Colonial Administration Reports 1844-1886





1841-1886

H 0 N G K O N G.

RETURN to an Address of the Honourable The House of Commons,

dated 29 January 1846;-for,

A "RETURN of the ANNUAL RECEIPT and EXPENDITURE of the Colony of Hong Kong, made up to the latest Period for which Accounts have been received, showing the Gross Receipts from the various Branches of Revenue, under their different Heads; distinguishing the Amounts levied in the Colony from Parliamentary Grants, and stating the Expenditure under its various Branches."

Colonial Office, Downing-street,]

LYTTELTON,

264.

■ May 1846.

1

(Dr. Bowring.)

Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 4 May 1846.

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

(A.)

ABSTRACT of the RECEIPTS and Disbursements of the Government of Hong Kong, from 1st May 1841 to 30th June 1843.

RECEIPTS:

Fines and Forfeitures in Magistrates' Courts

Spirit Licenses

Murket Rents

Sale of a lousc

-

Penalties for Breach of Contruct

Rent of Quarters occupied by Military Officers

£. S.

£. s. d.

1,003 12

3

50 6

-

2

541 8

3

117 11

181 10

G

272 18 0

AIDS:

From the Canton Ransom Fund

From the East India Company's Paymaster From Bills on Her Majesty's Treasury -

TOTAL RECEIPTS

54,760 15

33,840

3,000

5

-

2,230 5 2

01,000 16

L.

03,837

DISBURSEMENTS:

Salarics

5,101 8 7

Wages and Contingent Expenses:

General Department

3,106 08

Chief Magistrate's Department

3,258 10 8

Marine Department

1,202

-

81

Land Department, including Civil Works

20,144 17

8

38,812 13

4

Military Works

49,402 1 G

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS

£.

88,274 14 10

Audit Oflice, 1 6 March 1846. J

W. I. ferrics. 11. F. Laittrell.

A. Grant.

1841-1886

RETURN of the ANNUAL RECEIPT and EXPENDITURE of the Colony of Hong Kong, made up to the latest Period for which Accounts have been received, showing the Gross Receipts from the various Branches of Revenue, under their different IIcads; distinguishing the Amounts levied in the Colony from Parliamentary Grants, and stating the Expenditure under its various Branches.

* 1st July 1843 to 31st March 1844.

Rents of land

RECEIPTS:

£.. 3. d. 441 4 11

£. s. th.

Fines, Fees, &c., in Magistrates' Courts

Spirit Licenses

-

Market Rents

Rent of Quarters occupied by Military Officers

AIDS lovicd in the COLONY:

From the Canton Ransom Fund

-

Froin the East India Company's Paymastor

330 16 4

21 2 G

.300 8 -1

32 2 8

1,215 13 · 0

6,562 6 8

12,350

18,327 8 A

TOTAL RECEIPT

36,239 144

£.37,455 7 10

EXPENDITURE:

From the China Indemnity Fund

Salarics

Wages to subordinate Persons in the Departments of-

11,322 0 6

I'olico

Marinc

Land

Other Departinents

-

Contingent Expenses in the several Departments

Rent of Houses used as Offices

1,158.12:5

360 2 1

323 1 7

135 4

2,216 16

C

-

276 10 10

Erection and Repair of Buildings

3,981 10

3

Formation of Roads

Compensation for Loss by Fire

1,754 18

65

-

Payment for Gun-boats

-

134 0 8

Loss by alteration in the current Value of Coin

200 2 2

Post-Office Expenses

412 8 G

Military Works

22,352 19

4,708 11

9

Advances on account of Expenditure defrayed by Her Ma-

jesty's Superintendent of Trade †

2,700.13 4

Advances to the following Consulates:

Canton

Shanghai

Ningpo

Amoy

Macao

4,230 1

3

2,400

<

D

1,625

1,468 6

8

031 13 4

13,510 15

4

TOTAL EXPENDITURE

* The Island of Hong Kong was ceded to the Crown 1 July 1843.

£. | 40,572 6

+ In addition to the above, a further sum of 1,369 I. 12s. 5 d. was expended for the Establish-

ment of the Superintendent of Trade, to meet which, Bills were drawn on the Lords of the Treasury.

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east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

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PAPERS RELATING TO THE COLONY OF HONG KONG, &c.

No. 1.-

LO

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(Separate.)

COPY of DESPATCH from Governor Davis to the Right Hou. Lord Stanley.

My Lord,

Victoria, Hong Kong, 20 August 1844. (Received, 5 December 1844.)

(Answered, No. 66, 17 December 1844, p. 15:)

No. 1. Governor Davis to the Right Hon. Lord Stanley.

20 Aug. 1844,

HAVING been requested by Mr. R. M. Martin to forward to your Lordship the Enclosure No. 1.

accompanying observations from himself on the colony of Ilong Kong, I have complied with his request; but at the same time caused to be addressed to him the enclosed letter, in which I have conveyed my general opinion as to his paper.

 It is fair, however, to Mr. Martin to observe, that his remarks were written after only a few weeks' residence, under circumstances of very indifferent health. I could easily point out errors in regard to facts and conclusions (did I deem it necessary to dwell upon the subject), some of which will be sufficiently apparent from the public despatches.

 I regret the strength of expression which Mr. Martin has made use of in this paper, since much of it must be viewed as applying to the proceedings and representations of my distinguished predecessor, Sir Henry Pottinger. I do not deem it necessary, however, to detain your Lordship further on the subject, except to observe, that I cannot give the sanction of my opinion on its general

tenor.

I have, &c.

(signed)

J. F. Davis.

Enclosure No. 2. Page 15.

Enclosure 1, in No. 1.

REPORT on the Island of HONG KONG.

LOCALITY.

 IIONG KONG, which in the Chinese language signifies, "Red IIarbour," is in north lat. 22° 16' 27", east long. 114° 14′ 48′′, distant about 40 miles cast from Macao. It forms one of the numerous but scattered group of lofty islands termed the "Ladrones," which vary in size and height, but agree in their arid and rugged features. The length of the island from cast to west is about eight miles, with a breadth of from two to four miles. It is separated from the main land of China by a strait or inlet of the sea, varying in breadth from half a mile to three miles; one entrance, the Lymoon Pass, being only about one quarter of a mile wide.

PHYSICAL ASPECT.

 The island consists of a broken ridge or "hogsback" of mountainous hills running from W. N. W. to E. S. E., at an average height of about 1,000 feet; but from this ridge and its spurs various conical mountains are elevated to the height of 1,500 to 2,000 feet above the sca, and very precipitous; the whole island, indeed, rises abruptly from the occan, particu- larly on the north face. There are a few narrow valleys and deep ravines through which tho sca occasionally bursts, or which serve as conduits for the mountain torrents; but on the north side of the island, especially where the town of Victoria is built, the rocky ridge approaches close to the sea, and it was only by hewing through this ridge that a street or road could be made to connect the straggling town of Victoria, which stretches along the water's edge for nearly four miles, although only comprising about 60 European houses, and several Chinese huts and bazaars. Here and there, on the tops of some isolated hills, or along the precipitous slopes of the mountains, some houses have been constructed; but the rugged, broken, and abrupt precipices, and deep rocky ravines, will ever effectually prevent the formation at Victoria of any concentrated town, adapted for mutual protection, cleanliness, and comfort. Hong Kong cannot be said to possess any vegetation; a few goats, with difficulty, find pasturago; after the heavy rains of May, June, and July, the

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Encl. 1, in No. 1.

Report on the Island of Hong Kong.

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hills assume somewhat of a greenish hue, like a decayed Stilton cheese; but the whity- brown or red streaked ridges, with the scattered masses of black rocks, give a most unin- viting and desolato aspect to the island, which is unrelieved by tho adjacent main land, whose physical features are precisely similar to those of Hong Kong, its mountain tops and sides presenting the appearance of a negro streaked with leprosy.

GEOLOGY.

 There is no igncous formation in Hong Kong; the island partakes of the same geologi- cal character as the whole south coast of China, excepting that it seems of older formation. The structure may be briefly described as consisting of decomposed coarse granite, inter- mixed with strata of a red disintegrating sandstone, crumbling into a stiff, ferruginous- looking clay. Here and there huge boulder-stones, which gunpowder will not blast, may be found embedded in a stiff pudding earth, or they are strewed over the tops and sides of the mountains. Gncis and feltspar are found in fragments; that the granite is rotten and passing, like dead animal and vegetable substances, into a putrescent state, is evidenced from the crumbling of the apparently solid rock beneath the touch, and from the noisome vapour which it yields when the sun strikes fervidly on it after rain. On examining the sites of houses in Victoria, whose foundations were being excavated in the sides of the hills, the strata appeared like a richly prepared compost, emitting a fetid odour of the most sickening nature, and which at night must prove a deadly poison. This strata quickly absorbs any quantity of rain, which it returns to the surface in the nature of a pestiferous mineral gas. The position of the town of Victoria, which may be likened to the bottom of a crater with a lake, prevents the dissipation of this gas, while the geological formation favours the retention of a mortific poison on the surface, to be occasionally called into deadly activity. There is no extent of marsh on the island capable of generating miasın; but the heavy rains are annually washing large portions of the mountains through deep ravines into the Bay, and thus continually exposing a fresh rotten surface to the sun's rays, and preserving a focus of discase which will finally become endemic. Vast quantitics of the silt from the hills are being deposited along the shores of the harbour, which owing to this circumstance, and the rapid receding of the tides from this coast, is becoming shoaler every day. The greater extent of the bay has only four to five fathoms, and in the depth of the stream there is only six to seven fathoms. In no great interval of time the harbour of Hong Kong will be too shoal in many places for large vessels.

CLIMATE.

It is difficult to convey by thermometrical registers an accurate idea of the climate of any place. The range of the thermometer will not indicate the pressure of the atmosphere; the barometer in or near the tropics is of little utility as an index; the hygrometer, imper- fectly shows the quantity of rain which is in solution; while the height of the land, its configuration, the nature of the soil, the extent and quality of the vegetation, the expo- sure to the sea, all influence what is comprised under the word climate. In some respects the whole coast of China partakes of the climatic characteristics of the opposite consts of the American continent, particularly as regards the extremes of temperature and its de- pressing influence on mental or bodily exertion.

For six months in the year, April to September, the heat varies from 70 to 90° F. (see Monthly Thermometrical Register* in Appendix), but occasionally during the other six months the heat is also very great, the thermometer having been known to stand at 80. F. on Christmas Day. The island being on the verge of the tropics, is subject to almost the extremes of the torrid and temperate zones, even on the same day the range of mercury in the thermometer is very great, and the vicissitudes are exceedingly trying to the Euro- pean constitution. But neither the range from heat to cold, nor the quantity of moisture in the atmosphere, will adequately convey an idea of the effects that this climate is capable of producing on the human frame.

During April, and part of May, when the sun is approaching rapidly from the Equator, there is a dry, burning heat, with a cloudless sky; but towards the end of May, and through- out June, as also during part of July, the rain descends in torrents, with a force and conti- nuance such as I have never seen in India, Africa, Australasia, or any other part of the world. The clouds pour down one vast sheet of water, washing away hills and rocks, furrowing the island with deep ravines, and saturating the soft, porous, putrescent strata to the extent of many feet, with daily renewed moisture. In the intervals of rain, the vertical sun acts with an intense evaporating power, and a noxious steam or vapour rises from the fetid soil, yielding a gas of a most sickly and deleterious nature, exactly such as I experi- enced on the coast of Africa in 1824, when I was seized with an "earth fever," while in Her Majesty's service, from the effects of which I with great difficulty recovered, but of which most of my brother officers perished.

This morbific gas does not arise from vegetable or animal decomposition; there is none on the island of any extent; but decomposed mineral substances yield an acriform poison, under some circumstances, of a more deadly nature than either of the other kingdoms of nature. This gas does not rise more than a few feet from the earth; it slowly mingles with the surrounding atmosphere, and when not causing immediate illness, produces a depressing effect on mind and body which undermines and destroys the strongest constitutions.

Military and naval men who have served in Africa and in India, feel the effects of the cun in Hong Kong in a manner never before experienced; even at Macao, only 40 miles

west

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COLONY OF HONG KONG, &c.

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west of Hong Kong, Europeans may walk about the whole day in the month of July, when to do so at Hong Kong would be attended with almost certain death. Neither sepoys nor Chinese can endure the climate even so well as Europeans, whose stamina they do not possess. The Chinese deem it a dangerous experiment to prolong their abode in the island beyond a certain time; they have ever viewed the climate as injurious to health and fatal to life. The Europeans who survive two or three years' residence in this climate, get a lassitude of frame and an irritability of fibre which destroys the spring of existence. malign influence operates on the system in a most distressing inauner, which is not removed by a return to Europe; on the contrary, the sufferers frequently die in England soon after their arrival.

DISEASES ANd MortaliTY.

A

The prevailing disease of Hong Kong is a fever combining the character of the African and West India fevers. It was at first supposed to be epidemic, but it has now become endemic, and may be assumed to be the fixed malady of the island. Diarrhea and dysentery form the next most fatal class of diseases. Last year the strength per annum of the European and Native troops was 1,526, and the number who passed through hospital in the year, amounted to 7,893; thus, on an average, every man went through the hospital more than five times in the year! Of the diseases with which they were afflicted, 4,069 were fevers; 762, diarrhea; 497, dysentery; and 180 were pulmonic complaints. The total number of deaths out of 1,526 men, was 440, or 1 in 3 §. ~ The fatal fever cases were 155; ditto, diarrhea, 80; the fatal dysentery cases were 137. The destruction of life since our occupation of Hong Kong has been enormous. Last year the deaths among the troops in the island amounted to 1 in 3; at Chusau, to 1 in 29; and at Koolungsoo, to 1 in 12 §. Her Majesty's 98th Regiment lost at IIong Kong in 21 months, 257 men by death. But in this and other regiments, it is not merely the deaths which indicate disease and a pernicious climate, it is the number of men invalided, and constantly unfit for duty. One-half the men of a company are frequently unable to attend the parade; out of 100 men, there are sometimes not more than five or six men fit for duty.

 The Royal Artillery, the finest military corps in the world, out of 135 men and officers, lost in two years, 51 by death (of whom 35 died at Hong Kong during the last six months of 1843), and 45 by invaliding. That Hong Kong was the cause of their death will be scen from the fact that Colonel Knowles's detachment of the Royal Artillery, went through the whole of the war at Canton, and at the Yang-tse-Kiang River; the detachment was out here three years; it never landed at Hong Kong; one man was killed, and another died of dropsy, but the whole of the remainder of the detachment returned to England except the commanding officer, Lieutenant-colonel Knowles, who landed at Hong Kong, and died of fever.

The officers of the Royal Artillery died in the same proportion as the men; out of nine officers who came out with the original detachment, but one escaped disease or death.

Last year there were severe losses in the ships of war. Her Majesty's ship " Agincourt" lost during the sickly season of 1843, 60 men, of whom 20 were marines; 40 men were invalided home, of whom few would recover. Since leaving England in May 1842, the "Agincourt" has been obliged to enter 160 seamen from merchant ships. The cause assigned for the severe illness of the marines and seamen of last year, was the being obliged to land guards to protect stores at West Point. This year the "Agincourt" sends no men on shore, or on night duty, and out of 600 men there are only 23, including slight hurts, in the sick list. This tests the insalubrity of the shore.

The deaths in the naval force at Hong Kong and Whampoa, for the six sickly monthis, ending October 1843, were 4 per cent.; while for the same period on shore, the deaths among the troops averaged 24 per cent.; and even among the European civilians, the estimate was 10 per cent.. In May 1843, the left wing of Her Majesty's 55th Regiment had 16 officers and 491 men in Hong Kong; from thence to November, two officers and 218 men died, and the lives of the remainder were only saved by the prompt, judicious, and humane conduct of General D'Aigular, iu immediately embarking the men for England.

The mortality as yet (July), during the present year, has not been so great, but the sickness is equally destructive of the efficiency of the troops. Chuck-chew, on the south side of Hong Kong, it was hoped would be a healthy station; on 30th June 1844, out of 400 men of Her Majesty's 98th Regiment at Chuck-chew, there were 109 in hospital. Out of 80 lascars at the same station, there were 30 in hospital.

It was supposed that Saiwan, on the south side of Hong Kong, would afford a healthy station for the troops. Government expended about 30,000 dollars in building and

                                          pre- paring a fine set of barracks, of two stories, with every view to comfort and health. The officer of the Royal Engineers having reported the barracks habitable, the general com- ananding sent a medical Board to examine the building and station. The Board reported, that the station at Saiwan appeared healthy; that there was no apparent cause for disense, and that it was eligible for troops. The general resolved to begin with a small detachment, and 20 Europeans were sent to Saiwan. No sentry was to be mounted during the day, and but one at night.

 In five weeks five of the soldiers were dead, three more were in a dangerous state, and four were convalescent. One European woman and child were also dangerously ill.

The remaining men were withdrawn, and a small detachment of native troops are now (17th July 1844) being sent thither, in order to ascertain whether the climate will suit

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   On the 17th July only four men out of the 20 Europeans were reported fit for duty.

The returns made to the army and naval medical Boards will furnish full information of the sufferings of the soldiers and sailors in Iler Majesty's service in this colony.

The Indian troops bear the insalubrity of the climate worse than the Europeans. In the cantonments at the east end of Victoria the 39th Madras Native Infantry, and the 37th Madras Native Infantry, lost nearly half their men in 1842. In 1844 a wing of the 4th Madras Native Infantry landed at Hong Kong 450 men in perfect health, and 53 sick, after a long voyage. There have been already many deaths in the cantonments at the weat end of Victoria; and in June 1844 there were 160 men sick, and the list was daily increasing. From 15th April to 2d July 1844, there died at Hong Kong, out of the small force there, 52 Europeans and 42 native soldiers.

General D'Aguilar says, that the maintenance of a garrison at Hong Kong would cost the Crown one regiment every two years. Estimating each soldier as having cost Government 1007, this would be severe economical loss, and worthy of the consideration of those who would not reflect on the humanity of the subject. To keep 700 effective firelocks in Hong Kong, it is necessary to maintain 1,400 men.

Hong Kong is not less fatal to the Chinese, of whom there are on an average about 600 sick and dying monthly. Dr. Gutzlaff says, "of 100 coolics with whom I was acquainted, there died between 20th May and 15th June 1844, 10 men, whilst 30 left the place diseased." I understand that the whole of these 100 strong men from the cast coast were obliged to leave the colony from sickness. There is no large town or extensive population on the main land of China adjacent to Hong Kong. Dr. Gutzlaff says,

many Chinese have fallen victins in Hong Kong from a malignant fever, which not only deranges the whole system, but hastens the death of the patient." He adds, "there exists amongst the

CC

doctors not one dissentient voice about the fatal tendency of diseases contracted here."

 Nor is it during only one period of the year that the island is unhealthy. In the cold season there are agues, low continued fever, diarrhoea, pulmonary complaints, dropsy, rheumatism, and various other diseases, arising from general debility of the system, and the poisonous atmosphere. On the 25th August 1843, the surveyor-general of the colony reported to Government that "the number of interments has been so great (in the European grave-yard) that the enclosure is almost quite full, and the hill behind is so rocky, that it is impossible to dig into it; therefore ere long it will be necessary to provide another place.' The surveyor-general stated it would be a difficult thing to select another grave-yard, on account of the rocky and uneven nature of the island.

 Let it not be said that the dreadful mortality and sickness of Hong Kong is the result of the newness of the colony, and that all young settlements suffer proportionately. The assertion, if made, is at variance with fact; new colonies, even in the tropics, have not been originally unhealthy. When the West India islands were first colonized they were perfectly healthy, as is proved by the large European population who resorted thither and remained there many years.

Calcutta and Bombay are reputed to have been formerly much healthier than they are at present. The Australian colonics were perfectly healthy when founded, and also the Mauritius and St. Helena. I cannot name a single colony that was originally unhealthy, and that subsequently became salubrious. Soldiers, sailors, and civilians, Europeans and natives, women as well as men, residing in every part of Hong Kong, have fallen victims to the climate, and at all seasons of the year.

 An extensive study of the subject, and no inconsiderable experience in different climates, induces me to concur in the opinion of Dr. Thompson, the respected head of the medical department of Hong Kong, that the island never will be healthy. Its geological character, and the circumvallation of hills surrounding the town and island, render it a hot-bed of disease, which may be more mitigated one year than another, but which will ever and anon recur with increased violence.

 No drainage can obviate this destructive miasm; independent of new roads or buildings, the rain will every year uncover large portions of the hills, washing the putrifying substance down the deep ravines towards the sea, thus generating a fruitful crop of discase.

 We shall have to consider in a subsequent part of this report, whether the objects sought or to be obtained by the possession of Hong Kong, are worth the dreadful sacrifice of life which the maintenance of the present establishment entails.

POPULATION and ProgrESS.

 Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown under the seal of the Imperial Minister and High Commissioner Keshen, in January 1841 (see Captain Elliot's proclamation, dated Hong Kong, 29th January 1841), promising "full security and protection to all British subjects and foreigners residing in or resorting to the island, so long as they shall continue to conform to the authority of Her Majesty's Government, hereby constituted and pro- claimed in and over Hong Kong, &c." By the same proclamation, natives of China were invited to settle in the island, by promising them that they should be "governed according to the laws and customs of China, every description of torture excepted." And by another proclamation, dated Hong Kong, 1841, issued by Sir Gordon Bremer, Commander-in-Chief, and Captain Elliot, Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary, it is declared, "that the island of Hong Kong has now become a part of the dominions of the Queen of England, by clear public agreement between the High Officer of the Celestial and British Courts. The

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COLONY OF HONG KONG, &c.

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Chinese are hereby promised protection, in Her Majesty's gracious name, against all enemies whatever; and they are further secured in the free exercise of their religious rites, ceremonies, and social customs, and in the enjoyment of their lawful private property and interests." Chinese ships, and merchants resorting to the port of Hong Kong for pur- poses of trade, are exempt, in the name of the Queen of England, from charges or duty of any kind to the British Government. The remainder of the proclamation consists of further inducements for the Chinese to settle in and trade with Hong Kong.

A form of government was organised, a chief magistrate, and harbour-master, &c. were appointed; 50 lots of land were sold in June 1841 to Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Dent & Co., MacVicar & Co., Fox, Rawson & Co., Turner, Lindsay & Co., and various other persons, the annual rent of which amounted to 3,2241. Each lot was required to have a building erected within six months, of the appraised value of 1,000 dollars; and a deposit of 500 dollars was required to be lodged with the treasurer as a security for the performance of this engagement. Building commenced with great spirit; the Government spent very large sums of money on the island, and the harbour was filled with ships of war and transports. The island has now had a fair trial of more than three and a half years. We shall inquire what progress it has made in population.

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9

On taking possession of Hong Kong, it was found to contain about 7,500 inhabtants, scattered over 20 fishing hamlets and villages. The requirements of the fleet and troops, the demands for labourers to make roads and houses, and the servants of Europeans, increased the number of inhabitants, and in March 1842, they were numbered at 12,361. In April, 1844, the number of Chinese on the island is computed at 19,000, of whom not more than 1,000 arc women and children. In the census are included 97 women slaves, and the females attendant on 31 brothels, eight gambling-houses, and 20 opium shops, &c. It is literally true, that after three years-and-a-half uninterrupted settlement, there is not one respectable Chinese inhabitant on the island. One man of wealth, named Chinam, who had been engaged in the opium trade, came to Hong Kong, built a good house, and freighted a ship. IIe soon returned to Canton, and died there of a fever and cold, contracted at Hong Kong. It was understood, however, that had he lived he would have been prohibited returning to Hong Kong, the policy of the mandarins on the adjacent coast being to prevent all respectable Chinese from settling at Hong Kong, and in consc- quence of the hold which they possess on their families and relatives, this can be done most effectually; at the same time, I believe that they encourage and promote the deportation of every thief, pirate, and idle or worthless vagabond, from the main land to Hong Kong. The Rev. Dr. Gutzlaff, who has been engaged in making the recent census, appended to * Not received this report, referring to the fishermen who formed the greater part of the population of the with this Report. island on our arrival, says, "they are a roving set of beings, floating on the wide face of the occan with their families; committing depredations whenever it can be done with_im- punity." "The stone-cutters have been working here for many years before our arrival. The majority of these men are unprincipled. They cannot be considered as domesticated, and are in the habit of going and coming according to the state of trade."

"The most nuinerous class who have since our arrival fixed themselves on the island, are from Whampoa; many of them are of the worst character, and ready to commit any atrocity." The capital of the shopkeepers is very small; the most of them live from hand to mouth, and lead a life of expedients, without principle and self-control." "It is very natural that depraved, idle, and bad characters from the adjacent main and islands, should flock to the colony where some money can be made." Dr. Gutzlaff, whose prepossessions are strongly in favour of the Chinese, concludes this portion of the memorandum with which he has favoured me, as follows: "The moral standard of the people congregated in this place (IIong Kong) is of the lowest description." This observation is fully borne out by the numerous murders, piracies, burglaries, and robberies of every description which have taken place during the last three years, and with almost perfect impunity, for the Chinese are formed into secret societies for the mutual protection of villains, and no man dare inform against another. At this moment (July 1844) the European inhabitants are obliged to sleep with loaded pistols under their pillows; frequently to turn out of their beds at midnight to protect their lives and property from gangs of armed robbers, who are ready to sacrifice a few of their number if they can obtain a large plunder. This state of things was long ago predicted. In the "Canton Register," of 23d February 1841, it was stated, "Hong Kong will be the resort and rendezvous of all the Chinese smugglers; opium smoking-shops and gambling-houses will soon spread; to those hunts will flock all the discontented and bad spirits of the empire; the island will be surrounded by shameens, and become a Gehenna of the waters." Three years have completely fulfilled this prediction, and neither time nor circumstances will now ever alter the character of the place; no Chinese of the humbler class will even bring their wives and children to the colony. He must be a sanguine visionary who expects that Hong Kong will ever contain a numerous and respectable Chinese population. And, as regards the present inhabitants (if a nigratory race who are constantly changing deserve that epithet), their diminution by one-half would be satisfactory, for then, a control by registration might be exercised, and life and property be rendered in some degee secure. The daring character of the population, and its worthlessness for all useful civil purposes in the formation of a colony, will be seen in the following incident:

On the 27th September 1843, the IIon. Major Caine, the chief magistrate, issued a pro- clamation for pulling down some mat sheds which harboured a gang of ruffians who were nightly

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nightly engaged in plundering the town. In the beginning of October 1843, the Chinese robbers posted a counter proclamation on the gate of No. 1, Market-place, in the chiefTM thoroughfare, declaring that if they left the island themselves, they would "compel others to do so," taking with them their merchandise and property, and warning people to be cautious how they ventured out after dark, lest they met with some unexpected harm;" at the same time, the Government coal depôts were set on fire; the mat barracks of the 41st Regiment, and the Market-place, No. 1, were attempted to be burned; and at noon a number of Chinamen, armed with knives, entered the market-place, threatened all around, wounded an European policeman, and then walked away unmolested. The number of" prisoners in the gaol of Hong Kong averaged, during 1843-44, from 60 to 90 a month; nearly every prisoner was Chinese, and the crimes with which they were charged were invariably piracy, murder, burglary, robbery, &c. There has been no diminution of crime; the number of prisoners in the gaol have increased; and the nightly robberies are as fre- quent, if not more so, than they were three years ago. The shopkeepers do not remain more than a few months on the island, when another set takes their place. There is, in fact, a continual shifting of a Bedouin sort of population, whose migratory, predatory, gambling and dissolute habits, utterly unfit them for continuous industry, and render them not only useless but highly injurious subjects in the attempt to form a new colony. There are no other inhabitants. A few lascars seek employment in ships. The European inhabi- tants, independent of those in the employ of Government, consist of members of about 12 mercantile houses, and their clerks. "A few persons have arrived here from New South Wales to try and better their fortune, many of whom would be glad to return thither.

 The principal mercantile firms are those engaged in the opium trade, who have removed hither from Macao, as a safer position for an opium depôt, and which they frankly admit is the only trade Hong Kong will ever possess. The opium belonging to the two principal firms is not, however, lodged on shore, it is kept in "receiving ships," the "Hormanjec Bomanjce," belonging to Jardine, Matheson & Co., and the "John Barry," belonging to Dent & Co. Even the money used by those firms is not entrusted on shore, but is kept in the receiving ships; and the three or four others partially engaged in the opium trade carry on this business in IIong Kong; the tea trade is carried on distinctly at Canton, by members of the firms resident there. Excepting the six firms engaged in the opium trade, the other six houses are small, and are principally agents for manufactures, &c. in Great Britain. The expense of establishments, the high rate of interest on money, and the want of trade, will, it is said, probably ere long compel the removal or breaking up of several of the small houses. There is scarcely a firm in the island but would, I understand, be glad to get back half the money they have expended in the colony, and retire from the place. A sort of hallucination seems to have seized those who built houses here; they thought that Hong Kong would rapidly out-rival Singapore, and become the Tyre or Carthage of the castern hemisphere. Three years' residence, and the experience thence derived, have materially sobered their views. Unfortunately the Government of the colony fostered the delusion respecting the colony. The leading Government officers bought land, built houses or bazaars, which they rented out at high rates, and the public money was lavished in the most extraordinary manner, building up, and pulling down temporary structures, making zigzag bridle-paths over the hills and mountains, and forming the" Queen's Road" of about three to four miles long, on which about 180,000 dollars have been expended, but which is not passable for half the year. The straggling settlement called Victoria, built along the "Queen's Road," was dignified with name of "city;" and it was declared on the highest authority, that Hong Kong would contain a population" equal to that of ancient Rome."

 The Surveyor-general, in an official report to Sir Henry Pottinger of 22 pages, dated 6th July 1843, proposed building an entirely new town or city in the Woonichung Valley (which may be aptly called "the valley of death"), with a grand canal, and many branch canals, &c. &c. &c.; two ranges of terraces of houses, &c. &c., courts of law, and various other offices; acclimatising barracks; additions to the present Government House for the secretaries and personal staff of the Governor, isolated from all other buildings; a space of land to be reclaimed from the seca for a public landing-place, with an esplanade or public walk;

    a magnificent promenade of four miles," to be inade on ground now covered by the sca, which was to be excluded by a sea wall, at a cost of 35 dollars per lineal yard, exclusive of filling in, &c.; a circular road, over hills and ravines, round the entire island, &c. &c., adapted for carriages, and moving troops with speed and facility to any part of the island where they may happen to be required for the protection of the different villages (these. villages, be it remembered, containing nothing but a few hundreds of a thieving, piratical ̧ population). I refer to the Government archives for these and other most ridiculous projects, which none but the wildest theorists could have projected or entertained.

 On the 17th December 1843, the Surveyor-general laid before Sir Henry Pottinger the: clevation of a building for a Government office, &c., "with a front of 360 feet in length by 50 feet in depth, and which would probably cost 30,000 7. sterling." There seeined to be the greatest possible desire to spend a large part of the Chinese indemnity money on this' wretched, barren, unhealthy, and useless rock, which the whole wealth, energy, and talent of England would never render habitable, or creditable as a colony to the British name.

In

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9

In illustration of the mode in which the public money was proposed to be spent, I give the following, which is a portion of the estimate of public works in IIong Kong for 1844, and which Sir Henry Pottinger transmitted to England for approval.

Completion of Queen's Road from West Point to the east side of

Wongnichung Valley

-

-

Ditto, to godowns of Jardine & Co.

Dollars.

28,000

15,000

New street formation in Victoria

35,000

Sewers in Victoria

-

100,000

Value of houses to be removed from Upper Bazaar and other places

25,000

Drainage of Woonichung Valley -

7,000

Bridle-path to Saiwan

3,000

"

35

وو

New church

Government House, with suitable office, &c.

House for Judge

Advocate-general

Queen's Solicitor-general

Colonial Secretary

35,000

70,000

24,000

20,000

20,000

20,000

"

Chief Magistrate

Treasurer

""

Land Officer

>>

Clerk of the Council

"

27

Colonial Surgeon

Chaplain

Prison, with house for gaoler, Hong Kong

C

20,000

18,000

18,000

16,000

16,000

16,000

Ditto

at Pock-foo-lum

Range of building for Advocate-general, Queen's Solicitor, &c. &c.

Debtors' gaol, Hong Kong

House of correction, Hong Kong

Two police stations, north side of island

Two smaller ditto

Police station at Chuck-Choo

Ditto

at Saiwan

Keeping in repair Chuk-choo Road

Contingencies of five per cent.

100,000

45,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

4,000

8,000

3,000

3,000

1,500

715,500

35,775

751,275

Consulate at Canton

45,000

Total

Dollars

796,275

Land Office,

10 February 1844.

(signed)

A. F. Gordon, Land Officer.

This is but a small portion of the contemplated expenditure; it does not include the formation of streets and roads in Hong Kong, which (on account of the mountainous nature of the island) would cost about 100,0001. sterling; it does not include barracks, stores, forts, arsenals, dockyards, wharfs, &c., all projected, and which would cost several millions sterling, before they would be completed.

It is unnecessary to pursue this branch of the service further; sufficient has been said to show the absurd and ruinous projects which were entertained, and the utter failure of the colony in regard to the nature and extent of its population. Notwithstanding the large sums of money expended, the Governor is now obliged to hire a residence which belongs to the late Deputy-governor, Mr. Johnston. The Government offices are in a temporary building, which is falling to pieces; the general commanding has hired an inn for his resi- dence. There is only one small barrack in Victoria, and that has been recently erected; it is not possible to rent a decent house under 150 dollars to 180 dollars per month, above 400 Z. sterling per annum. The church service is conducted in a mat shed; the civil and military officers are glad to get a location, or even a room in any spot on any terms, and the prices of living and of servants, &c. (see Documentary Appendix) are enormous; while the whole population of the island is entirely dependent for its daily supply of food on the Emperor of China's subjects on the main land of China.

COMMERCE.

There is no trade of any noticeable extent in Hong Kong; vessels occasionally touch here, on their way to Canton, or on their return from thence when laden, and about to proceed to Europe, for orders. Vessels, also, proceeding to or coming from the ports to the northward sometimes touch here for instructions from the owners or consignees, but very few "break bulk" at Hong Kong. There is some business done in opium. Messrs. Jardine, Matheson, & Co. have a large opium "receiving ship," the "Hormanjce-Bomanjee,"

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moored the whole year round in this harbour; Messrs. Dent & Co. have also a large vessel the "John Barry," for a similar purpose. These receiving ships contain the opium brought from India, whence it is transhipped to smaller vessels, and sent up the coast. Messrs.: MacVicar, Burn, & Co., Fox, Rawson, & Co., and a few smaller houses, also deal to the extent of their means in the opium trade, which requires a large ready-money capital. The smaller houses, who have no vessels of their own, consign opium to agents at the consular ports; but it is kept on board the receiving ships, moored off or near those ports, until the agents sell the opium to some Chinese broker at Shang-hai, for instance, who then receives an order for the delivery of the opium from the receiving ship at Woosung, at the entrance of the Yang-tze-Kang River. There are no native trading junks here from the coast of China; there are none belonging to the port; and a few fishing and passage boats, which form a safe asylum for Ladrones and vagabonds of every description, constitute the native craft of Hong Kong. Even if the natural impediments did not exist to the establishment of a native coasting trade, the Articles 13, 14, and 16, in the Supplemental Treaty (see Appendix) would effectually prevent any Chinese junks resorting to Hong Kong. Not only are the junks prevented proceeding thither from any places but the five consular ports, but they must also obtain special passports for a voyage to IIong Kong, and, when arrived there, the British Government are to act the part of spies for the Chinese Government, and to report every vessel, the name of her proprietor, the nature of her cargo, &c., to the authorities at Canton.

It is now well understood what was the object of these clauses; no passes will be readily granted, and junks that might proceed to Hong Kong would probably be punished by the Chinese authorities, who are exceedingly jealous that anything should occur for the advan- tage of Hong Kong. These and other circumstances, together with the fear of pirates, the want of a Chinese community, the dearness of provisions, and the absence or high price of any trading commoditice, will be sufficient to prevent any coasting trade at Hong Kong.

Dr. Gutzlaff, whose knowledge of the Chinese character and proceedings is certainly unsurpassed, says, "So long as the trade is maintained in the respective ports on an excel- lent footing, no vessels will visit this colony to buy articles at the same price which they can more easily get nearer to them; nor will they bring goods to Hong Kong, for which there is an advantageous market in their own neighbourhood. Where ships find it more profitable to proceed dircct to the northern ports, the chances of Hong Kong becoming an emporium are very trifling. Whatever native or foreign trade will be carried on here, must be brought to the colony by adventitious circumstances, and will last or cease according to accident; for notwithstanding the excellent harbour, Hong Kong has nothing in its position or relationship to the other ports to concentrate commerce.'

29

Since August 1841, Sir Henry Pottinger has been issuing proclamations and regulations respecting commerce and shipping for their encouragement and protection. No duties of any kind have been levied, no inquiries have been made as to the cargoes of vessels, ships might enter and depart at pleasure; but all in vain: commerce cannot be created where no materials for it exist.

The table in the Documentary Appendix shows the shipping which entered the harbour of Hong Kong for three years; it consisted principally of transports conveying troops, and vessels calling for orders or sccking freight. Ample trial has been given to the place with- out any satisfactory result. Nearly four years' residence on, or occupation of, the island, and an immense expenditure, has failed to produce any commercial operation. Every month the shipping entering the harbour is diminishing, and the imposition of a tonnage duty will, it is said, still further decrease the number.

There does not appear the slightest probability that, under any circumstances, Hong Kong will ever become a place of trade. The island produces nothing whatever; its geographical position, either as regards the Chinese coast generally or Canton in particular, is bad. For the trade of the coast of China it is too far to the southward of a territory which extends upwards of 2,000 miles; and if it were practicable to remove the foreign trade of Canton, the removal would be either to some of the open ports to the northward, in the neighbourhood of the tea districts, or to some island, or place in the Canton river. Among other delusions that have been promulgated, is the allegation that Hong Kong is a protection to the British commerce at Canton, and especially to the tea trade; with refer- ence to the latter it should be remembered, that the Chinese are as eager to sell us tea as we are to buy it; that the cessation of the trade would be a greater injury to them than to the British nation; that there was no difficulty in procuring tea during the war; that nothing would prevent the Chinese supplying our annual demand for tea, and of course receiving in return English manufactures.

The tea trade is, in fact, as independent of Hong Kong as it would be cf our occupation of the Sandwich Islands; Canton, however, has no intrinsic advantages to make it the seat of foreign commerce. So long as the Emperor restricted all foreigners to the most distant southerly port in the empire, tea, silk, or any other exportable produce, was obliged to be conveyed thither, however distant the place of production or manufacture; but the case is now totally different, when the northern ports in the immediate vicinity of the tea and silk provinces are equally with Canton open to British commerce; several vessels have already laden with tea for England in the northern ports; this will annually increase, and the trade of Canton will be proportionately diminished, thus rendering Hong Kong (adinit ting for the sake of argument its reputed value as a protection to the trade of Canton) every year less and less useful to British interests in China. It is for the advantage of England that our trade with China be carried on with the northern ports. In the central

districts

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districts of China, along the Yang-tze-Kiang, and other great rivers and canals, the people are more civilised, more wealthy, and (now that they are becoming acquainted with the English) more disposed to friendly and commercial intercourse. By purchasing tea and silk near the place of production, the charges of land carriage, fees, &c., will be reduced, and the cost price thus lessened by one-third to the British consumer; on the other hand, the Chinese will be able to purchase at a cheaper rate British manufactures when they are brought by our vessels to their doors. These and other considerations render it a matter of national importance that our trade with China be diffused over several ports, instead of being confined to Canton.

There are now five ports open on the coast of China to all European, East Indian, and American vessels. There can be no reason why those vessels should establish any trade at Hong Kong, merely to change cargoes from one vessel to another; and if the Chinese government sanction the proposition to allow a vessel to sell part of her cargo at one port, and then proceed to another, or to form bonded warehouses at each port, there will be still less probability of any trade being established here. It is indeed a delusion or a deception, to talk of Hong Kong becoming a commercial emporium, and to liken it to Singapore. The circumstances, and position of Hong Kong and Singapore present no resemblance whatever. Hong Kong is a barren rock producing nothing, not leading to any place, sur- rounded by no trading or populous communities with various commodities for barter; and disadvantageously situate at the most impoverished extremity of a coast line of 2,000 miles, and which for half the year is only readily accessible in one direction.

Singapore is most advantageously placed at the point of the rich Malayan peninsula, and at the entrance of the Straits of Malacca, which may be considered the high road between castern and western Asia. It is surrounded by, or lies contiguous to, the most fertile, wealthy, and populous islands and countries in the world. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Maccassar, Penang, Siam, Cochin China, Tonquin, Birmalı, &c. The harbour of Singa- pore is capacious, perfectly sheltered, easy of access from every point of the compass, and never experiencing a tempest. The climate is very salubrious. The island of great beauty and fertility, with an undulating surface, an area of 120,000 acres, all capable of tillage, and of which 20,000 acres are now under the luxuriant and profitable cultivation of sugar- cane, nutmegs, pepper, rice, beetel-nut, gambier, cocoa-nuts, &c. The sugar made by Mr. Ballastier, with a steam-engine, or by Mr. Montgomerie, by water and cattle mills, is equal to any produced in the West Indies; the nutmeg trees are already yielding abun- dantly; the black pepper produced during the past year amounted to 38,000 piculs (a picul 133 lbs.); the gambier to 85,000 piculs, and there are 100,000 cocoa-nut trees in full bearing live stock, bread, water, delicious fruit and vegetables of every kind, and at moderate prices, are at all times ready for the shipping; 86 miles of excellent roads have been completed; land is being sold in fee-simple at a minimum and maximum price of five to 10 rupees, or 10s. to 20s. per acre; 50,000 industrious and skilful inhabitants are spreading cultivation in every direction; four companies of sepoys constitute the sole military force of the island, which has not even a fort for its defence; the revenue in 1842, amounted to 509,087 rupees, and the disbursements (including 165,955 rupees for troops, and 49,789 rupees for Bengal and Madras convicts), to 494,029 rupecs, leaving a surplus income to the extent of 15,083 rupees; and under the able management of the prosent Governor, Colonel Butterworth, it is one of the most lucrative possessions of the British Crown.

-

The remarkably eligible position of Singapore for a commercial emporium, led to its establishment as a British colony by Sir Stanford Raffles in 1821, when there were but a few Malay fisherman on the island, who disputed with the tiger for their occupancy. In one year, the trade of the island amounted to 1,000,000 7. sterling; in 1824, to 3,000,000 l. sterling; and last year, and indeed for several years, the commerce of the island has aver- aged 5,600,000 7. sterling.

This trade is carried on with many countries; with Great Britain to the extent of 3,000,000 dollars; with Calcutta, 2,800,000 dollars; with Java, 1,500,000 dollars; with foreign Europe, North and South America, Madras, Bombay, Arabia, Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, Birmah, Siam, Cochin China, Manila, with Hainan, Formosa, and the whole coast of China, with Sumatra, Borneo, Rhio, the Molluccas, Mauritius, Australia, &c., traders from all these places, meet by common consent at a central mart close to the equator, and exchange the productions of Asia, for those of Europe and America. It is erroneously supposed, that Singapore has been created by its trade with China, such is not the fact. The total import tonnage of Singapore in 1838-9, in square-rigged vessels was 178,796 tons, of which that from China was 32,860. The native tounage for the same year was 48,000, of which the Chinese vessels constituted 8,000.

The Straits' produce" which the Chinese require are brought to Singapore by Malay, and other coasting craft, who would not proceed to the northward, and the proprietors of the Chinese junks with whom time is no object, and who go down the coast to the Eastern Archipelago with ono nonsoon, and return with the other, prefer the speculation with their varied cargoes, and the visiting of their countrymen at the different islands.

But, sufficient has been stated to show that there is no analogy whatever between Hong Kong and Singapore; and that the geographical, territorial, and commercial advantages which have contributed to the prosperity of Singapore, are totally and entirely wanting, and can never be created at Hong Kong.

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FINANCIAL POINT OF VIEW.

 There is no apparent prospect of Hong Kong ever yielding any revenue adequate to more than a very small civil government. The limited size, and rocky nature of the island;

   the absence of agriculture, manufactures or commerce, and the fluctuating and predatory character of the population, forbid the hope of an income being raised to sustain a regular government establishment on the scale now adopted, and which indeed is far beyond the present or prospective wants of the island community.

The

 Under the most favourable circumstances, there may possibly some years hence be obtained from the rent of the building land from 5,000 7. to 7,000 7. per annum. markets, licenses, fines, and fees of every description may realise hereafter about 1,000 l per annum. The levy of a tonnage duty would not yield more than 500 % to 1,000% per annum, if it did not drive away the ships that now enter the harbour; it is not pro- bable that vessels would pay 6 d. per ton, merely to call for orders, when they can lie in Macao Roads, and daily communicate with Hong Kong. A registration or license for cach male Chinese, resident on the island, might, if there were a more respectable class of inhabitants in the colony, produce 600l. to 1,000 /. a year; neither auction duties, stamps, or any of the other ordinary sources of taxation, would under present circumstances yield any revenue worth consideration.

 The idea that the Chinese Government will sanction the introduction of opium into China at a moderate fixed duty, and that a large revenue may then be raised by warehouse- ing the drug at Hong Kong, must, I think be abandoned, as illusory. The legal admission of opium into China by the Emperor, according to the best information I can obtain, is not at all probable; but even were the traffic in opium legalized, the traders have declared they would not pay any duty in IIong Kong, they can keep their large receiving ships the whole year round in Hong Kong or in any other harbour, or tranship the opium from the vessels which convey the drug from Bengal and Bombay to this place, on board the smaller vessels which proceed along the coast to sell, or deposit it at Whampoa, Nainsa, Amoy, Chimmo, Chin-chu, Chusan or Wossung in the "receiving ships," which lie in these bays or stations the whole year round. I will not discuss the question of raising a revenue in Hong Kong from the introduction of opium for smoking in the island, either by farming out the drug, or otherwise, independent of the morality or immorality of the question of the Government deriving an income from a vicious indulgence; so long as the Chinese Govern- ment prohibit the introduction of opium, and make its use a capital offence, it would not, to say the least, be seemly of us to encourage the use of this destructive, and poisonous stimulant in Hong Kong.

The total revenue to be expected from this colony in my opinion cannot exceed 10,000 7. per annuin, and to obtain this amount, several years must elapse under the most favourablo circumstances. The per contra side shows an expenditure at this moment for merc civil establishments, salaries, and wages at the rate of 50,000 1. per annum, irrespective of the cost of public works, roads, and buildings which is estimated at 50,000 7. per annum for several years; independent also of the consular charges of 30,000l. per annum, and the army and navy; the whole showing a yearly drain on the British Exchequer of half a million pounds sterling (sec Documentary Appendix.) And here it may be necessary to remove an erroneous assertion, that this heavy yearly charge is only a portion of tho The revenue which is obtained revenue which England derives from the China trade. from tea, is paid by the people of England who buy, and consume the ten. It might as well be said that the West Indies furnished the revenue derived by the British Exchequer from the coffee, and sugar consumed in the United Kingdom. The incidence of taxation is on the last purchaser of the taxed article. The tea merchant in England adds to the invoico cost of the tea bought at Canton, the freight to England, the insurance, interest of money, warchousing, customs duty levied in England, and the fair profits of trade, on every chest of tea he may sell the grocer; who then regulates the price at which he can afford to sell a pound of tea to his customer, who pays the whole charges, taxes and profits to the several parties before he drinks his tea. The revenue derived by the China trade is paid by the people of England; the merchant who carries on the trade does not pay a shilling.

It will be for Her Majesty's Ministers to decide whether, on a review of the whole case, Com- there be any justification for spending half a million sterling annually on this coast. modore Chads, C. B., who has had extensive experience for many years in China, is of opinion that England would be wise in not establishing any colony in China. As a general prin- ciple, colonies that will not pay at least the expense of their civil government are not worth maintaining. There does not appear any reason why IIong Kong should be an exception to this rule. There is not, as has been fancifully supposed, any analogy whatever between Hong Kong and Gibraltar. Hong Kong commands nothing; a glance at a chart will show that the navigation of the China Seas is perfectly independent of Hong Kong; nay, even the entrance of the Canton River is not controlled by Hong Kong; it is not possible by any outlay of money to make the island a fortress, and its harbour is commanded by tho opposite shore of the main land. But supposing several millions were spent in fortifying Hong Kong, and half a million were annually expended for its garrison, the cui bono would constantly recur. From a Chinese enemy the island has nothing to apprehend even at present. No European or American state would think of capturing Hong Kong, for it would be valueless to them; and if mere glory were sought by the acquisition, they must be aware the fame would be of short continuance, as troops and ships from India, from Australia,

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Australia, and from all our stations castward of the Cape of Good Hope, would soon recapture the place or starve out the garrison.

But Gibraltar is differently circumstanced; it effectually commands the narrow entrance of the Mediterranean, and, together with the fortress and havens of Malta and Corfu, give England a preponderating power in that great European sea, which is becoming daily of more and more value in our intercourse with the Anglo-Eastern empire; moreover, Gib- raltar is a valuable commercial entrepôt; at one period, 1,000,0007. sterling of cotton goods were exported through Gibraltar into Spain. As a fortress, Gibraltar is perfect; it is impregnable. The revenue of Gibraltar is fully adequate to its civil government, and averages upwards of 30,0001. per annum. The military expenses incurred by garrisoning Gibraltar saves the constant maintenance of a large fleet in the Mediterranean, preserves the balance of power, and materially helps to keep the peace of Europe. The remarks applicable to Gibraltar are also applicable to Malta and the Ionian Islands, both of which stations not only pay their whole civil expenditure without one shilling charge on the British Exchequer, but also contribute a considerable sum annually towards military defences and protection. Both of these places are also entrepôts of a large trade. Every colony of the British empire pays for its own civil government, except small sums which are voted annually in part for the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Falkland Islands, St. Helena, and Heligoland. But all these places are intrinsically valuable; the Bahamas, for the geographical position of their harbours; Bermuda, as a strong fortress and dockyard in the Western Atlantic; the Falkland Islands, for their important position in the Great Southern Ocean, near Cape Horn; St. Helena, as a strong fortress and recruiting station for our numerous ships doubling the Cape of Good IIope in the voyages to and from India, China, and Australasia; and in the event of war, the possession of St. Helena would be of great value to our merchants, and save us a large fleet in the Atlantic. Heligolund, in time of war, is a commercial depót for the Elbe, and the northern ports of Europe. Its expense is only about 5001. a year. Numerous as are the colonies of the British empire, they are each of some utility to England; for their territorial extent as emigration ficlus to provide employment for a surplus population, for their production of sugar, coffee, corn, cotton, silk, indigo, timber, oil, wood, &c., trading emporiums, or fishing stations. I have in vain sought for one valuable quality in Hong Kong; for there are other good harbours around, and for 200 years we have not found the want of such. I can see no justification for the British Government spending one shilling ou Hong Kong.

RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL INFLUENCE.

The benefits derivable from our laws, institutions, and religion can never be conferred on the Chinese by our colonization of Hong Kong.

15

We are here, in fact, almost as much isolated from China, its people, and supreme govern- ment, as if we were located in the Eastern Archipelago. By the adroit policy adopted by the Chinese authoritics, a "cordon sanitaire," if I may so express it, has been drawn round Hong Kong. No Chinaman is permitted to come here willingly, except he be a thief, a pirate or a spy. No respectable Chinese with their families, locate themselves in Hong Kong; if they did, their relations still remaining on the main land would probably be

squeezed," imprisoned, tortured, and considered as traitors to the Celestial Empire. Hong Kong is viewed by the Chinese as a spot where adventurers and reckless characters may make something out of the English, and where burglars and robbers may resort with impunity, and live upon the profits of their villany.

I am strongly of opinion, from circumstances that have come to my knowledge, that the mandarins view with indulgence all vagabonds who propose to quit their own country and proceed to Hong Kong; that, in fact, direct encouragement is afforded them to do so, It is, therefore, the height of improbability to suppose that the possession of Hong Kong will ever enable us to disseminate our religion, language, and institutions in the Chineso empire. For 200 years we have had extensive and profitable intercourse with Canton, without our missionaries and other good men ever producing the slightest effect on the people or government. The inhabitants of the southern districts are decidedly hostile to us, and are daily becoming more and more filled with a deadly animosity, which the pos session of Hong Kong will not remove. No converts are made by our missionaries on this island; but, were such the case, no converts from Hong Kong would be favourably viewed by the respectable Chinese on the main land. The Christian converts would be considered as coming from an island of thieves and pirates; they would be received with a suspicion which would check rather than advance the progress of Christianity. The missionaries with whom I have conversed, take this view of the subject. They consider it hopeless to attempt the spread of Christian doctrines in China by means of converts from Hong Kong, Thus, in a religious aspect, Hong Kong is as valueless as it is on financial and commercial grounds.

Were our colonial authority and establishment at some island or position to the north, near the central regions of China, we should most probably obtain considerable moral influ ence over an intelligent and respectable class of Chinese, who would communicate their favourable ideas to other and distant parts of the empire, and by extending a knowledge of our language, pave the way for the introduction of Christianity. An English city at Chusan, for example, surrounded by an extensive agricultural population (the best disposed and most orderly in China, as well as elsewhere), and evincing all the benefits of the science and skill of Europe, would have a remarkable effect on the Chinese, whose in-

148.

quisitiveness

D3

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quisitiveness and imitative powers would soon induce them to copy those things which would conduce to their physical, and, ultimately, to their moral and religious improve-

micnt.

IN A POLITical Point of View.

Hong Kong was occupied by our troops and merchants in 1840-41, at a period when our trade was driven from Canton, when we were in hostility to the Chinese Government, and when the Portuguese authorities at Macao had expressed their inability to permit, as usual, British residence and resort to that port. At this period, the views of Captain Elliot were solely directed towards Canton. Hong Kong was then deemed the most eligible spot for British occupation on political and military grounds; and so it proved, as long as the opera- tions were being directed against Canton, nud we were excluded from China, but on our proceeding to the northward, occupying Chusan, and ultimately making peace and opening five ports (including Canton) for free commercial resort, English residence, and the estab- lishment of a ship of war at each port, the political and mercantile value of Hong Kong entirely ceased. The late war has shown us the vulnerable point of China, namely, the Yang-tze-Kiang River, which is aptly denominated by the Chinese the "Girdle of the Empire." In the event of any future hostilities, our force would be directed at once toward Nankin, and other places on the Yang-tze-Kiang River, and not against Canton. It is by interrupting the supplies of grain and salt to Pekin, and cutting off the trade of the great artery or canal, that we can with the least expenditure of blood or treasure terminate hos- tilitics with China.

To accomplish this most desirable result, Hong Kong is utterly valueless; our position must be Chusan, from its contiguity to the seat of war, from its comparative salubrity, safe haven, and capability of supplying provisions both from the resources of the island itself, and from the contiguous coasts. A fleet of ships of war and transports may rendezvous at Chusan, and select at will the most fitting period of the year for offensive operations; no attack need be apprehended from the Chinese; coal is abundant in the Yang-tze-Kiang for the use of steamers; ships from Singapore and the southward can now, by reason of a greater knowledge of the winds and currents, reach Chusan even against the monsoon, in nearly the same time they would occupy in reaching Hong Kong; and, finally, the Chinese Government, aware of our position, would be the less disposed to break the peace, and would cease to rely so much as they do now, on the strength of the forts in the Canton River. The policy of the Chineso Government is to keep foreigners at the extremity of the empire; but the sagacious reasons which dictate this policy ought to render us more auxious to operate in a counter direction. There are now seven fortifications, very strong and apparently well provided with artillery at the Bogue; with Chinese gunners, these forts would prove even at present formidable to an invading force, but well manned by Euro- pean or American artillerymen, the Bogue would be almost as impregnable as tho Dardanelles.

 On a review of the whole case, there are no assignable grounds for the political or military occupancy of Hong Kong, even if there were no expense attending that occupancy. The Government of China is sufficiently civilised to respect the persons and property of British subjects at Canton before any declaration of war took place (which, however, is an event of very remote probability for many years to come), and as the treaty with China provides for the stationing of a ship of war at Whampoa or Canton, a better security is thus provided for any British residents at Canton than IIong Kong could afford. The climate of 11ong Kong will not admit of the island being a garrison for troops, and in the event of another war with China, an invading army must proceed from India; but a very small effective force can be maintained here unless at an enormous expense, and the impractica bility of fortifying an island which is commanded by the hills around, and by any large battery erected on the opposite shore, is now generally acknowledged, and is in further corrobora- tion of the inutility of Hong Kong. On a review of the whole question, and examining the island in all aspects, making every allowance for the newness of the settlement, and admitting, for argument's sake, that ultimately there may be some trade at Hong Kong, it appears to me very advisable that if Hong Kong be retained as a British station or colony, that the civil establishment of the colony be cut down to a scale commensurate with the resources and wants of the island, and that the supernumerary officers be provided for in other colonics as vacancies occur; that the European and sepoy troops be removed, and a portion of the 1st Ceylon Regiment (Malays) be kept at Hong Kong in aid of the civil power; that a frigate or sloop of war be always stationed in the harbour, with an extra complement of marines, to be landed only in case of emergency; that the British and other respectable inhabitants who are householders be formed into a municipal body, with power to assess themselves for the police, lighting, drainage, and street-making, &c., of Victoria; that the harbour be a free port, open to ships under every flag; and that encouragement be given for the resort to and settlement on the island of other European nations. If this be done, a few years will determine whether it be possible to create any trade or induce any resort to Hong Kong. Large Government establishments, and an immense outlay of the public money for the last three years, have produced no beneficial result; let the opium traders, and those who choose to resort thither, have a voice in the management of the affairs of the colony. There can scarcely be less general trade, less prosperity, less security to life and property, than now exists with a large garrison on shore and a fleet in the harbour.

