. EDUCATION

...

...

:

:.

:

...

:

...

...

:

:

...

:

7

...

18

...

...

18

...

:

20

...

24

...

100

VI. GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS

...

...

...

23

V. PUBLIC WORKS

VII. INSTITUTIONS NOT Supported by GOVERNMENT .....

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE

IX. VITAL STATISTICS

X. POSTAL SERVICE

:

:

:

:

...

XI. GENERAL OpservATIONS

SKETCH MAP.

:

:

:

:

...

:

...

:.

...

...

25

...

***

:

:

:.

:

:

coo

26

...

29

...

:

29

SIR,

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 762.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1911, see No. 723.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

7th July, 1913.

227

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith six copies of the Acting Colonial Secretary's Report on the Blue Book for 1912.

The Right Honourable

Lewis Harcourt, M.P.

&c..

&c..

&c.

I have, &c.,

F. H. MAY,

Governor, &c.

(31221-2) Wt. 35101-68S. 1125 & 90. 8/13. D & S.

A.

228

4

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1912.

I.-FINANCES.

The revenue for

        for the year amounted to $8,180,694, being $503,206 more than the estimate and $683,463 more than the revenue for the previous year.

Compared with the returns for 1911 there were increases under every head with the exception of Land Sales and Interest, the decrease under the latter head being accounted for by a bank overdraft during the second half of 1912.

The expenditure amounted to a total of $7,202,543, inclusive of a sum of $1,051,841 spent on Public Works Extraordinary. It was less than the estimate by $650,135, the decrease being due principally to exchange-the average rate having been 2s. as compared with an estimate of 1s. 9d.-by the delay in receipt of accounts due by the Post Office in respect of transit charges and mail subsidy, and by the saving of a sum of $96,140 on the vote for Public Works Extraordinary.

  The detailed figures for 1911 and 1912 are set out in the follow- ing statements:

HEADS OF REVENUE.

$

Light Dues

87,454.95

Light Dues, Special Assessment Licences and Internal Revenue not

otherwise specified

...

Fees of Court or Office, Payments for

specific purposes, and Reimburse- ments-in-Aid

...

98,448.45

5,371,419.75

785,534.51

Post Office

401,054.32

Kowloon-Canton Railway

251,971.53

Rent of Government Property, Land

and Houses

873,732.50

Interest

Miscellaneous Receipts

147,293.49

Total

8,016,909.50

Land Sales (Premia on New Leases)

163,784.58

Total

...

$8,180,604.08

EXPENDITURE.

$

Governor

77,566.72

Colonial Secretary's Department and

Legislature

67,552.91

Registrar General's Department

45,520.75

Audit Department

26,727.35

Treasury

59,183.11

Harbour Master's Department

207,361.15

1904-1919

~ONG KONG, 1912.

$

Observatory

22,595.08

Miscellaneous Services

214,275.04

Judicial and Legal Departments

241,508.52

Police and Prison Departments

749,571.07

Medical Departments

213,602.02

Sanitary Department

324,195.86

Botanical and Forestry Department..

39,865.27

Education

243,369.39

...

Military Expenditure

1.421.352.47

...

Public Works Department

Do.

Recurrent

Do.

Post Office

Extraordinary

Kowloon-Canton Railway

Charge on account of Public Debt

314,590.96 447,636.44 1,051,840.43

296,867.12

207,350.78

647,172.56

Pensions

Charitable Services

Total

258,439.16

-

24.399.09

$7,202.543.25

229

5

 The surplus on the year's working was $978,151, and the balance of assets and liabilities showed on the 31st December a sum of $2,805,129 in the Colony's favour.

 The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1908-1912:

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

Revenue.

Expenditure.

$

$

6,104,207

6,573,341

6,822,967

6,542,839

6,960,861

6.907,113

7,497,231

7,077,177

8,180,694

7,202,553

 The capital expenditure on the British section of the Kowloon- Canton Railway during 1912 was $1,262,922, a large portion of this sum having been used for the acquisition of a site for a terminal station. The total expenditure on this account amounted at the end of the year to a sum of $13,284,425.

 The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,732, and in addition the advances by the Crown Agents for railway con- struction amounted at the end of the year to £199,318. Against these items there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £141,393 and there is a balance of £330,000 unpaid in respect of "he loan to the late Viceroy of Wuchang.

 No new taxation was imposed during the year and no change of any importance was made in existing taxation.

 The rateable value of the whole Colony amounted to $12,312,306. being an increase of $1.150,916, or equal to 10:31 per cent. over the value of the previous year. In the City of Victoria alone the figures rose from $9,006,555 to $10,072,535. an increase of $1,065,980 or 11.83 per cent. The results in the other districts of the Colony were as follows:-

230

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL,

Increases:

The Hill District, $10,925 or 3.91 per cent. Shau-ki-wan, Sai-wan-ho, and Quarry Bay, $17,161 or

4.91 per cent.

Hong Kong Villages, $13,015 or 11:08 per cent. Kowloon Point, $30,430 or 6'11 per cent.

Yau-ma-ti, $4,285 or 1.67 per cent.

.

Mong Kok Tsui, $20,020 or 14.94 per cent.

Decreases:

Hung Hom and Hok Un, $6,385 or 2·11 per cent.

New Kowloon, $1,969 or 1.62 per cent.

>

Kowloon Villages, $2,545 or 2·59 per cent.

For the period 1903-1912 the assessment of the whole Colony has risen from $8,788,063 to $12,312,306 an increase in value of 40.10 per cent.

  The circulation on the 31st December of notes of the three banks having authorised issues was as follows:-

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Chartered Bank of India, Australia,

and China

Mercantile Bank of India

$

19,784,469

5,329,419

496,323

$25,610,211

The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of these banks, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars and of subsidiary coin. The inconvenient size of the silver dollar, approximating to that of a five shilling piece, has led to a con- siderable demand among the European population for one dollar notes, and a large number of notes of this denomination, issued by the Portuguese Banco Nacional Ultramarino and payable at Macao, are in circulation. The Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank were authorised during the year under review to increase their issue of one dollar notes from $226,000 to $350,000. Silver sub- sidiary coin minted by the Chinese Government at Canton is in common use generally at a slightly higher rate of discount than that prevailing for Hong Kong subsidiary coin.

There are also in the Colony a certain number of notes issued by the Republican Government at Canton. These notes are pay- able only in subsidiary coin and as they are practically unsecured the discount upon them has reached as high a rate as thirty per

centum.

The circulation of foreign copper coin is prohibited by Ordi nance No. 11 of 1912, and there is now none such to be found.

The rate of discount on Hong Kong subsidiary coin varied during 1912 between the following limits:---

50 cent pieces 1 per cent. to 4 per cent.

20

I

10

5

Copper coin

34

43

par

8

"

>>

''

8

2)

;, 85

""

5

12

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

231

7

 The total issue of these coins, less those demonetized, amounts to some $37,432,370 nominal value, and they were, up to the year 1905, readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neighbouring provinces of China. During 1912 twenty and ten cent pieces of the face value of $40,000 and $1,000,000 respec- tively were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which has prevailed since 1905 may be attributed to the immense quantity of similar coin which has latterly been minted at Canton. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetizing all its subsidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been continuously followed since except during a brief period of 1911. Coin to the face value of about $7,000,000 has thus been redeemed. The total issue by the Hong Kong Govern- ment was of the face value of about $44,000,000. It is calculated that about half of that amount has dropped out of circulation.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.)-SHIPPING AND TRADE.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1912 amounted to 488,649 vessels, of 36,735,149 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1911, shows a decrease of 54,546 vessels with an increase of 555,997 tons.

The decrease in numbers of vessels is entirely in local trade. Of the above, 46,603 vessels, of 24,269,270 tons, were engaged in foreign trade, as against 44,978, of 23,063,108 tons, in 1911, and were distributed as follows:-

1912.

1911.

1911.

  1912. Numbers. Numbers. Tonnage. Tonnage.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

British ocean-going ships Foreign ocean-going ships

10.5

8.4

35.0

32.4

10.6

9.2

35.0

35.3

British river steamers

16.0

15.0

17.3

17.3

...

Foreign river steamers

3.3

3.8

3.0

3.5

-

Steam-launches (under 60 tons)

7.7

8.6

0.6

0.6

Trading junks ...

51.9

55.0

9.1

10.9

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

 The movements of fishing junks are not included in the above figures.

 Of ships of European construction, 4,154 ocean steamers, 1 sailing ship, 4,351 river steamers, and 1,976 steam-launches (not exceeding 60 tons) entered during the year, giving a daily aver age entry of 28:7 ships, as compared with 269 in 1911, and 267 in 1910.

232

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

8.

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

  The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has increased from 2,495 1 tons to 2,575 7 tons. That of British ships has increased from 2,633.5 tons to 2,713-4 tons, while that of foreign ships has increased from 2,365 7 tons to 2,457 tons.

During the past 20 years, the average tonnage of ocean vessels has increased from 1,155 9 tons to 1,969-2 tous.

The average tonnage of river steamers entered during the year has increased from 584-9 tons to 585-1 tons. That of British river steamers has increased from 599 tons to 602·5 tons, and that of foreign river steamers has decreased from 518 tons to 515·1 tons.

1

A comparison between the years 1911 and 1912 is given in the following table :-

1911.

1912.

Increase.

Decrease.

Class of Vessels.

'Ton-

No. Tonnage.

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

No.

nage.

British ocean-

3,907 7,589,995

3,956 | 7,779,970 49 189,975

going.

Foreign ocean-

4,180 7,917,640

4,367 | 8,592,320

187 674,680

going.

British river

6,871

steamers.

Foreign river

1,423

4,116,736

736,057

yteamers.

Steamships un-

3,263

6,968 | 4,197,744

1,738 894,349

130,092 3,981 150,612 718

97

81,008

315

158,292

20,520

der 60 tons

(foreign trade)

Junks (foreign

25,334 | 2,572,588 | 25,593 | 2,654,275 259

81,687

trade).

Total (foreign

44,978 23,063,108 | 46,608 24,269,270 |1,625 | 1,206,162

trade).

Steam launches 461,984 10,981,990 411,990 10,609,404

49,994 372,586

plying in wa-

ters of the

Colony.

trade).

Junks (local | *36,608 *2,134,051 | +30,056 †1,856,475

6,552|277,579

Grand Total. 543,570 |36,179,152 488,649 86,735,149 |1,625 | 1,206.162 | 56,546 650,165

Net

...

-

...

555,997 | 54,921

* Including 13,980 conservancy and dust boats of 818,292 tons.

624,090 ""

+

9,922

"}

This table shows an increase in British ocean shipping of 49 ships, of 189,975 tons, or of 1.25 per cent. in numbers and of 2:49 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to improved trade, high freights, and a greater demand for tonnage. The advent of the British India Steamship Company's vessels to the Colony is also a factor.

British river steamers have increased by 97 ships, of 81,008 tons, or 1:41 per cent. in numbers and 1.97 per cent. in tonnage. This is explained by the increased number of trips made by the Steamships "Wing On" and "

      Wing On" and "Wing Hon," the former having made 320 more trips than she did in 1911, and the latter 212. River steamers generally have run more frequently.

 Foreign ocean vessels show an increase of 187 ships, of 674,680 tons, or 4:47 per cent. in numbers and 8.5 per cent. in

1904-1919

HUNG KONG, 1912.

233

9

tonnage. This result is due to increases in Japanese, Austrian, Chinese, Portuguese, and Russian steamers. Against this there are considerable decreases in German, Norwegian, Danish, French and Dutch steamers.

 Foreign river steamers show an increase of 315 ships, of 158,292 tons, or 2·21 per cent. in numbers and 21.5 per cent. in tonnage. This is accounted for by the greater number of trips made during the year by French and Chinese steamers.

 In steamships not exceeding 60 tons employed in foreign trade, an increase of 718 ships, of 20,520 tons, or 22 per cent. in numbers and 15.7 per cent. in tonnage, is shown. This appears to be due to the greater number of launches running with passengers and cargo to places in Chinese territory, more especially to the east- ward. Some of the launches on this run were heretofore employed in towing lighters, &c., in the harbour, but are no longer able to obtain such employment.

 In junks in foreign trade an increase is reported of 250 vessels, of 81,687 tons, or 1 per cent. in numbers and 3.2 per cent. in tonnage. This is accounted for by the increased control over these vessels, effected by the new system of licensing inaugurated early in 1912 having resulted in more accurate reports of their movements.

In local trade large reductions are reported.

Steam-launches in local trade show a decrease of 49,994 ships, of 372,586 tons, or 10.8 per cent. in numbers and 3-4 per cent. in tonnage. This is explained by the fact that almost all towing in the harbour, which formerly was done by small licensed launches. hired for the purpose by the European and Japanese firms con- cerned, is now done by the unlicensed private launches belonging to those firms.

Junks in local trade show a falling off of 6,552 vessels, of 277,579 tons, or 181 per cent. in numbers and 13 per cent. in tonnage. For this large decrease it is difficult to account, but more than half of it is certainly due to the Sanitary Department employing steam barges for a large part of the scavenging work. The remainder of the decrease is probably due to the new system of licensing not having been properly understood by the boat population for some time after its inception, with the result that full figures were not at first forthcoming.

It is interesting to note that the entries of ocean steamers during the last quarter of the year show an excess, over the average of the three previous quarters, of 122 ships of 175,332 tons. This is accounted for by the unprecedented demand for tonnage during the closing months of the year, and consequent rise in freights.

The actual number of ocean vessels of European construction entering during 1912 was 724, of which 336 were British and 388 were foreign. In 1911 there were 720: 348 British and 372 foreign.

These 724 ships measured 1,862,287 tons. They entered 4,155 times, and gave a collective tonnage of 8,186,136 tons. Thus, compared with 1911, 4 more ships, with a tonnage greater by 35,789 tons, entered 106 more times, and gave a collective tonnage greater by 430,103 tons.

234

10

Thus

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL reports-ANNUAL.

Flag.

British-

Steamers Sailing

German

Japanese

...

...

Norwegian...

Austrian

Chinese

...

Danish

...

Dutch

French

Italian

Portuguese

Russian

•••

Swedish

U.S.A -

Steamers Sailing

...

Steamers.

No. of Times entered.

Total Tonnage.

1911. 1912. |1911. | 1912.

1911.

1912.

344

...

335

1,952 1,977

3,781,622 | 3,892,354

4

1

6

1

...

111

98

657

637

16,534 1,133,786 | 1,129,054

2,890

106

123

509

592

1,354,362 | 1,572,194

36

26

: 210

168

221,039

173,145

6

10

24

46

96,380

153,624-

20

30

102

236

241,362

275,310

...

8

6

20

11

45,928

28.927

16

18

130

112

235,881

246,352

27

...

26

152

142

242,469

229,532

...

24

2

4

12

13

31,188

31,403

5

79

101

32,842

49,494

...

11

18

20

35

53,080

103,998

...

6

6

14

14

...

25,778

37,262

18

18

71

70

::

::

243,619

260,597

1

1

163

Apple

:

720

724 4,049 4,155 | 7,756,033 | 8,186,136

Total

...

TRADE.

  In the absence of a Customs Department, the details of the trade of the Colony which it is possible to give are meagre, and of little value, being derived from reports of ship masters, which are given in round numbers, and the several items of cargo are only too frequently returned under the heading "general." In a few cases, however, as opium and sugar, exact figures can be obtained; while in certain other items, from their nature, or for other reasons, approximately accurate returns are rendered. following remarks are therefore confined to these few articles of trade.

The

Imports.-Under this heading, which includes all cargo brought by ocean vessels or river steamers (not in junks or steam- launches) and landed or transhipped in the Colony, 4,151,805 tons of cargo were reported during the year. This, compared with that reported during 1911 (3,995,793 tons), shows an increase of 156,012 tons, or 39 per cent.

Of this total, there appear increases in the import of coal, cotton, flour, sugar, and timber, while decreases are reported in kerosene oil, opium, and rice.

 Coal. An increase of 10,212 tons or 1 per cent. is reported, 1,056,502 tons having been imported during the year. It is probably due to transhipments of coal to Canton, where there is an increasing demand for it.

Of the above total quantity, 73 per cent. was Japanese, Hongay and Fushun coming next with about 8 per cent. each, other

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

235

11

descriptions of coal being imported in but small quantities. None arrived from either Australia or Labuan, and but one cargo' from England, except that imported by the Admiralty from Cardiff.

Cotton, including cotton yarn and cotton piece goods, show an increase of 20,552 tons or 514 per cent., which seems to be a genuine increase, and not due solely to a larger proportion of the imports being reported as cotton instead of general cargo. The reason for this phenomenal increase is not far to seek. The trade in China, after a total cessation during the last three mouths of 1911 and the first three months of 1912, on account of the Revolution in that country, recommenced, and gradually assumed large proportions. These soon still further increased, partly owing to the assumption, by a large percentage of the population. of European dress, which opened up a new trade (now rapidly declining), and partly to the disappearance of the old stocks in the hands of the native merchants, and the necessity for their replenishment. The high rate of exchange was also a factor in increasing the trade, although the unprecedented demand caused enhanced prices in spite of it. It is of interest to note that this large increase in imports does not include the large and increasing quantity of native-grown cotton spun in the Colony, and re- exported as yarn.

M

Flour. Here an increase of 16,620 tons, or 20 per cent., was reported. This is explained by the prices being moderate on account of the high rate of exchange. The wheat crop in North China, also, has been poor for the past two seasons, thereby creating a demand for foreign flour, while the Chinese are quickly learning new uses for this commodity, which in many parts is taking the place of rice. Among these is a very fine description of vermicelli, now manufactured at Amoy and Chefoo, which is in great demand, and 20 per cent. of the flour imported at Amoy (through Hong Kong) is used for this purpose;

                         purpose; consider able quantities are consumed at Amoy and Chefoo and large ship- ments are made to Hong Kong, Canton, the Philippine Islands, Singapore, and other ports out of China. This increased use of flour is evident in the Colony, being noticeable even among the boat population of the harbour, where it is a common thing to see cakes and "flapjacks" being cooked and eaten, instead of the formerly universal rice.

Kerosene Oil.-Very large reductions are reported in both bulk and case oil imported during the year-of 42 per cent. in the former and 32 per cent. in the latter. Several causes militated to this end. The large stocks in hand at the commencement of the Revolution in China; the virtual total cessation of trade until well on in the year 1912; and the high freight rates, which have increased by more than 100 per cent. in twelve months.

The trade is now restored to its usual proportions, if not still increasing. Out of 105,425 tous imported during 1912. 15.859 tons, or 15 per cent., arrived during the mouth of December. which seems to point to an increased demand in view of the high freight rates now prevailing.

Liquid Fuel shows an increase of 2,724 tons imported, or 154 per cent.

    This is due to the greater number of vessels now using this form of fuel instead of coal.

236

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 Opium. The imports of raw opium show a decrease of 8,925) chests or 42 per cent. and the exports a decrease of 6,7962 chests or 34 per cent. This decrease is the natural outcome of the Opium Agreement of May, 1911, but has been intensified by the uncertainties and variations of provincial policies in China with regard to opium generally and by the absolute exclusion of Persian opium from the China market. The figures for the last five years are shown in the following table:

Stock in hand, 1st January Imported during the year

Total

...

Boiled by opium_farmer Spurious opium destroyed Exported during the year

Total

...

::

Stock remaining 31st December

1912. 1911.

1910. 1909. 1908.

Chests.

7,587

12,361

Chests. Chests. Chests. 7,123 4,509 5,808 21,286 31,743 35,734

Chests.

4,707

41,821

19,948 28.409

36,252

41,542 46,528

1,113

761

782

1,044

864

2

14

51

247

13,264 20,061 28,333

35,938

39,609

14,3791 20,822 29,129 37,033

40,720

5,560 7,587 7,123 4,509 5,808

The legitimate importation of morphia and cocaine has ceased except for such quantities as are required for medicinal purposes in the Colony. The trade in compounds of opium is now confined to exportation to Java for the use of the Dutch Government monopoly.

Rice. Here is reported a decrease of 21,072 tons, or 36 per cent. The rice crops in the two Kwang Provinces have been good, thus the demand for foreign rice has not been so great as usual, The Siamese, Annamese and Cochin China crops were very poor and prices high. Siamese rice used to sell here at $4.50 per picul. This year as much as $700 has been asked, and paid. The increased and increasing use of flour among the native popula- tion, noticed in the remarks under that heading, no doubt affects the rice market to a certain extent. The import of Japanese rice has apparently entirely ceased.

Timber.-An increase of 13.169 tons or 22 per cent. is here reported. Although it is unlikely that this is all a genuine increase, it is certain that the timber trade has received a con- siderable impetus recently, by reason of the increased demand for foreign woods for the building and furniture trades in Canton and the interior. The principal descriptions of timber imported are teak and ebony from Siam, and hardwoods, such as billion and yacal, from Borneo. The demand for European styles of furniture among the Chinese is responsible for large increases in the import of teak. Ebony is used for the manufacture of the Canton "blackwood" now so popular among foreigners. Billion, a very hard, heavy wood, white ant proof, is being increasingly used for beams, rafters and joists, in the building trade. Billion is also used almost exclusively for the manufacture of those universal necessities of life in China-chopsticks. Yacal has become very popular for boat and ship building, being easily

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

237

13

worked, free from knots, very durable, and can be obtained to almost any size. It is used for the frames of the better class of boats, steam-launches, &c., built in the Colony, while the sheath- ing and planking is generally made of teak. Native boats and junks are usually built of native wood-China pine-the import of which is not included in these figures.

Emigration and Immigration.

122,657 emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1912 (135,565 in 1911). Of these 88,749 were carried in British ships and 33,908 in foreign ships. These figures show a decrease of 12,908 (or 9'5 per cent.) under 1911, due undoubtedly to the fact that most of the poorest classes, instead of emigrating to foreign countries, joined the revolutionaries in China during the year.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements 1908 to 1912 compared with Total Chinese Emigration 1908 to 1912.

No. of Emigrants

Total No. of

1908

1909

1910

1911

...

1912

to

Straits Settlements.

49.639

...

48,016

76,705

100,906 84,024

Emigrants.

71,081

77,430

111,058

135,565

122.657

163,248 returning emigrants are reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 149,894 in 1911. Of these 125,499 arrived in British ships, and 37,749 in foreign ships.

(b.)-INDUSTRIES.

(i.)-Under European Management.

Engineering and Shipbuilding.-This industry has improved during the year under review.

1912.

Gross

Vessels.

I.H.P.

Tons.

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ld. Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ld. W. S. Bailey & Co.

8

2,121

1,065

6

922

1,275

15

491

486

...

Macdonald & Co.

...

3.

197

218

Kwong Hip Loong

Kwong Tak Hing

Ulderup and Schluter

Tung Hing Lung Kwong Fook Cheong

Kwong Tak Cheong

Kwong Hip Lung Co., Ld.

Cheung Kee

Kwong Sze Sang Kwong Lee

...

...

6

87

...

120

2

50

...

180

...

3

665

585

1

27

*76

...

548

846

1

91

...

110

6

250

875

1

34

79

...

5

206

...

1,301

1

...

...

76

102.

Total

...

:

:

...

....

61

5.765

7.018

238

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

1911.

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ld. Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co, Ld. W. S. Bailey & Co.

Macdonald & Co.

Ulderup and Schluter

Tung Hing Lung

Kwong Tak Hing

W. C. Jack & Co.

Kwong Hip Lung & Co., Ld.

Total

...

:

:

Gross

Vessels.

I.H.P.

Tous.

9

2,281

3,650

13

30

ཨཻ མྦ ཨཽ རྒྱུུ ཨྠ ཡ ཥཿ།

552

703

206

413

5

50

173

408

860.

55

250

210

192

45

48

76

76

73

3,883

6,669

 Sugar Refineries.-The year 1912 has on the whole been an unfavourable one for the local refined sugar industry. China has not yet recovered from the effects of the Revolution, and until con- fidence is fully restored merchants are apparently content to adopt a haud-to-mouth buying policy. Apart from this the European beet crop has been a record one, latest estimates promising an excess of about 2 million tons over that of 1911: and, with beet and cane combined, a surplus in the world's production of about 1 million tons over that of any previous season. The result has been a very considerable decline in the world's prices, with a consequent unsettling reaction in Far Eastern markets.

 Cotton Spinning. Since the termination of the Revolution in China there has been considerable improvement in the yarn trade, and the year closed with the industry in a healthy condition in China. The local mill has worked full time throughout the year and has benefited by the better conditions.

 Rope Manufacturing.-The most distinguishing feature of the year has been the extraordinary rise in the price of hemp in the Philippines, ranging from 60 per cent. to 80 per cent. from the beginning to the end of the year. The full effect of this upon the rope industry has yet to be shown, and if the price is maintained it is feared that consumption of the finished article is likely to be curtailed in favour of rope made from an inferior fibre or from steel.

 Cement. There has been an increased demand in the Far East throughout the year. An embargo was placed in July on the export of limestone from the Kwang Tung Province by the authori- ties at Canton which seriously interfered with the output of the local Green Island Cement Company, and forced the Company to have recourse Haiphong for supplies, and at the end of the year the matter remained still unsettled. Owing to the coal strikes and labour troubles in England and Europe, and higher outward freights, supplies from home have been much restricted, and prices in some markets became enhanced, but every year the numerous factories in this part of the world are increasing the consumer's independence of Europe.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

(ii.)-Under Chinese Management.

239

15

 Rattan and Fibre Furnitures.-Business was not so good, owing to the damp season, which injuriously affected the hemp string (linen fibre) and sea grass. The export, retail, and manufactur- ing businesses all showed a slight falling off.

 Native Tobacco.-It is to be feared this is a dying industry. The native product is being ousted by foreign tobacco and cigarettes, and owing to the failure of the 1912 crops in the interior, caused by the troubles consequent on the Revolution, the price of tobacco leaf rose to abnormally high figures, and many of the tobacco factories were conducted at a loss.

 Tinned Goods.-The three local factories report a very good year, but the total volume of exports fell off owing to the adverse effect of the Revolution and subsequent troubles in Kwang Tung on the output of the Canton factories which send their manufac- tures to their Hong Kong branches for export.

 Samshu.-The local manufacturers of native spirits report having had another good year. The total local output (including the New Territories) of all kinds of native spirits was 1,154,360 gallons as compared with something less than 1,100,000 gallons in 1911.

Vinegar.--All the large native distilleries produce vinegar as well as samshu. The year's output of the seven largest firms amounted to 834,000 gallons, a slight falling off on the figures for 1911.

 Knitted Vests and Socks.-Another factory was completed in the course of the year, and there are now six establishments, all doing a considerable business, to meet the large and increasing local demand for these articles.

 Leather and Hides.-The leather manufactured at the local tanneries is of such inferior quality that it is gradually being driven out of the market by the competition of imported products, it cannot compete with leather tanned in the Straits.

 The export of raw hides to Penang, where they are tanned and re-exported to Hong Kong in the form of very fair quality leather, increased largely, owing to the extraordinary demand throughout China for foreign style women's boots and shoes and for military equipment.

Ginger and Preserves.--Very small profits were made by the ginger manufacturers during the year, owing to the rise in the price of raw ginger by $2 a picul. Two shops failed and had to close during the year.

 Soy. This trade still remains dull; exports to Singapore and the south have again fallen off.

P

Paper. The trade has not been quite so good, a large stock remaining unsold at the end of the year.

-

Vermilion. The output has remained about the same, but the demand has still further slackened, ana prices dropped by $10 to $15 a picul.

 Lard.-A considerable amount of lard is manufactured in the Colony for export, chiefly to the Philippines, where regulations requiring the purity of animal products to be certified are in

240

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

16

COLONIAL REPORTS-

M

-ANNUAL.

force. Most of the local manufacturers have no difficulty in complying with these regulations, and during 1912 no less than 1,119,342 lbs. of lard and 81,342 lbs. of dried meats were exported. under these certificates.

(c.)-FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong- supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Since the middle of 1911 a steam trawler has been engaged in fishing over various grounds, and has contributed its hauls to the local markets. This trawler ceased its operations in January, 1912, and went north to Shanghai. It was found that she was unable to make it pay, as the water was too shallow for her nets, and attempts to fish on the usual fishing grounds resulted in the noise and vibration of her engines scaring away the fish. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d.)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE AND BOTANY.

The areas, about 200 acres, cleared of pine trees during 1911 on the west side of the island near Aberdeen, were sown with pine tree seeds in pits.

Pine seedlings were raised in a nursery at the south face of the Sbatin Tunnel in the New Territories, and 65,000 pits were dug on the adjoining hill to be filled later with the pine seedlings. standing in the nursery.

Approximately 175,000 pits were sown with seeds of native plants on the low hills near the Shatin Tunnel; the varieties of trees used were Rhodomyrtus, Melastoma, Psidium, Rhus, Mallotus and Lucæna.

In connection with the scheme for beautifying the island, 200 Azaleas were planted on the spur of a hill between Wongneichong Gap and Deep Water Bay.

:

Beds of Hydrangeas and flowering trees were planted by the roadsides on the upper levels.

The planting of flowering trees and shrubs on Crown lanď adjoining the Peak tramline, which was begun a few years ago, was continued. Particular attention was given to the area between the Kennedy Road Station and the Lower Terminus.

The avenues of shade and flowering trees in Hong Kong and Kowloon have been maintained, dead trees were replaced, and 1,051 new young trees and shrubs planted near roads and banks in different parts of the Colony.

The trees in plantations above and below Taipo Road were thinned, and upwards of 2,000 trees removed from the sides of the road to make room for the camphor trees, which are used for shade purposes.

In connection with the anti-malarial measures, an area of 3,208,479 square feet was cleared near dwelling houses, police

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

241

17

stations, and public buildings in various parts of the Colony. In addition to this, an area of 1,025,600 square feet was cleared for the military authorities at their expense.

 For the purpose of making surveys, an area of 1,962,010 square feet was cleared for the Public Works Department.

 The first and second rice crops were fair. Lichees were cheap and plentiful.

Reports were received from the Director of the Imperial Insti- tute upon samples of vegetable products forwarded to him from Hong Kong during the year 1911. The most important of these were afterwards submitted to the Hong Kong Chamber of Com- merce for perusal. A supply of camphor oil, which had been favourably reported upon, was sent to the Imperial Institute for distribution among various firms.

The Key to the Flora of Hong Kong, the New Territories and Kwang Tung Province has been published by the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, as an additional series of the Kew Bulletin.

(c.)-LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

The net amount received from sales of Crown land and pier rights after deducting expenses of sales was $163,784, being a decrease of $106,221 on the previous year and $42,485 more than the average received for the past five years. Of this amount $8,145 was in respect of sales of land in the New Territories and the remainder from sales of new lots of Crown land and grants of extensions to existing lots and sales of pier rights in the island of Hong Kong and Old Kowloon. The chief item was the sale of Inland Lot 1918, a building site of 59,700 square feet at Morrison Hill. within the City, which realized $47,500.

In addition to the above, the Hong Kong & Kowloon Wharf & Godown Company, Ltd., were granted Kowloon Marine Lot No. 91 (the former Police Camber), containing an area of 84,246 square feet, at the price of $288,778, the Government accepting in exchange a surrender from the Company of a part of their property to that value in lieu of cash. The Government resumed 10 acres 0 rood 10 poles of land at Kowloon from the Hong Kong & Kowloon Wharf & Godown Company, Ltd., and the Hong Kong Land Reclamation Company, Ltd., for the purpose of the terminal railway station. The total compensation paid in cash and land by way of exchange amounted to $1,762,657.40.

The year was chiefly noted for the sale of a considerable number of building lots adjacent to the City, chiefly in the neigh- bourhood of Kennedy Road, on which blocks of European style residences are being erected by the purchasers.

There has again been a considerable increase both in number and value of private properties which have changed hands. The total purchase moneys paid amounted to $19,029,986 as against $15,343,234 for the previous year. The prices given in many instances appear to be much above the value of the property as an investment, whilst in other cases the value of property adjoining has remained more or less stationary. Many old buildings have been pulled down and have been rebuilt with modern terraces and 'dwelling houses for the accommodation of the better class

242

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Chinese. The rate of interest charged on good mortgage securi- ties is now usually $7 per cent. per annum whereas three years ago it was rarely less than $8 per cent.

The granite quarries, of which there are a large number on the coasts both of the island and in New Kowloon, were wholly or partially closed down for a greater part of the year, owing partly to the fact that the export of stone to China had practically stopped since the Revolution and also to contracts in Hong Kong requiring a large amount of stone having been completed. Reductions of one-third of the annual rents were in many cases granted to the lessees and the leases of only two of the quarries which expired on 31st December were re-let.

Sales of land in the New Territories continue even, consisting chiefly of small building sites for native occupation and patches of undeveloped agricultural land. There is a tendency amongst a few Chinese to buy up land in the neighbourhood of the rail- way and roads with a view to future development.

  The Government have leased $8 acres of waste land at Fan- ling to the Royal Hong Kong Golf Club, who have laid out an 18 hole course, a large club house has been built and a bungalow has been erected in the neighbourhood of the links by a private individual. Three private families have erected or rented bungalows at Tai Po and further enquiries are being made for building sites there.

III. LEGISLATION.

Forty-three Ordinances were passed during 1912, of which 18 were amendments to other Ordinances and 11 were connected with the Revision of the Ordinances of Hong Kong.

The most important Ordinances were Chinese Marriage Preser- vation (No. 42), Foreign Copper Coin (No. 11), Full Court (No. 27) and Limited Partnerships (No. 18).

IV.-EDUCATION.

There are 63 Government and grant schools, the most impor- tant of which is Queen's College. Of these 20 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all subjects of the 7th standard and above. These latter schools have an average attendance of 4,054, and the medium of instruction in all of them, with the exception of four girls' schools, is English. The 43 remaining schools are all lower grade. They comprise one school for British Indians, where English and Urdu are taught, four Government schools and 38 grant vernacular schools. The average attendance at all these lower grade schools is 1,984. The total average attendance at both grades of schools is 6,038.

The revenue derived from school fees was $66,172.50 (of which $32,720 was from Queen's College).

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

243

19

 Two schools are limited to children of British parentage. Both these schools (one for boys, the other for girls) are under the Government. In 1912 the combined average attendance at them. was 99.

 The Hong Kong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education to students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1912 in mathematics, machine drawing and building construction; in chemistry, physics and electricity; in commercial English, logic and political economy; in French and German, shorthand and book-keeping. Classes in sanitation (public hygiene) and first aid to the injured are also held, the examina- tions being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Sanitary Institute, London, and of the St. John's Ambulance Association, respectively. Classes for men and women teachers are a feature of the Institute.

The lecturers are recruited from the members of the medical and educational faculties of the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The Insti- tute is furnished with a well-equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.

 While the Technical Institute has suffered in several directions from the activity of the University, it continues to perform many useful functions of its own. The normal classes for men and women, the shorthand, mathematics and English classes were all well attended, as also "first aid " class.

 The University of Hong Kong was opened for teaching in September, 1912. Chancellor, His Excellency Sir Francis Henry May, K.C.M.G., vice-Chancellor and Principal, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.C.L., M.A., LL.D., Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Professor C. A. M. Smith, M.Sc., M.I.M.E., Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Francis William Clark, M.D., Registrar, Mr. W. J. Hinton, B.A.

 Faculties of Engineering and Medicine are fully established, and a beginning has been made in the Faculty of Arts. In the Engineering Department courses

             courses are being given in Civil, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, leading up to the degree of B.Sc. (Eng.). The Medical Faculty prepares students for the degrees of M.B. and B.S: The Arts Faculty gives the degree of B.A., which, like all the other degrees of the University, is modelled on the London Pass Degree.

 Five years of residence are required before the M.B. or B.S. can be granted, and four for the B.Sc. (Eng.) and B.A. There are three terms in the Session, which begins on September 15th and ends about May 31st. The fees are $300 for tuition, and $240 for board and residence, with a deposit of $25 caution money. All fees are payable in terminal instalments.

 The University has shown abundant proof of vitality At the end of the year the number of students was 72, 31 of whom were taking Engineering and 21 Medicine. There is a Provisional Arts Course, which gives courses in Physics, Chemistry, Mathe- matics, Chinese, English, History and Economics. While most of the students have studied in Hong Kong schools a number come from Canton, the coast ports of China, and the Straits Settlements.

244

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

Of the important works in progress, the Law Courts were completed and formally opened by His Excellency the Governor on the 15th January. The building contains three courts, the Court Library, the Judges' Chambers, the Attorney-General's and Crown Solicitor's Offices, the Land Registry Office and the Court Registry Office, besides the necessary cells, lavatories, robing rooms, witnesses' rooms, etc. The Mongkoktsui Breakwater was constructed throughout to a height of nine feet below low water level, whilst in five places it was partly constructed to a height of 12 feet above that level. The reconstruction of the old Western Market had reached roof level and the erection of the ironwork for the roof was well advanced. A contract for the construction of a large masonry dam to impound 1,500 million gallons of water, forming the second section of the Tytam Tuk scheme, was let in October and the necessary preliminary arrangements for the housing of workmen, etc., were well advanced at the close of the

year.

The following buildings were completed:-Additional storey and extensions, Yaumati English School; market and slaughter- house, Aberdeen; stables, Yaumati Disinfecting Station; quarters for searchers, Imports and Exports Office; lighthouse and quarters, Kap Sing Island; an extension of the Maternity Hospital; a lean-to shed in Staunton Street for a vegetable market, and the reconstruction of coolie quarters at the City Slaughter-houses to admit of the provision of further accommodation for slaughtering pigs. The following buildings were in course of erection:- Sanitary Offices in Wantsai and Saiyingpun Districts; new Operating Theatre, etc., at the Civil Hospital; a new Public Works Storeyard; an extension of the City Slaughter-houses and quarters near same for an additional Inspector; a vegetable and fruit market at Yaumati; an extension of the Belilios Public School; and an underground trough closet at the west end of Wellington Street.

A path from Boundary Path to Kennedy Road and another from Chamberlain Road to Plaintation Road were completed. Bonham Road was diverted along the northern side of the area formerly occupied by No. 2 Tank, and a further diversion of this road to admit of an extension of Inland Lot 754 was carried out. The diversion referred to resulted in an improvement of the align- ment of the road. A. considerable improvement, both in gradient and alignment, was effected in Pokfulam Road at No. 1 Bridge. A diversion and improvement of Wongneichong Road to the north of the village bearing the same name was in progress. A path from Pinewood Battery to Pokfulam Road was constructed. In Kowloon, a new road south of Kowloon Inland Lot 571 was formed and the old embankment extending from Tai Po Road to Tong Mi Village was widened and otherwise improved to render it available for rickshaw traffic. In the New Territories, the remaining section of the Castle Peak-Sha Tau Kok Road, extending from Au Tau to San Tin, was begun as was also a branch road from Au Tau to Kam Tin.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

245

21

The training of the stream at No. 12 Bridge, Shaukiwan, was continued, practically the entire length from No. 12 Bridge to the. Tytam Tuk Road being completed, and a branch stream extending to the same road was also trained. The channelling of Pokfulam Stream was extended to the overflow channel from the Reservoir. Some streams to the westward of the University were trained for considerable distances and various portions of streams in the neigh- bourhood of May Road and between the Military Hospital and the Bowen Road Filter Beds were also trained. The training of sundry other streams in the Wanchai District and to the westward of Mount Austin Barracks was also undertaken and an important extension of the Wongneichong Nullah in the vicinity of the village bearing the same name was in progress. Provision was made for the discharge of storm water from the site of the University by laying drains in Bonham and Hill Roads. In Kowloon, a further extension of the nullah in Waterloo Road to the north of No. 4 Railway Bridge was nearly completed and a new storm water drain was laid in Mody Road to intercept the storm water which formerly flowed across Kowloon Inland Lot 575. The sewer in Craigmin Road to intercept the drainage from houses on the southern slopes of Mount Gough, etc., was completed and practically all the houses were connected with it. Various ex- tensions of sewers in connection with new building lots were carried out and further extensive drainage works were executed at Shamshuipo on account of reclamation works in progress there. Extensive surface channels were constructed in Kowloon City to assist in improving the sanitary condition of the village. Iron pipes were substituted for earthenware ones in the case of three lengths of sewer in Matheson Street, Leighton Hill Road and in Wongneichong Valley.

Con-

The reconstruction and raising of Tai Hang Village was com- pleted; considerable progress was made with the Ap Liu Village Improvement Scheme and the reclamation of the area in front of Kowloon Marine Lots 29 to 31, at Yaumati, was continued. siderable reclamations at Shamshuipo and to the south of Kowloon Marine Lot 32, at Taikoktsui, were also in progress. The Govern- ment plots on the east side of Royal Square, corresponding to those on the west side belonging to the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, were fenced in.

The work of providing scavenging lanes was continued, com- pensation being paid where necessary. The demolition of the riding floors over the entrance to Amoy Lane was carried out, the owner being compensated by Government.

  The waters of a stream in the south-western corner of the Sywan Valley were intercepted and led into Shaukiwan in iron pipes for the supply of this important village, and the construction of a service reservoir and filter beds was in progress. A new main was laid at Aberdeen for the supply of water boats. The conduit for conveying Tytam water into the City was enlarged over a con- siderable length in order to increase its discharging capacity. A main of larger diameter was substituted for the one previously supplying Mount Kellett District.

246

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

-22

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

A large block of land at Kowloon Point was resumed at a cost of $1,473,880 for a site for the terminal passenger station of the Canton-Kowloon Railway.

  The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,051,840 and on works annually recurrent $447,636.

No typhoon passed in such proximity to Hong Kong as to cause any damage.

Railway.

  At the end of 1911 little construction work remained to be done, with the exception of building the terminal station at Kowloon. The site for this has been under discussion during the year and it was finally decided to purchase Kowloon Marine Lots Nos. 3, 9, 74 and 75. It was also necessary to acquire a portion of the land in the occupation of Messrs. Holt and Company to gain access to the proposed new station and this has been arranged by exchange of an equal portion from railway property. Mr. A. B. Hubback, F.R.I.B.A., Government Architect for the Federated Malay States, was, by the courtesy of the High Commissioner, appointed architect, and submitted plans, before the end of the year, which were approved. Work was commenced by raising the Praya Wall at Kowloon Point to such a level as to ensure the safety of the yard against flooding during typhoons. The demolition of the ware- houses and other buildings on the site was completed, the head offices of the railway being transferred to a temporary building, which on the completion of the new station will be converted into quarters for the staff. A considerable amount of preliminary work has also been done in the laying out of temporary sidings, the collection of building materials and the transportation of these to the site.