If there were any one advantage, political, commercial, financial, or religious, present or prospective, derivable to England from the existing establishment at IÏong Kong, there would

1841-1886

COLONY OF HONG KONG, &c.

15

would be some justification for the expense now being incurred, and for the great annual sacrifice of life; but when such advantages do not exist, and our occupation and military parade is an eyesore and daily source of annoyance to the Chinese Government (Keying, the imperial commissioner, has now refused to visit Hong Kong), it is worse than folly to persist in a course begun in error, and which, if continued, must eventually end in disap- pointment and in national loss and degradation.

R. Montgomery Martin.

24 July 1844.

(signed)

Enclosure 2, in No, 1.

(No. 249.)

17

Sir,

Victoria, Hong Kong, 20 August 1844. I AM instructed by his Excellency the Governor to inform you that he has perused your paper concerning Hong Kong, which you request may be forwarded to Lord Stanley. In doing this, however, his Excellency deems it only right towards you to state, with reference to the contents of that paper, written as it was with the disadvantage of only a few weeks' knowledge of the place, that he could not forward it without passing his own judgment on the incorrectness of many of the facts and conclusions, and the absence of moderation in the style.

Her Majesty's Government have expressed their high approbation of the several details and representations with which they have been furnished by his Excellency's predecessor, Sir Henry Pottinger, on every point connected with this colony; and some of the expres- sions in your paper might be construed into reflections on the proceedings of that dis- tinguished personage, which his Excellency could not forward with his sanction.

In copying the Appendix to which you allude, I am directed to draw your attention to the necessity of not occupying the time, or diverting the attention of the clerks in the Treasury Office from their proper duties; and in cases where documents have already been furnished from the different departments, it might be sufficient merely to refer to thein.

I have, &c. (signed)

R. M. Martin Esq. &c. &c. &c.

Frederick W. A. Bruce,

Colonial Secretary.

(A true copy.)

(signed)

Frederick W. A. Bruce.

No. 2.

(No. 66.)

COPY of a DESPATCH from the Right Honourable Lord Stanley to

Sir,

Governor Davis.

                Downing-street, 17 December 1844. I HAVE to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the 20th August last, marked " Separate," enclosing a report drawn up by Mr. Montgomery Martin on the island of Hong Kong, and the expediency, in a political and commercial point of view, of its retention by Great Britain.

Mr. Martin's opinions on this subject are exceedingly adverse to the retention of Hong Kong, and arc supported by arguments to show its unhealthiness, the improbability of raising a local revenue, and its inutility as an entrepôt for trade. In the letter which you addressed to Mr. Martin before forwarding his report, as well as in your despatch to me, you express your general dissent from his views, the inaccuracy of which you attribute to the shortness of his acquaintance with the colony and the enfeebled state of his health. Considering, however, the nature of the facts alleged by Mr. Martin, and the opportunities which from his position he enjoyed of forming an opinion on points connected with the finances of Hong Kong, Her Majesty's Government are anxious, before proceeding further, to receive from you a specific report as to the points on which you dissent from Mr. Martin's facts and opinions. It is evident that unless that gentleman's statements and views be altogether incorrect, they afford ample motive for deli- beration before Her Majesty's Government authorise the incurring the very large civil and military expenditure which has been proposed in contemplation of Hong Kong becoming a permanent British settlement, the resort of a large_po- pulation, both European and Asiatic, and the centre and principal scat of an extensive and valuable commerce.

I have, &c. (signed) Stanley.

148.

B 4

- No. 3.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

No. 3.

19

(No. 44.)

COPY of a DESPATCH from Governor Davis to the Right Honourable Lord Stanley.

Victoria, Hong Kong, 25 April 1845. (Received, 2 August 1845.)

My Lord, IN despatchi No. 66, of the 17th December, your Lordship desires me to furnish a report as to the points on which I dissent from the views stated by Mr. Martin in a paper of observations which I forwarded at that gentleman's request.

His objections to Hong Kong are founded on an apprehension of its peculiar unhealthiness, the improbability of raising a local revenue, and its inutility as an entrepôt for trade. I shall endeavour to show that his statements were exagge- rated and partial, and I am still of opinion that Mr. Martin wrote under a fecl- ing of strong prejudice, founded in apprehensions for his personal health, regard- ing which he is remarkably sensitive, and on account of which he has had more leave of absence than any individual in the service. Your Lordship will have observed in that gentleman's paper, that he suggests the expediency of his being provided for in some other colony.

With reference to the first point, that of imputed unhicalthiness, I consider the climate of Hong Kong to be precisely that of Macao, from which it is only 40 miles distant, and where for many years I and numbers of others enjoyed as good health as in England. In its geological features it is identical, though the hills are higher. Major Caine, now the oldest resident in Hong Kong (from its very first possession), states it to be better than any part of India, and Sir Henry Pottinger will say the same. But as the mere statement of opinions is hardly sufficient, I will endeavour to show that the great mortality among the military and (at the very first) among civilians must be attributed to circumstances and causes sufficiently obvious to save the character of the climate.

Before the place was definitively declared, only two years since, to be a per- manent possession of the British Crown, the uncertainty of tenure, and the very limited resort of tolerable workmen, led to persons of all ranks being housed in dwellings progressing gradually from mere mat sheds to wooden and brick hovels of a somewhat better description. The pernicious system of ground-floor apartments was at first universal, arising partly from hurry and partly from economy, and I regret to say that many more of these still remain than I could

wish.

With regard to the military, the reports which your Lordship perused from the officers commanding native regiments in respect to the accommodations of the soldiery, were by no means exaggerated. In a remarkably stormy (though not unhealthy) climate, the mat huts of the men on the wet ground_withstood neither wind nor rain, and the deplorable condition of things which I found on my arrival led me immediately to acquiesce in the request of Major-general D'Aguilar that he should appropriate the ground on the side of the road opposite to the "North Barracks" to the construction of permanent and proper accom- modation for the troops. These are now in a far state of advancement.

To prove that climate must not be rashly assumed as the cause of mortality among the soldiery, I may cite Chusan in 1840. The mortality then and there was appalling, and, from obvious causes: but the island has since proved so con- genial to Europeans, that it is the theme of Mr. Martin's admiration and envy, and to the vituperation of Hong Kong he adds the recommendation that Chusan should be retained. I do not say that (for a great many reasons) I should not rather have kept Chusan than Hong Kong at the settlement of the convention, but, if the Chinese fulfil their engagements, I do not see how this is now to be done.

As the lodgment of all classes improves in this colony, I will pledge myself for the improvement of the general health. During the last summer the civil portion of the population were as healthy as in most other countries, and par- ticular cases could be traced to had dwellings or the too early occupation of new

houses.

20

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

houses. The enclosed return from Dr. Dill will show very few deaths in pro- portion to cases under his treatment, viz. 9 in 367. The comparative casualties among the military (which I further enclose) demonstrate a considerable im- provement in the last year, under very unfavourable circumstances.

*

*

*

 My chief hopes for the military are founded in the near completion of the excellent and ample quarters for both officers and men, under Major Aldrich's supervision; and when these are occupied, I have little doubt of this climate being found superior to that of most hot countries.

 On the second point, the improbability of raising a revenue, I may observe that Mr. Martin (who, in his peculiar province of treasurer, predicted that more than 5,000 1. could never be raised on the land) was singularly contradicted at the close of the same year, when the total amount of the leases reached nearly 13,000. I have no doubt of his views proving, in due time, to be equally fallacious as to other items of revenue; but the greater part of the population were only building their houses, and a too rapid attempt to lay on imposts in au incipient state of things might discourage settlers and do serious injury.

 The progress made during the last winter is quite striking; numbers of really fine houses have risen in all directions, and, as roads and communications are completed, and the surveys carried out, the capabilities of the place, with all its natural difficulties, will altogether surpass the first expectation.

 With reference to the third question, the prospects of commerce, it is clear that a place which has no productions can exchange nothing in trade; but the finest harbour in the world (as many naval officers pronounce it), and a free port, must render it in time a great entrepôt. It is especially available for ware- housing goods. Even as to native produce, the numerous valleys on the south side (by far the finest part of the island), to which a road has been nearly com- pleted, will eventually contribute to the support of the population; and there is abundant pasture, with innumerable streams, over the whole island.

 On one point, the trade in Chinese vessels, I fear that Article XIII. of the Supplementary Treaty has inflicted an injury that nothing but a fresh conven- tion can remedy. As long as our own trade is confined to five ports, it is obvious that the Chinese merchants at those ports will not resort to Hong Kong for what comes to their own doors; but had the whole coast of China been left free to the Chinese themselves, a strong inducement to trade with this colony would have existed, and tended to counteract the restriction on Europeans.

 This was foreseen and inculcated in the instructions from the Foreign Office, dated 3d February 1841, as I find them in my archives: "You are authorized to propose a condition that if there be ceded to the British Crown an island off the eastern coast of China to serve as a commercial station for British subjects, the Chinese merchants and inhabitants of all the towns and cities on the coast of China shall be permitted by the Chinese Government to come freely, and with- out the least hindrance and molestation, to that island, for the purpose of trading with the British subjects there established."

 Another obstacle to the trade in Chinese vessels has existed in the prevalence of piracy, and this was aggravated by an order issued to our men-of-war that they should never molest a pirate, "except in the act of attacking a British vessel," the most improbable contingency, and especially in the presence of Her Majesty's ships. I have been overwhelmed with applications from our own Chinese subjects, and others resorting to the island, to protect them from the pirates who have almost blockaded the harbour; and my correspondence on the subject with your Lordship and Lord Aberdeen will have shown the extent of the evil. The circumstance of licences to carry arms being found on board piratical vessels, seemed to warrant the inference that they received some encouragement from the Chinese Government to molest our trade; but the disavowal of Keying deprives them of any protection from these licences, and converts the latter into a means of condemnation. A small steamer is one of the best instruments for the capture of pirates, and I have accordingly the "Medusa " now ready for that service.

148,

с

Time

1841-1886

Time alone is required for the development of this colony, and for the correc- tion of some evils which may have hindered its early progress. Even now, how- ever, the town of Victoria, which has scarcely existed three years, is fast gaining on Macao, which has been established thrce centuries. Our merchants have all abandoned the latter place, to which they were for some time attracted by the superiority of the dwellings.

Under any circumstances, this colony will always exercise a most important check on the Chinese Government. While under the influence of guarantees I have little fear as to the fulfilment of its engagements; but the negociations of Captain Elliot glaringly proved that good faith is no inherent or constitutional part of the Chinese character; and when Chusan has been given up, and some less well informed negociator has taken Keying's place, an independent British colony in the neighbourhood may be found to possess other advantages than those of mere commerce, to the protection and promotion of which it will be sub- servient.

I have, &c.

(signed)

J. F. Davis.

Enclosure 1, in No. 3.

ABSTRACT of Government Officers, Police, &c., Sick and Dead, for Six Months from 1st July to 31st December 1844.

1844.

Government Oflicers.

Police, &c.

Prisoners.

Number on the

Sick List.

Number Dead.

Number on the Sick List.

Number Dead.

Number on the

Sick List.

Number Dead.

July

10

50

3

7

August

-

10

September 17

1

34

30

1

8

October

17

44

2

ลง

November 12

38

-

December 10

47

Total -

91

1

1

3

8

REMARK S.

1

Two policemen died of fever and one of dysentery; one Chinaman died of ulcers on the legs.

One policeman died of fever, and one

Chinaman of ulcers on the legs. One corporal of police injured in an affray while on duty. Removed to hospital of 98th Regiment, where ho died. (Vide Coroner's Inquest.) One policeman died of fever, and one

of diseased liver.

240

7

27

2

Total Deaths, 9.

Deaths which could not be entered in the above list, one on the 31st July. (Mr. T. J. Scales).

(signed)

F. Dill,

Colonial Hospital Surgeon.

Victoria, Hong Kong, 24 January 1845.

21

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Enclosure 2, in No. 3.

COMPARATIVE DEATHS among the Military to the strength of the Force, during the Years 1843 and 1844.

1843. Total strength European troops

Ditto

-

Nativo

DEATIIS.

925

373

ditto -

596

67

1,521

440

1844. Total strength European troops

1,387

216

Ditto

""

-

Native ditto -

901

157

2,288

373

(No. 97.)

1841-1886

No. 4.

23

No. 4. Lord Stanley to

Governor Sir J. F. Davis.

Cory of a DESPATCH from Lord Stanley to Governor Sir J. F. Davis, Bart.

Sir,

Downing-street, 25 March 1845. Wir reference to my despatch of the 17th December last, No. 66, I 25 March 1845- transmit to you herewith, the copy of a further communication addressed to

                                             20 November 1844. my Under-secretary of State by Mr. Montgomery Martin, repeating in very strong terms his arguments against the retention of Hong Kong as a British colony. I have to request you to report to me your opinion of the accuracy of Mr. Martin's facts, and the inferences which he draws from them; I must also request you to inform Mr. Martin, that it will be impossible for me here- after to take cognizance of any communications from him, unless sent accord- ing to the official regulation, through yourself; and that I regret that it is not in my power to hold out to him the prospect of employment in any other part of Her Majesty's dominions.

I have, &c. (signed)

Stanley.

Enclosure in No. 4.

Dear Sir,

IIong Kong, 20 November 1844,

SINCE I had the honour of addressing you in July, I have been severely afflicted with Encl. in No. 4. fever and diarrhea, and nearly at the point of death. It has pleased an ever-merciful Providence to spare my life, and I returned to Hong Kong from Chusan and the N. E. coust in the beginning of September, with my health somewhat improved, but my frame very debilitated, and I fear my constitution much impaired, at least for a continued resi- dence in a tropical climate. The sickness here this season has been very great, but except- ing the numerous deaths among the troops, the mortality has not been so extensive as last year. The Governor was unwell before he went to Chusan, in September; the Chief Justice was given over, and is now but slowly recovering; his oldest daughter is dead, and his son is going home an invalid. The Colonial Secretary, Mr. Bruce, was almost despaired of, and is still a convalescent on board Her Majesty's ship "Castor." The Auditor, Mr. Shelley, has had fever twice, and is now on sick certificate at Macao. The Surveyor-gene- ral is absent on sick leave; his assistant is nearly as ill as his chief; and the Civil Engineer has had fever twice, and obliged to go to Macao for his health.

I have had two chief clerks since my arrival, one is dead, the other dying, and I was unable to get continuous work for a week out of either. The official accounts and official correspondence of all the departments are in arrear, in consequence of the incapability of the clerks to stand the effects of the climate, which sooner or later undermines the most robust frume, and after a severe illness renders a man utterly unfit for a longer residence in Hong Kong, if mental or bodily labour be required. The troops have suffered and are still suf- fering (although cold weather has set in) dreadfully. The returns to the Horse Guards, and the letters of the commanding oflicer, Major-general D'Aguilar, present a melancholy picture; General D'Aguilar_reports, that three years' residence in Hong Kong suffice to destroy, by death, an entire European regiment.

 For some time the deaths in Her Majesty's 98th regiment have averaged one man every day; last week six deaths occurred in 24 hours; the strength of the men not in hospital is so reduced, that they are unable to wear a knapsack on parade, and at guard-mounting, the General does not require the troops on the ground to stand with shouldered arms. I have been in the most sickly countries, but never felt anything equal to depressing influence of the climate of Hong Kong, whose unhealthiness is proverbial to the Chinese on the adja-

cent main land.

When Lord Stanley honoured ine with the offer of treasurer of this colony, I was unwil- ling to appear even ungrateful of his kindness, and resolved under any risk to fulfil the duly assigned me, and to the best of my ability to place his Lordship in possession of such information as might be useful to Her Majesty's Government. With this object in view I prepared (with perfect disinterestedness) a Report ou Hong Kong," and a "Report on Chusan," which I laid before Mr. Davis, with a respectful request that he would trans- init these reports to Lord Stanley. Mr. Davis has transmitted the "Report on Hong Kong," to Lord Stanley, and the "Report on Chusan," to the Earl of Aberdeen.

I pray your carly and serious consideration of those reports; I beg your oblivion as to who the writer may be, and that you will view the facts and reasonings therein contained with the comprehensive and far-seeing eye that you possess. Whatever of public reputa- tion

Lord Stanley's Despatch of the 17th December 1844, No. 66, acknowledges Sir J. F. Davis's Despatch, enclosing a Report by Mr. M. Martin upon the Island of Hong Kong, and the expediency, iu a political and commercial point of view, of its retention by Great Britain.

743.

A 2

24

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

tion I may possess, I stake it on the question raised whether Hong Kong or Chusan ought to be the seat of British power in China. I am supported in the views I have taken by Major- general D'Aguilar, by Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane, by Brigadier Chesney, by Commissary-general Collin, by Colonel Campbell, of Her Majesty's 98th, by the chief medical officer, the principal Military Engineer, and by the frank avowal of the French Admiral, and by the United States special Ambassador, that Hong Kong was valueless as a trading emporium, as a military post, or as a colony of any European nation. I believe that Mr. Davis, first opposed my views as to Hong Kong, and that he has thus expressed himself to Lord Stanley; in this he was supported by the Colonial Secretary and Auditor, but since Mr. Davis visited Chusan in September, his views of that place have materially changed, and since the recent illness of Mr. Bruce and Mr. Shelley, their sentiments are much altered. Almost every one here has bought building allotments, or own houses, from which they derive a large rental, and they are therefore very adverse to any diminu- tion of Government expenditure, or to any transfer of the seat of Government to Chusun, My letters to Mr. Trevelyan (which I hope he will show you, as the closing_post_leaves me no time for detail) will indicate the danger we are in of another war with China.

 The war party are now the cabinet at Pekin; Muchangah, the person most opposed to Europeans, is prime minister; and one of his first measures was the degradation of Keying, on account of his having betrayed the interests of the Chinese Empire to "Barbarians." I have shown, I think, how the possession of Chusan would save the fearfu! calamity of

another war.

If no effort be made to retain Chusan permanently (although I feel confident it can be done without any breach of treaty), then I respectfully submit there can be no necessity for the British Government expending 100,000l. per annum for mere civil purposes on this barren rock, while the utmost amount of revenue to be raised cannot exceed 10,000 7. a year. If any great future object is to be attained, then let the present large expenditure of blood and treasure go on, and I, for one, will submit to be a cheerful victim for my country's welfare. But I am prepared to prove there can be no justifiable grounds for spending here nearly half a million sterling from the resources of the British Exchequer, and if I do not prove this, let the loss of my official position in Her Majesty's service be the penalty. With the view of placing before Lord Stanley the information I have obtained, I respectfully solicit from his Lordship leave of absence to proceed overland to England, the leave not to exceed six months, and the journey to be defrayed at my own cost. Should I not demonstrate to his Lordship's complete satisfaction, that I was perfectly justified in soliciting this leave, let me be dismissed Her Majesty's service. My duties may be performed by the Commissariat during my absence, as they were before my arrival, or Mr. Mercer, the Governor's private secretary, shall receive half my salary as locum tenens. I am aware of the labour, risk, expeuse, and above all, the danger I incur of Lord Stanley's displeasure; but confiding in the justness of my views, I will gladly submit to any penalty which may be the forfeiture of my failure. It will add to the obligations you have con- ferred on me, if the answer to this request be transmitted by the ensuing mail which leaves England for China after your receipt of this letter. General D'Aguilar, and the Attorney- general, are favourable to my being permitted leave of absence for six months, to lay my statements before Lord Stanley; but General D'Aguitar is of opinion that Mr. Davis would not grant me the leave I seek, as I would be enabled then by vivú voce, to substantiate my own views; for this reason, I have not applied to Mr. Davis, with whom, however, I am on the most friendly terms. The treaty provides for the cession of Chusan to the Chinese Government 25 December 1845; there is therefore no time to be lost on the subject. But if I receive an answer to this letter in April or in May, I would be able to reach England in time to allow of instructions being sent to Mr. Davis, not to restore Chusan until the final decision of Iler Majesty's Government be known. Ere that time, I have little doubt that Mr. Davis will become convinced than Chusan alone can be the depository of the British power in China.

Should Lord Stanley not be pleased to comply with my request for six months' leave of absence, and that Chusan be restored to the Chinese, then there can be no necessity for retaining a treasurer here, and incurring a charge of several thousand a year, when the whole of my duties may be transferred to the Commissariat Department. The abolition of my office may with public advantage take place,

 I say this in perfect sincerity, as I have never permitted my own interests to interfere with what might be conducive to the advantage of the State. I shall therefore have to rely on Lord Stanley's goodness, and entreat his transfer of me to some other position. Here, as a mere cashier of the sums required by the Colonial and Consular services, I could be-of no use to Her Majesty's Government, and I cannot conscientiously receive 1,200 l. per annum, when I am incapacitated by my position of serving the Crown, or of doing aught which may be creditable to myself.

James Stephen, Esq.

&c. &c. &c.

I remain, &c. (signed) R. M. Martin.

- No. 5. -

1841-1886

No. 6.

(No. 85.)

Cory of a DESPATCII from Governor Sir J. F. Davis, Bart., to Lord Stanley.

My Lord,

                 Victoria, Hong Kong, 24 June 1845. WITH reference to your Lordship's despatch, No. 97, of March 25th, forward- ing copy of a letter from Mr. Martin to the Under-secretary of State; I beg to observe, that my despatch No. 44, of April 25th, will have anticipated much that I might have said in answer to that letter, although the nature of some of its statements requires a specific notice.

Mr. Martin commences with the climate, observing, however, that "the mortality has not been so extensive as last year." Among the victims to sick- ness before he wrote, he enumerates myself, whom your Lordship may deem competent to deny the fact; and to add, that I never for a single day was unequal to my work. It is singular, that of a list of other official persons whom he enumerates as labouring under attacks that render persons "utterly unfit for a longer residence, if mental or bodily labour be required," the whole number are now at their duties. These are, the Chief Justice, the Colonial Secretary, the Auditor, the Surveyor general, and the Clerk of the Works. Mr. Martin himself, not being able to obtain a sick certificate, addressed to me the enclosed application for leave of absence on other grounds, which by my answer also cuclosed, I informed him, did not justify the abandonment of his duties with- out leave from home. The Colonial Regulations are quite clear on this point, as your Lordship is aware.

Mr. Martin has altogether misunderstood his position, as I have endeavoured to show him in my reply to his letter enclosed herewith. A steady adherence to his own duties as Treasurer would have prevented that restlessness which has kept him moving perpetually between this and one or other of the points on the coast, with no other result than the accumulation of arrears in his work, and the creation of such crude theories as these scampering visits of a few days could afford.

I have before observed to your Lordship, that a comparison between Chusan and Hong Kong is mere loss of time, unless the former place were still at our option. Mr. Martin has not yet explained how it could be retained without a breach of treaty, after all the Chinese indemnity shall have been received.

It would have been well had Mr. Martin taken less liberty with others' opinions as the alleged supporters of his own. IIe even states that my views had changed after a visit to Chusan, a place with which I was perfectly well acquainted before. He very inproperly observes, that the sentiments of Messrs. Bruce and Shelley on a public question had been altered by "a recent illness ;" A 3

743-

and

25

26

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

and I believe that most of the other authorities whom he cites would be found, on trial, to be no better supporters of Mr. Martin, than the Major-general above quoted.

But, I do not believe that a worse supporter of Mr. Martin's opinions could be found than the treasurer himself. Of Hong Kong he inconsistently, but most truly, observes, "almost every one here has bought building allotments, or own houses from which they derive a large rental (sic), and they are therefore very adverse to any diminution of Government expenditure, or to any transfer of the seat of government to Chusan." If the colonists are the best judges of their own interests, your Lordship will perhaps consider this as a strange account of a hopeless colony.

 My surprise, on reading in Mr. Martin's letter, that we are "in danger of another war with China," could only be equalled by what I felt at his proposal that this should be averted by retaining Chusan, that is, violating the treaty of peace. If we are so near another war, 1 have been strangely remiss in not preparing your Lordship and the Earl of Aberdeen for the contingency. The fine levied on Keying (to which Mr. Martin alludes), was merely one mode of helping to recruit the desperate state of the Chinese finances. The Chinese Ministers' treaties with America and France have since been ratified by the Emperor, and he has been raised to the rank of a Cabinet Minister, for quietly preventing the French and American squadrons approaching the Peilo. With the observance of ordinary justice and moderation, though with a due assertion of our rights, I know of no country on earth with which war is so little probable as China. During more than a year's diplomatic intercourse with the Govern- ment, I have, without once hinting at such an alternative, maintained the rights of our Consuls at Foochow-foo and Amoy, resisted monopolies and impositions on the trade, and asserted the Queen's sovereignty over this island; and, if a knowledge of the proper reserve to be maintained in the exercise of my high duties had not been sufficient, the very terror which the Chinese entertain of any recurrence to past scenes might have influenced a person of common generosity to abstain from any unnecessary allusion to the last alternative.

I now descend to matters more within Mr. Martin's scope and experience, but in regard to which he is scarcely more fortunate. He states 10,000l. to be the utmost amount of revenue to be ever attainable, and his own estimate for the current year enclosed, is nearly 18,000, but much below what may be expected. In another paper he predicted that more than 5,0007. could never be obtained from the Crown Lands, and the rent-roll already exceeds 13,0007. When he applies the magnifying end of the glass, with reference to cxpenditure, he talks of spending "nearly half a million sterling" on this colony; while my despatch No. 79, of the 14th instant, will show that the whole estimated charge for public works, required subsequent to my arrival (supposing them to be all authorized) will be 96,1457, to be completed in the course of the next two years.

Having thus, and in a previous despatch, No. 44, disposed of Mr. Martin's facts, I will leave his inferences to shift for themselves; and if I am accustomed to make less frequent allusions than the Treasurer in his letter to the effects of "a tropical climate," to "my perfect disinterestedness," to "my perfect sincerity," and to my readiness to be "a cheerful victim for my country's good," I hope your Lordship's knowledge of mankind will not give you a worse opinion of me on that account.

I will conclude by observing, that I cannot understand how the recommen- dation, that the Treasurer's business be transferred to the Commissariat, could be carried out; for if a treasurer is necessary in every other colony, he could hardly be dispensed with in this, when the Consular accounts are superadded to the Colonial." At the same time, if Mr. Martin's great wish, as he declares, is to be transferred to some other position," I have every personal motive for wishing him success, if it were only to be relieved from much unprofitable discussion, while two distinct departments require my coustant attention.

The enclosed letter has just reached me from Mr. Martin, declaring his intention of proceeding home without leave (in fact resigning) for the reasons he states. There is no proper person to substitute in his place, pending Mr. Stewart's arrival, except my private secretary, Mr. Mercer, whose father,

gentlemen

1841-1886

gentleman of fortune, has tendered security to the amount of 10,000l. for his son, in any official situation. At the same time, Mr. Martin's securities must also be considered responsible.

Enclosure 1, in No. 6.

I have, &c. (signed)

J. F. Davis.

Sir,

Colonial Treasury, Hong Kong, 18 June 1845.

In my recent "Minute on the British Position and Prospects in China," I ventured to indicate, according to the best of my judgment, the mistakes committed during our past negotiations with the Chinese authorities, to demonstrate the apparent defects of our present policy, and to point out in some respects the course which it seems advisable to pursue previous to the evacuation of Chusan in February next.

Having devoted 20 years to an investigation of our colonial and commercial relations, I believe that my opinions thereon receive some attention at home, and that when fler Majesty's Government, unsolicitedly, selected me for office in China, it was expected I would be enabled to collect useful information.

Desirous of justifying the confidence reposed in me, I prepared and submitted several reports and documents to your Excellency, and these, together with a Commercial Report which I am framing for the Lords' Committee of the Privy Council for Trade, will I liope demonstrate that I have minutely examined affairs in China.

Although several of the conclusions at which I have arrived, after anxious investigation, may be at variance with those emanating from high authority, I trust I may without arro- gance ask a full and fair hearing for opinions originating in integrity of motive, and a solicitude to ascertain what would be most conducive to the trade and permanent interests of the British empire.

Being therefore convinced that an immediate investigation of our Anglo-Chinese policy is of the highest importance on general as well as on financial and commercial considera- tions; aware that the sentiments I entertain find little concurrence in England from several gentlemen who recently filled office in China, and thinking that Her Majesty's Government have been acting under some erroneous impressions, I am very desirous of personally placing before Her Majesty's Ministers the information collected, and the opinions thence deduced, after visiting every part of China accessible to Europeans.

For this purpose I have the honour to solicit from your Excellency leave of absence for six months, on the following terms; viz.-

1st. That I draw no salary for these six months.

2d. That I defray my own expenses to England.

3d. That if Her Majesty's Government decide there were no justifiable grounds for this application, that I resign my present office.

By granting my request no detriment whatever can accrue to the public service.

The treasury accounts are close up, the books are daily balanced, and all the required returns will be made to the 30th June.

I believe the payments on account of public works will be comparatively small for the next six months (or until final orders from home,) and I am certain that with ordinary care no delay or embarrassment can arise in the Treasury Accounts.

Confiding in the importance of the information which I believe it to be in my power to convey, and in the probability of its being duly appreciated by: Her Majesty's Ministers, I nsk permission to forego all my salary, to incur considerable expense, and to destroy, per- haps my remaining strength by travelling during this hot and adverse season; and further, Ipropose to risk my commission in Her Majesty's service, in order that I may have an opportunity of communicating personally to the authorities at home the result of my inquiries in this country. ·

His Excellency J. I'. Davis, ' Governor of Hong Kong, &c. &c. &c. ·

I have, &c. (signed) Robert M. Martin.

Enclosure 2, in No. 6.

27

Sir,

Colonial Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

19 June 1845.

I AM directed by his Excellency the Governor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday's date, and to send you this reply.

 The object of your present application is, to obtain the Governor's sanction to proceed- Bing home for the reasons stated by you.

Tlie regulations as to leave of absence by which the Governor, is bound, are clear and peremptory, confining such leave to cases of serious indisposition requiring a change of

climate.

A 4

28

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

climate. But it is plain that such is not your own case, as among the personal sacrifices which you state you are ready to make for the public benefit, is the probable injury to your health," in quitting Hong Kong at the commencement of the hot season, to procced to England.

 Lord Stanley having appointed you to the responsible oflice of Colonial Treasurer, the substitution without absolute necessity, of any other person in your place, is an act of responsibility on his own part which the Governor does not feel justified in incurring.

 Giving you full credit for all that you claim for yourself in the letter under reply, the Governor is bound to state that he has not received the slightest intimation from Her Majesty's Government (which alone can authorize his acts) concerning your employ- ment in the ways which you mention. Every paper, however, that you thought fit to offer has been forwarded home to the Colonial and Foreign Offices, and the same mode of com- municating your sentiments, in the fullest manner in writing, is always open to you. At each of the five consulates, a gentleman bearing Her Majesty's commission as Consul, has been placed for the express purpose of supplying the fullest and most careful information, and it is the duty of the Governor, as Plenipotentiary and Chief Superintendent, to report this to Her Majesty's Government, with a previous experience of Chinese diplomacy and commerce not inferior to your own.

Until, therefore, a stronger case of necessity can be made out than the one conveyed in your letter, the Governor, with the unanimous concurrence of the Executive Council, regrets his inability to sustain that degree of responsibility which must always attach to his acts where they deviate materially from the plain course indicated by his instructions and the usages of the service.

R. M. Martin, Esq., Colonial Treasurer,

&c. &c.

I have, &c. (signed)..

Frederich W. A. Bruce,

Colonial Secretary.

Sir,

Enclosure 3, in No. 6.

Colonial Treasury, Ilong Kong, 24 June 1845:

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 19th instant, conveying to me the refusal of bis Excellency the Governor to my application for six months' leave of absence, on the following grounds :-

1. "That the regulations by which the Governor is bound, as to leave of absence, are clear and peremptory, confining such leave to cases of serious indisposition requiring change of climate."

 2. That "his Excellency does not feel justified in incurring an act of responsibility by the substitution of another person in my place," &c.

3. That "by granting the leave sought, his Excellency would materially deviate from the usages of the service."

In reply, I beg to observe that, 1st. the words of the Regulations (c. iv. p. 25) are "leave of absence should be confined as much as possible to cases of serious indisposition requiring change of climate." The regulations then proceed to define when leave of absence should be granted on private allairs. A fortiori, leave may be granted on public allairs.

ed. By granting the leave sought, no responsibility whatever would be incurred by his Excellency, as my sureties would stand good during my absence, as well as those of my locum tenens.

3d. By the usages of the service, colonial officers frequently obtain leave of absence 10 procced to England, irrespective of sickness.

But even were the regulations clear and peremptory against leave of absence being granted except in cases of imminently fatal illness, I venture to think that the novel and peculiar position of Great Britain in China, the nature and prospects of this island as a new settlement, and the many years I have devoted to the study and personal exami- nation of other colonies, and to an investigation of the commercial and financial relations of England, might have rendered me an exception to the general rule, particularly as my temporary absence could be no detriment to the public service, and as 1 offered to take upon myself all the responsibility of my proceedings.

I

  put aside the question of my health (although it has been materially shaken by my residence and mental labours here). Life or death is of little moment compared with the great interests which England has at stake in China. These interests are too vast and pressing to be affected by individual considerations, or by the ordinary usages and pro- ceedings of the service, which are applicable to every day occurrences.

Whether I am right or wrong, I have endeavoured to demonstrate in my reports and minutes, that our affairs in China require immediate and special reconsideration and revi- sion; that time and experience have made manifest several mistakes, which if not rectified previous to the evacuation of Chusan, in February or March next, will be a subject of deep regret and serious injury; and that our policy and proceedings are not productive of the extended beneficial results which the British nation has a right to expect in China, and not commensurate with the large expenditure incurred on this coast.

Feeling

1841-1886

Feeling strongly on these points as of high national importance, and believing that, however humble my rank in Her Majesty's service, it is my bounden duty to my Sovereign to bring them under the early and serious consideration of Her Majesty's Ministers, and deeming that my personal attendance is indispensable to answer questions on the spot, and to explain various points which, even if time permitted, could not be done by a lengthened and tedious correspondence, I have resolved to undergo the responsibility of proceeding to England, to bring the whole question under the immediate attention of Her Majesty's Government; and I cannot help entertaining a confident hope, that when the magnitude and pressing exigency of the case is fully seen and understood, and the motives in which my conduct has originated been explained, I may rely on the justice and liberality of Lord Stanley and Iler Majesty's Ministers.

My accounts are made up, and the monies under my charge ready to be transferred, on the half year ending 30th instant, to whomsoever his Excellency may be pleased to direct to officiate as Treasurer.

The Honourable F. W. A. Bruce,

Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c. (signed)

R. M. Martin.

Enclosure 4, in No. 6.

ESTIMATED REVENUE OF THE COLONY OF Hong Kong,

from 1st April 1845 to 1st April 1846.

Crown Rents.-Sold to June 1844

£. 9,000

Sales in July 184†

£. 2,323

Will not be paid

550

1,773

Sales in December 1844 to Chinese

Ditto to Europeans

290

$4,130

Will not be paid

$939

$3,191

664

Total Crown rents

11,727

Deduct deposits on purchases

343

Remains due for 1845-46

11,384.

Fees on leases for transfers, &c.

300

Government markets

Opium farm

$560 a month $710 a month

1,405

1,774

Auction duty 21 per cent., on estimated sales of £. 20,000 per

500

annum.

Ditto, deputies

Licenses. Pawnbrokers, 5 in number at $250 cach

Auctioneers 7

Spirit Licenses (Europeaus) 27 at $50 Ditto, samshoo (Chimese) 35 at $50 Salt-broker, or weigher i at $700 yearly

Stone quarries

Ghaut Serang (head)

Billiard-tables

£. 260

"}

$50

""

""

"

-

72 281

364

145

-

-

M

-

$800 1 at $200

166

""

""

41

4 at $25 each

20

2 at $50

20

""

TOTAL LICENSES

£.

1,369

Fines of ditto

-

Fees.-Supreme court, Police courts, burials, &c. &c.

Incidental receipts

Rent of Albany and other buildings, about

600

300

100

150

£.

17,882

(signed)

R. M. Martin.

743.

(True Copy.)

(signed)

Frederick W. A. Bruce.

B

No. 7.

29

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

31

"N:63

Civil.

K:/

ED

AUG 2 1845

Hey Lord,

L

23

Metorice ; Houghing,

3th May, 1848.

thave the hener to forward

"

Lex with the first Blue Book of this Colony, as it has becw diligently.

1 fpoled by Mr Bruces

Con

At the same time are

-forwarded, firsh, a Letter to

         anry addres " pour the Colonials keretary, commenting on and Explaining several point of. insportance, in the Blue Book, and -secondly, a report by his butzlaff - the trade of the Colmy

Bessels only.

on

in Chinese

These will both of them be

found useful reports, and appropriato-

The Right Honorable,

"The Lord Stanley,

"

accompaniment

"

32

22

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

- accompaniments to the Blue Book

My lule despatch, Sissy of the 25th Ultimo, has anticipateil and pendered superfluous any lengthened observations in this place, on the climate and. : healthings, the Revenue prospect, and the Trade of Houghing. I shall, however, add whatever additionals remarks now occur

I

to are in loothing over the compilation of the Colonials horetary :

  With regard to the small amount of Sand-renk collected in the last year, "Imay observe that hardly a lease was made out owany arrival in last may,

 Course scarcely any Rents collected. The present year will, I confidently- Expect, present a great contrast on

and

this point.

>

Ar the renewal of the Licences which are to expire during

and

ed farmis

the

1841-1886

333333

the current year, I cannot but anticipat

a material increases on the whole, when

they shall be put up for the second time. The characteristic caution of the Chinese

makes them

ánd a

In fac

J

very bad bidders at the

is new

here,

Commencement of an experement. fact everything large portion of the population not yet settled in their permanent dwellings. Patience and reserve are therefore necessary in respect to the levying of imports, lest many persons should at the commencement be

The

discouraged from pesorting to the Colony.

first duty of the Government has been nearly completed, with regard to the three important points of drainage, communication by roads, and the security of person and property, by. means of

If an efficient Police. He may

the

hope

34

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

caves and

d first

hope that then early Expenses will in due times be repaid by the improved health and.

      d growing munulers of respectable and prosperous settlers, and an increased fund be

1. thereby seepplied for the acquisition of

18

Revenue,

On accounts of such reasons,

the Ordinance which is now

Jo

before the Council for appointing lessessors of lands aird Houses for the purpose of levying a Police pate, has been deferred long, chiefly with a view to trailing until a large portion of the property intended to be valve should be completed and peally exist in a tangible shape. Scannest hope, however, that the very heavy expenses of the Police at present necessary (though be expected hereafter to...

diminish

this

may

1841-1886

25

diminish) can be nearly much by any scheme that can be proposed for providing a rate.

  As already observed the Public Roads away be consictired as mearly provided, with the reception of five miles on the south, necessary to complete the circuit of the Island. The principal, pemaining sources

s of initiatory and

Extraordinary expenditure

are.

the Church,

the Government offices and Court

J

Justice, and the sovernor's pesidence, which last I are quite; content to postpone until all others are. completed - The whole of these works will be propised to Your · Lordship in Stans and Estimates, to be sanctioned before they

are silored upon.

With reference to the List of the

- Legislative and Executive Councils

forwarded in the Blue Book, I may

observe

336

35

36

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

observe that these have not yet been formally sanctioned by Her Majesty. As Sobserve that no person

is

entered under it.. head of Areign Consects, Imay here state, that an American Consuel was residenz here in the early

last year,

part of last

hit that he subsequently

died of cholera at Inacas, and has

not yet bews peplaced .

With

the reference to the population

of the Colony, Thave the satisfaction to observe that the European portion has

considerably increased

increased during the past. and that a large influx of

par, a

that

females has takein place. The materials of a census have rest yet been allained, "but I trust, the deficiency will be suppited

- future occasions. As pegards the

Thinese population, the Ansus containe in this Blue Book, was the work of her.

Gutzlaff

1841-1886

iiv

26

Schlaff, and it is satisfactory to add, that both in mumbers and pespectability the Chinese are improving, being accompanies a greater number of instances by their families. The position of thisisioon. inpolation to their new Converbry is so anomalous and imprécédented, that I only surprised at the facility aim peadingss with which they have repaired

arr v

to it.

the

of

It is highly advisable to encourage commercial uns adventurous clases these people at the hias of which stame the natives of Atlion. They have inconciliabu feud with the proper of the Canton province, to whom they would always be found a useful check

avid

counterprise . With this new, the

Colonial Government is at this moment

offering great incouragement to the

selllement.

37

38

888

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

settlement of a body of Aokien men, who have applies with that object by ~ polition to mysia. This will hereafter form the subpez of a special- communication to Your Lordship.

At page 112 of the Blue

انی

Beck is a list of the places of ivorship in Hongkong. Iregret to day that the aisence of good

     of good Church accommodation has the effect of filling the dissenting chapels, of which three

arc

already established neres -

Establishmenty

"there is a very good tomish Church,

or frier

conducted by

az i

Italian Fiests from the Propaganda College at haples, and the 18th Royal trish Regiment, at present in = zurrison here, contributes largely to

fill it.

With regard to places of

Education,

1841-1886

had

27

Jay

that the

Education, Ipegret to Morrison & bciety, the conduct of ashicles 1 fatten exclusively into the hands of Americans, refuses altogether to coalesce, with the Anglo Chinese College

other Establishment. On this graind as well as that of its exclusively Educating Chinese, and noth European youth, I deem it very little deserving of

or any

ले

wank European

Incouragement, since we wan Interprolars, and not Chinese, who are-

seldom to be trusted.

 I have granted to IW Santoria spot of ground for the erection of a Protestant school, the building of which has been commenced.

Aregret to observe that No Bruce, of anaking an accurate peturn of the Export and Imports of the Colony, from the istal

has noe possessed the means

absence

39

40

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

absence of anything like a Custom touses The increased number of Convect, in consequence of the abolition of the punishment of Transportation, has filled the limited prison

accommodations to are extent that - would prove pernicious to the health

the

are

· prisoners, and accordingly mcasions in progress for the enlargement of the rxisting prison. It has also become necessary to Concery measures

for-

obtaining from the convicts the greatest.

labour

possible quantity of officient. on the publics Reads and other

undertakings, and Ÿ

and I am happy to Jay'

vetru

Employed

text they have lately with grea, affect. Strest that this will

in

a sources of considerable, saving

be fun a for the fecture :

(

1017 have

1841-1886

28

Shave the honor to be,

With the highest respect

Your Lordships,

Most Obedient,

Humble kivant.)

41

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

Echived to Boud of Truste

Fready

Sir,

RECEIVEL

AUG 2 1845

1841-1886

30

43

Colonial Office Victoria,

Hongkong, 14 May, 1845.

: I have the honor to submit to Your Excellency the "Blue Book of the Colony for the year 1844, and to report that the same is ready for transmission to Her Mapsty's Government.

Para:! Besides the great difficulty thave. found in getting accurate polumns on most of the subjects it un braces, I have to inforn Your Excellony, ( in Explanation of the apparent delay in its completion), that it was

it was only e of this week I received

in the

course

the finally corrected returns of Revenice and Expenditure for the

Year

His Excellency,

John Francis Davis,

44

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Farail

Lara 3

the

31",

year for in consequence of the accounts pendered at the conclusion. of the March quarter containing

disbursements of the quarter ending "Tecember 8th, it was ~ impossible till they had beewsonf in to prepare aw accurate statement of the expenditure and receipts of the Colony up to the and

of the year.

As regards the accounts of the year previous to the 10th of May. it has been found impossible to: classify them as required, necessary documents for that purpose. not having been leff by Midtewart in the Treasury.

the

I have also to remark that, owing to the pressure of important work in the Land Office the return

'1841-1886

Inney

of Granks of Land during the year 1844, which it required considerable. line and trouble to

to prepare, was not ready till the middle of las month. With respect to it may observer incidentally, that though since Your Excilliney's arrival deposits have been required on sales for the first time, there has been. no diminution in the average price of lots sold and the pens has hitherto been collected, though in

marry cases

including

arrears

3.

due from the month of June 1843- without a single daw proceding having bow instituted; and.. further that there. has been no resumption of Lots by Government though some of those high on the hill have not been improved upon.

in

45

46

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

on accordance with the conditions

of the sale and are consequently liable to forfeitive.

Paraits The sum that appears under - the head of Crown Renk includes

only what was due up to July, 18440 without taking into liccount the rout due at that time from the Chinese whose lots were not defined or ascertained by the land Committee that sat in farmary 1844. It has consequently täckten

considerable terme to determine the rate at which they should be. assessed, and the tenvere on which

small

they should hold the very pieces of ground. They in general.

excmpy.

Porn: 5 A further cause of difficulty und delay arose from a)

Crachic

1841-1886

that formerly prevailed, of masking

off lok

on

the

οτι αν

rough map instead

d of

: ground itself, so that the.. boundaries of the lots when they came to be laid down on the grand could not be made to correspond with the contents of rack us markin on the plan, and it was

it was found.

necessary to remcusuive them all. This has now been nearly

accomplished, and the leases are being issive from which when completed. are stack retum of Land granted. previous to 1844 con be

mrade

up.

li considerable number

of the Chines have paid, sent since the close of the your

of the year and no

difficulty has ben Experienced in levying it. The amount to collected together with the rent due on the

47

25th

48

Parach

23

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

"of December for the previous half- year (smi bracing the first payment account of the sales in July last, and on account of the Chungrean district, the present occupiers of which though they purchased at the saule in famiary 1844, were not put in possession until September) will appear in this year's ůlum.

The polure of exports and Imports as required it has been found impossible to obtain in the

absence of any Custom Horse.. Establishment: The Harbour Master's books give only the vessels that have. entered the port, and the general. nature of their cargoes but afford no seans of hunning what was unshipped or shipped on the spot, thave therefores prepared a table --

according

mcand

1841-1886

according to the best sources of information in my paver, and have takter for the Consular Returns of Troede, the vessels cargoes to which have entered themselves as from Monghong or which have cleare aut pom the five ports for that planzaid which from their names &, thave. ascertain to be refsels employe in the coasting trade only. The goirs they bring love.

here

are transhipper on their

arrival into other vessels

art artz

sent to Europes, hidia 4, he addition to those the bessels urviving poun Bally 4% with rice and these with Manila and the Straits

timber

per

have on general discharged parts of their cargoes.

cargoes here, but as tar

ignorant of the quantities landed, I have only put them doon uider

the

49

50

Parai

/

Jura

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

the heads of Ships arrives.

Your Excellency will observe, that under the head of Imports the Verchat vimplipe in carrying goods to Carlow do not appear. I sound that they ranly bring dovervurrything Except small portions of the cargoes of ships discharging a "Whampoa

use somelies a little tou whichi

dus not. Sunderstane pass through . the Chinese Cestam House. Their

Chief implygment is in carrying ups to Canton goirs which have been tourchoused lure in sxpectations of o favorable turn of the marttik

occupation of this bland

The

has afforded. The Candan Merchank

{

advantage in this dealings

liever

with the Chinese which they rjoyed before. Goods can now be stored

here

1841-1886

here; at a moderate; pale in insurable,

buildings.

and in one instaïice at

heaun

the beginning of this year, by the facilities thus afforded, for watching

the state of the market, a merchand of this place realizie a profit of 25 per-cout on a large consigniment, of cottow yan. Formerly it toas necessary to foron goirs at once on the market, however glutted, komen of the ixpouse of demurrage if they were Hept on ship lenie, or the risk and less incurred in Weeping therm on shore in huldings at Canton,

are not insurable. or accant of the pequent fires, and where the "prices for storage are retravagantly high leveral

Several of the Mercantile firms.

which

who have establishments at Canton

are

building large warehouns here

in

51

52

Sura: G

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

in addition to those they already popis prom which it may be inpired that they do not consider that the

value of this accomunècation is likely to be at all affected by the building operations at present in progress at that vely

The Opium which shows so largely aning this ixports porn this place is morly transhipper pan the :dessels that bring it kom hodin inte smaller avres mere xdapted for the..

coasting trade am

is sent up to.

different points along the East Gast, of China when reviving refats are stationer for the propon ofarlailing it in srevell quantities. They return Wither with Soccer for somvillanoe le hidiwer in baltask avro semelines with part of the cargo they have brow

to

Imable

Pra:10

1841-1886

of

unuble to dispose of but they seldow bring down any murchandig.

As to the trace in funts Jean

add nothing to m' butzlaffé. Memorandum on the subject. Ther

number anse tonnage of trading pinks that ancher in the pork is very large=

Taraill

This does not include the cargo boats

a day

amounting to prom P to 10 u which bring supplies of provisions t

to the kitaw and carry away o

many

a

articles in return. This tat

has been i̇stimated ringlly at fav

10,000 to 12,000 "Zellars a worth.

The hall boats that bring the Salt and sell it here to the muggling bats for exportation to different places

071.

the Canton river au

o neighbuertion.

invest the greater part of their precies in small quantities of Opium and

pieces

53

54

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

piece goods as a petuum cargo. This island is only used by them as a place for the buyer

Sara:12

wird

and seller to meet

trans for the carge for the ones

to the other

Shave not insisted under the head of Kishories" any thing with pespeck to the large quantities of Kish caught off the south side of the Bland as the fishing ground being off the Roma Island cannot strictly be clained on behalf of the Colony. Some of the bats unplayed in the traffic, belong to Hanley

and Aberdeen. het

the greater number and all thon of the largest class (called to this ) carrying from 30 to. 50 tons belong to various places in the district of - Hangshan and hian and merely

sise these . Harbours during the

fishing

fishing se

1841-1886

season to take in provisions

and svater.

The

es fish caught is generally sobo to smaller vessels who carry it be differecch places for sale. libost 500 tons are

annually dried at Hanley.

Para: k3

Sam not able to give any positive information as to the cultivation of the island but as the south side, where the districts available for this purpose chiefly situated, is now pondérid accessible by the roads im progress, there

is

аб

are

every reason to expect, that, as some.

they

b

survegic and divided.

into small allohunk, the wank of the population here may be supplies to a great retent by the productions of the island itself, and a source

• Provence

be at the same time created. Besides

the Vallies.

now under cultivation,

there

535

56

Saralls

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

there are clunderstand several large track in the Mand well suited for regelabte cultivatine and,

7 pastirage:

the

There exists aro

1

means of forming

any comparative table showing the increase or diminution of crimes in Cecony - But there certainly has been a very great decrease, particulart in crimes of violence. Since the month of June lust ano scriend attack has bew made by anned bodies of

an improvement chiefly wing to officient system of Police -

The crimes that are committor

are for the anost park burglaries oving to the number of laburers of the worst class employed in

-building & living

on the premises

where they are at work. As the houses become finished and this

migratory.

1841-1886

migratory population

tion ceases to be. msplayed there is very reason to look forward to a diminution of crime

in this respect.

the

7

57

The other prevailing erine, and which, next to that article of hepplementary beaty by which: Chinese tessels caw only clear out for this place from the five Ports, offers the most scrious obstacle to the trade of the place is the great growth of Piracyno the appreaches pour Canton are the East Coast of China, bistances of attacks on trading funts are reported every week.

Grove Pr

Siguien) HH. A.Brice.

Colonial beretary.

Love copy

Redrich W. A. Bruce

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

59

RECEIVED AUG

18/5

Board of Trade

Remarks respon

38

the Native Trade

of Hongtong

pom 14 April 1844. 14th April 184.5.

from

Saptain Illist, when taking posesion.

of this Fathind, anticipated that the commerce formerly carried on at Lintin, Napswymoon and Ramsingmoon would be concentrated under the British flay, at this

harbour the

· even...

flay, at this spacious anticipated great-

additions from fanton itself and the various ports its the North rait. This was natural

under the supposition, that the trading connexions with this Country, after all. the attempts to improve them, would revert to the same exclusive system:

before, and that as long as China excited whole no alterations could be expected ikantenational policyon ...

The

60

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Th

  The aspect of affairs being however :changed for the better beyond the most

sanguine. hopes,

our commerce obtained

new channels, and the idea of mathing

test mart in the rast, fell

Houghtong the greatest

at once to the ground. Still the mind conversant

with

the times of yore

brighten days,

of

:

of joue looks forward to d

and thinks to trace. The absence:

Commercial inter course at this settlement.;

in the restrictions of the Supplementary Treaty

and other causes.

-

It has often been remarked that Junk's from: Shanghal Teaches and Amoy which proceed in great numbers to Singapore and other settlements, would prefer Hongtrong as much nearer and more conveniently situated than those places, in order to make their purchases, and it is almost inexplicable that they go, after the opening of this port ; Meretofore to their accustomed harbours.

We ought here to consider that ther

exports

as sapie

3.:

1841-1886

39

exports from their non County are principally,

if not exclusively destined for the

numerous

"Chinese colonists that inhabit the islands

of the archipelage. They freight.

veeeels with.

cargo,

their

emigrants, and bring home. a-

, the greater part of which is bought. with the savings of their countrymen.

have lived abroad, and amassed some

property. can therefore

who

The materials of the Junk. trade.

• not be found at Hongthong.

Some vessels: nevertheless, tried to obtain an:

export cargo. waiting Miged.

on the

spot-,

and

were

after. Long me from

to receive the same

fanton. With Straits produce this ___

the Chinese

settlement could not supply Merchants at so cheap a rate; as they can buy it at Singapore, the carrying trade morcover in English bottoms which has recently commenced bids very fair. account of it's security to engrase the

in

direct

****=

61

62

:

direct

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

direct commerce

-form the Archipelago to

the various northern Poots, and we have

therefore.

no reason to believe that

Hongking will became in

entrepôt for this traffic. Better founded

respecting.

" future thi

are our hope...

a more extensive commerci

: with Canton, for from first to lasts a number of large cargo-boats have been running between this and the metropolis ._

With

very

rare exceptions, these vessels

supplied the immidiate necessaries for the consumption at Victoria, building Materials as well as provisions, and goods of shopkeepers. The reiterated inquiries, why the merchants did not "sand down! artides for the European market, have invariably been answered that it would." not pay, and that they could noti obtain a ready wale here, if they did t

Intelligent

1841-1886

40

63

Intelligente natives have always affirmed := that the absence of this branch of Commerce: must be ascribed to there being

no

Chinese large firms at Victoria to receive goods in charge, and sell them as soon as there is a demande Attempts to friend

such establishment's have den been made,

but not succeeded from

wants

of

encouragement and on account of

considerable individual lose.

present moment there remains

unfortunately not one from fanton

At the

single large Merchant

in the settlement who is able

to promote by his capital and influence such a decirable object. The whole business is

in the hands of Shopkeepers, compradors and peddars, of whom there

therefore

are

many, though their transactions when

conccdered as a while

are but.

trifling.

Since their native boats have to compete

with

64

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

with

our pron

schooners, which are

constantly going up the rivers, and ``__ moreover, to contend with the Mandarin's,

who are said to put a high price: upon."

their permits,

no immediate increase can.

for the present be looked for: Should. however unfortunately any disturbances arice, there can be not the slightest doubt

that there boats will become carriers to a

considérable amount

of

From Meangmun a place

- the numerous outlets of the fanton river,

several boats with valuable

cargoes

have

The

from time to time irrited - Honghong. Merchants that come in them brug: als: cotton goods. Unfortunately however; of these vessels have been plundered by pirates, and this prevents the Chinese...

some.

from putting any

more dear goods on bound The following places supply wi Hongkong.

1841-1886

65

Hongking with provisions. Nantow, Taepang, Sinan, Lantas, Macas, Haching, and + Tingehes. An interruption in this business.

has ever been experienced and the reiterated;

many instances

plunder of pirates, has in many

been obviated by the payment of blackmail_

Were it possible to cut

off these brats, great

distress would be experienced as nearly every

article

for maintaining life is brought from

elsewhere, and

little

the

very

-grows

στι

island itself.

The intercourie with Macas both

by Portuguese. Lor. chas as well as factbouts has

Lorichas

always been

very lively, transhipments from

that place to this and vice versa,

frequent

reeurrenee

being of

though

it cannot b

said, that there exists a native trade.

is

:: The only branch to which this name

applicable in the traffic in salt. is brought from the fact of Stacking

This

and

Nwrithen

66

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

.!

Kweishen where it is. Manufactured in great: quantity, in small: junk..." They:

- are met. here by fact rowing craft from::.

- the adjacent rivers; which buy it and

introduce the same in various

same-in: various

ways

throughout the interior, at a far more reduce price than the Governmental Satt

Monopolists can

always been a

dispore of it. This has

ind

-very thriving business, and the money realized both by the purchaser

as well as seller in proportion is considerable.. Hence the constant resort of these junks to

this harbour has become

affair.

an

-every day

It is however a matter of

astonishment, that no increase is

visible, and that it remains in

statu

дно,

the sales of salt being larger

seasons, which

or smaller; according to the seasons,

affect the demand, but there is no

augmentation in the year. Their

Captains

1841-1886

67

faptains

tate invariably opium and ficce

་་

goods for this money they get, and often invest. cxpital for this purpore; whick they have brought with them. Pirates have frequently, attacked and taken these vessels.

The junk trade with the coast

exists under the following limitations :_ It is in vain to expect

from the ports which are

should come

open

that vessels

to British

enterprize

down to Songhong.

when they

they can

bing the goods.

own doors

for nearly

for a cargo. they want at their

the same.

• price. How could they take

the sea risk, the outlay of capital, and

the danger of being attacked by pirates merely to visit Victoria. Such enterprizes

long

car

as the

ever be anticipated, and so Northern Ports are well supplied, and

there are

are so

many intervining stations on

the Court where every possible article in:

!

demand

68

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

ba

demand may be obtained, mosgients to

buy a cargo here will: brave wind and weather and a long wayange

Hencere.

never had a single brevet from Shanghaie,

Fah-too, that would..

The

Ningpo, Amoy. have made purchases at Hongkong. people on the coast to the weet of Canton proexed to Macas roads and the Typa,

if not visited by any reased to buy theire ? ivants, and never has

has yet a single vessel

from thence touched here.

Whatever is betiveon Namcoas and

فرو

Honghong, with the exception of Hachong perhaps where lately vessel's have been in

continually at anchor, such as

i

and even

Kitiye....,

Chazugan

Troyes, Haeyes, Tinghee, and Cheops in Fokkeen; belongs exclusively & the commercial sphere of this place",

nd numerous have been the

ame

junks that

to the settlement. From the!!

two:

1841-1886

69

13

tion latter, they bring camphorn bought siat :)

Formosa and abum, with some

very

cource

Chinaware. The former article is only

recasionally saleable and in many

2.

instances after having been offered to miany British merchants, has been taken to

Macas to be sold there. The latter has

very often:

formed ballast to India, but from want to proceed to fanton or Macas. These the only two articles, that have yet

of purchasers, the junks have

are

in.

any quantity been brought to this market..

& great: attempt

was

made by Teaches

junks to import tea, but whether it

was

that the bayes a

were not

property

packed, or the quantity not adapted to our home consumption, it remained uncaleable in the hands of the importers, afterwards with very great lost

and was

given to the Shopkeepers to dispose of it.

by

70

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

by retail Most of the junkin come here) im kallast to purchase opinion andy. piecegoods, none of there's however in any)",

bles quantity. This is taken to

considerables

Nit: yes, Leoyee, or the island of Staenan, and there retailed :: The pirates however home. mort : materially interfered with this in :branch and many junks. have after. leaving this port, been robbed of their whole. None of the faptains who constantly are in the habits of visiting

masi

didi

ever tell that the Chinese Government": with their coming he

interferes with their

coming hither, mos

have I heard an instance of seizure and conficcation in the parts of the fustom.

house non dov.

As this harbour is a generate

thorough fare for resects, that comes from the North and proceed to lanton and the

South, many anchor for a tide and

make

1841-1886

14

71

make :

mall purchases, the amount -

of which could not be acdertanned; as it is done in a very quiet- way.

Such is the native trade which-

Honghing hade hitherto,

frew below the

towest, calculations, that the most

desponding merchants could have made. circumstances may prodice

ratraordinary

α.

salutary change, but in the Ordinary

Course-

remains

:- of events; as long as every thing quiet, of which there can be at present - not the slightest doubt, and the Northern

ports engrose gradually the bussinese of fanton, Victoria must - not expect much- We have no produce of the island, except granite, to sell; there :

amount

is no

·large.

of goods stored up in the

godowns, ships do not come here merely

to discharge their

cargoes,

and then return

home, nor do the Chinese put their

commodities

72

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

commodities in our:

changed.

es that it

is very difficult to obtain maniofactures teas in " "lurge quantities. But as a starting pointe Hongtrong will ever hold very high_plase, though paxi inferive". Thursan :-

Vito

...We should also mention the

on

:sstensive fisheries carried on

            by the inhabitants of Stanley and. Aberdien, which employ a goodly number of boats

A

no written account: however has been:

 Nept, it would be very difficult to 6 give the number of the smacks and still. fece of their produce :

On the whole we must live

in hopes, that a more propitious state : of things will take place, and that Honghing,

at least in some measure will answer:::

expectations of the founder..

the

(True (spy)

Frederick W. A. Brucey

(Signed) Charles Gutzlaff, Phines Secretary

;

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 147

(No. 37.)

**** {"

til jao si desai ... ... ·· HONG KONGnarodumujeni pi gol-maros

No. 38.

quely posting 07 Copy of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir J. F. DAVIS, Bart. to the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone.

SIR,

!

***Victoria, Hong-Kong,

'April 11, 1846.

I HAVE the honour to forward the "Blue Book" of Hong-Kong for the year 1845, as drawn up by the Colonial Secretary.

1333

73

Under the head of Revenue it is satisfactory to observe an increase from Revenue. 95341. 12s. 6d. (the collection for the previous year) to 22,2421. 8s. Id., the income of the past. In my separate reports on the revenue of this colony I have detailed the chief causes of increase, and at Page 22 of the "Blue Book" is a comparative view of each item for the two years.;

The receipt from Government lands, which may now be estimated to afford an income of about 13,000%, cannot be expected rapidly to increase, as most of the available spots at present in demand have been disposed of. With the pro- gress of the colony a further demand may probably arise, calling for building sites in the neighbourhood of the town; but the rates at which allotments were at first sold must not be expected for the future.

The police assessment, which is estimated to yield about 2000l. per annum, must be expected to become more productive with the increase of tenements:

Next to the Crown leases, the licenses and excise farms (as that for opium) are the most productive sources of revenue, and like those at Singapore should incrcase with the progress of the place.

 It will be an early object with me to carry out the proposed ordinance for a duty on wines, spirits, and fermented liquors; but the chief difficulty attend- ing the execution of this project is the total absence of a custom-house estab- lishment in the free port of Hong-Kong; and it therefore may be apprehended that the machinery expressly necessary for the collection of the tax will tend to render its net produce comparatively small..

Upon the whole there is fair reason to anticipate that the fixed revenue may be raised to about 30,000l. per annum, and that when the expenses incidental to the first formation of the colony have been defrayed, the annual receipts will be found nearly equal to the annual civil disbursements.

 The comparative expenditure for 1845 exhibits an apparent increase beyond Expenditure. 1844, which is mainly owing to the colonial establishment having regularly commenced only with the month of May, 1844, thus rendering 1845 the first integral year for which a return has been made. The heaviest items of expense are the police establishments and the judicial department,, together amounting to nearly one-half of the entire civil charges of the colony..

I have already in my Despatch, No. 35, of the 13th instant, suggested a reduction in the surveyor-general's department, and, as opportunities occur, other retrenchments may hereafter be effected.

1

In the same Despatch I have reported, that while the sum voted in Parlia- ment for the public service in China (including the consular establishments). for the year 1845-6 was 80,000%, the actual charge has been 64,543., after deducting the revenue raised in this colony.

The civil expenditure, on account of public works during 1845, has been Public works. 26,8004, while that under the ordnance department appears as 57,807. Both of these are of course only temporary charges, incidental to a newly established colony.

The progress of buildings and improvements, public and private, during the last eighteen months, has been truly surprising, and could not have taken place. except for the ready command of the cheap and efficient labour of the Chinese. The execution of the buildings is such as can be rarely met with in any colony. A good road now extends within five miles of the circumference of the island, 18 miles being completed out of 23, and another road crosses the island from Victoria to Stanley. The excellent contour survey of Hong-Kong made by the engineer department leaves nothing to be desired on that point.

 The drainage of the town, so important on every account, may be considered as nearly completed.

74

HONG-KONG.

Legislation.

Population.

Climate,

Places of worship,

Education.

Trade.

148

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

With the prospect of having the principal civil buildings executed by the Ordnance Department, I have confined those crected by the Land Office to three police stations, and the building now occupied by the Post-office Depart- ment, the latter yielding a rent of 1507. a-year to the colony.

Under the head of Legislation, fourteen ordinances were passed during the year 1845, some of them amending previous enactments. The first and imme- diate wants of the colony may now be considered as supplied, and future ordi- nances will be required only as occasion shall arise.

The population return in the "Blue Book" is entirely exclusive of troops. It exhibits a total population of 23,748 persons. Of these, the whites are 634, of whom 501 are males, and 133 females. The coloured population, consisting almost entirely of the registered Chinese, amounts to 23,114, being 18,438 males, and 4676 females. The proportion of the latter has increased as the feeling of security induced the Chinese settlers to bring over their families; and I hope to observe the growth of this favourable indication.

There seems to prevail among the Chinese population a perfect confidence in our Government; and since the establishment of an efficient police, and the severe examples which have been made of some atrocious criminals, security of person and property have been established, in lieu of the robbery and plun- der which existed less than two years ago.

The most gratifying subject of the present Report is the successful vindica- tion of this colony from those charges of unhealthiness which accidental cir- cumstances (some of them inseparably connected with its first occupation) swelled into a species of panic about the time I quitted England, and led many persons to imagine that a residence in the place was a desperate undertaking. The best answer to the whole is the remarkable immunity from disease which followed immediately upon the completion of fitting dwellings, efficient drain- age, and other improvements. The delightful winter. which prevails here will, I have no doubt, make Hong-Kong a place of resort to invalids from India.

The colonial surgeon's very complete report, in pages 127 to 138 of the Blue Book, will be found amply to corroborate the above statement, and to prove that this colony is much more healthy than many others of Her Majesty's intertropical possessions. Even in the case of the troops (by no means an infallible test of climate), the mortality was reduced to nearly a half during the last year, before their present excellent barracks were completed; and, now that the soldiers have been housed in them, I entertain no doubt of the marked and favourable result.

Soon after my arrival in the colony in 1844, I represented, that while the Romanists and Dissenters were alrently provided with respectable places of wor- ship, the members of the Established Church met in a species of shed. But, however anxious to commence the erection of a more suitable edifice, I have not yet been fortunate enough to obtain that authority for the expenditure, without which, I was officially informed, it must not be undertaken. On the arrival of the necessary.s

    sanction, I hope that a proper building may be raised in the course of a year; and there seems little doubt of obtaining one-third of the cost from among the inhabitants.

There are four European establishments for education in Victoria, into some of which the use of the Chinese language is introduced. They are at present entirely supported by voluntary contributions. In Despatch, No. 4, of January 20th. I proposed to Her Majesty's Government some small annual contribution to a school established by the Reverend Mr. Stanton, for the education of the children of European police, and others. Mr. Stanton is now erecting a school, by the aid of funds supplied in England, for bringing up young Chinese in the principles of Christianity.

As among the Chinese population generally, a number of individuals'of that' nation are employed in Hong-Kong in giving the first clements of instruction to the male children of the inhabitants, for the females are always kept at home. In the Despatch already quoted above, I have suggested that some trifling Govern- ment contribution might have a favourable influence on the feeling of the population.

Under the head of general trade, I may state, that two foreign consuls, American and Danish, have hoisted their flags at Hong-Kong; the first having already obtained his " exequatur from Her Majesty. It seems to me, in every respect, desirable to encourage the resort of all kinds of trade to this port; and I

"

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 149

shall have great satisfaction in reporting that the consuls of other foreign states have applied for leave to act.

 In spite of the discouragement afforded by the Supplementary Treaty, the Chinese trade appears to be rather on the increase; and I have, the honour to append to this Report a paper by Mr. Gutzlaff on that interesting subject.

T

75

No. 2. The total absence of a custom-house, affording the regular, and exact returns, connected, with such an establishment, while it encourages trade by holding, out the advantages of a free port, at the same time renders it impossible, to give a very accurate statement of the commerce carried on.

I

A surprising increase, as well as improvement, has taken place during the last year in the Chinese shops. The Colonial Almanac, of which I have directed two copies to be forwarded, contains a list of 388 retail dealers, in addition to the three governinent markets.

11

"

A principal obstacle to the Chinese commerce of the place, is the system of piracy which infests the approaches from the east and...west; but measures which are now in progress for checking this (and which shall be reported here- after), will, I trust, have a tendency to remedy the evil. Any local measures would be useless, previous to the receipt of the Vice-Admiralty commission, which is daily expected by the mail-steamer.

My previous Despatches will have shown, that the small quantity of level, land available in the colony for agriculture, must always restrict this branch of productive industry within narrow bounds; but the few valleys which are to be found, will probably be devoted to the growth of market vegetables, rather than rice, which can always be imported by shipping. A better, prospect exists for pasture, and endeavours are making to secure an internal supply of bullocks for the use of the Commissariat..

I regret to state (as before observed),'that I perceive no immediate prospect of Crown lands. a considerable increase to the present income derived by Government from leases of Crown lands. The additional leases sold, during 1845, amount only to about! 9001. per annum, and raise the whole to something more than 13,000. The available ground about the town of Victoria has been mostly sold; but the future growth of the colony may create a demand for parcels of ground in the neigh- bourhood.

While it is satisfactory to report that an effectual check has been put to the Police. vast amount of crime prevalent on my first arrival in the colony, the very heavy expense of the police must remain a subject of regret, as long as the peculiar position of this island, within reach of the worst characters from the mainland of China, exposes it to the ingress of a depraved population. Nothing but con- stant vigilance, and the occasional exhibition of severe examples, will continue to life and property that security which they fortunately enjoy at present. The annual amount of the police-tax, which at present does not produce above 2000%" per annum, will, no doubt, increase with the growth of rateable property.

A profitable use of convict labour has been made during the last year in the construction and repair of roads; and I trust that the maintenance of the pri- soners will be compensated in this manner. Within the town of Victoria, and, its immediate neighbourhood, their services are very available; but much time is lost, and risk of escape incurred, in their employment at considerable distances from the prison.

The extremely defective state of the colonial gaol, which was erected only for temporary use, has been attended with much practical inconvenience; but, with the arrival from England of an authority to construct more suitable prisons, the works have been commenced, and I trust their completion is not very far distant.

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone,

&c.

&c.

&c.

I have, &c.

(Signed)

J. F. DAVIS.

76

150

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure in No. 38.

REMARKS upon the present state of NATIVE TRADE with the Colony of HONG-KONG.

 THE obstacles which our connercial intercourse with China has to encounter ought to be pointed out, to effect in some measure the removal.

 1. From 1839 until now, there has been piracy along the whole coast; and, though the outlaws remained at times quiet, they very soon appeared again, to strike terror in the peaceful merchant junks. This evil does not merely exist in the neighbourhood of Canton, but extends as far as Teintsin, and is most fearful on the coast of Fokien.

 The principal entrances to Hong-Kong are through narrow passages, where the ruffians can. lio in wait, and pounce upon their victims with great rapidity. They have at Victoria their spies, who give them correct information about every vessel that has a valuable cargo on board, and the moment she leaves, these boats prowl about to lay hold of her, and plunder her entirely. The pirates themselves come most from the neighbourhood of Whampoa; some cruise about in fishing-smacks of a peculiar build, so as to outsail other craft; but most of them are long rowing crafts, and several carry a letter of marque. It is very difficult to dis- tinguish them from ordinary vessels; and when pursued, they adopt many stratagems to prevent their discovery, and generally know well to manago so as to elude the arm of justice.

The traders that come from the adjacent islands-from Canton, Tungkwan, &c.-haro compounded with the buccaneers, paying them a certain sum as black mail, for which they obtain liberty to navigate the seas without molestation; but the eastern passage, towards Ly-yu-noon, is at present very much infested by these depredators. They are there also more numerous than amongst the islands, and do very much mischief. The trading junks dare not leave this harbour, unless they have a strong breeze, and can depart in a large squadron. Many, therefore, are hero detained a considerable time, and are ultimately, after all precau- tions, nevertheless plundered. Such occurrences have, during the present month, been very numerous; whilst in some of the previous ones no similar losses took place.

We need not observe that our trade, on account of this insecurity, is much curtailed. Tho vessels that used to come from Kityëo and Haeyëo, and took full cargoes in this harbour, often amounting to 30-40,000 dollars in value, have suffered so repeatedly as almost to drive them away entirely; and where there were formerly three or five, we have now only one.

This evil is very inveterate, and it is difficult to suggest an effective remedy which would put a stop to it, and the more so as the Chinese government will not avail itself of our co- operation. Could one believe the sufferers when they pointed out their assailants, or discover, with sufficient proofs for conviction, their haunts, the matter would be very easy; long before, however, any force can arrive, they are gone, and there are so many harbours and hiding-places for these robbers, that it would require much local knowledge and good information to appro- hend them. But as the Chinese government, ou account of possessing better means for obtaining knowledge of the perpetrators, is perfectly competent to bring them to condign punishment, the constant recurrence of piracy, if duly reported to the supreme government, and the most urgent and often-reiterated requests, to put these nefarious wretches down with a high hand, might rouse it from its slumbers and indifference. Some vessels of ours, fitted out in the Chinese way, might cruise about at the Kapsing and Ly-yu-moon with great advantage.

·

2. The supplementary treaty, which stipulated that junks should only clear out from the harbours open to our trade, has fortunately not been carried into force. However, the very fact that four emporia, besides Canton, arc accessible to our traders, with the many interme- diate stations on the coast, makes it extremely casy for junks to go to the nearest spot, and buy thore nearly as cheap as the article can be sold at Canton, without risk of shipwreck or pirates, and with a speedy return of their capital. To attract, therefore, the junk trade to Hong-Kong is beyond the range of possibility, and neither regulations nor orders could effect this; so long as the other ports are open, and the British merchant can ship whatever he pleases, and go to the market which will answer his expectations best. The trade reasonably to be expected is a transit one, by vessels that wish to go to any of the northern and southern ports, and touch here on their way.

 3. A more formidable obstacle is, that Chinese imports, in considerable quantity, are seldom saleable at Hong Kong. Teas were at first brought here in lots of 100 to 600 chests by sea- going junks.

But there is not a single instance on record that it could be disposed of to any advantage; on the contrary, it has entailed, in all cases, a heavy loss, and it has been given over to the shopkeepers, to get rid of it as they_best_could. The last adventure of this description was a cargo from the Bohea Hills, in a British vessel, which arrived from Amoy. This specula- tion ended still more tragically. Not only had the article to be sold by auction at a very reduced rate, under prime cost, but the parties got themselves into a lawsuit, and were in- volved in irretrievable difficulties, so that the whole ended in ruin. The reason given for the unfortunate issue of similar enterprises is, that the teas are not suited to our markets, and that our own merchants, having given their order to the various agents in the ports, care not for making additional and trifling purchases. Another article brought by junks is alum, which is occasionally salçable; but the greater part cannot be disposed of at Hong-Kong, and goes either to Canton or oven to Macao.,

 Camphor fetches sometimes a fair price, but many vessels that bring their cargoes here find no purchasers.

 These are the staple goods, for the disposal of which no encouragement has yet been given, and the commerce on that account is very languid.

77

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 151

Attempts have been made to introduce sulphur, rhubarb, coarse china, earthenware, and other items; but the demand was not of such nature as to make the speculators desirous to revisit our ports. Where imports, however, find no customer, exports cannot be expected to be much coveted as long as bullion alone will purchase them.

1

4. The whole Chinese marine commerce appears to approach a great crisis.. The keenest Chinese merchants are convinced that our ships can carry goods cheaper and safer than their junks, and that merchandize of any value is better put on board of them. This will throw the carrying trade of the dearest articles into our hands, and most goods will be brought up from the Indian Archipelago in British bottonis on Chinese account, and proceed directly to the ports of their destination without touching here or elsewhere. We might have had otherwise a consider- able emporium here for the Straits produce, but this change has prevented it. A few junks that touched at Victoria to buy these articles were obliged to proceed to other ports to get a cargo, whilst others that wished to collect the exports for the Archipelago, could not find a sufficient quantity on the spot, and had to send to Canton to purchase them.

4. As a great drawback upon our commercial prosperity, we may mention the absence of respectable Chinese firms, and especially of Chin Chey merchants.. Up to the present moment no man possessing a considerable property has ventured to engage in the. Hong-Kong trade, or to establish a house on the island. To the repeated questions put to men of substance why. they did not carry on their business under a free government, with full protection of their property, the answer has always been, that it was more advantageous at Canton, or other large cities, and would not answer at Hong-Kong. We must, certainly, make some allowance for the colony being still in a state of infancy, but yet the living in the same settlement with the large English houses, and the having nothing to fear from the rapacity of the mandarins, ought to be a great inducement for large Chinese merchants to come and reside at Victoria. After all the endeavours to fix a colony of Chin Cheu merchants in our possessions, men who are the soul of the whole commerce in the Indian Archipelago, matters remain as they were before. The privileges assigned to them by the government, and the facilities afforded, have not made them willing to repair to this place; and yet in our Straits colonies they come of their own accord, and are only too happy to amass wealth under the British flag which does not allow extortions. Even at Macao, there have been for many years back three very respectable houses, the managing members of which came over to Hong Kong to ascertain whether they could not here do some business and establish a branch or remove entirely. But, after long investigation, they gave up the idea. There appears to exist a fear of laying out money without a moral certainty of the returns, and as the trade has first to be created, there is no prospect yet of securing a large profit.

With all its disadvantages, Hong-Kong possesses likewise great facilities. Though situated in a corner of the empire, many junks, on their passage to the various southern ports, pass here. Auctions being of frequent occurrence, many articles are sold at a far reduced rate from what they would fetch in other places; and there are a number of small dealers who con- stantly speculate in such transactions, and sell a great deal to these vessels. Thus there has existed for a long while a small trade as far as single sales are concerned, but a large one when the whole is summed up, without even the knowledge of our own merchants, and beneath the notice of our great houses. This is still carried on with great spirit, and should the per centage on auctions be taken off would likely grow more brisk. Long before a junk from Canton, on her way up to the northern ports arrives here, orders are given to brokers to attend the sales and provide the cargo, and there is always a probability that the purchases will be cheaper than at Cantou. The boats which come from the neighbouring cities do likewise much business in this way, and frequently invest the returns of the goods sold at this place in manufactures thus obtained.

The salt trade is the most flourishing of all the branches, and entirely in the hands of the natives.

The people that bring it hither come from Taechoo, Haehong, and Tamshuy, in the neigh- bourhood of which places their are extensive flats, often overflowed by the sea, and useless for all other purposes, except to collect in pans the salt, by the evaporation of the brine, which has been left. As it is, when boiled, much cheaper than the salt produced in the interior, and, moreover, not subject to the gabelle, it finds at Hong-Kong a ready sale, for salting fish and for taking it illegally up to Canton.

Next to it the stone trade is deserving our attention. The only produce of Hong-Kong, for exportation, is granito, and, though a very contemptible article, still it employs many hands, a great number of boats, each about 70 to 100 tons, and some capital. There are seldom less than a hundred of the above craft which monthly leave this with a full cargo for the interior; and it is considered a profitable trade, because stone blocks are constantly in demand, and will always fetch a good price in proportion as buildings are in course of erection.

The fisheries carried on from Aberdeen and Stanley are in a flourishing condition, and con- sequently, also, the trade in salt fish, which the mass of the people use generally for seasoning their rice. Ilow many smacks belong to these places has never been ascertained; but at New Year, when they make up the accounts with their partners and owners, the harbours are full of them. It would be well to inquire into the tonnage, and issue regular passes to these

boats.

·

For some months past small vessels have been clearing out for Haenam, Teen-pak, and the west coast of Kwang Tung province in general. They take a good quantity of raw cotton, and, likewise, opium, and carry on a thriving commerce.

The junks that pass the harbour come principally from Teochco and Hachong districts in Kwang Tung, and from Chio-po and Chaongan in Fokien.

78

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

152. REPORTS EXHIBITING TÌIE PAST AND PRESENT

 The largo vessels which arrived in summer from Canton to go to Teintsin, and brought the largo quantity of picce-goods formerly reported, were originally Fokien craft, and chartered by Shantung and other merchants. At present, the prices of our cotton manufactures at Shanghae do not much differ in price from those of Hong-Kong, and, on account of the large importa tion, the speculation will not probably be repeated.

 The cargoes were intended for Northern China and Mongolia, to make covers for the sheep- skins and cotton-wadded jackets of the peasantry, the exclusive dress of the peasantry and poorer classes in winter, as the cheapest stuff procurable.

 We have also had a few junks from Ningpo and Fuh-choo, on their way to Canton; and vice versû; some direct from Formosa, though belonging to Fokien; and very few from Amoy and Hwuy-an.

 Many have poor cargoes, and do not buy much; but there is always some trade; though always exclusively confined to Chinese living here.

1

 So long as no custom-house exists, it is impossible to obtain accurate returns. The above was collected from the natives on board their own vessels; and the writer has frequently, with his own eyes, seen the export and import cargoes.

He is anxious to investigate the subject in all its bearings; and if there happens any favourable change, he will not fail to report the sanie, after having duly investigated the matter in all its bearings.

(Signed)

Victoria, 6th January, 1846.

CHARLES GUTzlaff,

Chinese Secretary.

(Truo Copy)

FREDERICK W. A. BRUCE.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 229

79

(No. 31.)

HONG KONG.

No. 43.

EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir J. F. DAVIS, Bart., to

Earl GREY.

HONG KONG.

No. 43.

MY LORD,

Victoria, Hong Kong,

13th March, 1847.

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith the third Blue Book of the colony of Hong Kong, being for the year 1846.

The last exhibited an improvement in the revenue from 95347. to 22,2421. Revenue. The present one shows an increase from the last named sum to 27,0477. It would be easy to augment this amount, but I have always kept in view the importance of leaving the trade of the place entirely unfettered. To this end I have not even imposed a tonnage duty on shipping, and have abstained from bringing into operation an ordinance which was drawn up for imposing a duty on wines and spirits imported into the colony. No custom-house whatever is in existence.

One of the beneficial results of this perfect freedom of trade has been the fact communicated to your Lordship in my Despatch, No. 141, of 12th December, wherein it appears from the statement of Mr. Consul Macgregor, that a large proportion of the British exports from Canton are previously warehoused in this colony.

An inspection of the comparative statement for the two years, at pages 28 and 29 of the Blue Book, will show that the increase of revenue in the last year has accrued rather from the improved productiveness of existing imposts, than from the enactment of new ones.

By the aid of the revenue levied in the colony, I have been able to dispense with a portion of the sums voted in Parliament for its civil expenditure, amounting, for two years, to 91197, as detailed in my Despatch, No. 17, of 12th February.

With the strong opinion of the Board of Trade in favour of the tax levied

80

HONG KONG.

Expenditure.

Military Expendi-

ture.

Public Works.

Report and Blue Books.

No. 2.

No. 3.

Legislation.

opulation.

230

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

on the consumption of opium, as expressed in the enclosure to your Lordship's Despatch, No. 46, of 24th November, and with my own concurrent convictions on the same subject, I shall continue to derive a revenue from this source, with such modifications of the existing law as time and experience may dictate.

While the income of this colony has increased during the past year, it is satisfactory to observe, that the total expenditure has diminished, the difference amounting to 63751. 9s. 8d. In my Despatch, No. 137, of 24th November, I' had the honour to report retrenchments of a permanent nature, in the reduc- tion of salaries, to the extent of 28007. per annum; and I at the same time suggested further retrenchments to the extent of 18007. yearly.

The military expenditure of this colony is wholly defrayed by the Army and Ordnance Estimates. The reduction of the military establishment and staff, from a field force to the scale of a garrison, will this year effect an important retrenchment in expense, which will be assisted by the change from Indian al- lowances to ordinary colonial pay.

*

*

**

The expenditure on account of public works during the ensuing 12 months will be comparatively large, on account of the building for the public offices, estimated at 14,300%., to be executed by the Ordnance Department. The works already in progress, or of which the reports and estimates have been sanctioned by Her Majesty's Government, comprise nearly all that are required by the early exigencies of this new colony, with the exception of a court-house, which is at present rented, and of a government house, which I have left to the last.

In my Report of last year I stated that a good road extended within five miles of the circumference of the whole island, 18 miles being completed out of 23. The remaining five miles are now ordered to be executed, and this work has been commenced. For purposes of military protection as well as police, and for the general traffic and internal communication of the colony, this road iş essential.

Appended to this Despatch, are two Reports from the Surveyor-General on the Public Works during 1816, and on the progress of his department. From the former of these it appears, that the value of convict labour in the course of the year is estimated at nearly 700%. I find, on examination, that the food and clothing of the prisoners in gaol has amounted to 7131.; and hence, it appears, that this necessary expense has been nearly repaid by the labour of the convicts. The completion of gaols has relieved the Government from a heavy amount of rent paid for the occupation of hired buildings, and, at the same time, greatly augmented the security of the prisoners.

The receipt of a final sanction for the work from your Lordship, has enabled me to commence the erection of a Colonial Church. The first stone of the building was laid by me on the 11th instant, with a large attendance of the colony; and the event is so far memorable, as this is the first Protestant Epis- copal Church ever erected on the confines of China. The delay which has arisen from the postponed sanction of Her Majesty's Government, has tended to mature the plans, as well as to accumulate funds. One-third of the expense having been contributed by the inhabitants, I have deemed it right to pass an Ordinance, vesting the property and management of the church partly in trus- tees chosen by the subscribers, and partly in others nominated by the Governor. A copy of the Ordinance in question will be transmitted by the next mail.

Under the head of Legislation, only seven Ordinances were passed during the year 1846, and four of these were to amend or modify the provisions of previously-existing laws. The most important enactment of the year has been Ordinance No. 3, for the relief of insolvent debtors, which has received the sanction of Her Majesty. From Ordinance No. 7, for the more effectual registration of the Chinese inhabitants, I anticipate the best effects.

Some apparent diminution in the gross amount of the Chinese population, as compared with last year, is explainable by a more careful system of registra- tion, which, while it gives a truer account of the actual number, relieves us from those who hung loose on the community, and only applied for tickets to make a bad use of them. The number of females and of families has in- creased from last year, and this (as I before observed) is a very favourable indication, being symptomatic of more fixed habits, and a confidence in our Government.

The return of population is entirely exclusive of the troops, which amount

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

231

to about 1300. The English population is 618, of whom 167 are females; and the resident strangers amount in all to 768.

 In my Despatch to Viscount Palmerston, No. 183, of December 28th, I took occasion to point out the remarkable fact, that the progress of this colony pre- sents a most favourable contrast with that of Singapore, at the same period from the commencement, even when reduced to the test of figures Mr. Crawford, formerly resident at Singapore, states, that when that settlement had existed six years, the population consisted of 84 Europeans, and 11,851 Malays, Chinese, and other Asiatics; the revenue, he says, amounted to 87,000 dollars, or 18,125. Hong Kong has not yet reached its sixth year, and the Blue Book for 1846 shows a total population of 22,453 (exclusive of troops), of which 618 are European; while the revenue was 27,0471.

81

 The question of climate seems to be finally set at rest. I have already had Climate- to report the rapidly progressive improvement in the health of the European troops of this garrison, in proportion as they were provided with good barrack accommodations, and as the general drainage of the colony advanced. The following statement exhibits at one view the extraordinary improvement since 1843:-

Deaths in European Force.

Year.

1843

1844

1845

1846

Number.

373

216

143

56

 The total European force by the "Weekly State" returned to me on the 3rd January, 1846, was 911.

 The annual mortality was therefore not more than about six per cent. The colonial surgeon's report shows that the deaths among all persons in civil em- ploy were only 1 in 30-25, or rather more than three per cent., and he concludes by saying, "It thus appears that the year 1846 has been quite as healthy, if not more so, than the preceding one."

There are four educational establishments in Victoria, conducted by Euro- Eiucation. peans. One of these is under the charge of the colonial chaplain, and teaches the children of the inferior English population. One is for the instruction of both Europeans and Chinese in the Romish religion, and under the direction of the Propaganda Society of Italy. Two are for the exclusive education of Chi- nese in European knowledge and the Protestant faith, and entirely of a missionary character.

There are four Chinese schools in Victoria, and about nine others in the dif- ferent parts of the island. I have before observed that some slight contribution from Government to these native seminaries would be attended with a good effect. They teach only the elements of reading, writing, and accounts, and there is nothing exceptionable onthe ground of idolatrous instruction. Neither would they be of a purely eleemosynary character, the greater portion of the expense being borne by the pupils. If these schools were eventually placed in charge of native Christian teachers, bred up by the Protestant missionaries, it would afford the most rational prospect of converting the native population of the island.

Under the head of Christian places of worship, I have to enumerate one Places of Worship. English Episcopal church, one Romish church, and four Dissenting chapels in

Victoria. There is also a Protestant chapel in the English Cemetery, of a neat

and suitable construction, for the performance of the bnrial service.

 Of Pagan places of worship there are four. One being a Mahommedan mosque and three Chinese temples.

 In addition to the Danish and American consuls reported in my last, an Trade. American vice-consul has been appointed to act at Victoria. The Blue Book will show an increase in the shipping arrived at Hong Kong, of 387 vessels, as contrasted with 334 in the former year; and 130,199 tons, in lieu of 117,210 tons in 1845.

A branch of the Oriental Bank is established here on a very extensive scale. It issues notes of from 5 to 100 dollars, and these are found such an exceed- ingly convenient substitute for the former system of paying sums by weight, that the Chinese themselves readily receive and exchange them. Should this

82

HONG KONG.

Police.

232

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

bank be chartered, it is likely to prove of great benefit to the general trade with China.

I have received from the Deputy Commissary-General a very favourable account of the circulation of the British coin sent out by the Treasury. He tells me it has proved extremely useful for small payments, and that even the Chinese have brought dollars to him to be exchanged for sterling. He is going to apply for more, to the amount of 10,000%.

To judge by the augmented number of respectable Chinese shops, the native trade and industry of this place are on the increase. For many of the products of Chinese manufacture it is no longer necessary to send to Canton, as they can be procured equally well here.

A check has been given to piracy in this neighbourhood by the capture, and. conviction before the Admiralty Court, of some pirates, and by the delivery (on demand, according to treaty) of others to the Chinese government. One pirate was condemned and executed here in January last, and three more sentenced to transportation for life.

The judicial and police departments continue to be the heaviest civil charges of the colony. It is to be hoped that a smaller English police force may by degrees be required, and I would recommend that any future superintendent or inspectors of police be selected from persons on the spot, acquainted as these are with the Chinese population, rather than that members of the metropolitan force should be sent out from England to a community whose habits and language are entirely strange to them, and in respect to whom they are therefore placed at a comparative disadvantage.

·

I have had the satisfaction to state that the completion of the colonial gaols not only relieves the government from the payment of a heavy rent, but is also likely to be attended with diminished expense in the custody and guarding of prisoners. For the sake of greater security, and with a view to the general welfare of the inmates, I have made it incumbent on one of the magistrates to visit the prisons weekly, and send me a written report on their condition.

The Right Hon. the Earl Grey,

&c.,

&c.,

&c.

I have, &c., (Signed)

J. F. DAVIS.

Encl. I in No. 43.

Enclosure in No. 43.

EXTRACT from Mr. CONSUL MACGREGOR's Letter, No. 118, dated Canton, 7th December, 1846, to his Excellency Sir John Francis Davis, Baronet, &c. &c.

WITH regard to Canton I would remark, that the greatest proportion of the goods intended for this market are warehoused at Hong Kong, and only sent over when they have been actually sold here, or offer a fair prospect of a prompt sale. This affords our merchants the facility of deferring the payment of duty until the period of importation, although till then the goods are subject to the charge of warehouse rent.

(True extract.)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Canton, 31st December, 1846.

Antwerp

·

Stockholm

Names of Ports and Places.

London

Liverpool and Bristol

Glasgow, Leith, and the Clyde Dublin and Cork

Havre and Bourdeaux

Amsterdam and Rotterdam

12

28

British.

2

American.

French.

Dutch.

:::::::

Belgian.

Danish.

Swedish.

A RETURN of the Number of Merchant Vessels, of all Nations, distinguishing their respective Flags, which cleared at the Custom House of Canton, during the Year ended 31st of or bound to the Ports and Places

December, 1846, proceeding from

ARRIVED.

undermentioned, viz.-

DEPARTED.

Hanseatic.

:::

Prussian.

ki miki: 27

12

3

G

Total.

20

61

British.

American.

Hamburgh. Cape of Good Hope

Singapore and the Straits.

Batavia and Sourabaya

Bali and Lombok

Manilla and the Philippines New York

Bombay

72

Calcutta.

·

17

Madras

2

Tutocoria

Siam

13

}

12

3:1

2

41

19

7

19

Amoy, Ningpo, and Shanghae

·

·

Boston and Baltimore.

·

Mazatlan and Mexico ..

Callao and Lima

}

·

Valparaiso

Sydney, Port Philip, and Hobart TOWD.

6

Sandwich Islands, New Zealand,

1

and Marquesas.

Houg Kong

28

Macau

1

::::::::

2

13

20

3

10

8

3

37

2

14

40

4

2

I

16

16

I

1

3

1

1

2

13

813

16

Total

Tons,

214

64

:::*

:::

:::

:::

2

:::

28

21

1

1

32

18

9

:::

:::

:::

:::

:::

22

29

4

8

1

1

6

5

1

304

207

65

4

8

1

1

6

4

}

297

92,896 | 29,019

1,283

2,747

300

305

1,791 1.249

500 130, 170

88,880 | 29,785 1,283 2,574

300

305

1,978 1,097

550

126,755

FRANCIS C. MACGREGOR, Consul.

:::

French.

Dutch.

Belgian.

Danish.

Swedish.

Hanseatic.

Prussian.

61

20

6

Total.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 233

83

84

234

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 2 in No. 43.

SIR,

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria,

January 22, 1847.

  I HAVE the honour to submit the following report upon the works that have been executed during the year last past, as also upon the general state of repair of all the roads and works in

the island.

Roads.

The works upon the Queen's Road have consisted in the completion of the service authorized under Report and Estimate, No. 2, of 1844, together with the construction of the side channels, Report and Estimate, No. 13, of 1845, and drains or culverts which were autho- rized under Reports and Estimates, Nos. 1 and 4, of 1844.

These services, I think, will be found ample for all the requirements of that district, ex- tending from the Ice-house to Ta-ping-shan. In every instance the drains both above and below ground have been found to answer very satisfactorily, and in general that part of the road has been and is at this present moment in very good order, and the only repairs that can in future be called for I hope will consist. in the application of sea-sand to the surface, at any rate until wheel carriages become more numerous.

In the district extending from the Canton Bazaar to the Wongneichung Valley, some neces- sary works have been undertaken, and the direction and levels of the road have been much improved, particularly opposite the new Military Hospital, where the straightening of the line by removing the large projecting rocks has given a view of that fine building, as well as being of service in permitting a freer circulation of air.

The surface is now in very good order. Included in the authority for this work is the pro- posed bridge at the North Barracks, which is about to be commenced and will be completed before the next heavy rains, so that the public will not be inconvenienced by the stoppage of the road, as they have been for the last two years.

The streets in the town have now almost all the under-ground drains finished, and when the formation of the side channels is completed, the general appearance of the district will be very much improved, and I have every hope that little or no damage will result from the rains next season, notwithstanding the steepness of some of the streets. Much difficulty has been expe- rienced in bringing these streets to the uniform inclination, as originally proposed, in consequence of the impossibility of compelling the lessees to erect their houses on the levels assigned for them, and thus in some instances the door-ways are a little above the road, in others too low. This, however, I have tried to arrange in the most satisfactory manner for those parties, at the same time having due regard to the requirements of the public at large.

The Aberdeen road has been completed during the year (Reports and Estimates, Nos. 12 and 12 A of 1844, and 12 of 1845). No damage of any kind has happened thereto, and the surface repairs on the whole length have not exceeded 13s. 6d. per mile.

 The old road to Stanley has had a thorough repair during the last year, and the means adopted to preserve the surface from such extensive damage as annually occurred thereto, has been found to answer very satisfactorily.

The direction and very objectionable levels upon this line have so often been remarked upon, that it is unnecessary for me to do so now. At present it is in very good order; but the surface repairs upon it must always exceed those of other and less steep roads.

That portion of the line from Tytam to Stanley, which was by far the worst part of it, is now being improved under Report and Estimate, No. 2, of 1846, and when completed I hope will be considered a serviceable road, thus opening a communication with Stanley, which might be made available for wheel carriages, viâ Saiwan, the other route being perfectly useless for such

a purpose.

 The Saiwan and Tytam road was completed and rendered more secure than originally con- templated, under Report and Estiraate; No. 9, of 1845, and with the exception of that portion through the quarries at Sookewan, has remained in a very excellent state of repair. The drains and bridges have answered very well indeed, and have been proved to give sufficient water-way during the heaviest rains.

 In a country, the hills of which are of so peculiar a formation, the size of these drains and bridges could only be fixed immediately after the heaviest rains by a careful examination of the surface over which the stream passed in the immediate neighbourhood of the proposed site, and notwithstanding the extreme velocity of the water passing in heavy floods which often carries with it stones of nearly half a ton weight, no damage has occurred to the masonry, and the water-way being found to be sufficient, at some future day the wooden platforms of the bridges may be removed, and an arch turned upon the present abutments, which have been constructed with a view to thạt, arrangement. This applies, of course, only to those bridges which have stone abutments.

 The bridges, which are entirely constructed with wood on this line, are between Causeway Bay and Sookewan, where the road has been formed entirely on the_sands, and a foundation could not be obtained for stone abutments without great expense. In this locality immense quantities of debris from the quarries are washed down the road; it frequently changes the whole course of the stream, and commits great damage by forcing its way across the road, which is invariably destroyed at that point. Many parts of the low land adjoining the road have been raised in one season three or four feet, and at Sookewan the accumulation of this silt has been so great that the water-mark has receded upwards of 100 feet. It has, therefore, been found to be impossible to keep these parts of the line in very complete repair during the rains.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 235

The causeway at Sukunpu has been strengthened, and the inner slope grassed; these works, with the exception of one of the bridges, the concrete backing of which partially failed, have also remained in good order, and required no repairs since their completion in April last, and the pathway round the bay required no repairs up to December last.

The causeway, I think, may be rendered more secure by the erection of sluice-gates at each of the bridges; for during heavy weather, or in a north-east gale, particularly at the most northern bridge, the rush of water on the rise and fall of the tide is so great that the sand is loosened and frequently carried away, notwithstanding the means I have tried to prevent it, by piling above and below, and filling in the space with stone; thus the foundation is insufficient to sustain the weight of the embankment adjoining the abutment, and the surface of roadway sinks in consequence. I intend, therefore, to make an examination of the same for the above object, and submit an estimate for the consideration of his Excellency the Governor. I must here remark that this work has remained for a period of eight months without any repairs being called for.

The repairs upon the Queen's and other roads during the year have only amounted to the sum of 3421. 15s. 2d., and including a sum of 581. 10s. expended on the Gap road, a distance of 400 yards, has only cost at the rate of 2d. per yard, which may be considered a very small sum indeed for surface repairs, where the roads are so much steeper than in England, and where no metalling is used. The sundry repairs to bridges have amounted to 347, 6s. 11d.

Buildings

The three police stations authorized under Report and Estimate No. 8, of 1844, and com- menced in October of the same year, were only finished in January of last year; the contractor for this service, although he had a very good price for it, and 1,316-66 dollars beyond the estimate, was a most unsatisfactory workman, and tried every means he could devise to disguise his bad work, and as these buildings were situated at a considerable distance from each other, and having no permanent overseer upon them, he had much in his power, but whenever a dis- covery of bad work was made it was pulled down; this he invariably objected to, and stopped the workmen; again the workmen were not paid, and so much delay occurring, the contract was completed at day work by the department, and the contractor fined in the amount of 3,900 dollars.

The Registry and Post-offices, together with the fittings for them, were also completed during the past year.

Upon the works at the gaol under Report and Estimate No. 5, of 1845, the expenditure has amounted to 2,2871. These works have occupied a longer period in their construction than was originally supposed necessary, in consequence of certain additional services detailed in Report and Estimate No. 8, of 1846.

The contractors for these works were Chinamen, and in general showed a desire to give satisfaction, and although the expense of bringing fresh-water sand up the hill was very great, there is not an instance where the workmen have mixed the lime used in the construction of mortar with the red mud usually employed as a substitute for the sand; thus the exccution of the brick-work has been as sound and perfect as it has been possible to make with the materials.

The police station near the Military Hospital (Report and Estimate No. 4, of 1846) was commenced at the latter end of the year, and is making very satisfactory progress, and the police station at Aberdeen, commenced about the same period, is also being proceeded with at present slowly, but the workmanship is very good.

The cost of repairs and other contingencies to public buildings have amounted to the sum of 811. 13s. 2d. during the past year; this is exclusive of the sum of 1157. 5s. 4d. which was paid for certain additions and repairs to the Bungalow, at present occupied by his honour the Chief Justice.

All the public buildings at present under my charge are in a tolerable state of repair, with' the exception of the offices occupied by the treasurer, auditor, and myself, and I fear that they will not hold together another wet season, or certainly not until the new offices are completed. The timbers of the roof are in some places much decayed, and the verandah so much so that I think it must be taken down immediately to prevent any accident.

The guard-houses and police stations occasionally require repairs to doors and windows, as the occupants are in general careless, and do not sufficiently secure them during the strong winds that sometimes prevail here, and for the more perfect keeping in repair of these build ings in future a careful examination will be made once a month, and any necessary work be executed without delay.

Marine Works.

Three landing-piers were constructed under Report and Estimate No. 10, of 1845, and the contractor executed them in a very satisfactory manner. They are very useful to the com- munity, but a constant deposit of silt occurring in that vicinity, will soon render it necessary to prolong them, or at least for this season clear that material away to enable boats to come closer.

At the Harbour Master's Pier the deposit has been greater than at the three others; this I propose to remove by the convicts, if possible, and place the material upon the roads they are forming in the vicinity.

Convict Labour."

I have now to allude to the work executed by the convicts. At the latter end of the year

85

86

236

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

1845, according to the orders of his Excellency the Governor, a Report and Estimate was prepared for their future work, in order that the value of their labour might be shown satis- factorily. This Report and Estimate, No. 7, of 1845, was accordingly submitted and approved of by his Excellency, with the exception of two items, Nos. 5 and 6, which it was not con- sidered safe to place them upon, from the difficulty of guarding them sufficiently, the locality being in the neighbourhood of the Chinese town Ta-ping-Shang. Therefore the remaining works, embracing four items, were undertaken, estimated at 3346 dollars, and completed during the past year.

 Another Report and Estimate, No. 10, of 1846, was prepared by the late Surveyor-General, for further works, upon which the convicts are now employed.

 The work executed by these men is, as may be expected, proceeded with but slowly, as they are much incommoded with their shackles, and being obliged to be sent back to gaol earlier than a free Coolie would leave his work. Under these circumstances, I consider they have executed a reasonable quantity of work.

 My estimate values cach convict at 6d., but this is too high, as many of them are miserable beings, and in cold or rainy weather can give but slight assistance: some are boys. The total number employed during the execution of the above services is 30,000, and the estimate of the work performed, amounting to 6971. Is. 8d., gives the average value of each at about 53d.

 A few trifling repairs have been done by them on Caine Road, but this service is so small I have not considered it necessary to make further mention of.

Honourable Major Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.) (Signed)

(Signed)

I have, &c.

CHARLES ST. George Cleverly, Surveyor-General.

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

SIR,

Enclosure 3 in No. 43.

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria, January 23, 1847.

   I HAVE the honour to submit the following Report upon the progress of this department during the last year past.

The general routine of the services executed by the officers under my direction has under- gone no change since my Report last year, with the exception of the period during which Mr. Gordon had charge as head of the department; and as he had frequent attacks of illness which prevented his attendance at office, he was unable to relieve us from any pressure of work; for instance, I required some months to prepare a new set of plans of the town, showing the houses which have been built since my first survey in 1843. I must therefore defer that work until another opportunity, which I fear will not occur this season, as I must necessarily attend this office from 10 till 4 every day, and Mr. Pope's time will be fully occupied with the works 'to be executed.

The want of efficient overseers for the works has been much felt; I mean men who are tradesmen, such as bricklayers, carpenters, &c., to remain upon each separate work during its execution, for however strictly a specification may be worded, a contractor will find means to make the work appear in conformity therewith, and it is totally out of the power of the clerk of works to detect bad workmanship without pulling it to pieces. The works are visited as often as possible both by myself and the clerk of works; and in town, Overscer Crawford had charge of all the works, which, being at a considerable distance from each other, rendered the inspec tion very severe. He is a very serviceable man, and has given great satisfaction.

The hardest work that we have to encounter in this climate, I find to be in surveying or levelling, as the person so engaged is necessarily much exposed to the sun, and if the locality is far removed from Victoria, the best portion of the day is taken up in going to and returning from work. It is hardly necessary for me to remark that we only have three months in the year in which we have a chance of making a good day's work, and even then it is dangerous at times to expose oneself to the sun; the remainder of the year we can only work in the mornings and evenings for two or three hours at the utmost, it is therefore apparent that the amount of work we can perform is very small in comparison with that which could be done in a more temperate climate.

 The greatest share of this work necessarily falls to the Civil Engineer and Clerk of Works, Mr. Pope, as he is the only person in the establishment who can give me that assistance.

The next officer in the establishment is road overseer, Mr. Bruce, unfortunately he is unac- quainted with the details of the work which I most require from him. The whole assistance I desire from him consists in the general inspection of finished roads and the direction of the convict labour, which is also under the charge of Overseer Matheus, who receives his instruc- tions from Mr. Bruce.

<<

 It has been the duty of the Civil Engineer and Clerk of Works to make a weekly report" upon the progress of the works; but in future, if it should meet the approval of his Excellency the Governor, I beg leave to propose that the Report be made monthly, as a more satisfactory detail might be made of work executed during that period, than for the short space of six days, as in the latter time it occasionally happens that the change in the work is hardly perceptible.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 237

This monthly report I propose should include the state of repair of all the public buildings, and estimates be submitted at the same time of the cost of any services that may be necessary for the improvement or repair of them, the same to be done with regard to roads, &c.; this plan, I think, would answer better than the present one, and would be more satisfactory, as showing at a glance the estimated repairs on all Public Works for the mouth.

On forwarding the Report for the information of his Excellency the Governor, I further propose that the usual requisitions in detail for each item of expenditure that I may consider necessary with reference to the Report, should be prepared by me and submitted for approval in the ordinary manner.

During the year, the number of leases executed has been 203, the number of lots or parts of lots absolutely resold, 71; the number of mortgages on lo's, besides sundry assignments, &c. &c. registered in the office amounts to 25, in all 96; of which number 50 have been executed by Chinese, the assignment and memorial of which have been entirely prepared by Mr. Terrant, assisted by the Chinese clerk Keoukitch, in the mode sanctioned by his Excel- lency the Governor.

I have much satisfaction in stating that the tedious and responsible duty of the preparation of the leases is now nearly brought to a conclusion. This duty was necessarily entailed upon the department in the earlier stages of the colony, but it was a service, properly speaking, belonging to the Crown Solicitor; apparently I have been very slow in completing them, but as the whole work came upon me at once, before my surveys were finished, the Surveyor- General left on sick certificate, and the department was further reduced by the resignation of the draughtsman, this, together with the extensive works which were being executed by us, occupied so much of my time it was impossible for me to proceed with more rapidity; however I trust they have been satisfactorily executed, and with but one or two exceptions I am not aware that I have made any mistake.

One of the clerks, Mr. Harrison, having been appointed Police Rate Assessor and Collector, his attendance at office on Saturdays has been dispensed with, according to the orders of His Excellency the Governor; this occasionally is an inconvenience, but he is in general very attentive, and although rather slow, executes his work quite to my satisfaction.

Mr. Power, the book keeper, is particularly attentive to his duties, which, under the super- vision of Mr. Pope, he executes in a very perfect and satisfactory manner.

Honourable Major Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

I have, &c.

(Signed)

CHARLES ST. GEORGE CLEVERLY,

Surveyor-General.

(Signed) W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

87

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

89

(No. 31.)

HONG KONG.

No. 36.

Copy of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir J. Davis, Bart., to Earl GREY.

MY LORD,

Victoria, Hong Kong, February 26, 1848. (Received April 22, 1848.)

  I PROCEED to make my annual report on the Colonial Blue Book for the year 1847, being the fourth from the commencement.

Revenue.

The revenue of the last year increased, as compared with the preceding, from 22,2121. to 27,0471. The present year exhibits a further augmentation to 31,0781.

The analysis of this will show that it does not include a single item of taxation on the commerce of the port. The amount of 16,6307. has been derived from rents of lands, markets, and houses. The licenses to publicans, opium shops, pawnbrokers, &c., clear 67861. These answer the purposes of police as well as revenue, including even the licence (or rather rent) of the stone quarries, and that of the salt contractor, who is answerable for the conduct of the Chinese, with whom he is concerned.

The police assessment, being 5 per cent. on the rent of inhabited houses, is 22401. The remaining revenue consists of 4170%, derived from the fees and fines of the courts, and official fees paid into the treasury; and lastly, of miscellaneous sums, amounting in all to 12527.

Notwithstanding the approval of the Board of Trade to the tax formerly laid on the consumption of opium I was induced, by the general impression that prevailed against it, to convert the monopoly in the hands of a single individual into licenses to any number of manufacturers and sellers of opium within the colony, as reported in my Despatch No. 82, of 23rd July, 1847. The principle of this latter tax being precisely that of licenses for selling wine, beer, and spirits, there can be no objections to the one which do not apply to the other. The advantages of both are, that they combine a tax on vicious indulgences with the means of control over those who provide them.

This brief account of the colonial revenue may serve to correct some mis- statements that were made before a Committee of the House of Commons in 1847, on which subject I have to refer your Lordship to a more detailed notice trans- mitted in my Despatch No. 17, of 26th January.

Expenditure.

The expenditure of 1845 was 66,7261., in a great measure on account of Public Works. In 1846 it was reduced to 60,351. It has this year been brought down to 50,959%, from which, deducting the local revenue, 31,0781. leaves 19,8817. to be defrayed from the Parliamentary graut. It should be added, that the expendi- ture for Public Works, 15,1801. is of a temporary nature only, and being deducted from 19,8817, leaves a balance of only 47017. beyond the revenue.

90

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Public Works.

Almost all these works are either completed, or in rapid progress, with the exception of a Government House not yet commenced. A good road of 24 miles now completes the circuit of the island, much of it cut through granite rocks, at a total cost of about 20,000l. There are military posts at an average distance of six miles from each other, and the facilities and security which all these works afford have produced a marked effect on the population of the island.

The handsome colonial church is in a state of rapid progress, as well as the public offices, intended to concentrate the principal Civil Departments, and to include the Treasury and Records. A very substantial and commodious court- house, at a cost of 5000%, does away with the payment of 3751. annual rent for a temporary building.

The usual reports from the Surveyor-General on the Public Works during 1847, and on the progress of his department, are annexed to the Blue Book.

Military Expenditure.

I am

In the return made to me of the Military Expenditure of the last year, glad to see a reduction, as compared with the preceding one, of about 26,000l. The principal military works have been an extensive cutting for the parade ground, some considerable buildings for ordnance stores, and the commencement of a main-guard house.

Legislation.

Among the ordinances which have been enacted during the past year by the Legislative Council, the most important, perhaps, is that which extends the ordi- nary summary jurisdiction of the police magistrates, with reference principally to the Chinese population. This ordinance had been originally drafted (see Despatch No. 108, of 12th September, 1846), with a view to mitigate the inconveniences arising from a vacation of nearly six months between the summer and winter sessions of the Supreme Court; but even when this had been remedied, and the longest vacation reduced to three months, the peculiar habits and character of the Chinese population required that the smaller felonies, such as larcenies to a trifling amount, should be dealt with summarily by the magistrate, instead of being reserved, as in England, for a jury. With reference to the same population, accustomed universaliy to corporal punishment, instead of long imprisonment, it became necessary to adopt the same mode of punishment under proper limitations and safeguards as to its nature and amount. It had been found from experience that an English prison afforded them the three principal necessaries of life in a degree to which many of them had been strangers, and, in fact, tempted them to commit small crimes for the sake of being imprisoned.

Both the chief magistrate and the superintendent of police have reported most favourably on the working of this ordinance in diminishing the amount of crime.

With reference to the Government of British subjects at the five ports of China, I have added to the efficacy of the criminal jurisdiction of the Consuls, by merely adopting in the Consular Ordinance No. 2, of 1847, the provisions of an order by Her Majesty in Council for the Government of British subjects in the Levant.

I have anticipated the wish of a Committee of the House of Commons on China affairs in June last, that the jurisdiction of the Consuls over civil suits should be extended beyond 500 dollars, by Consular Ordinance No. 3, of 1847, which enacts, that the Consuls, with certain assessors, shall have jurisdiction over all civil suits whatever, subject to an appeal to the Supreme Court of Hong Kong, with the further appeal to the Privy Council in all cases above 500%.

Population.

The population return for 1847 is beyond the amount of any former year, being 23,872, exclusive of troops. At the same time that the number of the Chinese has increased, their respectability and fixedness of residence have advanced, as proved by the increased number of dwellings, and the progress, especially, of the out-station of Aberdeen. The road now completed round the island renders them independent of water carriage, by which they were formerly exposed to robbery and piracy; something must also be attributed to the working of the improved Registry Ordinance, under which only householders are registered (instead of individuals) and made in some degree responsible for their inmates. An increase

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1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

of population simultaneously, with a diminution of crime, must be considered as a decidedly favourable indication.

Climate.

The early panic in regard to the climate of Hong Kong, which was spread in 1843, is now assignable to causes sufficiently plain. On the termination of the war large numbers of troops were landed, labouring under disease, in a new place unprovided with quarters. Under these circumstances intemperance had also its share in aggravating the evil, which seems to be proved by the remarkable fact that the prisoners in gaol were healthy while the troops suffered so extensively. Hong Kong is certainly healthier than most parts of India, and under every circumstance it has been free from the visitations of cholera.

Education.

I have caused three Chinese schools to be selected by a Committee, of which the Colonial Chaplain was member, as the recipients of an allowance of 10 dollars a month each from the 1st January, according to your Lordship's authority con- veyed in Despatch 109, of August 12. One of these will be at Victoria, and the others at the out-stations of Aberdeen and Stanley.

The Colonial Chaplain has used praiseworthy exertions towards the education of children belonging to the lower grades of the European population. He has unfortunately not met with a great deal of support from the resident Europeans, and I had the honour to enclose a representation from him upon this subject in my Despatch No. 126, of December 26.

Trade.

The European shipping arrived at Victoria during the year 1847 has been returned by the harbour master at 694 vessels and 229,465 tons, a great increase on former years. The Chinese junks have also increased considerably, having amounted to 50,058 tons, and this in spite of the interpolation in Article 13 of the Chinese copy of the Supplementary Treaty. The imports in Chinese vessels consist principally of sugar, alum, sulphur, rice, nut-oil, and salt, and in 1847 reached the amount of 498,2397., while the exports appear to have been principally opium and long cloths, and to have amounted to 226,130l.