The branch line from Fanling to Sha Tau Kok was completed and opened to traffic on April 1st. Two sidings were laid, one at 12 and one at 4 miles, and a passing loop at Wo Hang Station.

  The year's expenditure chargeable to Construction Account was $1,242,132, Main Line and $20,791, Fanling Branch, making a total of $1,262,923, and shows a saving on the grant of $520,170, which was largely due to a profit on exchange.

The working expenses compared with gross receipts show a marked decrease on the previous year. Expenditure amounted to $207,351, or $6,378 more than was estimated.

  The revenue derived from local traffic was $116,824, Through and Joint Sectional $118,572, and Fanling Branch $6,252, the excess of income over expenditure being $34,298.

Passengers booked by British Section to

Stations in China

...

122,390

Passengers booked by Chinese

Section to

Stations on the British Section

134,583

Passengers travelling on the British Section,

Main Line

....

300,337

Passengers travelling on the British Section

(Fanling Branch)

...

42,940

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a.)-HOSPITALS.

247

23

 Government hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases: Hospital. There is an observation station capable of accommo- dating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious. disease on board a ship arriving in the harbour.

 The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,731 in- patients and 15,177 out-patients were treated during 1912 as against 2,370 and 15,489, respectively, in 1911. 198 cases of malarial fever were admitted, as against 112 in 1911 and 340 in 1910. The Maternity Hospital contains 12 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 140 confinements occurred during the year as against 138 in 1911. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds, and during 1912 234 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 42 cases were treated in 1912, 35 being smallpox.

(b.)-LUNATIC ASYLUM.

 The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 243 patients of all races were treated during 1912 and there were 26 deaths.

(c.)-THE TUNG WA AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

 The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon, trained in Western medicine, is a member of the hospital staff. There are 323 beds in the buildings and 4,279 patients were accommodated during 1912.

 The Tung Wa also maintain a branch hospital for smallpox cases (Chinese only) at Kennedy Town. It contains 58 beds, and during 1912 150 cases were treated.

 The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial

248

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Hospital, opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital, opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital, opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital, opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1912 was 1,600 and the expenditure $14,597. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 351. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infec- tious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

  The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Peninsula was opened on the 9th October, 1911. It occupies a site having an area of 3 acres, and as designed will ultimately provide accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds and 1,271 patients were accommodated during 1912. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chair- manship of the Registrar-General, but when completed the hospital will form part of the Tung Wa Hospital and be under the same management. The hospital receives a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported, by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Registrar- General and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Registrar-General under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1912 the number of persons ad- mitted was 581 and at the close of the year 64 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from. the Government.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

249

25

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Govern- ment. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, etc., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

 Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280), the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

 The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors, whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters, who can assist the inmates of houses, where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are

engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to re- move cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the Mortuary. The Dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the Convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight Dispensaries in existence, including one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscription, was $40,085. The dis- pensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Registrar-General.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the police was 12,660, being an increase of 3,371 or 36 29 per cent. as compared with 1911. There was in 1912 an increase in serious offences of 692 or 19:31 per cent. as compared with the previous year.. The number of serious offences reported was 665 over the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1908. The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 2,679 as compared with 1911 and was 1,772 over the average of the quinquennial period.

The total strength of the Police Force in 1912 was-Europeans 164, Indians 462, Chinese 547, making a total of 1,173 (as com- pared with 1,080 in 1911) exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway and other Government departments and by private firms. Of this force 14 Europeans, 101 Indians and 39 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year, under the District Officer.

The District Watchmen Force, numbering 124, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the City. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol. The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 6,236 as compared with 4,178 in 1911. Of these, 1,867 were

250

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

committed for criminal offences, against 1,191 in 1911. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 286 less under the prepared Opium Ordinance, and 16 less for infringement of Sanitary By-laws, than in 1911.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 701, the average for 1911 being 595, and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 0.14, which is the average percentage for the last ten years. Owing, however, to the large floating popula- tion which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. The gaol has accommodation for 590 prisoners.

The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish- ments per prisoner being 1-40 as compared with 1·61 in 1911 and 1.33 in 1910.

Long sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, bookbinding, washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking etc. The profit on the work done was $60,976 as against $51,833 in 1911. There was $4,636 received and credited to Government for non-Government work against $4,627 in 1911.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.)-POPULATION.

The civil population of the Colony, according to the Census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the Census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 467,777, but this includes the New Territories; and, as the death figures given below do not include those from this area (with the exception of New Kowloon), the population for the purposes of calculating death-rates is estimated at 377,183, of whom 21,163 were non-Chinese.

The distribution of population at the Census was as follows:- Non-Chinese Civil Community

Chinese Population.

(City of Victoria (including

Peak)

...

Villages of Hong Kong

...

12,075

219,386

...

16,106

Kowloon (including New Kow-

loon)

67,602

80,622

60,948

444,664

Total Civil Population

456,739

New Territories Population afloat

Total Chinese Population

...

...

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

(6.)-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

251

27

 There has been great activity in regard to building operations during the past year, to meet the urgent demands for house-room created by the immigration of some forty to fifty thousand Chinese who poured into Hong Kong during 1911. These people were of all classes, and came principally from the neighbouring provinces of Kwangtung, Kwangsi and Fokien, seeking refuge from the political unrest which ultimately led to the overthrow of the dynasty and the establishment of a Republican Government in China.

 Pending the erection of sufficient dwellings for the accommoda- tion of so large an increase in our normal population, the existing dwellings became greatly overcrowded, but any very strict enforce- ment of the overcrowding laws was deemed impossible, while the penalty which had to be paid for this abnormal state of affairs- amounting practically to the conversion of Hong Kong into a huge refugee camp-was a severe outbreak of plague, no less than 1,847 cases being recorded. These cases were generally distributed throughout the City, except in the European business quarter (where only a few cases occurred), and throughout Kowloon, and the most probable determining cause of the epidemic was a con- siderable augmentation of the rat population consequent on the general overcrowding of the native dwellings. The overcrowding naturally led to a marked increase in the amount of waste food, both in the houses and in the yards and lanes adjacent thereto, and although efforts were made to deal with this excess by improved scavenging, yet it is obvious that where houses are overcrowded with human beings and their belongings, the cleanliness of the premises must fall below the average and refuse of all sorts will lie concealed among the lumber.

 The rat population depends almost entirely upon the available food supply, and this large increase in the amount of food refuse would promptly lead to a corresponding increase in the number of susceptible rats by more frequent breeding and larger litters. Plague is endemic among the rats of Hong Kong and the infection is known to be carried forward from season to season by the Mus decumanus or drain rat, among which species plague-infected animals are found throughout the year. During the human plague season-February to July-the infection spreads to the house rat (Mus rattus) and although cases of human plague do certainly occur when only infected drain rats are being discovered, the infection being acquired in warehouses, basements, workshops, and outhouses generally, into which these rats are driven by the rain storms flooding their underground haunts, yet the maximum incidence of human infection corresponds exactly with the maxi- mum incidence of the rattus infection, and the main efforts of the Sanitary Department are therefore directed to the exclusion of rats from human dwellings, and the limitation of the food supply of the rat population. The latter is secured by a daily collection of garbage from all dwellings, and by the efficient scavenging of lanes and alleys, while the former object is aimed at by the con- creting of ground surfaces, the protecting of drain openings by

252

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

28

COLONIAL REPORTS- -ANNUAL.

gratings, and the prohibition of ceilings, wainscotings and hollow walls. There is unfortunately, however, a very large number of old houses in the Colony which possess these hollow walls, con- structed of soft bricks, which form ideal nesting places for the Mus rattus and enable him to enter the dwellings at night to forage for food, and it is in those districts in which such buildings are most numerous that plague has displayed its greatest incidence since the infection was first imported into the Colony in 1894. There is no remedy for such faulty construction, short of actual demolition of the premises, which is too heroic a measure to be practicable on any extended scale.

The general birth-rate for the year was 90 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 16.2 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 6-3 and 19-2 during 1911.

The general death-rate for the year was 26-33 per 1,000 among the Chinese community, and 14:51 among the non-Chinese com- munity, as compared with 21 13 and 13:38 during 1911.

The higher death-rate among the Chinese as compared with the previous year is due in part to the severe outbreak of plague and in part to the influx of Chinese from the mainland, while the latter cause contributed also to the higher birth-rate.

  The number of deaths from malaria (432) shows an increase on the previous year (338), which can be accounted for by the excep- tional influx of infected persons from the mainland. The deaths of Chinese from this cause in the City of Victoria numbered 214 out of a population of 225,500; but more than 34 per cent. of these deaths occurred in Health Districts Nos. 2 and 9, where most of the coolies reside who have been engaged on the extensive building operations that have been in progress during the year.

The deaths from plague numbered 1,768, as compared with 253 in 1911 and 23 in 1910. The probable causes of this epidemic have already been discussed herein.

Small-pox deaths numbered 565-all Chinese, with the exception of two British children and one Indian child, all of which were returned as showing no signs of vaccination; only two of the fatal Chinese cases were returned as having been previously vaccinated.

There were 2,317 deaths from respiratory diseases among the Chinese, as compared with 2,487 in 1911. Phthisis claimed 757 Chinese victims, while other forms of tuberculosis represent an additional 379 deaths, making a total of 1,136 or 12.1 per cent. of the total deaths among that community.

Beriberi was responsible for 231 deaths, as compared with 320 during 1911, and 566 in 1910. During the past few years circulars have been distributed to all large employers of coolie labour, calling their attention to the fact that beriberi is produced by the consumption of white rice as the staple article of diet without a sufficiency of other foods, and advising that beans should be supplied with the rice when fresh meat or fresh fish cannot be afforded, and it is possible that the dissemination of this informa- tion may have had some influence in reducing the mortality from this disease.

A tabular statement of the principal causes of death is appended."

See page 32.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

(c.)-CLIMATE.

253

29

 The mean shade temperature for the year at the Royal Obser- vatory, Kowloon (108 feet above mean sea level), was 71.90, as compared with 72-10 in 1911, and 72.1° for the ten preceding years. The maximum temperature was 92.5°, on the 10th September, and the minimum 45.3°, on the 28th December. The hottest month was July, with a mean temperature of 83·0°, and the coldest January, with a mean temperature of 57.3°.

 The temperature at the high levels of the Peak District is from 30 to 8° less than at the Observatory. At Victoria it is practically the same.

     The rainfall and humidity are considerably greater at the Peak than at Victoria, the Observatory, or Tai Po (New Territories).

 The total rainfall for the year was 63.93 inches, as compared with an average of 84:21 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was August with 15.71 inches, the driest October, when 001 inch was recorded. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 6 12 inches, on the 15th August, while no rain fell on 218 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 74 per cent., as com- pared with an average of 78 per cent. during the ten preceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 55 hours, being 49 per cent. of the possible duration.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

 The total revenue from the Postal Service in 1912 was $401,054.32 and total expenditure $296,867.12, leaving a credit balance of $104,187.20. The total amount of payments during the year was $256,582.88 less than that estimated for, owing to the bigh rate of exchange, non-receipt of the claims in respect of mails sent via Siberia during the years 1910 and 1911, and non-payment of the shares of the Peninsular and Oriental Mail Subsidy for the fourth quarter by the Crown Agents.

Agreements to regulate the exchange of correspondence and parcels with the Portuguese Colony of Macao were signed on 23rd October, 1912.

XI.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The Chinese territory adjoining the New Territories was in a disturbed condition during the greater part of the year, owing to the withdrawal of the military posts along the frontier to meet exigencies elsewhere. As a result some serious raids were made by armed bands of robbers into British territory. To guard against these incursions 354 officers and men of the 8th Rajputs and 153 officers and men of the 126th Baluchistan Infantry were, by the courtesy of His Excellency the General Officer Com-

254

30

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

manding, South China, drafted on the 26th of June to various places along the frontier. This force furnished patrols which moved about the country at various hours by night and by day. It was withdrawn on the 30th of November for annual training in camp in the New Territories. These patrols proved most efficient and the thanks of the Colonial Government were conveyed to the officers and men concerned and to the military authorities for the valuable assistance thus rendered.

  On the night of the 19th of August an attack was made on the police station at Ch'eung Chau, where one European serjeant and four Indian constables were stationed, by a gang of pirates and robbers about 40 strong who came from Macao in a junk, landed at the back of the island, and at once proceeded to the police station which is situated in the village. The Indian constable on guard in the village was shot down, as were two other Indian constables who emerged from the houses in the village in which they had been permitted to live with their families. The station was ransacked and a sum of $1,000 was stolen from the safe together with all the arms and accoutrements of the detachment. The money consisted of crown rent and taxes which were being collected at that time of the year. The pirates next looted a pawnshop and then seized a launch at anchor off the village and made good their escape.

In the course of the enquiries into this daring outrage it was discovered that, on the 26th of June, four Chinese passengers had been carried away by pirates, who pirated a ferry launch plying between Tai O, in Lantao, and Hong Kong. The piracy had been reported to the police but no mention had been made of the kidnapping of the four passengers. It was also discovered that on the night of the 30th of June two Chinese had been forcibly carried away from a village in Lantao by robbers who held them to ransom on the island of Wong Kam, near Macao, the jurisdiction over which is in dispute between the Portuguese and Chinese authorities.

As the information of the Hong Kong police pointed to this same island being used as a base by a piratical band, a joint expedition was, at the instance of this Government, organized against the band by the Portuguese and Chinese authorities. Owing to the inevitable delay in arranging the details of such an expedition, the robbers apparently became apprised of the danger which threatened them and the expedition, which took place on 20th of September, proved abortive.

In order to cope with the situation caused by this raid and by the insecurity in the New Territories, an additional launch was bought and armed for the policing of the western waters of the Colony, while steps were taken to strengthen the police doing duty on land in the New Territories by 10 European and 75 Indian police.

 A serious boycott of the Low Level Tramway was begun towards the end of November owing to the decision of the company to accept nothing but the legal tender of the Colony in payment of fares. Similar action taken at the same time by the High Level Tramway Company and by the Star Ferry Company passed un-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1912.

255

31

noticed by the Chinese population. The boycott of the Low Level Tramway was due partly to interested action on the part of small bankers, money-changers, and others who make large profits by the manipulation of exchange between Hong Kong currency and Chinese silver coins, and partly to political agitators who feigned to see in the legal and legitimate action of the tramway company a slur on Chinese dignity. The boycott was not stopped till after the close of the year.

 In spite of considerable insecurity of life and property in the Kwangtung Province, trade between it and Hong Kong was good. The West River was well patrolled by the Chinese authorities and this water enjoyed a much larger measure of security than many other parts of the Province.

 The policy of the Government in controlling the consumption of morphia and compounds of opium was continued by amending the regulations, so as to prohibit their sale except on a medical prescription.

 This action has resulted in the stoppage of a trade in "cough lozenges" and similar confections containing morphia, which had a large sale among the Chinese owing to their use as a substitute for opium or as an alleged remedy against the opium habit.

 The importation of Persian opium into China was prohibited as from the 1st January, and during the year strict supervision was kept, there having been instituted four prosecutions for attempts to smuggle the article. Numerous prosecutions were also under- taken against illicit opium-smoking divans although there is con- siderable difficulty in the way of finding them out.

 Although the transit trade in morphia and cocaine has been stopped, there was still a certain amount of illegal business done and several seizures of these drugs were made during the year.

 There is little evidence of their actual use in Hong Kong, but there appears to be a strong demand for them in the Province of Fukien, in Java, Siam, and other countries to the south of the Colony.

 Every effort is being made to accomplish the suppression of this illicit trade.

Sir Frederick Lugard left the Colony on the 16th March to take up the government of Northern and Southern Nigeria. Mr. C. Severn administered the government till the arrival of Sir Henry May on the 3rd of July. As the new Governor was pro- ceeding from the landing place to the City Hall, he was fired at by a Chinese, who rushed up to the Governor's chair and discharged a revolver close to Sir Henry May's face. The man was seized by the prompt action of Serjeant Garrod and Indian police constable Kala Singh. The man alleged as his motive a grievance on account of the prohibition of the circulation in Hong Kong of foreign copper coins, and of the repatriation or Chinese from South .Africa.

A. M. THOMSON, Acting Colonial Secretary.

28th June, 1913.

Deaths registered in the Colony of Hong Kong during 1912.

256

32

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

2227

Total, 1912

887 21

...

1911

...

Chinese

and Peak.

Harbour... Kowloon...217|

Community. Shaukiwan Aberdeen

Stanley

...

111201

Victoria 299 5 71 13

British and

Foreign

Civil

Army

Community. Navy

:

36

| | | | |

1987 211

44.

8

86

1 8 2

40

80

16

11

6

84

2

1

7

1111

11

CO

1

12 1 10

98 |1,129 | 217 | 10 | 39 | 123 |

13

888

11.80 2

~

៩ ៩

888

223

23

25

25

1

3 62

2

1

A

12

111

11

50919

ཟླུ། ཤྲྰི

11050 1N

762852 117 831 127 26 509 110 823 416 67 13 12 49 886 | 127 | 6,255

2

6

16

223

|| བླློ ཙâཌཌ

། ༷|

1

3-

1 ∞

18

84

8 20

19

91

$11

11

D

#

LO

2

38

272

Smallpox.

Measles.

Typhoid Fever. Diphtheria. Diarrhoea.

Cholera.

Dysentery.

Plague.

Puerperal Fever. Septic Infections.

Malarial Fever.

Syphilis.

Poisoning.

Developmental- Dis-

Alcoholism.

Injuries.

eases.

Old Age.

General Tuberculosis.

Beriberi.

Cancer.

Paralysis and Con-

vulsions.

Heart Diseases.

Pneumonia.

Phthisis.

Enteritis and Gastro-

enteritis.

Cirrhosis of Liver.

Peritonitis.

Nephritis.

Other Causes.

Unknown.

All Causes.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

258

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

30

45'

CHUKIANG OR

15

22"

CANTON

RIVER

Sa-tsiang

* Fuk-yun

HONG-KONG, KOWLOON A

A-po-ki

Sai-Heung

Wu-shak-ngam

114*

Shak-ku

TUNG KWAN

ΑΝ

Liong-tu-l

Kon-lan

Long-heu

Lung-fa

Hsin-hi

Yong-tai-shan

Ma-hámo

Ha-trai

oÔ TAI CHĂM

NAM-TAO

Tai-san

Ma-chau

Lin-tin

BAY

Ping Cheng

113°52′ E. LONG, OF GREENWICH

aimiao

Chong-hang-

གྲཅན་བཅན་

Pan-ten Li-longo

Ŏ Pak-shak-lung

O Moi-lim

Pu-kak

HSIN NGA N

(SUM-ON) & Lungtsubhy

Sha-tau

San

Wan-had

Chak-wan

DEEP BAY OR HAU-HOI

Swan-teu

Hsin-ten

PEAK

AND

Mi-puo

Chuk-yen

SHA

Lim-chun

Un-long

Ping shan

Kam-tin

Lung-ku

\ Sa-chau

Tai-shui-hang

Chin-shan Pet-long

Nam-long,

on-mun

[dShui-leu

Chon-

(Castle Peak Bay

Chu-lu-kok

Tung chung

LAN-TAO (TAI-U SHAN),

Tai-lam-chung

Ma-wan

Tai

Shui Mun

Chung

-hue

Cheun

Sham

Stonecutters Island

HON

Lighthouse Kenn

Ping-chau Green

Tow!

Kow-Chau

Chau-kung

Silver Mine

Bay

Tai-ku-chau

WEST LAMMA CHAN.

Abe

Tai-wane

Lamma I

(Pok-Liu)

Cheung-Chau

A-Chau

Отут

Ty-lo 19

Lap-sap-mi Is

Chi chau l

114*

L

> ADJACENT TERRITORIES.

1904-1919

15'

Piang-ti

30'

Lung-kong

o Tai-Tong-tu

Tong-lak

Hsin-hi

KUI

S HAN

Shak-kong

Ten-teu • Tong.poi

BIAS

Ten.

Piang-san

Tong hang

Wang-kong o

Sa-wan

*Tai-wo-chun

n-tong o 19

Sha-tau

Sha-tao

Yam-ten

Pa-kongo

Tisam-kai

Ki-chun o

Shong-tungt

Kaichung

Sa-ng-chung

Kuk-pu

· Crookedę Harbour

BAY

Wong-muo & Tipfuk

Hasha

[Peog-ches

Namo

TAI-PUNG-SANG

Pit-chau

Crooked I.

Song-chau Crescent I.

Tam-taal

Bluff H₫

Long Harbour

MIRS

Port Island

Grass I. Tap-mun

Tan-ka-wan

ung-kut-teu

Shu

ROAD

Wo-hang

Tin-koko

Shon-wan

Tai-po

RAILWAY

TOLOO

Wang-ling-tau

Plover Cove

4.

HARBOUR

White Head

Tolo Channel

Co-tongo

BAY

Mira

han

Lok Lo

TA

i-Kok

Tide Cove

Shatin

Kau-lung-

-shan

\KOWLOON CITY

Po Mongkok

Navel

Depot

NG HAR

Tai-long

Chak-kang

Shak-hang Hei-wang

PChin-bang

Fung Head

Fung 3ay

Lan-nai-wan Ping Pt

Tai-shui-hang

Pet-kong

Sai-kung

Yam-ton&

-8a want

She wan

Shelter

High L

Town I.

Tai- -pu-tsaio

NGAU INIWAN

Tu-kwa-wan

Cheung-Kwan-0.

Hung-hom? Kon-

Lighthouse Taim-Sha Taur

SHAD REV

Basalt I.

Ping-ong-wan

Hang HauLS

tong

Lyes-mun-Chan.,

Bay,

. HỒNG KONG

Ha-yong

au-Chau

Lighthouse

Collinson

tuk

Lam-tong I.

Ninepin

✔ Group

Stani

LAMMA CHAN.

?

-ku-wan

Tai-tam

i-tam

Bay

Ta-tong Chan

Tai-long Head (C. Aguilar)

Wong-ma-kok Fury Rocks

✔Wag-lan

Lo-chau

Sun-kong

Lighthouse

22'9 N. LAT.

A CHANNEL

15

NOTE

LONG. OF GREENWICH

o Kak-ten

Territory under Convention of 1860 Boundary under Convention 1898

4

3

English Miles (89-18 m-1)

,

·

30'

Samun

259

45'

30

13

22*

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 814.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1913.

(For Report for 1912 see No. 762.)

261

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. October, 1914.

LONDON:

PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S

STATIONERY OFFICE

By BARCLAY AND FRY, LIMITED, THE GROVE, SOUTHWARK, S.E.

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, 29, BREAMS BUILDINGS, FETTER LANE, E.C and 28, ABINgdon Street, S.W., and 54, St. Mary STREET, CARDIFF; or H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (SCOTTISH BRANCH),

23, FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH; or

E. PONSONBY, LIMITED, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN ; or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America, the Continent of Europe and Abroad of T. FISHER UNWIN, LONDON, W.C.

[Cd. 7622-5.] Price 24d.

1914.

262

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

:

PAGE

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,AGRICULTURE,

AND LAND

I. FINANCES

III.-LEGISLATION

IV.-EDUCATION

V.-PUBLIC WORKS

:

:

:

:

:

7

18

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND Åided InstitUTIONS

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GovernmenT

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS

X.-POSTAL SERVICE

XI.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

:

:

18

90

20

23

:

25

26

27

30

30

SIR,

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 814.

HONG KONG

(For Report for 1912, see No. 762).

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

263

3

Hong Kong,

10th August, 1914.

I have the honnour to transmit herewith six copies of the Colonial Secretary's Report on the Blue Book for 1913.

The Right Honourable

Lewis Harcourt, M.P.

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

I have, &c.,

(C80.) Wt.36076-850. 1125 & 90. 10.14. B. & F. Ltd.

F. H. MAY,

Governor, &c.

264

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1913.

I.-FINANCES.

The revenue for the year amounted to $8,512,308, being $660,449 more then the estimate and $331,615 more than the revenue for the previous year.

 Compared with the returns for 1912 there were increases under every head with the exception of Fees of Court or Office, Interest, and Miscellaneous Receipts.

The expenditure amounted to a total of $8,658,013, inclusive of a sum of $1,247,689 spent on Public Works Extraordinary.

 The detailed figures for 1913 are set out in the following state- ments :--

Heads of Revenue.

$

Light Dues

93,649.44

Light Dues, Special Assessment

104,648.41

Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise

specified

5,510,560.89

Fees of Court or Office, Payments for Specific

purposes, and Reimbursements in Aid

••

711,534.94

Post Office

Kowloon-Canton Railway

439,189.37

325,115.22

Houses

Interest

Rent of Government Property, Land and

Miscellaneous Receipts

TOTAL

Land Sales (Premia on New Leases)

TOTAL

:

898,480.27

....

136,844.82

8,220,023.36

292,285.48

..$8,512,308.84

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

Expenditure.

$

Governor

82,051.05

Colonial Secretary's Department and Legislature 79,977.73

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs

..

Audit Department

Treasury

Harbour Master's Department

Royal Observatory Miscellaneous Services

Judicial and Legal Departments

Police and Prison Departments Medical Departments

Sanitary Department

Botanical and Forestry Department Education ..

Military Expenditure

Public Works Department

Do.

Do.

Post Office

Recurrent

Extraordinary

Kowloon-Canton Railway

Charge on account of Public Debt Pensions

Charitable Services

41,674.04

30,817.89

66,161.92

228,516.80

24,255.49

387,783.79

253,636.18

909,421.09

227,307.03

331,234.55

48,745.88

269,164.33

1,615,683.32 367,544.52 599,843.24

1,247,689.34

622,587.51

245,808.58

672,961.36

280,230.88

24,916.41

265

10

5

TOTAL

. . $8,658,012.93

 The deficit on the year's working was $145,704, and the balance of assets and liabilities showed on the 31st December a sum of $2,659,426 in the Colony's favour.

 The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1909-1913 :-

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

Revenue.

Expenditure.

$

$

6,822,967

6,542,839

6,960,861

6,907,113

7,497,231

7,077,177

8,180,694

7,202,553

8,512,308

8,658,012

 The capital expenditure on the British section of the Kowloon- Canton Railway during 1913 was $236,806, chiefly in connection with the erection of a terminal station. The total expenditure on this account amounted at the end of the year to a sum of $13,521,231.

 The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,732, and in addition the advances by the Crown Agents for railway construction amounted at the end of the year to £188,518. Against these items there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £164,188 and there is a balance of £220,000 unpaid in respect of the loan to the late Viceroy of Wuchang.

266

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

6

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No new taxation was imposed during the year and no change of any importance was made in existing taxation.

The existing valuation for 1912-1913 was adopted as the valuation for 1913-1914. During the year ending 30th June, 1913, no general assessment was made, the difference in rateable value being the result of interim assessments.

Increases.

The City of Victoria, $164,202 or 1.63 per cent.

The Hill District, $8,700 or 2.99 per cent.

Shaukiwan, Saiwanho, and Quarry Bay, $4,075 or 1·11 per cent. Hong Kong Villages, $3,019 or 2:31 per cent.

Yaumati, $1,760 or 0.67 per cent.

Mongkoktsui, $2,715 or 1-76 per cent.

Hung Hom and Hok Un, $140 or 0.04 per cent.

Decreases.

Kowloon Point, $18,835 or 3.56 per cent.

New Kowloon, $15,903 or 13.33 per cent. Kowloon Villages, $11,187 or 11.7 per cent.

The rateable value of the whole Colony amounted to $12,450,992, being an increase of $138,686 or equal to 1·12 per cent. over the value of the previous year.

 For the period 1904-1913 the assessment of the whole Colony has risen from $9,929,171 to $12,450,992, an increase in value of 25-39 per cent.

The circulation on the 31st December of notes of the three banks having authorised issues was as follows:-

ong Kong and Shanghai Bank

Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China Mercantile Bank of India

$18,417,339

5,429,671

704,742

$24,551,752

 An Ordinance (No. 13 of 1913) was passed prohibiting the circulation of bank notes other than those authorised, while Ordinance No. 15 of 1913, coming into force on 1st March, 1914, was passed to prohibit the circulation of foreign silver coin.

 The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of these banks, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars and of subsidiary coin.

Foreign note circulation has wholly ceased.

 The rate of discount on Hong Kong subsidiary coin varied during 1913 between the following limits:-

50 cent pieces, par

to 32 per cent.

20

**

10

5

>>

""

Copper coin,

3 per cent. 63

8

""

"}

121

""

""

""

1

6

">

par.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

267

7

The total issue of these coins, less those demonetized, now amounts to $36,392,370 nominal value, and they were up to the year 1905 readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neigh- bouring provinces of China. During 1913 ten cent pieces of the face value of $1,040,000 were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which has prevailed since 1905 may be attributed to the immense. quantity of similar coin which has latterly been minted at Canton as well as to the amount of Hong Kong coin minted largely in excess of the needs of the Colony by itself. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetizing all its subsidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been con- tinuously followed since except during a brief period in 1911. Coin to the face value of $7,607,459 has thus been redeemed. The total ssue by the Hong Kong Government was of the face value of about $44,000,000. It is thought that about half of that amount has dropped out of circulation.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES

AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.)-Shipping and Trade.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1913 amounted to 490,228 vessels, of 37,742,982 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1912, shows an increase of 1,609 vessels, of 1,007,933 tons..

 Of the above, 47,529 vessels, of 25,821,652 tons, were engaged in foreign trade, as against 46,603 vessels, of 24,269,270 tons, in 1912, and were distributed as follows:-

1912. Numbers.

1913. Numbers.

1912. Tonnage.

1913. Tonnage.

British ocean-

going ships

8.4%

8.8%

32.4%

32.7%

Foreign ocean-

going ships..

9.2

9.9

35.3

36.0

British

river

steamers

15.0

14.0

17.3

15.8

Foreign river

steamers

3.8

3.8

3.5

3.6

Steam-launches

(under 60 tons)

8.6

9.5

0.6

0.7

Trading junks ..

55.0

54.0

10.9

11.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

268

8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The movements of fishing junks are not included in the above figures.

 Of the ships of European construction, 4,445 ocean steamers, 2 sailing ships, 4,202 river steamers, and 2,287 steam-launches (not exceeding 60 tons) entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 29.9 ships, as compared with 28-7 in 1912, and 26.9 in 1911.

 The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has increased from 2,575-7 tons to 2,577.5 tons. That of British ships has increased from 2,713-4 tons to 2,7427 tons, while that of foreign ships has decreased from 2,457 tons to 2,453-7 tons.

 During the past twenty years, the average tonnage of ocean vessels has increased from 1,257 tons to 1,995.5 tons.

 The average tonnage of river steamers entered during the year has increased from 585·1 tons to 598-6 tons. That of British river steamers has increased from 602-5 tons to 616-2 tons, and that of foreign river steamers has increased from 515-1 tons to 533.2 tons.

 A comparison between the years 1912 and 1913 is given in the following table :-

Class of Vessels.

1912.

1913.

Increase.

Decrease.

4,367 8,592,320 4,679 9,272,635|

6,968 4,197,744

1,738 894,340

3,981 150,612 4,574 189,003

British ocean-

going Foreign ocean

going.. British river

steamers Foreign river

steamers Steamships un- der 60 tons

Number Tonnage Number Tonnage Number Tonnage Number Tonnage

3,956 7,779,970| 4,210 8,449,533| 254 669,563

312 680,315

6,624 4,078,635

1,790949,328||

344 119,109

42 51,979

593 38,391

:

(foreign trade)

Junks, foreign

trade

25,593 2,654,275 25,653| 2,882,518|

60 228,243

Total, foreign

trade..

Steam launches

plying in waters of Colony

Junks, local

trade ..

46,603 24,269,270 47,520 25,821,652|| 1,261|1,671,491| 344 119,109

411,990 10,609,404 416,438 10,720,604 4,448 111,200

*30,056 *1,856,475 +26,270|†1,200,726|

3,786 655,749

Grand Total.. 488,649 36,735,149| 490,22837,742,982||| 5,709|1,782,691| 4,130| 774,858

Net

1,579 1,007,833|

* Including 9,922 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 624,090 tons.

10,026

""

of 407,276

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

269

9

 This table shows an increase in British ocean shipping of 254 ships, of 669,563 tons, or 6:4 per cent. in numbers and 8.6 per cent. in tonnage.

 British river steamers show a decrease of 344 ships, of 119,109 tons, or 4.9 per cent. in numbers and 2-8 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the fact that two Chinese owned British steamers, the Wing Hon and the Hoi Tung, ceased running during the year.

 Foreign ocean vessels increased by 312 ships, of 680,315 tons, or 7.1 per cent. in numbers and 7.9 per cent. in tonnage. This is almost entirely due to the increase under the Japanese flag of 287 ships, of 650,766 tons, though there are small increases under the Austrian, Dutch, Norwegian and United States flags, while French, German and Italian shipping decreased.

 Foreign river steamers show an increase of 42 ships, of 54,979 tons, or 2.4 per cent. in numbers and 6·1 per cent. in tonnage. These figures are explained by the substitution of the Kwong Kung, of 418 tons, under Chinese colours for the Kwong Wai, of 195 ton. During the year the two river steamers hitherto under French colours have been transferred to the Chinese flag.

 Steam-launches in foreign trade increased by 593 vessels, of 38,391 tons, or 15 per cent. in numbers, and 25.5 per cent. in tonnage. The causes which led to the large increase in 1912 have continued to be operative during the whole of 1913 but larger launches have been employed on the various runs.

 Junks in foreign trade show an increase of 60 vessels, of 228,243 tons, or 23 per cent. in numbers and 8-5 per cent, in tonnage. This appears to indicate that the foreign trade is being carried in junks of larger size than formerly.

 In local trade, i.e., trade between places within the waters of the Colony, there is an increase in steam-launches of 4,448 vessels, of 111,200 tons, or 1 per cent. in both numbers and tonnage.

 In local trade junks there is shown a large decrease of 3,786 vessels, of 655,749 tons, or 12 per cent. in numbers and 35 per cent. in tonnage. This is explained by the facts that many large junks formerly employed in local trade have gone into foreign trade during the year, and that all junks under 150 piculs capacity are now classed as boats."

 It is of interest to note the altered relative positions of German and Japanese shipping visiting the Colony. In 1912 German shipping arriving occupied the second place on the list, with 637 ships, of 1,129,054 tons, or 7-4 per cent. of the total arrivals of ocean and river trade vessels, and 10-5 per cent. on tonnage; while under the Japanese flag came 592 ships, of 1,572,194 tons, or 6.9 per cent. in numbers and 14.6 per cent. in tonnage. In 1913 German shipping fell to the third place in both number and tonnage, with 597 ships, of 1,107,453 tons, or 6.9 per cent. in numbers and 9.7 per cent. in tonnage, against Japan's 740 ships, of 1,907,307 tons, or 8-5 per cent. in numbers and 16.7 per cent. in tonnage.

270

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The actual number of individual ocean vessels of European construction entered during 1913 was 791, of which 361 were British and 430 were foreign. In 1912 the corresponding figures were 724, 336 British and 388 foreign.

 These 791 ships measured 2,045,076 tons. They entered 4,447 times, and gave a collective tonnage of 8,873,806 tons. Thus, 65 more ships entered 292 more times, with a collective tonnage increased by 687,670 tons, an average of 2,355 tons per ship.

Thus :--

Steamers.

Number of times entered.

Total Tonnage.

Flag.

1912. 1913.

1912.

1913.

1912.

1913.

British Sailing

Steamers..

335

359

1

2

1,977 1

Japanese

123

164

592

2,099 3,892,354 4,209,950 2 2,890 5,419 740 1,572,194 1,907,307

German

98

106

637

5971,129,0541,107,453

Norwegian

26

29

168

189

173,145 182,633

Austrian

10

12

46

51

153,624 168,063

Chinese

30

26

236

233

275,310

272,166

Danish

6

6

11

13

28,927

34,433

Dutch

18

15

112

128

246,352

242,928

French

26

22

142

155

229,532

284,628

Italian

4

2

13

7

31,403

18,312

Portuguese

5

5

101

114

49,494

52,009

Russian

18

21

35

34

103,998

86,021

Swedish

6

7

14

12

37,262

31,497

U.S.A.

18

15

70

73

260,597

270,987

TOTAL

724

791 4,155

4,447 8,186,1368,873,806

Trade.

  The remarks with which this section of the Harbour Master's Report has always opened, as to the unreliability of the figures sup- plied by shipmasters, were never more fully justified than this year, the discrepancies between the quantities of various items reported and the actual quantities, which in some cases it has been possible to discover, being very marked.

 Imports.-Under this heading, which includes all cargo landed or transhipped in the Colony from ocean vessels and river steamers (not from junks or steam-launches), a total of 4,956,125 tons was reported, which, compared with that reported for 1912, shows the enormous increase of 804,000 tons, or nearly 20 per cent.

CC

Of this total, the imports of coal, case oil, rice, timber, and general" show increases, while cotton goods, flour, bulk oil, and liquid fuel show decreases.

Coal.-Here an increase is reported of 75,000 tons, or 7 per cent.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

271

11

 This, as last year, is accounted for by increased demand for coal in Canton, and generally inland: about one-third of the total having been re-exported to Canton.

 No coal of British origin arrived in the Colony, except that imported by the Admiralty. The imports of Japanese coal fell off considerably during the latter part of the year, its place being taken by increased imports of Chinese coal.

 Cotton Goods.-The decrease indicated here amounts to 19,894 tons, or 33 per cent. It is more than doubtful if this decrease is borne out by facts although there was undoubtedly considerable reduction in imports of both piece goods and yarn.

 The favourable prospects prevailing at the beginning of the year, as noted in last year's report, were destined to be extinguished by the renewed political trouble in China, which created unrest and financial difficulties destructive to trade, with the result that the demand fell to zero, and no shipments were made. During the last part of the year, however, the trade revived, prices ruling steady, and exchange generally favourable.

 Flour.-Here was reported a decrease of 30,716 tons, or 31 per cent., most of which is fabulous, the imports of flour being probably reported, in many cases, as "general." The actual imports amounted to 129,415 tons, of which 67,887 tons were reported. This amended total, compared with that for 1912, gives a decrease of 12,950 tons, or 10 per cent. The reason for this actual reduction in imported flour is undoubtedly the recrudescence of political trouble in China, which caused shippers to be cautious.

It is of interest to note that Canada, during 1913, made her first shipments of flour to this market. The quantity is as yet small, only 8,000 tons, or 6 per cent. of the whole, but, given more stable conditions in China, there is no reason to doubt that the Canadian mills will shortly be sending us large quantities.

Kerosene Oil.-Bulk Oil shows a falling off of 12,537 tons, or 18 per cent. This decrease is not of any importance. The stocks in hand in the Colony were large at the beginning of the year and low at the end, more having been sold than imported. The actual consumption of oil, imported in bulk, in South China decreased by about 5 per cent., but this was more than counterbalanced by increased consumption of oil imported in cases. Bulk oil is always decanted into tins before distribution in China, so that to the actual customer it makes little, if any, difference in what form it arrives in this Colony.

Case Oil.-Here an increase of 12,243 tons, or 33 per cent., is reported, but, as in the case of bulk oil, there is no significance in the figures. It is merely a question of stocks and freights. Stocks were low at the beginning of the year and freights high. During the second half of the year freights dropped, and large shipments were made, so that by the end of the year all available storage was virtually full. During the year a new competitor in this trade has entered the arena, in the shape of the Texas Oil Company, who have made some large shipments to this market.

272

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Liquid Fuel.-A large decrease is reported here, amounting to 8,116 tons, or nearly 41 per cent. It has not been possible to verify the suspicions that a large quantity of liquid fuel has entered the Colony unreported, but it is believed that this is so from the fact that, although the vessels of the Toyen Kisen Kaisha have ceased to bunker here, the demand from other points is increasing.

Opium.-A further decrease is shown in the imports and exports of raw opium, which indicates generally the effect of the Opium Agreement of May, 1911, and of the subsequent arrangements between the Governments of Great Britain and China. The figures for the imports and exports, since 1908 are shown in the following table :-

1913. 1912.

Chests. Chests.

1911. 1910. 1909. 1908.

Chests. Chests. Chests. | Chests.

Stock in hand 1st January Imported during the year

Total........

5,560 9,108

7,587 12,3611

7,123 4,509 5,808 4,707 21,286 31,743 | 35,734 | 41,821

14,668 19,948 28,409 36,252 41,542 46,528

Boiled by opium farmer.. Spurious opium destroyed

667 1,113

761

2

782 1,044

14

51

864

247

Stolen

Exported during the year

2 9419

9

13,264 20,061 |28,333 |35,938

39,609

Total.........

10,088

14,388 20,822 29,129 37,033

40,720

Stock remaining 31st Dec. 4,580 5,560 7,587 7,123 4,509 5,808

Rice. The figures furnished by shipmasters show an increase in the rice imports of 34 per cent. As a matter of fact, the increase amounts to about 20 per cent. The rice crop in China was above average, so that there was no need for extra importation. In Annam and Siam the crops were unusually good, and prices ruled low. The Tonking crop was poor. The figures given show that about 750,000 tons of rice arrived in the Colony during the year.

Timber. The increase of 9,663 tons, or 13.5 per cent., reported is due to the increased demand for Borneo hardwoods and American and Canadian pine, for house and ship building. It is mostly sent on in junks to Canton.

Rattans. The trade in rattans is an increasing one, though not to the extent indicated by the reports sent in, which show an increase of 2,426 tons. The quantity reported in 1912 was 907 tons and in 1913 3,333 tons. As a matter of fact, 10,588 tons were imported in the latter year, being an increase of about 11 per cent. Of this total, about 60 per cent. comes from the Straits Settlements, 30 per cent. from

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

273

13

Java, and 10 per cent. from Borneo. About one-third is exported, raw, to Canton.