Goods have been sold by auction to the aggregate amount of 33,3541., of which 23,1547. were exempt from auction duty.

The Blue Book contains the particulars of a trade in Chinese sugar which has entirely sprung up during the past year. The total amount ascertained as shipped in English vessels has been 21,529,600 lbs., valued at 144,8277. The greatest quantity of this has been shipped for New South Wales, and the rest for England and India, with a portion for the northern port of Shanghae.

The former prevalence of piracy has been checked (as appears best proved by the increase of native trade) through the active exertions of Captain Loring, of Her Majesty's ship "Scout," by whom nearly 300 pirates were captured in the last year, and delivered over to the Chinese Government. Twelve outlaws of the same description were convicted here before the Admiralty Court in January, and four of them executed, as already reported by me to your Lordship.

I have before had occasion to state that the American whalers from the Pacific have begun to resort to this harbour for provisions and repairs, attracted by its advantages as a secure shelter, the cheapness of supplies, and the total absence of all port dues and customs. The American Consul informs me, that for these reasons he expects the numbers will increase.

Police.

The benefits of the police have been extended since the commencement of this year to the out-stations of the island. With a view to reducing the amount of crime, and rendering persons and property as safe generally as they are within the town of Victoria, police protection has been provided for at ail the principal villages and stations through the colony. To carry out this measure, without loss to the Government, it was deemed just that the inhabitants should defray the expenses of the force required for their protection, and as none of the occupants of houses out of Victoria had hitherto paid any police-rate, I felt the less reluctance in requiring them to do so now. The assessors were accordingly directed, in

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

conformity with the provisions of Ordinance No. 2, of 1845, to assess all property out of Victoria, the rate being levied from the 1st January.

I am glad to observe from the police returns that though more persons have been apprehended during the past than during the former year the number of convictions has been smaller. This seems to argue the preventive power of the police, in fact, its most desirable function.

The superintendent of police reports that the Chinese inhabitants are becoming better acquainted with the English law and system of police, and more desirous to avail themselves of it, as robberies, however trifling in amount, are now made known, when formerly the sufferers submitted quietly. The burglaries during the year 1847, and most of the larcenies, have been committed upon the Chinese inhabitants, generally from the inefficient mode of fastening their doors and windows.

 The superintendent further reports that the police service has been gradually improving, and the change made in diminishing the English and increasing the native force has proved beneficial, as the duties of a preventive system are better carried out. There is conclusive evidence that the establishment of a police at the villages round the island has been productive of the desired effect, both in carrying out municipal regulations and preventing depredations. It may, therefore, be anticipated, that the number of piracies and burglaries will diminish for the future.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,

&c. &c. &c.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

J. F. DAVIS.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 495

HONG KONG.

93

(No. 25.)

No. 38.

HONG KONG.

No. 8.

Copy of a DESPATCH from Governor BONHAM to Earl GREY.

MY LORD,

Victoria, Hong Kong, March 12, 1849. (Received May 31, 1849.)

      I HAVE the honour to forward the fifth Blue Book of the colony, being for the year 1848.

Revenue.

2. The revenue of the last year, as contrasted with that of 1847, exhibits a decrease of 60067, that for 1848 being only 25,072, whereas in 1847 it amounted to 31,0781.

£. s. d.

1,688 17 0

1,412 3 6

1,344 15 5

476 13 6

1,921 1

458 19:4

1,316 1

An inspection of the comparative statements of the two years, at pages 28 and 29, proves that this decrease has been caused by the resumption of lands by Government to the amount of 1344l. 15s. 5d., and a difference against 1848 of 476/. 13s. 6d., between the amounts of arrears of rent and current rents during the two years 1847 and 1848; the decrease in 1848 being 18881. 17s. in the arrears, and the increase 1,412l. 3s. 6d. in the current rent collected; for the half year ends on the 25th December, and between that day and the 31st, rent for that half year to the above amount was received, which, if such early payment had not been tendered, would have been received in 1849; by the loss of rental by the transfer of the Albany-buildings from the Civil to the Military department; by decrease in the receipts from the Opium Farm, arising from the substitution of a system of licences in lieu of a strict monopoly, the former being in force during the whole of 1848; by the spirit licences being for uncertain periods, and from those for pawnbrokers and auctioneers having expired on the 30th November, by which there is only a credit of one and three months respectively under these heads, instead of 12 months as during 1847, which will however be regained in the present year. The fees, morcover, of offices, fees of courts, fines and forfeitures of courts, were very considerably under the sums received in 1847. A decrease of 680l. 5s. 10d. in several items of revenue has also taken place, as shown in the comparative statement, forming together with the sums above enumerated. a total of 68037. 14s. 4d.; but as the year 1848 exhibits an increase of 7971. Os. 7ąd. on other items, which should be deducted therefrom, we have a net decrease for 1848 of only 60067. 13s. Ed., as stated at the commencement of this para- Net decrease for 1848 6,906 13 graph.

Expenditure.

3. The expenditure for 1847 amounted to 50,9591. whereas the last year exhibited a sum of 62,308, making an increase of 11,349%. for 1848, which admits of explanation as follows :-

     The expenditure on account of fixed establishments and contingencies amounted in 1847 to 34,154l. 5s. 61d. while that of 1848 was 39,1321. Os. 7 d., showing an increase of 49771. 15s. 11d. This increased expenditure is, however, not real, but arises from the new regulations from the Commissioners of Audit, dated 1847, having commenced with the last year, in conformity with which one month's salary of all the departments for the year 1847, together with their contingencies, and three months' salary of the Governor, amounting in all to 39911. 15s. 8td. were paid in January, 1848, and are consequently included in that year's expenditure, though_virtually belonging to 1847, as has been brought to the notice of your Lordship in my Despatch, No. 13, of the 27th January last. To this sum of 399īl. 15s. 84d. must be added an item of 985. 19s. 4d, being the balance of increase on contingent expenditure for 1848, making a total of 49771. 15s. lid.

The miscellaneous expenditure during the same periods amounted to 16,8051.

Less

455 10 10

539 13 7

29 2 3

378 3 Gt

476 A 1

648 1 33

680 á 10

6,803 14 4

797 0 71

3,991 15 8

985 19 44

4,977 15 1

94

HONG KONG.

£.

d.

5,000 0 0 2,858 0 J

7,858 0 3

Less

.1,436 12 2

496

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

and to 23,1761. respectively. The increase of expenditure in 1848 over that of 1847, namely, 63711. is to be accounted for by the purchase of a Court- house for 50001, and increase of expenditure on account of public buildings, amounting to 2858l. Os. 3d., the joint sums being a total of 7858%. Os. 3d., from which, however, it will be necessary to deduct a decrease under the head of transport of

£915 8 5

That of roads, streets, and bridges And of miscellaneous

Being in all

385 1 0

186 2 9

£1486 12

2

6,371 8 1 And thus a balance will remain of 63717. 8s. 1d. actual increase, and consider- ing the importance and utility of the buildings erected, and now in occupation, namely, a Court-house, the Government offices and the church, I trust this explanation will prove satisfactory.

No. 1.

No 2.

Public Works.

4. There is no public building or work of any description now in progress, save the extension of the harbour-master's pier. This will, when finished, be a work of utility, but its completion has been retarded by its being found that it can only be worked upon at very low tides, which only occur in the southerly monsoon: and I hope that it will be completed during that now approaching. With the exception of a Government house, the colony is not at present in want of any more civil buildings. Your Lordship's Despatch, No. 57, of the 21st September, 1848, rendered it imperative upon me to stop some trifling public works and improvements to roads, bridges, streets, and drains, then in progress; but when I have the means, such of them as appear to me to be essentially necessary will be completed.

Since the Report on the Blue Book of 1847, the Court-house has been occupied; the Government offices, with out-offices, have been completed and in occupation since the 6th November last; the church finished, and service performed therein for the first time yesterday. The new bridge at the Nullah, near the North Barracks, was opened during the past year. The site for the Government house has also been levelled and prepared, and the gaols have been considerably improved, and are now well ventilated, healthy, and secure. The usual yearly reports by the Surveyor-General are herewith enclosed.

Military Expenditure.

5. The military expenditure has, I am happy to say, considerably diminished when compared with 1847, in which year it amounted to 115,1497., whereas that for 1848 is only 80,778%, being a decrease of 34,371.; but over works and other expenses connected with this department I have no control, as they are ordered, completed, and paid for without the Governor being in any way consulted.

Legislation.

6. Under the head of legislation, two Ordinances were passed during the year 1848, No. 1 providing for the manufacture and storage of gunpowder within the colony, and without the limits of Victoria, and No. 2 to amend Ordinance No. 13 of 1845, and establish two or more ghaut serangs annually, according to the requirements of the place. These two Ordinances have been fully reported on in my Despatches, Nos. 73-and 74, of the 15th September last. Two rules of Court, one providing for the execution of writs of capias on persons out of Hong Kong, and the other for the employment and remunera- tion of interpreters to the Supreme Court, were submitted and passed within the year, and have been since approved of by your Lordship.

Population.

7. The population return for 1848 amounts to 21,514, exclusive of troops; and when compared with that for 1847, we find the following results:-

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 497 ·

95

1847.

1848. Increase. Decrease.

Europeans Portuguese

603

642

264

321

353

32

Indians and Malays Chinese

539

213

326

22,466

20,333

2,128

Total

23,872 | 21,514

89

2,454

 I have already had occasion to observe to your Lordship, that a large pro- portion of the Chinese residing in Hong Kong are migratory, and that they resort to the colony in proportion to the amount of labour that is required to be performed for the erection of buildings, the construction of roads, and other works, public and private. The decrease, therefore, of 2128 Chinese in 1848, is to be attributed to the gradual completion of these works having thrown a number of men out of employment, who have in consequence left Hong Kong to seek a livelihood elsewhere. That this explanation is the true one is proved by the fact of the number of Chinese traders and shopkeepers being, if anything, rather more than in 1847, and the shops built for their reception being as fully occupied. The stonemasons and other common labourers, composing the migratory population of the colony, have no fixed residences, but construct mat-houses in which they pass the nights and cook their food near to the works upon which they are employed.

Climate.

 8. Notwithstanding the great mortality amongst the troops last year, and particularly in the 95th Regiment, to which it was mainly confined, I consider that Hong Kong is as healthy as other colonies and settlements situated within the same degree of latitude, and the fact of the comparatively small number of deaths in the civil, mercantile, and other classes, who refrain from exposure to the sun, leads me to view this climate as congenial to the European constitu- tion, where common precautions are observed.

 The fixed white or European population of the colony (including Americans and Portuguese, but exclusive of troops), amounted in 1848 to 689 males and 274 females, or taken together, to 963 souls; and the mortality during the year has been 83 in number or 8-61 per cent. The Blue Book shows a mor- tality of 125 persons under this head, but I must remark that 42 seamen are included there in the number of deaths who cannot be considered as forming a part of our fixed population. The white population in 1847 amounted to 603 males and 264 females, making a total of 867 souls; and the mortality during the year (excluding 26 seamen) was 55 or 6:34 per cent. From this comparative view your Lordship will perceive that the year 1848 exhibits an increase in mortality over the preceding one of 2-27 per cent. The following statement shows the average number of prisoners in the gaol during the years 1847 and 1848, with the deaths that occurred during the respective periods, four-fifths of whom were Chinese :-

Year.

Number of Prisoners.

Number of Deaths.

Per centage of Deaths to Prisoners.

1847

201

12

5.97

1848

158

8

5.06

 A full Report has no doubt been made by the Major-General commanding in China to the proper authorities in England on the subject of the mortality among the troops during the year, but for easy reference I append a memo- randum which will briefly show the number of deaths that have occurred, which, with reference to the strength of the force, shows that the deaths in the European branch amounted to 20-43 per cent., and in the native to 5.14 per cent, being an average of about 12:30 per cent. on the whole force, which may be taken at 1390.

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MEMORANDUM showing the Number of DEATHS which have occurred in the Garrison of

́HONG KONG during the year 1848, &c. &c.

Description

of

Troops.

1st Quarter. Quarter.

2nd

3rd

4th

Quarter.

Quarter.

| Proportion Proportion

Average Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength.

Deaths.

Average Number of

Strength Deaths

of

of

Deaths

Deaths

during the during the

to Average to Entire

Year.

Year.

Strength. Force.

Europeans 624

8 748

15 606 100 628 10 651

133

Per Cent. | Per Cent.

20.43

Natives. ¡731 6 775 9 736 9 713 14 739

38

5.14

1,390

171

12.30

The Chinese population for 1848 amounted to 20,338 souls, and the deaths were 227 in number, or at an average of 1·12 per cent. During the year 1847 the Chinese inhabitants were 22,466, and the number of deaths was 147, or at an average of 0-15 per cent. It is however necessary to observe that these returns cannot be relied on as furnishing an approximate view of the proportion of mortality in the native population, as the greater number of the Chinese inhabitants when attacked by disease, immediately quit the colony for the pur- pose of going to their families at their native places, where they either die or remain until their recovery.

Your Lordship will find in Dr. Morrison's Report, which is appended to the Blue Book, copious information regarding the sanitary condition and prospects of the colony.

Education.

9. The three Chinese schools for the education of native youths, established. at Victoria, Stanley, and Aberdeen, as sanctioned by Despatch No. 109, of 12th August, 1847, from your Lordship, have been in operation during the whole of the year 1848. The accompanying Report from the Committee does not shoir so great an attendance as had been expected, but I trust there will be an improvement as the object and usefulness of the schools become better known to the Chinese.

The colonial chaplain continues to bestow the greatest attention towards a school for European children of parents who are ill able to support this desirable institution, which, under the able and zealous superintendence of Mr. Stanton, is well attended, though the means for supporting the same arc very limited.

Trade.

10. The number of shipping exclusive of Chinese vessels which arrived in Hong Kong in 1848, as compared with the preceding year, is as follows:-

Shipping Tonnage

1917.

694 229,465

1849.

700 228,618

of which 163 imported and 193 exported merchandise into and from the colony. The value of these imports it is altogether impossible to estimate, as there is no establishment of any description to ascertain the extent and value of the trade of the port.

From the returns furnished to me by the harbour-master, I find that 6,022,578 dollars, equal in sterling money to 1,254,703. 15s. were exported from hence during the year, being principally no doubt in return for opium received by the merchants from India. This fact alone will tend to show that the colony cannot but be of very considerable importance to the firms engaged in this species of speculation.

 The following table shows in pounds sterling the amount of imports and exports in Chinese vessels during the years 1847 and 1848, drawn up from statements furnished to the Registrar-General by the Chinese traders and dealers:-

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 499

97

Imports

Exports

1847.

1818.

Increase.

Decrease.

£. S. d. 498,239 0 0

£. 5. d. 169,446 17 6

£. 5. d.

£. S. d. 328,792 2 6

226,130 16 8

236,298 19 2 10,168 2 6

The export of sugar from the colony, which amounted in 1847 to 144,8277, has increased in 1948 to 147,9361. 15s., showing an excess over 1847 of 31091. 15s.

No great dependence can be placed on these statements, for with the view of preventing all interference with the native traders, and of giving every encou- ragement for them to resort to this port, no regular returns of the imports or exports are ever required; and these returns have therefore been compiled from statements given in by the local traders. But as regards the item of sugar, there is reason to apprehend that the return is correct. The Registrar-General reports the imports in native vessels at 150,000 piculs, while the harbour- master reports the exports in square-rigged vessels as follows:-

Piculs.

To India To New South Wales To Shanghae

51,056

15,689

98,522

160,267, or 9427 tons.

I have consulted many of the mercantile gentlemen of the colony as to the state of the native trade, as well as others who I considered had the means of being acquainted with, and who had moreover paid attention to, the subject, and by all I have been assured that the trade is gradually extending; from none have I heard any complaints of the native traders being in any way molested, and the only suggestion that has been made to me for its furtlier extension, is the abolition of the opium farm, or rather that part of it by which persons are interdicted from dealing in opium, in quantities less than one chest without a licence.

 This subject was brought to your Lordship's notice in my Despatch No. 18, of the 14th ultimo.

I beg to annex the remarks of Dr. Gutzlaff on the Chinese trade of the colony for the year 1848.

Crown Lands.

 11. The fixed revenue derivable from Crown lands on the 31st December, 1848, stands thus:-

£. S. d.

Lands leased by mercantile firms

individuals Chinese

4,742 12 57

4,562 5 74

1,802 19 9

Police.

11,107 17 11

12. The advantage of general police control over the whole island continues to be productive of beneficial results. Crime has decreased considerably. Indeed, when the locality of this island is borne in mind, the facilities it offers as a refuge for all desperate characters from the main land, and the nests of pirates in the adjacent waters, it is to me a matter of surprise that the amount of crime is not much greater than the returns herewith enclosed exhibit; and I consider much credit is due to Mr. May for the manner in which the arduous duties of the police have been conducted.

 I beg to forward a letter from that officer, accompanied by two documents which fully exhibit the number of persons apprehended during the years 1846, 1847, and 1848, and the manner in which they were disposed of before the magistrates and the Supreme Court respectively, during the past year.

 By reference to Enclosure No. 8, your Lordship will see that out of 157 pri- soners tried before the Supreme Court last year, only 41 were convicted. This arises partly from the migratory nature of the population, and the hitherto infrequent holding of the criminal sessions, Ordinance No. 1, of 1849, for the

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summary and speedy disposal of minor offences before a bench of magistrates, and already submitted to your Lordship, will, I have no doubt (if confirmed), materially tend to remedy this very serious evil.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey, &c. &c. &c.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

S. G. BONHAM.

Enclosure 1 in No. 38.

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria, February 9, 1849.

SIR,

I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the works that have been exe- cuted during the year, also upon the general state and repair of all civil roads and works in

the island.

 1. Roads and Bridges, district of Victoria.-The Queen's-road and all the streets in the town have been kept in a tolerable state of repair during the year, by the employment of convict labour thereon, the only actual expenditure having been for the cutting and removal of some rocks in Wyndham-street, Req. No. 2, of 1848, which was executed for 107. 16s. 8d.; and in the Wongneichung Valley repairs, to the extent of 217. 13s. 4d., were paid for under Req. No. 9, of 1848.

The estimated value of convict labour expended in repairs has amounted to 3297. 17s. 8d. The new bridge at the Nullah North Barracks was opened during the year, which has rendered that portion of the road safe and serviceable; the expenditure thereon during the year amounted to 4431. 15s., leaving a balance unpaid upon the estimate of 67. 11s. 11d. One of the small wooden bridges (Stewart's) in the Wongneichung Valley being in a precarious state, I was directed to build a stone arch in lieu thereof, which was done for the sum of 451. 16s. 8d. Req. No. 42, of 1847. I have examined as closely as possible the three other wooden bridges in the valley; the main timbers are apparently sound; some of the lower sheathing-boards of the large bridge are partly decayed, but as the upper course is perfectly sound I do not think it unsafe, or that repairs are demanded at the present moment. An expenditure of 2857. 16s. 10d. has been made for the construction of stone-surface drains (Rep. and Est. 13, of 1845), mostly in the Chinese Town, which is very much improved thereby; and the drainage and streets in that district may be said to be quite finished, with the exception of a small portion of Hollywood-road, from thence to the Queen's-road, which it is difficult to keep in order; it, therefore, would be advisable to complete the proposed service for that reason; besides, the road would be rendered safer for carriages than it is at present, for a portion of the road is an embankment which has no parapet thereto; and the stone drain, with a raised footpath, obliges both horsemen and carriages to keep the centre of the road. The same may be said of some of the other roads and streets in the town, some of which are much frequented, and very dangerous from the want of some protection. Upon this service there is a balance unappropriated of 5301. 2s. 9d. Of the under-ground drainage little required to be done; the balance, 791. 14s. Id., unexpended (Rep. and Est. 11, of 1844) was applied to the formation of two drains; one across the Queen's-road, centre of Parade-ground; the other at junction of Albert-road with the Albany-road. A brick sewer to join the Ordnance sewer, east of the Nullah Bridge, was authorized under Rep. and Est. No. 8, of 1847, amounting to 891. 13s., but it is not yet completed, in consequence of the extreme difficulty of excavating the rock, which must be burned before it can be quarried out, which is a tedious and expensive opera- tion. Under the authority of Rep. and Est. No. 10, of 1844, I expended the sum of 371. 6s. 2d. for work in the West District, to complete the services undertaken originally, and have closed the account, leaving the sum of 241. 10s. 6d., which is not required. The Queen's- road, from the Ice House to the Nullalı Bridge, had a double row of trees planted along the footpaths, which have thriven very well indeed, considering the nature of the ground, the service having been completed for less than the estimate. (Req. No. 28, which was only authorized to the amount of 150%) I was directed to expend the balance in planting such parts of the town which might be improved thereby. I therefore planted a portion of Albert-road, Arbuthnot-road, a portion of the Queen's-road near the Gap, and opposite the Post Office, &c. The sum expended during the year amounted to 1027. 17s., the remainder being due to the contractor, and for the purchase of straw bands, with which I have been obliged to protect each tree to preserve them from the goats. There are several other roads and streets in the town, and some unoccupied or impracticable building lots, which if planted would be a vast improvement to the town, not only as to its appearance, but, I understand, equally so in a sanitary point of view. The harbour-master's pier (Rep. and Est. No. 6, of 1847) it was found necessary to extend (in consequence of the great deposit of silt) to a distance of 57 feet, as that distance is entirely dry at low-water spring tides during the south-west monsoon; and as I anticipate that the mode of construction I have adopted for the extension (by forming an opening or archway for the passage of the water) will prevent, in a great measure, the accu- mulation of silt, no further extension will be necessary. The tides during the north-east mon- soon being very high, I have been unable to get in the foundations at the extreme end, which I proposed to do without any coffer-dam; the arch, however, has been keyed in; and when the paving is finished the work will be suspended until April: 2001. was expended thereon up to the end of the year, leaving a balance on the estimate to complete it of 1647. Os. 10d. The total expenditure during the year in the three districts of Victoria, exclusive of buildings,

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 501

has amounted to 12771. 15s. 9d.; being on account of roads, 1727. 13s. 2d.; stone drains, 4157. 10s. 11d,; bridges, 4897. 11s. 8d.; marine works, 2002

The convict labour being exclusively confined to the town of Victoria, I proceed to detail the services performed by them during the year. The work executed by the convicts for the year last past may be classified under four heads; viz., repairs to roads, additional work to roads (formerly made by the convicts), clearing and levelling ground round site of Government offices, and miscellaneous work.

1. Repairs to Roads and Streets, including the Queen's-road, have been effected upon a length of 5516 yards, which, calculated upon the rate I usually adopt for convict labour, viz., 5d. a-day, gives an average of 61d. per yard, and amounts to 1517. 12s 84d. This service comprised the repair and construction of rough-stone drains, removal of slips of earth, repairs to embankments, &c. Some portions of the steep streets are exceedingly difficult to keep in repair, and in several cases the work has ranged from 9d. to 1s. 9d. per yard; the streets and roads which are nearly horizontal are kept in order for 2d. or 3d. a-yard.

2. Additional Work to Roads, &c.-This comprises widening the road from the Ice-house to Pedder's-hill and Albert-road, from the latter place to the Government offices, and from the Ice-house to the church, &c.; in executing which, 2986 cubic yards of material have been cut and removed, the value of the labour being 841. 7s. 11d., or 7d. a-yard. This is a very fair average price for this kind of material, for it is seldom, if ever, contractors can be induced to undertake that work under 10d. In addition to the above amount, labour equivalent to 117. 13s. 9d. has been expending in consolidating the heavy embankment near the Murray Battery, which settled frequently and considerably during the rainy season.

3. Levelling Ground round Government Offices.-This service has consisted in clearing and levelling the area adjoining the above building and the Murray Battery, to prepare the same for grassing, planting, &c., and comprises all that work not estimated or contracted for under Rep. and Est. No. 5, of 1846. Portions of this ground were exceedingly rough and full of heavy stones, and in consequence all the work could not be measured; portions of it, however, were so, some of which cost 1s. 44d. per yard, but the generality of it has been done under 9d.; the total amount of labour expended thereon up to 31st December, is equal to 917. 14s. lld. A considerable quantity of work is still required in this locality, the heaviest of which consists in sloping the ground to the rear of the Government offices and church to the road, instead of leaving it, as at present, horizontal. This work will be a great improvement to both buildings. It is exceedingly rocky in some parts, but soft in others; in all probability will cost 6d. per yard throughout; there is 23,259 cubic yards in that area, to be carried an average distance of 400 feet; so that I expect the work will occupy the labour of the whole gang of men, or 60 men, for 12 months at least, assisted by stone-cutters besides. It may therefore be estimated that the above work and the contemplated road to Government House will occupy their time for two years.

4. Miscellaneous Work is equivalent to the sum of 397. 5s. The number of convicts employed was 18,151; and the total value of labour performed amounts to 3787. 14s. 3d. During the year a large supply of new tools was demanded, which, together with repairs, has cost the sum of 977. 13s. 4d. ; the value of the tools in use may be estimated at half of this amount, or 481. 16s. 8d.; therefore, if that sum be deducted from the above amount, the net value of all work performed will amount to 3291. 17s. 8d., being 267. 1s. 5d. more than last year.

Upon the roads in the Wongneichung Valley, 2, miles, the sum of 217. 13s. 4d. has been expended in repairs, being less than d. per yard.

Road Wongneichung to Saiwan, 5 miles. During the early portion of the year (until May), he road surface was maintained in tolerable order for the sum of 137. 15s. Od., Req. 39, of 1847, and 3 of 1948; the wooden bridges' repairs, Req. 31 and 38, of 1947, cost 331. 19s. 3d., so that the total expenditure amounted to 471. 14s. 3d., or lid. for the half-year. During the heavy gales and ¡yphoons in the latter portion of the year, both roads and bridges sustained much damage, and as no expenditure has been sanctioned to rectify it, each succeeding storm and heavy rain adds considerable injury thereto, and this, together with the continued deposit of débris from the quarries, the ravages of the white ant, and encroachments of the sea, will in a short time obliterate all traces of the road; at least all those parts made along the coast. The road, although passable for horses, is unsafe in several places.

Road from Saiwan to Stanley, 43 miles.-The final payment on account of the construction of a portion of this road was paid in the beginning of the year, amounting to 731. 1s. 3d., Rep. and Est. 2 of 1846. The repairs to road surface amounted to 627. 10s. 2d. on Requisi- tions 34 of 1847, 3 of 1848, and 7 of 1848. Bridges required no repair; the rate per yard for 6 months being 1d.; the road is now in tolerable order.

Old Road to Tytam, 3 miles.-This road, from its exceeding steepness, is always more expensive than the other roads, although it is only 5 feet wide on an average, the repairs to the surface amounted to 291. 5s. 4d., to the bridges 187. 10s. 10d., on Req. No. 45, of 1847, and 8 of 1848, the total expenditure being 477. 16s. 2d., or lyd. per yard, being an equal rate with the last-mentioned road, which is twice as wide. The road is still in good repair, except in a few places.

Road from Victoria West to Aberdeen, 4 miles.-The repairs to this road amounted to 76. 18s. 4d., Req. No. 43, of 1847, and 6, of 1848, for the surface; repairs to wooden bridges, Req. No. 30, of 1847, 36l. 2s. 6d.; and coal tar, Req. 45, of 1847, 61. 5s. Od.; and the formation of a stone arch in lieu of a decayed wooden platform 34/. 15s. 10d., Req. 40, of 1847, so that the total expenditure has amounted to 1544. Is. 8d., from which it appears that the rate per yard amounted to 4d., including the stone arch; this rate, strictly speaking, is chargeable on a portion of the previous year and on a greater length of road, repairs to the

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REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

road surface having cost in February the sum of 657., and the stone arch also was commenced in January; therefore the average rate between the two years should be taken as the general probable amount for repairs in the year, or say 2d. per yard. The road being nearly 15 feet wide throughout is the cause of the difference of rate between it and the other roads. It is now in a very good state of repair, and sustained little or no damage during the typhoon.

Road from Aberdeen to Stanley, 7 miles.-This road estimated for, Rep. and Est. amount, 49651. 14s. ld. (No. 1, of 1847) was intended to have been 15 feet wide throughout, with stone arches and parapet-walls in places where they were most required. Sir J. F. Davis, however, reduced the width to 10 feet and curtailed other works, and only authorized the sum of 27057. 14s. 4d. to be expended; of this sum 3127. 16s. 4d. was expended during the year 1847, the expenditure during the last year being 19227. 12s. 1d. Upon this line are some of the heaviest stone bridges in the island, which considering the Chinese are not in the habit of building such, have been very tolerably executed, and particularly so, as the hot weather and frequent sickness of the overseers prevented their consiant attendance thereon. The greater portion of the road was in the hands of the contractors at the time of the typhoon and previous rains, and therefore the expense of repairs fell upon them, but in general the damage was not excessive considering the unconsolidated state of the filling, unfinished draius, &c. Near the south end of the town of Aberdeen for a distance of 100 yards, and in Deep Water Bay for about the same distance, the wash of the sea carried away a considerable portion of the road; the former had been taken off the contractor's hands, and has not yet been repaired; the latter the contractor was obliged to rectify. In sheltered bays on the coast I formed the roads originally 4 feet above the high-water spring tides and 6 feet in other parts, but I now find that not less than 10 feet should be fixed upon for the level of a coast road, and even more than that if it is much exposed. If this road is to be maintained and properly protected, as indeed most of the roads require, there are several works which I would recommend to be executed, viz., a bridge and causeway at the waterfall in Staunton Valley, a parapet-wall on the hill above Deep-water Bay, and a bridge leading to the Sands, parapet-walls in two other places near Repulse Bay, and a bridge there also; these places are either exceedingly dan- gerous or inconvenient, as the road has either been cut out of the side of the cliff, or a rough retaining wall built, which leaves the drop from the road nearly perpendicular, and in one place the fall is 100 feet. The additional bridges are required, for at high water pedes- trians must make a detour to pass the stream, and equestrians must wade or swim their horses over the ford. The details of expenditure during the year being given in full in the usual return, I shall merely remark that the disbursements on the new works in the formation of roads, bridges, and drains have amounted to 32217. 11s. 7d., and repairs, exclusive of con- vict labour, to the sum of 2151. 2s. 6d. for roads and 1867. 10s. 1d. for bridges.

2. Buildings. The police station at Aberdeen, although nearly finished at the termination of the year 1847, was not completed until May; the contractor, having far exceeded his time, was fined by his Excellency the Governor in Council in the sum of 8100, which was deducted from the balance due on the contract; the work has been satisfactorily executed, and is now occupied by police; the payment on account for the year amounted to 10881. 6s. 9d., making the total expenditure 25981. 2s. 5d., exclusive of some stores supplied by Ordnance Depart-

ment.

For cutting the site of the church and Government offices, Report and Estimate, No. 5, of of 1846, the sum of 1367. 12s. Od. has been paid; the balance on the Estimate 341. Os. 10d. will be expended in cutting rock and sloping the ground east of the church, previous to the opening of the same.

  Gaols. On account of Rep. and Est. 5, of 1845, the sum of 1107. 8s. 4d. was paid, making the total expenditure 40457. 14s Od, leaving a balance of 4231. 12s. Id. for the construction of some works which it is intended not to carry out; the service may therefore be said to be completed. The final payment, 627. 10s. Od., was made during the year on account of the boundary walls to gaol, Rep. and Est. No. 9, of 1846, which have been completed in a satis- factory inanner. In consequence of the recommendations of a Board, which was appointed by Sir J. F. Davis, to make certain inquiries and suggestions regarding the_gaols, for increasing the accommodation, improving the ventilation, supply of water, &c., a Report and Estimate, No. 4, of 1847, was prepared by me, embodying the whole of the propositions, and showing their cost of the same, would amount to 16347. 3s. 4d. At this period the gaol was very crowded, and an expenditure of 637. 15s. Od. was sanctioned for the purpose of increasing the ventilation at once; and the report was transmitted for the consideration of the Right Honourable the Secretary of State, who, upon the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Jebb, directed further inquiries and examination of the gaol, and it appearing that all the services proposed were not then necessary, His Excellency S. G. Bonham, Esq., in Council, sanctioned the expenditure of 2087. 11s. 7d. for an additional washing-room, and the formation of a covered way to connect the gaols A and B, &c. ; at the termination of the year 1157. had been expended upon the service. The gaol buildings sustained very little damage during the typhoon, the estimate of the same being 157. 17s. 5d.

It having been thought advisable, by his Excellency the Governor in Council, that Coolies. for hire should be confined to particular districts in the town, and that suitable covered stands or buildings for that purpose should be erected, a Report and Estimate, No. 7, of 1847, was accordingly prepared for the same, and the work commenced upon in March last and com- pleted in June, the cost of the service being 1237. 5s. 2d.

  Colonial Church. This building has not progressed so rapidly as was anticipated, much inconvenience and delay having been caused by the tardiness of the manufacturers of the windows, which have not even yet been received. It is much to be regretted that the funds

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 503

for building have been found insufficient, the prices in the estimate having been originally framed too low by the late Surveyor-General, and it has therefore been found impossible to proceed with the tower above the ridge of the nave until more money is placed at the disposal of the trustees; from estimates I have lately made, the sum now required amounts to 8761. 17s. 4d. The church, however, has been so far completed that service may be performed therein if necessary, but the trustees think it better to defer the opening until the beginning of spring. The expenditure thereon during the year amounts to 38161. 17s. 4d.

 The Miscellaneous work to Buildings comprises removal of stores and protection of buildings transferred to my charge, erection of flag-staff at Governor's residence, and pulling down the old Treasury for the preparation of the site for Government House; these services were authorized under Req. No. 47, of 1847, and 14, 16, 17, of 1848, and amount to 471. 14s. 8d. ; of this amount, during the year, 241. 7s. 1ld. was paid. The final balance for the repair of police stations and guard-houses, repairs of 1847, Report and Estimate, No. 3, was paid, during this year, amount to 277. 1s. 8d. Additional room being required for the Governor's servants, a small bungalow, abandoned by the proprietor on lot No. 141, was repaired for that purpose, which cost lỉ. 15s. Id.

Some depredations were committed at the cemetery; the entrance gates and doors of the chapel were injured, the hinges stolen, &c.; these were repaired and replaced for the sum of 641 Os. 6d., Req. No. 36. Ordinary repairs were effected to the bungalow on Hospital Hill upon its occupation by a new tenant, Req. No. 48, 581. 6s. 8d.; the tenant expended about 120%, and abandoned the building after the typhoon of the 1st September, which stripped off a considerable portion of the roof-tiles, caused the failure of a portion of the stable wall, and other damages unnecessary to mention, which were estimated at 1157. 2s. 10d.

To the debtors' prison, magistracy, Sukunpu Police Station, Court-house, ordinary repairs were carried out for the sum of 261. 13s. 4d. The repairs to the residence of his Excellency the Governor during the year amounted to 14. 15s. 7d. The police stations at Sookewan and Stanley were improved and repaired to render the accommodation of the inmates more comfortable and healthy, roofs re-tiled, and floors ventilated, &c., estimated at 307. 15s. 11d.; expended 147. 15s. 10d., Req. No. 12, of 1848.

Storm Repairs.-The island was visited by a storm or typhoon, as it is here called, which raged for five or six hours during the night of the 31st August and following morning. During the summer months heavy gales and storms always occur; but since the year 1841 nothing like the severity of the present one has been experienced, and, as might be expected, considerable damage was done to most of the houses in the town; some were entirely stripped of their tiles, walls injured, windows and venetians or jalousies blown in, and altogether the appearance of the town exhibited the terrible effects of the storm. The residence of his Excellency the Governor suffered as much as any in the town, but these repairs necessarily fell upon the landlord, as the house is not Government property. In the Report and Estimate relative to these damages the following are the amounts estimated for each colonial civil building :-

Items ..

1. Governor's residence

2. Magistracy

3. Debtors' gaol

4. Gaols

5. Guard-house ditto

6. Supreme Court

7. Post Office

8. No. I Police Station

9. No. 2 ditto

10. Station Onch Bazaar

11. Station at the Gap

12. Bungalow on Hospital Hill 13. Cemetery Chapel

£. S. d.

15 6 6

14 18 I

8 19 11

6 17 6

6 19 1

9 7 11

25 166

22 1 10

39 12 11

0 16 6

264 2 1

115 2 10

36 1 2

14. Harbour Master's

44 4 4

15. Harbour Master's boat-house

16. Government Offices (old), to sustain for a short period

17. Bungalow rear of ditto

18. Chinese Secretary's Office, estimate to pull down 19. Barrack at Aberdeen

3 12 9

3 2 10

3 2 4

4 17 2

12 6 11

Of these several items his Excellency the Governor decided no repairs should be executed on account of Nos. 1, 11, 14, 17, 18. The police station at the Gap was exceedingly damaged, the upper part of the east wall blown down, the north wall nearly destroyed, the whole of the tiles completely stripped off the roof, all the windows and venetians on the north and east sides broken to pieces, and, in fact, the whole a complete wreck; the inmates were obliged to abandon it during the storm, and as the site has generally been considered incon- venient for a police station for the present requirements of the town, the repairs were disallowed, and arrangements made for locating the police elsewhere for the future; most of the doors, windows, and venetians, were removed and placed in store.

Item 14. Part of this disallowed, viz., for new topmast and repairs to flag-staff, "

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The original estimate amounted to. Amount disallowed

£. 5. d.

637 9 21

314 3 1

£323 6 1

Authorized for the other services, which, with the exception of a small amount due on one of them, were executed for 2697. 6s. 10d.

The Honourable Major W. Caine, Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

CHAS. ST. GEO. Cleverly,

Surveyor-General.

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

SIR,

Enclosure 2 in No. 38.

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria, February 19, 1849.

   I HAVE the honour to make the following Annual Report upon the state and progress of this department during the year ending December last.

 The superintendence of the works executed by the department devolved temporarily upon Mr. Strachan, who was appointed clerk of works and civil engineer after the decease of Mr. Pope, and he continued those duties, until the arrival of the Honourable W. Napier, as Mr. Pope's successor, in July last. In the office I received great assistance from Mr. Strachan, as a draughtsman, in the preparation of the plans for the proposed Government House, which, together with the detailed estimate, were transmitted to England in Report and Estimate, No. 1. of 1848.

The contracts and working drawings for the Aberdeen-road were all completed early in the year; upon this road I subdivided the work into 17 contracts (to suit the means of the generality of contractors who tender for such works at a distance from Victoria), and thus the whole work progressed very actively, and I was in hopes of seeing at least all the earth-work quite finished before the hot weather; but as it proceeded, many of the contractors found they had miscalculated (that is to say, if they ever did calculate the cost of the work); some absconded, others I had great difficulty with, to force them on with their work, and some I had to finish by days' labour, and charge the amount upon the respective contracts.

This system is advantageous in some respects, as the competition is so great that prices are lowered; most of the men, however, guess the amount of their tender; the result, therefore, is quite a chance; if they fail, they generally abscond, leaving the labourers unpaid, and it has frequently happened that I could not induce other men to go upon the work until all payments due upon it had been made; with masons, this is particularly the case, in consequence of the trade union, which delayed the completion of three contracts for bridges; the fault, no doubt, originated with the contractors, who could not pay the men. The sureties in these cases are applied to, who are compelled to complete the services, or pay the money due, and leave me to finish the work, and pay the balance remaining, if there should happen to be any.

The completion of the Aberdeen police station was the only new work out of the town which required our attention during the year; this being finished, the clerk of works was enabled to give more time and attention to the road above alluded to.

In my previous Annual Reports, I have dwelt at considerable length upon the difficulties and danger we have had to encounter in executing out-of-door work at a distance from Victoria; the difficulties, more particularly the getting access to our work, have been much improved by the opening of the roads, that the same time and fatigue are not now necessary; thus much of the danger is avoided, but it is and ever must be great in this climate, where exposure to the sun has never been done with impunity. I have to record the death of one of the overseers employed upon that road, Mr. Lowrie; and two of the others went into hospital with fever, and were subsequently discharged from the employ.

In Victoria the completion of some services to the gaol, together with the erection of the Coolie stands, sundry contingent works to buildings, in repair or otherwise, the extension of the harbour master's pier, the plans and estimates for such, and the duties of supervision, occupied a very considerable portion of our time; the greater part of this, however, falls upon the clerk of works, in addition to which his services were necessarily demanded in visiting the roads and superintending their repair, which from the want of shelter along the road, was only performed once a fortnight up to July last, when the further repair or maintenance it was indispensably necessary to stop. In alluding to this circumstance I cannot but express my regret at it; for although repairs to roads are heavier here than in many other places, I am confident the total annual repairs would not exceed 5001. upon a length of 30 miles of road, and with this sum I could effect several improvements in the usual manner upon the sanction of the Governor. The question has arisen, of what use are these roads, there being little or no traffic theron, or likely to be so, from which any revenue might be derived; the country is very thickly-peopled and but little cultivated, and it is now stated they are of no use in a military point of view; of this I can be no judge, but certainly during the last command it was thought advisable to complete the circuit of the island, and to effect a means of communication with each of the military stations by road, and which it is not always practicable to do by sea; with this object

·

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103

and the improvement of the island as encouragement to settlers, both native and European, I conceived the roads were made, for the former for the cultivation of the land, and the latter for country locations, of which there are numerous available sites, in several apparently healthy and in beautiful parts of the island. I can speak positively that the Chinese appreciate these roads; and although, as before stated, the traffic is not considerable, it enables them to bring their produce to market in a safer and more expeditious manner than by sea; and only in the vicinity of the roads are the cattle driven to graze, for they are always brought home at night to Victoria I am of opinion that it would be unwise to abandon the roads altogether; and if real encouragement were given to settlers for the cultivation of the ground, and the land given rent-free for a number of years, we should have a respectable resident class of inhabitants, who would be enabled to supply the market with every necessary produce; and the rearing and feeding of cattle might be conducted entirely upon the island with advantage, instead of being obliged to import everything for the consumption of the community both ashore and afloat. All these objects I think might be gained if the roads were maintained in good order; and further be the means of deterring strangers from effecting the robberies and depredations which, before the roads were complete, and which upon the old Stanley road were of such frequent occurrence, particularly when it was out of repair, and Europeans seldom travelled it.

In the town of Victoria some additions have been made to the drainage, particularly in the Chinese district, Ta-ping-shan, where it was much needed; there is, therefore, not that accu- mulation of filth about the place that formerly existed, but this the Chinese do not care about. It is extremely difficult to keep the drains clear, or at least prevent a deposit at the mouth of them; the police see that the streets are cleaned; every morning the rubbish is swept into the mouth of the drains and there left, and if we have no rain for a long time they become choked, and cause much damage to parts of the street by the overflow. To correct this as far as pos- sible, the Coolies of the department are employed, as well as in executing small repairs over the district..

I have found these four men and the overseer of the greatest possible service to me in this particular, as well as in executing other services demanded from them as messengers, chain- men, and assistants in surveying; during the latter part of the year they have been in attend- ance upon the civil engineer and clerk of works, whom (as most of the works were stopped or finished) I have been able to employ upon the survey of the town, to include all the houses and other works which have been undertaken since the first survey made by me in 1843. This I have no doubt he will be able to complete during the cold season. The next service I pro- pose to adopt will be a particular survey of the road round the island, with a sketch of the ground on either side, for such distances as may be considered advisable, for the purpose of showing its capabilities either for agricultural purposes or otherwise; but this cannot be com- menced until the next cold season.

The employment of the convicts engages much of my attention, assisted by Mr. Bowden, road overseer, who is also employed as a clerk, in which capacities he has shown himself most useful, and given me great satisfaction; he prepares the monthly reports of their labour, measures their work, and superintends the direction given for the works they are engaged upon; in addition to this he is storekeeper, and fills to the utmost of his ability the duties of a clerk of works.

In my Report upon Roads I have spoken of the labour of the convicts, at least of such con- victs as are sent out to work under my directions; now it frequently happens that Europeans and others are confined in the gaol, who, although condemned to hard labour, there is not the means of employing them; the former are generally sailors; they might be employed in making hemp-mats, in making light ropes from picked oakum, which are much used by all Coolies here for slings to carry baskets or other weights; and even if the supply was sufficient for the convicts employed upon the works alone, it would be a great service and saving of expense; also baskets might be made, which being of the simplest description, the commonest Coolie might be made to construct. And, lastly, for actual hard labour, I would respectfully suggest that all refractory or idle convicis should be compelled to break a certain quantity of stones, which I could now employ with advantage on several streets and roads in Victoria. The granite here is not difficult to break, and although the kind of work is new to them, I should very soon arrive at the quantity which every man should do. It has been a habit with some of the men to create cutaneous eruptions, that they might be exempt from work; these I consider fit subjects for real hard labour. I have lately begun to collect and break stones, to which employment I place the laziest of the gang.

I beg leave to suggest the foregoing propositions for work inside the gaol, as I think it would be found advantageous; the expense, if any, I do not think would be felt, for some of the articles might be sold and all used with advantage, so that it would not be an ultimate loss to the Government for the supply of the materials.

I at one time thought of proposing that the convict tools, such as pick-axes, wheelbarrows, &c., should be repaired in the gaol; but I believe there are few artizans in the gaol, and much danger might accrue if these men were allowed blacksmiths' and carpenters' tools, for they might manufacture and conceal house-breaking implements, with which an escape from the gaol might be effected. I am, however, of opinion that the service would be benefited if a paid blacksmith and carpenter were added to my establishment; they would have ample employment repairing the convict tools, executing slight repairs to Government buildings, which are frequently called for and should be executed immediately. A monthly or more frequent examination might be made by myself of all the civil buildings, and the necessary repairs pointed out to the men; this I am sure would be a saving of expense, and enable me to execute the smallest repair without going through the trouble and form of a Requisition to

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the Governor for authority to execute it. I may here mention that there are 26 buildings under my charge, the repairs to which, exclusive of storm repairs, amounted to 1797. 138. 7d. during the year; this, together with about 301. which may be said to be the sum for repair of convict tools, makes a large annual amount, which I am confident could be reduced if I had the men I mention, whose united wages would only amount to 507; even if it were for the convicts alone, I think it would be a saving to point a pick at the proper time, repair a helve or wheelbarrow, the last of which are expensive and liable to much injury. As soon as they are in bad repair, I am obliged to lay them up until a sufficient number are so, to enable me to estimate for the repair, and make a requisition for the authority for payment of the money; this is a great inconvenience, and the tools are injured at the same time.

In the Land Registry Office, under the charge of the accountant, Mr. Power, the work has been of its usual description,-a little augmented by the voluminous return called for by the House of Commons, and other explanations connected with transactions in land.

A very limited number of memorials, of transfers, or mortgages, &c., have been registered during the year-only 68. Of this number 16 have been prepared in the office for Chinese, with the usual translation made by the Chinese secretary. Attached to my office and to that of the above, also for the preparation or copying of these documents, was a Chinese clerk- Keonkitch, who, in addition to this work, was employed in writing out the copies of contracts for work, also in Chinese.

 At the latter end of the year, by direction of his Excellency, his services were dispensed with, together with the second clerk, Mr. Harrison, the office Coolie, and the messenger. The services of the first of the above-named officers I shall be enabled to supply by employing the overseer of Coolies-Assow, who is apparently a good scholar, and can copy out Chinese documents, under the superintendence of Mr. Gutzlaff, the Chinese secretary, sufficiently well for all the purposes of the office. He is a useful and trustworthy servant, and I have always found him attentive to his work, and show an anxiety for the good of the service. As an attendant and interpreter for myself, and clerk of works and road overseer, in visiting the roads or works, he is most useful; for which service his Excellency was pleased to sanction horse allowance for him; but this, together with the horse allowance to the road overseer, has been of course discontinued since the stoppage of the works.

 The two native overseers of convicts, one at 501. per annum, and the other 127. 10s. for allowance, he being in the guard, were also discharged." Both were intelligent and useful men, but the services of one I am happily enabled to avail myself of, as he is appointed sergeant of the guard, and I am nearly equally well served by him in his new capacity, and a saving is effected of 621. 10s. per annum; at the same time it obliges me to keep all the gang together, which is sometimes very inconvenient, particularly when executing repairs in the streets.

Reductions to a small amount were also made in the salaries of the road overseer and accountant, forming an aggregate saving in the cost of the department amounting to 429%. 10s. per annum.

 With the department, as at present constituted, I shall be fully equal to execute all the demands that can be made upon it, unless any works are proposed at a distance from Victoria. If such were to be necessary, the only addition would be allowance for horses; but if no further expenditure for civil works in the colony is decided upon, a reduction may still be effected in the department.

 In the district comprising the town of Victoria there are several works which I think it would be highly desirable to have effected, such as the completion of the work of surface drainage by stone channels, the protection of the sides of some of the roads and streets, either with parapet walls, raised footpaths, or such other means as for each particular place would be found most applicable; widening the road round the Wongneichung Valley, and the forination of a new carriage-road from the Albany Godowns to the Wongneichung Valley. I formerly advocated the construction of this road when land was much sought after, and estimated the probable revenue that would be derivable from the sale of the adjoining ground; at the present time it is not likely much of that ground, if any, would be purchased, and, in a pecuniary sense, Government would not be directly benefited; but it would be a healthy and pleasant road for the use of inhabitants of the whole town, for in summer both the Queen's-road and the Wongneichung Valley are too confined and hot, and but little benefit is derived from exercise therein. Another carriage-road, not so expensive as this one, might be made round the Sukunpu Valley, or Causeway Bay. These two roads, with the widening a part of the Saiwan Road, and the construction of one 30-feet bridge, and three or four small 10-feet ones, would give ample range for exercise, riding, or driving, and that recreation so much desired and necessary in a tropical climate. These roads would be very easily maintained in order; they would be nearly horizontal in every part, and but few portions exposed to the run of the sea. In addition to these services, I am induced to advocate the planting of trees along the sides of the roads, and some of the streets and slopes adjoining. Small plantations of Čhina fir might be made in several places, and with the facility of obtaining trees from the Straits by the steamers, some of the valuable large and quickly-growing ones would tend much to the beauty and healthiness of the place.

 In conclusion, I trust my own exertions in the management of the department have met with approval, which it has ever been my wish to merit. I have to regret some circumstances that have occurred, and am sorry I have been unable to supply occasional information, in returns or otherwise, in that space of time in which they were directed to be performed. This has been entirely caused by the change in the holders of appointments, who were necessarily not au fait in effecting the requisite searches regarding land transactions over a series of years (though few), in which so many alterations, of very varied descriptions, had been made.

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105

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 507

I have much satisfaction in speaking in the highest terms of the several officers of the department, who have uniformly given the utmost attention to their several duties, and executed them all to the best of their abilities. It is unnecessary to make further allusion to each individually, and I only express a wish that that if the probable changes of which I made mention before, viz., the reduction of further civil works, that the civil engineer and clerk of works, the Hon. W. Napier, may obtain other suitable employment under Her Majesty's Government, suited to his professional acquirements; and, further, that His Excellency the Governor may be pleased to take into consideration the proposition made for attaching to the department one or two carpenters and a blacksmith, to enable me to repair in a more effective and satisfactory manner the several buildings under my charge-26 in number, and the pre- servation and repair of the convict tools.

I have, &c.,

The Honourable Major W. Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

(Signed)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

CHAS. ST. GEO. Cleverly, Surveyor-General.

SIR,

Enclosure 3 in No. 38.

Victoria, Hong Kong, March 3, 1849.

IN making our Report for the half-year ending 31st December, 1848, on the schools in this colony receiving Government aid, we have little to add to that of the last half-year.

Ninety-five boys are in course of education at the three schools-forty at Victoria, twenty- five at Stanley, and thirty at Aberdeen. Over the schools at Stanley and Aberdeen we have been unable as yet to exercise any very effectual supervision. The school at Victoria has been visited at least once a-month, and the progress of the scholars is as great as can be reasonably expected.

We believe the assistance given to these schools to be properly appreciated by the Chinese inhabitants of the place, and to be of substantial benefit to a number of poor people who would be otherwise unable to procure education.

The Honourable Major W. Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

We are, &c.,

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER, V. STANTON.

A. L. INGLIS.

Enclosure 4 in No. 38.

REMARKS upon the NATIVE TRADE at HONG KONG during 1848.

In the absence of regular returns we can only talk in general terms of what comes under immediate observation. The Chinese traders are, moreover, very reluctant to give a true detail of their actual transactions, for fear of provoking competition; their statements are always under the real amount.

Much business is done here by small traders, who come to Hong Kong from the neigh- bouring cities, such as Tung-kwan, Nan-tow, Kwei-shen, and other places. They generally bring an investment of sugar or produce for immediate consumption. Their agents attend auctions, and buy up things wherever they find them at reduced prices. In these they invest their proceeds, and sell them in the interior at a more advantageous rate than the small traders at Canton can ever do. This is a very numerous class: the boats ply constantly between this colony and their respective native places. Individually they possess little capital; their dealings are beneath the notice of a British merchant; but could the whole be summed up, it would be something very large through the year. The returns being very profitable, their numbers have considerably increased, and are likely to do so in future; the market supplies have in conse- quence become as abundant and various as those of the largest cities in the empire. A corre- sponding increase of large fast-boats, who trade to this port periodically, has also taken place, and the local Government has not as formerly thrown obstacles in the way.

A great drawback upon this small trade is the absence of capitalists. Many men of desperate fortunes arrive here, engage in dangerous speculations in order to obtain credit, and suddenly abscond after having sold the goods intrusted to their care at a ruinous rate. There are others who realize a fair profit, but withdraw from the colony as soon as they have accumulated a few thousand dollars, never to appear again, except to recruit their finances on a new venture. There exists no local attachment, which may be ascribed to the absence of respectable families born on the island with which the adventurers could contract marriages. As long as their relations live elsewhere they will look upon Hong Kong as a mere temporary abode, which they may abandon and revisit at pleasure to suit their convenience. This is a most serious obstacle to the increase of trade, though it cannot be charged to local arrangements made during our occupation of the island. The rent of houses and shops is at present low enough to enable any man who carries on a middling trade to lodge his family, yet very few decent

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married females reside here. In this respect there has been very little improvement during the last year.

 The importation of sugar from Tae-ping and other places was, during last year, very con- siderable. The growers were able to sell it here cheaper, on account of not paying export duties, than it was procurable at Canton, and hence many sales. This branch of commerce will mainly depend upon the prices for which it can be brought to Hong Kong, and the amount it will fetch at home. Should the crops of this season be as abundant as last year there can be no doubt but the importation in 1849 will be larger. With a richer kind of cane, which is here very thin and juiceless, and good machinery, the Chinese might compete with slave sugar, for work is very cheap, and an acre planted with sugar-cane yields, even at reduced prices, more profit than a rice field. There is, however, a great demand for this commodity in the northern provinces, so that the prices can never go below a certain level. The Government are rather opposed to the extension of the culture, lest paddy-the s'aff of life, and vegetables might be grown in smaller quantities. The foreign exportations constitute up to this time not one hundredth part of the home consumption, and have not yet materially affected the market.

 Neither camphor. rhubarb, nor teas have any more been brought by junks to this market; all those who speculated in these articles have lost, and this is the reason for their abstaining from any further attempts. It was owing to the small demand that the first could not find ready purchasers; the second offered for sale by the juuks was of an inferior quality, and next to useless in the English market; the last shipped to Hong Kong was not selected according to the demand, and realized therefore next to nothing. Another difficulty was, that the men who made this trial had no capital, and could sell for ready-inoney only. If direct communi- cations be established with Fuch-choo, and a judicious choice made of the teas most in demand, the junks no doubt might sell the black kinds to greater advantage here than any tea-man could do at Canton who has to transport his goods through a long and expensive inland passage.

Efforts have been made to induce the Fokeen junks to bring coals from Ke-lung on the north-coast of Formosa. Some small investments have been brought here; not yet, however, to give rise to hopes that all our supplies would henceforth be imported from thence. The Chinese Government does not prevent the exportation; but the labour to bring them on board in the absence of all machinery, and even a common cart, is very great. Still it is very likely that the ingenious and plodding Chinese may get over these difficulties, and import them here during the north-east monsoon as ballast.

Alum finds generally a ready sale at this port, because it can be obtained cheaper here than at Canton, where it has to pay an import and export duty. It is brought here in Fokeen Chaougan junks, which fetch from an island on the coast of Keangsoo, where it is found in immense quantities; some comes likewise from Chě-keang. The junks buy it on the spot at an average rate of half a dollar per picul; and if they can dispose of it here at one and a quarter dollar they make a fair profit; at one dollar it does only cover the freight and labour. Several cargoes have been imported and sold at remunerating prices.

Salt has been imported in greater quantities than at any of the preceding years, the whole amounting, according to the returns of the salt-weigher, which are always less than the actual quantity, to 297,050 piculs in 524 junks. The largest quantity imported in a single month was 41,150 piculs, the smallest 13,000: the junks have varied from 31 to 52 per month. By far the most extensive importers are the Pwan-yu boats. The demand for this article is likely to increase, on account of the large fisheries in the neighbouring seas, which become every year more numerous, and the great difference between the prices here and in the interior. The Fokeen junks have already commenced to become the importers; and though they were in the first instance beaten out of the market by very low prices, they have again ventured to com- pete with the salt manufacturers in the neighbourhood,

A greater number of marine junks visited this year the port than at any previous period. A few of them sold sundry articles imported from the north for Chinese consumption, whilst others bought opium and calicoes, the staple articles of exportation, with ready money. This trade has of late most materially increased; yet the transactions are secret, and to obtain the true returns is impossible. Few vessels, however, anchor here without buying something; and as there were about 80 junks on an average per month, the sum total of this money laid out cannot be inconsiderable.

The only produce of our island, granite slabs, freighted 777 large boats. Insignificant as this commodity may appear, it nevertheless gives employ to more than 1000 people, whose perseverance and hard labour are exemplary.