 General. Here an increase is reported of 688,286 tons, or 43.6 per cent. This is probably a genuine increase, when allowance is made for the itemised descriptions of cargo reported as "general." It appears to be due to the state of the freight market during the greater part of the year, and serves to show that, however much the political state of China influenced certain branches of trade, the deficit was more than made up in other branches.

 Export Cargo.-Under this heading were reported 2,681,318 tons, an increase of 346,318 tons, or nearly 15 per cent.

 Transit Cargo.-There is shown an increase in transit cargo of 345,848 tons, or 7.5 per cent.

Emigration and Immigration.

 One hundred and forty-two thousand seven hundred and fifty- nine (142,759) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1913 (122,657 in 1912).

 Of these, 103,665 were carried in British ships, and 39,094 in foreign ships.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements,

1908 to 1913, compared with total Chinese

Emigration, 1908 to 1913.

Number of Emigrants

Straits Settlements.

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

to

Total Number of

Emigrants.

49,639

71,081

48,016

77,430

76,705

111,058

100,906

135,565

84,024

122,657

102,353

142,759

One hundred and sixty-six thousand nine hundred and twenty- one (166,921) returning emigrants are reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had been emigrated either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 163,248 in 1912. Of these 130,313 arrived in British ships, and 36,608 in foreign ships.

(b.)-Industries.

(i.)-Under European Management.

Engineering and Shipbuilding. This industry improved regards tonnage during the year under review.

274

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Taikoo Dockyard and

Eng. Co., Li... Hong Kong and Wham-

  poa Dock Co., Ltd. W. S. Bailey & Co. Kwong Fook Cheong Kwong Tuck Cheong Sam Kee..

Kwong Hip Lung Co.,

Ltd.

Kwong Sze Sang

1913.

11 vessels of 5,886 gross tons and 4,420 I.H.P.

3

"

1,493 140

9

"

15

3,304 306

4,700 509

""

""

"

220

385

""

""

""

"

2,406

250

"

6

558

""

**

6

380

1,002 720

""

""

""

2

""

Kwong Hip Loong

""

Kwong Tak Cheong

3

Total ..

59 vessels of 12,287 gross tons and 14,392 I.II.P.

Taikoo Dockyard and Eng.

Co., Ltd...

Hong Kong and Whampoa

Dock Co., Ltd.

W. S. Bailey & Co. Macdonald & Co.

Ulderup & Schluter

Tung Hing Lung Kwong Fook Cheong

1912.

8 vessels of 2,121 gross tons and 1,065 I.H.P.

6

15

333

922

491

1,275 486

"

"?

99

197

218

""

""

87

120

""

""

50

180

""

"

""

665

585

""

""

""

27

76

""

548

846

""

""

"

Kwong Tak Hing

1

91

110

"

Kwong Hip Lung Co., Ltd.

250

575

""

"

Cheung Kee

1

34

79

""

19

""

Kwong Sze Sang

Kwong Lee

206. 76

""

"

1,301

""

102

Total

61 vessels of 5,765 gross tons and 7,018 I.H.P.

Sugar Refineries.-The year 1913 was an unsatisfactory one. Prices, owing to severe Japanese and Java competition, were on a very low scale throughout the whole period. In addition to this, tightness of money, restriction of credit, and want of confidence in the country generally, had an adverse effect. on the China market.

..

 Cotton Spinning.-The Cotton yarn trade proved somewhat disappointing during 1913, as the bright prospects under which the year opened were not fully realized owing to political unrest and chaotic financial conditions in China. The local mill, however, has worked full time and did a larger turnover than in the previous year, which would tend to show that yarns produced from China cotton (on similar lines to the Shanghai mills) are growing in favour.

 It is generally felt that, granted reasonable facilities for trade, the outlook is encouraging.

 Rope Manufacturing. The rise in the price of hemp in the Philippines, which was the chief feature of 1912, was well maintained during 1913, but towards the end of the year the market eased off owing to absence of enquiry from the United States. It is anticipated, however, that the crop for 1914 will be considerably below the average, and if this turns out to be the case we may expect no decline of im- portance during 1914. The effect of the high price of the raw material

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

275

15

during the year was, as anticipated in our last report, to curtail sales, although the demand was on the whole satisfactory throughout the

year.

 Cement. The demand in the Far East kept up during the year. The local Green Island Cement Co. unfortunately was not able to keep the different markets well supplied, on account of the embargo placed on the export of limestone from the Kwangtung Province still being in force, the result being the reappearance of various European and Japanese brands, and a large importation of the Haiphong Company's product. The trouble was nearing a settlement at the end of the year, and it is hoped that stone will be procurable from the old sources of supply before much longer. Outward freights from Europe and England were somewhat lower, and prices declined towards the end of the year.

(ii.)-Under Chinese Management.

 Rattan and Fibre Furnitures.-Manufacturers and exporters alike report a greatly increased business, the demand for hemp string and sea grass being particularly good.

 Native Tobacco.-Contrary to expectations this industry has revived; many Chinese who formerly used cigarettes of European manufacture are now favouring the native weed. The output has increased 30 per cent. on the previous year and business has been profitably carried on.

 Tinned Goods.-The volume of exports increased and local factories report a very good year.

 Samshu.-The Superintendent of Imports and Exports reports that the trade has been steady during the year, an increase being shewn in samshu (a) distilled locally, (b) imported, (c) exported and (d) consumed locally. New distilleries have been opened in Hong Kong and the New Territories.

 Vinegar. The output shows a slight falling off as compared with the previous year and business generally has not been profitable

 Knitted Vests and Socks.-Notwithstanding the keen competi- tion of the Japanese, who imported largely in the early part of the year, business cannot be said to have been bad, and prospects for the coming year are good.

 Leather and Hides.-Local tanneries have almost died out, but the export of raw hides to Penang has greatly increased and the re-import of fine leather from that port steadily grows to meet the extraordinary demand in China for foreign style ladies' boots and shoes, and for military equipment.

 Ginger and Preserves.-Business increased 20 per cent. during the year, profits being considered good all round.

Soy.-Exporters again report a dull market, and a continual drop in export to Singapore and the south.

 Paper.-The year shows a further decrease in this trade and stocks on hand are heavy.

276

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

16

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 Vermilion. The output just about corresponds with the pre- vious year, but the demand has increased and good profits have been made at enhanced prices.

Lard. The export of this and dried meats to the Philippine Islands increased about 30 per cent. and local merchants are prepared to comply with regulations imposed as to purity, etc.

(c.)-Fisheries.

A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shauki- 'wan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of con- siderable value in Deep Bay.

(d.)-Forestry, Agriculture, and Botany.

On the south slope of Beacon Hill 66,000 one-year-old pine tree seedlings were planted. 5,000 pine tree seedlings were also planted on the Kowloon Service Tank Hill.

About 50,000 pine tree seedlings have been raised for planting in 1914. A much larger number had been provided for but the August typhoon destroyed between 30,000 and 40,000.

At Aberdeen and Pokfulum, in areas cleared by fires, pine seeds were sown in sites.

Some 5,000 young_banian trees were planted on the low hills to the south of Beacon Hill. One hundred young camphor trees were also planted on these hills.

 In the Pokfulum valley over 2,500 young trees were planted consisting of camphor, Tristania and Ficus.

Pine seed, amounting to 420 lbs., was sown broadcast on grassy hills in the vicinity of Kowloon Tsai.

 Alongside the Castle Peak-Shataukok Road, 1,300 trees were planted, consisting of Poinciana, Ficus and Melaleuca.

 At U Kau Tang 1,000 pits were made, some of which were planted with trees and the others sown with seeds.

In the vicinity of Fanling 250 flowering trees were planted.

The young pine tree plantations at Mount Davis, Aberdeen and Lyemun were thinned out.

 Creepers encircling trees in plantations at Mt. Kellett, Mt. Victoria, Mt. Gough, Mt. Parker, and Kowloon Catchwater were cut.

Trees and shrubs standing in the New Reservoir area at Tytam Tuk were felled.

Large numbers of flowering trees and shrubs were planted along the Bowen, May, Magazine Gap and Peak Roads and the Peak Tramline.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

anti-malarial

277

17

In connection with

        with anti-malarial measures about 4,500,000 square feet were cleared of undergrowth at Government expense. A further area of about 975,000 square feet was cleared at the expense of the military authorities and an area of 3,500 square feet at the cost of private individuals.

 For survey purposes an area of about 2,400,000 square feet was cleared for the Public Works Department.

 Several inquiries were made by merchants regarding seeds of economic value and the desired information was given.

 The first and second rice crops were good. Lichees were plentiful. On the last day of the year frost destroyed many of the fields of sweet potatoes in the New Territories.

(e.)-Land Grants and General Value of Land.

 There was a considerable increase in the net amount received from sales of Crown land and pier rights during 1913, the figure reached being $292,285, which is $128,501 more than the preceding year and $126,400 more than the average for the past five years. The principal items are:-$43,645 for Kowloon Inland Lots Nos. 1,283 and 1,284, a large area of 233,225 square feet situate near Yaumati Railway Station, $35,000 and $23,500 respectively for Inland Lots Nos. 2,028 and 1,968 in Taipingshan, in the City of Victoria, which were sold at the rates of $4.95 and $5.11 per square foot: $24,900 obtained for Inland Lot No. 1,947, an area of 249,000 square feet situate on the summit of the ridge east of the Happy Valley, and $12,936 for sales of land in the New Territories, the last figure being $4,791 more than the amount received for the previous year, an increase of nearly 38 per cent.

 There were not as many sales of lots in and around the City as there were last year, but several large lots were sold, and in some instances there was keen competition, particularly in the case of the two lots at Taipingshan above mentioned, when the amounts realized were considerably in excess of the upset prices.

 There was a further increase in the number of private properties which changed hands, the total number of lots or portions of lots being 1,455, as against 1,219 last year, the total purchase money paid being $21,845,734, which is $2,815,748 in excess of last year's total.

 During the year a survey was made of Marine Lot No. 54, which was re-entered in 1912, the lot being divided into some 61 inland lots, in respect of which 51 Crown leases have already been issued.

 There was an improvement in the demand for granite quarries after a period of depression. A batch of ten were put up to auction at the end of the year for short periods and realized an increase of 57 per cent. above the upset rentals.

 In the New Territories the demand for land was normal inasmuch as the number of lots sold was very little in excess of the preceding year, but the sale of several large agricultural lots and a large oyster

278

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Bed in the Northern District swelled the total acreage of, and the prices obtained for, lands sold in that part of the Colony to figures considerably above last year's totals.

 An area of 42 acres was granted to the Royal Hong Kong Golf Club as an extension to the existing course at Fan Ling in the New Territories.

III.-LEGISLATION.

 Thirty Ordinances were passed during 1913, of which 14 were amendments of previous Ordinances and one, an Ordinance to repeal the Sugar Convention Ordinance, was subsequently disallowed.

The most important matters with which these Ordinances dealt were the General Loan and Inscribed Stock Ordinance (No. 7), setting forth the terms and conditions applicable to loans authorised by the Hong Kong Government and to provide for the creation of Hong Kong Inscribed Stock, the Prohibition of the Circulation of Foreign Notes (No. 13), the Prohibition of the Circulation of Foreign Silver and Nickel Coins (No. 15), the Steam Launch and River Trade Steamer (Protection against Piracy) Ordinance (No. 18), which provides for precautions being taken on board river steamers against the seizure of steamers by pirates who embark under the guise of passengers, and the Education Ordinance (No. 26), which provides for the registration, control and supervision of schools.

IV.-EDUCATION.

 The Education Ordinance was passed and came into force towards the end of the year. By its provisions all schools except Government Naval and Military Schools and a few others especially excluded are compulsorily registered and are subject to inspection. Unregistered schools are illegal and the Managers liable to a heavy fine. The Director of Education has power to close inefficient and unnecessary schools, an appeal lying to the Governor in Council. This Ordinance has brought 620 schools, with 11,909 pupils, under control. The total numbers of pupils at school in the Colony are :-

English Schools.

Vernacular Schools.

Total.

Government

2,155

107

2,262

Naval, Military and ex-

cluded

675

675

Grant Schools

2,029

2,169

4,198

Private Schools, Hong

Kong

1,196

7,490

8,686

Private Schools, New

'Territories

3,223

3,223

6,055

12,989

19,044

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

279

14

 The most important schools, apart from the excluded schools (of which the Department has no knowledge), are Queen's College for Chinese and three District Schools its feeders, and the Belilios Public School for Chinese girls. There is an Indian School of growing im- portance. Kowloon School and Victoria School, for children of British parentage, have an average attendance of about 120. The Diocesan School and Orphanage, St. Joseph's College and the Ellis Kadoorie School are important boys' schools. The Italian, French and St. Mary's Convents, and the Diocesan Girls' School are the most important of the English Grant Schools.

The Hongkong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education to students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1913 in Mathematics, Machine Drawing, and Building Con- struction; in Chemistry, Physics and Electricity; in Commercial English, Logic and Political Economy; In French, Shorthand and Book-keeping. Classes in Sanitation (Public Hygiene) and First Aid to the Injured are also held, the examinations being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Sanitary Institute, London, and of the St. John Ambulance Association, respectively. Classes for men and women teachers are a feature of the institute.

 The Lecturers are recruited from the members of the medical and educational faculties of the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The institute is furnished with a well equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.

 While the Technical Institute has suffered in several directions from the activity of the University, it continues to perform many useful functions of its own. The Normal Classes for men and women, the Shorthand, Mathematics and English Classes were all well attended, as also a "First Aid" Class.

The University of Hong Kong was opened for teaching in September, 1912. Chancellor, His Excellency Sir Francis Henry May, K.C.M.G.,B.A.,LL.D., Vice-Chancellor and Principal, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.C.L., M.A., LL.D., Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Professor C. A. M. Smith, M.SC., M.I.M.E., Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Francis William Clark, M.D., Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Professor A. E. W. Salt, M.A., Registrar, A. C. Franklin, F.1.C.

Faculties of Engineering, Medicine, and Arts are fully established. In the Engineering Department courses are being given in Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering, leading up to the degree of B.Sc. (Eng.). The Medical faculty prepares students for the degrees of M.B. and B.S. The Arts faculty gives the degree of B.A., which, like all the other degrees of the University, is modelled on the London Pass Degree.

Five years of residence are required before the M.B. or B.S. can be granted, and four for the B.Sc. (Eng.) and B.A. There are three terms in the Session, which begins on September 15th and ends about May 31st. The fees are $300 for tuition, and $240 for board and residence, with a deposit of $25 caution money. All fees are payable in terminal instalments.

280

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The University has shown abundant proof of vitality. At the end of the year the number of students was 107, 52 of whom were taking Engineering, 30 Medicine and 25 Arts. While most of the students have studied in Hong Kong schools a number come from Canton, the coast ports of China and the Straits Settlements.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

 The Western Market was completed, being opened on the 1st October. The buildings in connection with it occupy fully half an acre of land, the main building being two-storied.

'The Mongkoktsui Breakwater was constructed throughout to a height of about 5 feet above high water level or 14 feet above low water level, whilst the reclamation adjoining the northern entrance of the Harbour of Refuge, which forms part of the scheme, was nearly completed. The foundations of the pier enclosing the Harbour of Refuge to the south were ready to receive the superstructure.

The concreting of the foundations of the valve tower in the large masonry dam, forming the second section of the Tytam Tuk Scheme, was begun at the close of the year.

The following buildings were completed :-Sanitary Offices in Wantsai and Saiyingpun Districts; new operating theatre, etc., at the Civil Hospital; an extension of the City Slaughter Houses and Lairage Sheds and quarters near same for an additional Inspector; a large extension of the Belilios Public School; quarters for the sextons at Mount Caroline and Kailungwan Cemeteries; a temporary building for the Survey Staff of the Public Works Department; an underground trough closet at the west end of Wellington Street; a vegetable and fruit market at Yaumati and an extension of the Royal Observatory, Kowloon. The following buildings were in course of erection :-New Magistracy; a new Public Works storeyard; quarters for subordinate officers at Breezy Point, on Mount Parish, and adjoining King's Park, Kowloon, (30 houses in all); stables for the Sanitary Department adjoining No. 1 Police Station; an under- ground trough closet at the foot of Pottinger Street; a urinal at Happy Valley and additions to Hunghom Police Station.

A diversion of Wongneichong Road to the north of the village bearing the same name was completed and the improvement of a further portion of this road, extending from near the village to the gate of the Colonial Cemetery, was in progress. The Tramway Company undertook the extension of their Happy Valley line to opposite I.L. 1,927. Belchers Street was extended past M.L.'s 263-268, Kennedy Town, and the first portion of a road along the north face of Victoria Peak, extending for a distance of 2,820 feet from Victoria Gap, was nearly completed. The construction of a road to give access to I.L.'s 1,946 and 1,947, situated on the spur to the east of Happy Valley, was begun. In the New Territories, the remaining section of the Castle Peak-Sha Tau Kok Road, extending from Au Tau to San Tin, was completed, but the bridging of the

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

281

21

creek at Au Tau still remains to be done. An extension of the road at Castle Peak Bay to a point where a pier can be constructed to admit of launches going alongside at all states of the tide was begun. A branch road from Au Tau to Kam Tin was completed, with the exception of the bridge near the latter place, and branch roads between the following points were completed or nearly so:-Sheung Shui Railway Station to Fanling Golf Course; Sheung Shui Railway Station to Shek Wu Hui and Sheung Shui villages.

 The training of the stream at No. 12 Bridge, Shaukiwan, was completed for the full distance to which such works are to be extended at present and the training of a considerable length of the stream at No. 11 Bridge was proceeded with. Streams in the Wongneichong, Wanchai, Bowen Road, Magazine Gap and Mount Austin Districts were also trained. An extension of the nullah at the railway yard, Hunghom, was carried out with a view to obviating the flooding of the yard during heavy rainstorms and the consequent deposit of large quantities of detritus. Various extensions of sewers in con- nection with new building lots were carried out and further drainage works were executed at Shamshuipo on account of reclamation works in progress there.

 The reclamations in front of K.M.L.'s 29-31, Yaumati, to the south of K.M.L. 32, Taikoktsui, and at Shamshuipo were nearly completed. The works executed with a view to the improvement of Ap Liu Village were completed, but arrangements for the recon- struction of the houses themselves still remained to be carried out.

 The work of providing scavenging lanes was continued, com- pensation being paid where necessary. The demolition of the riding floors over the north and south ends of Tung Man Lane and over the north end of Wing On Lane (Nos. 118 and 128 Des Voeux Road Central and 117 Queen's Road Central) was carried out, the owners being compensated by Government.

 The service reservoir and filter beds near Sywan Gap in con- nection with the Shaukiwan Water Works were nearly completed. A new pumping station on Pokfulam Road to supersede the one on Bonham Road was in progress.

 Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1,132, containing a detached house, was resumed at a cost of $60,000, the house and surrounding land being taken over by the railway for a manager's residence, whilst the remainder of the land was utilized in conjunction with some adjoining Crown land for a site for subordinate officers' quarters. The amounts paid by the Railway and Public Works Department respectively were $46,682.31 and $13,317.69.

The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,247,689 and on works annually recurrent $599,843.

 A very considerable amount of damage was caused by typhoons which occurred on the 16th-17th August and 18th-19th September, whilst a rainstorm. on the 12th June did great damage to the New Territories road near Un Long. The typhoons were accompanied by exceptionally high tides.

282

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Railway.

The plans for the new terminal station were received at the beginning of January, and the Architect, Mr. A. B. Hubback, F.R.I.B.A., arrived during the month, when they were discussed with' him. Considerable modifications were decided upon and it was not until the middle of April that the first foundation plan was received and the work started departmentally, borings and prickings having previously been taken. The whole of the foundations and sewer water drainage were completed during the year and two island platforms built, 600 feet and 700 feet long respectively. It is regretted that delivery of the points and crossings required for laying out the station yard was delayed, which resulted in the platforms not being available as soon as anticipated. Other construction work consisted of building a permanent station at Taipo Market to a Chinese design, which has called forth favourable comment from the Chinese travelling public; the erection of a small station at Sheung Shui Halt at the crossing of the new Government Road, which serves the increasingly popular golf course at Fanling; the building of staff quarters at Shatin; and a small station at Shataukok.

The year's expenditure chargeable to Construction Account was $232,580 Main Line and $4,226 Fanling Branch, making a total of $236,806 against the grant of $430,068, which shows a saving of $193,262.

The working expenses compared with gross receipts show a marked decrease; the percentage for the previous year being 85-81, while for 1913 it was only 73.68.

  The revenue derived from local traffic was $129,206, an increase of $12,382, and that from through and joint sectional traffic has increased by $78,942. The excess of income over expenditure for the year was $87,825.

The expenditure on the Fanling Branch during the year amounted to $11,086.29, against an estimate of $12,536.00, which shows a saving of $1,449.71. The estimated earnings were calculated to be $14,600, but the actual amount realized was $6,912.25 only. With the institution of the new rolling stock in April, 1914, it is hoped that the receipts will increase.

Passengers booked by British Section to

Stations in China

250,437

Passengers booked by Chinese Section to

Stations on the British Section

296,614

Passengers travelling on the British

Section, Main Line

230,339

Passengers travelling on the British

Section, Fanling Branch

47,119

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a.)-Hospitals.

283

· 23

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an observation station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease on board a ship arriving in the harbour.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,793 in-patients and 15,361 out-patients were treated during 1913, as against 2,731 and 15,177, respectively, in 1912. 254 cases of malarial fever were admitted, as against 198 in 1912 and 112 in 1911, but the total cases of malaria for all Government Hospitals and the Tung Wa Hospital show a decrease of 150 cases as compared with the year 1912. The Maternity Hospital contains 12 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 213 confinements occurred during the year, as against 140 in 1912. The Victoria Hospital, at the Peak, contains 41 beds, and during 1913 220 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 9 cases were treated in 1913, all being small- pox.

(b.)-Lunatic Asylum.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 259 patients of all races were treated during 1913 and there were 17 deaths.

(c.)-The Tung Wa and other Chinese Hospitals.

 The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by this institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The Hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese- gentleman annually elected, their appointment being sub- mitted to the Governor for confirmation. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon, trained in Western medicine, is a member of the hospital staff. There are 323 beds in the buildings and 4,910 patients were accommodated during 1913.

 The Tung Wa also maintain a branch hospital for small-pox cases (Chinese only) at Kennedy Town. It contains 58 beds and during 1913 101 cases were treated.

284

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital, opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital, opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital, opened in 1904 and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital, opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1913 was 1,684 and the expenditure $18,053.34. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 394. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dis- pensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese, in the Kowloon Peninsula, was opened on the 9th October, 1911. It occupies a site having an area of three acres and as designed will ultimately provide accommoda- tion for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds and 1,416 patients were accommodated during 1913. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese affairs. The hospital receives a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

The Hong Kong University is an institution that arose from the joint enterprise of British and Chinese subscribers. It was founded with funds representing about equal proportions of Chinese and British money.

The idea of the University is to provide, close to China, education for Chinese similar to that given in the British Universities, but at a much cheaper cost; for if a Chinese goes abroad to be educated he has to pay, besides travelling expenses, some $2,000 per annum ; whereas at Hong Kong the expenses of the University are $540 per annum for board and tuition, or, including extras, from $600 to $650.

The founders of the University took into consideration the fact that Chinese students being educated abroad have usually to make their own arrangements for board and lodging. Consequently some- tires they contract irregular habits. All students educated at the Hong Kong University are required to become boarders, and thus their whole lives are under supervision whilst they are there. Ample provision is made for indoor and outdoor recreation, and in this con- nection it is interesting to note that the Chinese residents of Hong Kong recently subscribed a large sum for levelling a new playing field, and that the work has just been completed.

 The University is composed of three faculties: (1) Medical, which offers unexampled facilities for the practice of medicine. The anatomical laboratories were the gift of a Cantonese gentleman (Mr. Ng Li-hing). There is a large staff of instructors in medicine:

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

285

25

all the principal doctors of Hong Kong give lectures at the University. (2) Arts.

The establishment of this faculty was largely due to the munificence of a Straits Chinese gentleman (Mr. Cheung Pat-sze). Its special object is to provide training suitable to those who desire to enter the public service or the higher branches of mercantile life. Instruction comprises English and Chinese literature, political and constitutional history, political economy, jurisprudence, and inter- national and commercial law.

 The largest of the faculties is that of (3) Engineering, to which nearly two-thirds of the students belong. It is divided into three branches: Civil, Electrical and Mechanical. The University has an exceptionally large equipment of machinery and apparatus, and at the end of this year it will probably have fourteen laboratories and workshops in working order. There is practically no place in China where students have such an opportunity of seeing all kinds of machinery in actual working and of learning their practical management.

 The University insists upon all students having a proper knowledge of their own language, although instruction at the University is carried out in English. Students are required to pass an examination in written Chinese before entering, and two Chinese professors, both Hanlin graduates, give lectures on the classics and history of China.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

 Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported, by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

 The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's buildings have been declared a refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1913 the number of persons admitted was 625 and at the close of the year 62 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

 The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from the Government.

286

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, etc., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280), the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters who can assist the inmates of houses where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the Mortuary. The Dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the Convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight Dispensaries in existence, including one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary sub- scription, was $39,392.09. The Dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the police was 12,011, being a decrease of 649, or 5.13 per cent., as compared with 1912. There was in 1913 a decrease in serious offences of 825, or 19.30 per cent., as compared with the previous year. The number of serious offences reported was 202 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1909. The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 176 as compared with 1912 and was 1,500 over the average of the quinquennial period.

 The total strength of the Police Force in 1913 was Europeans 175, Indians 472, Chinese 576, making a total of 1,223 (as compared with 1,173 in 1912) exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the Railway and other Government Departments and by private firms. Of this force 13 Europeans, 141 Indians and 48 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year, under an Assistant Superintendent.

 The District Watchmen Force, numbering 124, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the City. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

287

27

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 6,885, as compared with 6,236 in 1912. Of these 1,369 were committed for criminal offences, against 1,867 in 1912. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 77 more under the Prepared Opium Ordinance, and 10 less for infringement of sanitary by-laws than in 1912.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 702, the average for 1912 being 701, and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 0-15, which is the average percentage for the last ten years. Owing, however, to the large floating population, which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton, the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. The gaol has accommoda- tion for 630 prisoners.

The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1·22, as compared with 1-40 in 1912 and 1·61 in 1911.

Long sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, etc. The profit on the work done was $59,007, as against $60,976 in 1912. A sum of $4,652 was received and credited to Government for non-Government work, against $4,636 in 1912.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.)-Population.

The civil population of the Colony, according to the census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 489,114, but this includes the New Territories; and, as the birth and death figures given below do not include those from this area (with the exception of New Kowloon), the population for the purposes of calculating these rates is estimated at 398,520, of whom 21,470 were non-Chinese.

The distribution of population at the census was as follows:- Non-Chinese civil community

Chinese

Population.

City of Victoria (including Peak) Villages of Hong Kong

12,075

219,386

16,106

Kowloon (including New Kowloon) New Territories

67,602

80,622

Population afloat

Total Chinese population

Total Civil population

60,948

444,664

456,739

288

28

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(b.)-Public Health and Sanitation.

 The activity in building operations which was so noticeable a feature of 1912 has continued and the demand for housing accom- modation by the Chinese has been greatly in excess of the supply; this indicates that many of those who fled with their families to Hong Kong during 1911 and 1912 have elected to remain in the Colony.

 A further influx of Chinese from the neighbouring provinces, estimated at from 50,000 to 60,000, occurred during 1913 as a result of renewed political disturbances, which fortunately, however, were speedily brought to a peaceful termination.

 There can be very little doubt that the Chinese quarters generally are still in an overcrowded condition and, although the incidence of plague has been light during the past year, there is reason to fear that the Colony may not be so fortunate during 1914. The relation- ship between overcrowding and plague was discussed at length in the Report for 1912, and the Sanitary Department are continuing their efforts to keep down the number of rats and to exclude them as far as possible from dwellings, while the scavenging service is also being strengthened with a view to reducing still further the available food supply of the rat population.

 The general birth-rate for the year was 11.7 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 15.8 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese com- munity, as compared with 9.0 and 16-2 during 1912.

 The general death-rate for the year was 21-75 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 109 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 26·33 and 14·5 during 1912.

 The number of deaths from malaria (290) shows a considerable decrease on the previous year (432). The deaths of Chinese from this cause in the City of Victoria numbered 110 out of a population of 239,260, or a rate of 0.5 per 1,000 per annum.

 The deaths from plague numbered 386, as compared with 1,768 in 1912 and 253 in 1911.

 Small-pox deaths numbered 84, all Chinese, with the exception of a British ship's engineer and a West Indian passenger, both of whom are stated to have been vaccinated in infancy. Of the Chinese cases 18 had been vaccinated and of these 11 died; six of the non- vaccinated Chinese cases recovered and 68 died; no information as to vaccination was available in the other 3 deaths.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

289

29

 There were 2,537 deaths from respiratory diseases among the Chinese, as compared with 2,317 in 1912. Pulmonary tuberculosis and phthisis claimed 885 Chinese victims, while other forms of tuberculosis represent an additional 384 deaths, making a total of 1,269, or 15.5 per cent. of the total deaths among that community.

 Beri-beri was responsible for 339 deaths, as compared with 231 during 1912 and 320 in 1911. During the past few years circulars have been distributed to all large employers of coolie labour calling their attention to the fact that beri-beri is produced by the con- sumption of white rice as the staple article of diet without a sufficiency of other foods, and advising that beans should be supplied with the rice when fresh meat or fresh fish cannot be afforded.

 The influx of thousands of strangers from the neighbouring provinces is a sufficient explanation of the temporary rise in the number of deaths from this disease.

 A tabular statement of the principal causes of death is appended (p. 33).

(c.)-Climate.

 The mean shade temperature for the year at the Royal Observatory, Kowloon (108 feet above mean sea level), was 71°-9, the same as in 1912 and the ten preceding years. The maximum temperature was 92°0 on the 20th July and the minumum 44°0 on the 26th January. The hottest month was July, with a mean temperature of 82°.8, and the coldest January, with a mean temperature of 59°.2.

The temperature at the high levels of the Peak District is from 3° to 8° less than at the Observatory. At Victoria it is practically the same. The rainfall and humidity are considerably greater at the Peak than at Victoria, the Observatory, or Tai Po (New Territories).

 The total rainfall for the year was 83.73 inches, as compared with an average of 80-85 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was June with 16.03 inches, the driest November, when 0.74 inch was recorded. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 4'05 inches on the 19th September while no rain fell on 221 days during the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 77% as compared with an average of 78% during the ten preceding years.

                             The average daily amount of sunshine was 5-6 hours, being 46% of the possible duration.

290

30

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

X.-POSTAL SERVICE.

The total revenue from the Postal Service in 1913 was $439,189.37 and the total expenditure $622,587.51 leaving a debit balance of $183,398.14. The total amount of payments during the year exceeded that estimated for by $183,244.51 owing to the claims in respect of mails sent via Siberia during the years 1910 and 1911 and the share of the Peninsular and Oriental mail subsidy for the fourth quarter of 1912 being settled this year instead of in 1912.

During the period 1st-28th May, statistics, in accordance with the regulations of the Postal Union, were taken by all Union Offices to form the basis for calculating the transit charges payable on inter- national correspondence for the years 1914 to 1919 inclusive.

XI.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The condition of the neighbouring Province of Kwangtung was in a very unsatisfactory state for the greater part of the year, and this condition reacted upon the Colony. There were constant intrigues against the authority of the central Government and it was necessary to adopt strong measures in order to prevent such intrigues from being fostered in Hong Kong. The financial difficulties in which the Provincial Administration has been involved ever since the Revolution were accentuated by the depreciation of the unsecured note issue unwisely made by the Provincial Government; and this depreciation, coupled with further depreciation of the silver currency caused by continued issues of twenty-cent pieces and the prevalence of brigandage throughout the Province militated against trade. The climax was reached when, in July, Governor-General, Ch'an Kwing- ming proclaimed the independence of the Kwangtung Province. This movement was short lived, for, on the advance of Lung Chai- kwong from Kwangsi on Canton, Ch'an Kwing-ming fled and Lung Chai-kwong restored the authority of the Central Government. Many acts of piracy were committed in the waters of the Canton River delta throughout the year. The s.s. Tai On, a steamer flying the British flag, was attacked on the 2nd April. Pirates who had em- barked on the vessel in the guise of passengers succeeded in over- powering the officers and securing a large quantity of booty. This outrage led to the enactment of the Protection against Piracy Ordinance referred to under the heading of Legislation, and to a considerable increase in the police whose duty it is to search passengers embarking on river steamers.

4

The embargo on the export of limestone from the Kwangtung Province was not moved in 1913. Although vigorous representations were made to the Chinese authorities at Canton and Pekin, the question remained unsettled at the close of the year. Very great injury was occasioned to the Green Island Cement Company by its loss of a source of supply which it has enjoyed, by permission of the provincial authorities, for over twenty years.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

291

31

 The boycott of the Low Level Tramway which commenced in November of the preceding year came to an end in February. The Company received a grant from the Government amounting to $45,248 as partial compensation for the losses sustained.

 With a view to obtaining a better control over the sale of prepared opium the Government decided to institute a Government monopoly of the sale of the prepared drug in the Colony on the expiration of the lease of the present Opium Farm. Mr. R. O. Hutchison, who was selected to inaugurate the monopoly, proceeded to the Straits Settlements in April to investigate the working of the system in that Colony and in the Federated Malay States.

 Vigorous efforts were made in 1913 to check the smuggling of prepared opium out of the Colony to countries which prohibit the importation of the drug. The opium farmer was allowed to renew his lease of the Opium Farm for a further period of one year from the 1st March, 1913, but a special clause was inserted in the agreement reducing the amount of opium to be prepared in the Farm during the year from 900 chests to 540 chests for local consumption and 120 chests for export. The Opium Ordinance was also amended during the year in several important respects, the most noteworthy in this connection being the provision rendering it illegal for any person, other than the farmer or his licensees, to be in possession of a quantity exceeding 5 taels of opium. The results achieved have been satisfactory. Whereas in 1912 a number of ships from Hong Kong were fined heavily in Manila when opium was discovered on board, practically no such fines were reported in 1913. Twenty seizures, comprising 12,974 taels of prepared opium intended for illicit export, were made during the year.

 The policy of the Government in controlling the importation and sale of morphine, compounds of opium, and cocaine was vigilantly maintained throughout the year, and the use of these drugs in the Colony is now exclusively confined to medical purposes. 5,584 ounces of morphine and 1,764 ounces of cocaine were seized during the year, all destined for China or neighbouring ports.

On the 15th December, M. Albert Sarraut, Governor-General of Indo-China, arrived in the Colony in the French flagship Montcalm on an official visit. He was accompanied by Rear-Admiral de Kerillis and the members of his staff. He was entertained during his stay by the Officer Administering the Government and Vice-Admiral Sir Martyn Jerram, Naval Commander-in-Chief, and left on the 20th December.

 Mr. A. M. Thomson performed the duties of the Colonial Secretary during the period from January 1st to July 24th, when Mr. C. Severn was absent on leave, and subsequently from August 21st to December 25th, when Mr. Severn performed the functions of Officer Administering the Government in the absence of Sir F. H. May.

292

32

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Mr. C. Clementi, the Assistant Colonial Secretary, proceeded to British Guiana to take up the appointment of Government Secretary on the 27th August and the duties of the post were carried out by Mr. R. H. Crofton, the services of Mr. A. G. M. Fletcher, who was appointed Assistant Colonial Secretary vice Mr. Clementi, being required in the Treasury.

CLAUD SEVERN,

Colonial Secretary.

4th July, 1914.

Civil...

...

DEATHS REGISTERED IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG DURING 1913.

Alcoholism.

Developmental Disenker.

Old Ago.

General Tuberculosis.

Beri-beri.

Cancer.

Paralysis and Convulsions.

Heart Diseases.

Pneumonia.

Phthisis and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Enteritis and Gastro- Enteritis.

Cirrhosis of Liver.

Peritonitis

Nephritis,

Other causes.

Unknown.

All caures:

Poisoning.

Injuries.

Small-pox.

Morales,

Typhoid Fever.

Diphtheria.

Cholera.

Diarrhoea,

Dysentery.

Plague.

Malarial Fever,

Puerperal Fover. Septic Infections.

Syphilis.

...

2

...

3

2

4

:

~

...

...

***

***

10

5

:

C

25

26

9

9!

3

2

9 31

:

Co

61 26

18

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1913.

...

...

1

...

8

332

72 331) 194 39

361

601

14

151

11 31 110 908 294 5447

61 2 48 ...

60

8

96

16

6

5

17 81 149 759

20

17! 1 31 ...

18 114 37 74 8

23

185

45 299

23 11

14 21 199 921403

2

8

39

2 19 3

12.

40

6

...

1 72

84 959

***

59

...

2 ...

-

1

...

1.

56

1

16

4: 214

...

...

:

Army

Navy

:

...

Victoria and Poak...

Harbour

Kowloon

...

Shaukiwan ...

Aberdoon

Stanley

...

...

非常

...

1...

:.

Τ

...

...

...

47 8 74 | 40 | 47

6 ...

26 1

...

1 ...

...

..

:

I

10

7 27

6

...

1

:...

:.

...

...

---

...

33

...

***

2. 1

...

:

85 127 284 110 15 | 52 | 259 10 | 116 ...

1 17 18 80 2

6 50 37 47 ...

16

B

42 83 ...

...

:.

co

...

...

...

:.

...

4 | 90 || 60 | 84 | 110 212| 386, 200 17 | ≥1 | 284| 17 | 209

2 5

:

3 a

ដ្ឋ ៖

3

286 1811768 432, 11 | 64 | 140 19 157

2

Total, 1918

...

81

1912

16

565 8

2 ... ...

...

:..

188

1

***

---

1

***

gi 2; 24

54 156 1322 575 3435

32

83 1998; 830 3632

33

293

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 856.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1914.

(For Report for 1913 see No. 814.)

295

Presented to botb Bouses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. September, 1915.

LONDON:

PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

BY BARCLAY AND FRY, LTD., THE GROVE, SOUTHWARK STREET, S.E.

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, 29, BREAMS BUILDINGS, FETTER LANE, E.C., and 28, ABINGDON STREET, S.W., and 54, ST. MARY STREET, CARDIFF; or H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (SCOTTISH BRANCH), 23, FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH; or

E. PONSONBY, LIMITED, 116, GraftON STREET, DUBLIN ; or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of T. FISHER UNWIN, LIMITED, LONDON, W.Ü.

1915.

[Cd. 7622-47.] Price 4d.

296

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

1.-FINANCES

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES. Agricul-

TURE, AND LAND

..

III. LEGISLATION

IV. EDUCATION

:

:

V.-PUBLIC WORKS ..

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS

X-POSTAL SERVICE

XI-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

MAP.

:

:

:

7

18

19

22

24

:

:

:

:

:

:

26

27

28

30

30

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 856.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1913 see No. 814.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

13th July, 1915.

297

3

SIR,

  I have the honour to transmit herewith six copies of the Colonial Secretary's report on the Blue Book for 1914.

The Right Honourable

A. Bonar Law, M.P.,

etc., etc., etc.

I have, etc.,

F. H. MAY,

Governor, &c.

(C193) Wt.36076,850. 1125 & 90. 9.18. B.&F.Ltd. Gp.11/2.

B

298

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1914.

I. FINANCES.

  The revenue for the year amounted to $11,007,273, being $1,254,313 more than the estimate and $2,494,964 more than the revenue for the previous year.

Compared with the returns for 1913 there were increases under every head with the exception of Light Dues, Post Office, Mis- cellaneous Receipts, and Land Sales. 'Interest" remained at nil.

  The expenditure amounted to a total of $10,756,225, inclusive of a sum of $1,639,595 spent on Public Works Extraordinary.

The detailed figures for 1914 are set out in the following. statements:--

Heads of Revenue.

'

Light Dues

90,397.87

Light Dues, Special Assessment

103,667.97

Licences and Internal Revenue not otherwise

specified

7,979,439.51

Fees of Court or Office, Payments for Specific

purposes, and Reimbursements in Aid

727,777.59

Post Office

398,426.38

Kowloon-Canton Railway

381,313.28

Rent of Government Property, Land and

Houses

936,648.02

Interest

Miscellaneous Receipts

TOTAL (Ordinary),

Land Sales (Premia on New Leases)

TOTAL ..

:

...

124,416.04

.. 10,742,086.66 265,186.43

$11,007,273.09

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

Expenditure.

Governor

$

85,986.29

Colonial Secretary's Department and Legislature 70,894.40

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs

51,178.04

Audit Department

32,697.22

Treasury

66,943.60

Imports and Exports Department

Harbour Master's Department

Royal Observatory

Miscellaneous Services

Judicial and Legal Departments

Police and Prison Departments

Medical Departments

Sanitary Department

Botanical and Forestry Department Education ..

Military Expenditure

Public Works Department

176,287.98

991,096.46

25,398.31

945,131.62

259,181.94

933,156.52

230,896.86

353,521.53

49,076.14

292,820.83

1,886,346.31

414,510.57

Do.

Recurrent

567,100.18

Do.

Extraordinary

1,639,594.72

Post Office

371,646.06

Kowloon-Canton Railway

274,366.39

Charge on account of Public Debt

705,808.50

Pensions

305,030.61

Charitable Services

27,553.74

TOTAL

$10,756,224.82

The surplus on the year's working was $251,048, and the balance of assets and liabilities showed on the 31st December a sum

of $2,910,474 in the Colony's favour.

  The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1910-1914 :-

Revenue.

Expenditure.

$

$

1910

6,960,861

6,907,113

1911

7,497,231

7,077,177

1912

8,180,694

7,202,553

1913

8,512,308

8,658,012

1914

11,007,273

10,756,225

  The capital expenditure on the British section of the Kowloon- Canton Railway during 1914 was $574,429, chiefly in connection with the erection of a terminal station and purchase of rails, locomotives, and rolling stock. The total expenditure on this account amounted at the end of the year to a sum of $14,095,661.

The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,732, and in addition the advances by, and drafts on, the Crown Agents for Railway Construction amounted at the end of the year to £109,404. Against these items there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £186,294 and there is a balance of £128,479 unpaid in respect of the loan to the late Viceroy of Wuchang.

299

5

300

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

6

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 No new taxation was imposed during the year. The farm system in connection with Opium revenue was abolished from 1st March and direct Government control substituted therefor.

 For the year commencing 1st July, 1914, a new valuation was made of the whole Colony, with the exception of some of the outlying small Chinese villages.

Increases.

The City of Victoria, $170,833 or 16.69 per cent.

The Hill District, $23,700 or 7.93 per cent.

Shaukiwan, Saiwanho, and Quarry Bay, $6,992 or 1.88 per cent. Hong Kong Villages, $31,501 or 23.61 per cent.

Yaumati, $63,275 or 24.11 per cent.

Mongkoktsui, $39,985 or 25.51 per cent.

Hung Hom and Hok Un, $3,676 or 1.24 per cent. Kowloon Point, $76,550 or 15.02 per cent. New Kowloon, $13,934 or 15.80 per cent. Kowloon Villages, $5,845 or 6.92 per cent.

The rateable value of the whole Colony amounted to $14,410,103, being an increase of $1,974,291 or equal to 15-87 per cent. over the value of the previous year.

For the period 1905-1914 the assessment of the whole Colony has risen from $10,511,163 to $14,410,103, an increase in value of 37·09 per cent.

  The circulation on the 31st December of notes of the three Banks having authorised issues was as follows:-

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank

Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China. Mercantile Bank of India

$23,482,903

6,071,633

1,308,191

$30,862,727

The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of these banks, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars and of subsidiary coin.

Foreign note circulation has wholly ceased.

The rate of discount on Hong Kong subsidiary coin, as compared with notes, varied during 1914 between the following limits :--

50 cent pieces, 1 per cent.. to 133 per cent.

20

2

191 >>

""

10

21

"

""

>>

195

""

5

2

""

>>

""

14/

"2

11

""

""

Copper coin, par

Compared however with the Mexican dollar which is the standard

of the Colony the variations were as follows:-

50 cent pieces 14 per cent. to 34 per cent.

20

10

5

""

"

22

2

272

2

Copper coin, par.

83

""

91

"2

4

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

301

It will be seen therefore that Bank notes were at a premium varying from par (in January) to 10 per cent. (in December).

The total issue of these coins, less those demonetized, now amounts to $31,392,720 nominal value, and they were up to the year 1905 readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neigh- bouring provinces of China. During 1914 ten cent pieces of the face value of $5,000,000 were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which has prevailed since 1905 may be attributed to the immense quantity of similar coin which has latterly been minted at Canton as well as to the amount of Hong Kong coin minted largely in excess of the needs of the Colony by itself. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetizing all its subsidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been con- tinuously followed since except during a brief period in 1911. Coin to the face value of $12,607,459 has thus been redeemed. The total issue by the Hong Kong Government was of the face value of about $44,000,000. It is thought that half of that amount has dropped out of circulation.

Ordinance No. 15 of 1913, which was passed to prohibit the circulation of foreign silver coin, came into force on 1st March.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.)-SHIPPING AND TRADE.

The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1914 amounted to 517,439 vessels, of 36,756,951 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1913, shows an increase of 27,211 vessels, with a decrease of 986,031 net register tons.

Of the above, 51,214 vessels, of 25,279,624 tons, were engaged in foreign trade, as compared with 47,520 vessels, of 25,821,652 tons, in 1913, and were distributed as follows :-

7

1913. Numbers.

1914. Numbers.

1913. Tonnage.

1914. Tonnage.

British ocean-

going ships

8.8%

8.3%

32.7%

33.0%

Foreign ocean-

going ships..

9.9

8.2

36.0

33.9

British

river

steamers

14.0

13.0

15.8

15.9

Foreign river

steamers

3.8

3.5

3.6

3.6

Steam-launches

(under 60 tons)

9.5

13.4

0.7

1.0

Trading junks..

54.0

53.6

11.2

12.6

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

N.B.-The movements of fishing junks are not included in the

above figures.

302

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

8

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Of vessels of European construction, 4,222 ocean steamers, 4 sailing ships, 4,213 river steamers, and 3,403 steam-launches entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 32.4 ships, as com- pared with 29.9 in 1913, and 28-7 in 1912.

The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has increased from 2,577.5 tons to 2,612·1 tons. That of British ships has decreased from 2,742 tons to 2,636.3 tons, while that of foreign ships has increased from 2,453.7 tons to 2,590-2 tons.

During the past twenty years, the average tonnage of ocean-going vessels has increased from 1,327·7 tons to 2,003 tons.

The average tonnage of river steamers entered during the year has decreased from 598-6 tons to 582-1 tons. That of British river steamers has decreased from 616-2 tons to 600·4 tons, and that of foreign river steamers has decreased from 533-2 tons to 513.5 tons.

A comparison between the years 1913 and 1914 shows an increase in British ocean-going shipping of 55 ships, or 13 per cent., and a decrease of 127,841 tons, or 1.5 per cent. This is due to the fact that so many large ships were taken off the run, being employed as trans- ports, etc., since the war began.

British river steamers have increased by 19 ships, or 0.3 per cent., and decreased by 87,923 tons, or 2.1 per cent. This is explained by a reduction in tonnage of the large vessels. on the Canton run, by reason of the amendments to the measurement Regulations.

Foreign ocean-going vessels decreased by 480 ships of 680,413 tons, or 10.2 per cent. in numbers and 7.3 per cent. in tonnage. This may be ascribed almost entirely to the disappearance of the German and Austrian flags since the commencement of the war. But this decrease does not approach that which should result from that disappearance, (540 ships of 1,069,142 tons is the net decrease under those two flags since the war broke out), the balance being adjusted by large increases under the Japanese and Norwegian flags.

 Foreign river steamers are responsible for a decrease of 3 ships of 36,058 tons, or 0.16 per cent. in numbers and 3.8 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to a slight falling off in the river passenger traffic since August.

 Steam launches in foreign trade show the enormous increase of 2,282 ships of 62,980 tons, or 50-2 per cent. in numbers and 33.3 per cent. in tonnage. This may be ascribed to the fact, that, in former years, as was discovered about a year ago, many of the launches on the run to the Eastward failed to report their arrivals or departures, but, owing to better supervision, this has now ceased.

 Junks in foreign trade show an increase of 1,821 vessels of 327,227 tons or 7.1 per cent. in numbers and 11.3 per cent. in tonnage. The figures given do not show nearly all the movements of the trading junks, as will appear later.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

303

9

In local trade (i.e., trade between places within the waters of the Colony) there appears an increase under steam launches of 32;736 vessels, or 5.2 per cent., and a decrease of 441,148 tons, or 4.1 per cent., while in junks there is an increase of 1,781 vessels or 6.7 per cent. with a decrease of 2,855 tons, or 0.2 per cent. The causes of this are identical with those mentioned in the case of foreign trade junks, and the effect is well shown by the fact that, since the outbreak of the war, the reported arrivals and departures of local trade junks have increased by well over 100 per cent. compared with the corresponding period of 1913.

The above figures do not, however, show the real state of affairs, inasmuch that many conditions have materially altered since the outbreak of war, early in August. In the remarks which follow, the year is divided into two parts-the first seven months, before the war, and the last five months, since war was declared,-and confined to the ocean-going shipping, which alone was seriously affected by the war.

First Seven Months. -A continuation, more especially in British vessels, of the steady increase which has been noted during past years, amounting, in the case of British ships, to 206 ships of 408,109 tons, or 8.5 per cent. in numbers and 84 per cent. in tonnage, compared with 64 per cent. and 8.6 per cent. respectively in 1913.

Foreign ocean-going vessels increased by 119 ships of 624,458 tons or 44 per cent. in numbers, and 11.9 per cent. in tonnage, compared with 7.1 per cent. and 7.9 per cent. respectively in 1913.

The average tonnage of the British ships entering decreased from 1,995.2 to 1,992-4, while that of foreigners increased from 1,948-9 to 2,080.9.

A large decrease shown in the junk trade, which amounts to 1,731 vessels (8.5 per cent.) of 28,122 tons (13 per cent.), is, for reasons which will appear later, not borne out by facts, but is really due to the increasing habit on the part of the junk masters of failing to report themselves.

 Last Five Months.-The effect of the war in the ocean trade of the port is apparent. In British ocean-going vessels there is a decrease of 152 ships of 537,790 tons, or 8.5 per cent. in numbers and 14.9 per cent. in tonnage.

Foreign ocean-going shipping decreased by 601 ships of 1,306,957 tons, or 30-2 per cent. in numbers and 32.3 per cent. in tonnage. Of this, the practical extinction of German and Austrian tonnage is responsible for 27.2 per cent. in numbers and 26 4 per cent. in tonnage, while the remaining 3 per cent. and 59 per cent. represent the net result of increases and decreases under other flags. Here are found increases under Norwegian (174 per cent. in numbers and 22.6 per cent. in tonnage, compared with the figures for the corresponding period of 1913), and Chinese (4-5 per cent. in numbers and in tonnage), while under the Dutch flag an increase of 8.9 per cent. in tonnage is

304

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

combined with a decrease of 7·2 per cent. in numbers. Decreases are shown under Russian (647 per cent. in numbers and 68.3 per cent. in tonnage), Portuguese (30.5 per cent. in numbers and 20.3 per cent. in tonnage), United States (24°1 per cent. in numbers and 22-2

per cent. in tonnage), Danish (20 per cent. in numbers and 11.1 per cent. in tonnage. French shipping remains constant in numbers but decreases by 25.1 per cent. in tonnage, Swedish, while increasing by 20 per cent. in numbers, declines by 389 per cent. in tonnage, and Italian shipping disappears altogether.

 The average tonnage of foreign ships cntering has decreased to 1,977.

In the junk trade there is the enormous increase of 3,552 vessels of 355,349 tons, or 54.2 per cent. in numbers and 46.1 per cent. in tonnage. It is obvious that no such phenomenal alteration can have taken place in the trade since the outbreak of war, but the explanation is simple. Since war commenced, no vessel can enter or leave the harbour without reporting herself, by reason of the Examination service, so that, of the junks trading with Victoria Harbour, which means about 90 per cent. of those trading with the Colony, we are now able to account for all, which was very obviously not the case before.

The actual numbers of individual ocean-going vessels of European construction entering during 1914 was 825, of which 385 were British and 440 were foreign. In 1913 the corresponding figures were 791,361 British and 430 foreign.

  These 825 ships measured 2,155,018 tons. They entered 4,226 times, and gave a collective tonnage of 8,468,609 tons. Thus, 34 more ships entered 221 less times, and gave a collective tonnage reduced by 405,197 tons, an average of 1,8334 tons per entry.

The 385 British ships carried 3,766 British officers and 12 foreign officers, the latter consisting of 5 U.S.A., 2 Dutch, 2 Danish, 2 German, and 1 Norwegian.

Thus, the proportion of foreign officers in British ships was 0.32 per cent. comprising 5 nationalities, an increase of 0.02 per cent. with an increase in the number of officers and of ships.

 The 440 foreign ships carried 3,082 officers, of whom 94 were British, as follows:

-

1913.

1914.

In Chinese ships

94

84

Japanese ships

10

6

United States ships

4

4

>>

French ships

2

0

110

94

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

305

11

 Thus, 3.05 per cent. of the officers serving in foreign ships were of British nationality, with an increase in number of officers and of ships.

 The nationality of the crews in British and in foreign ships was as follows:--

VESSELS.

BRITISH CREW.

U.S.A. AND EUROPEANS.

ASIATICS.

1913.

1914. 1913. | 1914. | 1913. 1914.

1913. 1914.

British

361

Foreign

430

385 24,728 24,264 1,022|| 866 134,220 135,214

440 1,430 1,571 31,447 24,428 |126,923 | 118,268

Total

791

825 26,158 25,835 32,469 25,294 261,143 253,482

TRADE.

 It is once more necessary to call attention to the extreme inaccuracy of the reports by masters of ships of cargo carried. There being no Customs, or other staff, to compile accurate statistics, the attached figures are dependent upon these reports, although in some cases more reliable information was obtainable.

IMPORTS.

 The amount reported was 4,727,036 tons compared with 4,956,125 tons in 1913, a decrease of 229,089 tons, or 4'6 per cent., which, con- sidering the circumstances attending the last five months of the year under review,-the total withdrawal from the run of all vessels under the German and Austrian flags; the loss (or, at least, the non-delivery) of the cargoes consigned to the Colony in many of such vessels; the risks run by neutral and allied shipping during the early months of the war by reason of the German cruisers then at large; and the general sense of insecurity felt by both shippers and importers,-may be considered remarkably small.

Increases are shown under the headings Beans, Coal, Cotton, Flour, Hemp, Bulk Kerosene, and Liquid Fuel, while there are decreases reported in Case Oil, Rattans, Rice, Timber, and General.

Coal.-There was an increase of 171,664 tons, or 15.1 per cent., the increase being uniformly spread over the whole year. There was a very large increase in the imports of Welsh coal, which, however, bear a very small proportion to the total imports. Japanese coal fell off and Chinese increased, while a small quantity of Australian coal found its way to the Colony in one of the prizes.

Cotton, Yarn, and Piece Goods.-Here is an increase of 3,541 tons, or 87 per cent. This is not a real increase, but is only apparent, being due to the reported falling off in 1913 having been greatly in

(C193)

C

306

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

excess of facts. As a matter of fact, 1914 proved a bad year for this trade in the Colony, and for staple goods there was so little demand that the imports declined. The causes which led to this were, in the early part of the year, a heavy fall in prices and in exchange. In May and June, however, trade revived, and there seemed every prospect of a sustained improvement, when the floods inland caused a severe set-back. Then came the war, which had a most deleterious effect on the trade inland, and increased freights acted as a further deterrent to importers. Added to these, the general financial state of China throughout the year has been far from encouraging.

Flour.-There is an increase reported of 12,504 tons or 18.4 per cent. As in Cotton, this increase is due to errors and omissions in the ship- masters' reports in 1913. From enquiries made, there was actually a falling off of 16,713 tons, or 15:4 per cent., the reasons for which are directly due to the war.

 It appears that the bulk of the imports arrive here in the later months of the year, shipments in large quantities commencing from America in August. This year, on account of the war, the demand for flour at the seat of the war was far above the average, with the result that prices soared to unprecedented heights. One brand, whose usual price is $2.30 per bag, now fetches $4.10. At the same time, freight doubled. Before the outbreak of war, imports were above the average.

 Hemp. Here is shown an increase of 3,010 tons, or 17.3 per cent. It is possible that these figures approach the truth, as, during the first seven months of the year, conditions were very favourable to the trade, prices and freights ruling low, while in 1913 prices were very high. During these months before the war, the figures show an increase of 7,011 tons, or 73.8 per cent., while during the last five months a decrease of 4,001 tons, or 51.3 per cent. appears. This is confirmed by the fact that on the outbreak of war the market in Manila collapsed, and all business came to a standstill. Later, however, matters improved, and by the end of the year the market had practically resumed normal conditions.

Kerosene Oil.-Bulk Oil shows an increase of 21,328 tons, or 38 per cent., while Case Oil shows a decrease of 4,422 tons, or 9 per cent.

 As explained last year, there is not very much significance in increases or decreases in either type of oil, so long as there is no large fluctuation in the joint total. During 1914, the market in both case and bulk oil showed a satisfactory rise, demand slightly increasing, with fair prices and freights, until after the war commenced, when sales fell 50 per cent., and up to the end of the year there was no sign of appreciable recovery. Freights rose, after the outbreak of war, from $4 to $10 per ton from the American coast, on account of war risks and the increased demand in Europe.

 It is somewhat remarkable to note that, in spite of the above facts. the imports of case oil show a falling off, before the war, of 12,549 tons, or 38-4 per cent., while since the beginning of August there appears an increase of 8,127 tons, or 39'1 per cent. None arrived, however, after October, and that which came in that month was probably on the high seas at the time war broke out.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

307

13

Stocks at the end of the year show a slight increase over those in January.

Liquid Fuel.-There is a very large increase of 23,263 tons, or 197 per cent., which appears to be borne out by facts. It is explained by the great increase in numbers of oil-burning steamers bunkering in Hong Kong.

Rattans. The reports here show a decrease of 2,100 tons, or 63.6 per cent., the greater part of which appears to be due to failure on the part of shipmasters to report this item of cargo. As a matter of fact, the market was normal up to August, after which it declined, but only slightly.

Rice. The figures received indicate a decrease of 102,085 tons, or 13.8 per cent., but the imports were really about normal. Ship- masters failed in the case of this cargo also to report regularly. Though the Chinese crops were good, there was a set-back on account of the floods in the summer, and, Saigon and Siam rice being plentiful and cheap, there were large imports. The war does not appear to have affected the trade in any way.

Timber. Here the imports for 1914 are less by 17,545 tons, or 21 per cent., than those reported in 1913. This again shows the tendency to lump cargo together as "General," for actually, about 20 per cent. more timber was imported during 1914 than during 1913. There was a slight reduction in imports of teak, which, however, was more than made up by those of Borneo hardwoods and American pine and deals.

Opium.-The trade in certified Indian opium is now confined to the gradual clearance of the opium already imported from India into Hongkong, Shanghai, and Treaty ports. The last shipment of certified oplum from India arrived in Hongkong from Bombay in January, 1914; other imports have come from Shanghai, Foochow, Swatow, and Amoy.

The total imports and exports of certified Indian opium,

were :-

Malwa.

Patna.

Benares.

Total.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Imports..... 834

346

43

1,223

Exports..... 2,032

797

233

3,0621

Six hundred and seventy chests of Persian opium were imported and 1,153 exported, the destination being either London or Formosa. 1,166 chests of uncertified Indian opium were imported from India, of which 696 chests were exported to Macao. The remainder was for the use of the Government Opium Monopoly.

General.-There is a decrease of 299,212 tons, or 116 per cent., which is obviously due directly to the war. During the first seven months of the year there is shown an increase of 61,838 tons, or 5 per cent., against a decrease of 361,050 tons, or 29 per cent., for the last five months, as compared with the corresponding periods of 1913.

EXPORTS.

The decrease is 295,398 tons, or 11 per cent., which may be ascribed principally to the war, although there was a general falling off in exports throughout the year. The figures for the first seven months

308

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

show a decrease, compared with those for the corresponding period of 1913, of 45,332 tons, or 34 per cent., while those for the last five months declined by 250,066 tons, or 18-8 per cent.

 Transit Cargo.-Here, again, the effect of the war is very marked. For the whole year there appears a decrease of 513,725 tons, or 10'4 per cent. For the first seven months, however, there is shown an increase of 301,699 tons, or 107 per cent., which appears to be very largely due to cargo carried through in German bottoms, where there is shown an increase over the 1913 transit cargo of 214,417 tons, or 51 per cent. The last five months are responsible for the decrease of 815,424 tons, or 16.5 per cent.

Emigration and Immigration.

 Seventy-six thousand two hundred and ninety-six (76,296) emigrants left Hongkong for various places during the year 1914 (142,759 in 1913).

Of these, 49,780 were carried in British ships, and 26,516 in foreign ships.

 One hundred and sixty-eight thousand eight hundred and twenty- seven (168,827) returning emigrants are reported to have been brought to Hongkong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 166,921 in 1913. Of these 129,164 arrived in British ships, and 39,663 in foreign ships.

 The decrease is due first to the prohibition of deck passenger traffic by Singapore in August on account of plague and secondly is due to the war and the repatriation of coolies from Singapore, no new coolies being permitted to land.

(b).-INDUSTRIES.

(i.)--Under European Management.

 Engineering and Shipbuilding. This industry improved as regards tonnage during the year under review.

 Sugar Refineries.-Prices ruled low during the first seven months of 1914, with keen competition from Japanese and Java sugars. On the outbreak of war the Home Government bought largely in Java, and prices were forced up there by over 50 per cent. This, of course, reacted on refineds; with the high prices and reduced supplies thus resulting business during the latter part of the year was considerably below normal but at good profits for the holders of early purchased raws. Demand has been further curtailed by financial difficulties due to the falling off in China's export trade, but on the whole the output of the Colony's refineries was well maintained.

 Cotton Spinning-Owing to the difficulty of securing native labour, the enhanced cost of production, and the disadvantages in the matter of Chinese fiscal charges as compared with Shanghai, the shareholders of the local mill decided to transfer the machinery and undertaking to Shanghai. Work was therefore stopped at the end of October.

 The year 1914 has been most unsatisfactory for all engaged in the cotton yarn trade. The heavy fall in cotton values in the early part of the year demoralized the market for a while, but matters were

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

309

15

improving when the outbreak of the European war in August brought about a further heavy decline in prices and also great financial stringency amongst the Chinese. Dealers were unable to fulfil their obligations, and the burden has therefore fallen upon the importers.

Rope Manufacturing. For the first half of 1914 prices of Manila hemp gradually declined until the outbreak of war in August, when the market there collapsed entirely and all business was paralysed, quotations becoming quite nominal. Towards the end of the year as the freight market began to settle down and tonnage became available a good demand sprang up and prices for medium and lower grades rose again closing for the end of 1914 at about 25 per cent. below the high prices ruling at the corresponding date in 1913.

Business in Manila cordage fell off in some quarters owing to the war but on the whole this was more than made up for by the increased demand from transports, etc., the total turnover of the factory com- paring very favourably with that of any previous year.

Cement. The demand throughout the Far East was fairly well maintained during 1914 although enquiries from the Philippines were less than in previous years owing to the decrease in Government work.

 At the outbreak of war shipments from Europe were delayed, and although the volume of business decreased, the demand on Eastern manufacturers remained normal.

 The Green Island Cement Company, Limited, is still suffering from the difficulty which exists in obtaining Kwangtung limestone.

 Local selling prices have dropped to meet the competition of inferior Chinese cement, and European, Japanese, and Haiphong brands cannot be laid down here at remunerative rates.

 Unless shipments of metal and other building materials are interfered with by the war, 1915 should be a good year for Far Eastern cement concerns, as supplies of Belgian and other Continental cement will probably be unobtainable.

(ii.)-Under Chinese Management.

 Tin. The tin business in Hongkong is annually worth some 12 millions. All tin comes from Yunnan. There are no smelteries in the Colony but there are six refineries, where the Yunnan pig tin is refined and loses some 2 to 3 per cent. in the process.

1913 1914

Imports. 6,153 Tons. 6,741 Tons.

Exports. 5,734 Tons. 5,267 Tons.

 The imports are all in Yunnan unrefined tin and the exports in refined tin.

 Generally speaking, about 334 tons are exported to Japan yearly, and 1,336 tons to Shanghai. The balance goes to Europe and America. The war affected the trade last year as little tin went to Europe.

Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-The chair export business amounted only to about half of that done last year. Sea grass export was about $1,000,000 less, while hemp export showed a decided improvement.

310

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Native Tobacco. The output of last year has been well maintained and its use for the manufacture of cigarettes has increased 20 to 30 per cent.

Tinned Goods.-The market has been very poor and business has fallen off 25 per cent.

Samshu.-The Superintendent of Imports and Exports reports that the trade remained steady during the first half of the year but during the second half there was a large falling off in the amount of spirit both imported and locally distilled.

Vinegar.-Merchants report that the business has remained much the same as last

year.

Knitted Vests and Socks.-The market has been poor and business has gone down about one third. Japanese competition continues very keen.

Leather and Hides.-The price has advanced considerably and good business has been done but the supply is short.

Ginger and Preserves.-Owing to the European war this business, on which the Germans had a strong hold, has gone off 30 per cent.

Soy.-Exporters again report a poor market. Business has been reduced by 40 per cent.

Paper.-Business shows a further decrease of 20 per cent.

Vermilion. The increase last year has been arrested by reason of the European war and business has fallen off 25 per cent.

Lard. This trade, which made much good progress during 1913, has since the commencement of the war fallen off 30 per cent.

(c.)-FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hongkong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d.)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

On the bare hills north of Samshuipo 28,000 pine tree seedlings, one year old, were planted, and in the same locality 7,000 pits were sown with pine tree seeds.

In the Tytam catchment area 15,000 pits were sown with pine tree seeds and at Aberdeen 10,000 pits.

On grassy hills west of the south face of the Beacon Hill tunnel 185 lb. of pine tree seeds were sown and 235 lb. on similar hills in the Kanghau valley.

About 70,000 pine tree seedlings were raised for planting in 1915. Three thousand broad-leaved trees were planted in the Tytam catchment area and 2,000 in the Kowloon catchment area.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

311

17

 Over 400 Poincianas were planted in various places in Hongkong and Kowloon.

Between 800 and 900 flowering trees and shrubs were planted in conspicuous places in Hongkong in addition to the Poincianas.

Upwards of 2,000 trees were planted along the Castle Peak-Shataukok Road. They consisted of Poincianas, Albizzia, Camphor, and Ficus.

Alongside the road leading from Sheung Shui Station to the Golf Course 190 trees were planted consisting of Camphor, Aleurites, and Cratæva.

On the hills in the vicinity of the Fanling Golf Course over 2,200 flowering trees and shrubs were planted.

At U Kau Tang 110 flowering trees were put in.

Young pine trees from broadcast sowings on the hills near Ngauchiwan were thinned out to the extent of 45,000.

Creepers damaging trees in plantations on Mt. Victoria, Mt. Gough, Mt. Nicholson, Mt. Kellett and Mt. Parker were cut.

A large felling of pine and Tristania trees was made above the Pokfulam Road in order to enable new filter beds to be constructed by the Public Works Department.

 Large fellings were also made on Farm Lots purchased by the Dairy Farm Co. for the cultivation of Guinea Grass.

 About 9,000,000 square feet were cleared of undergrowth at the expense of the Government in connexion with anti-malarial measures. The Military Authorities paid for the clearing of 2,250,000 square feet and private individuals 288,000 square feet in addition.

 In connexion with survey work about 1,780,000 square feet were cleared.

 At the beginning of the year pine trees on the south side of the hills were attacked by caterpillars and about 20 tons of these insects were collected and destroyed. This is the worst visitation of this pest since 1894.

 An economic garden was started near Fauling in the autumn and trials are being carried out with vegetables and fruits with a view to induce the natives to take up their cultivation.

 The first rice crop was above the average and the second was even better. Difficulty was experienced in harvesting the second crop owing to the wet weather which prevailed at the time.

Lichees were below the average and peanuts were good.

 The autumn was the wettest on record according to statistics extending over 23 years kept by the Botanical and Forestry Depart- ment, rain falling on no less than 45 days, the average for the same period being 24 days.

 In April a trip was made to the North River and several interesting additions to the flora of Kwangtung were made.

312

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

(e.)-LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

The net amount of premium received from sales of Crown land and pier rights for 1914 (including $1,429 for boundary stones) was $245,538 a decrease of $46,747 on the preceding year but $38,679 more than the average for the past five years. The principal items in the Island were $37,500 for Marine Lot 321, having an area of nearly three acres situate at North Point, purchased by the Hongkong Electric Company, Limited, and $12,900 for Inland Lot No. 2091 situate at Kennedy Town, having an area of nearly an acre.

In Kowloon, Inland Lot No. 1286, being an unreclaimed area of 13,862 square feet situate at Yaumati, fetched $41,586 or $3 per square foot and Kowloon Inland Lot 1294, a building site adjoining Jordan and Nathan Roads having an area of 29,570 sq. ft., fetched $29,620, or slightly over $1 per square foot.

In the New Territories the net amount received for premium and boundary stones was $19,731, being $6,815 more than in the previous year.

The number of deeds relating to property registered in the Land Office during the year was nearly 400 less than in the previous year, the chief falling off being in the case of assignments which occurred during the latter part of the year, the uumber of lots changing hands being 998 as against 1,455 the previous year.

In the New Territories the demand for land continues normal.

III.-LEGISLATION.

Thirty-three Ordinances were passed during 1914, of which 19 were amendments of previous Ordinances.

The most important matters with which these Ordinances dealt were the Opium Ordinance (No. 4), by which the Government assumed the entire control and management of the opium business hitherto leased out to private individuals; the Cremation Ordinance (No. 5), which provides for the regulation of the burning of human remains and enables crematoria to be established; the Seditious Publications Ordinance (No. 6); the Public Lighting Ordinance (No. 13), which provides for the public lighting of the Colony and for the protection of the appliances used in connection therewith; the Obscene Publica- tions Ordinance (No. 15); the Dentistry Ordinance (No. 16), which endeavours to protect the public in some measure against the practice of dentistry by incompetent and unqualified persons; the Wild Bird and Game Preservation Ordinance (No. 18); the Piracy Prevention Ordinance (No. 23), the Special Police Reserve Ordinance (No. 27), which provides for the formation of a Special Police Reserve; and the following Ordinances necessitated by the outbreak of the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary :--Trading with the Enemy (No. 21), Alien Enemies (Winding up) Amendment (Nos. 28 and 30), and the Defences (Sketching Prevention) Amendment (No. 32).

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

313

19

The history of the local policy with regard to enemy firms may be divided into two stages, one up to the 27th October, 1914, and the other from that date up to the present time.

In the earlier stage the foundation of the policy adopted was the desire to prevent the sending of supplies or money to enemy territory and generally to prevent trading with the enemy. In pursuance of this policy two measures were adopted which may be roughly stated as follows:-

(a) Local firms which were branches of firms in enemy territory were given permission to carry out existing contracts as far as possible, subject to restrictions designed to prevent t'e remitting of money to enemy territory.

(6) Local enemy subjects were given permission to engage in fresh trade on their own account subject to similar restrictions designed for the same object.

  The view which was taken of the legal position of local import and export firms which were branches of firms in enemy territory was that trading with them or by them involved trading with persons in enemy territory and so was illegal unless licensed. The policy above outlined received the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies and was given legal sanction in the Trading with the Enemy Ordinance..

Towards the end of October, 1914, it was decided, with the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, that all enemy subjects in Hongkong should be either expelled or interned. Although this policy was not directed against legitimate trading by enemy subjects but was based on other grounds, it necessarily involved the stoppage of the trade of enemy subjects in the Colony and gave rise to the measures taken to wind up their local affairs. These measures and their objects appear from the two winding-up Ordinances.

IV.-EDUCATION.

The registration of the private schools under the Education Ordinance proceeded satisfactorily. The Ordinance has not been applied in the New Territories, where, instead, small subsidies were granted to 50 of the most promising schools.

A new edition of the Grant Code was published in 1914. This was necessary in order to bring it into line with the Education Ordinance.

The Code now recognises the principle that all teachers in schools must be either Certificated Teachers or Students (passed or present) from the Normal Classes of the Technical Institute. The Upper Classes of English Schools are encouraged by Grants to take the Matriculation and Junior Local Examinations of the Hongkong University.

314

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

20

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

'The total number of pupils at schools in the Colony, excluding the Police School and the uncontrolled schools in the New Territories,

are:

Number of Pupils in

Total.

English Vernacular

Schools.

Schools.

Government Schools

Military Schools

2,076

85

2,161

116

116

Excluded Private Schools

580

580

Grant Schools

2,137

2,192

4,329

Controlled Private Schools

2,075

8,790

10,865

Controlled Private Schools, New

L

Territories

852

852

Technical Institute ..

478

478

Total

7,462

11,919

19,381

The most important schools, apart from the excluded schools, are Queen's College for Chinese and four District Schools, its feeders. and the Belilios Public School for Chinese girls. There is an Indian School of growing importance. Kowloon School and Victoria School for children of British parentage have an average attendance of about 120. There is also a small school for the children of the Peak District. The Diocesan School and Orphanage, St. Joseph's College, and the Ellis Kadoorie School are important boys' schools. The Italian, French, and St. Mary's Convents, and the Diocesan Girls' School are the most important of the English Grant Schools.

The Hongkong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education to students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1914 in Mathematics, Machine Drawing, and Building Con- struction; in Chemistry, Physics, and Electricity; in Commercial English, Logic, and Political Economy; in French, Shorthand, and Book-keeping. Classes in Sanitation (Public Hygiene) and First Aid to the Injured are also held, the examinations being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Sanitary Institute, London, and of the St. John's Ambulance Association respectively. Classes for men and women teachers are a feature of the Institute.

  The Lecturers are recruited from the members of the medical and educational faculties of the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.

  While the Technical Institute has suffered in several directions from the activity of the University, it continues to perform many useful functions of its own. The Normal Classes for men and women, the Shorthand, Mathematics, and English Classes were all well attended, as also a First Aid" Class.

<<

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

315

21

 The Hongkong University is an institution that arose from the joint enterprise of British and Chinese subscribers. It was founded with funds representing about equal proportions of Chinese and British money.

 At the end of the year the number of students was 147, 79 of whom were taking Engineering, 36 Medicine, and 32 Arts. While most of the students have studied in Hongkong schools a number come from Canton, the coast ports of China, and the Straits Settlements.

The idea of the University is to provide, close to China, education for Chinese similar to that given in the British Universities, but at a much cheaper cost; for if a Chinese goes abroad to be educated he has to pay, besides travelling expenses, some $2,000 per annum ; whereas at Hongkong the expenses of the University are $540 per annum for board and tuition, or, including extras, from $600 to $650.

The founders of the University took into consideration the fact that Chinese students being educated abroad have usually to make their own arrangements for board and lodging. Consequently some- times they contract irregular habits. All students educated at the Hongkong University are required to become boarders, and thus their whole lives are under supervision whilst they are there. Ample provision is made for indoor and outdoor recreation, and in this connexion it is interesting to note that the Chinese residents of Hong- kong recently subscribed a large sum for levelling a new playing field and that the work has just been completed.

The

The University is composed of three Faculties: 1.-Medical, which offers unexampled facilities for the practice of medicine. anatomical laboratories were the gift of a Cantonese gentleman (Mr. Ng Li-hing). There is a large staff of instructors in medicine: all the principal doctors of Hongkong give lectures at the University. 2.- Arts. The establishment of the Faculty was largely due to the muni- ficence of a Chinese gentleman in the Straits Settlements (Mr. Cheung Pat-sze). Its special object is to provide training suitable to those who desire to enter the public service or the higher branches of mercantile life. The course of instruction comprises English and Chinese literature, political and constitutional history, political economy, jurisprudence, and international and commercial law.

The largest of the Faculties is that of Engineering, to which nearly two-thirds of the students belong. It is divided into three branches: Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical. The University has an exceptionally large equipment of machinery and apparatus, and has fourteen laboratories and workshops in working order. There is practically no place in China where students have such an opportunity of seeing all kinds of machinery in actual working and of learning their practical management.

The University insists upon all students having a proper knowledge of their own language, although instruction at the University is carried out in English. Students are required to pass an examination in written Chinese before entering, and two Chinese Professors, both Hanlin graduates, give lectures on the classics and history of China.

316

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The New Magistracy was practically completed at the close of the year. The building, which is four-storeyed, is situated near the junction of Arbuthnot Road and Wyndham Street and contains, in the basement, prisoners' waiting room, strong-rooms, store-rooms, cells, and servants' quarters; on the ground floor, two Police Courts, rooms for Magistrates and their clerks and for witnesses; on the first floor, Chief Clerk's offices and quarters for Indian Police Constables; on the second floor, two flats for European Police Inspectors and further quarters for Indian Police. Extensive quarters for subordinate officers were completed and occupied during the year. They included three three-storeyed blocks at Breezy Point, each block containing six flats, two of four rooms and four of three rooms; a terrace of four two-storeyed houses, two of four rooms and two of three rooms, at Mount Parish; and a terrace of eight two-storeyed houses, two of four rooms and six of three rooms, adjoining King's Park, Kowloon.

The Mongkoktsui breakwater was constructed throughout to the level of the underside of the paving blocks. The whole of the concrete blocks required for facing the outer slope above the level of low-water were completed and 8,114 blocks out of a total number of 12,405 were set in place. The pitching of the inner slope above the level of low- water was also proceeded with, 7,230 pitching stones of an average weight of half a ton each being set. The reclamation adjoining the northern entrance was completed except the pier-head, and the pier enclosing the harbour of refuge to the south was nearly completed.

  The foundations of the large masonry dam of the Tytam Tuk Reservoir were partially constructed over a length of 400 feet. In the old stream-bed, the foundations were carried down to a maximum depth of 44 feet below ground level or about 40 feet below tidal low- water level, at which depth sound water-tight rock was found. Towards the end of the year, good progress was made with the concrete and masonry work. Good progress was also made with the laying of the additional pumping mains and with the foundations for the additional pumping machinery.

The following buildings were completed: Stables for Sanitary Department adjoining No. 1 Police Station; two underground trough closets, one in Pottinger Street and the other in D'Aguilar Street; a urinal at Happy Valley; additions to the Printing Office, Victoria Gaol, and alterations and additions to Hunghom Police Station.

The following buildings were in course of erection :-New Public Works Stores; Wireless Telegraph Station at Cape D'Aguilar; married quarters for Police in Caine Road; new block of cells, etc., Victoria Gaol; a School in the Hill District, and a Police Station at Lok Ma Chau in the New Territories.

The first portion of a road along the north face of Victoria Peak, 2,820 feet in length, commencing from Victoria Gap, was completed, as was also a road to give access to Inland Lots 1946 and 1947 situated on the ridge to the east of Happy Valley. Belchers Street was extended across Marine Lot 239. The old road from Deep Water Bay

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

317

23

to Shaukiwan through Stanley was improved by cutting back some of the sharp corners and by widening certain narrow places. In the New Territories, the extension of the road at Castle Peak Bay and the construction of a pier there were practically completed as was also the road from Taipo to Fanling, with the exception of two bridges, one close to Taipo Market and the other about a mile south of Fanling.

 Upwards of 10,000 lineal feet of streams were trained in the neighbourhood of Shaukiwan and Pokfulam, in the City and Hill District, and in Kowloon. In the New Territories, a small amount of training was done to the streams in the vicinity of the railway bungalows at Taipo. Various and considerable extensions of sewers in connexion with new building lots were carried out in Hongkong

and Kowloon.

 The reclamation in front of K.M.L.'s 29-31 was completed. Part of the reclaimed area is being utilized for a repairing and coaling depôt for Government launches. The depôt comprises a slipway for launches up to 80 tons, steel pier, coal store, carpenters' workshop, paint shop, and store, quarters for a European police sergeant, and quarters for Chinese workmen and coaling coolies. Accommodation is also provided within the depôt for housing undesirables, the building so occupied containing an upper floor which is to be utilized for sail-making. The slipway was completed with the exception of the carriage and hauling gear.

 The work of providing scavenging lanes was continued, compensation being paid where necessary.

 The demolition of the riding floors over the north end of Hing Lung Street (110 Des Voeux Road Central), the south end of Tung Hing Lane (178 Wing Lok Street), and the north end of Sheung Fung Lane (84 Second Street) was carried out, the owners being compensated by Government.

The service reservoir and filter beds near Sywan Gap in connexion with the Shaukiwan Waterworks were completed. The new pumping station on Pokfulam Road, to supersede the one on Bonham Road, was completed and brought into use about the middle of the year, the old station-building being handed over to the University authorities for use as a machine-shop and engineering laboratory. The construction of extensive additional filter beds and of a large service reservoir for the supply of the western section of the City was undertaken at the close of the year.

·

The total amount expended on public works extraordinary was $1,639,594.72 and on works annually recurrent $567,100.15.

Railway.

The year's expenditure chargeable to Construction Account was $546,602.44 main line and $27,826.69 Fanling branch, making a total of $574,429.13, in which is included a debit of $194,847.04, being loss on exchange in connexion with Crown Agents' advances.

318

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

During the year the superstructure of Kowloon Terminal Station building was carried to first floor level and the platforms of the New Terminal Station were opened for traffic. One new main line locomotive arrived in the Colony and was erected, and considerable progress was made in the building of eight main line coaches. Protective works of a substantial nature were found necessary along the coast line between Shatin and Taipo and were commenced in November. One new locomotive and six new coaches were supplied to the Fanling branch.

The working expenses amounted to $274,366.39, and when compared with gross receipts show a slight increase, the percentage for the previous year being 73.68, while for 1914 it was 75.25; this is mainly due to an unforeseen rise in the price of coal.

  The revenue derived from local traffic amounted to $131,381.42, being $2,174.94 more than in 1913, and the earrings of through and joint sectional traffic amounted to $225,736.61, which exceeded those of the previous year by $28,222.02, while the Fanling branch earnings amounted to $7,490.29 or $578.04 more than the previous year. The excess of earnings over expenditure for 1914 was $90,241.93 against $87,824.74 for 1913.

The expenditure on the Fanling branch during the year amounted to $14,991.24 or $1,618.24 over the estimate of $13,373, due chiefly to the repairs to washouts which occurred in July.

Passengers booked by British Section to stations

in China

on the British Section

1913.

1914.

250,437 277,512

Passengers booked by Chinese Section to stations.

296,614 353,722

Passengers travelling on the British Section, main

line

230,339 245,527

Passengers_travelling on the British Section,

Fanling Branch

47,119 48,997

:

VI-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a)-HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital. to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an Observation Station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease on board a ship arriving in the Harbour.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,742 in-patients and 13,828 out-patients were treated during 1914 as against 2,793 and 13,778 respectively in 1913. 324 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 254 in 1913 and 198 in 1912; but the total cases of malaria

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

319

25

for all Government Hospitals and the Tung Wa Hospital shows ar increase of 59 cases as compared with the year 1913. The Maternity Hospital contains 12 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 261 confinements occurred during the year as against 213 in 1913. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds, and during 1914, 158 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 8 cases were treated in 1914, all being smallpox.

(b)-LUNATIC ASYLUM.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 187 patients of all races were treated during 1914 and there were 15 deaths.

(c.)-THE TUNG WA AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentle- men annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon, trained in Western medicine, is a member of the hospital staff. There are 323 beds in the building and 4,683 patients were accommodated during 1914.

The Tung Wa also maintain a branch hospital for small-pox cases (Chinese only) at Kennedy Town. It contains 58 beds and during 1914, 17 cases were treated.