The fisheries have been extended, and it is much to be regretted that the particulars cannot be given, no account being kept. The owners of the smacks, on account of not being here exposed to the extortions of mandarins, prefer Stanley and Aberdeen to native harbours; and their agents, who supply then with rice and other necessaries, find it more advantageous to live under the British flag than take upon themselves the responsibility their own Government imposes upon them, and the consequent liability of paying heavy fines, if the fishing-craft they have secured commit outrages. The exportation of salt-fish to the interior from the above two places has been very large: as it is an article of food of which the poorest partake, there is a constant demand.

 During this year not one single instance occurred, to my recollection, of the Chinese Government interfering with vessels that came to the port. Instead of insisting upon carrying into effect the Supplementary Treaty, in regard to the junks that come here, no notice whatso-

ever is taken of them.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 509

 While our hopes in regard to the future trade of native vessels at Hong Kong cannot be very sanguine, we need not despair, for there exists a progressive improvement; and could a stop be put to piracy, the junks would bring more valuable cargoes than they have hitherto

ventured to do.

Victoria, 27th February, 1849.

(True Copy.)

(Signed)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

CHARLES GUTZLAFF, Chinese Secretary.

107

HONG KONG,

Enclosure 5 in No. 38.

SIR,

Police Department, Victoria, March 7, 1849. I HAVE the honour to submit through you, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, returns for the year 1848, showing the number of persons apprehended by police, the results before magistrate, and making a comparison with the years 1846-47; also a return of the crimes and offences coming to the knowledge of the police, in which no persons were apprehended. The result of the first is very favourable, as it exhibits a total decrease, as com- pared with the year 1847, of 396 persons, or more than 20 per cent. The last return exhibits an increase of undetected crime; but this arises from the Chinese inhabitants communicating their losses more readily than previous years. Most of the offences are of a trifling description, as regards the value of property stolen. It is likewise necessary to notice that property is very insecurely protected from depredation, owing to the bad fastenings to windows and doors, and the style of building.

One of the greatest difficulties the police have to encounter arises from the reluctance the Chinese exhibit to prosecute or assist in obtaining evidence, also in not appearing as witnesses after cases are committed for trial. This necessarily causes many cases to be acquitted, or the proseecution abandoned, and the prisoners return to their old haunts and habits.

I beg to add that the present police force is, in my opinion, sufficient for, and adapted to, its general duties and objects; and that the state of crime, notwithstanding the difficulties to encounter, exhibits its efficiency.

The returns furnished by me do not correspond with a return from the chief magistrate, in consequence of the latter including all cases of summonses for assault, nuisances, &c., in which the parties were not in custody of police.

The Hon. Major Caine,

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

W. CAINE, Calonial Secretary.

Enclosure 6 in No 38.

HONG KONG Police.

COMPARATIVE RETURN of the Total Number of PERSONS apprehended in the years 1846,

1847, 1848.

Result before Magistrate.

Result of Committals for Trial.

Year.

Total Apprehended.

Discharged.

Summarily Convicted.

Committed for Trial.

Tried and Convicted.

Tried and Acquitted.

Discharged by Proclamation, Charge being abandoned.

1846

1,539

229

1,149

161

1947

1,852

440

1,081

331

1848

1,456

491

798

167

41

69

57

(True Copy)

W. CAINE,

Colonial Secretary.

(Signed)

CHARLES MAY,

Superintendent of Police.

Encl. 5 in No. 39

Encl. G in Ne: 38.

108

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 7 in No. 38.

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been Tried in the Supreme Court of Hong Kong, from 15th February to 15th December, 1848, inclusive.

Sentence.

No. of

No. of

Crime.

Cases, Persons.

Conviction.

Acquittal.

Death.

Transportation.

Hard labour over 1 Year.

Hard labour

under 1 Year.

Remarks..

Charge abandoned.

No.

No. of Cases.

of Per-

No .of Cases.

sch13.

Postponed.

No. of Per-

sons.

1

2

twice.

1

1

::

:--:

::

3

Administering poison with intent to kill

11

Affray.

2

Arson.

2

·

[

·

D

4

Aggravated assault

Assault

17

2

2

tried twice.

2

1

tried twice.

1

}

}

2

2

2

2

2

LOKADO------

27

Forgery Larceny

11

1

1

Manslaughter.

1

Murder by stabbing

Perjury

10

20

Receiving stolen goods

13

2

Robbery

·

7

Robbery by a person armed.

13

7

Robbery with arms

Robbery by persons armed

Rubbery with arms, and receiving stolen

Assault and battery

Assaulting a police officer

Assault on a constable in the execution

of his duty.

Assault with intent to commit sodomy.

Assault with intent to rob

Breaking into a building and stealing

therefrom

·

Burglary and larceny

Cutting sud wounding with intent to do

some grievous bodily harm

Demanding money with menaces

Demanding money with menaces and

force, with intent to steal same

·

Larceny in a dwelling-house, over 51.

·

·

Obtaining goods by false pretences.

2

goods

9

13

Robbery with violence

Stealing cattle

Stealing from the person

4

Stealing in a boat în port

1

Stealing in a boat within 100 miles of

2

1

Sodomy

tried twice.

1

1

miles of the coast of China

Uttering a forged cheque

94

157

Total

·

Encl. 8 in No. 38.

322

1

1

41

69

1

16

9

15 26

46

1

1

* Out on their own recognizances and failed to appear.

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 8 in No. 38.

REPORT of the COLONIAL SURGEON for 1848.

IN compiling a sanatory report upon this colony for the past year, attention is called to three important objects.

1. To deduce from such materials as are attainable, the most concise and the best evidence of the actual state of the health of the community.

2. To trace out the various causes of endemic diseases, or those which are peculiar to the locality.

3. To point out the general or political and social measures which may or ought to be taken for the removal of such causes.

The defect in statistical records of population, disease, and death,-a defect ascribable to the peculiar character of the people, and the limited and insular nature of the colony,-is a serious obstacle to the faithful prosecution of the first inquiry. Until the establishment of the civil hospital, which will assist in affording scrupulous exactness to the future records of sickness in the various Government departments, the system pursued in the treatment of the sick

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 511

109

amongst the police force, was not only inefficient and unsatisfactory, but it was one by which it was impossible to impart faithfulness to the records of disease.

All averages in the police force will be referred to fixed numbers; dis- missals and changes in the force, however, during the year, will bring into the computation of the averages nearly twice the number of individuals that compose the fixed standard to which the averages are referred.

Popular ideas are very apt to attribute to some apparent physical cause the epidemics which prevail; but those who are so ready with ex tempore explanations of the most recondite of all morbific phenomena, are little aware of the diversity, the complexity, and subtlety of the subject which they handle with so much facility. "An insight into the varying influences of the atmo- sphere, the relation of such influences to vital tissues, and into the thousand changes which one familiar atmospherical phenomenon may, at a moment, work on the composition and constituents of the surrounding air, would demonstrate the presumption in endeavouring to trace causes with so little knowledge. The practical mischief of such rashness is every day apparent.

In pointing out the remedies for general evils, it is often discouraging to feel that we are frequently called upon to suggest measures which cannot be taken.

TABLE No. 1.-A Monthly Numerical ABSTRACT of SICKNESS in the POLICE FORCE of

Hong Kong, during the year 1848.

Indians and Chinese.

Europeans.

Number

Number

Days

of

Sick.

Deaths. of

Day's Sick.

Total Total Total Number Number Number

of

of

of

Deaths.

Sick.

Sick.

Sick. Deaths. Days in Days. diem.

|Average | Average duration Number

of of Sick Disease

per

January. February March

21

108

11

110

40

152

34

17

.32

218

64

7

47

186

3+

6+

46

193

46

55

239

April

34

160

94

May

39

188

17

113

:::

42

254

8+

56

301

91

June

48

260

15

129

63

389

12+

July.

57

389

21

117

August

51

430

26

288

September

62

525

103

591

78

77

71

October

47

326

10

39

57

November

27

249

103

36

December

28

175

34

36

593112

506

61

.161

718

9+

26+

628

81

20+

365

61

114

352 94

114

209 51

61

·

SE

17

17

34

Total Number of Deaths amongst Indians, &c. Total Number of Deaths amongst Europeans

Total Number of Deaths

In explanation of the foregoing table, it is necessary to distinguish the actual amount of mortality from endemic causes from that resulting from other

causes.

In January there were two deaths. The European, who had been suffering from dysentery during the preceding year, should be regarded as a case per- taining to causes existing in the year 1847. The Indian died of apoplexy.

In February one European died. This was a case of accidental gun-shot wound at Aberdeen, in which the femoral artery was wounded.

In March, April, May, and June, there were no deaths.

In July five Europeans died. The first case was of six days' duration. It commenced with dysentery; then it was complicated with symptoms of remittent fever; lastly, the periods of exacerbation became indistinct, and the disease assumed the form of continued typhus fever, with gastro-enteritic irrita- tion: death was not preceded by delirium, convulsions, or loss of mental per- ception. This man was brought into Victoria from Stanley. He had suffered previously from repeated attacks of fever. His early habits were very intem- perate, and he was feeble and emaciated. The second case was of a strong healthy young man, of temperate habits. He was brought from Aberdeen to the same station with the former case. His disease ran through precisely the same stages, all of longer duration, and his death was preceded by the same exemption from cerebral disease. The third case was of a young man of the most robust frame, active intellect, and temperate habits. His illness com-

110

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

menced with marked symptoms of inflammation of the membranes of the brain. He had been casually exposed to the sun. The active symptoms were subdued, but his disease assumed the character of typhus fever: there were no periodical exacerbations, and symptoms of stupor, intellectual dulness, and low delirium preceded his death. His disease was of seven days' duration. The fourth case was in all respects similar to the last, except that it terminated more rapidly. The fifth death occurred at Aberdeen. This case resembled, in its attack and progress, the two first cases alluded to. The subject of it had suffered repeat- edly from fever, had practised intemperance, and was feeble and attenuated in his body.

The month of August presents the fearful aggregate of nineteen deaths. Of these there were nine Europeans, six Indians, and four Chinamen. There was only one death from disease, and this was a case of typhus fever, resembling the third case detailed in July. The subject of it was a man of the most intem- perate habits and violent passions. He was an European. Seven out of the eight remaining Europeans were police convalescents, recovering from remit- tent fever. They were sent, by my directions, on a cruise in the police armed boat, They were unfortunately overtaken by the typhoon, which occurred on the 31st August, the boat was swamped at anchor, and sixteen policemen, besides the Inspector-an European, his son, and a Portuguese boy, were drowned.

In October there is the record of one death, an Indian, who was killed by a gun-shot wound while in the execution of his duty against a junk, the crew of which were in arms against the authorities.

In November a Chinaman died of remittent fever at Whampoa, where he went on sick leave.

 In December there appear two deaths. Both cases were of Indians. One death occurred in Macao, from disease of the heart; the other in the civil hospital, from pulmonary apoplexy.

 It will be seen that, in June, July, August, and September, the greatest amount of sickness prevailed in the year 1848 It should be remarked that, in these months, remittent fever was the prevailing disease, and that the casualties occurred in those who were affected with fever of a continued type.

In October, November, and December, there was a numerical diminution of cases of sickness; yet the mortality was proportionably great. Bronchitis, in a very obstinate form, prevailed, and in many cases proved fatal.

Table No. 1 will show the daily and monthly rate of sickness in the police force; but it affords no evidence of the actual number of individuals who have been sick, nor the relative proportion of deaths to cases of sickness, nor of deaths to strength. The following Tables are added in illustration of these points:-

TABLE NO. 2.-Showing the Number of Policemen, their Wives and Children, actually Sick in 1848, the Number of Deaths, and the per Centage of Deaths to the Number of cases of Sickness.

The Number of Policemen actually Sick.

Europeans.

67

Indians.

Chinese.

Number of Women and Children Sick.

| Total Number | Total Number

of

of Persons Sick. Deaths.

Per Centage

of Deathe

to Cases,

131

9

30

237

35*

15

* The death of one woman, a policeman's wife, not before accounted for, is here included.

TABLE NO. 3.--Showing the Fixed Number of Policemen, their Wives and Children, the Number of Deaths, and the Proportion of Deaths to Number of Persons, in 1848.

Indians.

Average Number of Policemen employed.

Europeans.

Chinese.

Number

of Women and Children.

Total Number | Total Number Per Centage

of

of Persons,

Deaths...

of Deaths to Persons.

·

50

130

28

37

245

35

14.28

Allusion has already been made to the frequency of changes in the police force. The preceding Table forms a most fallacious idea of the actual propor- tionable mortality in the police force, during the past year, to the number of

1841-1886

111

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 513

persons employed, inasmuch as nearly double the number of individuals enumerated in the Table have been in the service of the police. The following Table will give a more accurate proportion of mortality to strength :-

TABLE No. 4. Showing the Actual Number of Persons employed in the Police Force in the Year 1848, their Wives and Children, and the Proportion of Deaths to the Number of Persons employed.

Number of Policemen employed during 1848.

Europeans.

Indians.

Chinese.

Number of Women and Children.

Total Number | Total Number | Per Centage

of Persons.

of Deaths.

of Deaths to Persona.

98

202

31

37

368

35

9.4

Thus it is seen that the actual per centage of mortality in the police has been

per cent.

9.4

The summer of 1848 was remarkable for the intensity of its heat, and for the general and various convulsions and disturbances in the atmosphere. The Chinese themselves have never recollected a season of so much intensity, nor one in which disease was so prevalent or so fatal in its effects. The mortality on the east coast is represented to have been very great, and the character of disease remittent and intermittent fever. It is gratifying to reflect that, although disease has prevailed, and the causes of disease have everywhere been rife, the most exposed of the civil community here have suffered so little from endemic causes. The women and children of the police have passed through the severe trial of a burning season almost with impunity.

The following Table will exhibit numerically the comparative amount of sickness in the police in the several months of the years 1847 and 1848 :---

TABLE NO. 5.-Exhibiting the comparative Amount of Sickness and Deaths amongst the Police, in the several months of 1847 and 1848, respectively.

The Number of cases of Sickness

and Deaths.

1847

1848

Numerical Excess in Cases aud Deaths.

1947

1848

Cases. Deaths. Cases. Deaths. Cases. Deaths. Cases, | Deaths.

15

January. February

47

32

46

47

i

March

31

April May June

July.

August

September

October

November December

37

228389255

55

24

42

5

63

46

78

36

77

40

26

57

36

57

1

36

::::523112

10

18

28

32

5

19

41

18

31

31

21

·

The total fixed strength of the Police in 1847 was

Ditto

ditto

1848

Excess in strength in 1848.

168 208

40

The relative excess in the number of cases in the two years is, as shown in the Table :-

1847 1848

37 cases. 216

"

Excess of cases in 1848

179

Deduct proportion of difference in strength in 1848, and it will be found that the actual excess of sickness in 1848 over 1847 amounts to 141 cases, while the excess of deaths is 30; but it must be remembered that 20 deaths in

112

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

1848 resulted from accident, and thus the comparison of deaths from disease in the two years will be as 6, in 1847, is to. 14, in 1848.

TABLE NO. 6.-The Number of Prisoners in Victoria Gaol Sick during the Year 1848, the Number under Treatment each Month, the Number of Deaths, &c.

Cases admitted in [Brought forward from

the Month.

previous Months.

Europeans

Indians, &c.

Europeans India,

Total Number of Cases Treated.

Total Total Average Average Number Number

Duration | Number

of

Deaths.

of Days Sick.

of

of Cases

Disease.

per diem.

&c.

January February March April

·

3

14

11

12

May

June

July

August.

10

17

17

September

14

October

13

12

November

13

15

December

8

12

:56643500242

17

250

141

17

192

11

6+

18

143

73

11

126

11

16

225

14

20

199

91

64

20

274

144

84

27

337

12

104

23

407

174

134

25

382

151

121

28

426

15

14

20

308 15

10

Total

7

145

2

88

88

243

8

The preceding Table shows the actual number of prisoners admitted for treatment during the year to be 162 cases, and the average number under treatment per month to be 20. The deaths were confined to the Malays and Chinese. Two resulted from dysentery in July and August, one from valvular disease of the heart, and five from "hospital gangrene," supervening on slight ulcers, produced by the friction of the irons. The disease called "hospital gangrene," it is proper to say, is contagious and epidemic in its nature, and most decidedly malignant. In one case of gangrene, amputation of the infected limb was tried, but without success. The worst case, after the expira- tion of the term of imprisonment, was removed to the civil hospital, where the disease rapidly lost its malignant character, and the patient recovered; from which it is evident that removal from the infected atmosphere was the chief remedial measure. It will be observed with interest that the prisoners sustained the unhealthy season with comparative impunity. Amongst the police, the greatest mortality and the most disease prevailed in the months of June, July, August, and September; while, amongst the prisoners, the increase in sickness in those months was not marked, and the deaths were only three in number, from peculiar and specific causes.

Of the 152 cases admitted for treatment, 114 were ulcerations, or contusions on the hands, arms, legs, or feet; 17 were remittent or intermittent fever; 3 were venereal cases; 3, itch; 6, dysentery; 1, hernia; 1, scurvy; 2, colic; 1, rheumatism; 2, ophthalmia.

 It will be seen by the following Table, that the proportion of deaths to persons admitted into prison is small:-

TABLE NO. 7.-The Total Number of Prisoners admitted into the Victoria Gaol during the Year 1848; the Number of Sick, and of Deaths; and the Proportion of Sickness and Mortality to Strength.

Prisoners Admitted.

1,093*

Cases of Sickness.

Deaths,

152

Proportion of Sick to Strength.

Per Cent. 13.9

Proportion of Deaths,

Per Cent,

0.7

* This number, besides admissions, includes those who remained in prison in January 1848.

The following Table will exhibit the amount of sickness and relative mor- tality amongst all classes of persons employed by, and under the charge of, Government.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 515

TABLE NO. 8.-The Number and Proportion of Cases of Sickness and Deaths to all those employed by Government, including Government Civil Officers, Policemen, their Wives and Children, Overseers of Roads, and Prisoners, in Hong Kong, during the Year 1848.

Total Number Total Number

of Cases of Sickness.

Total Number

of Deaths.

of Persons.

Civil Officers, Servants, and)

81

31

Overseers of Roads Policemen, &c. Prisoners

368

237

35

1,093

152

3 10

Proportion of Deaths to Strength.

Per Cent.

3.7

14.7

0.7

In analyzing the preceding Table, it should be remarked, in the first place, that one of the deaths recorded amongst officers of Government took place in England. It was a case of paralysis, and the patient was absent on sick leave. The next was an overseer, who became convalescent from a violent attack of intermittent fever. He exposed himself to the sun without ordinary precau- tion, and returned to his duties before his recovery was completed. A violent relapse soon destroyed life. The third case was one of delirium tremens.

The low rate of mortality, as compared to the admissions in the prison, might be regarded as remarkable, if it is not remembered that the population of the prison is very variable, and it includes all those who are committed for trial, the majority of whom never return, as well as those committed by sum- mary process, for default in fines, delay in obtaining sureties, and for petty offences; their imprisonment is, of course, of short duration. Notwith- standing all, however, the evidence of salubrity in the Victoria Gaol is strong:~~

TABLE No. 9.-The comparative Sickness and Mortality for the last four Years amongst Persons employed by Government, including Policemen, &c., and Prisoners.

Proportion of Deaths to Strength.

Years.

Number of Persons Employed.

Number of Cases

Number of Deaths.

of Sickness.

Proportion of Cases to Strength.

Per Cent.

1845

775

501

1846

847

655

1847

833

280

282

27

65

Per Cent. 3.62

28

65

3.3

20

33.6

2.4

1848

1,333

418

46

31.35

3.4

It will be seen that the proportion of deaths to strength retains, through the four years, almost an equal proportion; the year 1847 presenting the lowest, and 1845 the highest rate of mortality. There can be no doubt that, but for the improved salubrity of this island by that most certain means of modifying disease, and counteracting and destroying its sources, the presence of civiliza- tion, the records of this year, peculiar for the intensity of its summer, would have presented a melancholy catalogue of disease and death.

Table No. 10.-Showing the fixed European Population in Hong Kong during the Year 1848, and the Proportion of Deaths.

Number of Europeans, Number of Deaths, including including those of Women and Children, Women and Children.

963

125

Proportion of Deaths.

Per Cent. 12.9

This table is based upon information supplied by the Registrar-General. In the corresponding table of last year the seamen were excepted from the aggre- gate of strength and deaths. "Europeans" include "Europeans, Americans, "and Portuguese;" many of the latter are indigenous, and in some there has been an infusion of Chinese blood. The military, &c. are excepted in this return. The amount of mortality thus furnished by the Registrar-General does not correspond with the returns made by the colonial surgeon of Europeans buried in the colonial burying-ground; and a return, most politely furnished, and collated with great care, by the Roman Catholic Prelate, of Europeans

113

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

buried in the Roman Catholic cemeteries. These documents afford the fol- lowing results:-

Buried in the colonial burial-ground in 1848-

Civilians

Merchant seamen

Naval seamen

Buried in the Roman Catholic ground-

Civilians of all classes

Total

20

25

18

53

35

88

 If from these the seamen, whose diseases are for the most part imported, and who cannot be regarded as belonging to the fixed population of the colony, be excepted, the deaths of civilians would be reduced to 55, which would give a proportion of mortality in relation to the fixed European population of 5.7 per cent.

I allow the Registrar-General's statistics, however, preference to my own, aud have constructed my table on the basis of his calculations; but the discrepancy is inexplicable.

Table No. 11.-The entire Population of Hong Kong, and Proportion of Deaths amongst People of all Nations, in 1847 and 1848.

Proportion of Deaths to Population.

Years,

Entire Population.

Number of Deaths of Persons of all Nations,

1847

1848

23,872

21,514

282

Per Cent. 1.14

384

1.78

 It appears that in the year 1848, as compared with 1847, the population was less, and the mortality greater. In the year 1847, Manchester, which is remarkable for being exempt from the invasions of epidemics, experienced a relative mortality exceeding the average of years, in consequence of the influx of Irish, retreating from the " famine:" in that year, therefore, the proportion of mortality was 4.9 per cent. The average proportion of mortality in Man- chester is about 3.1 per cent. per annum; which is only a little below the average proportion of mortality amongst Europeans in Hong Kong. In the face of these facts, policies of life-insurances continue to be 100 per cent higher in Hong Kong than in Manchester.

My friend Dr. Harland, of the Seaman's Hospital, has kindly furnished me with a tabular view of his practice in that institution, during the year 1848; whereby it appears that there were 203 cases treated, and 30 deaths occurred.

Dr. Harland says,

According to the above table, the mortality for 1848 is "14.77 per cent., being an increase over that of 1847, when it was 11·02 per

cent., and less than in 1846, when it amounted to 21.14 per cent.

66

CC

<<

<<

<<

"

The mortality from some of the diseases appears excessive, especially in cases of pneumonia and acute dysentery.

"Intermittent fever has been by far the most prevalent disease during the year; for many patients have been attacked with it whilst under treatment "for other diseases, besides the comparatively large number of cases admitted directly, under this head. In the month of August particularly, in one of "the wards exposed to the south-west wind, blowing down the gap opposite "the hospital, every patient, during the same afternoon, was seized with ague, "and had repeated attacks, notwithstanding the use of quinine, until removed "into another ward not similarly exposed. After removal they quickly got "well, and no case occurred at the time in any other ward, that being the only

one so exposed."

<<

"

My friend Dr. Peter Young favours me with the following statement of his views and experience of disease prevailing during the past year:-

·

"Remittent and intermittent fevers have generally been mild and amenable "to treatment. Those cases which terminated fatally lost their remittent type, and passed into a continued and typhoid character. Dysentery has "never presented itself to me in the acute form ascribed to it by Eastern

1841-1886

115

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 517

"writers on this disease; and those cases which have fallen under my notice "during the past year have had their origin in functional disorder of the liver. During the year I never met with a case of fever at all resembling the epi- "demic which prevailed in 1843."

<<

My friend Dr. Balfour writes, "The most prevalent diseases in my practice, during the past year, were simple and bilious diarrhoea and intermittent "fever, chiefly of the tertian type, which yielded very speedily to mild reme- "dies. The number of deaths was about 1 per cent. of the patients under "treatment."

Dr. Gordon, Staff Assistant-surgeon, whose zeal and intelligence during the prevalence of fever in the 95th regiment were subjects of universal admiration, kindly replies to my several queries respecting that disease, as follows:-

"

"A large majority of the cases, and those most fatal, came from the south or rear range of the barracks.

"The disease was first observed about the first week in May; the increase "in June was not very great; but in July the increase in the number and "severity of the cases was great. It continued during August, and sensibly "decreased during September.

"The average duration of disease was about 56 hours.

"Death generally occurred about the third day, but in many instances a few "hours after admission.

"The disease was called 'febris remittens,' and described as congestive and "malignant."

"

In addition to the foregoing brief remarks, Dr. Gordon has placed at my service a paper, which it is hoped he will be induced to publish, containing a most interesting and intelligent account of this disease. I believe I am not peculiar in considering it nearly identical with the yellow fever of the West Îndies, which is said never to occur in the East, although indeed the earliest name the yellow fever received was "maladie de Siam." I always held the opinion that, although the fever of last summer was probably endemic, it was not peculiar to this place. In illustration of this opinion, I will place in juxta- position with a case and his remarks given by Dr. Gordon, a case recorded in Johnson's work on Tropical Climates," by Mr. Shields, which occurred in Batavia, in the month of August, 1800, together with that gentleman's remarks.

Mr. Shields' Statement.

"Never was there a disease so deceitful as this fever. I have frequently seen instances where every symptom was so favourable that I could have almost pronounced my patient out of danger; when, all at once, he would be seized with restlessness, black vomiting, de- lirium, and convulsions, which in a few hours would hurry him out of existence !

"This was the case with Mr. Broughton, purser of the Daedalus, who died of the Batavian endemic at Edam hospital. On the seventh day of his illness he took a change for the better, and everything was promising The morning before he died he expressed himself greatly relieved, and called for some mutton broth and sago, both of which he ate with a good appetite, spoke rationally, and was in good spirits. Towards evening the delusion vanished; restlessness, black vomit- ing, delirium, and convulsions supervened, and carried him off before morning!"

Dr. Gordon's Statement. "The fever was of a very malignant and insidious character, *

** the symptoms changing for the worse suddenly, and without warning either to the medical attendant or the patient himself, although often visited, and apparently much improved, both in feeling and appearance, half an hour previous to his death; when he would suddenly become strongly con- vulsed, his skin intensely hot and dry, the surface assuming a livid hue; thus the scene would close!

44

Colour-sergeant Staley, a stout, healthy young man, was admitted on the morning of the 17th of June, in the cold stage of inter- mittent fever; and in about six hours had gone through all the stages of the disease. When the intermission occurred, quinine was exhibited. On the 18th he declared himself as feeling quite well, and was apyretic, his pulse not indicating even the slightest consti-

*

*

tutional irritation.

About 4 P.M. on the 19th, I was called to see him, and found him comatose and convulsed, with lividity, intense heat, and dryness of the skin. Death closed the scene in a few minutes!"

The concourse of many people, during the reign of epidemic influence, gives pestilential violence to the disease. The emanations from the sick bodies will often precipitate a disease that may have remained dormant, or passed away in very safe paroxysms. There can be little doubt that many cases went into the Military Hospital last summer, to receive the inoculation of death from the

116

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

518 REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

contaminated atmosphere of the crowded wards, which would have terminated in recovery elsewhere. Not only were the deadly emanations from con- centrated disease ready to receive the patient, but his mind wandered to the crowded dead-house, and the prognosis of his own fate struck his mind at the same moment. This, in the majority of cases, was too faithful! How much it is to be regretted that there occurred any impediment to the prompt and efficient fulfilment of Dr. Fergusson's recommendation, at the earliest assaults of the disease, to isolate the cases, and to convey the uninfected men from contact with the diseased, by placing them in a floating hulk.

 What were the immediate causes of the prevalence of disease during the last summer, and especially of that disease which decimated the 95th Regiment? It has been popularly conceived that the removal of earth, near the barracks, undisturbed since the Plutonic origin, of this island, did all the evil. Why then did the disease remain so long undeveloped after the evolution of its imputed cause? the precise nature of which I never heard explained. Was it a gas confined within the cells of the earth, in itself innocuous, and rendered poisonous by contact and combination with the free gases floating in the external air? The supposition is ungeological. The light of a little science will show the glimmering of causes more rational than that.

66

Electricity "exerts a most powerful influence upon the whole of the animal "and vegetable world, and this not merely through the meteorological pro- cesses, precipitations of watery vapour, of acids, or of ammoniacal compounds "which it occasions; but also immediately as the electrical force, that force "which excites the nerves, and occasions or assists the circulation of the "juices."

 The latitudes in which we live are peculiarly liable to thunder-storms, and the congregation of small islands, like those in these waters, surrounded by an extensive ocean, acts peculiarly on the atmosphere, and gives occasion to thunder-storms.

 If those places in which lightning is common be compared with regions like Peru, where it is never seen, it will be found that evidences of the salubrious- ness of the latter are much greater than of the former.

 The prevalence of electricity may be one of the proximate causes of local disease.

 In the rear of the south range of the Hong Kong barracks there is swampy ground, saturated by the sluggish absorption of moisture from the gully above, and by occasional torrents, the waters of which rest on the surface of the table- land which terminates the ravine. This gully for many months was thickly colonized by Chinese workmen in temporary huts, whose filth descended and remained stagnant on the point alluded to, from which free gases would be perpetually evolved, ready to be elaborated into poisonous compounds, by a favourable stroke of electricity.

 Epidemic diseases, however, do not necessarily derive their origin from external causes. The relative failure in the perfection of organic functions in an individual will give rise to unwholesome secretions and effluvia, which, coming in contact with the susceptible and favourable organism of another, may be the means of originating and propagating an epidemic.

 The geological circumstances of this colony in many respects resemble that early condition of the globe which was suited only to living organization of a very low type. It is a mass of granite, disengulphed from the centre of the earth by ancient Plutonic causes. It is little to be wondered at that such a surface, affording no scope for that beautiful reciprocity which is so mutually beneficial between animal and vegetable respiration, and yielding only or chiefly such vegetable productions as are not refreshed by the fertilising existence and economy of herbivorous animals, but renewing itself by its own periodical decomposition, should possess abundant sources of unwholesome exhalations. While it is painful to reflect that these numerous sources of disease envelop us, it is gratifying to know that every step in the progress of civilization and refine- ment is a powerful antidote. In the planting of trees and shrubs, to unload the atmosphere of the carbonic acid gas, which is the product of animal respiration, and to replenish it with oxygen, which sustains and invigorates us, as well as to afford shade from the sun and a surface for the absorption of the intense rays of light conveyed to the brain through the eyes, which, not less than the direct rays of the sun's heat, tend to injure that organ, we discover a simple

1841-1886

117

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 519

remedy more or less at the command of every inhabitant. The Government is called upon also to promote sanitary measures by causing the various hollows, receptacles of decomposing filth, about the town to be filled up, by covering over the great central drains, whence emanate sickly effluvia, and by planting the waste grounds in places where the plantations would afford shade and shelter. I would especially recommend the planting of the flat behind the barracks, the slopes round the church, and the Government offices, and below the general's house, which on the one side would break the strong gusts that sweep down the gully, and on the other shade the barracks from the rising and mid-day sun.

It has long been in contemplation to erect a "Sanitarium" on the hill, below the Victoria peak. The first impression of this scheme may strike a person as absurd. Attention to the following facts will clearly show, I hope, that the idea was based upon sound reason. At Penang, Singapore, and Madeira, such an institution has been erected, or contemplated, on very great elevations.

The most prevalent diseases in Hong Kong are fevers of the remittent and intermittent type, dysentery, and rheumatism. There are no circumstances so favourable for the development of either of those diseases as excessive atmo- spherical heat and great humidity. It has been established as a meteorological fact, admitting of no doubt, that the quantity of humidity existing in the atmosphere, as well as the temperature, diminishes with elevation. On the slopes of the Andes this fact is most apparent. On an altitude of 242 feet above the level of the sea the temperature falls one degree. In advancing one degree to the north, the same result is obtained. Thus an ascent of 242 feet is, as respects temperature, equal to a degree of latitude. In great altitudes there exist strata of climates. The citizens of the Andes may, by a comparatively short ascent, experience at pleasure every season of the most favoured climates. When it is remembered what are the invigorating effects of "change of air" on the attenuated constitution, it will be at once conceded that such facilities of obtaining it constitute a great privilege.

The contemplated site of the proposed "Sanitarium" is 1774 feet above the level of the sea; and by repeated experiment the average range of the thermometer is found to be 10 degrees less at this elevation than it is in the town of Victoria. Moreover, the position, which is attainable by a practicable road, is exposed to the south-west monsoon; and in consequence of the diminished pressure of the superincumbent strata of air in this position, all obnoxious exudations ascend from the sphere of respiration. That the atmo- sphere on the hill is drier than that in the valleys, and hence more opposed to the operation of endemic causes of disease, has been, I think, clearly shown. The existence of clouds occasionally on the hill may be thought to be evidence against this fact. Frequently the clouds which obscure the peak are below it; and an observer standing on the top of the hill may look down from a serene atmosphere upon a lake of cloud filling up the valley beneath.

Some part of the excess of heat in the valleys over that found on the hill must be ascribed to radiation; it is nevertheless evident, that in ascending the hill 10 degrees of heat are escaped. It has been shown that a perpendicular ascent of 242 feet above the level of the sea diminishes the temperature in the proportion of one degree of latitude, that is, by one degree of heat: by this rule the elevation of the Victoria hill is, in respect of temperature, equal to about seven degrees of latitude, 242 being to 1,774 as 1 is to 7, which, indeed, makes a residence on the hill as great a change to the invalid as visiting Ningpo. Need further argument be adduced on this point? The proposition is in every respect practicable; its accomplishment will obviate the risks, the impracticable absence from duties and friends, the great expense, and the anxieties which are at present entailed on those who are now compelled to resort to Macao and other places to recruit their health. The Government and the inhabitants should mutually assist in this desirable object by all means in their power.

Hong Kong, Feb. 21, 1849.

(True Copy.)

(Signed)

WILLIAM MORRISON, F.R.C.S. of England; Colonial Surgeon.

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

STATE OF HER. MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 109

119

(No. 25.)

HONG KONG.

No. 15.

Cory of a DESPATCH from Governor BONHAM to Earl Grey.

MY LORD,

Victoria, Hong Kong, 2nd April, 1850.

(Received 20th June, 1850.)

I HAVE the honour to transmit to your Lordship the Blue Book of this

Colony for the year 1849.

HONG KONG,

No. 15.

1849 23,617 3 3

Decrease

1,474 10 81

 1. The revenue for the year 1849 amounted to 23,6171. 3s. 3d., and that for the Revenue. preceding year to 25,091. 19s. 11td., including 197. 16s. 7d. recovered by the Year 148 £25,091 19 118 Colonial Agent in England. The revenue collected is consequently 1,4747. 16s. 8 d. less than that for 1848. This decrease arises from the under-mentioned items, as shown by the comparative statement for 1848 and 1849, at pages 30 and 31 of the Blue Book, namely:-

Duties on goods sold by auction (abolished from 1st

March 1849)

Rents from lands leased for building purposes, including

resumption of lots and arrears due

Fisheries (discontinued since 1848)

Arrears of rent from villages and land under cultiva-

£. S. d.

165 17 5

2,139 9 71

7 1

18

tion

Opium Licences

Salt brokerage

Billiard table

222 15 53

300 12 6

258 6 8

Fees of offices, including fees on leases.

Fines and forfeitures of courts

Fees of ditto

·

Over-payments recovered

Police superannuation contributions, including clothing

and sick stoppages.

Amounts recovered by the Colonial agent in London

Forming together a sum of.

2 061

269 16 7 255 19 1

*

74 7.3

25 19 2

398 13 5

19 16 7:

£4,140 16 0

But this has been relieved by an augmentation derived from the following sources, namely:-

Police-rate assessment

:

£. S. d. 540

3 24

Deposits on land sold Rents from buildings .

Licences

Markets.

Stone quarrying. Retail of spirits Pawnbrokers'

Auctioneers'

Serangs'

Government property sold

Reimbursement of expenses

29 11. 1

68 9 6 156 5 0

45 16 8 647 16 4

604 8 1 215 18 101

29 14 9

324 1 2

3 14 8

£2,665 19 4

The net deficit, therefore, for 1849 is 1,4747. 16s. 81d., as above stated.

1

120

HONG KONG.

Expenditure.

110

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND 'PRESENT

2. The expenditure for 1849 amounted to 38,986. 1s. 64d., which, when set against 62,6581. 15s. 7d., the sum incurred for 1848, exhibits a net decrease in

Year 1848 £69,658 15 i, 1849 of 23,6721. 14s. Ofd., and is accounted for as follows:-

" 1849 38,086 1 GI

Decrease

23,672 14 08

Establishments

Administration of justice

Charitable allowances.

Police and gaols, exclusive of establishments Rent of building

Transport

Works and buildings

Roads, streets, and bridges

Miscellaneous services

Land and house purchased

Special expenditure

£. S. d. 4,299 9 31 314 18 10

101 5 0

1,000 2 11 127 4 Il 272 1 8

. 10,076 1811

2,990 13 1 362 0.7 5,000 0 0

262 19

£24,813 13 7

On the other hand, the increase has amounted to 1,140%. 19s. 6d. on the follow: ing items, nainely;-

Establishments

Pensions, retired allowances, and gratuities Revenue services

Hospitals, exclusive of establishments.

Conveyance of mails

£. s. d.

735 1 1

137 18 4

115 11 3

2 8.11

Public Works.

1.

2.

Military Expenditure.

Legislation.

149 19 11

£1,140 1961

The actual decrease in expenditure during 1849 is therefore 23,672l. 14s. Oid., as appears from the comparative statement at pages 32 and 33 of the Blue Book. 3. The extension of the Harbour Master's Pier, to which I referred in my Despatch accompanying last year's Blue Book, has been completed within the year, and there now remains but one work of any magnitude to be undertaken- the erection of a Government House-on which subject I beg to refer your Lord- ship to my Despatch (No. 82) of the 25th August, 1819. Ample details respect- ing the duties performed by the Surveyor-General's Department during the year 1849 will be found in Mr. Cleverly's Report herewith enclosed. I also attach a further Report by the same officer on the progress of his department.

4. The Military Expenditure, which in 1848 amounted to 80,7781., has been 75,9431. during the past year, showing a decrcase, as compared with the preced- ing one, of 4,8351., and a further saving will be effected during the present year, as three companies of rifles were returned to Ceylon in November lust. Although I have already had occasion to remark that the Governor is in no way responsible for the expenses of this branch of the service, I have, nevertheless, invariably used my best efforts with the respective authorities on the spot to ensure a due regard to economy whenever the contemplated outlay was in any way connected with the Civil Government, as, for instance, the proposed repair of the barracks at Stanley, to which I adverted in my Despatch (No. 19), of the 21st March,

1850.

5. Under this head five Ordinances were passed during the year 1849, all of which have since been approved by Her Majesty. Of these perhaps the most im- portant is No. 1, by which the summary jurisdiction of police magistrates and justices of the peace was extended, and a court of petty sessions instituted for the trial of certain offences which were before only cognizable by the Supreme Court. This measure, reported by me in detail in Despatch (No. 20) of 24th February, 1849, has fully answered the expectations I had formed of it, by providing for the more speedy settlement of small debts, minor, crimes, and misdemeanours, and I have every reason to believe that it has gained the entire confidence of the com- munity.

1

By Ordinance No. 3, the summary jurisdiction of the Supreme Court was ex-

1841-1886

121

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 111

tended to civil cases where the amount in dispute may not exceed 500 dollars, and for the convenience of parties who might wish to employ legal advisers, a table of fees chargeable by attorneys in such cases was drawn up and revised by the Attorney-General. This measure seemed necessary for the protection of suitors, because attorneys and solicitors, who, from the absence of barristers, act here as advocates, are not subject to that control and surveillance to which they are liable in England. For a more detailed exposition of the motives which led to the framing of this enactment, I must refer your Lordship to my Despatch (No. 39) of 21st April, 1849.

Much inconvenience having been experienced in the empanelling of juries, on account of the limited European population of the colony, I was induced, in order to remedy this evil, to pass Ordinance, No. 4, which reduces the property qualifi- cation of common jurors from 1,000 dollars to 500 dollars.

   Ordinance No. 5 empowers the Chief Justice to grant an order for the attend- ance of witnesses in suits pending before the Consular Courts, before Commissioners appointed by the consuls to receive in the colony the depositions of witnesses, who may be residing in Hong Kong.

By rule of court (since approved by your Lordship), the sittings of the Supreme Court at nisi prins were increased from four to six in each year. This provision, which was concurred in by the Chief Justice, has, in conjunction with the enlarged summary jurisdiction granted to the Supreme Court by Ordinance No. 3, of 1849, materially obviated the delay which was formerly experienced in the disposal of civil suits and actions.

   6. The return for 1848 showed 21,514 souls, exclusive of troops, and that for Population. 1849 exhibits 29,507; whence it appears that there is an increase in the population of 7,993. I have before had occasion to remind your Lordship, that a great pro- portion of the Chinese who frequent Hong Kong are of very migratory habits, and this influx which it will be seen by the table at the end of this paragraph is com- posed almost entirely of that description of people, is to be accounted for partly by the unsettled state of Macao, in consequence of the murder of Governor Amaral, from whence some of the inhabitants have migrated to this colony, but principally by the stimulus afforded to commerce and industrial pursuits by the accession of trade with California, a vast number of wooden houses and various other articles of Chinese manufacture having been constructed here and shipped in no less than 23 vessels to that territory direct from this port, thus affording employment to a very considerable number of carpenters and other artificers. From the Return: at page 145 of the Blue Book, it will be seen that there are only 77 Chinese houses unoccupied in Victoria, whereas the table for 1848 showed 123. In reality, however, the decrease of unoccupied houses is still more considerable, for in addition to a few European residences, numerous Chinese shops have been con- structed during the year. This affords satisfactory evidence of an addition to the stable and respectable classes of our Chinese population.

Comparative Abstract of Population in 1848 and 1849.

1848

1840

Increase.

Europeans Portuguese

642

656

14

321

331

10

Indians and Malays Chinese

213

223

10.

20,338

28,297

7,959

Total

21,514

29,507

7,993

I beg to append separate returns of the census for 1849, viz., a general table, and two others, one detailing the distribution of the Chinese throughout Victoria, and the villages in the island, and the other showing the bont population of the colony.

   7. I am happy to state that the experience of the last year has fully borne out Climate. the views I expressed when transmitting the Blue Book for 1848, respecting the general salubrity of this climate, and of its being, in my opinion, as well adapted to European constitutions as other places similarly situated within the tropics. The total white population for 1849, including Americans and Portuguese (but exclusive of troops), was 987, and the deaths amounted to 65; showing a mortality of 6.58 per cent., being 2.03 less than in 1848.

The sanitary state of the gaols is particularly satisfactory. In 1848, the deaths

3.

4.

5.

122

6.

112.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING. THE PAST AND, PRESENT

HONG KONG. only, amounted to 5:06, per cent on the average, number of prisoners.confined, and this has decreased during that of 1849 to 498 per cent. The enclosure bearing on the subject will show, the average number of prisoners to have been 147, of whom six died of incidental diseases. The average number of Europeans in con- finement during the year was 12, among whom up,casualty, pccurred.

7.

8..

Education.

Trade.

9.

10.

From the annexed table your Lordship will observe that out of a population of (17,013 including Victoria, and certain villages, the, whole number, of ascertained deaths amongst the Chinese was only 104 or 061 per cent.; but no, confidence whatever can be reposed, in Returns of this nature, as all who have the means leave the colony and return to their native places when attacked by any scrious disease.

101 &

Dr. Morrison's Report, which I have caused to be appended to the Blue Book, contains copious details regarding the medical statistics of the colony.

8. At page 185 of the Blue Book will be found a Return of the different schools in the colony, from which it will be seen that there are four for the cdu- cation of the children of Europeans (one of whicli also receives those of Chinese Cliristians)'and 'six for Chinese! Three of these last receive a small monthly allowance from Government, and are under the inspection and superintendence of the colonial chaplain and the chief magistrate of police. The Report of these gentlemen, which I append hereto, shows that the number of scholars has materially increased during tlie past year. As a proof of the estimation in which the schools are held by the Chinese community, and of the importance which they attach to education, I may mention that the inhabitants of Wongneichung, one of the poorest villages on the island, have lately petitioned me to afford some slight pecuniary aid towards establishing a school in their neighbourhood; and I have thought it right to accede to their application by granting them a similar sum to that bestowed on the others, commencing from the 1st instant, a measure which, I trust, will meet with your Lordship's approval.

9. Eight hundred and ninety-six vessels arrived at IIong Kong during 1849, of an aggregate burthen' of 293,711 tous, showing an increase over the preceding year of 196 vessels and 64,893 tons. Of these ships 167'are_reported to have imported and 147 exported goods into aud from the colony. From the Returns in the Blue Book, under the head of "Imports and Exports," furnished to me by the harbour-niaster, it will be seen that treasure to the value of 10,057,986 dollars, equal to 2,095,4137. 15s., have been shipped at this port for exportatation, as follows: 1963 tonitrinos altyd n }

+

***

To Great Britain

To British India

To Manila'

i

Dollars.

£.

1,200,644 equal to 250,134 3 4 8,704,247

1.

28,095!

:

To Whampon & Canton 125,000

{,{་!

1,813,384 15 10

5,853 2.6

26,041 13 4

1

The greater part of the sums shipped for London and India has no doubt been in return for opium.

"The estimated value of sugar exported from Hong Kong during 1849, was 21,1037. 14s., being 126,8331. less than in 1848.

I have attached to the Blue Book a short Return prepared by the harbour- master, showing the quantity of tea exported from Hong Kong during 1849, to be about 900,00 lbs.

P 400

"It is satisfactory to state that this port has lately become a place of resort for American whalers for the "purpose of refitting and refreshing their crews. Thirteen vessels of this description anchored here during the past year; their cargoes aggregating 21,585 barrels, equal to 679,927 gallons of oil and 266 tons of bone. Three hundred and forty-four tons, or 108,360 gallons of oil and 524 tons of bone were transhipped from three of them, and exported to England.

I beg to annex a memorandum of the native trade of the colony, drawn up by the Assistant Chinese Secretary..

11.

The absence of a custom-house, or any other description of office having any legal power to insist on correct, returns of the imports and exports, no, doubt aflords, facilities to the European trader and encouragement to the Chinese settlers and others engaged in trade, who are extremely jealous of any inter ference with them in their commercial transactions; but at the same time it prevents any accurate return of the trade of the colony being prepared.... The Statements under this head in the Blue Book are therefore, in my judgment, not

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 113

at all to be relied on:" For instance, in those tables no notice whatever is taken of the export of opium, but I am assured by many, well-informed gentlemen that the retail export trade in this drug may be estimated at 300 chests per month. Should this estimate be correct, and presuming a chest to be worth 500 dollars, we have at once a retail export trade in one article amounting to 1,800,000 dollars annually. "

Taralgan ng man

123

HONG KONG

10. The fixed revenue derivable under this head at the close of the year 1849 Crown Lands. iras as follows:-

£. S.' d.

4,634210 1,646 5 31

Mercantile firms Private individuals Chinesc

.94,968 15 2

Total

£11,249 3.41..

being 1411. 5s. 51d. above the amount for 1848, notwithstanding a loss to Government to the value of 4231. 7s. 9d.,, caused by a, reduction in the rental of three lots, and the surrender and resumption of 12 others during the past year

1.

11. At the commencement of the past year a considerable reduction was made Police. in the police force, as already reported to your Lordship and I am glad to say that I believe it to be sufficiently strong to answer all legitimate purposes.

I enclose herewith three Returns, one showing the number of persons appre lended in 1848 and 1849 respectively, and the others the criminal cases tried in the Supreme and Admiralty Courts during the last year respectively. From the two latter your Lordship will remark, that out of 143 persons committed, for 'trial during 1849, 71, or one-half of the accused; were tried and convicted; whereas, in 1848, out of 223 persons committed, only 60, or less than one-third of the accused, were convicted.

.

:

I also annex an abstract of the number of civil cases disposed of by the Chief Justice during 1849, as well as Returns showing the amount and description of business that has been performed by the Court of Petty Sessions, and in the Chief Magistrate's Office respectively during the same period.

12. In conclusion, my Lord, it affords me gratification to be able to say that I believe the colony is improving in every respect, if I may be permitted to judge by the increase to its inhabitants, and by the numerous Chinese houses that have been erected during the year, as well as by the contentment that appears to me to prevail throughout the entire native population and Europeans generally. The revenues of the colony certainly do not advance as I could desire; nevertheless, I. consider that if a revenue of 23,000l. to 25,000l. can annually be raised without the imposition of taxes either on the trade or on other objects, which would require in their collection an interference with the liberty of the inhabitants and an expensive and venal crowd of subordinate officers, as much will be procured as can be reasonably expected from a population under. 30,000 souls. The Blue Book shows that the expenses of the colony are in course of diminution, and your Lordship may confidently rely that whenever proper opportunities offer I shall not hesitate to take advantage of them with the view of making the receipts and 'disbursements more nearly approximate than they do at present; nevertheless, I would respectfully add, that I think, seeing that the trade of China benefits the British Exchequer and Indian Government conjointly to the extent of upwards of seven millions sterling, an expenditure on the part of the mother-country of from 12,000l. to 15,000l. annually to uphold the establishment of a colony which is the sent of the superintendent of trade, with whom rests the responsibility of con- serving and improving that trade, ought not to be considered excessive.

I have, &c.,

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,

J. G. BONHAM.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

&c.

&c.

}

Enclosure 1 in No. 15.

REPORT of the SURVEYOR-GENERAL On the Public Works executed during tho Year 1849 Surveyor-General's Office. Victoria,

·19th January 1850.

SIR,

I HAVE the honour to lay before you, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, my Annual Report upon the works that have been undertaken during the year last nassed; and upon the general state and repair of all civil roads and works upon the island..../.../","

Encl. 1 in No. 15.

124

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

114 REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PASTY AND PRESENT.

Saranga Anda equidi Vistoria.Roads and Bridges.

The balance dub for planting and protecting trees upon the Queen's and some other, roads, during the yçur 1848, was paid in the early part of last year; several of the trees have thriven exceedingly well, and will in a few years be a great ornament to the city; many of the smaller trees have been broken during gales of wind, and wilfully destroyed by drunken sailors or other, and I have still to complain of the frequent injury they sustain from the numerous goats which are allowed to commit, depredations of every kind. over the whole city with impunity. The small grove of fir-trees planted at the back of the Albany, Barracks in the year 1845, which were then only 18 inches high, having thriven exceedingly, are now upwards of five feet; and require thinning, in this modified

 "Road at Sukunpu and Causeway Bay, and extension to North Point, Requisition No. 1 of 1849. This service was commenced in April, und 757. paid on account by Government, in addition to which the inhabitants, subscribed 1157, and a further amount of 1707. was sanc- tioned' for 'the extension. The work consisted in widening the old road and bridges to an average width of 30 feet, to render it available as a carriage.drive; it was completed previous to the tormination of the year, but the final payment could not be made in consequence of a misunderstanding and lawsuit instituted by the contractor against the Clerk of Warks..

It received some damage during the typhoon on 13th September.

་ ་་་

 "The road, round the Wongneichung Valley, Requisition 17 of 1849, also widened for a similar: purpose to the above; was commenced țin July and finished for an expenditure of 701, 168dugal beripur-klotsiðkungu Bovidae Joue and we dier kann die

Amount paid for blasting powder for, sundry services, 31, 16s. 8d., Requisition: No. 33 of 1849, completes the expenditure on account of roads for construction, amounting in the whole to 1757. Us. 7d. for the year; but the sum of 318/. 6s. was, disbursed for labour performed under old contracts of the previous year for the Aberdeen and Stanley Road, the payment of which His Excellency was obliged to defer

Repairs' to roads (exclusive of convict labour) only amounted to. 97. 12s. Sd., Requisitions. 3; 6, 8, and 27,4

1

זי

The convict labour during the year consisted, in the construction of-

1st. A pathway from. the ice-house to the church and Government offices. 2nd. Sundry works round the Government offices.

3rd, Repairs to roads, and streets, and

4th Miscellaneous services.

Ist. This pathway is on the side of the hill under the Murray Battery, and is entirely in side cutting and filling; the section of the ground exceedingly irregular and steep; in some places a cutting of 25 feet had to be made, and, immediately, adjoining a hollow to be filled of an equal depth, thus reudering the execution extremely expensive; the weather also being exceedingly dry during a portion of the working period,, rendered, the consolidation of the material almost impossible, thus several heavy slips occurred after heavy rains; however, the pathway now is completely finished," the embankment to the Queen's-road grassed over, and a stone channel made in two portions which, I hope will preserve it from excessive injury; and provent any further slipsS,622 convicts have been employed thereon, whose labour is equi- Talent to an expenditure of 751.9s12da quyim, ten

༔{་

2nd. The work at the Government offices consisted in levelling portions of the ground adjoining, sloping the embankment, and making a small pathway to join that previously alluded to from the ice-house, also in assisting to erect the flagstaff, grassing the area, aud completing the walks round the buildings; the total amount of men being 7,746, and value of work' 1ğ11. 7s. 6d.

J. 1.

1

3rd Occasionally during the execution of the above works, a portion of the gang were employed in general repairs throughout the city, and for the last three months I have kept nearly the whole number atmay disposal upon that, service; many of the roads and streets had got in very bad repair indeed, the surface in several places having been entirely washed away; this I hope I will in a great measure, be enabled to prevent in future, as a considerable quantity of broken stone or metalling has been placed at my disposal, which the prisoners confined to bard labour in the goal, have prepared; this I have laid down and rolled, and formed a hard compact' surface, which will not be so liable to injury from the excessive rains asthe ordinary material with which the poils are constructed; the two combined, however, with a amall quantity of sea-sand, make the best coating I have ever seen, and the quickest to consolidate, which is of some consequence here, where there are, but, few wheel-carriages, and those of light, draught. The total length of roads and streets repaired during the year is 10,565 yards, or about 6 miles the convicts employed thereon 5,850, equivalent to an expen- diture of 1217. 178. Gd.,,!

Several of the streets, and some damages to the embankments, Queen's-road, West, I have not yet been able to repair, but these I shall easily effect before the change of the monsoon oritha ráins set in, if I am not obliged to employ the convicts elsewhere on more particular service.~(i) taiyusdril

.-

  Atli.un the repair and construction of rough stone drains, I have employed 455 convicts, requalto194757d.;andlingeneralimiscellaneous services 173, amounting to 36 12s 1d.

I have not bad quite so many convicts employed this year as last, the number being 17,846 for the latter, aud,18,151, for the former year. The labour performed is equal" to 3717. 13.010d from which the repairs to tools, &c, should be deducted; and which having cost 128/10 dulcares, the effective or net value of the whole year's labour 3481. 13s-9d., or 185 16s. 1dudbove the value of the previous year 1848, or 44 175. 6d. over that of 1847,

                                  LETRAREKIN CO2: 9089932 hom with nearly an equal number of men in each of the periods.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

125

115

Road round the island. The heavy gales of wind during the summer caused considerable damages on portions of the coast-road and causeway from Sukuupu to Aldrich Bay, to the castward, and near the town of Aberdeen, to the westward. The wooden bridges have suffered also from natural causes; decay and white ants; and morei particularly from, robberies, of which I have annually been obliged to complain.tan ng malagi sha Jens Hva dijus: 726 I am sorry that I have myself been unable to make a personal inspection of the wliole line, as I have been unable to mount a horse for some months; but the Chinese, overseer has re- ported, that although in several places some slips of embankments and cuttings have occurred, the general state of the surface throughout has not been injured, very much since my last report, and is in tolerable order, except in the steep parts, the same effects being produced by the excessive rains, as before described as having taken place upon the streets in the city, and of course year after year they will become worse, and more expensive to repair, if it, should ever be found necessary to do so, which I must admit I am sorry to say, 'His Excellency has been unable to effect, even in the slightest degree, since his arrival here, from the want, of funds; this has also naturally caused the cessation of other proposed new works and improve- ments in several parts of the city, and which I alluded to last year The planting of trees, amongst the number, I much regret, has not been effected, as they serve in so prominent a manner to improve the appearance and healthiness of the colony. The total, expenditure on account of roads amounted to 5031. 5s. 3d.ped for JHAWMAINI Ark

* Buildings.- Aberdeen Police Station

91: 1

A small payment was made on account of this building, for stores supplied by the Ordnance Department, amounting to 31. 18s. 7d., under report and estimate No. 6, of 1846.

An expenditure of 58110s. was made under report and estimate, No. 4, of 1847, for the better ventilation and improvement of the gaols, consequent upon their occupation by a larger number of men than for which it was contemplated when built. Upon the site of the church a small expenditure, amounting to 47. 17s., was made under report and estimate, No. 5, of 1846, in cutting and removing sundry rocks, and to close the account for that service. A lodge at the cemetery was built for the use of the grave-diggers, and cost 467. 17s. 4d.)

The expenditure upon the church itself amounted to 1,2461. 6s. 4d; the greater portion of which was for the cast-iron window-frames and eaves-gutters, ordered from England.****** The contingent works to buildings under sundry requisitions consisted in the removal of the old Treasury vault, erection of two flagstaves, one at Government House, the other at Gorern- ment offices, the protection of the Albany Godowns, bamboo blinds for Government offices. Six brick pillars, with Ionic capitals, were placed in 'the hall of the Supreme Court, for the 'support of the floor above, which had begun to show symptoms of sagging. Some alterations and additions were made to the magistracy, amounting to 60%. 2s. 6d., to render it more avail- able for the increased duties carried on therein in consequence" of the establishment of petit sessions, &c.; the whole of the above services amounting to 3947. 18s. 7d. !!-

1..