The Alice Memorial and affiliated hospitals are managed and con- trolled by the missionaries resident in Hongkong, agents of the ondon Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital pened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1914 was 1,330 and the expenditure $17,938.65. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 350. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these Hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hospitals are now

320

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Peninsula was opened on the 9th October, 1911. It occupies a site having an area of 3 acres and provides accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds, and 1,787 patients were accom- modated during 1914. The collection of subscriptions and the super- vision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The hospital receives a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

As will be noticed from the remarks made under the heading Education, the Hongkong University is an aided institution.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported by Government, may be mentioned the Po Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committce elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1914 the number of persons admitted was 435 and at the close of the year 41 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from the Government. It was temporarily closed after the outbreak of war.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meet- ings, concerts, etc, a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9-by subscription..

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

321

-27

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent, the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters, who can assist the inmates of houses, where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the Mortuary. The Dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight Dispensaries in existence, including one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscription, was $39,664.60 for the year 1914. The Dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

Free

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 8,817, being a decrease of 3,194, or 26 59 per cent., as compared with 1913. There was in 1914 a decrease in serious offences of 467, or 13.54 per cent., as compared with the previous year. The number of serious offences reported was 596 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1910. The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease of 2,727 as compared with 1913, and was 1,099 below the average of the quinquennial period.

The total strength of the Police Force in 1914 was Europeans 175, Indians 487, Chinese 621, making a total of 1,283 (as compared with 1,223 in 1913), exclusive in each case of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the Railway and other Government Departments and by private firms. Of this force 16 Europeans, 141 Indians, and 49 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year, under an Assistant- Superintendent.

The District Watchmen Force, numbering 100, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the City. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 4,050 as compared with 6,885 in 1913. Of these 935 were committed for criminal offences, against 1,369 in 1913. Of committals fo non-criminal offences there were 538 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance, and one more for infringement of sanitary bylaws, than

in 1913.

322

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

28

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 600, the average for 1913 being 702, and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 0.12. The average percentage for the last ten years was 0:13. Owing, however, to the large floating population, which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton, the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. The Gaol has accommodation for 630 prisoners.

The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 134 as compared with 1-22 in 1913 and 140 in 1912.

Long sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, tin-smithing, mat- making, tailoring, carpentering, etc. The profit on the work done was $66,034 as against $59,007 in 1913. A sum of $3,329 was received and credited to Government for non-Government work against $4,652 in 1913.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a.)-Population.

The civil population of the Colony, according to the census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 501,304, but this includes the New Territories; and, as the birth and death figures given below do not include those from this area (with the exception of New Kowloon), the population for the purposes of calculating these rates is estimated at 410,710, of whom 20,710 were non-Chinese (including Army and Navy).

The distribution of population at the census was as follows:-

Non-Chinese civil community

12,075

Chinese

Population.

City of Victoria (including Peak)

219,386

Villages of Hong Kong

16,106

Kowloon (including New Kowloon)

67,602

New Territories

80,622

(Population afloat

60,948

Total Chinese population

Total Civil population

444,664

456,739

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

(b.)-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

323

29

The activity in building operations which was so noticeable a feature of 1912 and 1913 has only slightly abated, and the demand for housing accommodation by the Chinese continued to be greatly in excess of the supply, as many of those who fled with their families to Hongkong during 1911, 1912, and 1913 elected to remain in the Colony. However, in August and September, 1914, nearly 60,000 Chinese hastily returned to China, owing to fears of a bombardment of the Colony following the outbreak of the European War. The Chinese quarters, which had been in an overcrowded condition throughout the plague season, were thus relieved of their excess, but not in time to prevent the severe epidemic of plague which had been predicted in the report for 1913. The relationship between overcrowding and plague was discussed at length in the report for 1912.*

The general birth-rate for the year was 9.3 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 16.8 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 117 and 15-8 during 1913.

The general death-rate for the year was 23.8 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 12.9 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 217 and 10.9 during 1913.

The number of deaths from Malaria (241) shows a decrease on the previous year (290). The deaths of Chinese from this cause in the City of Victoria numbered 73 out of a population of 247,500, or a rate of 0-29 per 1,000 per annum. All districts show a reduction in mortality from this cause except the Stanley (rural) district, where a large number of workmen have been employed throughout the year in the construction of the extension to the Tytam Waterworks.

The deaths from plague numbered 2,020, as compared with 386 in 1913 and 1,768 in 1912.

Small-pox deaths numbered 91, all Chinese, with the exception of one Portuguese infant and one British shipwright.

There were 2,252 deaths from respiratory diseases among the Chinese, as compared with 2,537 in 1913. Pulmonary tuberculosis and phthisis claimed 742 Chinese victims, while other forms of tuberculosis represent an additional 312 deaths, making a total of 1,054, or 11.3 per cent. of the total deaths among that community.

Beriberi was responsible for 399 deaths, as compared with 339 during 1913 and 231 in 1912. During the past few years circulars have been distributed to all large employers of coolie labour calling their attention to the fact that beriberi is produced by the consumption of white rice as the staple article of diet without a sufficiency of other foods, and advising that beans should be supplied with the rice when fresh meat or fresh fish cannot be afforded.

The influx of thousands of strangers from the neighbouring provinces is a sufficient explanation of the temporary rise in the number of deaths from this disease.

A tabular statement of the principal causes of death is appended (p. 34).

* Colonial Reports-Annual, No. 762.

324

30

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

(c.)-CLIMATE.

The mean shade temperature for the year at the Royal Observatory, Kowloon (108 feet above mean sea level), was 73° 4, 1°.5 higher than in 1913, and 1°3 higher than the mean for the past 10 years. The maximum temperature was 94°0 on the 31st August and the minimum 47°.4 on the 1st January. The hottest month was August, with a mean temperature of 82°3 and the coldest, January, with a mean temperature of 62°.8.

The temperature at the high levels of the Peak District is from 3° to 8° less than at the Observatory. At Victoria it is practically the same. The rainfall and humidity are considerably greater at the Peak than at Victoria, the Observatory, or Tai Po (New Territories).

The total rainfall for the year was 100-21 inches, as compared with an average of 82-73 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was July, with 26:30 inches, the driest, January, when no rain fell. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 5.25 inches on the 22nd June, while no rain fell on 219 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 78 per cent., or the same as for the ten preceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5'6 hours, being 46 per cent. of the possible duration.

X-POSTAL SERVICE.

  The total revenue from the Postal Service in 1914 amounted to $398,426.38 being $41,573.62 less than the amount estimated. The revenue from the sale of Postage Stamps in 1913 amounted to $397,083.40 and that for 1914 to $355,018.05, a decrease of $42,065.35, which is attributed to the dislocation of business and the diminished number of vessels sailing out of the Colony on account of the war. The expenditure in 1914 amounted to $371,646.06. The result of the year's postal transactions shows a credit balance of $26,780.32.

A branch Post Office was opened in the Saiyingpun district on the 1st May and is meeting a long-felt want.

  The mails sent from London by the trans-Siberian route have been very erratic since the outbreak of hostilities, taking 30 to 35 days in transit against 19 days during the antebellum period.

XI.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

1. The condition of the Province of Kwangtung improved con- siderably during the year, though the Government found difficulty in suppressing the numerous robber bands which, owing to the dis- bandment of many soldiers who had been enrolled during the revolu-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

325

31

tionary period, were scattered throughout the provinces of Kwangtung and Kwangsi, and especially in the West River districts. Many acts of piracy occurred and the influx of undesirable characters to Hongkong gave the Police cause for extra vigilance.

""

On the 15th March a piracy of the Norwegian steamship "Childar " occurred soon after this vessel had left Hongkong for Swatow, and in this case the pirates escaped, having run the ship close to Chinese territory near Bias Bay before they left it. The steamship "Tai On,' which was attacked by pirates on the 2nd April, 1913, was again the victim of a serious piracy on the night of the 27th April when in the vicinity of Kio Island. The pirates, who had embarked as passengers, attacked the bridge, but the Master, Mr. Wetherall, assisted by the Chief Officer, Mr. Evans, the Chief Engineer, Mr. McCartney, and two Portuguese, J. Conception and A. Dias, offered a most spirited resistance. Being foiled in their attempt the pirates then set fire to the vessel and about 300 lives were lost including that of the Chief Officer, Mr. Evans, who was injured, it is feared, in the struggle on board and was unable in consequence to keep himself afloat after the ship had been abandoned. The disaster was one of the worst that have occurred in the waters of the delta, but the gallant conduct of the officers in charge of the ship had a remarkable effect in stopping any serious attempts at piracy for some time afterwards. The Govern- ment and public of Hongkong marked their appreciation of the action of Mr. Wetherall, Mr. McCartney, and Guard Dias by compensating them for the losses they suffered and by suitable presentations. The widow of Mr. Evans, the Chief Officer, was awarded an allowance by the Government. This piracy led to the passing on the Piracy Pre- vention Ordinance referred to under the head of Legislation. In accordance with its provisions vessels sailing to ports on the southern coast of China, which are licensed to carry passengers, have to comply with certain stringent regulations.

 With the assistance of the Chinese Government and the Macao authorities the Hongkong Police were enabled to trace the perpetrators of both these outrages. They were tried by the authorities in the Kwangtung Province, and 17 of those concerned in the "Tai On" piracy and 9 of those concerned in the " Childar " piracy were executed at Canton.

2. In the month of July very serious floods occurred in the Fu and West Rivers and an immense tract of country bordering on these rivers was submerged. Great damage was done to embankments which protect the riverine fields and much suffering was occasioned to a laige population who were deprived of food and shelter.

 The Government contributed a sum of $50,000 in aid of a Relief Fund and a representative Committee was appointed to raise public subscriptions and administer the fund. Including the Government contribution a sum of over $349,000 was raised, the greater portion of which was devoted to the repair by the villagers of broken embank- ments. A large sum was also spent in sending food into the district at the beginning of the emergency:

326

32

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The Committee worked in co-operation with the Charitable Societies in Canton, who displayed their usual energy and generosity in organising relief, and by and with the authority of the Chinese Authorities, who rendered every facility to the Members of the Committee who super- vised work and relief in the district assigned to them.

3. The outbreak of war with Germany and Austria, and later with Turkey, produced a novel and trying situation in which the entire community showed a most commendable spirit. Offers of assistance from all classes and races were tendered, and conspicuous in their proffers of help were the members of the Chinese community. Practically the whole of the British male population, including very many of Indian, Portuguese, and Chinese race, not already enrolled, gave their services to the Volunteers, the Volunteer Reserves, and the Special Police Reserve. Their services were most valuable and their public spirit rendered possible a considerable reduction in the regular garrison for duty elsewhere.

The following Companies and organisations lent valuable assistance to the Government :-

The Tramway Companies and the Star Ferry Company, who

conveyed soldiers and volunteers free of charge.

The Committee of the Matilda Hospital, who received free of charge certain German ladies until other arrangements could be made for their disposal.

The Joint Telegraph Companies, in all matters connected with

the censorship of telegrams.

The Hongkong Volunteer Cadets and the St. Joseph's College Boy Scouts rendered useful service as messengers.

Before the end of the year £17,000 was remitted to the National Relief Fund inaugurated by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. This fund was liberally contributed to by all classes of the community, including Indians, Portuguese, and Chinese. Various other funds for relief of Belgian refugees and for supply of tobacco and clothing to the troops were also instituted and liberally supported by the community.

The cost of the passages of a number of recruits for the Armie. in England not only from the Colony but from places in the Far East were defrayed by the Colonial Government. Up to the end of the year seven local residents went to take up Commissions as officers and thirty-seven for enlistments. From outside the Colony two were selected for Commissions and ten for enlistment. The Peninsula and Oriental Steam Navigation Company were good enough to gran! favourable preferential rates for these passages.

4. The difficulties encountered by the Green Island Cement Company in their endeavour to obtain limestone from the Kwang- tung and Kwangsi Provinces were not wholly overcome, and the supply during the year was not satisfactory.

5. The Opium Farm was taken over by the Government in March and the restrictive measures adopted have already had a good effect. The energetic action of the Revenue Department bas succeeded in

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1914.

327

33

tracing many cases of smuggling of opium, morphine, and cocaine through the Colony and the heavy fines inflicted and the confiscation of the smuggled goods will, it is hoped, go far to checking this illicit trade.

6. An order of the Supreme Court was obtained in March for the removal of the Morrison Library from the City Hall, where it was little used by the public, to the University.

7. Mr. A. G. M. Fletcher (Assistant Colonial Secretary) proceeded on leave on the 19th March, 1914, and during his absence his post was filled by the appointment of Mr. M. J. Breen.

Mr. R. H. Crofton (late Chief Clerk) was promoted to the post of Assistant Government Secretary, Zanzibar, and left to take up his duties on 4th January, 1914.

29th June, 1915.

CLAUD SEVERN,

Colonial Secretaryj.

Civil ...

Army

Navy

:

...

DEATHS REGISTERED IN THE COLONY OF HONGKONG DURING 1914.

...

:

***

:.

...

***

***

:.

...

...

***

...

...

:

...

...

...

:

1 ...

...

***

రా

1

...

...

2. 1

4

...

2

18

5 ...

***

2

10

8

4

3 2

G

7

16

17

26

3

2

I

Bod

...

922 | 17 | 24

༔ ཾ

...

...

10 ...

21 242

24

2 ... 3

31 921 1315840

Small-pox.

Measles.

Typhoid Fever,

Diphtheria.

Cholern.

Diarrhoea.

Dysentery.

Plague.

Malarial Fever.

Puerperal Fever.

Septic Infections.

Syphilis.

Poisoning. Injuries.

Alcoholism. Developmental Diseases.

Old Age.

General Tuberculosis.

Beri-beri.

Cancer.

Paralysis and Convulsions.

Heart Diseases.

Pneumonia.

Phthisis and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Enteritis and Gas ro- Enteritis.

Cirrhosis of Liver.

Peritonitis.

Nephritis,

Other causes.

Unknown.

All causes.

Victoria and Peak...

Harbour

Kowloon

18 ... 52 22 11 11 71 123 1219 73 9-51 182 8

...

***

12] ...

Shauliwan ...

Aberdeen

Stanley

...

...

-

5 4

6

55] 3 8

...

2

1

F

...

..

brad

...

...

...

...

:

:

:

:

...

:.

6 28 11 1

...

]

20 ...

...

2

20] ...

10

:

:

:

555

81 214 247 21

27

257

84 641 401

24 83 54 5

3

3 ...

16 ...

116

9 60 2

1

14 71 148

6

5 139] 160| 987

637 58 ...

23

1 19 1

GO 149 46|69| 5

9

52 238 138

31 4 10

24 299 122 2128

2

1

6 ...

5 16

2 19

-

...

...

25| 30

20

... i ...`

...

96 18 245

...

2 ...

...

19]

12

23

...

:.

***

...

***

...

:

...

...

...

:

2 2 74

in

42

Total, 1914

"

1913

:

:

...

91|

...

841

+

8 2

18888

67|1481 4269585

211 | 28 | 54 | 1561822 5753485

328

34

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS---ANNUAL.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

330

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

45

PS

15'

22*

45'

CHUKIAN G

O R

CANTON

RIVE R

0

Ty-lo 1$

Sa-tsiang

HONG-KONG, KOWLOON A

* Fuk-yun

A-po-ki

Wu-shak-ngam

114°

Shak-ku

TUNG-KWAN

Liong-tu-hc

Kon-lan

Long-heu

Chong-hung-k

Lung-fa

Hsin-hi

Yong-tai-shan

A

Pan-ten

Li-longo

Ma-hámo

Pak-shak-lung

Sai-Heung

-

NAM-TAO

Ha-tsai

TẠI CHAM

BAY

Ping Cheng

Tai-san

aimiao

Ma-chau

DEEP

Lin-tin

113°52′ E. LONG. OF OREENWICH

。 Moi-lim

Pu-kak

HSIN NGAN I (SUM-ON) Sam.

Lungteubhy

Sha-tau

SHA

TAL CAI

Wan-had

Chak-wan

OR HAU.HOI

burwan-teu

BAY

(Chuk-yen

ASTLE

Hsin-ten

Mi-puo

PEAK

ND

Lim-chun

Kam-tin

Lung-ku

Q Sa-chau

• Tai-shui-hang

Chin-shan Pet-long

o Nam-long,

Chon-mun

(Castle Peak

Un-long

Ping shan

Shui-leu

Mobu-Ju-kok

Tung chung

LAN-TAO (TAI-U SHAN),

Tai

Tai-lam-chung

Ma-wan

Shui Mun

Chung

-hue

Cheupe Sham-

Stonecutterst

HON Lighthouse Kenned

Ping-chau Green¡Ã ̧• Town

Row-Chau

Silver Mine

Bay

Chau-kung

Tai-ku-chau

Abel

Cheung-Chau

St-A-Chau

Lap-sap-mi iş

Chi-chau Is

114'

Tai-wand

Lamma

(Pok-Liu)

EST LAM MA

LE

D ADJACENT TERRITORIES.

15'

Piang-ti

1904-1919

30'

Lung-kong

o Tai-Tong-tu

Tong-lak

Hsin-hi

KUI

Shak-kong

S HAN

Ten-teu

• Tong-poi

BIAS

Ten

Piang-san

Tong hang

Wang-kong o

Sa-

Tai-wo-chun

}

en-tong o

in

Bluff Hd

Port Island

Ki-chun o

Pa-kongo

Tisam-kai

Kaichung &

Shong-tungs

Sa-ng-chung

Sha-tao

Yam-ten &

Wong-muo

Kat-o

'Crooked I.

Song-chau

M I

R

Tipfuk

Hasha

Peng-chau

S

b Pit-chau

Kuk-pu

· Crooked↑ Harbour

Crescent 1.

Namo

tou-shar

TAI-PUNG-SANG

BAY

-ia

aung-kwut-tey

g Shui

ROAD

Wo-hang

Tin-koko

Shon-wan

Tai-po

RAILWAY

Wang-ling-tau

Plover Cove

4

TOLO HARBOUR

White Head

Tolo Channel

shan

Lok Lo

ran

Tide Cove

Shatin

hi-Kok Kau-lung

-shan

SHATEN

& KOWLOON CITY

wan

ti-P Mongkok

You

af Navaj

Depot

ONG HA

Tam-taa

Ko-tongo

Harbour

Chak-kang

Grass I. Tap-mun

\Tan-ka-wan

Mira

Shak-hagg Hai-wang

Tai-shui-hang

Pet-kong

Yam-condom

Sai-kung

-8a want

NGAU INLWAN ROAD

Tu-kwa-wan

Tai- -pu-tsaio

Port Shelter

Cheung-Kwan-O.

Hung-hom Kon-

Lighthouse tong

"sim-Sha Tsui

HỒNG KONG

Lyee-mun-

PChin-hang

Ping-ong-wan

Hang Hauls

Jun Ha-yong

Bay

Q-Tau-Chau

Lighthouse

Collinson

син Ta-tong.

Tai-long

Fung Head

Fung Bay

Lan-nai-wan

ai-wan Ping Pt

She wan

High L

Town 1.

Basalt I.

Ba

Ninepin

A Group

Lam-tong I.:

Stank

3.ku-was

X-ku-wan

LAMMA CHAN.

Tartam

►Tai-tam

Bay

Chan

Tai-long Head (C. Aguilar)

Wong-ma-kok Fury

Lo-chau

Rocks

✔Wag-lan

Sun-kong

+Lighthouse

1 A

229 N. LAT.

CHANNEL

13

NOTE

. LONG. OF GREENWICH

o Kak-ten

Territory under Convention of 1860

Boundary under Convention 1898

1

2

J

7

English Miles (89-t@m"!"}

30

Samun

331

45'

30

15

22

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 892.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1915.

(ABRIDGED.)

(For Report for 1914 see No. 856.)

333

Presented to both bouses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty.

September, 1916.

PRINTED

LONDON:

UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S

STATIONERY OFFICE

By BARCLAY AND FRY, LTD., THE GROVE, SOUTHWARK STREET, S.E.

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, 29, BREAMS BUILDINGS, FETTER LANE, E.C. and 28, ABINGDON STREET, S.W., and 54, ST. MARY STREET, CARDIFF; or H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (SCOTTISH BRANCH), 23, FORTH Street, EdinbURGE; or

E. PONSONBY, LIMITED, 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN ; or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of T. FISHER UNWIN, LIMITED, LONDON, W.C.

[Cd. 8172-18.] Price 2d.

1916.

334

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

4

I.-FINANCES

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRI-

CULTURE, AND LAND

III.-EDUCATION

:

:

14

15

:

:

:

:

:

18

222

20

22

22

:

IV.-PUBLIC WORKS

V.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS

VI.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT

VII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE ..

VIII-VITAL STATISTICS

IX.-POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH SERVICES

X.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

:

23

23

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 892.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1914 see No. 856.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF State.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

1st June, 1916.

335

SIR,

I have the honour to transmit herewith six copies of the Colonial Secretary's report on the Blue Book for 1915.

The Right Honourable

A. Bonar Law, M.P.,

etc., etc.,

etc.

I have, etc.,

F. H. MAY,

Governor, &c.

(C291) Wt.45316/1003. 1,000 & 90. 9.16. B.&F.Ltd. Gp.11/2.

336

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

REPORT ON THE BLUE, BOOK FOR 1915.

(ABRIDGED.)

I.-FINANCES.

 The revenue for the year amounted to $11,786, 106, being $378,474 more than the estimate, and $778,833 more than the revenue, for the previous year.

 Compared with the returns for 1914 there were decreases under every head with the exception of Licences and Internal Revenue and Miscellaneous Receipts. "Interest" remained at nil.

 The expenditure amounted to a total of $15,149,267, inclusive of a sum of $1,839,882 spent on Public Works Extraordinary and of $3,062,388 charged to railway construction.

The total expenditure brought to account, though not incurred solely on account of the year under review, amounted to $15,149,268, being $2,662,497 over the estimate and $4,393,043 more than the expenditure in 1914. Compared with the estimates, there were decreases under 20 heads as against 5 heads where there were increases. The excess, amounting to $812,732, under Miscellaneous Services, was largely due to loss on subsidiary coins, of which coins to the face value of $5,900,000 were demonetized during the year (causing an excess over the estimate of $488,057); and to expenditure on account of the war which was not estimated for ($253,030). It was decided to charge further expenditure on railway construction to general account, and subsequently also to abandon the raising of a loan of £250,000 under Ordinance No. 8 of 1913, which together account for an excess of $3,062,388 under Special Expenditure Railway Department not estimated for, while the charge on account of public debt was exceeded by $55,152 on account of interest on advances for railway construction. Military expenditure was less than the estimate by $167,230. The Imports and Exports Department decreased $206,583 on account of less opium purchased, while the Harbour Department saved $160,705 on special expenditure by partial post- ponement of the scheme for acquisition of buoys in the harbour. Other decreases were mostly due to savings on personal emoluments.

 The deficit on the year's working was $3,363,161, and the balance of assets and liabilities showed on the 31st December a debit balance of $452,686.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

337

5

 The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1911-1915 :-

Revenue.

Expenditure.

$

$

1911

7,497,231

7,077,177

1912

8,180,694

7,202,553

1913

8,512,308

8,658,012

1914

11,007,273

10,756,225

1915

11,786,106

15,149,267

 The capital expenditure on the British section of the Kowloon- Canton Railway during 1915 was $506,346, chiefly in connection with the erection of a terminal station. The total expenditure on this account amounted at the end of the year to a sum of $14,602,007, of which $11,539,618 was obtained from the Wuchang Loan and the balance, $3,062,389, charged to the general expenditure of the Colony.

 The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,732. Against this there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £210,855.

No new taxation was imposed during the year.

 The circulation on the 31st December of notes of the three banks having authorised issues was as follows:-

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank

Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China Mercantile Bank of India

$21,793,806

6,976,548

1,074,231

$29,844,585

 The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of these banks, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars and of subsidiary coin.

 The rate of discount on Hong Kong subsidiary coin, as compared with notes, varied during 1915 between the following limits :-

50 cent pieces, 61 per cent. to 131 per cent.

20

"}

10

75 75

"J

23

18 191

""

""

ور

""

6/1/ par

22

151

>>

par

5

""

Copper coin,

 Compared, however, with the Mexican dollar, which is the standard of the Colony, the variations were as follows:

50 cent pieces 4 per cent. to 51 per cent.

20

101

"

"

10

"

>>

""

111

31/

71

""

""

"

par.

5

""

Copper coin, par.

It will be seen, therefore, that Bank notes were at a premium varying

from 21 per cent. to 8 per cent.

338

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

  The total issue of these coins, less those demonetized, now amounts to $26,292,370 nominal value, and they were up to the year 1905 readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neigh- bouring provinces of China. During 1915 ten cent pieces of the face value of $5,100,000 were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which has prevailed since 1905 may be attributed to the immense quantity of similar coin which has latterly been minted at Canton as well as to the amount of Hong Kong coin minted largely in excess of the needs of the Colony by itself. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetizing all its subsidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been con- tinuously followed since except during a brief period in 1911. Coin to the face value of $17,707,459 has thus been redeemed. The total issue by the Hong Kong Government was of the face value of about $44,000,000.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a.)-SHIPPING AND TRADE.

The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1915 amounted to 531,602 vessels, of 33,884,919 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1914, shows an increase of 14,163 vessels, with a decrease of 2,872,032 tons.

In local trade (i.e. trade between places within the waters of the Colony) there is an increase in Steam Launches of 8,764 vessels with a decrease in tonnage of 256,650 tons, or 1.9 per cent. in numbers and 20 in tonnage. This is explained by the fact that smaller launches have taken the place of the larger launches which are being used as Examination Vessels.

In local trade junks there is shown an increase of 6,465 vessels of 149,219 tons, or 17·2 per cent. in numbers and 110 per cent. in tonnage. This is explained by the fact that a better control is now exercised, as these crafts have to report themselves and get a permit to pass outward through the Examination Service.

The actual numbers of individual ocean-going vessels of European construction entering during 1915 was 724, of which 310 were British and 414 were foreign. In 1914 the corresponding figures were 825:- 385 British and 440 foreign.

These 724 ships measured 1,824,395 tons. They entered 3,824 times, and gave a collective tonnage of 7,181,699 tons. Thus there were 101 fewer ships and 402 fewer entries giving a collective tonnage reduced by 1,286,910 tons, an average of 3,201 2 tons per entry.

The 310 British ships carried 2,790 British officers and 27 foreign officers, the latter consisting of 5 American, 4 Dutch, 7 Swedish, and 11 Norwegian.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

339

 Thus, the proportion of foreign officers in British ships was 0.90 per cent. comprising 4 nationalities, an increase of 0.58 per cent. with a decrease in the number of officers and of ships.

 The 414 foreign ships carried 3,312 officers, of whom 66 were British, as follows: --

In Chinese ships

">

Japanese ships

">

United States ships French ships

:

1914.

1915.

84

55.

6

7

40

40

ľ

94

66

 Thus, 1.99 per cent. of the officers serving in foreign ships were of British nationality, with a decrease in number of officers and of ships.

 The nationality of the crews in British and in foreign ships was as follows:-

VESSELS.

EUROPEANS

BRITISH CREW.

AND AMERICANS.

ASIATICS.

1914. 1915. | 1914. | 1915. | 1914. | 1915. 1914. 1915.

British

Foreign

385

440

310 24,264 20,253 866 901 135,214 | 128,160

414 1,571 1,155 24,428 10,791 118,268 114,516

Total

825

724 25,835 21,408 25,294 |11,692|253,482 242,676

Hence in British ships :-

And in Foreign ships :-

1914.

1915.

1914.

1915.

15.13%

13.57 % of the crews

were British.

1.08 %

0.91 % of the crews

were British.

0.54%

0-60% of the crews were other Europeans.

16.93 %

8-53% of the crews

were other Europeans.

84.33%

85-83% of the crews were Asiatics.

81.98 %

90-56 % of the crews were Asiatics.

TRADE.

 The figures and statistics which here follow are not necessarily strictly accurate as they are derived from the reports by masters of ships, and not from ship's manifest, as they would be in the case of a port that was not free, and where all cargo would have to pass through a Customs House.

340

8.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Imports.

The imports decreased by 280,750 tons, or 6.7 per cent., which is, of course, due to the war entirely. This decrease is almost all a shortage from European countries as the local trade has been quite up to the normal, except in the case of coal. Increases are shown in the following:-Beans, rice, and timber; whilst decreases are shown under the following:-Coal, cotton, flour, hemp, kerosene, both case and bulk, liquid fuel, and general.

 Beans. Here the increase is very slight and shows that the trade, being a local one, has kept normal.

 Coal. A very large decrease of coal has occurred, and this is naturally due to the falling-off in large ocean vessels taking bunker coal, and with less demand there has been less importation. No coal has been imported from Great Britain, but an increase is shown from Chinese ports.

Flour.-A decrease is shown here of 56,597 tons. Again this is owing principally to the large stocks which were imported towards the latter part of 1914 and held over for a higher price. Also the Chinese did not use as much flour as in 1914 owing to the appreciable cheapening of the rice market. It is also due to high freights ruling and high cost of wheat in America.

 Hemp. Here again a decrease is shown of 17,161 tons. Most of this shortage is probably transhipment cargo, as often hemp is transhipped here into home boats.

Kerosene Oil.-Bulk oil shows a decrease of 5,636 tons and case oil of 25,161 tons. The decrease shown in bulk oil is only a nominal one and means that the trade has maintained an even balance, but case oil shows a heavy decrease, due undoubtedly to the high freight rates ruling and the difficulty of getting tonnage, which would have the effect of considerably increasing the cost per case. Importers who had large stocks in hand at the beginning of the year did not import, hoping for more normal times. One cargo for Hong Kong was lost off the coast of Japan, and owing to the temporary blocking of the Panama Canal, cargo destined to arrive in 1915 did not arrive until January, 1916.

 Liquid Fuel.-A decrease is shown of 14,945 tons, which is due entirely to the war, the withdrawal of the fleet and consequently small demand for this commodity outside merchant shipping. The fleet were practically the only consumers of liquid fuel out of this port.

 Rattans. Here a decrease is shown, but in reality the importation has been about normal, the decrease shown being due to this cargo being classed as general.

 Rice. There was an appreciable increase in the imports of rice, accounted for by the exceptionally large crops gathered during the year both in Siam and Indo-China, and the excessive demand from South China owing to the floods and large tracks of rice land not being under cultivation. This again, being a local trade, has been unaffected by the war.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

341

9

Timber. Here an increase is shown, which is due to the falling-off of stocks at the end of 1914, which have been more than made up this year.

Opium.-The clearance of the old stock of certified opium has been proceeding quietly. Imports have come practically entirely from Shanghai. On the 1st October the Opium Suppression Commissioner for the Provinces of Kwang Tung, Kiang Si, and Kiang Su came to an agreement with the merchants forming the Opium Combine to purchase the whole of the stock of certified opium then lying in Hong Kong. The export of certified opium is now, therefore, confined to deliveries to the Kwang Tung Government.

Malwa.

Patna.

Benares.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Total. Chests.

Imports...

125

45

12

182

Exports....

607

371

147

1,125

Eight hundred and fifty-two (852) chests of Persian opium were imported and 856 exported, the destination being either London or Formosa. Eight hundred and thirty-nine chests of uncertified Indian opium were imported from India, of which 500 chests were exported to Macao. The remainder was for the use of the Government Opium Monopoly. The table below shows the total imports and exports since 1908:-

Stock in hand on

1st January Imported during

1915. 1914. 1913. 1912. 1911. 1910. 1909. 1908. Chests. Chests. Chests. Chests. Chests. | Chests. Chests. | Chests.

2,256 4,580 5,560 7,587 7,123 4,509 5,808 4,707

1,873 3,0599,108) |12,3611 | 21,286 |31,743 35,734 41,821

the year

Total..... 4,129 7,640 14,668)|19,9481|28,409 |36,252 41,542

46,528

Boiled by Opium

Farmer.

36

667 1,113

761

782 1,044

864

Boiled by Govern-|

|

ment

340

413

Spurious Opium

destroyed

17

19

2

14

51

247

Missing or stolen.

4

2

9

2,469

Exported during

the year

Total

......

Stock remaining on

4,9119,419 |13,264 20,061 28,333 35,938 39,609

2,826 | 5,3831|10,088 |14,3881|20,822 |29,129 |37,033 40,720

31st December.. 1,303 2,256)| 4,580)| 5,560 7,587 7,123 4,509 5,808

General. The decrease here of 47,562 tons is small, only amount- ing to 2 per cent. This of course, as in the preceding year, is due entirely to the war and the small amount of goods being exported from European countries.

342

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Exports.

An increase is shown in exports of 79,793 tons, or 3 per cent. This again is principally local, as trade has been particularly brisk between Hong Kong, the Straits, and India. Coast ports have also had a large share of attention. But although an increase is shown for the year, export trade is still far below the average of

1913.

Transit Cargo.-The decrease in transit cargo, which was very marked in 1914, has continued to a still greater extent this year, and the same reason must undoubtedly be given for it, viz., the falling off in large ocean vessels visiting the Port both from European and American ports.

Emigration and Immigration.

Sixty-eight thousand two hundred and seventy-five (68,275) emi- grants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1915 (76,296 in 1914).

Of these, 46,588 were carried in British ships, and 21,687 in foreign ships.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements, 1909

to 1915, compared with Total Chinese Emigration.

No. of Emigrants to

Straits Settlements.

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

1915

Total No. of

Emigrants.

48,016

77,430

76,705

111,058

100,906

135,565

84,024

122,657

102,353

142,759

44,974

76,296

41,278

68,275

One hundred and nine thousand seven hundred and fifty-three (109,753) returning emigrants are reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 168,827 in 1914. Of these 82,057 arrived in British ships, and 27,696 in foreign ships.

(b).-INDUSTRIES.

(i.)-Under European Management.

Engineering and Shipbuilding.-The figures are as follows for the years 1914 and 1915-

Taikoo Dockyard and

Eng. Co., Ltd.

Hong Kong and Wham-

poa Dook Co., Ltd....

Macdonald & Co.

1915.

3 vessels of 2,780 gross tons and 1,400 I.H.P.

"

1

"

Kwong Fook Cheong Ah King.

1

13

Total

2,488 33

"

3,240 70

"

D

30

72

"

30

127

20

23 vessels of 5,361 gross tons and 4,909 I.H.P.

Taikoo Dockyard and

 Eng. Co., Ltd. Hong Kong and Wham-

 poa Dock Co., Ltd. W. S. Bailey & Co. Macdonald & Co.

Tung Hing Lung

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

1914.

343

11

9 vessels of 7,166 gross tons and 4,970 I.H.P.

2912231♡~+

....

"

3,172 1,264

"

"

"

"

42

4,810 1,031 70

"

"

"

""

110

140

"

"

"

Kwong Sing Loong

130

150

"

"

Kwong Hop Loong

116

19

"

210

"

Kwong Tuck Cheong .

700

..

"

1,450

Ah King

28

34

"

"

"

"

Kwong Hip Lung Co., Ltd. 3 Kwong Lee.....

557

""

1,200

"

135

*

"

Total

280

59 vessels of 13,420 gross tons and 14,345

 The large decrease in the gross tonnage is due to the war, but it will be noticed that there is a small increase in the average tonnage of the vessels constructed from 224 to 233 tons each.

Sugar Refineries.-The year 1915 was one of very high prices throughout, governed by the inflated level of raws. Consumption of refineds in consequence was naturally restricted, particularly in the China markets, where substantial reductions were found necessary towards the end of the year. Japanese and Java competition was experienced, but not quite so acutely as formerly, total imports from Java showing a marked falling off.

 It may be noted that, during the latter half of the year, the local refineries took a larger share than usual in supplying British India and Persian Gulf markets with the highest quality of refined crystals.

 Cotton Spinning-For the reasons stated in last year's report, the machinery of the local mill has now all been transferred to Shanghai, where the business is making satisfactory progress under the better cotton spinning conditions that apply there.

 As regards cotton yarn, though marked by violent fluctuations in prices, the year was a fairly profitable one, both to foreign im- porters and to native dealers. At the close of last year the market was bad with the majority of the native dealers. As the Chinese New Year approached, however, matters improved owing to arrange- ments with importers which contributed in no small degree to the more sound trade conditions which obtained during the rest of the year.

 Below is appended a table of arrivals, sales, and deliveries which shows that, while the sales for the current year are about the same as those of 1914, the deliveries show an encouraging improvement :-

Arrivals Sales .. Deliveries

Comparative prices 10s.

"

20s.

159,000

105,000

177,000

$ 90-$105 $115-$130

344

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

A special feature of the year just closing is that Japanese yarn No. 20 has entirely driven out this count of Bombay yarn from the local market, so much so that during the past three months not a single bale of Indian 20s. has been negotiated in the local market.

Rope.-Fair prices and a brisk demand have been the features of this market for the greater part of 1915, but latterly values of Manila hemp have risen rapidly and by the end of the year showed an advance of about 20 per cent. all round.

Prices of cordage have advanced in unison but it is feared that the increased cost will result in a reduced demand and a smaller business in the coming year.

Cement. There was a good demand throughout the year, and had it been possible to obtain the usual supplies of limestone from Canton a much larger business could have been done. Prices have been well maintained in spite of the competition of inferior brands, but export business has been greatly handicapped by scarcity of tonnage and high rates of freight. A large demand arose from Australia, owing no doubt to German supplies being cut off, but the business seems to have been overdone and collapsed very quickly.

(ii.)-Under Chinese Management.

Tin.-There are only five refineries operating. Imports from Yunnan amounted to about 7,000 tons and from Kwangsi to about 1,000 tons.

One thousand (1,000) tons were exported to Japan, 800 tons to Shanghai, and 5,700 tons to Europe and America.

There was also a small export business done with China coast ports.

Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-The business in chair export has declined about 50 per cent. in comparison with the preceding year on account of the war and high rates of freight. Business in sea grass and hemp has also fallen off considerably.

Native Tobacco.-The output for the year under review has been well maintained and its use for the manufacture of cigarettes has increased by about 30 per cent.

Tinned Goods.-The market has been less active and. business has fallen off 20 per cent. in comparison with the preceding year.

 Samshu.-The Superintendent of Imports and Exports reports that considerable increase as compared with the second half of last year has taken place in local production, while imports for local consumption have slightly declined.

Vinegar. The business has remained the same as in the preceding year.

Knitted Vests and socks.-The market has improved and, business has increased about 30 per cent. Sale of Japanese manufactured articles has declined about 20 per cent.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

345

13

 Leather and Hides.-The price has advanced about 20 per cent. in comparison with the preceding year, and a fairly good business has been done in consequence of shortage of European leather in the Colony.

 Ginger and Preserves. This business declined considerably, about 40 per cent. in comparison with the preceding year.

 Soy.-Exporters again report a poor market. Business has been reduced by 30 per cent. in comparison with the preceding year.

Paper.-Business has increased about 35 per cent. in consequence of shortage of the importation of European manufactured paper.

Vermilion. This trade was practically at a standstill owing to the

war.

 Lard. The trade in lard was normal, principally with Manila, where Hong Kong lard is accepted owing to the careful supervision exercised to ensure purity.

(c.)-FISHERIES.

 A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d.)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

 On the bare hills north of Samshuipo 47,000 pine tree seedlings, one year old, were planted, and in the same locality 22,000 pits were sown with pine tree seeds.

 In the Tytam catchment area 14,000 pits were sown with pine tree seeds, and at Aberdeen, Shunway, and Aplichau 29 lbs. of pine tree seeds were sown broadcast.

 On grassy hills east of the south face of the Beacon Hill tunnel and around the Kowloon reservoir 272 lbs. of pine tree seeds were sown, and 50 lbs. on similar hills near Fanling.

About 90,000 pine tree seedlings were raised for planting in 1916. Six thousand broad-leaved trees were planted in the Tytam catchment area, and about 1,000 in the Pokfulam catchment area.

 Over 300 Poincianas were planted in various places in Hong Kong and Kowloon.

 Between 1,800 and 1,900 flowering trees and shrubs were planted in conspicuous places in Hong Kong in addition to the Poincianas.

Upwards of 1,300 trees were planted along the Fanling-Taipo road. They consisted of Poincianas, Albizzia, and Camphor.

346

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

14

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Alongside the road leading from Castle Peak to Fanling, 430 trees were planted consisting of Camphor, Poinciana, Ficus, Melaleuca, and Albizzia.

On the hills in the vicinity of the Fanling Golf Course over 7,000 trees and shrubs were planted, of which over 4,000 were planted to give an effect when in flower.

Creepers damaging trees in plantations on M.. Victoria, Mt. Gough, Mt. Kellett, and Mt. Parker were cut.

A large felling of pine and broad-leaved trees was made at North Point in order to enable material to be obtained for reclamation purposes.

Large fellings were also made on Farm Lots purchased by the Dairy Farm Co. for the cultivation of Guinea Grass.

Abort 6,000,000 square feet were cleared of undergrowth at the expense of the Government in connexion with anti-malarial measures. In connexion with survey work about 700,000 square feet were cleared.

In the economic garden at Fanling vegetables were grown for demonstration purposes. Several experiments were also made with

artificial fertilizers.

The first rice crop was good but the second was poor in many places owing to the lateness of the rains. Much damage was done to the latter crop by typhoons which occurred just before harvesting.

Lichees were below the average, but peanuts were good.

III.-EDUCATION.

  No important changes have taken place in the Education Depart- ment during the year under review. The staff has been depleted by causes due to the war.

  The Hong Kong University is an institution that arose from the joint enterprise of British and Chinese subscribers. It was founded with funds representing about equal proportions of Chinese and British

money.

  At the end of the year the number of students was 172, 101 of whom were taking Engineering, 37 Medicine, and 34 Arts. While most of the students have studied in Hong Kong schools a number came from Canton, the coast ports of China, and the Straits Settlements.