Repairs to the public buildings under my charge were effected upon a bungalow intended for servants, &c., the guard-room at Government House, the kitchens at the gaol, post-office out-buildings, police stations at Sukunpu and Stanley, the

                    the Government store-rooms, Govern- ment offices, bungalow, Hospital-hill, harbour-master's office, Aberdeen police station, three police stations in Victoria, the magistracy gaol, towers, and post-office, the details of which being given in the Blue Book return, I shall merely state the whole amounted to 1407. Os. 4d. In addition to the above, the sum of 217. 2s. 5d. was paid on account of the storm repairs of 1848, Report and Estimate, No. 3 of 1848.

Marine Works.-Construction.'

 An extension of 59 feet to the pier at the harbour-master's wharf was effected this year, for an expenditure of 1542. 83. 9d. Some repairs to the other piers in the city were also ren- dered necessary, but have not yet been paid for; they were estimated at 167. 13s. 8d. "

 Repairs to bridges have only amounted to 31. 19s. Id., but to the wooden bridges in the valley, I think it extremely desirable that either stone or brick arches should be made thereto (plans of which I have prepared), as I much regret to find both beams and platforms are becoming injured by the weather and dry-rot, decaying in several places. Experience has shown, that when once such defects appear in woodwork so exposed in this climate, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prevent the spread of the discase, or depend upon the stability of the several parts of the structure.

A stone bridge it is also highly desirible should be placed over the stream in Causeway Bay; the banks being tolerably high, a one-arch elliptic bridge of 30 fect span would carry off the water, and, with a roadway of 20 feet, would be all the public require at present. In widening this road I have much cause to regret that the wooden bridges thereon, four in number, were also added to and repaired under directions of the clerk of works acting for me during my absence. I so frequently alluded to the necessity of dispensing with all wooden bridges, wherever it was practicable, of which he was aware, that such a construction should not, have been advised. The road was partly formed by subscription of the inhabitants of the city, and it being much wanted by them for their summer drive, was the cause of the erection in wood instead of stone, which would have occupied a longer period, and thus the road could not have been opened so soon, or the public derive so much benefit as they did during the season."

1.

There is another road I have frequently alluded to, which would be of great advantage, and a great boon to the public if constructed, viz., that. from the Albany Godowns to the Wong- neichung Valley, to avoid the gap. This, with the roads already constructed, would make a most agreeable and healthful drive during the excessive heat of the summer here. A

126

116

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTSCEXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

ات

bo Other works of importance, referred to in my last Report, I presume it is unnecessary for me to recommend again, as the same cause which deferred their construction then exists at the present time.

CHAS. ST. GEO: CLEVERLY. Surveyor-General, weed meat alio muzikine s

The Hon. MajW? Caine, Colonial Secretary: Dr li

、·

(Signed)

(True copy.)

             pop-ci- nožnia com al at ai endub W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary. it not

siquo base with guidone to

Enclosure 2 in N, 15,

18:

18.

REPORT by the SURVEYOR-GENERAL ON

          on the State and Progress of his Department during 1849. magi) kaj animi poika Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria, 12th March. 1850.

VIE TRA

SIR,

}

1.

I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the state and progress of this department for the year last passed.

 But few new public works of any importance were undertaken during the year; the services upon which we were principally engaged consisted in the completion of some of the old con- tracts whichi wore 'delayed for' want of funds, and upon roads both in construction and repair; the sum of 5037. 5s. 3d. only was expended, the details of "which,' being fully specified in my Report upon Public. Works, it is unnecesssary: here to recapitulate.

:

 With regard to buildings or repairs thereto, about, the same amount of duty is generally demanded annually, and this service occupies much time and attention, for it frequently happens that although the expenditure. for the same is of small amount, and therefore apparently of a trivial nature, it is indispensably necessary that a strict supervision be made of the service performed, or the Chinese workmen will scamp the work and cheat to the utmost of their power; and it is in this respect where I miss the services of a good practical workman, such as are to be frequently found at home, who act in all capacities as general overseers, but who neverthe less have been brought up to some trade; for such services I have always found a carpenter the most efficient person, and if such a one could be attached to the establishment in lieu of the civil engineer and clerk of works, whose situation it is proposed to abolish, much good would result thereby. The only assistant I now have for all out-of-door works is the Chinese over- seer, whose services, I must admit are extremely useful, as well in the office as on the works; he has had now good training in all; sorts of duties, and although he could not himself execute any particular work, he will see that my drawings and instructions are fully attended to. I have much cause to be thankful for the horse allowance granted him, as from the distance between works sometimes, carried on simultaneously, he is enabled to visit them much more expeditiously and frequently than hitherto.

 The three coolies under his charge also perform similar duties, and attend to the general repair of drains and roads, and whose particular service. is, to go out during heavy rains, and sco that the surface.drains act efficiently, or apply the necessary remedies if they do not.

 Only one new building was erected during the year, the lodge at the cemetery, the pier at the harbour-master's wharf was finished, and the other services undertaken were of general or miscellaneous character, the whole, however, fully specified as before alluded to.

 I beg again to refer to a circumstance alluded to in my last Report, viz., the advantage that I feel confident would accrue to the department, both pecuniarily and otherwise, if a paid black- smith and carpenter were attached thereto; there is a considerable quantity of material in store, from old buildings pulled down, &c., and as I have 23 buildings under my charge, to repair wooden bridges and convict tools, I am sure I could employ them in several ways, and effect a saving also; besides tools in particular might be repaired directly they require it," instead of waiting until a sufficient number are out of repair to euable me to estimate the sum requisite to put them all in order, and then obtain the necessary sanction from the Governor for the outlay; all this would be avoided, and so large a stock would not be required, and indeed this is becoming more apparent since the prisoners confined to hard labour within the gaol have com- menced to break stones for the roads; for if I had a blacksmith, in addition to his other works, ho might take charge of their hammers and repair then daily, if need be, and so keep them in much better order than I can possibly do at present."\"}"

;

 For work in the interior of the gaol, it would be an advantage if they were employed in making baskets, and soft rope, both of which I an obliged to use very much, and occasionally a great deal is expended according to the work upon which the road convicts are engaged: oakum, I imagine, might be obtained at the naval stores, or made from condenined rope, and re-twisted with the common Chinese machine; care would be necessary, however, that none of it was secreted, whereby any of the prisoners might effect their escape, but this could easily be arranged by an efficient gaoler.

··

The entire working of the convicts on

s'on the roads devolved upon myself after the resignation of "Mr. Bowden, the road overseer, in May last, as I wished the civil engineer and clerk of works to complete a new survey of the entire town, and in consequence exempted him from other duties; he made preparation for the triangulation and other preliminary scrvices, and had completed sonic portions of it, but unfortunately he became sick and was unable to give me any data to work from, to enable me to carry on the service where he had terminated, or lay down the survey on puper from his field-notes; 'I regret very much this circumstance, for 60 nuch has been done both public and private since my own original survey in 1843, that a new map is indispensable'; if, therefore, circumstances should permit, or I have no particular public works to carry on next winter, I must myself undertake the task again.

זי

·

42

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS 117

I was confined to the office more than usual. by lameness, otherwise, I might have rendered assistance to the civil engineer in his survey; but unfortunately it was impossible for me to walk or undertake such exercise.

jouit Jagwɔig

+

The civil engineer and clerk of works, was invalided on the 30th September, and departed for England on leave for twelve months.

Towards, the termination of the year, the works at the church were recommenëcd for the completion of the tower, fixing the iron window-frames, eaves-gutters, &co gall

Mr. Power, the book-keeper, has been fully occupied in executing his several duties; in the preparation of the documents required by the office accounts, returns, and other official service matters, much of which was increased by the voluminous statements affecting lands, and copies thereof demanded by the House of Commons,

127

In the Registry Office, 85 memorials affecting land were registered, 49 of which were for absolute sale, and 10 surrenders to the Crown, the remainder being of a miscellaneous cha- racter; of the above, 27 have been prepared an copied in the office, being for Chinese, with translations attached by the Chinese Secretary.,

17

The reduction that has taken place in the department consists in the road overseer, amount- ing to 1801. per annum.

Hon, Major W. Caine,, Colonial Secretary..

('frue copy)

(Signed)

I have, &c.

W. CAINE, Coloffal' Secretary.

CHAS. ST. GEO. CLEVERLY,

Surveyor-General.

Enclosure 3 in No. 15.

CENSUS OF HONG KONG.

Population.

Population.

Total Total Number Number

of of

Houses. Boats,

Children.

Total.

Children.

Total.

REMARKS.

Males. Females.

Males. Females.

Males. Females.

Males. Females.

Europeans

436

-* 115

60

45

636

Total Europeans

436

115

GO

· 45

Total Goa and Macao

Portuguese (Goa and Macao)

150

86

50

43

331

379

Indians, Malays, &c.

173

20

15

13

223

Portuguese,Indians,

325

.10G

65

58

-534

their

and 636 | Troops families not iu- claded.

&c.

Chinese in employ of Europeans

1,950

150

40

30

2,170

Chinese residing in City of Victoria.

1,255

9.098

2,919

883

887

13,087

Chinese boat population, Victoria harbour

544

729

627

603

418

3,379

Total Chinese

18,763

4,673

2,672 2,189 28,297.

Chinese residing in villages

1,055

3,258

-909

480

371 5,018|

Chinese boat population other than Victoria

698

2,728

768

664

483 4,643)

Total

2,689

1,242

Grand Total

19,524 4,694

2,797 2,292 29,507

- 31st December, 1849.

(True copy.)

(Signed)

128

118

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST, AND PRESENT

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 4 in No. 15.

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

Abstract of Returns furnished from each House occupied by Chinese, in the Colony of HONG KONG, stating the Number of Persons resident therein on the night of the 31st December 1849.

Children.

Number of Persons who died Popu. during preceding

Total

** NAME OF DISTRICT OR PLACE.

Males. Females.

Males. Females.

lation of

each

place.

.12 mouths.

Total

Mortality

General nature of Occupation

ôf Inhabitants.

In the Out of Colony. Colony.

City of Victoria Sy-yung-poon. Shek-tong-taui Cow-re-wan

9,098

161

2,219

35

17

943

883

887

13,087

13

I

26

21

243

Trade.

Agriculture.

2

1

23

"

6

6

Pok-foo-lum

23

15

12

14

64

Aberdeen

668

→ 91

57

41

857

Heong-kong

77

58

39

34

208

Stanley and vicinity

732

194

53

1,030

10

Tytam

...34

20

71

Wong-ma-kok

* 7

. 6

7

22

Tytam.took

32

21

10

10

73

Hok-tsui

23

16

7

11

57

Shek-o

133

62

27

25

247

Sai-wan.

69

34

20

:

22

145

Show-ke-wan and vicinity

320

68

32

18

438

Tsut chet-moy and vicinity

147

39

Soo-koan-poo

646

133

77

Wong-noi-choong

163

114

ERS.

14

13

213

47

903

67

54

398

Total

12,356

3,128 1,363

1,258 | 18,105

41

47

(True copy.)

(Signed)

"

"

Trade connected with fishing. Agriculture.

Traile connected with Baling. Fishing.

Agriculture.

Ágriculture and fishing.

Agriculture.

Stone-cutting.

21

Stone-cutting and agriculture,

Trade.

Agriculture.

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

W. Caine, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 5 in No. 15.

Y:

RETURN of the Number and Description of CHINESE VESSELS anchored or plying in the Harbours and Bays of HONG KONG, on the 31st December, 1849, specifying the Number

Aberdeen.

of Persons on board.

Saiwan and Show-kee-wao.

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S' COLONIAL POSSESSIONSH

1841-1886

Victuria.

Stanley,

Shek-o.

DESCRIPTION.

No.

of

Boats.

Children. No.

Children.

No.

Children.

No.

Children.

.No.

: No.

· Total.

Childreu.

Males. Fem.

of Males Fem.

of Males Fem

Males. Fem. | Boats.]

Males. Fem. Buats.

of Males. Fem. Boats.

Males. Fem.

Males. Fem. Boats:

of Males. of Males. Fem. Boats.

Males. Fem.

Sampans*

329 369 :386

331 252

327 1,012

455

347 263

76

65

92

$8 44

8

15

Stone-boats.

...30

19

148

4

740 1,461

23

933

178

2

.

739

4

559

Salt-boats

32

690

26

Fishing-boats

21

61

29

34

222

25

4

43

3

*38 858

3

30

40

429 76 79

68

116

657

9

133 167

105

73

8

209 1,241

239

280

195

Passage-boats

9

70

1

10

··

2

10

80

10

Cargo-boats

26

155

37

37

43

..

'26

155

37

37

43

Fast-boats and hakows.

108

348

173 161 101

Junks

Trading-boats

1

40

14 63

1

16

87

2

3

39

94

3

20

111

354

173

161

101

1

40

.

70

264

6

5

3

Cooking-boats Wood-boats

2

6

25

1

1

::

I

I

I

2

..

6

25

1

Total

544 1,729 627 605 418

392 1,579

537

431

334

237 879 229 229

149

61

262

2

4

8

8

....

* About 200 Sampans are engaged in Fishing Trade.

(True copy)

W, CAINE, Colonial Secretary. ̈

(Signed)

8 1,212 4,457 1,395 1,269

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

901

Enclosure 6 in No. 15,

· RETURN of the Average Number of PRISONERS Confined in VICTORIA GAOL during every day of each Month of the Year 1849.

MONTHS.

Number of Number of

REMARKS.

Prisoners.. Deaths.

דדי

January

February March

April

May

126

Chinese died of Hospital Gangrene.

121

Ditto

ditta:

115

116

159

Indian died of Dysentery.

June

July

163

161

Chinese died of Cons

August

September

October

November

152

The number of Prisoners is taken from the daily Return's of the Gaïles" The Return includes Prisoners for Debt, averaging throughout "the year, only three persons daily -one Europeau, one Chinese, and one Indjau.

163

182

154

December.

149

1

Chinese died of Dysentery.

Total Number

1,460

6

(True copy)

Average Population of the Prison throughout the Year, 147. W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Total Deaths, 6.

Mortality, 4·08 per cent.

- (Signed)

W. H. MITCHELL, Acting Sheriff.

119

129

130

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

120 REPORTS EXHIBITING. THE PAST AND PRESENT

'Enclosure 7 in No. 15.

RETURN of the MORTALITY amongst the CHINESE, during the Year 1849.

Population

of

each Place.

Died in Colony.

Died out

I of Colony.

Total

City of Victoria

13

14.

Dend bodies of Chinese found exposed in Victoria, and

buried by Police

13,087

40

40

Number of Chinese died in Government Civil Hospital

10

10

Total in Victoria

63

64

Aberdeen

857

1.

Stanley and vicinity

1,050

10

10

Tytam-took

78

:

'1

t

Shick-o.

247

Sai-wan

145

Show-ke-wan and vicinity.

438

:

Tsui-che-muy and vicinity

213

buried by Police..

Soo-koan-poo

Dead bodies of Chinese found jexposed in villages, and

903

Total in villages

Grand Total

6

38

2

40·

101

3

104

It is necessary to remark, that no record of deaths has been kept by the Police during the year, and that although only 14 deaths have been specified in the Census returns for Victoria, doubtless many more occurred, as the population is very migratory, and of must who left the Colony and died on the main land, no record or remembrance would be left. The number of dead bodies found exposed, and buried by the Police, is a proof of the friendless state of a great part of the Chinese population, and it is reasonable to presume that all who had the means would, in serious sickness, remove them- selves to their native places.

The Returns from the villages may be considered more accurate, as the inhabitants are more settled.

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

(True copy).

(Signed)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 8 in No.

15.

: REPORT of the COLONIAL SURGEON on the Diseases and Climate of Hong Kong, 1849.

ANY one who will stop to reflect will, I think, readily admit that in collecting infornia- tion from statistics involving small numbers, the inquiry is pursued under every circumstance of disadvantage, which can only be corrected by extending it over a series of years.

་་

A

  In a population so limited as that of Hong Kong, it is impossible to draw any accurate inference touching the relative proportion of death to life, or of disease to health, from the computations of one or two years. If a certain peculiarity is found to be repeated for several years, and to bear a certain and uniform relation to fixed numbers, or if the same peculiarity be in excess one year and the reverse the next, yet, should it; establish a uniform average for several years, it can hereafter be predicted to be a property of the numbers in question. Even in a population like that of Loudon, it would be rashness to determine that a certain number of casualties, for example, of a given kind, were peculiari to the pursuits and habits of the people, because a fixed relative number of them to the population were computed in one year. faithful statistical record of such events having now been taken for a series of years, it can be predicted, as an undeniable peculiarity of that population, that it is liable to a certain number of defined casualties. An isolated statistical fact is like a stone bewn ready for the builder- it has no obviously defined purpose until it occupies its place in the superstructure it is destined for. Accumulated and well-collated statistics faithfully reveal the social, the political, and sanitary condition of a people. No statistical records are absolutely correct in numbers, yet they are always the nearest possible approximation to truth. He who has never reflected on the subject can have no conception of their vast utility, or the wide range of their influence. They warn us from concealed dangers, and suggest remedies for evils that have worked their ills in secret; they uproot erroneous conceptions of the mind, that guide us to destruction, and they enable us to walk through life in the broad daylight of truth. The Registrar-General, instructed by the information in his office, has been able, to point an unerring hand to, the sources of the late pestilence in England, " by which we have lost in all Britain more lives than we have lost in battle since the days of Marlborough; and he is as certain of the power of: eradicating and preventing this scourge, by purifying the sewers and cesspools, as that the disease hydrophobia has, by police regulations, "become a permanent blank in, London nosology." By the same means, he indicated that between 30,000 and 40,000 inhabitants of Liverpool lived in noisome dcns culled cellars, elaborating pestilence, and practising every vice. In 1849, 4,700 cellars

1841-1886

131

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S, COLONTAL POSSESSIONS. 121:

were cleared of 20,000 inhabitants, under the superintendence of Dr. Duncan, the medical officer of health. The last epidemic preceding the clearance carried off 500 of these people; while the "cholera, which-broke-out during the time the forced change-in-residence was in-pro- gress, slew the comparatively small number of 94."

Vague conjectures deduced from immediate impressions on the mind, and the fruit of start- ling occurrences, receive too often more credence than, statements suggested by a careful examination of facts. Some sudden death, or the rapid succession of deaths in a small com- munity, where every event is patent, creates impressions of insalubriousness, which the 'best digested and most striking record of opposing facts fails to eradicate; while a fair instancos of longevity are, by the same vague rule, pointed to as evidences of local and sanitary perfection The truths that come out of a statistical inquiry show the apparent evidences of evil to be but a rapid and temporary succession of generally unfrequent events and of the good, a para- doxical and almost invariable contradiction of themselves. It is found-as if there were a special compensating tendency in nature in this respect that the most striking instances: of longevity occur in communities in, which the average duration of life is the shortest. Ia yoléed

The following Tables afford the Colonial Surgeon's statistics of disease and death in Hong Kong for the year 1849.

TABLE No. 1.-A' monthly numerical Abstract of Disease and Death in the Police" of Hong

Kong in 1849.9

.:

Europeadshift Indiant Ind] Chinesenduko dibare bett

Total of

Months.

.

Number of - Number of

Sick.

Deaths,

Number of

Sick, th

Number of Deaths.

Sick,

Total'of Deaths.

13

1

21

January February March April May

15

22

4

.. 11

.15

·

5

444

9

11.

20.

12:

June

17.

July

10

10,

: 20

..

August

6

8

14

September

2

1

.3..

October.

November

3

10

9 13

December

2

7

9.

Total number of Deaths'

..

Indians Europeans

The foregoing Table exhibits every quarter as presenting throughout the year a pretty uni- form rate of sickness, the last being numerically the most exempt.

In January the prevailing diseases were intermittent. fever, common catarrh, and acute rheumatism.

In February the character of disease was very variable, yet intermittent fever prevailed ;' it was of a very mild type, and very amenable to treatment.";

In March and April there was a considerable abatement in the number of cases of fover; and diseases were again very mixed in character. In, the former month the records of the civil hospital account for three deaths amongst Chinese found destitute in`the streets. }:

In May there was a slight recurrence of intermittent fever, and a few cases of continued fever occurred; both of a very mild and curable type. There were in this month two deaths; one from empyema, and the other from peritonitis; both policemen.

In June intermittent fevers again prevailed. There was one case of small-pox, and dysentery began to show itself.

In July remittent fevers prevailed; there were also cases of acute hepatitis. and splenitis, showing the commencement of visceral diseases destined to terminate their career in dysentery. The month of August was remarkable for the number of cases of dysentery; from which there were three deaths; in every instance the victims of this disease had previously suffered from, and been under treatment for; either remittent or intermittent fever.

In September remittent fover was the prevailing disease. In this month one European died of delirium tremens, and an Indian and European of dysentery.

In October acute rheumatism, remittent fever, and dysentery prevailed.

In November and December remittent fover, dysentery, and common catarrh were the diseases of the most frequent occurrence. At this time every form of disease began to abate in the severity of its character, and fresh cases became less' numerous. One Indian policeman; under treatment during October, died of valvular disease of the heart in November...

1

132

122

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

TABLE NO. 2.-A Record of the Diseases treated in the Government Civil Hospital

Diseases.

Abscess

Anasarca

Burns.

in 1849.

Cases. | Deaths,

Diseases.

Cases. ' Denths,

Brought forward

140

13

Hepatitis Hæmoptysis

Hæmorrhoids

Bladder, inflammation of

Cases not enumerated Constipation

Contusion

Catarrh

Delirium tremens

Hernia, humorous

Heart, disease of Iritis

Mesenteric disease Paralysis .Phthisis Piyalism

Diarrhea..

Dislocation of hip

Dysentery, acute

18

7

Peritonitis

Epilepsy

Rheumatism, acute

Œdemá

Scorbutus

Empyema

Scrofula

Fever, continued .

Splenitis

intermittent

20

Syphilis, primary

remittent

51

Small-pox

Gastritis

3

Ulcers

Gonorrhcca Gout

Wounds

10

Suicide attempted by cutting)

1

the throat

Carried forward

140

i

13

Total

195

18

Per centage of deaths to cases, 9.23.

The persons admitted into the civil hospital are chiefly policemen, but there are also included officers of the Supreme Court, the gaol, and the servants of the harbour-master, besides cases of destitution found by the police, and persons wounded in affrays.

Amongst the diseases, fevers of various types, and of these the remittent is the chief, and dysentery are the most numerous.

¡

  In every instance the malignant fever which has appeared in this colony has been described to be of the remittent form, and certainly it is the prevailing disorder. During the last year it was mild in its character, of short duration, and very amenable to treatment. Dysentery pre- sents a peculiar aspect in this climate, and is very different from the disease described generally by eastern medical writers. It is certainly engendered in many instances by malaria. It is of all diseases in China the most intractable; it will not bear the severe antiphlogistic and morcurial system of treatment pursued in India. It is most insidious in its progress, giving rise to no prominent or distressing symptom, except the frequent tenesmus. Digestion, sleep, and mental vigour are in most cases unimpaired, while the disease treacherously advances, con- suming imperceptibly the body and strength. Abscess of the liver, or sphacelus of the intes- tines, are its last, almost unperceived, and fatal symptoms. In Her Majesty's navy stationed here the discase has not been so common as usual, yet it evinced greater intensity than it ordinarily assumes in Hong Kong. My friend Dr. Harland, in writing to me of his experience in the merchant seamen's hospital, speaks of dysentery as follows:-"It has been very pre- valent during the last year, and unusually difficult to cure. Out of 48 cases, acute and chronic, there were 17 deaths, and to these must be added five other fatal cases of dysentery supervening on other diseases; so that the deaths from dysentery alone have exceeded one- half the whole number of deaths during the year." In the 95th Regiment, the number of deaths from this disease was 10, but the large number of 94 deaths is stated to have arisen from iuteraiittent fever, and it may be reasonably suspected that some of these were compli- cated with dysentery.

Rheumatism stands next in the record of the most frequent cliscases. Although less fatal, it is bardly less intractable than dysentery. In most of the cases which have come under my observation I could trace their early origin to venereal taint. The vicissitudes of this climate favour the development and progress of the discase, and it is rarely eradicated without the influence of a decided and prolonged change of climate. In the squadron stationed in this harbour it has proved a distressing and unmanageable disease. In the seamen's hospital those of rheumatism were 14 35 per cent. of all the cases treated..

f

:

1.

The foregoing record does not indicate accurately the number of venereal cases. Many patients suffering from other diseases. and admitted into hospital on account of the latter, were also suffering from venereal disease. It presents itself in this place in a form of peculiar viru leuco and malignity, such as, I believe, is rarely witnessed. It is difficult to account for its uncommon severity; it may be that it accumulates intensity from its prolonged and undisturbed existence in the unhappy creatures who are the sources of it. All purely contagious diseases scem to change their peculiar characteristics in transmission from the Chinese and Malay race to the European. This is the case with the cow-pox, the small-pox, and the itch, which acquire in their transmission distinct and peculiar characteristics, and much intensity. I have been so convinced of this fact that I have long since used in vaccination the virus I have obtained from

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL: POSSESSIONS. :123

133

England. The following remarks of Dr. Harland will show the prevalence of venereal disease amongst the merchant seamen :-" Vencreal diseases," he says, "including syphilis, gonorrhœa, strictures, and rheumatism, are 23.28 per cent. of all the cases admitted. This number, how- ever, does not include those cases which have occurred in patients admitted under other more serious discases, and I feel sure that I am speaking within bounds when I say that at least one- half of all the cases admitted apply for treatment of some form or other of venereal, chiefly gonorrhoea and stricture." In the flag ship "Hastings," in a crew of 600 men, upwards of 100 cases occurred. Many of the most active sailors of the squadron, who contracted primary affections here last winter, were invalided in the course of the summer and autumn, in con- sequence of secondary symptoms having supervened. The other diseases enumerated require no special notice.

I

TABLE No. 3.-Showing the Number of Policemen, their Wives and Children, actually Sick in 1849, the Number of Deaths, and Proportion of Deaths to Sickness.

The Number of Police, &c., Sick.

Europeans.

Indians,

61

109:

The Number

Chinese.

of Women and Children Sick.

Total Number of Persons Sick.

Total Number of Deaths,

Proportion of

Deaths to Persons Sick.

per Cent.

1714

9.

5.26

In this and the succeeding table the gaol-guard are this year, as formerly, included in the number of the policemen.

TABLE. No. 4.--Showing the Fixed Number of Policemen, their Wives and Children, the Number of Deaths, and the Proportion of Deaths to Strength.

Avorage Number of Police Employed.

Europeans.

Indians. E Chinese.

Women and

Children.

Total Number of Persons.

Total Number of Deaths.

Proportion of Deaths to Strength.

30

96

24

16'

166

9

per Cent. 5.42

"

In comparing the two preceding tables, it will be observed that the cases of sickness excceded the strength. This is to be accounted for in two ways: first, the same individuals will at different times come under treatment for different diseases, and thus cach man may represent more than one case of sickness; secondly, the police force is liable to frequent changes, so much so that, were all the individuals reckoned who have been in the service, the averages above would be struck against nearly double the strength.

When the class of persons who compose the police are considered, their habits, and the exposed naturo of their duties, the above table shows a most gratifying result. The average mortality in the city of Liverpool is only a fraction below the above numbers.

TABLE No. 5:-Exhibiting the Comparative Amount of Sickness and Death in each Month, amongst the Police in the several Months of 1847, 1848, and 1849.

Number of Cases of Sickness and Deaths.

Month.

1847

1848

1849

*

Cavel.

Deaths..

Casos..

Deaths.

Cases.

Deaths.

January

47

1

February

46

March

31

April

22.

Muy

38

June

35

July

46

August.

36

September

40

October

26.

November

37

December

57.

1

Total

461

6

9*8*88PFF588

2

15

47

22

55

15

42

9

56

20

63

17

78

20

77

14

71

7

36

13

36

2

9:

650

34

170

9

!

CC

The preceding table would have shown a striking resemblance in numbers betwixt 1847 and 1849, if the figures relating to

11 cases in the former year had been correct. Cases pro- longed from month to month are repeated in the reckoning of each month in 1847, whilst in 1848 and 1849 the admissions alone are in the calculations of each month.

134

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

124

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

TABLE NO. 6.-Showing the Average Strength of Police in 1847, 1849, and 1849, and the Proportion of Deaths to Strength.

Average Strength per annum.

Average Deaths

Proportion of Deaths to Strength

per annum.

178

14.66

per annum.

per Cent. 7.90

 The great mortality of 18:18, occasioned by the shipwreck of 21 policemen in the typhoon has very much enlarged the general average for the three years.

TABLE No. 7.-Showing the Total Number of Prisoners in the Victoria Gaol during the Year 1819, the Number of Sick and Deaths, and the proportion of Sick and Mortality to Strength.

Proportion of Deaths to

Prisoners in Gaol during Year..

Cuses of Sickness.

Deaths.

Proportion of Sick to Strength.

Strength.

1,252

: 134

6

10.70

per Cent, 0.48

 The statistics of the gaol will always afford a striking difference between the strength and the deaths. The numbers in the first column show the gross number of persons in gaol in the year. They include those who are remanded as well as those who are committed for trial and convicted. A remand very often entails an imprisonment of only 12 or 24 hours.

The committals and convictions during the last year, were 1,084; taking this number as the basis of the annual population of the prison, the result will bo as follows :-

Strength.

Proportion of sickness to strength Proportion of deaths.

1,084 12.36 per cent.

0.55

C

There can exist no doubt that the prisoners in Victoria Gaol are remarkably exempt from disease. For many years

hospital gangrene" was a troublesome and fatal disorder in the prison. Two prisoners died from this cause in the early part of the year, but inasmuch as I regard them to be cases appertaining to the previous year, I may safely say, that during the last year not a single caso has occurred, and I attribute its eradication to the sanitary precau- tions which have been taken, with a special view to its prevention. '

TABLE 'No. 8.-Showing the Number and Proportion of Cases of Sickness and Deaths to all those Employed by Government, including Prisoners, in 1849.

Proportion

Total Number

of Persous.

Total Number

of Cases of Sickness.

Total Number: of Deaths.

of Deaths to Strength,

per Cent.

Civil officers of Government. Police, &c.

55 166

18

1712

9

Prisoners

1,252 -

134

1,473

323

15

1.02

Year.

Number of Persons Employed.

:

Number

of Cases of

Sickness.

TABLE NO. 9.-Showing the comparative Sickness and Mortality for the last Five Years amongst Persons employed by Government, including Prisoners in Gaol.

Proportion Proportion

of Sickness to of Deaths to

Strength.

Number of Deaths.

Strength.

Per Cent.

Per Cent.

1845

.775

501

-1840

· 847-

655

: 28

1847

833

280

1848

1,333

418

.46

1849

1,473

323

2822

27

64.64

3:48.

77.33

3.3

20

33.61

2:4

31.35

3.4

15

21.93

1.02

5,201 2,177

136

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 125

TABLE NO. 10.--Showing the Average Rate of Sickness and Mortality for the period of the last Five Years amongst persons employed by Government, including Prisoners.

Average Number Average Number

of Persons employed per Annum.

of Caves of Sickness per Aunum.'

Average Number of Deaths per Angum.

Average Proportion of Number of Cases of Sickness to Strength per Anuum.

1052.2

435

27.2

Per Cent. .45.77

Average Pro- portion of Deaths to Strength per

Annum.

Per Cent,

2.72

TABLE NO. 11. Showing the fixed European Population in Hong Kong during the

Year 1849, and the Proportion of Deaths. .

Number of Europeans, including Women - and Children.

987

Number of Deaths, including Women

and Children.

64

Proportion of Deaths.

Per Cent. 6.49

N.B.-Military and Naval Forces not included in this Table.

*F

TABLE No. 12.-Showing the entire Population of Hong Kong, and Proportion of Deatlis in 1847, 1848, and 1849 respectively.

Number of Proportion of

Deaths. Deaths.

Year.

Entire Population.

Per Cent..

1847

23,872.

282

1:18

1848

21,514

984

.1.78

1849

29,507

192.

0.65

The Census, from which the statistics as exhibited in the preceding table (No. 12) have been deduced, was taken under the supervision of Mr. May, the Superintendent of Police. No method could have been adopted more calculated to ensure accuracy than the one resorted to by him, and there is no doubt that it has produced a result which is the nearest attainable approximation to truth:

Mr. May himself allows for inaccuracies arising out of the unsuitable period at which his inquiries were made, many persons being then absent from the colony to celebrate the New Year.

The population of this city is every day affected by immigration, and although the adven- turous and unknown strangers who visit the colony for a short time will swell the numbers of the living, they contribute nothing to the records of the dead; nor is it possible to obtain any account of their destinies.

The Chinese hold very solemn superstitions relating to death Their bodily relics are the property of their surviving friends, with whom it is a religious obligation to preserve and deposit them within the precincts of their feudal birthplace; consequently, with every man who is not indigenous to this island, the first care in the event of sickness is to depart to his own country, that his ashes may in case of death be deposited there. Many instances of this kind must annually occur amongst persons who are unknown to their survivors here. Not- withstanding this source of error in the returns of general mortality, which will constitute a certain and invariable average, the proportion of dead to the living will in comparison with other years, if the calculation of population be corrected (for there is reason to believe that it has not been less for the preceding two years than it is estimated for the last), bear the same relative per centage as it does in the various sections of the population, and thus, uniformly with the rest, show a'gratifying diminution in the number of deaths for the last year.

It may be said of some of the foregoing tables and calculations, that they are not strictly correct, and this remark applies especially, and perhaps alone, to the calculations embracing the entire population. Precisely the same causes of inaccuracy have existed in the two pre- vious years, and there can be no doubt that they will always possess an average and uniform proportion to the truth. This fact, indeed, is made apparent by a comparison with the sectional statistics, which are known to be accurate.

 What inference then is to be drawn from the whole? We learn that, in reference to every class of persons, the last year has been remarkable for its exemption from endemic diseases, and for a low scale of mortality. It is a most gratifying discovery to make, yet it may be the cause of lulling us into a sense of faithless security, and of concealing from us the dangers which surround us. They are dormant, but not destroyed. The sources of malaria and pes- tilence are hardly fewer now than they were two years ago. There exist now, as heretofore, sinks of decomposition and laboratories of poisonous gases, but the atmospherical agencies for bringing them into dangerous affinities have been wanting. It is well to consider this fact, and. to believe it, viz., that the atmospherical influences are beyond our control, but we can abate the evil of animal and vegetable decomposition. Is it wise to wait for the warning voice of a desolating epidemic, when we know in our security what it can only teach us in the helpless and despairing times of our peril?

135

136

126

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941 .REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT.

 The science of chemistry has revealed to us the beautiful and dependent link that unites the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Obedience to the reciprocating laws of animal and vegetable life involves no abstruse submission to chemical science; it is effected in the exercise of our refinements. Every man who plants and nurtures a treo or shrub, nurtures his own existence; he is unconsciously acting in obedience to the sanitary laws of nature: he is, in the exercise of a simple and refined pleasure, creating a safe vent for the noxious residue of his own respira- tion, and the source of a life-invigorating gas. It is much to be regretted that the Govern ment, in apportioning the building sites in Victoria, did not encourage and enforce the forma- tion of gardens. There are many waste slopes and corners lying contiguous to buildings which have been expensive in their construction, that it would be well to plant and adorn, rather than to sell them for purposes which may render the neighbouring houses uninhabitable.

 When an epidemic occurs, we are too apt to look for the source of it on the spot where the disease has reigned and there to apply our remedies. We overlook the fact that it may have originated from general and distant causes. It. may be asserted as an axiom that the habits and houses of the poor are generally the sources of malaria. If this be true of any commu- nity, it is so of the humbler and native community of Hong Kong. In the quartors of their abodes, the houses are small, ill-ventilated, undrained, and thickly congregatod. They aro doficient in all the appliances of cleanliness. The social habits of the people, which it is diffi- cult to control, add intensity to the external evils of their position. Though they had the Cloace of Rome to receive their filth, they would retain more than they reject. They, how- ever, use water freely, and were the localities of their abode efficiently drained, this indis- criminate habit would be in many respects a safeguard. Fresh water, however, although abundant in the island, is a scarce and expensive luxury with the people. It is brought from a distance, and in dry weather obtained with difficulty, at an undue expense either of money or labour, and, 1 regret to add, from objectionable sources, such as the public drains, or stagnant receptacles of rain water. A few public wells or fountains would be easily constructed, and tend greatly to the comfort, cleanliness, and salubrity of the city.

The large drains which convey the torrents from the mountains to the sea, and serve also for reservoirs of filth, are open in the upper parts of the city. In consequence of their exces- sive declivity, the air, at a short distance from these openings, becomes so foul that it will not support combustion, an evidence of its deleterious qualities. As these drains empty them- selves into the sea below high-water mark, the tide rises into them, and forces the foul air through the upper openings... Every person who lives in the vicinity of these vents can testify to the practical truth of this assertion, from the disgusting odours which emanate at different periods of the day from the drains. The surrounding air thus becomes contaminated, and requires only the synthetical agency of electricity to elaborate it into a wide-spreading and deadly poison. This evil can be remedied by covering the drains beyond the sphere of habita- tion. It is a misfortune beyond the reach of any practical remedy, that the drains empty themselves into the "slack water" of a tidal basin,, by which their refuse is slowly and imper- fectly carried away.

The topography of Victoria affords.no greator: sources of malaria, than those which ought to be the fountains, of healththe public markets. They are wanting in every conceivable requisite, of, fitness, position, cleanliness, construction, and internal regulation and discipline.. The climate especially demands the reverse of all this. I observed early one morning, in one of the markets, persons in an advanced, stage of disease lying over the principal butcher's stall. No consideration of "vested rights," or of those hundred other personal objections to public improvements, should retain the present markets a day beyond the powers of the promptest decision and action. The recent multiplication of markets has been a multiplication" of evils. They are the centres of filth and its congenial companion vice.

It has been shown that the various and too common forms of venereal disease are peculiar. They are indeed too often. the foundation of the worst diseases of the colony. Their social influence is obviously most hurtful, and it is most worthy of consideration whether some public remedial measures and system of inspection could not be devised to mitigate the evil.

Lastly, it may be remarked that the experience of every year, and the truths which accu- mulated facts elicit, convince me that the sanitary peculiarities of the climate of Hong Kong, have been misunderstood, and its evils, excessively; exaggerated, and that the latter are not entirely beyond the reach of a remedy.

March 25, 1850.

(True Copy.)

:

(Signed)

WILLIAM MORRISON,

Colonial Surgeon.

(Signed).

W. CAINE,

Colonial Secretary:

*

Enclosure 9 in No. 15.

!

REPORT on the Three Chinese Schools receiving Government Aid.

Victoria, Hong Kong, March 8, 1850.

SIR,

   In reply to your letter of this date, requesting to be furnished with a report for the last year of the three Chinese schools receiving. Government assistance, we have the honour to say:

The schools have been visited as heretofore; that at Victoria, regularly, the others as oppor- tunity offered.

1841-1886

137

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 127

 The total number of scholars now under instruction is 114; '71 of these being at Victoria, -17 at Stanley, and 26 at Aberdeen. The changes in the scholars have been as follows:-

Number of scholars at the close of the Chinese year ending 1849

i

Number of the same scholars remaining in the schools at the close

of the Chinese year ending 1850

Changes .. Additions

Total

'93

31

21

114

+

At the beginning of the present month, the teacher of the Stanley school having voluntarily resigned, we were enabled to appoint for that place a Christian teacher, highly recommended, who, it is hoped, may be able to conduct the school on principles somewhat sounder than those upon which his predecessors acted. The teachers of the other schools remain the same as before; they are those whom we found at first engaged, in education, whom the inhabitants had themselves selected before the Government grant was made, and whom it was considered undesirable to remove.. Under these circumstances, all the three teachers up to the prosent month having been Confucians, no interference in, the system of instruction has been attempted, and hearing a few of the boys read, or seeing them write out of their own school-books, and asking them a few simple questions on the occasion of our visits, constitute all the supervision which we have been able to give. Mr. Stanton has occasionally distributed Christian books for their voluntary reading. The progress made by the scholars has, we believe, been equal to that in Chinese schools of the same class generally.

We beg again to record our conviction that the establishment of schools for the education of the Chinese population, and the exhibition otherwise of a desire to provide for their educa- tional wants, to which they themselves justly attach so great au importance, are most effectual means to conciliate the native inhabitants, and to render our Government popular among them.

·

The villagers of Wongneichoong have requested that a school.similar to that at Victoria may be opened in their neighbourhood, as there are a number of children there growing up without any education whatever, the parents being too poor to make it worth a schoolmaster's while to tako up his residence among them. The village is in a very impoverished condition, owing to the land, by the cultivation of which the inhabitants subsisted, having been converted into a race- course, the money paid as compensation for this loss having been long ago expended. Wo beg to recommend their petition to the favourable consideration of his Excellency the Governor, that the small monthly sum, ten dollars, required for the establishment of a school, may, if expedient, be granted.

:

(True copy.)

W. CAINE,

Colonial Secretary.

We have, &c., ::(Signed) · C. B. HILLIER,

V. J. STANTON, 1. Committee for superintending

Chinese Schools.

Enclosure 10 in No. 15.

MEMORANDUM of the Number and Cargoes of Chinese Junks which have visited the Port of Victoria during the Year 1849.

Victoria, Hong Kong, Chinese Secretary's Office,

14th March, 1850.

The particulars of the following memorandum upon the junk trade at Victoria, are taken in part from notes drawn up monthly by Mr. Gutzlaff, Chinese Secretary, from the 1st January to the 31st August last. The matter of these was collected by a Chinese mes- senger of this office, a native of an eastern district of the Kwangtung or Canton province, and consequently the fittest person to obtain the information required from the junkmen, most of whom, it will be seen, are from the same neigbourhood as himself. He has been in the habit of making a daily report of the junks or boats which arrive here, and of the nature of their cargoes; and this, since the departure of Mr. Gutzlaff in September, has been entered each day in a journal-sheet, which has furnished the data for such parts of this memorandum as are not derived from Mr. Gutzlaff's notes.

The Chinese Secretary's Office possesses no means of ascertaining what number of junks put into Stanley, Aberdeen-where there are always several lying-or any harbour of this colony except Victoria; or of finding out what may be the value or amount of the native cargoes brought by junks to Victoria; or what portion of such cargoes may be there sold; or what goods thence exported in native vessels.

These were divided by Mr. Gutzlaff into 4 classes:-1. Fast boats; 2. Marine; 3. Salt; 4. Stone boats.

1. Fast boats: This term does not appear to mean such boats as are commonly known by this designation, viz., those employed by passengers between Hong Kong, Macao, and Canton, but those which bring supplies to the colonial markets.

Their number in January and February is stated to have been considerable. In March and

138

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

April the excitement prevailing at Canton and in its vicinity, regarding the question of our entry into the city, affected their trade, which, however, revived as soon as the agitation sub- sidled, and continued brisk until the end of Jano, when, without any apparent. reason, it declined once more. In August it was again good, although piracy was then at its height.

 ·In the daily report of the last four months of the year, no notice has been taken of the fast- boat trade.

 2. Marine junks: There is no record of the numbers of these that visited this port between the 1st January and the 30th April; but from the 1st May to the 31st December, 1849, besides the craft exclusively engaged in the salt trade, or the carriage of stone, 596 junks of various sizes touched or discharged and took in cargoes at Victoria from Tien-tsin, Shan-tung, Shang-hae, Ful-kien, Formosa, Hac-nan, Tonquin, Siam, and the cast and west coasts of the province of Kwang-tung, by far the larger nuniber coming from the districts next castward of that opposite to which the Island of Hong Kong is situated.

 The only arrivals worthy of note as the first of their kind are those of a rice junk from For- mosa, in April, and of three Tonquin vessels owned and manned by Chinese, in June.

The details of the marine trade, as far as this office is informed, are as follow:-

+

 In January and February Mr. Gutzlaff's notes state that tho marino junks did good business.

 In March and April few came here to trade, but several passed towards IIae-nau for sugar, and one brought a cargo of rice from Formosa, the first imported thence.

In May some 90 junks brought provisions and sundries, rice and alum, from Kwang-tung East; two, from Kwang-tung West, brought rice for Hong Kong, and sugar and oil-cake for the northern ports; 30 from Fuh-kien passed south for sugar and oil.

In June 80 junks from the East Coast, some of them bound to Canton, brought in live stock, rice, crockery, flour, oil-cakes, salt, and melasses. Some took away opium and manu- factures. Eleven junks from Fuh-kien brought rice and crockery, taking opium, manufactures, and saltpetro; three from Hae-nan brought cocoa-nuts and dye-bark; three from Tonquiu passed through with coarse cotton goods and dye-roots; one large junk from Canton, and one from Singapore, bound for Tien-tsin.

In July. 30 from the cast of the province brought rice, live-stock, and sundries; 10 from Fuh-kien alum and sundries; two from Hae-nan cocoa-muts and provisions; three from Ting- hae (whether the chief town of Chusan, or, as is most likely, some place on the coast, does not appear), which took hence calico, opium, and sundries; eight from Singapore passed north with sugar, and two from that port, of a large size, with Straits' produce for Tien-tsin. These mnade purchases here.

In August 49 junks from the East Coast brought in live stock, oil, sugar, and salt; eight from Fuh-kien salt, alum, and tea; eight from Hac-nan mats, cocoa-nuts, and dyc-bark.

Mr. Gutzlaff's note here remarks that piracy was depressing the trade.

In September 72 junks from the East Coast, 16 from Fuk-kien, outward and homeward bound; two from Haenan, and one from Siam, iu all 91 vessels, of which some brought salt and mixed cargoes, and the majority, according to the locality from which they canio, live- stock, sugar, sweetmeats, nutmegs, pepper, peas, beans, wheat, cocoa-nuts, potato-flour, drugs, dye-woods, bark, rattans, firewood, coarse paper, and crockery ware.

7 were bound to Shang-hae.

2 to Fuh-kien.

1 to Kwang-tung East.

1'to Tien-tsin.'

to Hae-nan, and

.25 to Canton.

In October 92 junks arrived,, viz. :,71 from Kwangtung East; 15 from Fuh-kien; 1 from Tien-tsin; two from Shang-hae. The three last bound to Canton. In addition to the articles of freight brought by the September junks, these carried alum, dried fish, vegetables, and fruit, and the Shang-hae boats, cotton and nankin.

:: * ་

གྲྭ་

In November 98 junks brought cargoes similar to the above, as well as coal, sulphur, chiar- coal, tobacco-leaf, and Chinese wine. Of coal one entire cargo was on its way from Kiang- tung East to the city, and two part cargoes came from Fuh-kien and Formosa, from which last place came likewise the sulphur. The tobacco was from Na-moa East for the city, and the wine from Tien-tsin for the same market. Their numbers and distribution were as follow:-

From or for-

Shang-tung with cotton.

Tien-tsin

!!

1 with cotton.

Shang-bac... 2..

· Fuḥ-kien-ti. 21, including 1 with rice from Amoy.

Formosa 1, and all the rest Kwang-tung East. ****to p

In December there came, but.56 in all: from.

Tien-tsin

Fuh-kien Formosa

Kwang-lung West.

1 with peas and dried fruits for Canton;

"

14, including 1.from Fuh-chow, with peas, rice, bricks, and cotton;

1 with coal and sulphur; ·

1 with bricks and alum;

All the rest from Kwang-tung East.".

1841-1886

139

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 129:

The following table will show what numbers of marine junks have entered the Port of Victoria during the eight latter months of the year 1849. No sufficient reason can be assigned for their increase or decrease during particular months. In

May there arrived

June

July

August

September

Junks.

122

99

55

October there arrived November,, December

65

91

Total

Junks.

92.

98

56

578

3. Salt junks: The imports and sales of salt, and the exports of stone, are ascertained from monthly returns sent in by the chief monopolists of these two branches of trade. At the commencement of the year there was a very large quantity of salt in hand, The imports amounted to 335,350 piculs, in 334 junks, the sales to 342,850 piculs, a surplus of 1,050 - remaining unsold.

SALT.

Junks.

Imported...

Sold.

!. 1849.

2.

Piculs.

Piculs.

January.

49

42,350

46,000

February

37

23,100

30,000

;

March

30

22,950

27,050.

April

28 22,200

26,600

May.

38

29,700

29,300

June.

21

15,000

13,500

July

18

17,000

6,000

August

10

4,900

3,500

September

29

22,600

24,000

October

61

45,800

45,000

November

59

47,350

48,900

December

54

42,950 43,000

Total

334

335,350

342,850

4. Stone boats-Stone was carried from the quarries of the colony in 482 boats, viz., in

January

February

March

April

May

Junc

July

Junks.

30

30

August September

60

October

32

November

65

December

35

30

Total

Junks.

30.

20

60

GO

30

482

It is much to be doubted that these last carry away anything but the stone slabs with which they are freighted.

Mr. Gutzlaff's Annual Report for 1818 gives 777 as their total, while there have been this year but 482.

The salt boats are large, well manned, and the property of people of some capital; it is consequently probable that they export both opium and manufactured goods. In 1848 the highest number that arrived here in any one month was 52, the lowest 31. There have becu here in 1849 as many as 61 in a month, but in August there were as few as 10. At this time piracy, it will be remembered, was a general cause of alarm. The quantities imported have however increased. Mr. Gutzlaff records 297,050 piculs as the total imported in 1848 in 524 junks, the largest quantity in any one month being 41,150 piculs. In 1849, although there were but 334 junks, they imported 335,350 piculs, and in November the amount was as much as 17,350.

The marine trade of 1848 is stated in the same report to have averaged 80 junks a month. In 1849, as has been admitted, there are no records for the first four months, but in the suc ceeding eight, 578 gives an average of 72, and the agitation of the Canton question in the earlier part of the year, and the piracy, in a great measure suppressed in the autumn, may be deemed to have somewhat affected the commerce of such craft.

As compared with 1848, the junk trade of 1849 was as follows:-

Junks and Cargoes.

18-19

1949

Increase. Decrease.

Marine: average per mens.

Salt Junks.

80 524

Imported, piculs, salt

297,050

72 334 335,350

8

190

Most in one mouth

Stone junks

41,150 777

47,350

38,300 6,200

482

295

(Signed)

(True copy.)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

T. WADE, Assistant Chinese Secretary.

140

130

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 11 in No. 15.

COMPARATIVE RETURN of the Total Number of Persons apprehended in the Years 1848 and 1849.

Result before Magistrate. ·

Year.

Result of Committals for Trial:

Total

                 Discharged Appre-

                    by Procla- hended. Discharged Convicted. for Trial. Convicted. Acquitted. Charge

Summarily Committed Tried and | Tried and | mation, or |Remaining*

Untried. being abandoned.

1848

1,456 491

798

167

41

69

57

1849

2,030

686

1,183

161*

73

49

33

·

Increase in 1849.

574

195

385

Decrease in 1849

22:3

24

2:25

6

..

20

* Of the 161 persons cominitted for trial during 1849, 18 were disposed of during the February Sessions, 1850.

Victoria, Hong Kong,

(Signed)

9th March, 1850..

(Truc copy)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

CHARLES MAY,

Superintendent of Police.

Enclosure 12 in No. 15.

RETURN of Criminal Cases that have been Tried in the Supreme Court of Hong Kong, from the 15th of February to the 15th of December 1849, inclusive.

Number of Cases.

Number of Persons.

1

2

Crime.

Assault with intent to rob. Assault, being armed, with

intent to rob.

1 Attempting to commit a

felony.

3. Breaking and stealing in a

1.

2

1

:

..

..

1

::

::

2

.!

::

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death,

Death Recorded.

Transportation.

Hard Labour over one Year.

Hard Labour,

one Year and

under.

No. of

Cases.

No. of

Persons.

No. of

Cases.

No, of

Persons.!

Sentence.

Charge

Remarks,

Abandoned,

Postponed.

1

..

shop.

1

3 Burglary and larceny

2

2

2

6

Burglary and stabbing

4

4

Child-stealing

2

2

1

False imprisonment

5

13

Larceny...

4.

1

2

1

12

Manslaughter.

12

4

4 Receiving stolen goods

3

3

3

Robbery

4

7Robbery with violence

710 Robbery with arme

6

1

1 Stealing from the person.

t 4 4 Stealing in a dwelling-house

2

2 Uttering a forged order

1

43

77

·Total.

37

32

12

18

G

6

8

N.B.-No cases were postponed from the December Sessions 1849.

(Signed)

(True copy.)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

ROB. DUNDAS CAY, Registrar.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S. COLONIAL-POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure 13 in No. 15.

141

131

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been Tried in the High Court of Admiralty of HONG

KONG, during the Year 1849.

Sentence.

Remarks."

Number of Cases.

Number of Persons.

Crime.

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death.j

Death Recorded.

Transportation.

Hard Labour over one Year.

Hard Labour,

one Year and

under.

No. of

Cases.

No. of

Persons.

No. of

Cases.

No. of

Persons.

Abandoned.

Charge

Postponed.

22-2

15

1

1 12

1

2

Larceny

9

32

Piracy

1 1

Piracy with violence

2

13

123

1

16

Piracy with cutting and 12

wounding.

Receiving stolen goods Revolt.

36

1 Shooting with intent to

main.

19 66

Total

• •

34

17

12

121:

8

8

9

3

N.B.-The three cases of shooting with intent to maim were against the same person.

(True copy.)

(Signed)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

ROB. DUNDAS CAY, Registrar,

6

Enclosure 14 in No. 15.

RETURN of the Number of Cases Tried before the Honourable J. W. HULME, and Actions commenced in the Supreme and Vice-Admiralty Courts of HONG KONG, during the Year ending the 31st December 1849,

CASES TRIED BEFORE THE ¡¡onouraBLE J. W. HULME, IN 1849.

142

132

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

COURT.

Number

of

Cases.

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

Supreme Court :-

Judgment.

Plaintiff.

Total.

Defendant. Noasuit. [ Cases. Debt and Damages.

Dollars.

Dollars,

Common Law

3

6,962.50

3

None

1

Chancery

Summary

·

..

3

9,161.95

I

2

None

147

9,537.97

18

19

10

Insolvency

Appeals.

Vice Admiralty Court

1

12

Hearings 3 Debts in Schedule 10,190.75 1,853-03

389, 137.06

Insolvents discharged 2

Remanded

I

I

None

One

None

None 169

426,843.26

ACTIONS COMMENCED IN 1849.

Nurnber

COURT.

of

Casex.

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

Settled

without

Trial.

Judgment.

Plaintiff.

Defendant.

Remaining

in

Total.

Nonsuit. dependence Cases. Debt and Damages.

Supreme Court :-

Dollars.

111,825-62

Dollars.

RobT. DUNDAS CAY, Registrar.

Common Law

45

Chancery

*

4

Summary

199

39

43,118.31 None

11,205-54 52

2

None

1

4

None

2

None

2

118

10

10

None

Debts in Schedule

8,136.75)

None

Insolvency

3

Petitioners discharged, 2

Petition refused, 1

None

1

In the Case of the re-

manded Prisoner

}

2,054.00j

Ecclesiastical Estates

Appeals

36

Assets per appraisement 11,911·61

2

Vice-Admiralty Court

23

16,600.25

I

1

408,714.29

9

11

None

None

1

Noue

None

7

317

613,566.37

(Signed)

W. H. ALEXANDER, Clerk of the Court.

(True copy.) W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

(Signed)

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

144

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Enclosure 1

ABSTRACT OF CAUSES under Cognizance at the Chief Magistrate's Of

No. of Causes,

Civil Causes how disposed of.

Criminal Causes how

Criminal.

Plaintiff.

Decree for

Defendant.

Decree for

Nonsuited.

Petty Sea-

Summoned to

Aions.

Undecided.

Tutal

Number of Defendants.

Convicted and Punished.

Discharged without Punishment.

Released

on

Security.

$1,728

596 1,132

205

3

79

297 12

M. F. 1,743

M.

95

སྦྱར

F. M. F. 620 22 6.7 53

M. F

53

3333

Abstract of Causes under Cognizance at the Court of Petty Sessions, Hong Ko

697 297 400

135 54

91

..

14

624 26

251

2 221 17

5

(True copy.)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

D

1841-1886

5 in No. 15.

ice, HONG KONG, during the Year 1849, with the Mode of Disposal.

disposed of.

Committed

Deported.

or

Undecided.

Bailed.

REMARKS.

145

M. 8

A:

F.

M. F. 383

17

22

225

M.

F.

This Return includes almost the whole of the cases enumerated in the following Return for the Court of Petty Sessions, as very few are brought directly before that Court.

The civil cases decided were 293 claims for police rates (cognizable by the chief magistrate alone), and six clains for wages under Ordi- nance 6 of 1847, now repealed.

The criminal cases decided up to March, when the Court of Petty Ses- sions was established, were 61 larcenies and receiving stolen goods, 26 assaults, 5 demanding money with menaces, 2 passing counterfeit coin, 15 vagrancy; the rest were mainly breaches of police ordinances. In March the summary jurisdiction over small felonies, which had existed for 18 months previously, was taken away by the Petty Ses- sions Ordinance, so that the cases subsequently decided were simply assaults, breaches of police ordinances, and offences cognizable by a single magistrate under English Acts of Parliament. The committals and bailments include those to the Supreme and

Admiralty Courts, as well as to the Court of Petty Sessions. Deportation by a single magistrate out of Sessions was awarded only under Section 13 of the Registration Ordinance (7 of 1846), in default of security to appear and answer for a suspected offence. The de- faulter is simply ordered to leave the colony, and not return.

(established 1st of March), during the Year 1849, with the Mode of Disposal.

130

5

2

2

15

The civil causes were claims for debt or damages not exceeding 50 dollars, with one or two cases of estreated recognizances. The criminal cases were, larceny and receiving stolen goods 267, vagrancy 62, assaults 40, riotous assemblage 4, obtaining property by false pretences 3, uttering counterfeit coin 2, malicious injuries 2, demanding money with menaces 2, combination among workmen 2, extortion 1; the remainder were offences against police ordinances. All were decided under the provisions of Ordinance 1 of 1849, for the punishment of petty felonies and recovery of small debts.

The mode of proceeding is generally by summons taken out before a single magistrate; and in criminal cases the depositions are taken down at length as in committals for the Supreme Court; consequently, nearly the whole of the cases are included in the above Return for the Chief Magistrate's Office.

The Court of Petty Sessions has power under the ordinance to remit serious or difficult cases for decision at the Supreme Court; hence the column for committals.

Deportation is awarded under section 14 of the Ordinance for the Removal of Vagrants. A large number of those deported were mendicants who had crossed from the mainland to beg. The deporta- tion consists in transmitting the persons to be deported to the Chinese magistrate on the opposite side of the harbour (which is Chinese territory), with a request that they may be forwarded to their place of settlement.

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER, Chief Magistrate.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 303

(No. 30.)

HONG KONG.

No. 39.

147

HONG KONG.

No. 39.

COPY of a DESPATCH from Governor BONHAM to Earl GREY.

MY LORD,

Victoria, Hong Kong, April 26, 1851.

(Received July 21, 1851.)

I HAVE the honour to forward to your Lordship the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1850.

Revenue and Expenditure.

 2. The total revenue of the colony has amounted to 23,526l. 16s. 44d., or 90%. 6s. 101d. less than in 1849, and the expenditure to 34,3141. 12s. 3d., or 4,671l. 9s. 3 d. less than in the preceding year. This decrease is owing to reductions in the establishments, to the small number of public works under- taken during the year, and to arrears of salaries due to officers on leave, which latter amounts to 5381. 6s. 8d.

 3. The difference between the local receipts and disbursements, amounting to 10,7867. 15s. 101d. will be met by the Parliamentary vote for the year 1850-51. I may here remark, that although this vote was for 20,000l., the surplus of 9,2131. 4s. 1d. which remains will be reserved for the construction of the proposed Government house, which has been estimated at 14,940l. 7s. 7d., and has already received your Lordship's sanction, for the payment of certain stores, amounting to 1,3197. Os. 111d. sent out from England for the Govern- ment offices, of which no account has yet reached me, as well as for that of sundry public works in progress. The arrears alluded to in the preceding paragraph will also have to be paid from this source.

Military Expenditure.

 4. The military expenditure of 1849 and 1850, is respectively 75,9431. and 64,6281, the decrease being caused principally by a reduction of the troops serving here.

Public Works.

5. There have been no public works of any magnitude undertaken during the past year by the department of the Surveyor-General. The erection of a Government house has not been commenced, as is known to your Lordship by my Despatch No. 97 of the 25th October last. The Surveyor-General's Reports, herewith attached, enter so fully into all the details of his department, that it is quite unnecessary for me to offer any remark, beyond noticing that the cost incurred by Government on account of the prisoners incarcerated in Victoria gaol during the last year amounted to 634l. 16s. 5d., against which may be set 4037. 12s. 1d., the estimated value of their labour during the same period.

Legislation.

 6. The five Ordinances passed during the year have been severally reported on in separate Despatches; and I have therefore no further observations to make with regard to them. Her Majesty's confirmation of the three first, as signified to me by your Lordship, has been notified to the inhabitants of the colony.

Councils.

 7. An alteration has taken place in the Legislative Council during the year 1850. That body had hitherto consisted solely of members holding office under Government, but, on my recommendation, two unofficial members were added to the Board by appointment under the Queen's warrant. The selection of these members, of course subject to Her Majesty's approval, was left in the

No. 1.

No. 2.

148

HONG KONG.

304

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

first instance to the unpaid magistrates, which I thought was likely to afford more satisfaction to the public, than if they had been merely nominated by myself.

Population.

8. The white population has decreased by 61 European males and 10 females. This may be attributed to the return of many Portuguese familes to Macao since the panic of 1849, as well as to several Europeans having migrated to California. The native population on the contrary exhibits an increase of 3,690 souls. The following is a comparative abstract of the population in 1849 and 1850.

Europeans

Goa and Macao Portuguese Indians and Malays

Chinese .

Total.

1840

1850 Increase.

Decrease.

656

585

71

331

295

36

223

276

53

28,297 31,987

3,690

29,507 33,143

3,743

107

    No. 3: No. 4. No. 5.

No. G.

No. i.

No. 8.

The enclosed returns, furnished by the officiating Registrar-General, will show in detail the population of Hong Kong on the 31st December 1850. The deaths amongst the white population (which embraces English, Americans, and Portuguese), are returned at 89, being at the rate of 10-11 per cent. This per centage must not, however, be taken as a correct estimate of the mortality in this part of the community, the greater number of the deceased being sailors and sojourners, who cannot properly be considered to belong to the fixed popu- lation of the colony. The average monthly number of prisoners confined in the gaols during the year was 150, and the deaths amounted to 8, giving an average mortality of 5:33 per cent., as appears by the enclosed return from the sheriff. The average monthly number of European prisoners was 20, among whom no casualty occurred. With regard to the mortality amongst the Chinese population, my Despatches forwarding the Blue Books for former years will have shown your Lordship the impossibility of obtaining accurate information on the subject.

The Colonial Surgeon's Report, attached to the Blue Book, contsins all the information that it is possible to collect with reference to the general state of health, sickness, and mortality during the past year.

9. I beg to append a memorandum, drawn up at my request by the Brigade- Major, showing the number of deaths which have occurred in the garrison during the year 1850. This shows the mortality amongst all branches of the military service to have been 17.89 per cent., being 23 per cent. amongst the European, and 10 per cent. amongst the native part of the force, which averaged during the year 625 and 409 respectively.

Education.

10. From the return, at page 193 of the Blue Book, it will be seen that there are 12 schools on the island, 7 of which are under the superintendence of Christian tutors. Some of these are supported by the several religious institu- tions established in Hong Kong, and others maintained by voluntary contri- butions, and by the parents of the pupils. With regard to the progress of the four Chinese schools at Victoria, Aberdeen, Stanley, and Wongneichung, whose teachers are paid by the local Government, the enclosed Report from the Committee superintending the same will place before your Lordship all necessary information.

Trade.

11. The total number of vessels which arrived in Hong Kong in 1850 was 884, and their tonnage amounted to 299,093 tons, showing a decrease of 12 vessels, but an increase of 5,382 tons, when contrasted with the year 1849. It is also satisfactory to remark, that the number of vessels from Great Britain and the United States of America has greatly increased as will be seen by a glance at the following table:-

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTYS COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 305

149

From United States

From Great Britain.

of America.

Ships.

Tons.

Ships.

Tons.

In 1849 In 1850

39

·

16,938

16

9,087

65

31,213 90

37,809

Increase in 1850

26

14,275 74

28,722

The number of vessels from India in 1849 and 1850 was, respectively, 127, measuring 61,747 tons, and 125 of the burthen of 63,128 tons, thereby showing a decrease of two vessels, but an increase of 1,381 tons in 1850.

Of the shipping arrived in Hong Kong during the past year, the Harbour Master's Returns, appended to the Blue Book, under the head of " Imports and Exports," show that 160 vessels imported, and 121 exported, goods into and from the colony. From the same returns it appears, that treasure to the value of 6,071,183 dollars, equivalent to 1,264,8297. 15s. 10d., has been shipped here for India, the greater part of this amount being, no doubt, in return for opium sold in China.

I may here add, that in 1850 sixteen vessels were registered in the colony measuring 3,399 tons, two of which measuring, conjointly, 225 tons, were built at Hong Kong.

With respect to the native trade of the colony, I beg to enclose a memorandum prepared by the Assistant Chinese Secretary.

Crown Lands.

12. The fixed revenue derivable from Crown lands for the year ended 31st December 1850, was as follows:-

Mercantile firms Private individuals. Chinese

Total

£. S. d. 5,440 0 41

4,298 18 111

1,554 13 2

£11,293 12 51

Which amount, when contrasted with the years 1848 and 1849, gives a trifling increase during two years of 1857. 17s. 6d. I think, therefore, that our annual fixed revenue under this head for years to come may be fairly estimated at about 11,000l.

Police.

13. I consider that our police force is perfectly competent for the prevention of crime within the precincts oi Victoria, where its service is mainly required. I attach a Return, drawn up by Mr. Superintendent May, showing the number of felony cases coming under the cognizance of the police from 1847 to 1850 inclusive, from which it will be perceived that felonies have fallen from 856 cases in 1849 to 674 during the last year.

I likewise forward several Returns, showing the criminal cases tried in the Supreme Court, and the causes brought before and decided by the chief magistrate and the Court of Petty Sessions, respectively, during the past year, as well as a Return of the number of civil cases tried by the Chief Justice, and actions commenced within the same period.

14. Ou the whole, my Lord, I have no hesitation in reporting the state of this colony to be satisfactory. The native population is certainly on the increase, and from the police returns it would seem that crime is on the decrease. This may be attributed to the arrival here during the past year of a number of artisans and tradesmen from Canton, who have been, in a great measure, induced to resort to the colony by reason of the trade which is now carried on between it and California. The Chinese inhabitants have also become more accustomed to our institutions. Hong Kong, as I have already reported in separate Despatches on this subject, will not, in my opinion, ever be the port of trade, which on its first formation it was expected to become; and I think it not impossible that three or four of our larger British commercial establishments will be at no distant period broken up, as from competition and

150

306

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

other causes the profits of the China trade formerly enjoyed by a few are now divided amongst many, and hence the maintenance of an expensive establish- ment here has become not only unnecessary but undesirable to parties having houses of business in Canton. The port, however, is not without its use, even to them; for goods are often landed here intended for the northern ports, as indeed they are sometimes when destined for Canton, especially when the market is dull there, and when it is conceived by their consignees that further importation would produce further depression.

From December 1850 to March of this year 15 American whalers have arrived laden with oil, of which a considerable portion, under the provisions of the New Navigation Law, has been shipped to England in British bottoms. I am informed, by a very respectable authority, that 60 or 70 vessels of this description are expected here next winter, and as each of these vessels is estimated, on an average, to expend some 500l. in the colony, by which each class of the community is benefited, this branch of trade deserves especial encouragement. I understand, moreover, that the masters of the above whalers, when here, convened a meeting, and passed a resolution that Hong Kong was the cheapest and most suitable port in the east for the resort of whalers, and for the transhipment of their cargoes. These vessels can refit here at a comparatively small expense, procure such supplies as they may be in need of, and return to the whaling ground as soon as the season opens. I entertain, therefore, every hope that this trade may prove of great use to the colony. A vessel has also lately arrived here, under American colours, from Oregon, for the purpose of entering into contracts for the supply of masts, spars, &c., which at times are much required here. The returns will be, of course, from Hong Kong.

In conclusion, I would add that although the colony is of great use to the few firms engaged in the opium trade, yet it is on the general foreign trade that Hong Kong must mainly depend for progressive improvement.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,

&c.

&c. &c.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

J. G. BONHAM.

Enclosure 1 in No. 39.

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria,

February 11, 1851.

SIR,

I HAVE the honour to lay before you, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, my annual Report upon the works which have been undertaken during the year, and upon the general state of repair, &c. of all civil roads, works, and buildings upon the island.

VICTORIA.

Roads and Bridges.

 The district from the gap to the valley has been kept in repair by convict labour, amounting during the year to 2,234 men, being equivalent to an expenditure of 461. 10s. 10d.; this is rather a large item for repair of so short a road, but it is caused by the necessary attention to the new portion of the road, and the expenditure is further enlarged by the distance the men had to travel to the work, which occupies nearly an hour both going to and returning from work, or nearly one-fifth of their effective day's labour.

The final payment for that portion of the road from the Wongneichung Valley to North Point, which was widened and improved, as alluded to in my last Report, and which was so much damaged by the storm of the 13th September, was made during the year, amounting to 270l. 16s. 8d., which, with the previous advance of 751. made last year, makes the full cost of the service 3451. 16s. 8d. paid by Government, and in addition to which the sum of 1157. was paid by private subscription. In consequence of the misunderstanding between the clerk of works and the contractor nothing was done to the road until May of the present year, when orders were received to repair the damages and render the road again serviceable for carriages. This repair was effected for an expenditure of 637. 19s. 2d., and although we had no typhoon during the year there were several gales which tried the unfinished portions of the walls and newly deposited earth severely, I am happy to state without effecting any dainage. I have endeavoured to protect the line of road by encouraging the growth of grass and shrubs, or prickly pear, upon a slope of sand outside the sea-wall, and in several places they are thriving very well, but the extreme drought of the last six months has caused many to wither; these, however, I hope I shall succeed in replacing at as early a period as the rains will permit.

Of the bridges in the Wongneichung. Valley, I have much pleasure in reporting that the three remaining wooden ones were reconstructed with brick arches upon the old abutments, in

1841-1886

151

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 307

lieu of the timber platforms, which it was found quite impossible to preserve from rot and the ravages of the white ants.

Report and estimate 1 of 1850 authorized the construction of three bridges; the two small bridges, of 17 feet 6 inches and 12 feet span respectively, I experienced no difficulty in forming with the old materials (bricks) belonging to the Bungalow, abandoned by the proprietor and pulled down by Government, expenditure 377. 10s.; but the large bridge I found it impossible to complete according to the original intention, viz., in two semi-elliptic arches of 30 feet span, and was consequently obliged to build two additional piers, and form four segmental arches of 13 feet 9 inches span; these were completed more satisfactorily and the superstructure was finished, both spandrils and parapet, with the dressed stone belonging to the Bungalow, and only suitable for such work, the whole costing the sum of 1067. 5s.

In the early part of the year, and before the above work was found to be absolutely essential, a repair, amounting to 41. 12s., was obliged to be made to secure portions of the framing and platforms.

Drains.

The final payment on account of the drain or brick sewer to join the Ordnance sewer, report and estimate 8 of 1847, which it was found so difficult to complete, in consequence of the extreme hardness of the rock through which it had to pass, was made during the year. This service must have entailed a considerable loss upon the contractor, and I was at last compelled to execute the work by day's labour, charging the expense against the balance due.

Repairs to drains in the whole city only amounted to 21, 7s. 3d. (Req. 39.)

Marine Works.

During the gales of the latter part of the year 1849 several large boats caused considerable injury to two of the piers in Tapingshan, and upon one of which a fast boat was entirely wrecked; the repairs demanded amounted to 117. (Req. No. 28); the other one was repaired at an expenditure of 51. (Req. No. 11).

Supply of water to Government house and offices was executed under the superintendence of the Royal Engineer department; the sum of 1517. 15s. 1d. having been paid on account, the remaining sum was paid in the early part of the present year.

Buildings.

At the Court-house the sum of 1567. 5s. was expended in the furniture and fittings for the Court-room, which was permanently arranged, giving the necessary accommodation applied for by the Chief Justice, together with the formation of a skylight, which was also arranged for the better ventilation of the room, which was much required in hot weather with a crowded Court. The heavy entablatures to both fronts of this building show some symptoms of failure, portions of the cornice have fallen down; but as I believe the greater part of the projections have been formed with teak wood, it is probable there is no great decay in the framing to render any repair necessary.

The tower of the cathedral was completed during the year for the sum of 6977. 18s. 4d., and the total payments made on account of the whole building amounted to 1,2067. 5s., this sum, however, formed part of the private subscription.

For the protection of the Albany Godowns, a large building abandoned by the proprietors, the sum of 30%. has been expended.

Also in pulling down the Bungalow in the Wongneichung valley, resumed by Government in removing to store some of the building materials which were being stolen by the Chinamen, an expenditure of 301. 10s. 4d. was made. With some of the above materials and others supplied from collected stores, and upon the requisition of the superintendent of police, approved of by his Excellency, I built a boat-shed and stabling for the police, rearranged the accommo- dation, and built new cells at the central station, repaired and whitewashed the kitchens, and built proper drains therefrom to the main sewer in the street, the whole being performed for the sum of 311. 5s.

Two prisoners effected an escape from the gaol by placing a plank upon the lean to roof of a privy, and thus gaining the summit of the wall dropped therefrom into the road, a height of 22 feet in consequence of this a chevaux de frise was placed thereon 3 feet high, as well as for further safety an inner guard established, rendering the whole more secure, the above service cost 151. 13s. 11d. (Requisition No. 14).

Sundry repairs and painting were made to the flagstaves at Government house and offices, amounting to 77. 19s. 8d. under Requisitions 36 of 1849, and Nos. 3 and 9 of 1850.

The east side of the verandah to the Bungalow on Hospital Hill was rendered more secure against typhoons by removing the large jalousies, and filling in between the columns with brickwork, and inserting an ordinary sized window instead, also in bracing and strengthening a portion of the north front of the verandah; a part of this service was performed by the tenant, the remainder was executed by Government at an expenditure of 107. 8s. 4d.

The several police stations in the city, four in number, exclusive of the central station, were thoroughly whitewashed, repaired, and painted (the latter service not having been performed for three years) for the sum of 341. 13s. 7d.

The other police stations in the island, viz., at Aberdeen, Stanley, and East Point, underwent no repuis during the year; but on my inspection at the beginning of this year I had occasion to note several dilapidations, particularly at Aberdeen, but most of these are not strictly chargeable to Government, and notice to that effect has been given to the superintendent of police.

152

308

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Convicts.

An expenditure, amounting to 157. 3s. 3d. (Requisitions No. 42 of 1849, and 10 of 1850), was incurred in the purchase of stone-hammers, rope, and winch, for the use of the prisoners confined to hard labour within the gaol; these are mostly Europeans, and the total number employed during the year amounted to about 3,100, not working the whole day or regularly. either; 300 tons of stone have been broken, the quantity I have used on the road does not amount to more than 180 tons, but I hope to dispose of all that may be broken in the present year, and thus be enabled to form a hard compact surface for most of the streets throughout the city.

The repairs to convict tools, wheelbarrows, shovels, pickaxes, &c., has amounted to the sum of 20%. Os. 11d. I have been enabled with the labour of the convicts to keep in very fair repair almost the whole of the streets in the city, including the Queen's Road and the Wongneichung Valley Road alluded to before; upon the former in the ordinary surface repairs, and including a very extensive damage done to the embankment near Mr. Edger's house I have expended the labour of 3,047 men, valued at 637. 9s. 7d., and upon the rest of the roads and streets in the city the number of 5,485 men, equivalent to an expenditure of 1147. 5s. 5d., forming the total amount of 8,532, equal to 1777. 15s., for a length of 8 miles, or nearly 3d. per yard

per annum.

Sundry services to drains were completed by 57 men, equivalent to 17. 3s. 9d.

In the transport of materials, viz., that of hard wood, stone, aud tiles, from the Bungalow in the Wongneichung Valley to the store at the Government offices, and also for the repairs and alterations to the Central Police Station, as well as for the construction of the bridges in the valley, I have employed 3,343 men, valued at 691. 12s. 11d.

Two of the streets in the city, viz., Elgin-street and Wyndham-street, were improved, the former at the turn leading to Hollywood-road, and the latter at the junction with Albert-road, by the labour of 1,078 men. I also formed two streets near Hollywood-road, to give access to some lots of land offered for sale: this service employed 432 men. Another service, under the head of Coustruction, was performed in clearing and levelling the ground between the Queen's-road and the sea, extending from the Main Guard-house to a drain crossing the area, employing thereon 758 meu, valued at 15%. 15s. 10d.

This ground forms part of the plaza; the remainder of the area, from thence to Messrs. Lindsay's premises, is partly formed of the natural uncut ground, and partly by deposit of earth from the parade-ground and area of the Government offices and church. It is very irregular, and averages a height of 4 feet or more, containing about 10,000 cubic yards; and as the labour of its removal would involve a large expenditure of convict labour, probably the total number of convicts at my disposal for six months, the completion of the service has been delayed until a future period. The total number employed on these three services amounts to 2,435 men, equal to 50%. 14s. 7d.

The miscellaneous service performed by convict labour comprises clearing_the_ground, inland lot, No. 1, for police boat-shed, clearing sands at Pedder's Wharf, transplanting trees, work at Flag-staves, clearing weeds, &c., from Government ground, and scavengers for the city, amounting in the whole to 886 men, valued at 187. 9s. 2ď.

Thus the total number of men employed during the year out of the gaol amounts to 15,253, giving an equivalent value of work, amounting to 3177. 15s. 5d.; for the year 1849 the number employed was 17,846; for 1849, 18,151.

The prisoners who are condemned to hard labour within the walls of the prison have, as stated before, broken 300 tons of stone for the roads; it is certainly hard, and I now cause it to be broken very fine, and, estimating their labour at 5d. per diem, would give an amount of 647. 11s. 8d., or about 4s. per ton, which is a very high price indeed; this work is an employ- ment, and the stone is useful, but certainly no punishment. The tread-mill, when it arrives, will effect, I have no doubt, all that may be desired for that purpose.

In addition to this service a party of ten sailors were employed for three months in clearing and levelling the ground round the Debtors' Gaol. The value of their labour I estimate at 6d. per day, and amounts to 211. 5s. Thus the total value of all convict labour that I can bring to account amounts to the sum of 4037. 12s. ld.

On comparing the actual expenditure on account of the gaol with the value of work per- formed by the convicts. I must observe that at least two-thirds of the total number of persons confined in the gaol do not earn anything at all, and are consequently a burden upon the Government.

Road round the Island.

His Excellency having visited this road at the beginning of last year, instructed me to com- plete those portions of it between Aberdeen and Stanley which had been postponed or left unfinished. These works comprised four stone arches in the Staunton Valley, the foundations and abutments of which were finished, and the construction of two drains near Deepwater Bay. The first service was executed for the balance remaining due upon the original contract for the work, and cost 50%. 6s. 3d.; the other services I did not pay for until the termination of the year, and the expenditure will, therefore, be accounted for in my next Report.

The road, although it had no repairs for two rainy seasons, was in most places in very fair order, except on the sea-coast, near Aberdeen, and through Quarries near Aldrich Bay and Sowkewan, where extensive damages occurred, and where I have annually reported the diffi- culty of preserving it, both on account of its exposed position, and through the carelessness of the quarrymen in blocking up the drains and causing such an extensive deposit of silt to accu- mulate in the river-courses and land adjoining. For the general preservation of the road, that

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 309

is, in clearing the side channels, and arranging for the natural and proper discharge of rain- water, as well as to repair some particular localities, to render the passage of horses and pedestrians secure, his Excellency was pleased to authorize an expenditure of 667. 12s. 5d., of which I expended 631. 19s. 2d., and arranged a contract for that purpose, obliging the party to execute the necessary work, as well as to keep the whole in repair until the 31st December 1850; and on visiting the line in the month of January of the present year, I was much gratified to find the whole road in very capital order, with the exception of those sea-coast parts, alluded to before, and some of the wooden bridges; several of these, however, I caused to be reduced in width, and was thus enabled to perform a satisfactory repair without any additional outlay, the sound portions of the abstracted timber being available for other bridges in the neighbourhood.

153

I have to report the commencement of the new road to avoid the Gap-hill, commencing at the Albany Godowns, and terminating at the bridge in the Wongneichung Valley. This service will, I hope, be completed in March, and be of great advantage to the public, as giving a healthful promenade and agreeable driving-road for the hot season.

The trees planted along the sides of some of the roads in the city have in general thriven tolerably well; about one-tenth of them, however, have been much injured by goats and drunken sailors, and other wanton injuries have been done to them by other parties; but there are several varieties of the banyan, mango, bamboo, acacia, and other native trees extremely hardy, which grow very quickly, give considerable shade, and I should be very happy to see them extensively planted all over those parts of the city where the advantage of them would be felt.

The small plantation of fir-trees at the rear of the Albany Barracks, planted by myself in he year 1845, and which were then only one foot high, are now upwards of seven feet, and look very strong and healthy.

The Hon. Major W. Caine,

(Signed)

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy)

I have, &c.,

CHARLES ST. GEORGE CLEVERLY,

Surveyor-General.

(No. 10.)

SIR,

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 2 in No. 39.

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria, 12th February 1851.

I HAVE the honour to forward, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, my, Annual Report upon the state and progress of the department for the year 1850.

For the whole of the above period the entire duties connected with the supervision of labour, both for work under contracts and that performed by the convicts, has devolved upon mysel with the assistance of the Chinese overseer and Coolies. In consequence of the reduction in the department of the civil engineer and road overseer during the previous year, I adopted measures for arranging that the supervision of all works performed by the department should be under- taken by the Chinese overseer, to whom I gave the requisite instructions and a short detail of the contracts; and he, together with his Coolies, when necessary, were always stationed on the work, to see that the services were properly performed, and my directions to the workmen or contractor fully complied with. Thus the road round the island was regularly visited, its state of repair constantly reported, as well as the progress made with the few works of construction ordered on the Aberdeen and Stanley Road; also, when repairing and improving the road to North Point, the same service was performed. In addition to this, I directed the overseer and his men to take a general charge of the roads and streets, drains, &c., in the city, to execute contingent repairs in such places where it was not necessary to send the gang of convicts. By this arrangement, with the assistance of convict labour, I was enabled to keep the whole city in repair, without disbursing any money whatever, which I have never been able to effect in previous years.

The overseer was ordered to attend the office every day for instructions, and at the same time give a written report of the previous day's work; thus during the year 30 days' labour were occupied in grassing slopes, 15 days in surveying, 288 days clearing drains and side- channels, 488 days repairing and weeding roads and streets, and 102 days in attending to the trees on the roads; this, together with attendance upon me in the mornings and evenings, when their services were demanded to lay out ground for sale, define boundaries of lots, or other mis- cellaneous work, comprised the whole of their duties, which have been very satisfactorily per- formed; and I have lo report most favourably of their general good conduct, and particularly so of their overseer, Assow, who is a most valuable assistant to me, and (for a Chinaman) a most deserving and exemplary man.

The expenditure on account of roads not in the city amounted to 3851. 2s. 1d., on account of bridges 1567. Is. 11d., drains 411. 7s. 3d., marine works 167.

Buildings.

The construction and repair of buildings I took entirely under my individual supervision (the overseer only reporting the number of men at work thereon); these comprised the completion of the church tower, the fittings and furniture, &c., to the Court-house, sundry contingent

154

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

repairs, and a variety of works under the head of construction, fully detailed in my Report upon Works and in the Blue Book Return; the whole amounting to an expenditure of 1,5237. Is. 4d., of which 1,2067. 5s. 6d. was for the church.

The direct supervision of convict labour is now entrusted to the Indian serjeant of the guard. who was formerly the overseer attached to my department. He receives his orders direct from me, or through overseer Assow (who also assists him). He is an intelligent man, gene- rally attentive, and I am well satisfied with his conduct, as he performs his duties quite as well as can be expected from a man of his class.

In the supply of new tools, both for hard-labour within and without the gaol, and also for the repair of tools, I have expended the sum of 351. 4s. 2d. This is considerably less than the previous year's expenditure, but many of the wheelbarrows must soon be condemned, being too old for repair; but there is a good stock of wood from houses pulled down or resumed by Government, which will be very suitable for new ones, or repairs to buildings, when demanded. If I had a good carpenter attached to my department, I should find his services most useful, and I have no doubt it would effect an ultimate saving, as it would enable me to execute a great variety of repairs, which, for however trifling an amount, I must previously obtain the sanction of his Excellency the Governor; and, in consequence, I am often obliged to defer sundry requisite repairs until a sufficient number have accumulated to enable me to submit them to his Excellency; whereas if the carpenter was always available, this delay would never occur, and the convicts' tools, and the several buildings under my charge (27 in number), would be repaired immediately they require it. I have no doubt that I could engage a tolerably good carpenter at 30s. a-month, or 182. per annum, and as I invariably spend that amount of money in repair of convict tools alone, the employment of such a man would not be a burthen, although it would swell the amount of my departmental expenses. His work would be of the utmost advantage to the Government, and I am sure be attended with satisfactory results.

In the office Mr. Power still continues to give perfect satisfaction in the various duties required of him as book-keeper and general clerk, in the preparation of the ordinary accounts of expenditure of the department, as well as in the careful arrangement and entries demanded in the registration of memorials and the duties pertaining to the issue of leases. There have been but few transactions in land during the past year, only 45 memorials having been regis- tered. Of these, 30 were for absolute sale affecting 35 lots, and only 4 for surrender to Govern- ment affecting 7 lots, the remainder being of a miscellaneous character. Of these 45, 13 were by Chinese and 7 endorsements of surrender, the documents necessary for which were executed in the office. The number of leases issued was 9, and sales of land have amounted to the sum of 1561. 3s. 1d. per annum only, the rental of lots resumed by Government amounting to 1531. 8s. 11d., leaves (with the addition of 5 grants) the total land rental of the year 11,2937. 12s. 5ąd., or 441. 9s. 11⁄2d. more than it was for the year 1849.

I trust that I shall be enabled, during the present season, to make the necessary surveys, alluded to in my last Annual Report, of the several buildings and works erected since my general survey of the town in 1843. I am preparing a map of the cantonment and ground adjoining, showing the several buildings and colonial property extending from the Albany Godowns to the Ice-house, and when that is complete I shall proceed to the survey of the remainder of the city; this duty, although a simple and by no means an arduous one, in ordinary cases where there happens to be any European assistant, or where a person can devote his whole time to the service, but it being incumbent upon me to attend the office at the ordinary office hours I can only devote the mornings and afternoons to it, which causes consi- derable delay, as it occupies additional time in going to and returning from work, as well as in re-arranging the several lines of the survey for the intended day's work, and this is of no mean consideration in this climate cven during the cold season, where exposure without exercise is so injurious to health; surveying, although a tiring duty, and particularly street surveying, obliging a person to stand still almost for the greater portion of the time occupied in the work.

I have much pleasure in recording that the year has passed without any sickness in the department, and that the cause of my lameness (and consequent inability to walk or ride much during the previous year) having quite disappeared, I have been enabled to execute my duties with more satisfaction to myself both in the office and out of doors.

The Hon. Major W. Caine,

(Signed)

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

I have, &c..

CHARLES ST. George CleVERLY,

Surveyor General.

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure 3 in No. 39.

CENSUS of HONG KONG, 31st December, 1850.

155

311

Total Number Number

Population.

Population.

Total

of

Children.

of

Total.

Children.

Total.

Houses Boats. Male. occupied.

Fem.

Male. Fem.

Male. Fem.

Male. Fem.

Europeans and Americaus.

321

79

Portuguese (Goa and Macao) Indians, Malays, &c.

218

88

361

180

60

Chinese in employ of Europeans

1,633

161

Ditto residing in the City of

Victoria

Ditto Bout Population, Victoria

Harbour

Ditto residing in Villages

Ditto Boat Population, other}

than Victoria

Ditto temporary Resident, Vag-

rants, &c. .

·

Aliens, such as Seamen and

temporary Residents, &c.

1,204

727

9,909 2,287 1,005

2,453 780 620

802

3,217 862

465

634

2,956 1,301 1,152 798

660

40

៦ ៨១ ន ៖

៖ ៖ ·

319

354

ཚཌཔཉྩ བྷུ ྃ༔

31

465

Total Europeans

321

Total

Gua

and

48

415

276

Macao Portuguese,

398 148

9999

34 31

465

86

59

691

Indians, &c..

1,825

984 14,185

4,172

Total Chinese

20.828 5,431 3,262 2,466 | 31,987

4,898

6,207

700

149

149

Total Aliens .

149

149

Total

2,367

1,36121,696 5,658 3,382 2,556

33,292

* The Troops are not included.

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 4 in No. 39.

21,696 5,658 3,382 2,556 33,292

(Signed)

CHARLES MAY, Officiating Registrar-General.

No. 4. ABSTRACT of RETURNS furnished from each House occupied by Chinese in the Colony of Hong Kong, stating the number of persons resident therein on December 31, 1850.

No. of Persons who died

Population during preceding

General nature of Occupation

of the Inhabitants.

Children.

Total

Name of District or Place.

Male. Female.

of each place.

12 months.

Total Mortality.

Male. Female.

In the Out of the

Colony. Colony.

City of Victoria

11,542

2,448

1,025

995

16,010

65

Aberdeen and vicinity

786

95

59

37

977

1

65

1

Hong Kong

94

71

48

42

255

Pokioolum.

28

26

8

7

69

Saiwan and vicinity

48

23

23

22

116

Sheak O.

146

65

19

26

236

Sheak toon tain and vicinity

49

15

16

17

97

Showkewan and vicinity

466

91

57

29

613

Sookumpoo and vicinity

758

151

84

56

1,049

Sei-ing-poon

12

11

23

: :

5

Wongneichung.

283

120

64

58

525

10

Trade.

Trade with fishing. Agriculture.

Ditto.

Ditto.

Fishing and ditto.

Ditto. Stone cutting. Trade. Agriculture.

Ditto.

Stanley and vicinity

547

194

87

60

888

2

2

Trade with fishing.

14,759

3,310

1,490

1,349 20,908

85

85

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 5 in No. 39.

CHARLES MAY, Officiating Registrar-General.

No. 2.-RETURN of the Number and Description of Chinese Vessels Anchored or Plying in the Harbours and Bays of Hong Kong, on the 31st December, 1850, specifying the Number of Persons on Board.

(Signed)

VICTORIA

ABERDEEN.

STANLEY.

Description of Boat.

No.

Children.

No.

Children. No.

Children.

of Males. Fem. Boats.

of Males. Fem.

Males. Fem. Boats.

of Males. Fem. Males. Fem. Boats.

Males. Fem.

     Junks. Trading Boats Passage Boats

Sult Boats

Stone Boats Fishing Bouls

2

84

12

70

7

56

44 580

Fast Boats and Hakows. Cooking Boats

::::: 36:5:8:: %

·

3

40

18

·

72

30

18

53 636

275 360 272

Cargo Boats

Wood Boats

20

112

60

20

15

4

20

5

6

10

7

110

300

170 162

80

3

5

3

Sampans*.

·

500 1,060

388

206 178

350

267

208

Lorchas

4

41

Water Boats....

3

18

·

Total

727 2,453

620

20

:::::::

::

པཤྩ བ:3::

:

:;!ཊ;:

::: :: 2 ::

319 245 1,052 551

* Upwards of 200 employed in fishing.

55 469

120

20

3

6

2

5

24

22

5

49

4

6

5

486 265

310

209

60

10

9

7

2

4

1

3

105

154

616

311 183 169

:: ::

587 386

327 1,710

711 533 390

:::

·

156

312

Description of Boat.

No.

Children.

of Males. Fem.

No.

of Males. Fem.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Return of the Number and Description of Chinese Vessels-No. 5, continued.

Sarwax and Showerwan,

TOTAL

Children.

SHEAK-6.

Children. No.

of Males. Fem.

Boats.

Males. Fem. Boats.

Males. Fem. Buats.

Males. Fem.

Junks.

2

Trading Boats

4

Passage Boats

1

Salt Boats

· ធម

13

97

10

71

549

120

20

::

17

102

3

6

51

651

4 26

Stone Boats

4

25

3

5

2

7

65

జ.

3

5

Fishing Boats Cargo Boats

Wood Boats

Fast Boats and Hakows

Cooking Boats

25 78 34

23

18

3

13

194 1,287

624

723

517

20

112

60

20

15

9

40

6

10

7

1

2

122

363

181

174

89

5

9

1

6

Sampaas.

Lorchas

7

8

15

41

·

.

854 2,075 1,079

782

480

Water Boats

4

41

3

18

·

Total

44

140

39

38

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

31

2223

18

54

1,361 5,409 2,081 1,772 1,117

*

Upwards of 200 employed in fishing,

(Signed)

CHARLES MAT,

Officiating Registrar-General.

Enclosure 6 in No. 39.

RETURN of the average Number of Prisoners confined in Victoria Gaol during every Day of

each Month of the Year 1850.

Months. Europeans.

Chinese and Coloured Prisoners.

Total

Number of Deaths.

Remarks.

January.

February

March

April

May.

June July.

·

August

+

September October.

25

November

December

28REER & REM

24

140

Que Indian died of dysentery.

26

131

25

155

i

14

87

17

112

17

122

19

110

26

118

165

19

145

17

138

One Chinese died of dysentery.

One Indian died of suppuration of lungs.

(One Chinese died of cholera.

One Chinese died of congestion of lungs. (One Chinese died of natural causes.

One Chinese died of hospital gangrene. One Chinese died of dysentery.

13

144

242 1,567

1,809

8

Average Number in each Month

Total Deaths

150 8

Mortality

(True Copy,)

(Signed)

5.33 per cent.

W. H. MITCHELL, Sheriff.

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Enclosure 7 in No. 39.

MEMORANDUM showing the Number of Deaths which have occurred in the Garrison of Hong Kong during the

Year ended 31st December, 1850.

PERIOD.

Description of

Quarter ending 31st March.

Quarter ending 30th June.

Quarter ending 30th September.

Quarter ending 31st December.

Troops.

Average Deaths. Average Deaths. Strength.

Sirengih.

Average Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength

during the Year.

during the Year,

Number of Deaths

Proportion of Deaths

to average Strength.

Proportion of Deaths to

entire Force.

Europeans

710

11

694

19

Malays and Natives ofĮ

412

2

422

15

608

410

84

7

499

30

625

144

23.04

17.89

392

17

409

41

10.02

India

1,034

185

Brigade Office, Hong Kong, 6th April, 1851.

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

(Signed)

A. E. BURMESTER, Captain, Brigade Major.

SIR,

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 313

Enclosure 8 in No. 39.

Victoria, Hong Kong, April 5, 1851.

We have the honour to reply to your letter of 1st April 1851, by the following Report on the Government Chinese schools for the past year.

2. The average number of scholars under instruction has been 93; 30 at Victoria, 18 at Stanley, 20 at Aberdeen, and 25 at Wongneichoong.

3. The teacher at Aberdeen having been dismissed for gross misconduct was replaced by another, with whose success in the instruction of his pupils we have reason to be satisfied. The teacher appointed to the school at Wongneichoong, opened during the year, is an elderly man, a native of the village, a schoolmaster by profession, and a Christian convert. He had for many years taught in that neighbourhood, and was recommended by the villagers them- selves as a fit person.

4. The system pursued in the Victoria school not meeting with our approbation, Mr. Moncrieff proposed to the teacher to remove to St. Paul's College and there receive instruction, as well in the arts of teaching generally as in the truths of the Christian religion. The offer was accepted, and the school served for the time by a teacher from the establishment of the College. After a fair trial, however, it was considered improbable that the original teacher would soon be able to conduct the school in a mode of which we could approve, and as the Bishop of Victoria had a vacancy for a teacher in the College, and kindly agreed to take this man permanently into connexion with him, we thought it better that his relation to the Government should cease, and that the teacher who supplied his place should be continued in charge of the school. We regret that in consequence of this change the unmber of scholars decreased for a time. The former teacher received the 10 dollars a-month only in aid of his school, which before any Government assistance was granted consisted of more than 30 scholars, but the present teacher stood upon a different footing. Latterly the number has again increased, and it now corresponds with that which by the effect of the Government grant was added to the original school.

5. The teachers of the four schools are now, therefore, all nominees of the Government, not receiving, as far as we are aware, any compensation from their pupils, and they are all professed Christians.

6. Christian books have been introduced into all the schools, but it is not compulsory on the scholars to learn them. If the parents object, the course of study is confined to native reading.

7. The following are the principal books now used:-

Native Works.

The three character Classic.

The one thousand character Classic. The four books and five Classics.

Christian Works.

Medhurst's three character Classic. Bishop Boone's Catechism.

The Bible.

157

8. The progress of the scholars has been, on the whole, tolerably satisfactory; we hope, however, by a more effectual supervision, and by the introduction of a few elementary works on various branches of useful knowledge, as soon as Chinese literature shall have been enriched by these, to work some improvement. The great distance of three, or at least two, of the four schools, coupled with our imperfect knowledge of the language, renders the supervision difficult and unsatisfactory. We can, however, only suggest one remedy that lies beyond ourselves, and this is, that the school Committee should be remodelled, aad that to the Bishop of Victoria should be accorded the entire superintendence of the schools, or at least a joint superintendence.

9. The most serious impediment to progress is the fluctuation of the scholars in each school, owing to the caprice, but principally to the avarice or the necessities of the parents who are unwilling to allow children to remain at school who may be employed elsewhere, with a, to them, more tangible prospect of pecuniary gain, for the importance attached by Chinese to the acquisition of knowledge, though great, is, we fear, secondary to that attached to the acquisition of money.

The Hon. Major Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

We are,

&c.,

(Signed)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

C. B. HILLIER,

E. T. R. MONCrieff, LL.D., Committee for superintending Chinese Schools.

158

314

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 9 in No. 39.

Victoria, Hong Kong, January 27, 1851.

MEMORANDUM on the Junk Trade in the harbour of Victoria, from 1st March to

31st December 1850.

  A MEMORANDUM furnished in February 1850 explained the difficulty of supplying extensive or accurate data regarding the trade of this colony, and the defectiveness of the means of obtaining information upon that head.

From the return daily made up by a native in the employ of the Chinese Secretary's Office, it appears that there anchored in Victoria harbour during the above period 467 junks loading with stone from the colonial quarries, a slight advance upon the stone junks of 1849, which amounted to but 456.

In the salt trade there is a considerable increase, 456 junks having imported 345,050 piculs of salt in 10 months, while the whole import of 1849 was 335,550 piculs imported in 334 junks.

The monthly average of general traders has continued nearly the same as during the latter eight months of 1849; of the first four months there was no record, but, in the remainder, 596 junks, laden with general cargoes, anchored here, while during the latter 10 months of 1850 there have been 706 at Victoria with general cargoes, moving to or from the east and west coasts of the Cantou province, Fuhkien, the islands of Hainan and Formosa, and Singapore

and Siam.

From this last port a single junk brought areca-nut, Brazil-wood, rattans, pepper, birds'- nests, leather, and nutmegs.

From Singapore three large vessels, the same cargo as above, birds'-nests excepted, and with it drugs, dried fish, glasses, and biche-de-mer.

Three from Formosa, coal, sulphur, rice, potato-flour, planks, and skin. The rest from various ports of the coast, reaching from Tien-tsin to Hainan Island; pigs, sheep, and poultry, drugs, bark, dried fruits, pulse, grain, sweet potatoes, sugar, sugar-candy, cocoa-nuts, areca- uuts, betel-leaf, dried fish, blubber-fish, rock-suckers, biche-de-mer, hams, bacon, pickled vegetables, eggs, native wine and manufactured tobacco, salt, alum, coal, charcoal, fuel, sulphur, rattans, coarse paper, crockery, cloth, grass-cloth, leather, furs, raw silk, planks, raw iron, and iron ware.

Compared with 1849 there has been a slight falling off in the marine junk trade of some four or five vessels a-month, and there have been noue, as in 1849, from Tonquin; but it is impossible to account for this by any of the causes which might ordinarily be supposed to affect a coast trade.

During the last two months when, although the monsoon is fair, the weather is such as to render navigation not a little perilous to the frail native craft, and while there has been more just alarm felt on the score of piracy than since the destruction of the pirates fleet in September

1849, the number of monthly aarivals has been greater than at any period since May 1849.

In both November and December no fewer than 124 junks have touched here; the greatest number on record before this being in May 18+19, when 122 are shown to have anchored here.

T. WADE, Assistant Chinese Secretary.

(Signed)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

(True Copy.)

Enclosure 10 in No. 39.

RETURN of the Total Number of Felony Cases coming under the Cognizance of the Hong Kong Police, including those in which no Persons were apprehended.

Year.

Total Number of Cases.

1847

5$5

1848

713

1849

856

1850

674

(Signed)

CHARLES MAY, Superintendent of Police.

Victoria, Hong Kong, February, 1851.

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

159

315

Enclosure I in No. 39.

RETURN of Criminal Cases that have been tried in the Supreme Court of Hong Kong during the Year 1850.

SENTENCE.

REMARKS.

Number of Cases.

Number of Persons.

CRIME.

1

1

Abduction of Girl under 16 Years.

1

Arson

2

Assault

2

Assault and false Imprisonment

}

3

Assault, with intent to rob.

1

1

Aggravated Assault.

1

2

Assault and Robbery

1

3

Breach of Prison

2

2

6

8

Burglary and Larceny

1

1

Burglary and Stabbing

1

3

1 1

2 2

1

2

1

1

G

10

2 2

2

2

2

2

Manslaughter

1 9

3 3

12 25

Burglary, with intent to rob

Conspiracy to sell a Girl for purpose of Prostitution

Demanding money with menaces.

False Imprisonment

False Imprisonment and Extortion Forgery

Larceny.

Larceny by a Servant

Larceny in a Dwelling-house

Murder

Perjury

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death.

recorded.

Transporta-

tion.

Hard Labour over One

Death

Year.

Hard Labour, Que Year

and under.

1

5

3

Charge abandoned.

Postponed.

of Cases.

Number Number Number | Number

of

of

of Persons. Cases. Persons,

Piracy

1

41

Piracy, with Stabbing

7

11f] Receiving Stolen Goods

1 2 Revolt

2

1

13

13

23

12

2

7

12

Robbery with arms

4 4

Robbery, with stabbing

5 5

Stubbing, with intent to do grievous bodily harm

3

81 163

Total

·

78

29

10 10 00

2

29 12 4 40

7

14

18

51

* James Gilroy, one of the prisoners, was ordered to be discharged on payment of ls, to Her Majesty.

In this case, the prisoners were further sentenced to pay a fine of 50 Dollars each, and to be further imprisoned till such fine was paid. This prisoner was indicted for murder, but the Crown waiving that charge, he pleaded guilty of manslaughter.

§ One of these prisoners died before the day of trial in prison. ~This will explain the difference of one in the totals.

(Signed)

W. H. ALEXANDER,

Deputy Registrar.

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

(Signed)

ROBERT DUNDAS CAY,

Registrar.

4

160

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

316

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 12 in No. 39.

Abstract of CAUSES under cognizance at the Chief Magistrate's Office Hong Kong, during the Year 1850, with the mode

of disposal.

Number of

Causes.

Civil Causes, how disposed of.

Criminal Causes, how disposed of.

Totul.

Civil.

Criminal.

Decree for Plaiutiff.

Decres for Defendant or Claim withdrawn.

Summoned to Petty

Sessions.

Undecided.

Total Convicted Discharged Released Number of and without Defendants. Punished. Punishment Security.

מט

Deported.

Committed or bailed for Trial at the

Committed pending de- | livery by the Governor.

Supreme Court and

Chinese

To the

To the Consul of

Undecided.

Petty Sessions. Authorities

France.

M.

F. M. F. M. F. M. F.

M.

F.

M. F. M. F.

M.

F.

M. F.

1,731 556 1,175 64

126 359

7 1,692 66 465 19 674 29 50 6

47

1

380 10 10

49

**

17 1

The Civil Causes summarily decided by the Magistrates consisted of-

Claims for Police Rates

Recovery of deserted leasehold premises Fees on Opium Licenses, &c.

·

192

4

197

The Criminal Causes summarily decided consisted of-

Unlawful possession of goods, malicious injuries, obstruction of wharves and thoroughfares, keeping public brothels, illegal assemblage with intent to injure property, furious driving, &c. &c.

Rogues and Vagabonds, plying boats and hawking without License. Misconduct as Police Constables

Resisting Pulice

Drunkenness and disorderly conduct

Assaults and Batteries

Keeping Public Gambling Houses

Unlawful combination among workmen

False Balances and Weights

·

Breaches of Spirit Licenses

Exercising without License the calling of Pawnbroker, Auctioncer,

Retailer of Opium or Spirits

Add Committals for Trial, Summonses for Defendants in cases of

Debt, Damage, &c.

(True Copy,)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

Tutal.

164

96

40

23

214

157

4

1

2

13

707

of}

827

1,731

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER,

Chief Magistrate.

Enclosure 13 in No. 39.

with the Mode of Disposal.

ABSTRACT of Causes under Cognizance at the Court of Petty Sessions, Hong Kong, during the Year 1850,

No. of Causes. Civil Causes, how disposed of.

Criminal Causes, how disposed of.

Tutal.

Civil.

Criminal.

Decree for

Plaintiff.

Defendant.

Decree for

Nousuited.

Undecided.

Withdrawn.

575 | 339 216) 208]

41 71 2 34

Referred to Su-

preme Court.

Total Number

Convicted ind of Defendants.] Punished.

Discharged without Punishment.

Released

Committed

on

Deported.

or

Security.

Bailed.

M.

F. M.

F.

M.

F. M. F.

M. F. M. F.

4

315

3 182

2

61

1

30

CRIMINAL-

Larceny

Classification of Offences.

Robbery and Housebreaking

Extortion

Embezzlement

Receiving Stolen Property

Obtaining Money by false pretences

Demanding Money with menaces

Uttering counterfeit Coin

Riotous assemblage

Combination amongst Workmen

Assaults with intent to Rob

Assaults and Batteries

Vagrancy

146

4

3

33

:

6

22

Returning to the Colony after having been deported Cutting and destroying Trees

8

1

Desertion from Vessels in Harbour

1

Total

216

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER, Chief Magistrate.

(True Copy.)

W. CAINE, Colonial Secretary.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 261.

(No. 17. Civil.)

HONG KONG.

No. 34.

161

HONG KONG,

No. 34.

COPY of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir S. G. BONHAM K.C.B. to the Right Hon. Earl GREY.

MY LORD,

Victoria, Hong Kong, March 14, 1852. (Received May 22, .1852.)

I HAVE the honour to transmit the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1851.

Revenue and Expenditure.

 2. The revenue of the colony for the year 1851 was 23,7211. 7s. 61d., and the expenditure for the same period amounted to 34,115l. 7s. 6d.

Military Expenditure.

 3. The total expenditure of the commissariat and ordnance departments amounted to 51,8957., being 12,7331. less than in the year 1850. This decrease arises from certain reductions in the force, and from the completion of military works and buildings.

Public Works.

 4. The sums paid during 1851 on account of civil works and buildings, &c., are stated at 1,611. 8s. 1d., including the additional grant of 4551. towards the completion of St. John's Cathedral. The Surveyor General's report, which I beg to enclose, shows the nature of these works. I also forward this officer's annual report upon the state and progress of his department for the past year.

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

162

262

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Legislation.

5. Four ordinances, the titles of which are given at page 56 of the Blue Book, have passed the Legislative Council, and the three first have already received the confirmation of Her Majesty.

Population.

6. The census recently taken shows the population to be 32,983, con-

sisting of

Europeans and Americans

Goa and Macao Portuguese

Indians, Malays, and natives of Manilla

Aliens (chiefly foreign scamen and temporary residents) Chinese

Total

647

489

221

163

31,463

32,983

No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

No. 11.

The above is an abstract of the returns prepared by the officiating Registrar General, copies of which I append for your Lordship's information. There has been a small decrease of males in the Chinese population within Victoria, as compared with the census for 1850, owing to emigration to California.

The number of deaths amongst the white population has been 67, being at the rate of 10-35 per cent.; and the deaths amongst the Chinese inhabitants are estimated at 1,020, as appears by the enclosed statement, showing an average mortality amongst the native population of 3.24 per cent.

The average monthly number of Chinese and coloured prisoners in the gaols was 146, amongst whom eight deaths occurred (exclusive of one by suicide), giving an average mortality of 5.48 per cent. The average monthly number of European prisoners under confinement was 33, of whom two died.

The Sheriff's return, showing the inmates of the gaol during 1851, is here. with transmitted.

The general state of health, sickness, and mortality during the past year is shown by the report of the colonial surgeon appended to the Blue Book. Dr. Morrison has annexed thereto a comparative statement of the health of the troops during 1850 and 1851, from which it will be perceived that there has been a considerable abatement of sickness in the garrison during the past year. For easy reference, I transmit herewith a memorandum showing that the proportion of deaths to average strength has been as follows:

Amongst Europeans

Amongs Malays and natives of India

-

7.5 per cent. 7.6

In 1850 the deaths averaged 23·04 and 10·02 per cent. respectively.

Education.

7. There are six schools in Victoria superintended by European tutors; and the number of Chinese schools throughout the island, conducted by native teachers, is also six. These latter, except one, are supported by the local Government, and are under the supervision of a committee, whose report on the state of these schools during the past year I annex for your Lordship's information.

Trade.

8. The return at page 191 of the Blue Book exhibits the total number of vessels arrrived at Hong Kong to have been 1,082, of an aggregate burden of 377,084 tons, being an increase over the year 1850 of 198 vessels and 77,991 tons. The returns appended under the head of "Imports and Exports" show that 117 vessels imported and 123 exported goods to and from the colony. They also prove that treasure to the value of $7,588,993, equivalent to 1,581,040. 4s. 2d., has been shipped to India, the greater portion being undoubtedly in return for opium sold in China. The annexed statements give the export of treasure and the import of opium from 1845 to 1851 inclusive, by the Peninsular and Oriental Company's steamers alone. With regard to the trade carried on between Hong Kong and California, I am informed that 44 vessels have left for that place during the past year.

The number of vessels registered at this port during 1851 was 10, measuring 2,400 tons. One of these, of 206 tons, was built in the colony.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 263

  The accompanying memorandum, by the assistant Chinese secretary, bears upon the native trade of Hong Kong, and shows that in 1851 the harbour of Victoria was visited by 1,004 sea-going junks, being an increase of nearly 20 per cent. upon the monthly average of 1850.

  With regard to the whaling trade, upon which I offered some observations in my last report, I may state that it has, as anticipated, increased considerably during the present season. Between the 2d December 1851 and the 21st February last, 37 vessels of this description arrived at Hong Kong. Their cargoes, as appears from the enclosed printed statement furnished by the consignees (an American firm), consisted of

Sperin oil, 140,017 gallons. Whale oil, 476,185 gallons. Whale bone, 74,174 lbs.

 Of the above, it seems by the Harbour Master's returns (page 206 of the Blue Book), that only 17,675 gallons of sperm, 20,080 of whale oil, and 8,399 lbs. of bone, were exported from hence to England.

Crown Lands.

  9. The fixed revenue under this head, abstracted from the rent-roll for the year ending 25th December 1851, was as follows :-

Mercantile firms Private individuals Chinese

L S. d. 4,906 8 53

4,277 9 01

-

1,512 7 9

163

HONG KONG,

No. 12.

No. 13.

10,696 5 3

 The decrease in this item of the colonial revenue, as compared with that for the year 1850, is 5971. 7s. 2d.; but this difference arises from certain reductions in the land rent and the resumption of sundry lots, already reported upon, and sanctioned by your Lordship.

Police.

10. From the enclosed return, furnished by the Superintendent of Police, it will be seen that the number of felony cases coming under the cognizance of his department was 488, whilst in 1850 they amounted to 674.

On the subject of administration of justice, I beg to refer your Lordship to the under-mentioned returns, showing the business performed during the past year by the Supreme Court and the Police Courts; namely:-

Criminal cases tried in the Supreme Court.

Number of civil cases tried by the Chief Justice, and actions commenced. Causes brought before and decided by the Chief Magistrate of Police and the

Court of Petty Sessions.

General Observations.

  11. In conclusion, my Lord, I would observe that I am satisfied the true interests of the colony are progressing as favourably as could be anticipated. During the year no less than 1,082 square-rigged vessels anchored in the harbour, being an increase of 198 over the preceding one; of these 167 pro- ceeded with cargoes to the ports of Shanghae and Amoy; and by the Harbour Master's report it seems that 207 entries have been made by steamers alone from the Canton River, a service conducted by five steamers of from 50 to 175 horse-power. A regular monthly communication between Hong Kong and Calcutta is announced by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Com- pany, by which the colony will have the advantage of a bi-monthly communi- cation with England. A monthly steam communication is now carried on with Shanghae, and a bi-monthly one with Amoy, by vessels belonging to the same company. These facts are convincing evidence of the advantage and benefit that this colony is to Canton, and to the trade of China in general. I would add, moreover, that Hong Kong affords a subsistence to three newspapers and two advertisers, one published daily, and the other three times a week; a tolerably significant proof, were others wanting, that the colony is not in a very languishing condition.

The Right Hon. Earl Grey,

*&c. &c. &c.

I have, &c. (Signed) S. G. BONHAM.

No. 14.

No. 15.

No. 16.

No. 17.

No. 18.

164

264

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

SIR,

Enclosure 2.

Surveyor General's Office, Victoria, February 7, 1852.

I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the works which have been undertaken during the year, and upon the general state of repair of the civil roads and works, &c. upon the island.

Roads.

Aberdeen to Stanley. Upon this line an expenditure of 25l. was made, being the balance of an uncompleted contract for two drains near Deepwater Bay.

The new roads finished comprise that from the Albany Godowns to Wongneichung, at an expenditure of 3231. 3s. 8d., and the road by the Plaza, including the work in levelling adjoining, at an expenditure of 1812. 3s. 3d + 6l.=187l. 3s. 3d.

A new road twelve feet wide 1 mile and 117 yards from Aberdeen Street, to join the Aberdeen Road (1007.), is also in course of construction, and upon which an expenditure of 501. has been made. At the present date it is nearly completed; but as it has not received one single shower of rain I apprehend considerable settlement and damage thereto before it is perfectly consolidated.

The new road for the extension of the carriage drive from North Point to Quarry Bay' on the Saiwan Road, 1,080 yards, was authorized during the latter end of the year, and is in course of execution, under contract for 1231. 19s. 2d. Upon this line also there will be considerable settlement during the next rains; and before the summer I hope a sufficient bank of sand will be thrown up against the rough stone wall, which will be planted with grass or seaweed to protect it against the wash of the sea.

A small arch and three drains were made on the Saiwan Road, estimated at 67l. Os. 10d., in lieu of the old platform wooden bridges.

The road round the island was repaired during the year 1850, the contract for which, amounting to 621. 18s. 4d., was paid during the year 1851, since which time no repairs have been effected.

 Sundry repairs have been paid for on the Wongneichung and Sukunpu Roads, amount- ing to 201, 16s. 6d.; the total expenditure on road construction and repair being 6981. 1s. Id.