  The idea of the University is to provide, close to China, education for Chinese similar to that given in the British Universities, but at a much cheaper cost; for if a Chinese goes abroad to be educated he has to pay, besides travelling expenses, some $2,000 per annum; whereas at Hong Kong the expenses of the University are $540 per annum for board and tuition, or, including extras, from $600 to $650.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

347

15

 The founders of the University took into consideration the fact that Chinese students being educated abroad have usually to make their own arrangements for board and lodging. Consequently some- times they contract irregular habits. All students educated at the Hong Kong University are required to become boarders, and thus their whole lives are under supervision whilst they are there. Ample provision is made for indoor and outdoor recreation, and in this connexion it is interesting to note that the Chinese residents of Hong Kong recently subscribed a large sum for levelling a new playing field and that the work has just been completed.

 The University is composed of three Faculties: 1.--Medical, which offers unexampled facilities for the practice of medicine. The anatomical laboratories were the gift of a Cantonese gentleman (Mr. Ng Li-hing). There is a large staff of instructors in medicine: all the principal doctors of Hongkong give lectures at the University. Arts. The establishment of the Faculty was largely due to the muni- ficence of a Chinese gentleman in the Straits Settlements (Mr. Cheung Pat-sze). Its special object is to provide training suitable to those who desire to enter the public service or the higher branches of mercantile life. The course of instruction comprises English and Chinese literature, political and constitutional history, political economy, jurisprudence, and international and commercial law.

 The largest of the Faculties is that of Engineering, to which nearly two-thirds of the students belong. It is divided into three branches: Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical. The University has an exceptionally large equipment of machinery and apparatus, and has fourteen laboratories and workshops in working order. There is practically no place in China where students have such an opportunity of seeing all kinds of machinery in actual working and of learning their practical management.

 The University insists upon all students having a proper knowledge of their own language, although instruction at the University is carried out in English. Students are required to pass an examination in written Chinese before entering, and two Chinese Professors, both Hanlin graduates, give lectures on the classics and history of China.

IV.-PUBLIC WORKS.

 The Mongkoktsui breakwater and contingent works were completed in August, a stone commemorating the event being laid by His Excellency Sir F. H. May, K.C.M.G., LL.D., on the 16th December. The works were completed in two months under the contract time of five years.

 The total expenditure to the end of 1915 was $2,181,571.91, a small balance remaining to be paid in 1916, to cover which and other small items a sum of $30,000 has been provided in the 1916 estimates.

348

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The breakwater is 3,325 feet in length, and encloses an area of 165 acres. Entrances to the refuge are provided at both ends of the breakwater, the southern being 390 feet and the northern 300 feet in width.

In addition to the breakwater, the work comprised a concrete and masonry pier, 450 feet long by 30 feet wide, and a reclamation extending over a rocky shoal near the northern entrance. The reclamation has an area of 187,100 square feet, and is protected partly by a pitched slope and partly by a concrete and masonry sea- wall. A short masonry pier-head projects from the reclamation.

The depth of water at the entrances at L.W.O.S.T. is 18 feet, the depth within the shelter varying from 9 feet to 18 feet; 82 per cent. of the enclosed area has a depth exceeding 12 feet at L.W.O.S.T., and 56 per cent. has a depth exceeding 15 feet.

The breakwater consists of a rubble mound 192 feet in width at the base, 20 feet at the top, and 44 feet in height. It is faced above L.W.O.S.T. with concrete blocks on the outer side and coursed granite rubber pitching on the inner side, and is paved on top with concrete blocks. A trench of an average depth of 9 feet was dredged in the harbour bottom for the entire length and width of the base of the breakwater prior to the deposition of rubble. composed of stone varying in weight from quantity deposited being about 850,000 tons.

The rubble mound is cwt. to 5 tons, the total

In all, 12,453 concrete blocks were used in the work, of which 11,379 were pitching and paving blocks of 2 tons each, and the remainder principally foot-blocks for the inner slope, which were of the same weight. The foot-blocks for the heads of the breakwater, which are of granite encased in concrete, are much heavier, weighing over 5 tons each, and the foot-blocks for the outer slope are wholly of granite and weigh 3 tons each. The granite pitching stones for the for the inner slope averaged ton in weight, 17,098 being used.

The large masonry dam of the Tytam Tuk reservoir was constructed to a height of 49 feet above the stream-bed, or a total height of 90 feet from the lowest part of the foundations, and, towards the end of the year, a considerable quantity of water was impounded. The laying of two additional cast iron pumping mains, 18 inches diameter, was completed. An extension of the pumping station buildings to accommodate the additional pumping machinery, the whole of which arrived from England, was nearly completed. The new boilers were set and a commencement was made with the erection of the pumping engines.

The repairing and coaling depôt for Government launches at Yaumati, described in last year's Report, was completed, except the carriage and hauling gear for the slipway and the erection of the pier. It was decided to instal an electric capstan for hauling up vessels on the slipway. The ironwork for the pier did not arrive until the latter part of the year.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

349

17

 In connection with a proposal by the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Co. to erect a pier, having a depth of 30 feet alongside at the lowest tides, at their Kowloon Point premises, the Government undertook to dredge the berths alongside the pier and some shoals obstructing the approach to it, the Company contributing $12,000 towards the cost. A considerable proportion of the dredging had been completed by the close of the year.

Railway.

The building of the new terminal station at Kowloon has made satisfactory progress during the year and it is expected to be opened to the public probably about April next.

A thoroughly up-to-date mechanical interlocking signal apparatus has been installed in Kowloon station yard by the Railway Signal Company, Limited, and all signals within station limits, as well as the Holt's Wharf level-crossing gates, are now controlled from a cabin situated at the north end of Kowloon station yard.

Repairs of a substantial nature to the embankment pitching on the coast line between mile 73 and 14 have now been completed, and no further trouble may be expected from this source in the near future.

Owing to the late delivery from England of the, permanent way materials required for the extension to the locomotive yard, this work has been delayed. The enlarging of the paint shop and locomotive shed was commenced and brickwork carried to roof level in readiness for the steelwork ordered from home, which had not arrived at the end of the year.

The three new main line locomotives ordered from England in 1914 arrived in the Colony in May and were erected and have rendered satisfactory service since they were taken over by the Traffic Department. During March eight new coaches were added to the rolling stock, and underframes for four additional coaches were received during the year, and two coaches were completed and handed over by the contractors and the others were well in hand at the end of the year.

The year's expenditure chargeable to the Construction Account was $638,995.11.

The working expenses amounted to $297,265.97, and when compared with gross receipts show an increase; the percentage for the previous year being 75.25, while for 1915 it was 86-47; this is due to the decrease in earnings and to unforeseen heavy expenditure on repairs to the Manager's house, the widening of the platform at Sheung Shui Halt, and the erection of an additional Shelter for passengers at that Station, all of which have been paid for out of Revenue. The amount to be paid for rent for the use of Shum Chun Station was agreed during the year and a sum of $10,478.81 was paid over to the Chinese Section, being rent for accommodation for the period October, 1911, to June 30th, 1915.

350

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The revenue derived from local traffic amounted to $129,094.83, or $2,286.59 less than 1914, and the earnings of through and joint sectional traffic were $207,622.20 or $18,114.41 below the previous year; this was mainly due to the decrease of 47,153 in the number of passengers carried as compared with 1914, which was an abnormal year owing to the depreciated Chinese Government notes being for some time accepted at face value by the Railway (Chinese Section). The Fanling Branch earnings amounted to $7,052.05, or $438.24 less than last year.

The excess of earnings over expenditure for 1915 was $46.503.11.

Passengers booked by Stations in British Territory

to Stations in China

1914. 1915.

277,512 271,382

Passengers booked by Stations in China to

Stations in British Territory

353,722 326,839

Passengers travelling on the British Section, Main

Line

245,527 257,650

Passengers travelling on the British Section,

Fanling Branch

48,997 47,928

V.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a.)-HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an Observation Station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease on board a ship arriving in the Harbour.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 3,085 in-patients and 14,499 out-patients were treated during 1915 as against 2,742 and. 13,828, respectively, in 1914. 384 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 324 in 1914 and 254 in 1913; but the total cases of malaria for all Government Hospitals and the Tung Wa Hospital shows an increase of 356 cases as compared with the year 1914. The Maternity Hospital contains 12 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. confinements occurred during the year as against 261 in 1914. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds, and during 1915, 158 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 5 cases were treated in 1915, all being smallpox.

(b)-LUNATIC ASYLUM.

212

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 201 patients of all races were treated during 1915 and there were 4 deaths.

1904-1919

KONG KONG, 1915.

(c.) THE TUNG WA AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

351

19

The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentle- men annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst a Chinese house surgeon, trained in Western medicine, is a member of the bospital staff. There are 323 beds in the buildings and 4,796 patients were accommodated during 1915.

The Tung Wa also maintain a branch hospital for small-pox cases (Chinese only) at Kennedy Town. It contains 58 beds, and during 1915, 7 cases were treated.

 The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and con- trolled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1915 was 1,059 and the expenditure $15,787.90. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 428. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these Hospitals.

 To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Penin- sula was opened on the 9th October, 1911. It occupies a site having an area of 3 acres and provides accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds, and 1,904 patients were accommo- dated during 1915. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

                     The hospital receives a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

 As will be noticed from the remarks made under the heading Education, the Hong Kong University is an Aided Institution.

352

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

VI.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

One of the most important institutions in the Colony not supported the Government is the Matilda Hospital, which stands on a com- manding site of nearly three acres at Mount Kellet in the Hill District. It consists of a main building containing six wards with 26 beds, quarters for four nurses, a house for the Medical Officer in charge, and an operation block. A Maternity Ward, connected by a covered way with the main building, is in course of erection. The total cost of the buildings and their equipment has been more than $600,000. The hospital was erected in pursuance of the directions of the late Mr. Granville Sharp, who died on the 16th August, 1899, and who by his will gave the residue of his estate, amounting to more than $2,000,000, in trust "for the erection and maintenance of a Hospital at Mount Kellet in this Colony to the Glory of God, and the good of men; in loving memory of his sainted Wife Matilda Lincolne, the "same to be called "Matilda Hospital'".

Co

<<

The management of the hospital is vested in a Governing Body consisting of:-

The Trustees for the time being of the will of the Testator.

The Bishop of the Diocese.

The Chaplain of St. John's Cathedral.

The Minister of the Union Church.

Four additional members.

The objects for which the hospital is established are:-

(a) To provide carry on and maintain a hospital for the beneût of patients primarily who are poor helpless and forsaken and to provide gratuitous medical relief to any such person suffering from disease or ill-health.

(b) The hospital shall be considered to be established as a

Religious and Evangelistic Institution.

(c) The hospital is reserved for British, American, and European

Patients.

It was the express wish of the Testator that the hospital should be quite self-supporting, and be able to maintain itself, and that it should be absolutely unnecessary at any time during the continuance of the institution to appeal to the public in any way for funds for its main- tenance.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported, by Government, may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

353

21

The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committce elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls' Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1915 the number of persons admitted was 567 and at the close of the year 75 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under Mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It is now housed in the Belilios Reformatory and receives a small grant from the Government. It was temporarily closed after the outbreak of war.

 The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meet- ings, concerts, etc., a museum in which are some very fair specimens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent, the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charit- able institutions.

 The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters, who can assist the inmates of houses where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the mortuary. The dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the Convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are nine dispensaries in existence including one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscription, was $42,433.71 for the year 1915. The dispensaries are conducted by committees under the Chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

354

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

VII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 9,460, being an increase of 643, or 7.29 per cent., as compared with 1914. There was in 1915 an increase in serious offences of 140, or 4.69 per cent., as compared with the previous year. The number of serious offences reported was 97 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1911. The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 503 as compared with 1914, and was 31 over the average of the quinquennial period.

VIII-VITAL STATISTICS.

POPULATION.

The civil population of the Colony, according to the census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 509,160, but this includes the New Territories.

CLIMATE.

The mean shade temperature for the year at the Royal Observatory, Kowloon (108 feet above mean sea level) was 734°, the same as in 1913, and 11° higher than the mean for the past ten years. The maximum temperature was 934° on the 28th July and the minimum 417° on the 16th January. The hottest month was August, with a mean temperature of 83.5° and the coldest, January, with a mean temperature of 60.1°.

The temperature at the high levels of the Peak District is from 3o to 8° less than at the Observatory. At Victoria it is practically the same. The rainfall and humidity are considerably greater at the Peak than at Victoria, the Observatory, or Tai Po (New Territories).

The total rainfall for the year was 76 025 inches, as compared with an average of 82.35 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was July, with 15:41 inches, the driest, January, when 0.345 inch fell. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 4.89 inches on the 19th October, while no rain fell on 219 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915.

355

23

year was 77 per cent., or 1 per cent. less than for the preceding ten years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 55 hours, being 45 per cent. of the possible duration.

IX.-POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH SERVICES.

The total revenue from the Postal Service in 1915 amounted to $368,457.77, being $31,542.23 less than that anticipated, which is mainly due to the reduced sale of postage stamps in consequence of the war.

The expenditure amounted to $403,609.02. The result of the year's postal transactions shows a debit balance of $35,151.25.

X.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

 Throughout the year the Province of Kwangtung was generally speaking peaceful, the influence of His Excellency Lung Chai Kwong as Chiang Chung, or Military Governor, having a salutary effect. Depredations by pirates and armed robbers on the West River and other water ways in the delta, however, occasionally caused trouble, the chief local sufferers being the Conservancy Contractors for the City of Victoria and Kowloon, whose junks were held up on several occasions between Bocca Tigris and Wong Lin while being towed to the depôts at Wong Ling Village in the Shun Tak District. It appeared on investigation that for years past the contractors had been in the habit of paying considerable sums to the bands of pirates and robbers who infest the reaches of the Canton River in the neighbourhood of Bocca Tigris in order to obtain immunity from molestation, and on a refusal to pay increased demands the junks were attacked. Representations were made through H.B.M.'s Consul- General at Canton to the Provincial Authorities, which resulted in protection being afforded by patrols and in the punishment of some of the marauders.

 There were no other serious acts of piracy during the year affecting the trade of Hong Kong or the lives and property of residents in the Colony, and this immunity must be attributed to the successful steps taken by the Provincial Government and in some measure to the successful working of the Piracy Prevention Ordinance referred to in the report of last year under the head of Legislation.

2. Even greater damage than in the previous year was caused by floods in the West River during the month of July. The water rose to a height unknown for seventy years, and the City of Canton itself was submerged to a depth of several feet.

356

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

24

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

  The Government again contributed a sum of $50,000 to the Relief Fund which was at once organized, while the large sum of $551,238 was raised by public subscription including subscriptions from Chinese abroad. The credit for this fine result is due to the generosity of all sections of the community and to the commendable and efficient exertions of the Tung Wah Hospital.

The Committee appointed to administer the fund worked with great energy in affording immediate relief to the starving population, and measures are under consideration for carrying into effect engi- neering works which it is hoped will lessen the disastrous results of these periodical inundations.

3. The various relief funds in connection with the war were well supported during the year. It was decided to close the Prince of Wales's Fund on the 31st December, on which date the total sum raised in the Colony and its vicinity was £31,447 4s. 3d.

A committee representative of all sections of the community was constituted, with the title of the War Charities Fund Committee, to receive subscriptions from the public to War Charities in general and to support such charities as may be considered desirable from time to time, any subscriptions specially earmarked for a particular charity being applied as desired.

4. During the year good progress was made with the winding up of enemy firms in the Colony. Dulness of trade and difficulties in bring- ing forward cargo from enemy steamers which had sought refuge on the outbreak of war in neutral ports imposed inevitable delays.

5. By the end of the year every Briton not physically unfit or specially excused on the ground of the performance of other work for the Colonial Government had joined the local Volunteer Force, the members of which have rendered excellent service in the defence of the Colony. During the year 135 persons, the large majority of whom were resident in the Colony and 63 of whom were members of the Volunteer Corps, left the Colony to join the armies in England. En- listment for the Special Police Reserve organised under the Special Police Reserve Ordinance No. 27 of 1914 began in February, and the number of members now amounts to over five hundred.

                                   There are four companies, consisting of No. 1 Europeans and Indians, No. 2 Portuguese, Nos. 3 and 4 Chinese. There are also a maxim gun section, a motor bicycle section, a mounted section, and an ambulance corps composed of Chinese. A band has been formed among the Portuguese. The Reserve is under the command of a Deputy Superintendent, Mr. F. C. Jenkin, a barrister-at-law, who had previous experience as a volunteer officer in England. The marked success which has attended the formation of the Reserve is in a great measure due to the close personal attention given by Mr. Jenkin to every detail of the organisation, and to the exceptional tact and firmness with which he has carried out his duties.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1915

357

25

 6. On the 8th March a tiger was killed at Lung Kwat-tau, near Fanling in the New Territories, but before being disposed of it unfor- tunately caused the death of European Police Constable E. Goucher and an Indian Police Constable Rattan Singh. The tiger was exhibited the same afternoon at the City Hall, Hong Kong, and the head is now in the Museum.

7. Mr. M. J. Breen continued to act as Assistant Colonial Secretary until the return of Mr. A. G. M. Fletcher from leave on the 9th March.

25th May, 1916.

CLAUD SEVERN,

Colonial Secretary

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 923

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1916.

(ABRIDGED.)

(For Report for 1915 see No. 892.)

Presented to Parliament by Tommand of His Majesty

August, 1917.

imonerat

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.

To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses: IMPERIAL HOUSE, KINGSWay, London, W.C. 2, and 28, ABINGDON STREET, LONDON, S.W. 1;

37, PETER STREET, MANCHESTER ; 1, ST. ANDREW's Crescent, CardifF; 23, FORTII Street, EdinbURGH;

or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin; or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of T. FISHER UNWIN, LTD., LONDON, W.C. 2

[Cd. 8434-9.]

1917.

Price 2d. Net.

359

360

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

CONTENTS.

I.-FINANCES

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRI-

CULTURE, AND LAND

III.-LEGISLATION

IV. EDUCATION

V.-PUBLIC WORKS

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS

:

VII.-INSTITUTIONS not Supported by GovernmENT

:

:

:

:

:

PAGE

4

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS

X-POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH SERVICES

XI-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

:

A SKETCH MAP will be found in the Report for 1914,

No. 856: [Cd. 7622-47.]

5

12

13

14

16

18

19

20

21

22

22

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL

361

No. 923.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1915 see No. 892.)

THE GOVERNOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE.

Government House,

Hong Kong,

16th May, 1917.

SIR,

I have the honour to transmit herewith six copies of the Colonial Secretary's report on the Blue Book for 1916.

The Right Honourable

Walter Long, M.P.,

etc.:

etc.,

etc.

I have, etc.,

F. H. MAY,

Governor, &c

362

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1916.

I.-FINANCES.

 The revenue for the year amounted to $13,833,387, being $2,424,377 more than the estimate and $2,047,280 more than the revenue for the previous year.

 Compared with the returns for 1915 there were increases under every head with the exception of Light Dues.

 The expenditure amounted to a total of $11,079,915, inclusive of a sum of $1,246,871 spent on Public Works Extraordinary.

 The total expenditure brought to account though not incurred solely on account of the year under review amounted to $11,079,915, being $802,859 less than the estimate, and $4,069,353 less than the expenditure in 1915. Compared with the estimates there were decreases under 21 heads as against 4 heads where there were increases. The excess, amounting to $205,205, under Miscellaneous Services, was due to expenditure on account of the War, including the cost of the transport of prisoners of war to Australia. Military Expenditure was larger than the estimate by $72,375. The Harbour Department spent $41,595 extra, chiefly on special expenditure for acquisition of buoys in the harbour. Decreases were mostly due to savings on Personal Emoluments and high exchange.

 The balance to the good on the year's working was $2,753,472, and the assets and liabilities account showed on the 31st December a credit balance of $2,300,785.

 The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1912-1916 :-

1912

1913

1914

1915

1916

Expenditure. $

Revenue.

$

8,180,694

7,202,553

8,512,308

8,658,012

11,007,273

10,756,225

11,786,106

15,149,267

13,833,387

11,079,915

 The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,732. Against this there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £233,784.

 A duty on tobacco was imposed during the year, estimated to bring in about $400,000 per annum. The actual figure collected for about a half-year was $211,180.

 The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Chartered Bank of India, Australia & China, and Mercantile Bank of India, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars and of subsidiary coin.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

363

5

The rate of discount on Hong Kong subsidiary coin disappeared during 1916. It ranged from ten per cent. to par at the end of the

year.

Bank notes also were at par value at the close of the year.

The total issue of subsidiary coins, less those demonetized, now amounts to $21,264,370 nominal value, and they were up to the year 1905 readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neighbouring provinces of China. During 1916 ten-cent pieces of the face value of $5,028,000 were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which has prevailed since 1905 may be attributed to the immense quantity of similar coin which has latterly been minted at Canton as well as to the amount of Hong Kong coin minted largely in excess of the needs of the colony by itself. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetizing all its sub- sidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been continuously followed since except during a brief period in 1911. Coin to the face value of $22,735,459 has thus been redeemed. The total issue by the Hong Kong Government was of the face value of about $44,000,000.

II. TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,

AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a)-SHIPPING AND TRADE.

The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1916 amounted to 642,794 vessels of 36,381,457 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1915, shows an increase of 11,192 vessels, with an increase of 2,496,538 tons.

 Of vessels of European construction, 3,760 ocean steamers, 1 sailing ship, 4,669 river steamers, and 3,206 steam launches entered during the year, giving a daily average entry of 319 ships, as compared with 316 in 1915, and 32-4 in 1914.

The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has decreased from 2,519-9 tons to 2,238-9 tons. That of British ships has decreased from 2,625 tons to 2,5597 tons, while that of foreign ships has also decreased from 2,441-2 tons to 2,032.2 tons.

During the past twenty years the average tonnage of ocean-going vessels has increased from 1,319 tons to 1,826 tons.

The average tonnage of river steamers entering during the year has decreased from 486.9 tons to 453 tons.

 That of British river steamers has decreased from 519-3 tons to 511-2 tons, and that of foreign river steamers has decreased from 414-4 tons to 364 tons.

British river steamers have increased by 371 ships and 104,198 tons, or 5-2 per cent. in numbers and 2-5 in tonnage, which is due to the fact that two steamers were added to the West River trade.

364

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 Foreign ocean-going vessels have increased by 124 ships or 3.3 per cent., but have decreased by 163,873 tons or 24 per cent. This is explained by the increase in Japanese and Chinese ships of smaller tonnage.

 Foreign river steamers show an increase of 396 ships and 111,050 tons, or 17.3 per cent. in numbers and 1.7 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to several steamers which were previously on the Canton-West River trade having been placed on the Hongkong-West River trade carrying rice from July to December.

 In steamships not exceeding 60 tons, employed in foreign trade, a decrease of 372 ships and 16,160 tons, or 5.7 per cent. in numbers and 7-6 per cent. in tonnage is shown. The decrease is most noticeable in launches trading to Macao, and may be put down to one of the launches being replaced by a vessel of over 60 tons.

 Junks in foreign trade show a large decrease of 2,050 junks or 8.2 per cent., but an increase of 247,916 tons or 7.7 per cent. The decrease appears during the months of July, August, and September, in which months there was considerable unrest in the Canton delta.

In local trade, increases are shown in both steam launches and junks. Steam launches show an increase of 112,050 ships and 2,609,970 tons, or 20 per cent. in numbers and 20.6 per cent. in tonnage, which is explained by an increase in number of launches plying in the harbour and more trips having been made.

Junks show an increase of 940 vessels and 93,280 tons or 2.6 per cent. in numbers and 6-4 per cent. in tonnage. This can only be ascribed to the better control of native craft, they having to report themselves at this office in order to obtain a permit to pass outward through the examination service.

 The actual number of individual ocean-going vessels of European construction during 1916 was 717, of which 281 were British and 463 were foreign. In 1915 the corresponding figures were 724,310 British and 414 foreign.

 These 717 ships measured 1,605,248 tons. They entered 3,761 times and gave a collective tonnage of 6,855,164 tons.

 The 281 British ships carried 2,519 British officers and 56 foreign officers, the latter consisting of 19 Norwegians, 13 Americans, 11 Danes, 5 Swedes, 4 Japanese, 2 Dutch, and 2 Belgian.

 Thus the proportion of foreign officers in British ships was 2.21 per cent., comprising seven nationalities, an increase of 1-31 per cent., with a decrease in number of officers and of ships.

 The 436 foreign ships carried 3,252 officers, of whom 69 were British as follows:

In Chinese ships ..

>>

United States ships

""

Japanese ships

"

Russian ships

1915.

1916.

55

49

470

15

4

1

66

69

 Thus, 2-12 per cent. of the officers serving in foreign ships were of British nationality, with an increase in number of officers and of

ships.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

365

7

 The nationality of the crews in British and in foreign ships was as follows:-

Americans

Vessels.

British Crew.

and Europeans.

Asiaties.

1915.

1916.

1915. 1916.

1915.

British

310

281

20,253 | 16,902

1916. 1915. 1916.

901 533 · 128,160| 126,283

Foreign. 414

436

Total. 724 717

1,155 1,078 | 10,791 | 10,640 114,516| 110,982

21,408 | 17,980 | 11,692 | 11,173242,676| 237,265

Hence in British ships :-

And in Foreign ships :-

1915.

1916.

1915.

1916.

13.57%

11.76% of the crews were British.

0.91%

0.88% of the crews were British.

0.60%

85.83%

0.37% of the crews WOPO other Europeans.

87-87% of the crews were Asiatics.

8.53%

8.67% of the crews were other Europeans.

90.56%

90-45% of the crews were Asiatics.

TRADE.

 As pointed out in previous years the figures which are given arc meagre, and of little value, being derived from reports of ship masters which are given in round figures and several items of cargo are only entered under the heading "General."

In a few cases, I can however give more accurate figures, and these

are:-

IMPORTS.

These show a decrease of 26,946 tons compared with the year 1915. Increases are shown under the headings:-Coal, cotton yarn and wool, hemp, kerosene oil in cases, rattan, rice, sandalwood, and sugar, while decreases are shown in beans, flour, kerosene oil in bulk, liquid fuel, timber, and general.

Beans.-A decrease of 10,812 tons is shown, due to Japanese com- petition: close proximity to Tientsin and Dalny with direct steamship lines and lower freight rates than Hongkong can procure.

 The trade with America in this northern product together with that of peasants has gone over almost entirely to the Japanese, and what promised to be a large and lucrative business to Hongkong has been lost.

P

 Coal. There is an increase of 62,811 tons over the last year, which is due to local and Canton manufacturing concerns laying in stocks as a protective measure against advancing prices due to shortage of tonnage. A large part of the surplus coal is from Formosa and Yaeyama.

  Collon Yarn and Cotton.-Once again there is a decrease of 2,274 tons, due to most of the cargo being transhipment cargo.

366

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

8

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

Flour. The decrease of 14,675 tons is due to Chinese flour com- petition and high prices ruling for American and Canadian product, also shortage of tonnage and high freight.

 Kerosene Oil.-There is a decrease of 37,593 tons shown in bulk oil, which is due to falling off in demand on account of high price brought about by general war conditions, and what would appear to be an increase in case oil is really not so, as the demand has also fallen off as in bulk oil. Large stocks of case oil are carried over to the present year, and if conditions become worse, this apparent increase will be wiped out.

Liquid Fuel.-A decrease of 2,943 tons due to the scarcity of tank

steamers.

 Rice. The increase of 71,144 tons is due to great demand from North and Central American market principally, which was formerly supplied by-the European market when freights were low.

 Timber. A decrease of 31,477 tons chiefly accounted for by the stoppage of supplies of Oregon pine through high rates of freight, Philippine hardwood being used instead.

Opium.-The clearances of certified opium from the Colony during the past year were much reduced. After the first two months of the year the disturbances that took place in the Kwong Tung Province appear to have prevented the carrying out of the agreement which the Opium Combine entered into on October 1st, 1915. The actual imports and exports of certified opium during the year are as follows:--

Import. Export..

Malwa.

Patna.

Benares.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Total.

31.

4

35

111

72

80

263

Of these, however, the imports all came from Shanghai, and of the total export of 263 chests 180 went to Shanghai. Very little was therefore done to reduce the actual stock of uncertified Indian opium held in Hong Kong and Shanghai.

 Six hundred and forty-one (641) chests of Persian opium were imported during the year and 734 chests were exported, of which 29 chests were exported to London and the remainder to Formosa.

One thousand and thirty (1,030) chests of uncertified Indian opium were imported. 360 clicsts were imported by the Government monopoly, 500 chests were imported for the Macao opium farmer, and the remaining 170 chests were nominally intended for Mexico, but, owing to suspicious circumstances connected with the shipment, they were returned to Calcutta.

 General Cargo.-The large decrease of 255,423 tons is due to shortage of supplies from manufacturers at home, on account of war

conditions.

EXPORTS.

Exports show an increase of 140,869 tons.

Transil Cargo.-An increase of 158,313 tons is shown under this head.

Emigration and Immigration.

 One hundred and seventeen thousand six hundred and fifty-three (117,653) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

367

9

year 1916, 68,275 in 1915. Of these, 86,739 were carried in British ships, and 30,914 in foreign ships.

Seventy-two thousand four hundred and five (72,405) returning emigrants were reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 109,753 in 1915. Of these, 45,623 arrived in British ships and 26,782 in foreign ships.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Strails Settlements, 1909 to 1916, compared with Total Chinese Emigration.

No. of Emigrants

Total No. of

Emigrants. 77,430

to Straits Settlements.

1909 ..

48,016

1910 ..

76,705

111,058

1911 ..

100,906

135,565

1912 ..

84,024

122,657

1913 ..

102,353

142,759

1914 ..

44,974

76,296

1915 ..

41,278

68,275

1916..

82,797

117,653

(b) -INDUSTRIES.

(i)-Under European Management.

 Engineering and Shipbuilding.-The figures are as follows for the years 1915 and 1916 :-

Taikoo Dockyard & Eng.

Co., Ltd.

Hong Kong & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ltd....... Macdonald & Co...

1915.

3 vessels of 2,780 gross tous and 1,400 I.H.P.

5

>>

1

Kwong Fook Cheong Ah King

1

"

13

2,488 33 30 30

""

""

3,240 70

"

""

72

""

127

"}

""

Total

23 vessels of 5,361 gross tons and 4,909 I.H.P.

1916.

Macdonald & Co.

Taikoo Dockyard & Eng.

Co., Ltd.

Kwong Fook Cheong Kwong Hip Lung Co.,

Ltd.

Kwong Sing Loong

1 vessel of

23 gross tons and

80 I.H.P.

6 vessels

3

8,814 641

""

6,800 752

""

""

>>

4 vessels

521

462

"

"

""

1 vessel

36

45

""

"

W. S. Bailey & Co.

7 vessels

449

620

""

Hop On .

1 vessel

43

56

"

17

Kwong Leo

1

16

24

"

"

""

Kwong Man Sang

2 vessels

136

178

""

Tung Shing

1 vessel

75

92

""

""

""

Kwong Hop Loong

1

32

44

""

""

""

Ah King .

23 vessels

56

54

"

Sum Kee..

1 vessel

28

50

""

""

Hong Kong & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ltd.

Total

2 vessels

32

120

54 vessels of 10,902 gross tons and 9,377 I.H.P.

368

10

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

 The increase of tonnage built by the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ltd., is.due to the building of vessels for the Straits Steamship Co. The Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. had several large vessels building, which are not shown in the return.

 Sugar Refineries.-The year 1916 was marked by a further increase in the price of already highly inflated raws. In spite of this clearances were on the whole good, a marked feature being the increasing demand for crystals from India and the Persian Gulf markets, which would have assumed very large proportions had it not been hampered by scarcity of tonnage and the very high level of silver.

 Cotton Yarn. The year has undoubtedly been a profitable one both for importers and dealers, although the volume of business has been smaller than that of previous years.

The political troubles in China had a restricting influence upon the market, and the anti-monarchical movement, with the fear of disturbances, affected business severely throughout the spring and early summer.

 The war conditions now prevailing have driven prices of all commodities to a high level-American cotton reached the record price of 123d. per lb. in November-which must necessarily curtail the offtake amongst the poorer consumers.

Another most important factor is the growth of the Japanese and Shanghai mill enterprises, which continue to make great progress, at the expense of Indian yarns, in the south as well as in other parts of

China.

 Rope Making.-There was a fair demand for Manila cordage through- out the year but the total turnover shows a falling off from that of the previous twelve months. The cost of raw material was still higher than the high figure it had reached at the end of 1915 and no doubt the consumption of the manufactured article was adversely affected by the consequent higher prices.

 Cement. There was a good demand throughout the year 1916. The price of cement rose but business with gold standard countries was, of course, adversely affected by the high rates of exchange which ruled during the latter part of the year. Nevertheless on the whole the turnover for the year shows an improvement on that of

1915.

Tin.-Business in this commodity has been reduced considerably in comparison with the preceding year, which, as already reported, was a poor one.

Imports from Yunnan for the whole year amounted to about 3,000 tons and from Kwang Sai about 1,000 tons against 7,000 tons and 1,000 tons respectively in 1915.

Export during the year was about 500 tons to Japan, 400 tons to Shanghai, and 2,300 tons to Europe, United States of America, and Canada.

There was also about 300 tons exported to China coast ports and interior.

  Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-The business in these commodities has further declined about forty per cent. in comparison with the preceding year on account of the enormous increase in freight.

Nalive Tobacco-The business this year has been increased by about twenty per cent. in comparison with 1915.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

369

11

 Tinned Goods.-On account of high cost of materials the price of tinned goods has been increased by twenty per cent. and in consequence the sale has been reduced by forty per cent.

Samshu.-The market and business has been the same as last year. Vinegar.-The business has been almost the same as last year. Knitted Vests and Socks.---The business has declined about twenty per cent. owing to high cost of materials.

 Leather and Hides. The market has advanced by about twenty-five to thirty per cent. in comparison with the preceding year and the business throughout the year has been good.

 Ginger and Preserves.-The business in this produce has declined about fifty per cent. in comparison with the preceding year.

 Soy.-Exports have been very poor and business has been reduced by fifty per cent. in comparison with the preceding year.

 Paper.--Import of this article has been very limited and in consequence the consumption of Chinese paper has been increased by about twenty per cent.

 Vermilion-Business has been very dull, a reduction of forty per cent. in comparison with last year having to be recorded.

 Lard.--The business has been very dull, owing to an increase in cost price of about thirty per cent. and the export was limited.

(c)-FISHERIES.

 A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon. this industry for their prosperity. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

 About 40,000 pine tree seedlings were planted on the hills around the Fanling Golf Course, over 15,000 in the Cheungshawan catchment area, over 25,000 in the Tytam catchment area, 10,000 on the hills north of Kowloon City, and 370 in King's Park.

 Sixty-two (62) pounds of pine seed were sown broadcast in grassy areas on the south side of the Kowloon hills.

About 40,000 pine tree seedlings were raised for planting in 1917. Nearly 6,000 flowering trees and shrubs were planted on the hills in the vicinity of the Fanling Golf Course in addition to those already mentioned.

 Crecpers damaging trees in the Pokfulam, Aberdeen, and Wong- neichong forests were cut.

 A block of between 20 and 30 acres of pine trees was felled near Pokfulam.

 It will not be necessary to replant this area as the ground is well covered with broad-leaved trees and young pines.

 Large fellings of pine trees were also made on farm lots belonging to the Dairy Farm Company.

Over 5,000,000 square feet were cleared of undergrowth in connection with anti-malarial measures,

370

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 In connection with survey work nearly 1,000,000 square feet were cleared.

 Vegetables were grown in the economic garden at Fanling for demonstration purposes.

Onions raised from seed obtained from Teneriffe matured and were a great success.

The first rice crop was good but the second was poor generally. Lichees and peanuts were fair.

(e)-LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

 The net amount of premium received from sales of Crown land and pier rights for the year 1916 was $203,234, an increase of $123,658 on the preceding year and $6,351 greater than the average for the past five years.

 The principal items were $30,410 in respect of extensions of the sites of Kowloon permanent piers Nos. 23, 24, 25, and 34, $43,000 on the sale of Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1304, $40,480 on the sale of Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1301, and $15,000 in respect of an extension to Marine Lot No. 321.

 In the New Territories the net amount received for premium on sales of land was $144,835, being an increase of $131,593 on the preceding year. The principal items were $75,000 for New Kowloon Inland Lots Nos. 115 to 138 and $48,600 for a large area in the Ping Shan District.

 The number of deeds registered in the Land Office was 2,670 or 516 more than the previous year, the total consideration being $42,291,549 as against $30,250,789 in the previous year.

The Government resumed several properties at Hung Hom during the year in connection with the erection of carriage sheds for the railway, and also a large oyster bed in connection with the development scheme at Ping Shan.

 The total area of land granted during the year was 1,855 acres, of which 1,819 acres were situated in the New Territories; the total area of land resumed was 1,345 acres; of which 1,211 acres was the area of the oyster bed above referred to.

In the Northern District of the New Territories there was an unprecedented demand for land, the revenue from this source far exceeding that of all previous years.

The scheme for the reclamation of an extensive area in Kowloon Bay is being carried out by a Chinese syndicate for the purpose of making a residential district for Chinese.

III.-LEGISLATION.

 Fifteen Ordinances were passed during 1916, of which four were amendments of previous Ordinances.

 The War Loan Ordinance (No. 12) provided for the raising of a sum of $3,000,000 as a gift to the Imperial Government for the purposes of the War.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

IV.-EDUCATION.

371

13

 No important changes have taken place in the Education Department during the year under review. The staff has been depleted by causes due to the War.

The most important schools, apart from the excluded schools, are Queen's College for Chinese, four district schools its feeders, and the Belilios Public Schools for Chinese girls. There is an Indian School of growing importance now housed in a new building presented to the Colony by Mr. Ellis Kadoorie. Kowloon School and Victoria School for children of British parentage have an average attendance of about 120. There is also a school for the children of the Peak district. The Diocesan School and Orphanage and St. Joseph's College are important boys' schools in receipt of an annual grant. The Italian, French, and St. Mary's Convents, and the Diocesan Girls' School, are the most important of the English grant schools for girls.

The Hong Kong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education of students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1916 in mathematics, machine drawing, architectural design, and building construction; in chemistry, physics and electricity; in commercial English, logic and political economy; in French, short- hand and book-keeping; and in translation from and into Chinese. Classes in sanitation (public hygiene) are also held, the examinations being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Sanitary Institute, London. Classes for men and women teachers, both "English" and "Vernacular," are a feature of the Institute.

 The lecturers are recruited from the members of the medical and educational faculties of the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.

 The Hong Kong University is an institution that arose from the joint enterprise of British and Chinese subscribers. It was founded with funds representing about equal proportions of Chinese and British money.

 At the end of the year the number of students was 189, 108 of whom were taking the engineering course, 52 medicine, and 29 arts. While most of the students have studied in Hong Kong schools, a number come from Canton, the Coast Ports of China, and the Straits Settle-

ments.

 The idea of the University is to provide, close to China, education for Chinese similar to that given in the British Universities, but at a much cheaper cost; for if a Chinese goes abroad to be educated he has to pay, besides travelling expenses, some $2,000 per annum; whereas at Hong Kong the expenses of the University are $540 per annum for board and tuition, or, including extras, from $600 to $650.

 The founders of the University took into consideration the fact that Chinese students being educated abroad have usually to make their own arrangements for board and lodging. Consequently sometimes they contract irregular habits. All students educated at the Hong Kong University are required to become boarders, and thus their whole lives are under supervision whilst they are there. Ample provision is made for indoor and outdoor recreation, and in this connection it is

372

ᎨᏎ

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

interesting to note that the Chinese residents of Hong Kong recently subscribed a large sum for levelling a new playing field and that the work has just been completed.

 The University is composed of three Faculties: 1.-Medical, which offers ample facilities for the practice of medicine. The anatomical laboratories were the gift of a Cantonese gentleman (Mr. Ng Li-hing). There is a large staff of instructors in medicine and all the principal medical practitioners in Hong Kong give lectures at the University 2.--Arts. The establishment of this faculty was largely due to the munificence of a Chinese gentleman in the Straits Settlements (Mr. Cheung Pat-sze). Its special object is to provide training suitable to those who desire to enter the public service or the higher branches of mercantile life. The course of instruction comprises English and Chinese literature, political and constitutional history, political economy, jurisprudence, and international and commercial law. 3.--Engineering. Nearly two-thirds of the students belong to this faculty. It is divided into three branches-civil, electrical and mechanical. The University has an exceptionally large equipment of machinery and apparatus, and has fourteen laboratories and workshops. There is practically no place in China where students have such an opportunity of seeing all kinds of machinery in actual working and of learning their practical management.

 The University insists upon all students having a proper knowledge of their own language although instruction at the University is carried out in English. Students are required to pass an examination in written Chinese before entering, and two Chinese Professors, both Hanlin graduates, give lectures on the classics and history of China.

 An account of the first congregation for conferring degrees, and of the benefactions during the year 1916 will be found under Section XI- General Observations.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

 A large extension of the Central Police Station, by the erection of a new block of buildings fronting on Hollywood Road, to contain offices, quarters, etc., was commenced, the foundations being well advanced at the close of the year.

 The masonry dam of the Tytam Tuk reservoir was constructed to an average height of about 111 feet above the stream bed (152 feet above the lowest part of the foundations), with the exception of a short length of 75 feet which was purposely kept at a lower level to form a temporary overflow.

 The extension of the pumping station buildings to accommodate the additional pumping plant was completed and the erection of the pumping engines was practically completed.

 Several new streets, both in the city and in Kowloon, were formed, kerbed, channelled, and surfaced.

 An additional telephone cable was laid across the harbour from North Point to near the Hunghom Docks.

 Upwards of 7,000 lineal feet of streams were trained in the neighbour- hood of Aberdeen, Pokfulam, Sookunpo Valley, in the City and Hill

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

373

15

District, and in Kowloon. Various and considerable extensions of sewers, in connection with new building lots, were carried out in Hong Kong and Kowloon.

The steel pier in connection with the repairing and coaling depôt for Government launches at Yaumati, referred to in last year's report, was erected and a slipway cradle was constructed. The electric capstan for operating the cradle had not, however, arrived from England by the close of the year.

The dredging to a depth of 30 fect at the lowest tides alongside the new pier erected by the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company and of the approaches to it were completed during the

year.

 The construction of the additional service reservoir and filter beds for the supply of the western section of the City was proceeded with, substantial progress being made with the work.

 The additional filter bed in connection with the Kowloon Water Works was completed, making four beds in all.

The total amount expended on public works extraordinary was $1,247,623.89* and on annually recurrent works $630,187.68.†

Railway.

 The new terminal passenger station at Kowloon, which was com- menced on March 1st, 1914, was completed and opened to the public on March 28th, and the commodious accommodation now provided is much appreciated by the travelling public and the staff alike. The railway offices on the first floor were occupied about one month later and, after the disadvantages experienced during the occupation of temporary offices and makeshift buildings, proved a boon to organisation and regular work.

 The temporary offices and station were demolished during the year, and the large area in front of the building was kerbed and surfaced by the Public Works Department.

 During the year the extension to the locomotive yard, which included the laying of about 2,430 yards of new track and 18 sets of crossings, was completed, as also the extension of the locomotive shed by 112 feet. The completion of the new running shed, 500 feet by 30 feet, mentioned in my last year's report, was, however, delayed by the difficulty in obtaining possession of a small lot of house property standing on the site. As the original roofing ordered for these two buildings was unobtainable, and the asbestos-cement corrugated roofing sent o from England as a substitute proved to be totally unsuitable to the requirements of this country, it was decided to construct the running shed in reinforced concrete and brickwork, roofed with marseilles tiles, while a reinforced concrete roof was adapted to the locomotive shed extension.

 In February, the tramway system was adopted on the Fanling branch line, seven new halts were made and a two cent. fare charged between each. This has so far proved a success and seems to be appreciated, as the earnings of the line show an increase of $3,923.17

 * A sum of $752.14 was credited to one of the sub-heads, thus making the expenditure appear as $1,246,871.75.

 † A sum of $5,315.17 was credited to one of the sub-heads, thus making the expenditure appear as $624,872.51.

374

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAJ..

over the previous year, the number of passengers carried being 67,608 as against 47,928 in 1915.

One first class restaurant car was completed by the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company and placed in service during April, but, owing to late delivery from England of the fittings, the work on the first and second class composite carriage had to be suspended for several months. These fittings have now arrived and the coach will be completed and available for service early in 1917.

 The estimated capital expenditure for the year was $386,198 but, owing to the delay in the delivery of materials from England, only $209,388.74 of this sum was required and, after the deduction of $10,670.25 received by sales of old construction plant and materials, the year's expenditure amounted to $198,718.49.

The construction cost of the main line to end of the year now stands at $14,710,917.29 and of the Fanling Branch at $89,808.57.

The working expenses amounted to $296,691.63 or $574.34 less than the previous year and when compared with gross receipts show a decrease, the percentage being 81.02 against 86-47 for 1915.

The revenue derived from local traffic amounted to $141,799.41 or $12,704.58 more than in 1915 and the earnings of through and joint sectional traffic $213,441.04 against $207,622.20 for 1915. Fanling branch receipts increased from $7,052.05 to $10,975.22.

The excess of earnings over expenditure for 1916 was $69,524-04, an increase of $23,020.93 when compared with the previous year.

VI.--GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a)-HOSPITALS.

Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an Observation Station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease on board a ship arriving in the harbour.

The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 3,058 in-patients and 12,620 out-patients were treated during 1916 as against 3,085 and 14,199 respectively in 1915. 360 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 384 in 1915 and 324 in 1914. But the total cases of malaria for all Government Hospitals and the Tung Wa Hospital show an increase of 684 cases as compared with the year 1915. The Maternity Hospital contains 12 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 259 confinements occurred during the year as against 212 in 1915. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds, and, during 1916, 201 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 30 cases were treated in 1916, all being small- pox.

(b)-LUNATIC ASYLUM.

The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

375

17

portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 237 patients of all races were treated during 1916 and there were 6 deaths.

(c)--THE TUNG WA AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

 The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chincse as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentle- men annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the medical department, whilst two Chinese house surgeons, trained in Western medicine, are members of the hospital staff. There are 323 beds in the buildings and 5,480 patients were accommodated during 1916.

 The Tung Wa also maintain a branch hospital for small-pox cases (Chinese only) at Kennedy Town. It contains 58 beds and during 1916, 171 cases were treated.

 The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hong Kong, agents of the London Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1916 was 1,731 and the expenditure $14,961.52. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 550. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government.

The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Peninsula was opened on the 9th October, 1911. It occupies a site having an area of three acres and provides accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds and 2,490 patients were accom- modated during 1916. The collection of subscriptions and the super- vision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The hospital receives a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government.

As will be noticed from the remarks made under the heading Education, the Hong Kong University is an aided institution.

376

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

VII.--INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT.

One of the most important institutions in the Colony not supported by the Government is the Matilda Hospital, which stands on a com- manding site of nearly three acres at Mount Kellet in the Hill District. It consists of a main building containing six wards with 26 beds, quarters for four nurses, a house for the medical officer in charge, and an operation block. A maternity ward is connected by a covered way with the main building, and was completed during 1916. The total cost of the buildings and their equipment has been more than $600,000. The hospital was erected in pursuance of the directions of the late Mr. Granville Sharp, who died on the 16th August, 1899,

and who by his will gave the residue of his estate, amounting to more than $2,000,000, in trust "for the erection and maintenance of a hospital at Mount Kellet in this Colony to the Glory of God, and the good of men; in loving memory of his sainted wife Matilda Lincolne, the same to be called Matilda Hospital."

The management of the hospital is vested in a governing body consisting of:-

The Trustees for the time being of the will of the Testator.

The Bishop of the Diocese.

The Chaplain of St. John's Cathedral.

The Minister of the Union Church.

Four additional members.

The objects for which the hospital is established are :-

(a) To provide, carry on, and maintain a hospital for the benefit of patients primarily who are poor, helpless, and forsaken, and to provide gratuitous medical relief to any such person suffering from disease or ill-health.

(b) The hospital shall be considered to be established as a

religious and evangelistic institution.

(c) The hospital is reserved for British, American, and European

patients.

It was the express wish of the testator that the hospital should be quite self-supporting, and be able to maintain itself, and that it should be absolutely unnecessary at any time during the continuance of the institution to appeal to the public in any way for funds for its main-

tenance.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any consider ableextent supported, by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was in- corporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor. The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls' Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1916 the number of persons admitted was 590 and at the close of the

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

377

19

year 78 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in ncedlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It was housed in the Belilios Reformatory up to the outbreak of war, but the work is at present carried on at Kowloon City. A small grant is made by the Government.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, etc., a museum in which are some very fair speci- mens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent, the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

 The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors, whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters, who can assist the inmates of houses where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the mortuary. The Dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the Convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight Dispensaries in existence; the one for the boat population on a hulk in Causeway Bay was dispensed with and amalgamated with the Yaumati Dispensary. The total cost of main- tenance, which is defrayed by voluntary subscription, was $39,766.07 for the year 1916. The Dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

VIII. CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

 The total of all cases reported to the police was 11,319, being an increase of 1,859 or 19.65 per cent. as compared with 1915. There was in 1916 an increase in serious offences of 396 or 12.68 per cent. as compared with the previous year. The number of serious offences reported was 49 over the average of the quinquennial period com- mencing with the year 1912. The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 1,306 as compared with 1915 and was 497 over the average of the quinquennial period.

 The total strength of the Police Force in 1916 was Europeans 165, Indians 463, Chinese 587, making a total of 1,215 (as compared with 1,289 in 1915) exclusive of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the Railway and

378

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

20

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

other Government Departments. Of this force 14 Europeans, 137 Indians, and 30 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year, under an Assistant Superintendent.

 Up to the end of the year forty-one members of the Hong Kong Police Force had enlisted for active service and twenty more were ready at end of the year to proceed to England.

The following members of this Force were killed while on active service during the year :---

P.C. A 25 Herbert George Wakeford

K.R.R. killed on 17. 5.16

A 52 Arthur Allchurch

1. 7.16

""

""

""

A 27 Ernest George Painting

1. 7.16

"

A 114 Peter Boyd Gardner ..

.. R.F.C.

"

4.12.16

"

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a)-POPULATION.

The civil population of the Colony, according to the census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was 528,010, but this includes the New Territories; and, as the birth. and death figures given below do not include those from this area (with the exception of New Kowloon), the population for the purposes of calculating these rates is estimated at 431,510, of whom 13,390 were non-Chinese.

(b)-PUBLIC HEALTH AND Sanitation.

The activity in building operations which has been so noticeable a feature since 1912 has not abated, and the demand for housing accommodation by the Chinese continued to be greatly in excess of the supply, as many of those who fled with their families to Hong Kong during 1911, 1912, and 1913 elected to remain in the Colony.

The corrected birth-rate for the year was 8.1 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 20.05 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 8-4 and 13-2 during 1915.

The death-rate for the year was 24.6 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 15:08 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 19.0 and 9-4 during 1915.

The number of deaths from malaria (378) shows an increase on the previous year (366). The deaths of Chinese from this cause in the City of Victoria numbered 182 out of a population of 270,300 or a rate of 0-6 per 1,000 per annum.

A

The deaths from plague numbered 39 as compared with 144 in 1915. Small-pox deaths numbered 542, all Chinese, with the exception of three British and one each American, Portuguese, and Indian.

There were 2,112 deaths from respiratory diseases among the Chinese, as compared with 2,303 in 1915. Pulmonary tuberculosis and phthisis claimed 963 Chinese victims, while other forms of

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

379

་ིིིསྶ

21

tuberculosis represent an additional 554 deaths, making a total of 1,517 or 14-4 per cent. of the total deaths among that community.

Beriberi was responsible for 517 deaths, as compared with 398 during 1915 and 399 in 1914. During the past few years circulars have been distributed to all large employers of coolie labour calling their attention to the fact that beriberi is produced by the consumption of white rice as the staple article of diet without a sufficiency of other foods, and advising that beans should be supplied with the rice, when fresh meat or fresh fish cannot be afforded.

(c)-CLIMATE.

The mean shade temperature for the year at the Royal Observatory, Kowloon (108 feet above mean sea level), was 71°8, 1°6 lower than in 1915, and 0°-4 lower than the mean for the past ten years. The maximum temperature was 92°-4 on the 25th August and the minimum 39°-3 on the 24th January. The hottest month was July, with a mean temperature of 82·7, and the coldest, February, with a mean temperature of 59°-6.

The temperature at the high levels of the Peak District is from 3° to 8° less than at the Observatory. At Victoria it is practically the same. The rainfall and humidity are considerably greater at the Peak than at Victoria, the Observatory, or Tai Po (New Territories). The total rainfall for the year was 79-855 inches, as compared with an average of 82-56 inches during the ten preceding years. The wettest month was June with 32-18 inches, the driest, December, when 0.05 inch fell. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 9-12 inches on the 1st June, while no rain fell on 245 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 76 per cent., or the same as for the ten preceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 5-7 hours, being 47 per cent. of the possible duration.

X. POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH SERVICES.

The total revenue from the Postal Service in 1916 amounted to $401,742.33, being $33,284.56 more than that collected in 1915, the excess being mainly due to increase in the sale of postage stamps. The expenditure amounted to $308,136.33 being less than that of 1915 by $95,472.69, due to arrears of transit dues for the year 1914 recovered in 1916 and to the high rate of exchange prevailing during the year under review. The balance of revenue over expenditure amounted to $93,606.00.

The revised parcel agreement with the Commonwealth of Australia came into operation on 1st January.

The Parcel Agreement with Russia, which provides for the exchange of parcels between that country and this Colony via Vladivostock, arranged to commence on 1st September, had to be suspended, owing to congestion of traffic on the trans-Siberian railways.

The telegraphic money order service between the United Kingdom and this Colony came into force on 1st October.

The revenue collected in 1916 from radio-telegrams amounted to $8,695.04. Advices of ships signalled at the lighthouses yielded

380

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

$489.20 and semaphore messages $4.25 making a total of $9,188.49 for the telegraphic service. The expenditure amounted to $10,846.21, which figures do not include the emoluments of the wireless staff at the Cape D'Aguilar Station. The number of radio-telegrams forwarded during the year was 686 and received 1,098.

XI.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

In accordance with instructions received the Blue Book, for economical reasons, was revised with a view to reducing the bulk. The weight of each volume has been reduced by 1-3 lbs. compared with those for 1915, or a total saving of 245 lbs. of

paper.

In the early part of the year the unrest in the Province of Kuangtung culminated in attacks on the City of Canton from the north and west. Business was almost entirely suspended and there was considerable loss of life. As usual in such circumstances there was a very large influx of refugees to Hong Kong both from Canton and the neighbouring districts. Though order was restored there was only a moderate revival of trade with the Province up to the end of the year.

 There were no serious acts of piracy in connection with British shipping during the year, but the train to Hong Kong was derailed and attacked by robbers about twenty miles from Canton on the 15th June. Three persons lost their lives and twenty-six were injured. One of those killed was an American; all the remainder were Chinese.

During the year the War Charities Committee received a sum of £32,692 which brought the total of the contributions to various funds in aid of the War up to a sum of £64,192.

The Queen Mary's Needlework Guild, The Hong Kong Association of War Workers, and other bodies of ladies engaged in war work were unremitting in their labours throughout the year, with the result that many thousands of articles of clothing, bandages, etc., were despatched to the various war centres for the use of the troops and in hospitals.

October 19th was observed as "Our Day" when a sum of nearly £5,000 was raised for the British Red Cross Society.

St. Andrew's Day, the 30th November, was entitled "Heather Day "and a sum of about £1,600 was collected for Scottish war charities. 'The Colony's recurrent expenses on account of the War during 1916 are expected to exceed $500,000.

 In November a loan of $3,000,000 guaranteed by the Government was raised as a gift to His Majesty's Government for war purposes, and a further sum of $2,000,000 was added when the accounts for the year were closed; other contributions from the Colony towards the War consisted inter alia of the following:-

(a)-Direct Contributions.

1.-British War Loans

£144,230

2.-Exchequer Bonds..

633,360

3.-War Savings Certificates..

58,334

4.-British War Expenditure Certificates

26,700

Total ..

£862,624

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1916.

381

23

The Hong Kong and South China War Savings Association, though it had been established only two months, had already invested on behalf of its members nearly $200,000. The Committee consists of very representative men, with the Union Insurance Society of Canton as Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers.

(b)-Indirect Contributions.

1.---Federated Malay States 6 per cent. War Loan

2.-War Loan Investment Trust of Malaya 3.-Straits Settlements War Loan Bonds..

Total

(Straits Currency.)

$52,650

24,030

436,600

$513,280

In addition, besides £1,145,000 contributed to War Loans by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, large sums have been taken up in those loans by local Companies from funds available in London.

 Three hundred and fifty-one volunteers for active service have left the Colony to join His Majesty's Forces.

The winding up of the German and Austrian firms is now approaching completion. Practically all the assets in all the liquidations have been realised, with the exception of a few leasehold properties and certain shares held by secured creditors. The leasehold properties will soon be sold, and the secured creditors referred to will be required to realise their securities.

In a few cases the completion of the winding up is delayed by litigation or other disputes with claimants.

One of the most notable events of the year was the first congregation of the University of Hong Kong, which was held on December 14th. 'The Chancellor (Sir F. H. May, K.C.M.G., LL.D., B.A., Governor of the Colony) having declared the congregation opened, a message from the President of the Republic of China was read.

The Vice-Chancellor (Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., D.C.L., LL.D., M.A.) then delivered an address, after which honorary degrees were conferred on the following:---

Sir F. D. Lugard, Governor-General of Nigeria, and first Chancellor of the University. (In absentia).

Monsieur Finot, Director of the French Institution in Hanoi, founded for the purpose of research in the literature and ancient civilisation of French colonial possessions.

Sir Robert Ho Tung, a merchant of Hong Kong, who for many years has been well known for his generous philanthropy and his interest in education. Since the foundation of the University he has been one of its most prominent supporters, among his benefactions being the endowment of a chair of clinical surgery.

Dr. Jeme Tien Yeow, a distinguished engineer in China, especially in connection with railway construction.

Dr. Wu Lien Teh, who, after a brilliant career at Cambridge and in medical schools in England and on the Continent, had done much useful work in China, including the stamping out of the plague epidemic in North Manchuria in 1910-11.

382

24:

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 Captain Pelliot, Military Attaché at the French Legation in Peking, who has achieved great distinction for his investigation into the archæology of Central Asia. He served in the British Army during the earlier stages of the War and was awarded the Military Cross.

 Twenty-three graduates in the Faculties of Medicine, Engineering, and Arts were then presented to the Chancellor, who conferred degrees upon them.

The Chancellor then addressed those assembled and, after the recipients of honorary degrees had returned thanks, declared the congregation closed.

 The ceremony was performed in a dignified manner worthy of the occasion, while the message from the President of the Chinese Republic and the presence of the Civil Governor of Kuangtung did much to enhance the reputation of the University.

CLAUD SEVERN,

10th May, 1917.

Colonial Secretary.

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 972

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1917.

(ABRIDGED.)

(For Report for 1916 see No. 923.)

presented to parliament by Command of His Majesty.

October, 1918.

383

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.

To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses: IMPERIAL HOUSE, KINGSWAY, LONDON, W.C. 2, and 28, ABINGDON Street, LONDON, S.W. 1;

37, PETER STREET, MANCHESTER; 1, ST. ANDREW'S CRESCENT, CARDIFF ; 23, FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH;

or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin.

[Cd. 8973-21.]

1918. Price 2d. Net.

384

2

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 972.

HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1916 see No. 923.)

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1917.*

I.-FINANCES.

The revenue for the year amounted to $15,058,105, being $1,816,105 more than the estimate and $1,224,718 more than the revenue for the previous year.

Compared with the returns for 1916 there were increases under every head with the exception of Light Dues, Rent of Government Property, and Land Sales.

The expenditure amounted to a total of $14,090,828, inefusive of a sum of $1,567,907 spent on Public Works Extraordinary, and one of $2,000,000 being a contribution to the Imperial. Government for war expenses.

The total expenditure brought to account amounted to $14,090,828, being $1,694,673 more than the estimate, and $3,010,913 more than the expenditure in 1916. Compared with the estimates there were decreases under 19 heads as against 5 heads where there were increases. The excess, amounting to $2,648,503, under Miscellaneous Services, was due to the war contribution stated above, in addition to another contribution ($504,984) referred to below; grants in aid of sufferers by the disasters at Tientsin and Halifax; expenditure on houses and house allowances; and other miscellaneous items. Military Expendi- ture was larger than the estimate by $41,788 on account of the revenue for 1916 having been under-estimated. The Harbour Department spent $15,123 extra, chiefly for acquisition of buoys in the harbour and repairs to launches; and the items, Public Works Recurrent and Extraordinary were responsible for an excess of $87,544 between them. Decreases were mostly due to savings on Personal Emoluments and high exchange.

The balance to the good on the year's working was $967,277, and the assets and liabilities account showed on the 31st December a credit balance of $3,268,062.

The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1913-1917:-

1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

Revenue.

Expenditure.

$8,512,308

$8,658,012

11,007,273 10,756,225

11,786,106

15,149,267

13,833,387

11,079,915

15,058,105

14,090,828

* A Sketch Map will be found in the Report for 1914, No. 856:

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1917.

385

3

 The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,732. Against this there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £258,162. The Local Loan under Ordinance No. 12 of 1916 amounts to $3,000,000, and there is a sum of $200,000 at credit of Sinking Fund.

 Under Ordinance No. 18 of 1917, a tax of 7 per cent. on Assessments was imposed to provide an Annual Contribution to the Imperial Government for purposes of the war. Collections thereunder began on the 1st July and the sum collected for the half year was $504,984.

 The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, Chartered Bank of India, Australia, & China, and Mercantile Bank of India, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars and of subsidiary coin, which continued at par throughout the year.

The total issue of subsidiary coins, less those demonetized, now amounts to $21,264,370 nominal value, and they were up to the year 1905 readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neighbouring provinces of China. During 1916 ten cent. pieces of the face value of $5,028,000 were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which prevailed between 1905 and 1916 may be attributed to the immense quantity of similar coin which was minted at Canton as well as to the amount of Hong Kong coin minted largely in excess of the needs of the Colony by itself. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin, and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetizing all its subsidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been continuously followed since except during a brief period in 1911. Coin to the face value of $22,735,459 has thus been redeemed. The total issue by the Hong Kong Government was of the face value of about $44,000,000.

II.-TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a)-SHIPPING AND TRADE.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1917, amounted to 621,090 vessels of 34,105,067 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1916, shows a decrease of 21,704 vessels, with a decrease of 2,276,390 tons.

 Of vessels of European construction, 3,570 ocean steamers, 3 sailing ships, 4,135 river steamers, and 3,223 steamships not exceeding 60 tons entered during the year, giving a daily average of 29·9 ships, as compared with 319 in 1916, and 316 in 1915.

 The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has increased from 2,238.9 tons to 2,264.9 tons. That of British ships has decreased from 2,559.7 tons to 2,472-0 tons, while that of foreign ships has increased from 2,032-2 tons to 2,042.0 tons.

 The average tonnage of individual river steamers entering during the year has decreased from 4530 tons to 310-2 tons.

That of British river steamers has decreased from 5112 tons to 503-3 tons, and that of foreign river steamers has increased from 364 tons to 393.2 tons.

British river steamers have decreased by 35.2 ships and 127,514 tons, or 52 per cent. in numbers and 3.2 in tonnage. This is due

386

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

to the Shun Lee and Wa Sun trading between ports outside the Colony for the most part of the year.

Foreign ocean-going vessels have increased by 343 ships of 262,141 tons or 8.3 per cent. in numbers and 3.6 per cent. in tonnage. This is explained by a small increase in Chinese, French, Portuguese, and United States ships of smaller tonnage, and a large increase in Dutch ships of a larger tonnage.

Foreign river steamers show a decrease of 669 ships of 196,501 tons or 41.3 per cent. in numbers and 23-3 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the Shing Cheong and Luen On being taken off the run early in the year and since sold.

In steamships not exceeding 60 tons employed in foreign trade, there is an increase of 81 ships and an increase of 22,290 tons, or 1·3 per cent. in numbers and 11.2 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to a greater demand for towage of junks to Canton with coal and rice.

Junks in foreign trade show an increase of 1,020 vessels of 15,657 tons or 3.9 per cent. in numbers, and 49 per cent. in tonnage. This increase may mostly be put down to a greater demand on the carriage of coal to Canton formerly carried by ocean steamers.

 In local trade (i.e., trade between places within the waters of the Colony), there is a decrease in steam launches of 10,452 vessels with a decrease in tonnage of 209,040 tons or 1.9 per cent. in numbers, and 1.6 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the increase in foreign trade and to several launches being laid up as the owners found it too expensive to run them on account of the high cost of coal.

Junks show a decrease of 10,921 vessels and 583,990 tons or 44.5 per cent. in numbers, and 68-2 per cent. in tonnage. This is chiefly due to reclamation of foreshores in the Colony being at a standstill on which to a great extent this trade depends, a number of stone junks being laid up.

The actual number of individual ocean-going vessels of European construction during 1917 was 750, of which 259 were British ̄and 491 foreign. In 1916 the corresponding figures were 717,281 British and 436 foreign.

 These 750 ships measured 1,642,911 tons. They entered 4,023 times and gave a collective tonnage of 6,150,334.

TRADE.

 As pointed out in previous years the figures which are given are meagre, and of little value, being derived from reports of ship masters which are given in round figures and several items of cargo are only entered under the heading "General."

In a few cases, I can however give more accurate figures and these

are:

IMPORTS.

These show an increase of 123,025 tons compared with the year 1916. Increases are shewn under the headings:-Coal, kerosene oil in bulk, sandalwood, sugar, and general, while decreases are shewn in beans, cotton yarn, cotton, hemp, flour, kerosene oil (in cases), liquid fuel, rattan, rice, and timber.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1917.

387

5

Beans.-A decrease of 1,106 tons is shown which is due to general shortage of tonnage.

Coal.-There is an increase of 208,154 tons over the last year which is due to local and Canton manufacturing concerns and also the Kowloon-Canton railway laying in stocks as protective measure against advancing prices due to shortage of tonnage.

Cotton Yarn and Cotton.-Once again there is a decrease of 8,511 tons due to general shortage of tonnage.

Flour. The decrease of 4,069 tons is due to Chinese flour competition and high prices ruling for American and Canadian product, also shortage of tonnage and high freight.

 Kerosene Oil.-There is an increase of 9,263 tons shown in bulk due to a greater demand from the various coast ports which are supplied from this port.

Liquid Fuel.-A decrease of 1,604 tons due to the scarcity of tank steamers.

Rice.-A decrease of 54,691 tons due to shortage of tonnage.

Timber.-A decrease of 17,319 tons chiefly accounted for by the stoppage of Oregon pine through high rates of freight, Philippine hardwood being used instead.

 Opium.-The imports and exports of certified opium during the year are as follows:

Imports

Export

Malwa.

Patna.

Benares.

Total.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

7

7

81

103

40

224

Of these, however, the imports all came from Shanghai, and of the total export of 224 chests, 186 went to Shanghai.

 Seven hundred and forty (740) chests of Persian opium were imported during the year and 745 chests were exported to Formosa.

 Nine hundred and ten (910) chests of uncertified Indian opium were imported: 410 chests by the Government monopoly, and the remaining 500 chests for the Macao opium farmer.

General Cargo.-The increase of 22,703 tons is due to a greater number of Dutch and American steamers now trading with this port. EXPORTS.

The corresponding figures relating to ships of European type of construction, exporting cargo and shipping bunker coal are as follows:-

1916.

1917.

Increase.

Decrease.

Steamers

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

3,758 6,873,003 | 3,571| 6,139,214

River Steamers.. 4,666 2,583,019|4,153| 2,415,846

Sailing Vessels

Total

1

75

··

8,245 9,456,097 7,724 8,555,060

Net Decrease

187 733,789

513 167,173

1

75

701 901,037

701 901,037

388

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

6

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL,

Exported 2,514,331 tons, including River Trade, as compared with 2,606,264 tons in 1916.

1916.

1917.

Increase.

Decrease.

Strs.

Bunker

Bunker Coal. Strs. Coal.

Bunker

Strs. Bunker Strs. Coal.

River Steamers.. 4,666

Steamers

Total

8,424 541,676 7,724 483,977

3,758 457,580

84,096 4,153|

3,571 407,395 76,582

187 50,185

..

503

7,514

690 57,699

Net Decrease

690 57,699

Exports show a decrease of 7,142 tons.

Transit Cargo.-A decrease of 809,984 tons is shewn under this head.

Emigration and Immigration.

Ninety-six thousand two hundred and ninety-eight (96,298) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1917, 117,653 in 1916. Of these, 59,285 were carried in British ships, and 37,013 in foreign ships.

Ninety-eight thousand two hundred and thirty-two (98,232) returning emigrants were reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 72,405 in 1916. Of these, 55,028 arrived in British ships and 43,204 in foreign ships.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements, 1909 to 1917, compared with Total Chinese Emigration.

No. of Emigrants

to

Straits Settlements.

48,016

Total No. of

Emigrants.

1909

77,430

1910

76,705

111,058

1911

·

100,906

135,565

1912

84,024

122,657

1913

102,353

142,759

1914

44,974

76,296

1915

41,278

68,275

1916

82,797

117,653

1917

:

63,292

96,298

(b)-INDUSTRIES.

(i)-Under European Management.

Engineering and Shipbuilding.-The figures are as follows for the

years 1916 and 1917 :-

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1917.

1916.

389

7

Tung Shing

Macdonald & Co.

Taikoo Dockyard & Eng.

Co., Ltd.

Kwong Fook Cheong

Kwong Hip Lung Co.,

Ltd.

Kwong Sing Loong

W. S. Bailey & Co.

Hop On

Kwong Lee

Kwong Man Sang

Kwong Hop Loong

1 vessel of

23 gross tons and

80 I.H.P.

6 vessels of 8,814

"9

19

6,800

3

641

752

19

99

99

4

521

462

"

39

1 vessel of

36

45

"

""

7 vessels of

449

620

""

1 vessel of

43

56

"

"

1

16

24

99

2 vessels of

136

178

"

"

1 vessel of

75

92

"

1

32

44

"

"

Ah King

23 vessels of

56

54

""

Sum Kee

1 vessel of

28

50

Hong Kong & Whampoa

Dock, Co., Ltd.

2 vessels of

32

120

Total

Taikoo Dockyard & Eng.

Co., Ltd.

Hong Kong & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ltd.

Ah King

Sum Kee

W. S. Bailey & Co.

Total

54 vessels of 10,902 gross tons and 9,377 I.H.P.

1917.

4 vessels of 8,919 gross tons and 5,850 I.H.P.

7

9

14,954 112

99

""

9,400 96

""

"

"

""

3

42 65

56

""

29

105

""

""

..26 vessels of 24,092 gross tons and 15,507 I.H.P.

 The increase of tonnage built by the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ltd., is due to the building of vessels for the Straits Steamship Co. The Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. had several large vessels building, which are not shown in the return.

 Sugar Refineries.-During 1917 the general shortage of tonnage available for the carriage of Java sugars was responsible for an accumulation of unprecedented stocks in godowns in Java, causing a slump in prices which involved severe losses to holders. One result in China-Hong Kong's main market-was a shortage of Javas, which was in part responsible for the strong demand for Hong Kong Refineds which obtained throughout the greater part of the year. Prices in China ruled low, governed mainly by the influx of heavy shipments of Japanese sugars, and the prevailing high rate of silver exchange which benefited Japan. Offtake of local Refineds would have been considerably greater but for the incidence of political unrest in China during the last two months of the year. India and the Persian Gulf have continued to draw substantial supplies from Hong Kong.

 Cotton Yarn.-During the twelve months under review, trade was smaller in volume than the previous year, due to war conditions, but the monetary turnover could scarcely have suffered owing to the enormous advance in values, and, taken all round, the importers and dealers had a successful year.

 The year opened with the American cotton in Liverpool at 10.63 pence per lb., and closed at 22.84, and although this was offset to some extent by a corresponding rise in Exchange from 2s. 44d. to 3s..

390

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

8

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

scarcity of tonnage caused restricted importations and helped to bring about the high level of prices.

 The political troubles in China had a depressing influence on trade, and with prices in some instances almost double pre-war days, the offtake was considerably reduced.

 The Japanese and Shanghai Mills continued to extend their opera- tions in the South as well as in other parts of China.

 Rope-Making. The demand for Manila cordage was fairly good throughout the year and the total turnover showed a slight improve- ment on that of the previous twelve months but business in this commodity was greatly hampered by the high cost of raw material and difficulty of obtaining freight room even at enhanced rates.

 Cement-Making.-The demand continued good during the year 1917, although there were difficulties in obtaining freight room, and the high exchange adversely affected business with gold standard countries. Owing to the high price of raw materials it was necessary to raise selling prices, but in spite of this the turnover compares favourably with 1916.

 Tin. The business in this commodity considerably increased in comparison with 1916, the demand from Europe and America being much greater. Imports from Yunnan in 1917 amounted to about 11,000 tons and from Kwangsi to about 200 tons, as against 3,000 tons and 1,000 tons respectively in 1916.

 During the year about 200 tons were exported to Japan, 1,400 tons to Shanghai and other China coast ports, and 13,000 tons to Europe, Canada, and the United States of America.

Rallan and Fibre Furniture.-The value of rattan and fibre furniture exported in 1917 declined to $200,000 from about $600,000, owing to the scarcity of tonnage and the enormous increase in freight rates. Materials for making up this furniture were, however, exported in larger quantities; rattan canes to the value of about $1,500,000, and grass and reed to the value of about $130,000 were shipped, as against $500,000 and $80,000 respectively in 1916.

 Native Tobacco. The total quantity imported into the Colony was smaller than that in 1916, but prices were much better.

Tinned Goods.-The volume of business done in 1917 was about the same as in 1916. The large increase in the cost of tinplates was counter- balanced by greater demands and by increase in the prices of the goods. Samshu.-The volume of business done in the year was about the same as in 1916.

Vinegar.-The business was about the same as in 1916.

Knitted Vests and Socks.-The value of business done was about the same as in 1916, though the quantities sold showed a decrease owing to enhanced cost of materials.

 Leather and Hides.-Business, most of which was done with Europe and America, showed an increase of about 30 per cent.

 Ginger and Preserves. This business has further declined by about 50 per cent., as compared with 1916.

 Soy. About 950 casks were exported in 1917, as compared with 4,100 casks in 1916.

 Paper.-Business in this article maintained the same level in 1917 as in 1916, though prices went up by about 33 per cent. Of the papers imported in the year, about one-third was of Japanese manufacture.

1904-1919

HONG KONG,

1917.

391

9

 Vermilion. The business done in 1917 amounted to about $600,000 as compared with about $900,000 in 1916. The decrease was mainly due to the high price of quicksilver which is the principal ingredient used in the manufacture of this article.

 Lard. There were great demands from both Europe and South America with the result that the business was increased to nearly twice as much as that in 1916.

(c)-FISHERIES.

A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Freshwater fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

Over 42,000 pine tree seedlings were planted on the hills in the vicinity of the Fanling Golf Course, nearly 4,000 on the hills above Taihang, and 3,000 in the Tytam catchment area.

On the Fanling hills 15 pounds of pine tree seeds were sown, 27 pounds on Mt. Kellet, and 10 pounds on the hills above Repulse Bay. About 40,000 pine tree seedlings were raised for planting in 1918. Creepers damaging trees in the Victoria forest were cut.

Over 5,000,000 square feet were cleared of undergrowth in connection with anti-malarial measures.

 In connection with survey work over 1,750,000 square feet of undergrowth were cleared.

 Vegetables were grown in the economic garden at Fanling for demonstration purposes.

 From the tea plantation near Lead Mine Pass in the New Territories 350 cases of tea were shipped to Australia.

The first rice crop was poor but the second was up to the average. Lichees and peanuts were fair.

 Several additions to the flora of Hong Kong were made during the year.

(e)-LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

 The net amount of premium received from sales of Crown land and pier rights for the year 1917 was $148,086-a decrease of $55,148 on the preceding year and $45,657 less than the average for the past five years.

 The principal items were $35,498 in respect of an extension of Hung Hom Marine Lot No. 3, $27,050 on the sale of Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1358, $11,050 on the sale of Inland Lot No. 2234, and $8,507 on the sale of Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1352.

 In the New Territories the net amount received for premium on sales of land was $11,622, being a decrease of $133,213 on the preceding year.

The number of deeds registered in the Land Office was 2,824 or 154 more than in the preceding year, the total consideration being $42,666,837, as against $42,201,549 in 1916.

 The Government resumed several large areas during the year, viz., Morrison Hill and an adjoining lot; also some lots at the Peak

392

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

10

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

in connection with the scheme for providing quarters for Government Officers.

The total area of land granted during the year was 143 acres of which 122 acres were situated in the New Territories; the total area of land resumed was 91 acres.

  In the Northern District of the New Territories large areas of salt-water marshes situate in the north-west corner were being negotiated for the transaction had not been completed at the end of the year. The demand for land reached its usual level, shewing a slight increase on all previous years except 1916.

  In the Southern District the demand for land has been about the same as in previous years.

III.-LEGISLATION. ·

Thirty-two Ordinances were passed during 1917 of which twelve were amendments of previous Ordinances.

The most important matters with which these Ordinances dealt were Crown Land Preservation (No. 6), Liquors (No. 24), Deportation (No. 25), Opium (No. 27), Ferries (No. 28), Importation and Exportation (No. 30), and Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit (No. 32). The following Ordinances in connection with the war were enacted: The Alien Enemies (Winding-up) Amendment (No. 11), Trading with the Enemy and Export of Prohibited Goods (No. 15), Rating (Special War Rate) (No. 18), Military Service (No. 19), Legal Pro- ceedings against Enemies (No. 22), and Contracts (War Restrictions) (No. 31).

IV.-EDUCATION.

  No important changes have taken place in the Education Department during the year under review. The staff has been depleted by causes due to the war, but the deficiency has been met in part by the appoint- ment of mistresses resident in the Colony.

  The most important schools, apart from the excluded schools, are Queen's College for Chinese, four District Schools its feeders, and the Belilios Public School for Chinese girls. There is an Indian School of growing importance now housed in a new building presented to the Colony by Sir Ellis Kadoorie. Kowloon School and Victoria School for children of British parentage have an average attendance of about 120. There is also a school for the children of the Peak District. The Diocesan School and Orphanage and St. Joseph's College are important boys' schools in receipt of an annual grant. The Italian, French, and St. Mary's Convents, and the Diocesan Girls' School, are the most important of the English Grant Schools for girls.

  The Hong Kong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education of students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1917 in mathematics, machine drawing, architectural design, and building construction; in chemistry, physics, and electricity; in commercial English, logic, and political economy; in French, short- hand, and book-keeping; and in translation from and into Chinese. Classes in sanitation (public hygiene) are also held, the examinations being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Sanitary Institute,

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1917.

393

11

London. Classes for men and women teachers, both "English" and

Vernacular," are a feature of the institute.

 The lecturers are recruited from the members of the medical and educational faculties of the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The institute is furnished with a well-equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.

 The Hong Kong University is an institution that arose from the joint enterprise of British and Chinese subscribers. It was founded with funds representing about equal proportions of Chinese and British money.

 At the end of the year the number of students was 186, 84 of whom were taking the Engineering Course, 65 Medicine, and 37 Arts. While most of the students have studied in Hong Kong schools, a number come from Canton, the coast ports of China, and the Straits Settlements.

 The idea of the University is to provide, close to China, education for Chinese similar to that given in the British Universities, but at a much cheaper cost; for if a Chinese goes abroad to be educated he has to pay, besides travelling expenses, some $2,000 per annum ; whereas at Hong Kong the expenses of the University are $540 per annum for board and tuition, or, including extras, from $600 to $650.

 The founders of the University took into consideration the fact that Chinese students being educated abroad have usually to make their own arrangements for board and lodging. Consequently some- times they contract irregular habits. All students educated at the Hong Kong University are required to become boarders, and thus their whole lives are under supervision whilst they are there. Ample provision is made for indoor and outdoor recreation, and in this connection it is interesting to note that the Chinese residents of Hong Kong recently subseribed a large sum for levelling a new playing field and that the work has just been completed.

 The University is composed of three Faculties: 1.-Medical, which offers ample facilities for the practice of medicine. The anatomical laboratories were the gift of a Cantonese gentleman (Mr. Ng Li-hing). There is a large staff of instructors in medicine and all the principal medical practitioners in Hong Kong give lectures at the University. 2.-Arts. The establishment of this faculty was largely due to the munificence of a Chinese gentleman in the Straits Settlements (Mr. Cheung Pat-sze).. Its special object is to provide training suitable to those who desire to enter the public service or the higher branches of mercantile life. The course of instruction comprises English and Chinese literature, political and constitutional history, political economy, jurisprudence, and international and commercial law. 3.-Engineering. Nearly one-half of the students belong to this faculty. It is divided into three branches-civil, electrical, and mechanical. The University has an exceptionally large equipment of machinery and apparatus, and has fourteen laboratories and work- shops. There is practically no place in China where students have such an opportunity of seeing all kinds of machinery in actual working and of learning their practical management.

 The University insists upon all students having a proper knowledge of their own language although instruction at the University is carried

394

12

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

out in English. Students are required to pass an examination in written Chinese before entering, and two Chinese professors, both Hanlin graduates, give lectures on the classics and history of China.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

T'wo properties in the Hill District (R.B.L.'s 19 and 120) were acquired by Government as official residences for the Chief Justice and the Colonial Secretary.

The large extension of the Central Police Station, begun in 1916, was continued during the year, but progress was seriously interfered with by the difficulty in obtaining the iron girders and stanchions required.

The erection of a market at Shamshuipo was undertaken and was well advanced by the close of the year.

The large water works scheme at Tytam Tuk including a storage reservoir (capacity 1,419 million gallons); two sets of pumping machinery, each capable of raising three million gallons per day a height of 400 feet; the laying of suction and delivery mains and other subsidiary works were completed.

  The construction of the additional service reservoir and filter beds for the supply of the western section of the city was continued, the work being well advanced by the close of the year.

The training of the extensive system of nullahs in Sookunpoo Valley was completed, the entire valley being filled in to a suitable level for the formation of a public recreation ground.

The lower yard of the gaol was covered over, thus affording a valuable addition to the space available for exercise.

Inland Lots 84 and 1918, which comprise nearly the whole of Morrison Hill, were resumed by Government with a view to the cutting away of the hill in order to obtain material for the projected Praya East Reclamation Scheme.

  Two new streets (Mallory Street and Landale Street), extending from Praya East to Wanchai Road and Queen's Road East respec- tively, were resumed by Government. The lane, hitherto known as Tsui In Lane, was widened to 30 feet-the necessary area being resumed from M.L. 23-and was re-named Anton Street.

The work of providing scavenging lanes continues, compensation being paid where necessary.

Progress continues to be made with the Shamshuipo Improvement Scheme, which involves the entire demolition of the old village and the erection of new houses and other buildings on good, wide roads. The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary was $1,612,835.28 and on Annually Recurrent Works $609,308.45.

Railway.

During the year the passenger portion of the Kowloon Station has been somewhat improved by alterations to the Chinese Customs examination accommodation. The outward baggage barriers have been extended, which expedites the work of examination, while the addition of a waiting room for Customs officials, and the extension of the baggage barriers for the examination of inward passenger traffic afford further facilities.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1971.

395

13

It was considered advisable during the year to build a goods shed for light and perishable goods, both for the protection of such goods during transhipment from train to lighter and vice versâ, and also to facilitate the Customs examination of goods consigned to or from China. This necessitated certain alterations in the layout of that portion of the yard devoted to goods traffic, and extensions of the sidings along the sea wall. This work was carried out in conjunction with the installation of the truck weighbridge and involved raising the level of the sea wall and various alterations and additions to the signalling, which however has not interfered with the use of any of the other tracks or the safety of the signal installation. The Goods Examination Shed is 400 feet long by 30 feet wide inside, with covered gantries alongside, and sliding doors at intervals of 21 feet, the length of the 15-ton goods wagon.

 The extension to the Locomotive Yard as decided upon was completed early in the year. The satisfactory purchase of the last lot of land required for the purpose enabled the Carriage Running Shed to be finished, and two small Chinese houses at the north corner which are not at present in the way were converted into quarters for drivers and firemen, thus saving the renting of quarters which had previously been necessary.

 Detailed surveys of possible routes for branch lines to points at Tai Kok Tsui on the western side of the peninsula and to Tai Wan Bay on the eastern side were undertaken during the year, with a view to earmarking the land necessary for such branch lines, but much still remains to be done before definite routes can be decided upon or estimates prepared, as both traverse difficult country and cross several public highways.

In the workshops the following works have been carried out :-

One Smithy fan rebuilt.

Roots blower repaired.

new moulding machine built out of scrap.

3-ton and one 1-ton swing crane built.

furnace for making patent metal built.

95

""

""

"

new pump for workshop pits built.

>>

new straightening block.

At the end of 1916 it was decided to close the Capital Account and in future to charge all expenses other than Working Expenses to the head of Special Expenditure. The actual Special Expenditure during the year amounted to $101,460.48 and has been added to the Capital Account, which now stands at $14,812,377.77 Main Line and Fanling Branch $89,808.57.

The working expenses amounted to $337,431.48 and when compared with gross receipts show a decrease, the percentage being 78·79 against 81.02 for 1916.

The revenue derived from Local Traffic amounted to $119,397.09 or $470.17 less than the previous year, while the Local Goods Traffic has increased from $7,706.81 to $9,985.88 and the sundry receipts amounted to $4,096.52 more than in 1916 which is due to the inclusion of rents collected in respect of reclaimed land let at Hunghom and to wharfage fees.

Through and Joint Sectional Coaching Traffic Receipts show a marked increase of $41,763.98. This improvement is due to a great

396

14

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL.

extent to the increase in certain Joint Sectional fares from May 1st and also to a greater number of passengers travelling than in 1916.

The condition of the Goods Traffic has improved, the receipts being $33,770.69 as against $18,407.50 for the previous year.

The Gross Receipts for the year were $428,246.46 as against $366,215.67 for 1916, an increase of $62,030.79. The balance after paying working expenses stands at $90,814.98, or $21,290.94 more than the previous year.

The Through and Joint Sectional passengers carried were as follows:-

Passengers booked by stations in British territory to stations in China

Passengers booked by stations in China to stations in British territory

1915.

1916.

1917.

271,382 307,310 309,394

326,839 344,220 352,008

VI.-GOVERNMENT AND AIDED INSTITUTIONS.

(a)-HOSPITALS.

Government hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children, and the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital. There is an Observation Station capable of accommodating 1,500 persons in the event of an outbreak of infectious disease on board a ship arriving in the harbour.

  The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 3,292 in-patients and 13,065 out-patients were treated during 1917 as against 3,058 and 12,620 respectively in 1916. 361 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 360 in 1916 and 384 in 1915. But the total cases of malaria for all Government hospitals and the Tung Wa Hospital shows a decrease of 34 cases as compared with the year 1916. The Maternity Hospital contains 12 beds for Europeans and four for Asiatics. 309 confinements occurred during the year as against 259 in 1916. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds, and during 1917, 147 patients were under treatment there. At Kennedy Town Hospital, which contains 26 beds, 31 cases were treated in 1917, all being small-pox.

(b)-LUNATIC ASYLUM.

  The Asylum is under the direction of the Superintendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients are separated, the European portion containing eight beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 214 patients of all races were treated during 1917 and there were 10 deaths.

(c) THE TUNG WA AND OTHER CHINESE HOSPITALS.

The Tung Wa Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable

1904-1919

HONG KONG,

1917.

397

15

relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed. by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation. It is under the supervision of a visiting physician, who is a member of the Medical Department, whilst two Chinese house-surgeons, trained in Western medicine, are members of the hospital staff. There are 323 beds in the buildings and 5,352 patients were accommodated during 1917.

The Tung Wa also maintain a branch hospital for small-pox cases (Chinese only) at Kennedy Town. It contains 58 beds and during 1917, 146 cases were treated.

 The Alice Memorial and Affiliated Hospitals are managed and controlled by the missionaries resident in Hongkong, agents of the London Missionary Society, and consist of the Alice Memorial Hospital, opened in 1887, the Nethersole Hospital, opened in 1893, the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital, opened in 1904, and the Ho Miu Ling Hospital, opened in 1906. The number of in-patients in 1917 was 1,670 and the expenditure $23,528.20. The number of labours in the Maternity Hospital was 590. The Government makes a grant of $300 per annum to these hospitals.

To avoid the complete seclusion from friends and relatives, which removal of Chinese plague patients to the Kennedy Town Infectious Diseases Hospital entailed, four District Plague Hospitals are now maintained by the Chinese in various parts of the Colony. These hospitals are under the management of the Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee and receive a grant of $2,000 a year from the Government. The new Kwong Wa Hospital for Chinese in the Kowloon Peninsula was opened on the 9th October, 1911. It occupies a site having an area of three acres and provides accommodation for 210 patients. The existing buildings contain 70 beds and 2,388 patients were accom- modated during 1917. The collection of subscriptions and the supervision of the building were undertaken by a special committee under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The hospital receives a grant of $8,500 per annum from the Government. -As will be noticed from the remarks made under the heading

Education the Hongkong University is an Aided Institution.

VII.-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT. One of the most important institutions in the Colony not supported by the Government is the Matilda Hospital, which stands on a com- manding site of nearly three acres at Mount Kellet in the Hill District. An account of this hospital will be found in last year's report.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned the Pó Leung Kuk, the Eyre Refuge, the City Hall, and the Chinese Public Dispensaries.

 The Pó Leung Kuk is a Chinese Society founded in 1878 for the suppression of kidnapping and traffic in human beings. It was incorporated in 1893 and is presided over by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and not more than nine directors nominated by the Governor.

398

16

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The actual management is entrusted to a committee elected annually by the members of the Society. The Society's buildings have been declared a Refuge under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, and almost all women and girls detained by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under that Ordinance are sent to the Pó Leung Kuk. During 1917 the number of persons admitted was 451 and at the close of the year 51 remained under the care of the Society. The inmates are under the immediate charge of a Chinese matron, and instruction is given them by the matron and a Chinese teacher in elementary subjects and in needlework.

The Eyre Diocesan Refuge is an institution, under mission auspices, founded for rescue work among the Chinese. It was housed in the Belilios Reformatory up to the outbreak of war, but the work is at present carried on at Kowloon City. A small grant is made by the Government.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used for balls, meetings, concerts, etc., a museum in which are some very fair speci- mens, and a large reference and lending library, to which new volumes are added from time to time, as funds will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.

Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent, the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seamen's Hospital, and other charitable institutions.

The Chinese Public Dispensaries are institutions maintained in order to provide the Chinese with the services of doctors, whose certificates will be accepted by the Registrar of Deaths, and with the services of interpreters, who can assist the inmates of houses, where a case of infectious disease has occurred. Coolies are engaged and ambulances and dead vans provided in order to remove cases of infectious disease to the Infectious Diseases Hospital and dead bodies to the mortuary. The Dispensaries receive sick infants and send them to one or other of the Convents and arrange for the burial of dead infants. Free advice and medicine are given and patients are attended at their houses. There are eight Dispensaries in existence. The total cost of maintenance, which is defrayed by voluntary sub- scription, was $38,355.32 for the year 1917. The Dispensaries are conducted by committees under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 9,508, being a decrease of 1,811 or 16 per cent. as compared with 1916. There was in 1917 a decrease in serious offences of 93 or 2.64 per cent. as compared with the previous year. The number of serious offences reported was 126 over the average of the quinquennial period com- mencing with the year 1913. The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease of 1,718 as compared with 1916 and was 841 below the average of the quinquennial period.

The total strength of the Police Force in 1917 was Europeans 160, Indians 481, Chinese 588, making a total of 1,229 (as compared

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1917.

399

17

with 1,215 in 1916) exclusive of the five superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures include police paid for by the railway and other Government departments. Of this force 15 Europeans, 137 Indians, and 33 Chinese were stationed in the New Territories during the year.

Up to the end of the year one assistant superintendent, one probationer, and 59 members of the Hong Kong Police Force had enlisted for active service.

The following members of this force were killed while on active service during the year:-

P.C. A 124 Ernest Frederick Drury K.R.R., killed on 17.2.17.

A 155 Robert Edwards

.. R.F.C.,

""

""

""

A 120 Edward Charles Silliss K.R.R., A 81 John Delahunty

""

I.G.,

""

30.4.17.

1.8.17.

9.10.17.

Five were killed in 1916 and one (E. Bloor) is a prisoner in Germany. The District Watchmen Force, numbering 100, to which the Government contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the Chinese quarter of the city. They are placed on police beats and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 3,386, as compared with 4,169 in 1916. Of these 1,734 were committed for criminal offences, against 1,588 in 1916. Of committals for non- criminal offences there were 226 less for hawking without a licence, and 12 more for unlawfully boarding steamers, than in 1916.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 600, the average for 1916 being 638, and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was 0.11. The average percentage for the last ten years was 0.12. Owing, however, to the large floating population, which is constantly moving between the Colony and Canton, the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the compara- tive criminality of the residents of the Colony. The gaol has accommodation for 707 prisoners.

The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1-36 as compared with 1.34 in 1916 and 1'41 in 1915. Long-sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are taught useful trades, including printing, bookbinding, tin-smithing, mat- making, tailoring, carpentering, etc. The profit on the work done was $67,333 as against $68,209 in 1916. A sum of $3,601 was received and credited to Government for non-Government work against $4,060 in 1916.

IX.-VITAL STATISTICS.

(a)-POPULATION.

The civil population of the Colony, according to the census taken on May 20th, 1911, was 456,739, of whom 104,287 reside in the New Territories and in New Kowloon; at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967 exclusive of the New Territories and of New Kowloon. The estimated total population at the middle of the year under review was

400

18

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

535,100, but this includes the New Territories; and, as the birth and death figures given below do not include those from this area (with the exception of New Kowloon), the population for the purposes of calculating these rates is estimated at 431,700, of whom 13,500 were non-Chinese.

(6)-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION.

 The activity in building operations, which has been so noticeable a feature since 1912, has not abated, and the demand for housing accommodation by the Chinese continued to be greatly in excess of the supply, as many of those who fled with their families to Hong Kong during 1911, 1912, and 1913 elected to remain in the Colony.

 The corrected birth-rate for the year was 6.9 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 208 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese community, as compared with 81 and 20 û for 1916.

 The death-rate for the year was 23-7 per 1,000 among the Chinese community and 14:00 among the non-Chinese community as compared with 24'6 and 15'08 for 1916.

 The number of deaths from Malaria (416) shows an increase on the previous year (378). The deaths of Chinese from this cause in the city of Victoria numbered 185 out of a population of 280,700 or a rate of 0.6 per 1,000 per annum.

The deaths from plague numbered 35 as compared with 39 in 1916. Small- -pox deaths numbered 549, all Chinese, with the exception of three Portuguese and one each British, Filipino, and Japanese.

 There were 2,248 deaths from respiratory diseases as compared with 2,112 in 1916, and 34 of these were among the non-Chinese community. Pulmonary tuberculosis claimed 859 Chinese and 18 non-Chinese victims whilst other forms of tuberculosis represent an additional 616 deaths, making a total of 1,493, or 14.3 per cent. of the total deaths among the community.

Beri-beri was responsible for 654 deaths, as compared with 517 during 1916 and 398 in 1915. During the past few years circulars have been distributed to all large employers of coolie labour calling their attention to the fact that beri-beri is produced by the consumption of white rice as the staple article of diet without a sufficiency of other foods, and advising that beans should be supplied with the rice, when fresh meat or fresh fish cannot be afforded.

A tabular statement of the principal causes of death is appended.

(c)-CLIMATE.

The mean shade temperature for the year at the Royal Observatory, Kowloon (108 feet above mean sea level), was 71′0°, 0·8° lower than in 1916, and 1.2o lower than the mean for the past 10 years. The maxi- mum temperature was 90°8° on the 13th July and the minimum 38.8° on the 9th January. The hottest month. was August, with a mean temperature of 82.0°, and the coldest, January, with a mean tempera- ture of 55.8°.

 The temperature at the high levels of the Peak District is from 3° to 8° less than at the Observatory. At Victoria it is practically the same. The rainfall and humidity are usually greater at the Peak than at Victoria, the Observatory, or Tai Pó (New Territories).

 The total rainfall for the year was 81-485 inches, as compared with an average of 81.35 inches during the ten preceding years. The

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1917.

401

19

wettest month was July with 30-07 inches, the driest, November, when 0'09 inch fell. The greatest amount of rain which fell on any one day was 8.10 inches on the 15th July, while no rain fell on 234 days of the year. The mean relative humidity of the atmosphere for the year was 75 per cent., or 2 per cent. less than the average for the ten preceding years. The average daily amount of sunshine was 6'0 hours, being 50 per cent. of the possible duration.

X.-POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH SERVICES.

 The total revenue from the Postal Service in 1917 amounted to $403,869.87 being $2,127.54 more than that collected in 1916. The expenditure amounted to $259,214.83, being less than that of 1916 by $48,921.50, due to the high rate of exchange prevailing during the year under review. The balance of revenue over expenditure amounted to $144,655.04.

 The Shanghai-Bombay Section of the P. & O. Contract Mail Service was suspended as from 1st July. The mails for Europe via Suez were despatched as opportunities offered to Bombay for transmission from thence to Marseilles by P. & O. packets.

 Owing to dislocation and uncertainty of the trans-Siberian Railways and the restriction of the Suez route, the mails for Europe were to a great extent forwarded by the Pacific route either via Canada or via the United States.

 Arrangements were made during the year with the Canadian Postal Administration for the transmission of parcels for Europe by Canadian services. The first Parcel Mail for Liverpool by this route was despatched on 8th November by the Empress of Japan. This service, although more expensive than that via Suez, is very much appreciated by the public who are using it to an increasing extent.

The revised Postal Agreement with Macao, which provides for the exchange of cash-on-delivery parcels, came into force on 1st September. The revenue collected in 1917 from radio-telegrams amounted to $23,311.55 being $14,616.51 more than that collected in 1916- the excess being mainly due to press messages sent to Indo-China. Advices of vessels signalled at the lighthouses yielded $503.35 and semaphore messages $2.50, making a total of $23,817.40 for the telegraphic service. The expenditure amounted to $39,174.38, of which sum $17,905.71 was in respect of the emoluments of the wireless staff at the Cape d'Aguilar Station for the period from 15th July, 1915, to 31st December, 1916. The number of radio-telegrams forwarded during the year was 846 consisting of 106,114 words, and 1,028 received consisting of 13,853 words.

XI.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

 The unrest in the province of Kwangtung which recommenced in 1916 continued to be a source of uneasiness to the local Chinese residents. During the year some of the Southern provinces of China. declared their independence of the Central Government and constant collisions between the Northern and Southern factions led to consider- able chaos. Troops of both parties ransacked villages near the New Territories frontier and much trouble was caused by armed robbers

402

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

crossing the British border and raiding villages in British territory. On the 18th November the Chinese section of the railway was damaged by soldiers who had mutinied and traffic was stopped until the 20th November.

Several small junks and launches were attacked by robbers, and piracy of such small craft has led to representations being made to the Canton Government through H.M.'s Consul General.

During the year the War Charities Funds were subscribed to in the same generous manner as in previous years, the sums received as subscriptions amounting to $292,904.94. In addition to this sum the following special days were devoted to assisting the various war charities with the results shown against each :-

St. George's Day, 23rd April

CC

Our Day," 18th October.

St. Andrew's Day, 30th November

....

$33,619.68 110,375.72 46,528.18

The Queen Mary's Needlework Guild, and the other organizations by ladies for carrying out war work, continued their labours unremittingly and the regular despatch of clothing, bandages, etc., to the troops and hospitals in the various war centres was maintained.

The Colony's recurrent expenses on account of the war amounted to approximately $200,000.

The Hong Kong and South China War Savings Association continued to encourage small investors and a total of $1,232,490.15 (Straits Currency) was invested in war loans during the year. There is now a total of 819 subscribers.

""

An Ordinance incorporating the Volunteer Corps and the Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve into one command-" The Hong Kong Defence Corps -was passed on the 30th August. Under this Ordinance all male British subjects between the ages of 18 and 55, who are medically fit and who are ordinarily resident in the Colony, with certain exceptions, are liable for military service in the Colony. Administrative Command of the corps was taken over by a selected regular military officer, Major H. A. Morgan, of the 18th Infantry (Indian Army), who has done much towards bringing the corps to a high state of efficiency.

CLAUD SEVERN,

Colonial Secretary.

11th May, 1918.

DEATHS REGISTERED IN THE COLONY OF HONG KONG DURING 1917.

Unknown.

All causes.

1904-1919

British and Foreign Civil,

Community

2

-

Victoria

and Peak..[345]

3 64 25

..

75 28185

1|

3 1 3 10 5

3 3 12 1

51 23

18

LA

-

10

1

60

189

8117324 44 83 559154392377 26 119 83 1151 476 474 26 191801122 106 6565

Harbour

33

13

31

21

3 85

4

4

Chinese Kowloon

156

4 32 23

87

..

3 93

7 17

C

Community

Shaukiwan

Aberdeen

Stanley

9

2

24

1

14

..

..

10

:

3 34 17 118 15 99| 6 7

Q

41

70 127 23139 12

12 73 133 55

4 33 257| 186 | 210

61 3 16 161123 1051 9 11 58 522103| 2235

1 15

8 29 5 32

3 27 19 31

Co

1

23

:

2

1 12

1

020

42 14 272

20

Q

1 2 83

10

2

4

++

2

10

38

Total, 1917

(549

1916

??

7116 51 190 35416 21142336 53184, 659 468|438654 57| 147 |136|1532| 854 775 45 34 2671918|349|10433 542 41146 61 10306 39378 17 82394 36187 936 458561520 48 348 176|1577 984 770 30 30220|1282|37910558

403

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1904-1919

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 1001.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1918.

(ABRIDGED.)

(For Report for 1917 see No. 972.)

Presented to Parliament by Command of bis Majesty,

October, 1919.

405

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.

To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses: IMPERIAL HOUSE, KINGSWAY, LONDON, W.C. 2, and 28, ABINGDON STREET, LONDON, S.W.1;

37, PETER STREET, MANCHESTER; 1, ST. ANDREW'S CRESCENT, CARDIFF ; 23, FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH ;

or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin.

[Cmd. 1.24]

1919.

Price 2d. Net.

406

21

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

No. 1001.

HONG KONG.

REPORT ON THE BLUE BOOK FOR 1918.*

I. FINANCES.

The revenue for the year amounted to $18,665,248, being $3,901,658 more than the estimate and $3,607,144 more than the revenue for the previous year.

Compared with the returns for 1917 there were increases under every head with the exception of Light Dues, Miscellaneous Receipts, and Fees of Court or Office.

The expenditure amounted to a total of $16,252,172, inclusive of a sum of $1,578,149, spent on Public Works Extraordinary, and one of $3,189,972, being a contribution to the Imperial Government for war expenses.

The total expenditure brought to account amounted to $16,252,172, being $4,111,697 more than the estimate, and $2,161,344 more than the expenditure in 1917. Compared with the estimates there were decreases under 20 heads as against 4 heads where there were increases. The excess, amounting to $5,229,871 under Miscellaneous Services, was due to the war contribution stated above, in addition to another contribution ($1,052,761) referred to below; expenditure on houses and house allowances; and other miscellaneous items. Military Expenditure was smaller than the estimate by $30,138 on account of the Revenue for 1917 having been over-estimated. The item Public Works Recurrent was responsible for an excess of $103,975. Decreases were mostly due to savings on Personal Emoluments and high exchange. The balance to the good on the year's working was $2,413,076, and the assets and liabilities account showed on the 31st December a credit balance of $5,681,138.

* A Sketch Map will be found in the Report for 1914, No. 856:

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1918.

407

3

The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure of the Colony for the five years 1914-1918:-

1914

1915

1916

1917

Revenue.

$

Expenditure.

$

11,007,273

10,756,225

11,786,106

15,149,267

13,833,387

11,079,915

15,058,105

14,090,828

1918

18,665,248 16,252,172

The amount of the consolidated loan stands at £1,485,733. Against this there is at credit of the Sinking Fund a sum of £283,602. The Local Loan under Ordinance No. 12 of 1916 amounts to $3,000,000 and there are the sums of $212,000 and £33,300 at credit of the Sinking Fund.

Under Ordinance No. 18 of 1917 a tax of 7 per cent. on Assessments was imposed to provide an annual contribution to the Imperial Government for purposes of the War.

The currency of the Colony consists, in addition to the notes of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China, and Mercantile Bank of India, of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican Dollars and of subsidiary coin, which continued at par through- out the year.

 The total issue of subsidiary coins, less those demonetized, now amounts to $20,764,370 nominal value, and they were up to the year 1905 readily absorbed at par, large quantities being taken by the neighbouring provinces of China. During 1916 ten cent. pieces of the face value of $5,028,000 were shipped to England for purposes of demonetization. The discount which prevailed between 1905 and 1916 may be attributed to the immense quantity of similar coin which was minted at Canton as well as to the amount of Hong Kong coin minted largely in excess of the needs of the Colony by itself. In 1905 the Hong Kong Government ceased to issue any subsidiary coin and in 1906 it began a policy of demonetising all its subsidiary coin received as revenue. This policy has been continuously followed since, except during a brief period in 1911. Coin to the face value of $23,235,459 has thus been redeemed. The total issue by the Hong Kong Government was of the face value of about $44,000,000.

II.-SHIPPING AND TRADE, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,

AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(a)-SHIPPING.

 The total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony during the year 1918 amounted to 579,541 vessels of 29,518,189 tons, which, compared with the figures for 1917, shows a decrease of 53,537 vessels, with a decrease of 4,974,484 tons.

 Of vessels of European construction, 3,337 ocean steamers, 6 sailing ships, 3,660 river steamers, and 2,986 steamships not ex- ceeding 60 tons entered during the year, giving a daily average of 27-3 ships, as compared with 29-9 in 1917, and 31.9 in 1916.

408

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

4

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

 The average tonnage of individual ocean vessels entering the port has decreased from 1,528-7 tons to 1,459-2 tons. That of British ships has decreased from 1,7203 tons to 1,482-6 tons, while that of foreign ships has increased from 1,414-5 tons to 1,445 7 tons.

 The average tonnage of individual river steamers entering during the year has increased from 310-2 tons to 4700 tons.

That of British river steamers has decreased from 503-3 tons to 135 9 tons, and that of foreign river steamers has increased from 393-2 tons to 439·9 tons.

 British river steamers have decreased by 858 ships and 555,092 tons, or 14.8 per cent. in numbers and 16·1 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the Tai Lee and Wing On being taken over by the Govern- ment and employed in other waters, the Nam Hoi changing from British to Chinese flag, the Taisham being sold and trading in other waters, and the San Ui and Lintan changing their flag.

 Foreign river steamers show a decrease of 109 ships of 230,382 tons or 7-2 per cent. in numbers and 37 6 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the Charles Hardouin, Paul Beau, and Licorne being taken off the run and sold.

 In steamships not exceeding 60 tons employed in foreign trade there is a decrease of 529 ships and a decrease of 17,322 tons or 8-8 per cent. in numbers and 90 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to a great number of launches being laid up through coal being too expensive to run them with any margin of profit.

 Junks in foreign trade show a decrease of 2,628 vessels of 244,712 tons or 112 per cent. in numbers and 8.2 per cent. in tonnage. This is due to the unsettled state of South China and the greater prevalence of piracy in the Canton Delta during the year.

 In local trade (ie., trade between places within the waters of the Colony), there is a decrease in steam launches of 49,434 vessels with a decrease in tonnage of 1,689,078 tons or 99 per cent. in numbers and 15.7 per cent. in tonnage. This is also due to the number of launches being laid up through the high cost of coal.

Junks in local trade show an increase of 487 vessels and 306,181 tons or 1.3 per cent. in numbers and 16 per cent. in tonnage. This is chiefly due to reclamation of foreshores in the Colony being carried out on which to a great extent this trade depends.

 The actual number of individual ocean-going vessels of European construction during 1918 was 675 of which 162 were British and 513 foreign. In 1917 the corresponding figures were 750-259 British and 491 foreign.

 These 675 ships measured 1,476,594 tons. They entered 3,343 times and gave a collective tonnage of 4,878,119 tons.

TRADE.

 As pointed out in previous years the figures which are given are meagre, and of little value, being derived from reports of ship masters which are given in round figures and several items of cargo are only entered under the heading "General."

1904-1919

KONG HONG, 1918.

409

5

In a few cases, however, more accurate figures can be given, and these are:-

IMPORTS.

These show a decrease of 1,041,917 tons compared with the year

1917.

Increases are shown under the headings beans, flour, liquid fuel, rice, sandalwood, sugar, timber, and general cargo, while decreases are shewn in bulk and case oil, coal, cotton and cotton yarn, rattan, and transit cargo.

Beans.-Show an increase of 36,534 tons. This trade came practi- cally to a standstill in 1917 owing to the troubles in North China.

Flour. Shows an increase of 3,937 tons due to larger shipments from Shanghai.

Liquid Fuel. Shows an increase of 24,979 tons due to a greater demand by shipping on this commodity for bunkers.

Rice. Shows an increase of 47,952 tons due to the high freights obtainable during the year and large quantities having been discharged at this Port for re-shipment to Japan.

 Sandalwood.-Shows an increase due to one vessel being available solely for this trade during the year.

Sugar.-Shows an increase of 115,423 tons due to former restrictions placed by the Dutch Authorities in Java being removed.

Timber.-Shows a small increase chiefly accounted for through small shipments from Pacific Ports.

General Cargo. Shows an increase of 80,246 tons principally due to larger quantities being discharged at this Port waiting tranship- ment.

Decreases :-

Bulk and Case Oil.-Show a decrease of 23,536 tons mainly due to the shortness of tonnage and a smaller demand by Chinese, owing to the danger in carriage through piratical bands in Southern China.

Coal. Shows a decrease of 371,325 tons due to the high prices prevailing and shortness of tonnage.

Cotton Yarn and Cotton.-Show a further decrease this year of 23,556 tons due to the general shortness of tonnage.

Transit Cargo.-Shows a decrease of 935,657 tons principally due to the restrictions on exports for European countries and short- ness of tonnage.

Detailed and accurate statistics of imports and exports are now collected and published by the Imports and Exports Department.

OPIUM.

The imports and exports of certificated opium during the year are as follows :-

Import Exports

Malwa, Patna. Chests.

Benares.

Total.

Chests.

Chests.

Chests.

.......

1351

275

89

499!

Thirty-seven (37) chests of certificated opium out of 4991 chests were exported to Canton, and the rest exported to Shanghai.

Four hundred and three (403) chests of Persian opium were imported during the year, and 366 chests were exported to Formosa,

410

6

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL,

 Eight hundred and fifty six (856) chests of uncertificated Indian opium were imported: 456 chests for the Government Monopoly, and the remaining 400 chests for the Macao opium farmer.

EXPORTS.

 The corresponding figures relating to ships of European type of construction, exporting cargo and shipping bunker coal, are as follows:-

1917.

1918.

Increase.

Decrease.

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.

3,571 6,139,214 3,332 4,862,038

Steamers River Steamers.. 4,153 2,415,846 3,657 2,028,085 Sailing Vessels

Total

3

7,396

2391,277,176 496 387,761

7,396

7,724 8,555,060 6,992 6,897,519 3 7,396 7351,664,937

Deduct Increase

Net Decrease

3 7.396

732 |1,657,541

Exported 2,617,464 tons, including River Trade, as compared with 2,514,331 tons in 1917.

1917.

1918.

Increase.

Decrease.

Strs.

Bunker

Coal. Strs.

Bunker Coal.

Bunker

Bunker Strs. Coal. Strs. Coal.

·

Steamers

3,571 407,395|3,332 357,109 River Steamers 4,153 76,582 | 3,657

52,322

239 50,286 496 24,260

Total

7,724 483,977|6,989| 409,431.

735

74,546

Net Decrease

735 74,546

Emigration and Immigration.

 Forty-three thousand eight hundred and thirty (43,830) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1918, (96,298 in 1917). Of these, 18,193 were carried in British ships, and 25,637 in foreign ships.

Seventy-four thousand one hundred and nine (74,109) returning emigrants were reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from coast ports, as against 98,232 in 1917. Of these 35,109 arrived in British ships and 39,000 in foreign ships.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1918.

Statement of Number of Emigrants to Straits Settlements, 1909 to 1918, compared with Total Chinese Emigration.

No. of Emigrants

to

Straits Settlements.

411

7

Total No. of

Emigrants.

1909

48,016

77,430

1910

··

76,705

111,058

1911

100,906

135,565

1912

84,024

122,657

1913

102,353

142,759

1914

44,974

76,296

1915

41,278

68,275

1916

82,797

117,653

1917

63,292

96,298

1918

39,196

43,830

(6)-INDUSTRIES.

(i)-Under European Management.

 Engineering and Shipbuilding.-The figures are as follows for the years 1917 and 1918:-

Taikoo Dockyard & Eng.

Co., Ltd.

Hong Kong & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ltd.

Ah King

Sum Kee

W. S. Bailey & Co.

Total

1917.

4 vessels of 8,919 gross tons and 5,850 I.II.R

9

3

3

""

14,954 112

9,400 96

""

""

"

""

42

56

""

65

105

""

..26 vessels of 24,092 gross tons and 15,507 I.H.P.

Taikoo Dockyard & Eng.

Co., Ltd.

Hongkong & Whampoa

Dock Co., Ltd. W. S. Bailey & Co. Kwong Tuck Cheong Lau Sum Kee

1918.

2 vessels of 3,456 gross tons and 1,700 I.H.P.

6

6

""

2

""

1

""

5,489 150 1,723 1,030

""

""

5,810 200

""

""

99

""

""

900

""

480

"

Total

17 vessels of 11,848 gross tons and 9,090 I.H.P.

 Sugar Refineries.-The year 1918 was remarkable for the un- precedented rise in the price of Java raw sugars-from less than f. 5.00 in July to about f. 12.50 in November. Demand in China was strong throughout the major portion of the year, but business was severely curtailed in the early summer through the tonnage re- strictions imposed by the authorities in Java. Thereafter imports were on a heavy scale, and China readily absorbed all available sup- plies of Hong Kong Refineds, until the last two months of the year,

412

8

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

when the increasing tightness of money, coupled with advances in rates, checked business very considerably. Demand from the Persian Gulf continued strong, but business bulked much less than in 1917 owing to the very restricted tonnage available, the greater part of the carrying being done by Japanese bottoms.

 Cotton Yarn.-The influence of the War upon the yarn trade (as upon all business) has been more acutely felt than ever during the past year, and although there has been a wide range of fluctuations in price, the trading has been generally profitable for both merchants and dealers.

 American cotton in Liverpool was priced at 23-20 pence per lb. at the beginning of the year, and at 22 20 at the close. The highest point reached was 25.94 in September.

 The year opened with Exchange at 3/-T/T. It rose as high as 3/8 in September, and closed at 3/41.

 The quantity of yarn (as of all merchandise) coming to the Colony has been considerably below that of former years, but statistics based on values, however, would probably not reveal this conclusively, owing to the high cost of raw materials, freight, insurance, and other charges, which of course swell the value figures as compared with those of quantity.

 The off-take by Southern China has been curtailed owing to the high prices now required for most goods, and to the decreased purchasing power due to war conditions adversely affecting China's export trade.

 Trade has suffered by the political chaos that exists in China and there has been a lack of confidence in native circles caused by many of the usual trade routes being infested by pirates and bandits recruited from the disbanded but unpaid soldiery, which has served to check the free flow of goods and money.

 The statistical position of trade in most goods however is sound, and granted settled conditions the prospects of business are encourag- ing.

 Rope Making.--The demand for Manila cordage was not so good and the total turnover showed a falling off from that of the previous twelve months. The high cost of raw materials and increased rates of freight were maintained throughout the year and these together with the high exchange greatly affected business with gold standard countries. Not only this, but the consumption of rope was naturally affected by war conditions, and the demand for cordage especially towards the end of the year fell off considerably.

 Cement Making. The demand continued good during the year although there were still difficulties in obtaining freight room, and the high exchange interfered to a large extent with exports to gold standard countries. It was necessary to raise selling prices during the year owing to the high cost of coal, but on the whole the turnover compares favourably with the last two years.

Tin.-Business in this commodity remained about the same as in 1917. Imports from Yunnan during the year amounted to about 12,500 tons, and from Kwangsi to about 200 tons, as against 11,000 tons and 200 tons respectively in 1917. From Java 500 tons were imported.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1918.

413

9

 During the year about 400 tons were exported to Japan, 1,200 tons to Shanghai and other China coasts ports, and 10,700 tons to Europe, Canada, and the United States of America.

Rattan and Fibre Furniture.-The value of rattan and fibre furniture exported during 1918 declined to $10,000 from $200,000. The value of rattan canes exported was about $1,600,000, and that of grass and reed was about $230,000, as against $1,500,000 and $130,000 respectively in 1917.

Native Tobacco.-Business was about the same as in 1917.

 Tinned Goods.-The volume of business done during the year was about the same as in 1917.

Samshu.-The volume on business done during 1918 was about the same as in 1917.

Vinegar. The business was about the same as in 1917.

 Knitted Vests and Socks.--Business declined by 20 per cent., but prices went up about 15 per cent.

Leather and Hides.-Business showed a decrease of over 30 per cent. Ginger and Preserves.-This has been a bad year, owing to the absence of orders from Europe and America.

 Soy. About 400 casks were exported in 1918 as compared with 950 casks in 1917.

 Paper.-Business in this article maintained the same level in 1918 as in 1917, though prices went up by over 30 per cent. Of the

Of the papers imported during the year about 80 per cent. were of Japanese manu- facture.

Vermilion. The business done in 1918 amounted to about $700,000, as compared with about $600,000 in 1917.

Lard-Business declined by 50 per cent. as compared with 1917.

(c)-FISHERIES.

 A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(d)-FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE, AND BOTANY.

About 35,000 pine tree seedlings were planted on the hills in the vicinity of the Fanling Golf Course, over 8,000 in the Cheungshawan catchment area, and 1,000 on Cheung Chau Island.

 On the hills east of the Fanling Golf Course, pine tree seeds were sown in situ from which about 105,000 trees have been raised.

 At Aberdeen nearly 9,000 pine trees were raised from seeds sown in situ.

Creepers damaging trees in various plantations in Hong Kong were cut.

About 3,000,000 square feet of undergrowth were cleared in con- nection with anti-malarial measures.

In connection with survey and other works, about 4,500,000 square feet of undergrowth were cleared.

 Vegetables were grown in the economic garden, Fanling, for demon- stration purposes.

414

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

10

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

The crops of rice, lichees, and peanuts were fair.

 Several hundred specimens of Kwangtung and other plants were presented to the Department by the Bureau of Science, Manila, and the Canton Christian College.

A few additions were made to the local flora.

(e)- - ·LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.

The net amount of premium received from sales of Crown land and pier rights for the year 1918 was $243,530, an increase of $95,444 on the preceding year, and $59,538 more than the average for the past five years.

The principal items were $42,980 in respect of an extension of Kowloon Marine Lot No. 27 and Hunghom Inland Lot No. 218, $25,800 in respect of Aberdeen Inland Lots Nos. 81 to 88, $23,174 in respect of Hunghom Inland Lots Nos. 257 and 258, and $19,116 in respect of Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1357.

In the New Territories the net amount received for premium on sales of land was $54,052, being an increase of $42,430 on the pre- ceding year.

The number of deeds registered in the Land Office was 2,922 or 98 more than the preceding year, the total consideration being $47,726,785 as against $42,666,837 in 1917.

The Government resumed several large areas during the year, including Kowloon Marine Lot No. 83, Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1178 and section A of Farm Lot No. 22.

 The total area of land granted during the year was 890 acres, of which 664 acres were situated in the New Territories; the total area of land resumed was 482 acres.

In the Northern District of the New Territories there was rather less demand for house sites and agricultural land but this was more than made up for by increased demand for land, for growing fruit and other trees. Applicants have in several cases been allowed to purchase grave sites on the more remote hillsides on condition of planting the neighbourhood with trees, a condition which they are quite ready to accept.

In the Southern District the demand for land has been about the same as in previous years.

III.-LEGISLATION.

 Fifteen Ordinances were passed during 1918 of which six were amendments of previous Ordinances.

 The most important matters with which these Ordinances dealt were the Indecent Exhibitions (No. 3), Bills of Exchange (Time of Noting) (No. 4), Claims against Enemies (No. 5), Peak District (Residence) (No. 8), General Military Service (No. 9), Copyright (No. 11), and Opium (No. 13).

IV.-EDUCATION.

 No important changes have taken place in the Education Department during the year under review. The staff has been depleted by causes due to the War, but the deficiency has been met in part by the appoint- ment of mistresses resident in the Colony.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1918.

415

11

 The most important schools, apart from the excluded schools, are Queen's College for Chinese, four District Schools its feeders, and the Belilios Public School for Chinese girls. There is an Indian School of growing importance now housed in a new building presented to the Colony by Sir Ellis Kadoorie. Kowloon School and Victoria School for children of British parentage have an average attendance of about 120. There is also a school for the children of the Peak District. The Diocesan School and Orphanage and St. Joseph's College are important boy's schools in receipt of an annual grant. The Italian, French, and St. Mary's Convents, and the Diocesan Girls' School, are the most important of the English Grant Schools for girls.

 The Hong Kong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education of students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1918 in mathematics, machine drawing, architectural design, and building construction; in chemistry and physics; in commercial English, logic, and political economy; and in French, shorthand, and book-keeping. Classes in sanitation (public hygiene) are also held, the examinations being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Sanitary Institute, London. Classes for men and women teachers, both English" and

              and "Vernacular," are a feature of the Institute.

 The lecturers are recruited from the members of the Medical and Educational faculties of the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.

 The University of Hong Kong is an institution that arose from the joint enterprise of British and Chinese subscribers. It was founded with funds representing about equal proportions of Chinese and British money.

 At the end of the year the number of students was 224, 76 of whom were taking the engineering course, 75 medicine, and 73 arts. While most of the students have studied in Hong Kong schools, a number come from Canton, the coast ports of China, the Straits Settlements, Siam, Japan, and Russia. There are numerous scholarships, including those founded in honour of King Edward VII, the President of the Republic of China and various Provincial Governments.

 The idea of the University is to provide, close to China, education for Chinese similar to that given in the British Universities, but at a much cheaper cost; for if a Chinese goes abroad to be educated he has to pay, besides travelling expenses, some $2,500 per annum ; whereas at Hong Kong the expenses of the University are $540 per annum for board and tuition, or including extras about a minimum of $1,000 per annum.

 The founders of the University took into consideration the fact that Chinese students being educated abroad have usually to make their own arrangements for board and lodging. Consequently some- times they contract irregular habits. All students educated at the Hong Kong University are required to become boarders, and thus their whole lives are under supervision whilst they are there. Ample- provision is made for indoor and outdoor recreation, and in this con- nection it is interesting to note that the Chinese residents of Hong Kong

416

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

12

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL.

subscribed a large sum for levelling a new playing field for cricket, tennis, etc. There is also a University Union building for social purposes.

The University is composed of three Faculties: 1.-Medical, which offers ample facilities for the practice of medicine. The medical laboratories were the gifts of various Hong Kong Chinese residents. There is a large staff of instructors in medicine and all the principal medical practitioners in Hong Kong give lectures at the University. Clinical work is carried on at the Government Civil and Tung Wah Hospitals. The degrees are recognised for registration in Great Britain by the General Medical Council. 2.--Arts. The establish- ment of this Faculty was largely due to the munificence of a Chinese gentleman in the Straits Settlements (Mr. Cheung Pat-sze). Its special object is to provide training suitable to those who desire to enter the public service or the higher branches of mercantile life. The course of instruction comprises English and Chinese literature, political and constitutional history, political economy, jurisprudence, international and commercial law, psychology, the school practice of education and history of educational theories. 3-Engineering. This Faculty is divided into three branches-Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical. The University has an exceptionally large equipment of machinery and apparatus, and has a number of laboratories and workshops. There is practically no place in China where students have such an opportunity of seeing all kinds of machinery in actual working and of learning their practical management. Several graduates have obtained an Honour's Degree awarded by the Examiners of the London University.

The University insists upon all students having a proper knowledge of their own language although instruction at the University is carried out in English. Students are required to pass an examination in written Chinese before entering, and two Chinese professors, both Hanlin graduates, give lectures on the classics and history of China.

V.-PUBLIC WORKS.

The extension of the Central Police Station referred to in last year's report was practically at a standstill throughout the year as the iron girders and stanchions required did not arrive until December. An extension of the Harbour office building, erected in 1907, which will form the northern section of an extensive range of offices for the Imports and Exports Department, was begun.

The market at Shamshuipo was completed. A site for a market at Tai O (Lantao Island) was reclaimed from the sea, the erection of the building itself being well advanced.

The erection of a second block of quarters for subordinate officers (6 houses) in Kowloon, near King's Park, was begun.

  The construction of the additional service reservoir and filter beds for the supply of the western section of the City was nearly completed: The laying of an additional supply main from the Kowloon Storage Reservoir to Yaumati was begun with surplus pipes remaining from the Taitam Tuk Water Works. Operations had to be suspended however as, owing to the War, the additional pipes required were not obtainable.

1904-1919

HONG KONG, 1918.

417

13

 In Kowloon, the construction of a new road to afford more direct access to the southern portion of the Taikoktsui peninsula was under- taken, the work being well advanced by the close of the year.

 Kowloon Marine Lot 83 and Kowloon Inland Lot 1178, situated in Hunghom Bay, were resumed by Government with a view to future railway developments and the provision of facilities for discharging and loading vessels. With the same objects in view, arrangements were made with the China Light and Powe