Bridges.

The only bridge constructed during the year is that over the ford at Causeway Bay, a twenty feet arch, upon abutments four feet high, with a roadway of twenty feet in the clear, which was much required, and cost 1457. 16s. 8d.

Authority (under Report and Estimate No. +, of 1851, and Requisition No. 20, of 1851) was given for an expenditure amounting to 3161. 13s. 4d. for the construction of stone bridges and drains on the road round the island (with the exception of the two large bridges; one at Tytam; the other at Quarry Bay). These are in course of construction.

Buildings.

 The repairs of a miscellaneous character to gaols, police stations, and other civil buildings, including expenditures by other departments, amounted during the year to 1367. 10s. 7d., in addition to which hired watchmen were employed to take charge of the Albany and Larkins' Godowns, resumed by Government at an outlay of 331. 15s., making the aggregate expenditure for buildings 1717. 15s. 7d.

Victoria.

The works in the city, exclusive of convict labour, comprised covering the open culverts with the stones of the parapet walls (reserving the coping stones for future use), at an expenditure of 46l. 13s. 10d.; the extension of a drain in Albert Road, 61. 58.; and man- holes to drains on the Plaza Road, 8l. 10s. 8d. Total for drains, 61l. 9s. 6d.

Sundry Works.

 Planting trees, 343 in number, of various kinds and sizes, in several parts of the city, amounted to 20%. 15s. 9d. The goats complained of in previous years as doing so much damage to trees have not been so destructive this year, and the only damage trees have sustained lately is caused mostly by thieves stealing the supports thereto, and by drunken sailors, nevertheless the greater number are thriving very well, and will in a few years be a great ornament to the city.

 Five public wells were also ordered to be made during the year, four of which are completed, and upon which an advance of 251. has been made.

 Twenty-one stone seats were placed near the public roads. These were formed out of the coping-stones of the open culverts in the city, lately covered over.

The additional Government grant for completion of the cathedral was paid during the year, amounting to 4551.

I have also to report the commencement of the work for Government House, in the preparation and lowering of the proposed site, which provides for the cutting and removal of 24,000 yards of carth, at an expenditure of 2001.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 265

165

Convicts.

In the purchase of stone hammers and new tools for convict labour, both inside and outside the gaol, and also in their repair, the sum of 27l. 12s. 7d. has been paid; this is a very small sum, considering the number of men employed. I have, however, to remark, that the wheelbarrows, and, indeed, most of the plant, is in very bad condition.

The total expenditure on account of works of all kinds, as enumerated above, has amounted to the sum of 1,613l. 18s. 1d.

The labour performed by the convicts has consisted in the general repair of all the roads and streets in the city, which I have been able to keep in a very satisfactory state. The rains not having been particularly heavy last year, the damage they sustained was not very considerable. In actual repairs I have employed 3,000 men upon 84 miles of road, which gives an average of 11⁄2å. a yard, or a total estimated value of 811. 5s.

In the improvement of the roads round the Wongneichung Valley, by placing stone parapets thereto, and several other services, in the formation of retaining walls, widening drains, &c., I employed 5,310 men; and in the construction, widening, and lowering the road to join the Government House Road from Caine Road and Arbuthnot Road, 2,296. men, at an aggregate estimated value of work amounting to 158l. 9s. 2d. Sundry drains in various parts of the town were repaired and cleaned out from time to time by 312 men. Scavenging, under charge of the policeman on duty in the city, was performed by 158 men, and miscellaneous services of all kinds by 399 men, valued at 181. 2s. 1d.

The total number of men employed outside the gaol, therefore, has amounted to 12,375 men, being 2,878 less than last year, giving a total value of work performed equal to 2571. 16s. 3d.

Those employed at hard labour within the gaol walls amounted to about 18,000. The labour performed is of a very light nature indeed; they were employed breaking stones for the roads, but as it was not done by task work it cannot be considered a punishment. The advantage of the use of broken stone upon the roads, fine as I require it, becomes more apparent every year, and enables me to effect repairs in a inuch more substantial manner than I could do in previous years, and therefore it is desirable to continue the supply. I estimate that only 220 tons have been broken, which I value at 3s. 6d. per ton, or 381. 10s., during the year, a much smaller quantity than last year.

A few men were employed picking oakum for the navy and making mats for the Government offices, and an average of ten daily were employed in the ordinary work of the gaol, carrying water, &c.

The labour of the three department coolies I turned to account during the year on the public works, when they were not in attendance upon me, or otherwise employed with their overseer. In repairs to roads they performed the work of 249 men; in making new drains, 6 men; clearing drains and side channels, 229 men; planting and trimming trees, 274 men; removing timber, 126 men; cutting grass and weeding at Government offices, 31 men; miscellaneous, 12 men.

In conclusion, I have to remark that the whole of the roads, works, and buildings under my charge are in a good state of preservation, with the exception of some wooden bridges; and although the road over the hills to Tytam and that round the island have not been repaired during the year, no great damage has occurred thereto, and both are passable for horses.

W. Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

I have, &c.

(Signed)

CHAS. ST. GEO. CLEVERLY, Surveyor General.

Enclosure 3.

SIR

Surveyor General's Office, Victoria, February 10, 1852.

I HAVE the honour to forward, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, my annual report upon the state and progress of the department for the year 1851.

During the year last passed there have been no changes in the department, and the general services and duty performed by its members have been of a precisely similar nature to those of the previous year.

The Chinese overseer and his coolies, when not in attendance upon me, perform the ordinary repairs to streets, drains, and attention to the trees, and the general miscellaneous services which are constantly demanded.

In contract work, having no foreman or clerk of works, I employ them occasionally to see any special portion of work requiring supervision fully carried out according to my instructions, and in that particular have rendered very effective help, though not equal to that of a trained overseer.

The repairs to buildings I was necessarily obliged to superint end myself in themorn- ings and evenings (the only portions of the day I could devote to that duty). The works carried on, however, have been but trifling, and thus a constant supervision was not demanded upon all of them; but as an instance of the difficulties I have occasionally to encounter in compelling an efficient mode of construction, I must mention that on visiting the bridge at Causeway Bay as usual I objected to some of the stonework in the arch, and

166

266

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

on the following day this had been patched up with wood, and coloured to imitate the stone, which, if not discovered in time, would eventually have caused the destruction of the entire bridge in a few years. In such cases, where a wilful system of scamping work is adopted, I invariably condemn a large portion of it; and although this mode causes some delay and inconvenience to the public in certain cases, it is the only means I have at pre- sent of obliging the contractors to execute sound and satisfactory work; but I find they never try that plan of cheating again.

 The expenditure on roads undertaken by the department, both in construction and repair, amounted to 6981. 1s. 9d.; upon bridges, 145l. 16s. Sd; upon sundry miscellaneous services 3141. 19s. 8d. The whole together, with 4551. additional grant for the completion of the cathedral, amounted to 1,613l. 18s. Id.

 The supervision of convict labour is entirely executed by myself, the Indian sergeant of the guard acting as overseer. A daily return is made of the number of men employed, and the nature of their work, to enable me to bring the value of it to account in my annual return for the Blue Book. I have to report most favourably of the conduct of the sergeant Chorepah, who is very attentive, and makes the men perform as satisfactory work as can be expected.

The Chinese overseer and coolies have given also equal satisfaction.

 The supply of tools and their repair during the year amounted to 271. 12s. 7d. · The work performed, including breaking stones, I estimate in my return upon works at 2961. 6s. 3d., which gives a rate of 9 per cent. upon it, and may be considered by no means heavy; but many of the wheelbarrows and some other articles are now in a bad state of repair, and a new set of the former is much required. Occasionally carpenters and blacksmiths are included amongst the convicts, and if I had means of employing them and could establish a good workshop, either within the gaol or at the Government, offices, the repairs would be executed at a smaller cost; but, as stated in my last report, if I had an established free labourer, a carpenter and generally useful man, he could be em- ployed most effectively in executing repairs himself to the various buildings under my charge, or as overseer upon works too large for one man, or where I could not send a convict unguarded.

 In the deeds registry department thirty-nine memorials have been registered, affecting forty-three lots, twenty-nine of which were for absolute sale, and seventeen of these were prepared in the office for Chinese. This service is performed by Mr. Power, in addition to his ordinary work as book-keeper and clerk; and I have to report that he continues to execute the whole of the work devolving upon him, both as regards the careful preparation and registry of land deeds, as well as in the work of accountant, in the same satisfactory manner as reported in former years.

The number of leases written and issued from the office amounted to twenty-nine. Land giving a yearly rental of 131. 128. 8d. was sold, upon which a premium of 437. 198. 2d. was paid. The grants of land were seven in number (two of which, for religious and educational purposes, were rent-free), paying a rental of 51. 178. The rental upon land resumed amounted to 4501. 6s. 8fd., and reductions in rent autho- rized by the Right Honourable Lord Grey, 270l. 11s.; making a total reduction of 7201. 17s. 84d

The rent-roll at the end of the year was 10,696l. 5s. 34d., being 5971. 7s. 21d. less than the previous year.

 The fees derivable from leases and registry of memorials amounted to the sum of 991. 08. 21d.

 I have much pleasure in stating that my own health has not suffered during the year; and the lameness which caused me so much trouble before has not returned, thus enabling me to perform my various duties in the office from ten till four, as well as those devolving upon me in the superintendence of works, convict labour, and other services in the city, connected with land, in the mornings and evenings, without difficulty or inconvenience.

 I have completed a portion of the map alluded to in my last report, connecting the colonial property with the cantonment; but the other map, of the new houses and improve- ments in the town, I could do nothing to. The short time I have to work, and other services on hand, and particularly those consequent upon the late disastrous fire in the Lower Bazaar, which rendered necessary the entire change and re-allotment of the greater portion of the area, extending over about eight acres and a half, and the superintendence of the houses in course of erection, entirely prevents me from devoting my time thereto,-at any rate for this cold season. I must remark, however, that the work is not of absolute necessity, as the plan originally made by me is sufficient for all purposes connected with operations in land, and therefore no inconvenience results from the delay.

 In conclusion, I have to state that it is my desire to render the services of my depart- ment as efficient as possible in the execution of all work demanded from it, and trust that his Excellency the Governor may be pleased to accord his approval thereto.

I have, &c.

(Signed) CHARLES ST. GEORGE CLEVERLY,

Surveyor General.

Enclosure 4.

CENSUS of HONG KONG, 31st December 1851.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Population.

Population.

Total

Total

No. of

Houses.

No. of

Boats.

Children.

Total.

Children.

Total.

Remarks.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Femalc.

Male.

Female.

Male. Female.

Europeans and Americans

412

141

55

39

647

412

141

55

39

647

Goa and Macao Portuguese (mixed blood)

219

98

94

78

489

345

143 133

89

710

Indians, Malays, and Manila

126

45

39

11

221

362

Aliens (chiefly foreign seamen) and tem-

porary residents

163

163

163

163

Chinese, in employ of Europeans

1,661

128

79

77

1,945

Chinese, residing in the city of Victoria

1,501

7,157

1,772

825

902

10,656

Ditto, boat population in Victoria Har-

bour

893

2,903

714

290

261

4,168

Ditto, residing in the villages

940

3,442

895

517

380

5,234

Total

Ditto, boat population other than Vic- toria

889

3,00+

1,266

1,011

729

6,010

of

Chinese.

20,767 5,125|2,972 | 2,599 31,463

400

50

450

Ditto, temporary residents, vagrants, &c. Estimated number of Chinese (who are not included in the House Census Returns) who were resident in houses burnt down on the 28th December, many of whom temporarily left the Colony in conse- quence

2,200

300

250

250

3,000

21,687 5,409 3,160|2,727 32,983

21,687

5,409 3,160

2,727 32,983

(Signed)

CHARLES MAY,

Officiating Registrar-General.

267

167

168

268

Enclosure 5.

ABSTRACT of RETURNS furnished from each House occupied by CHINESE in the Colony of HONG KONG, stating the Number of Persons resident therein, Mortality, &c. on

31st December 1851.

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Number of Persons

Children.

Name of District or Place.

Male.

Female.

Total

Population of each Place.

who died during the 12 Months.

Total

Chinese

Mortality.

General Nature

of Occupation of the Inhabitants.

Male.

Female.

In the

Colony.

Out of

the Colony.

City of Victoria

7,157

1,772

825

902

10,656

165

Aberdeen and Vicinity

740

88

55

43

926

Hong Kong

67

47

35

35

184

Hongheongloo

70

8

4

2

84

Hoktsui and Kaseewan

34

26

13

11

84

Pokfoolum

25

19

3

9

56

Saiwan

131

55

25

23

234

Sciingpoon

18

12

9

7

46

Shcak O'

126

81

40

23

270

Sheaktoongtsui

58

30

22

21

131

Showkewan

336

58

21

21

436

Sookumpoo

832

139

59

54

1,084

Stanley

658

148

91

42

939

at

It may be reasonably estimated that three fourths of Chinese seized with serious diseases in thisColony, remove to their native places, two thirds of whom die. I believe that the deaths out of the Colony may be properly stateď

Trade.

Do. with fishing. Agriculture.

Stone cutters.

Stone cutters.

Trade.

Do. with fishing.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Agriculture.

Do.

Do.

Tsutcheemoy

106

20

9

4

139

I

765.

Tytamtook

45

39

18

19

121

Wongmakok

22

14

16

4

56

Wongneichoong

174

111

97

62

444

2

Agriculture.

Do.

Do.

Do.

10,599

2,667

1,342

1,282

15,890

201

Bodies found exposed, died in gaol, and

54

Government Civil Hospital

255

765

(Signed)

1,020

C. MAY,

Officiating Registrar General.

STATE OF

HER

Enclosure 6.

RETURN of the NUMBER and Description of CHINESE VESSELS anchored or plying in the Harbour and Bays of HONG KONG, on the 31st December 1831, specifying the Number of Persons on board.

DESCRIPTION

of

BOATS.

VICTORIA.

Children.

ABERDEEN.

Children.

STANLEY.

Children.

SAIWAN

AND SHOWKEWAN.

Children.

SHEAK O'.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Children.

Male.

Female.

No. of Boats.

Male.

TOTAL.

Children.

TOTAL.

Female.

Male.

Female.

1841-1886

MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 269

169

Junks

4 162

-

J

I

1

1

1

1

Trading Boats

16

181

Passage Boats

10

95

4

E

-

Salt Boats

32

448

1

Stone Boats

5

52

2

40

· 4

46 368 138 97 29

6 36 4 7

4

3

15

4

6

2

.1

5 2 2

14 140

-

6

42

1 10

2

10

6

5

3

4

21 6 7

2

I

1

Lorchas

Cargo Boats

Fishing Boats

Wood Boats

Hakows and Pullaway Boats

Cooking Boats

Water Boats

Sainpans

3

37

1

1

-

27

30

I 8 N

71

167

38

40

-

5

178 97

41

45

28

G9

315

207 138 72

87 435 232 311 270 26

-

6

38

16

13

8

་ ་

1

1111

1

1

1

t

4

162

1

162

70

625

146 104

33

908

14

1

115

10

14

7

146

53

640

1

1

-

1

640

11

83

12

12

5

112

3

37

37

27

167

71

40

38

316

130

35

S

29 18 + 16 10 5 3

216

1,074

581

528 391

2,574

220

397

210

87

91

28

81

4

9

-

-

3

4

9

12

42

66

29

27

3

21

1

1

1

1

3

19

2

6

|

5341,117

332

112

97 296

592

316

142 137

33815

-

261 641 218 190 145

| a

| | |

1

1

1

I

t

1

11

79

13

16

8

116

t

248

481

276

129

118

1,004

8

18

2

3

4

27

5

25

25

9 12 3 6 7 12

39

-

5

1,112 | 2,401

869 455

386

4,111

Total

893 2,903

714 290

261 | 426 1,2-

618

352 250 400 1,486

588 598 444 47 214 50 51 32 16 55

10

10

81,782 5,907 1,980 | 1,301

990

Grand Total

10,178

(Signed) C. MAY,

Officiating Registrar Genaral.

170

270

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 7.

RETURN of MORTALITY amongst the CHINESE during the Year 1851.

Population Died in of each Place. the Colony.

Died out of the Colony.

Total.

City of Victoria

10,666

165

165

Dead bodies of Chinese found exposed by the Police in

Victoria and buried

32

32

·

Number of Chinese died in Government Civil Hospital

and Gaol

209

22

·

Total in Victoria

219

22

219

22 23

Aberdeen

Stanley and Vicinity

Sheak "O

Saiwan

Showkewan and Vicinity

Sookunpoo

Wongneichung

Total Villages

Estimated Mortality out of Colony*

Grand Total

926

939

270

234

1,337

11

1,084

444

6234182

36

623416&

11

8

36

-

-

765

765

255

765

1,020

 * It may be reasonably estimated that three-fourths of Chinese seized with serious diseases in this Colony remove to their native places, two-thirds of whom die; I believe that the deaths of the Colony may be properly stated at 765.

(Signed) C. MAY, Officiating Registrar General.

Enclosure 8.

RETURN of the AVERAGE NUMBER of PRISONERS confined in the Victoria Gaol, during every Day of each Month of the Year 1851.

Months.

Chinese and Europeans. Coloured

Total.

Number of Deaths.

Remarks.

Prisoners.

January

16

148

164

I

One Chinese of dysentery.

February

22

145

167

March

28

147

175

3

April

27

149

176

May June

19

144

163

29

151

180

Do.

July

40

149

189

August

42

134

176

September

61

149

210

October

48

152

200

One Chinese of mortified leg, one Chinese of paralysis, one Chinese committed suicide by hanging.

One Chinese of hospital gangrene.

One European of apoplexy.

Two Chinese of dysentery.

One European and one Chinese of dysentery

Do.

November

38

143

181

December

Total

31

147

178

-

401

1,758

2,159

11

Average number in each month

Total Deaths

·

Mortality, say per cent.

180 11

(Signed) W. II. MITCHELL, Sheriff.

Enclosure 9.

MEMORANDUM Showing the NUMBER of DEATHS which have occurred in the GARRISON of HONG KONG, during the Year ended 31st December 1851.

Description of Troops.

PERIOD.

Quarter ending Quarter ending Quarter ending Quarter ending] 30th June. 30th Sept.

31st March.

31st Dec.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength

during the Year.

Number of Deaths

during the Year.

Proportion of Deaths

to average Strength.

Proportion of Deaths

to entire Force.

Europeans

526

7

510

6 648

22

Malays and Natives of

India

382

7 390

8 403

25

626

9 577

44 7'5

7'6

400

10 394 30

7'6

971+

74

Brigade Office, Hong Kong,

January 6, 1852.

(Signed)

A. E. BURMESTER, Captain,

Brigade Major.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 271

171

Enclosure 10.

SIR,

Victoria, Hong Kong, December 24, 1851. We have the honour to make the following report of Government Schools for the past year.

An additional school was established at the village of Hong Kong in July, which now contains more pupils than any of the other schools, excepting that at Victoria. Since June the total number of pupils under instruction has averaged 113; 28 of these being at Victoria, 14 at Stanley, 24 at Aberdeen, 20 at Wongneichung, and 27 at Hong Kong.

At Aberdeen and Stanley the schools, owing to the commencement of the fishing season, are almost deserted. At the latter place on the last occasion on which the school was visited, supposing that the small number of scholars might arise from the remissness of the teacher, one of us visited all the private schools established there, and found only one (a missionary school) better attended, one or two being about to shut up till the close of the fishing season.

We have used our discretion in conformity with the plan recommended in deducting from the salary of the teachers, where we deemed it necessary, a certain sum for each scholar less than 30 that the school has contained; by this means some money has been saved and partly expended in the purchase of books and maps; a good map of China having the places noted in the Chinese character has been furnished to each school, and a work on Astronomy has been introduced (we are afraid, however, with very little benefit), to be followed by one on geography and another elementary work on physics.

We should expect much more benefit from these schools if they were placed under more effectual supervision than we are able to afford, and if suitable schoolhouses were erected by Government, the present schoolrooms hired by the teachers themselves being very confined and very dirty.

The Hon. Major W. Caine, Colonial Secretary.

We are, &c.

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER,

E. P. R. MONCRIEFF, LL.D, Committee for Superintending Chinese

Schools.

Enclosure 11.

EXPORT of TREASURE by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers, during the Years 1845 to 1851 both inclusive.

1845.

1846.

1847.

1848.

1849.

1850.

1851.

Value in Dollars.

Value

Value in Dollars. in Dollars.

Value

in Dollars.

Value in Dollars.

Value in Dollars.

Value in Dollars.

44,173

951,807 786,602 5,652,827

8,823,753

5,793,446 7,381,238

IMPORTS of OPIUM by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers, during the Years 1845 to 1851 both inclusive.

1845. 1846.

1847.

1848.

1849. 1850.

1851.

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

of

of

of

Chests. Chests. Chests.

of Chests.

of

of Chests. Chests.

of Chests.

of Half Chests.

of

Cases.

325 1,284 2,622

10,163

11,175 11,530

19,061

27

534

Victoria, Hong Kong,

30th January 1852.

(Signed)

C. R. MICHELL. Acting Harbour Master.

172

272

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 12.

MEMORANDUM on the JUNK TRADE of HONG KONG, during the Year 1851.

Victoria, Hong Kong, 20th January 1852,

Chinese Secretary's Office.

It was explained in a Memorandum of the 14th March 1850, upon this subject, that no information, at all reliable, could be obtained respecting the native Junk Trade in any anchorage except that of Victoria

Monthly returns drawn up in the manner described in the same document show that in 1851 Victoria Harbour was visited by 1,004 Marine Junks, carrying sundry cargoes ; an increase of nearly 20 per cent upon the monthly average of 1850.

The monthly returns of the salt monopoly state an import of 280,300 piculs of that article in 543 junks. The quantity is not above four fifths of the import of 1850, and the far greater number of salt junks can only be accounted for by the fact that much of the salt has been imported by vessels carrying a mixed cargo. These have doubtless been included by the salt monopolist in his total of salt junks.

In the stone trade there is a slight increase; the monthly returns of the stone monopoly showing an export of 565 cargoes from the Colonial quarries.

The subjoined table will give some idea of the monthly progress of the native trade during the year under review. The larger portion of it by far is done by junks from small towns and villages along the coast of the Kwang Tung Province, east of the Canton River. These send areca nut, betel leaf,

Marino Junks belonging to

January February March

April

May

Juno July

August

September

October

November

December

1851.

Tien-tsin.

uppy-unk

Coast.

Amoy.

Formosa.

888 size KwangTung

GO

East.

OF BO GO GO ALONE Canton.

Kwang Trung

West.

HIBO-Wisma | Hainan.

Cochin China

Siam.

Singapore.

Penang.

Monthly total of Karine Junks.

Monthly total of

Balt Junks.

Monthly total of Piculs Salt Imported.

**Monthly total of

Stone Cargoes exported.

133 METER

113

201

87JĚZNONBESE

43

24,500

62

41

23,800

36

44

23,800 30

41

21,200 40

75 48

19,700 70

47

21,700 44

72 49

24,500 40

76 47

24,300 40

46

21,000 40

41

19,900 80

101 47

21,500 40

89 54

28,400 40

Total

7

08

1

1 736 47 G4 41

1

3 4

1

1,004 543 280,300 562

charcoal, cotton, cloth, crockery, and ready-made clothes, new and second-hand, drugs, dried fruit, dried meat, eggs, firewood, grass-cloth, hams, hardware, iron, lard, linseed, livestock, nankeen, oil, potato flour, pease, coarse paper, rice, sugar, saltfish, salt, skins, sugar canes, shoes, silk, soy, tobacco leaf, vegetables, fresh and salted, wine and wheat.

The junks from Canton and the coast west of it bring much the same cargoes. The latter more properly speaking, belong to the districts along the west bank of the river.

The Tien-tsin junks brought rugs, cotton cloths, cotton, skins, deers horns, deers sinews, hams, dried fruits, pears, cabbages, pease, beans, wine, and drugs.

Those of the Fuhkien coast and Amoy, alum, camphor, coal, salt, and sulphur, cotton, cotton cloth, grass cloth, nankeen, sheep skins, shoes, bricks, tea, sugar candy, pease, beans, and potato flour.

A single junk from Formosa, coal and sulphur.

Those from Hai-nán, bark, wood, rattans, sandalwood, skins, drugs, soy, salt beef and mutton, salt, barley, beans, rice, oil, cocoa nuts, areca nuts, live stock, dried fish, sharks fins, rock-suckers, and biche-de-mer.

The Cochin Chinese carried cloths, cotton yarns, rice, and drugs.

The three Siamese junks, nutmegs, Brazil wood, peppers, skins, areca nuts, bark, drugs, glasses, rattans, sandalwood, dried fish, rice, and biche-de-mer.

The four Singaporeans, the same, as also cotton yarns and opium.

The single Penang vessel, drugs, nutmegs, pepper, and sandalwood.

The Tien-tsin junks are said to take away opium in no small quantities, and much is of course carried in the Kwang Tung coast junks, some of which, belonging to the nearer ports, make as many as six voyages in the year to and from Hong Kong.

There is nothing to account for the great decrease of the salt imported. The stone trade is considerably above what it has been for the last two years, and the marine junk trade, which is of the chief consequence, better than it has been for the last three years; as will be seen by the following table :---

Junks and Cargoes.

Marine, average per month

Salt Junks

·

Imported, piculs salt

Stone junky

18-18.

80 524 297,050 777

1949.

1850.

1851.

72 334 335,350 482

67 456 343,050 467

83 543 280,300

562

(Signed)

THOMAS WADE,

Assistant Chinese Secretary.

Enclosure 13.

LIST of WHALERS arrived in HONG KONG. 1851-1852.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS

173

273

No.

Vessels Names.

Masters.

Where owned.

Agents or Owners.

Months

out.

Sperm Oil,

Whale, in Barrels of in Barrels of 314 Gallons 31) Gallons old Measure. | old Measure.

Bone.

Arrived.

Sailed. Where bound. Consignees in Hong Kong.

lbs.

123

Ferdinand

Malherbe

Liancourt

Lopez

Havre

Havre

Jaques Levavaseur

12

R. Winslow and Co.

15

Trident

Taber

New Bedford

T. A. Parker

15

Neptune

Allen

New London

Williams and Haven

19

India

Miller

New London

Williams and Haven

17

Champion

Bailey

New Bedford

J. D. Thompson

19

Bengal

Phillips

8

Bayard

Graham

New London Greenpoint

Thomas Fitch, 2d

15

Ireland, Wells & Co.

28

9

Junior

Hammond

10

Brighton

Weaver

11

Ocean

Swift

12

Marcia

Wing

13

Midas

Woodbridge

14

Fortune

Hathaway

New Bedford New Bedford Providence New Bedford New Bedford New Bedford

D. R. Greene & Co.

18

J. D. Thompson

15

-

E. Pearce

18

E. W. Howland

J. B. Wood & Co.

15

G. Hathaway

15

15

George and Mary

Green

New London

Liman Allyn

18

16

Metacom

Bonney

New Bedford

J. B. Wood & Co.

18

17

Hibernia

Baker

New Bedford

R. Gibbs

28

18

Condor

Kempton

19

Stephania

Terry

20

Rhone

Dennis

New Bedford New Bedford

Sydney

C. W. Morgan

16

J. Bourne & Co.

14

-

R. Town

11

21

Hercules

Fisher

New Bedford

22

Harvest

Almy

New Bedford

23

Hobomok

Callot

Falmouth

24

Mount Wollaston

Barker

New Bedford

25

Morca

Kelly

New Bedford

Swift & Perry Swift & Allen Elijah Swift A. Barker B. B. Howard

26

16

40

27

16

26

Francis

Swain

New Bedford

H. Taber & Co.

27

St. George

Hawes

New Bedford

A. Barker

28

General Pike

Baker

New Bedford

William Gifford

29

Friends

Low

New London

Benjamin Brown, Sons

30

Brougham

Wills

London

Boulcott & Sons

37

31

Illinois

Covel

New Bedford

Wood & Nye

32

Roman

Tripp

New Bedford

A. Barker

33

Washington

Palmer

34

William Hamilton

Holm

New Bedford New Bedford

Jonathan Bourne, jun.

35

Charles Carrol

Chapel

New London

J. Howland, jun. & Co. Perkins and Smith

20

36

Adeline

Carr

New Bedford

37 Cossack

Slocum

New Bedford

J. Howland, jun. & Co. Charles Hitch

245 DFD620 00 10 10 10 20 00*CICLONY SATIS

Dec. 2

1,100

11,538

"2

40

30

Jan. 19

Feb. 4

Cruise

Cruise

Rawle, Drinker, & Co.

Rawle, Drinker, & Co

Rawle, Drinker, & Co.

"

1,000

|||6|8||292|98988882

1852.

Jan. 2

836

15,321

13

35

16

27

GOO

7,557

500

13

300

650

7,500

"

1,000

21

375

700

400

23

900

17,858

23

400

24

846

10,000

25

850

25

250

==22222222222'

17

17

20

20

Rawle, Drinker, & Co Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co.

Rawle, Drinker, & Co.

Feb. 12

Cruise

Rawle, Drinker, & Co.

11

Cruise

J

27

19

Cruise

120

Feb.

1

250

"J

350

4,400

11

200

850

10

"

13

13

450

13

"

600

13

נו

13

"3

13

"

700

14

"

80

14

1,150

15

"

360

16

"

16

"

16

16

300

21

Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co. Rawle, Drinker, & Co.

19

4,445

15,117

74,174

174

274

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure No. 14.

RETURN of the Total Number of FELONY CASES coming under the cognizance of the Hong Kong Police, including those in which no Persons were apprehended.

Year.

Total Number of Cases.

Remarks.

1850

674

1851

488

Decrease in 1851, 186 cases.

Police Department,

(Signed)

C. MAY,

12th February 1852.

Superintendent of Police.

Enclosure No 15.

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been tried in the Supreme Court of Hong Kong

during the Year 1851.

Number of Cases.

Number of Persons.

CRIME.

(a) 7

14

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death.

Death recorded.

Transportation.

Hard

Labour,

over One Year.

Hard

Labour

One year and

Number of

Cases.

under.

Number of

Persons.

Number of

Cases.

Number of

Persons,

abandoned.

poned.

Sentence.

Remarka

Charge Post-

0 1 2

TE THE CO

PA | | INHINHI

111

2144

SIINNI

t

2

7 Assault

1 Assault and false imprisonment

Assault, with intent to rob

Attempting to set fire to a ship Burglary

3 Burglary and Larceny

1 Child.stealing

3 Conspiracy to commit Piracy

-

3 Cutting, with intent to do grievous

bodily harm

1 Demanding money with menaces

7 Endeavouring to make a revolt

1

1

2

1

1

3

(6) 1

1

3

(c) 6

12

False imprisonment

1

4

2

1

1 Escape

4 Extortion by a constable

1 Forgery

-

1 Keeping a bawdy house

5 Larceny

36 Manslaughter

4 Murder

1 Obtaining money under false pre-

tences

1 Perjury

8 Piracy

1 Piracy, with violence

(d)-

(g)

IINI | | | ∞

TAHITIN

TUA [ 2

11

TINCT | | 15

1401

4

8

1

(h)5

1

4 Piracy, with wounding

2

2 Receiving stolen goods

4

6 Robbery

1

1 Robbery in the harbour

8

12 Robbery, with arms

1

4 Selling and purchasing a woman for

purpose of prostitution

1

2 Shooting at, with intent to maim

1

1 Sodomy

3

10 Stabbing with intent to do grievous

bodily harm

66 116

Total

·

1 #1

1

{

|(1) 2

14

11

1

-

1

18

51 27

113 21

15 5

17 9 21

(a) One prisoner sentenced to pay a fine of 50% in lieu of imprisonment.

(6) Postponed from 1850.

(c) Imprisonment to commence at expiration of former sentence.

 (d) Three of the prisoners sentenced to pay a fine of 50 dollars each, and to be further imprisoned till that fine was paid.

(e) Two of these cases were postponed from 1850.

() Five of the prisoners were arraigned for murder, but found guilty of manslaughter.

Fined 200 dollars, and to be further imprisoned till it was paid.

One of these cases postponed from 1850.

No jurisdiction.

(Signed)

ROB. DUNDAS CAY, Registrar.

W. H. ALEXANDER, Deputy Registrar.

Judgment.

TOTAL.

Plaintiff.

Defendant.

Nonsuit.

Cases.

Debt and Damages.

Enclosure 16.

RETURN of the Number of CASES TRIED by the Honourable JOHN WALTER HULME, and ACTIONS COMMENCED in the Supreme and Vice-Admiralty Courts of HONG KONG, during the Year ending 31st December 1851.

Cases tried before the Honourable J. W. HULME in 1851.

Court.

Number of Cases.

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTYS COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

SUPREME COURT:

Common Law

Chancery

Summary

Insolvency

Appeals

3

None.

$

5,144 54

None.

(a) 2

1

None.

None.

None.

None.

71

12,924 70

Hearings

None.

2

Debts in schedule 11,798 08

VICE-ADMIRALTY COURT

None.

14,524

0

46 Insolvent discharged None.

3

20

1

Remanded

Nouc.

None.

·

None.

None.

None.

79

$44,391 32

ACTIONS COMMENCED in 1851.

Number

Settled

Court.

of

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

without

Cases.

Trial.

Judgment.

Remaining

in

Dependence.

Plaintiff.

Defendant.

Nonsuit.

Cases.Debt and Damages.

TOTAL.

SUPREME COURT:

Common Law

(b) 18

&

75,479 70

Chancery

None.

None.

14

Nonc.

1

None.

None.

None.

None.

Summary

101

17,531 24

Insolvency

2

Debts in Schedule

- 11,798 08

29

None.

46

20

Petitioner discharged

None.

None.

2277

Ecclesiastical

(c) 20

Assets per Appraisement - 16,995 22

Appeals

None.

VICE-ADMIRALTY COURT

5

None.

7,476 80

None.

None.

None.

None.

4

I

None.

None.

None.

1

146 129,281 04

N.B. Of the five Common Law Cases in dependence on the 1st January 1851, one was tried and four settled. The Summary Jurisdiction case was settled. Of the three Vice Admiralty Cases, two were tried and one is still in dependence, and the Chancery Cases are also still undecided. (a) In one of these cases the plaintiff has given notice of appeal.

(b) In three of these cases the defendant was arrested on a capias issuing from the Common Law side, and they were subsequently brought into the Summary Jurisdiction. The debt and damages in the said cases amount to (c) In five of these estates there was a will, consequently the property was not appraised.

710 Dollars. (Signed)

W. H. ALEXANDER, Deputy Registrar. ROB. DUNDAS CAY, Registrar.

(Signed)

275

175

176

276

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941.

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure 17.

Abstract of CAUSES under Cognizance at the Chief Magistrate's Office

COURT OF PETTY SESSIONS.

Number of Causes.

Civil Causes

how disposed of.

Of which

Total.

Civil.

Criminal.

were

Decree for Plaintiff.

588 350

238199 55

Criminal Causes how disposed of.

Number of Causes.

Of which were

M. F. M.

F. M. F.

M. F. M. F.

M. F.

33

87

5 4 371

5 185

-

77

3

3

-

103 2

3

1,338

91 1,247

Civil Causes :-Consisted of claims for debt or damages not exceeding $50., for police rates, and by seamen for wages, &c.

Among the Criminal Causes summarily decided were for →→

Larceny, receiving stolen goods, &c.

Demanding property with menaces

Relating to coin

-

Malicious damage to property

Assaults

Vagrancy

Combination among workmen

Breach of prison

158

3

4

1

251

89

Enclosure 18.

RETURN OF VESSELS, TONNAGE, and Flag anchored at

1842.

1843.

1844.

1845.

FLAG.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

British

American

336

124,357

439

163,206

463

168,187

513

173,540

22

6,759

34

11.073

47

13,681

103

35,789

Spanish

11

2,718

10

2,454

12

3,007

19

4,946

Dutch

6

782

5

1,364

3

664

8

2,325

Danish

2

700

·

5

1,308

4

1,245

French

-

4

1,357

2

638

1

321

Hamburgh

266

1

86

1,118

Prussian

379

125

250

Mexican

Portuguese

Swedish

Bremen

Belgian

Peruvian

Bally

Russian

Hawaian

Chilian

Siamese

Sardinian

Norwegian

I

1,032

1,612 IGO

2,384

480

300

100

900

Hanoverian

Burmese

Chinese

Steamers from India

3,550

Do.

·

do. Canton River

Totals

381 136,336

497 180,572

538

189,257

672

226,998

Victoria, Hong Kong,

30th January 1852.

16

76

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

177

277

Enclosure 17.

and the Court of Petty Sessions of Hong Kong, during the Year 1851.

Civil Causes how disposed of

MAGISTRATE'S OFFICE.

Criminal Causes how disposed of

Decree for Plaintiff.

Decree for Defendant,

Total Defendants.

Convicted, and punished.

Punishment.

Discharged

without

Released on Security.

Deported.

Committed or bailed for Trial at the Supreme Court and Court of Petty Sessions.

Committed to Prison pending Delivery to the Chinese Authorities ac- cording to Treaty.

Undecided.

F.

M. F. M F. M. F. M. F. | M. | F. M

F. MF.

Summonses.

Subpœnas.

1235

15 1,908❘ 80

642 | 25 |872 46 53

14 1 306

7 18

13-1,013| 361

70 145

Keeping public gambling houses

False balances and weights

Breaches of regulations for sale of intoxicating liquors Unlicensed retailing of opium

Perjury

Desertion and refusal of duty by seamen in British vessels Desertion and refusal of duty by scamen in Foreign vessels

the Port of Hong Kong, from 1842 to 1851 inclusive.

Enclosure 18.

Total

Writs issued by Magistrates.

Distress.

Warrants.

REMARKS.

Arrest.

Under the Head of "Causes how disposed of" are included such Causes as were brought before the Court for decision. Those which. did not proceed beyond the issue of a suin- mons or warrant will be found under thoj Head of "Total Writs issued."

Search.

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER,

Chief Magistrate.

-

5

14

5

75

9

6

1846.

1847.

1848.

1849.

1850.

1851.

No. Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

2223

523 177,114 499 164,920

457

146,681

610

73 25,022

92

30,697

118

45,910

108

189,790 501 163,307 43,558 130 57,175

548

187,492

163

85,610

23 7,582

22

5,569

23

4,810

33

8,945

33

6,524

23

6,512

9

2,538

7

2,038

9

3,305

13

4,181

21

8,672

19

6,893

1

305

3

1,070

2

309

3

1,365

16

3,459

10

2,969

1

300

4

1,150

6

1,630

2

423

3,927

11

3,366

1,214

3

776

5

1,077

4

1,332

14

5,706

27

8,144

1,105

2

1,200

1

130

226

8

900

2

503

7

737

3

298

5

1,563

400

243

9

3,240

12

3,348

2

304

1

300

4

1,330

4

1,210

3

1,708

15

5,879

2

750

400

2

317

5

1,155

1,899

9

3,045

8

1

1,554 680

1,036

2

400

2

342

2

300

890

4

1,698

720

363

2

355

3

468

194

280

200

562

400

2

670

1,330

2

349

842

1,742

783

377

4

530

128

12

8,700 13 2,379

12

30

11,510 6,954

12

42

675229,255

694 229,465

700

11,985 7,686

228,818

12 97

902

13,728 24,508

293,465

12

12,428 105 25,228 *207

17

17,768

41,472

883 299,009 1,082

377,084

* These are, properly speaking, 207 arrivals during the year by 5 steamers plying between Hong Kong and Canton.

(Signed) E. R. MICHELL,

Acting Harbour Master.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

179

HONG KONG.

No. 40.

Copy of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir S. G. BONHAM, K.C.B., to the Duke of NEWCASTLE.

(No. 44.) MY LORD DUKE,

Victoria, Hong Kong, June 13, 1853.

(Received, August 20, 1853.)

I HAVE the honour to transmit to your Grace the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1852.

Revenue and Expenditure.

2. The revenue received up to the 31st December last amounted to 21,331/. 1s. 81d., and was less than that for the year 1851 by 2,390l. 5s. 10d.; but this decrease was principally owing to the relief which the local Govern- ment found it necessary to afford to the sufferers by the great fire of December · 1851, as already reported upon, and since approved of by the Secretary o State, and partly to a greater amount of ground rents outstanding, which have however since been recovered.

3. The total expenditure for the same period was 34,765/. 12s. 94d., being-

Civil establishments

Contingencies!

་་་

Judicial establishment and police

"Contingencies

Ecclesiastical establishment.

Contingencies

Public works and buildings, roads, streets, and

bridges, including repairs and improvements

Miscellaneous expenditure

Pensions

.

.S.

d.

11,900 76

1,533 7 0 8,474, 15. 5,683 4 7 729 3 4

94 18 11.

4,937 19 2. 1,400 8 0 12 29

34,765 12 9

4. That your Grace may not: suppose the revenue of the colony is on the decline, it affords me pleasure to state that the revenue collected for the financial year ending 31st March 1853 amounted to 23,4321. 13s. 5d., being in excess of that collected during the preceding financial year by 9177. 4s. 2d.

Military Expenditure.

5. The total disbursements by the Commissariat and Ordnance departments amounted to.: 50,393/., showing a decrease of 1,5021. as compared with the previous year.

:

180

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S, COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Public Works..

   6. The expenditure under this head, which' includes repairs to roads, and public buildings and improvements, aggregated, as above, 4,9371. 19s. 2d., of which 3,8874. 19s. 11d. were on account of the Government housc. '***

7. The convicts sentenced to hard labour whose services have been made. available for the performance of works on the roads, &c. have, according to the estimate of the Surveyor-General, executed an amount of work equivalent to 486l. 12s. 11d.

T

8. The customary reports by this officer, which are herewith enclosed, will afford your Grace full information' respecting the progress of his' department, and the works undertaken and executed by it during the year.

Legislation.wo grea

:

9. The ordinances passed during the year were six in number, five of which have already received the confirmation of Her Majesty. The titles of these enactments, which have already been fully reported on, will be found at page 56 of the Blue Book. It is gratifying to me to be able to state that the whole of thesc enactments have hitherto fulfilled the objects for which they were passed.

Population:

    10. The population of Hong Kong at the close of the year was 37,058, show- ing an increase (chiefly amongst the Chinese) of 4,075 over that for 1851. This population is exclusive of troops, and consists of-

Europeans and Americansemus alb

Goa and Macao Portuguese

Indians, Malays, and natives of Manilla-

:

Aliens, chiefly seamen and temporary residents

Chinese

Total

526

478..

267

8/270

35,517

37,058

HONG KONG.

No. I. No. 2.

Surveyor-Gene- ral's Reports,

pp. 329-333.

!

The returns, of which the above is a summary, were prepared by the officiating registrar-general, and are annexed to this Despatch. dem Ikea a stumde

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

11. With respect to the health of the various sections of the community, it appears from the colonial surgeon's report attached to the Blue Book, to which Census, pp. 334- I beg to refer for more detailed information regarding the sanatory condition 336. and prospects of the colony, that the per-centage of deaths during the past year was as follows:

White population

Christians of mixed blood, Indians, Malays, &c. Chinese estimated at

-

8:42 per cent.

10.20 p.

·

2.89 p. c.

}

being 1,028 deaths out of a population of 35,517.

No. 6.

No. 7.

12. From the accompanying return of the acting sheriff, it will appear that eleven deaths occurred during the year amongst the Chinese and coloured Mortality amongst inmates of the gaol, numbering on an average 122 per month, showing a Chinese and pri mortality of 9.16 per cent. No deaths occurred amongst the European soners in gaol, prisoners, whose average monthly number was 37.

p. 337.

No. 8.

13. I am glad to be able to report that the European troops have, during the same period, enjoyed a remarkable immunity from sickness, the mortality amongst them, as exhibited in the annexed return, having been only 3.6 per Deaths in the gar- cent., or rather less than one half of that during 1851. On the other hand, the rison, p. 337. deaths amongst the Malays and natives of India in the garrison were 10.02 per cent., showing an increase of 2·42 over the mortality of the preceding year.

Education.

14. Little or no change has taken place in the schools of the colony. The five native ones to which the Government contributes are under the control of a committee presided over by the Bishop of Victoria. A report by Mr. Med- hurst, one of the members, on the progress of these institutions, is hereto appended.

Trade.

15. By the harbour master's return, at page 193 of the Blue Book, it will be seen that the total number of vessels which arrived in the colony during the

No. 9.

p. 338.

Schools,

1841-1886

181

No. 10.

Export of treasure, import of opium,

p. 339.

No. 11.

Report on the junk trade, pp. 339, 310.

No. 12.

No. 13.

No. 14.

No. 15.

Civil, criminal, and police cases, PP. 320-323.

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

past year was 1,097, of an aggregate burden of 433,383 tons, which, compared with 1851, shows an increase of fifteen vessels and 56,299 tous. The returns following the above, at page 197, prove that seventy-four vessels imported and seventy-nine exported goods to and from the colony.

16. This return shows that treasure to the value of $6,074,845, or 1,265,592l,, 14s. 2d., has been remitted to India during the past year by the Peninsular and Oriental Company's steamers alone. This large amount of specie is chiefly in return for the opium brought thence, and sold to the Chinese along the coast. The quantity of this drug imported by the same vessels is also shown in the return. Both items, however, fail to afford anything like an approximation to the real amount, as other vessels, owned by or consigned to the principal merchants of the colony, from whom no returns can be obtained, the port being entirely free, are also, employed for the freight of both opium and treasure.

17. The trade with California continues with undiminished activity; and the supply of different articles for that market has afforded constant and remunera- tive employment to the tradesmen and artizans of the colony. I am informed that during the past year no less than 30,000 Chinese embarked hence for San Francisco, whose passage money, at the rate of $50 per head, would give a sum of $1,500,000 to shipowners and consignees resident at Hong Kong.

18. I beg to annex the customary annual report on the junk trade of the colony.

Crown Lands.

19. The revenue from this source for the year ending 31st December 1852 was derivable as follows:

Mercantile firms

Private individuals Chinese 956

:

ABEN

!

and shows a small incrcasc over last year's rent roll

Police.

£ 5. d.

4,808 2 41

4,419 8 10

1,552 4 11

10,779 16:2

20. The felony cases that came under the cognizance of the police during the year 1852 were 523 in number, being thirty-five more than during the previous twelve months.

21. I enclose returns for the past year of criminal cases tried in the Supreme Court; of civil cases tried before the chief justice, and actions commenced in the Supreme, and Vice-Admiralty Courts; and of causes which came under the cognizance of the chief magistrate and the Court of Petty Sessions.

General Observations.

4

!│

22. In conclusion, I beg to observe that I consider the past year to have been a very favourable one for this colony. Its commercial prospects are slowly but certainly extending, and assuming a character of greater permanency; its sanatory condition is satisfactory; the wants of its community are readily supplied in the city; and the Chinese inhabitants, so far as I can judge, continue to repose confidence in the Government. The only subject of regret is the extent to which piracy prevails in the neighbouring waters. This, indeed, is one of great importance, but being carried on chiefly between Chinese, it is altogether impossible for the British Government to suppress it without some active co-operation on the part of the Chinese Government. This co- operation I have repeatedly requested from its authorities without avail; and, in the present disorganized state of the sea-board part of the empire, it is now useless to expect it.

The Duke of Newcastle. &c. &c. &c.

mà no . I am, &c. · !

(Signed)

S. G. BONHAM.

182

SIR,

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure 1:

REPORT by the Surveyor-General on the Progress of the Department, 1852.

Surveyor-General's Office, Victoria,

February 14, 1853.

I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the progress of my depart- ment for the year 1852, for the information of his Excellency the Governor.uga.

During the lasti year no changes have been made in the department, and with the exception of the temporary assistance of three sappers, the general duties of its members have been of a similar nature with that of the previous year..

 The Government having, decided upon the erection of Government House from the designs prepared by mo for that work, and adequate assistance not existing in the department for its effective supervision, the services of three sappers (a carpenter, bricklayer, and stonemason,) were placed at my disposal. I have found them of great assistance, and they have in general been steady and well-behaved, but I experienced considerable inconvenience from the repeated changes of them which took place in the earlier part of the work; this was I understand unavoidable, the inen being required for military duty, and in one or two instances were changed: for. improper conduct I:Imveljinuclisatisfaction, however, in stating that for some months past the Commanding Royal Engineer, has left I them stationary, and placed a corporal in charge, which is a great advantageant migh

 The work has apparently proceeded rather slowly, but this is naturally the case where a large quantity of material has to be cut and prepared before it can be built in; in addition to this, the arching of the whole of the basement occupied a considerable period and required great care and attention.

 In my report upon public works I have detailed the plans I have adopted for the preservation of the timber and the due ventilation of the building, it is therefore unneccs- sary for me to recapitulate it; suffice it to say, that my best energies shall be exerted to render the whole building as perfect a specimen of work, as the means, at my disposal will enable me to effect, and trust that in ten months from the 'present date the 'building and offices connected with it will be finished, and so that it may be fit for occupation in the beginning of April 1854.

 At the gaol buildings I have been unable to obtain the assistance of any sappers, which is to be regretted, as some portions of the work require constant'attention, which I am naturally unable to give with the other services demanding my attention. I, however, manage to visit the buildings regularly, and if possible twice a day, and have much pleasure in stating that the work is progressing properly and the contractors; giving satisfaction.

 The Chinese overseer and the three department coolies have been employed during the year in the usual manner in attendance upon me as chain men for surveying or other purposes, in the ordinary small repairs which are, demanded to the ronds; streets, &c., and as I have no foreman or clerk of works, I make them overseers on contract works in the formation of roads; in these services I find them very useful, and they have given perfect satisfaction during the year.

 Most of the civil buildings under my charge have been repaired as satisfactorily as circumstances would admit, and others requiring it have been postponed awaiting instruc- tions as to the necessity for the upholding of them or not; these are the police stations near the Albany Godowns and at East Point or Leighton's Godowns, both of which are in a very dilapidated state indeed.

 Several defects appear in the Court House, particularly in the outer cornice, the crowning or projecting member of which has unfortunately been formed with wood plastered in cement, and the whole being covered up, the leakages therein and want of ventilation have caused much of the woodwork to decay; the cement has fallen down in two or three places, and I fear it will be necessary to reconstruct all that portion of the defective part; I have, however, delayed making a full report of the particular circum- stances and the necessary expense of the repairs until I have made some further exami- nations upon the effects produced on these parts by the rain a sufliciency of which not having fallen to show what I require.

.5.

 In the Lower Bazaar much of my time in the carly part of the year was occupied in superintending the erection of the new houses after the fire, and. much as I desired to instil into the Chinese the great advantage to be derived from a niore, careful manner of erecting their houses, the prevention of the contact of timbers, and the benefit that would accrue to them in future years by the substitution of stone in place of wood so plentifully used, the erection of arches and other means of supporting floors or walls, that although they appear to have been fully alive to these circumstances they would not carry them into effect, as they were in such a hurry to finish the dwellings that it was with the utmost difliculty I could compel them to build as directed, particularly with solid walls; indeed several I had summarily to pull down, and throughout the whole district every means was tried to deceive me and scamp work, which certainly it was more, to their advantage than to mine to have properly constructed.

 The want of money, jealousies, and other matters have delayed the construction of the proposed strand road, so very essential a feature in the new plan of the district, as afford- ing access to the sea in case of fire, and giving the police a more effective control over the nests of boats and pirates formerly congregating in the mat sheds and hovels at the

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

water-side; it is to be hoped, however, that now the houses are completed the several parties interested will combine and carry into effect the intentions of his Excellency the Governor, and as the land reclaimed by them is of cousiderable value and their own interests involved in the scheme, I have no doubt with little trouble the difficulties now in the way may be arranged.

183

In connexion with the changes in the Lower Bazaar, I have to allude to the only case in which satisfaction was not felt by the tenants with the plan sanctioned by his Excel- lency; this was by the assign of the original proprietor of lots called Nos. 8 and 8a, the land as originally occupied by them was resumed in terms of the lease in a legal manner and an equivalent apportioned off in lieu thereof, as compensation for this resumption.

The original proprietor or his agent made no objection to the proposed change, and subsequently to it sold the interest in the old lease, of course subject to the notice of resumption; no objection was made by the assign for some months, when an application. was made to the Government to render him assistance in reclaiming the area granted as compensation; this was refused, whereupon a lawsuit was commenced against certain of tho Crown tenants located by Government in accordance with the changes in the position of the lots upon a portion of the ground resumed; and upon the advice of the Acting Attorney-General the Government did not interfere. Two of the tenants refused to defend (although they had already built houses thereon), and the consequence was judgment was given by default and the Crown tenants were ejected by the sheriff. The party who was after great difficulty pursuaded to defend his case has not yet had it decided; it has been postponed from time to time, the opposite party having repeatedly inade efforts to induce the Government to enable them to effect a compromise by the resumption of certain other lands, which I am happy to say was not acceded to, and the case is still in abeyance, a case which I feel certain would be given in favour of the Crown, or otherwise in that of the tenant occupying the resumed land, and that it would be shown that the acts as performed by me under the sanction of the Government have been warranted by law as well as justice. I have so fully detailed the various circumstances affecting this case in my letters to the Colonial Secretary, Nos. 19, 22, 24, 26, 27, 29 and 31 of 1852, that it is unnecessary for me to give any further illustration, and is only now merely'alluded to as a circumstanco conected with the department during the year last passed.

The supervision of convict labour devolves upon myself alone, as it has done for the last three years; in this, however, I am assisted by the sergeant of the convict guard, who is attentive and now understands the mode of effecting repairs and such services as the men are employed upon. A daily return is made of the number of men employed and the nature of their work, this is annually detailed in my report upon the public works, accom- panied with an estimate of its value, which this year has been considerably above that of former years, a great increase of men having taken place.

Within the gaol a large supply of broken stone was provided during the year, which has been usefully applied upon such roads as required it; within the gaol also, I have turned to account the labour of two carpenters, who have repaired all the woodwork of the wheelbarrows since their entrance into gaol, as well as the repairs demanded for the buildings themselves; a supply of tools have been given to them for those purposes. I should find the services of a blacksmith, very satisfactory, but unfortunately none of the convicts understand such work; one man might be fully occupied during the year in the repair of the iron work required by the department in wheelbarrows, pickaxes, stone haimmers, &c.

In the deed registry department 69 memorials have been received, 53 of which were for absolute sale affecting 57 lots, the remainder of a miscellaneous nature affecting 21 lots; of the above memorials 20 were prepared in the oflice, and charged for accordingly for Chinese, and 3 for surrender of old leases for new, two of them consequent upon changes in the Lower Bazaar.

The number of leases and extensions of leases issued froin the office during the year has been 33.

Land giving a yearly rental of 2031. 178. 10d. was sold, upon which a premium of 1921. 188.4d. was paid. One grant of a marine lot, formerly part of the western market, was made at an annual rental of 50%. on the re-arrangement of the Lower Bazaar after the great firem mali

A marine lot purchased by the Ordnance Department has been struck off the rent roll, causing a reduction of 1677. 88. 10d. per annum. The rent roll at the end of the year was 10,7791. 168. 2d. being a slight increase on the former year.

The fees receiveable in any office" during the year have amounted to 911. 9s. 2d. on registry, and 341. 78. 6d. on leases, the total, 125l. 16s. 8d., being about 25 per cent. more than the previous year. pagladykelä vanh

I have to report that Mr. Power, the book-keeper and clerk of registry, continues to give that satisfaction in the performance of the duties required of him which I have had the pleasure to express in previous years.

b

I have much satisfaction in reporting that my own health having been unaffected during the year my services in the office as well as out of doors have been given to my duty. without difficulty or inconvenience

I have, &c., CHARLES ST. GEO. CLEVERLY,

Surveyor-General.

The Hon. Lieut.-Colonel W. Caine;

Colonial Secretary::

(Signed)

184

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure 2.

REPORT by the Surveyor-General on the Public Works undertaken and executed during the Year 1852.

                     Surveyor-General's Office, SIR,

Victoria, February 12, 1853. I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the construction and repair of the civil roads and works upon the island.

Building

:

A contract for the construction of the new Government house was made in March last for the sum of 7,4791. 3s. Id., exclusive of timber and fittings to be supplied by Govern- ment. The work has proceeded very satisfactorily; and at the termination of the year the whole of the basement had been completed. This portion of the building is entirely arched over in brickwork, and thus rendered secure from fire, besides preventing the ascent of noise or effluvia from the cellars, as well as from the apartments to be occupied by the servants. A thorough system of ventilation has also been adopted the fresh air being admitted only from the verandahs and also discharged therein, so that it is received quite pure and uncontaminated. The most beneficial arrangement as regards stability. I conceive to be in the plan I have adopted for the formation of the floors of the verandalas. These are supported upon arches similar to the rest of the basement, the spandrels being formed hollow, to lighten the weight thereon, and prevent any unnecessary thrust. The surface will be levelled with a concrete formed with broken bricks three inches thick, and that again covered with a course of inch marble set in cement.

 I have adopted such precautions for the prevention of damage to the timber by white ants, dry rot, or otherwise, as I could avail myself of here: that is, in addition to the extensive system of ventilation alluded to, I have thoroughly coated it with coal tar wherever it is inserted in the walls; and, préviously to the laying down the floors, I intend to wash the whole with a solution of arsenic, as well as adding another coat of tar where practicable. With these precautions, I hope much of the damage so common to almost all the buildings in the colony will be prevented.

 Following out the intention of discarding every unnecessary piece of timber in the building, I am now forming the window and door lintels with a flat camber archi, assist- ing it also to support the superincumbent weight with a relieving arch of the ordinary description. The space between the intrados of the camber arch and the soffit of the moulded framings will be left open, that air may enter behind the architrave, and serve to ventilate them as well as the rooms.

In connexion with the skylights of the vestibule and staircase ventilation will also be provided, and means adopted for the regulation and discharge of vitiated air throughout the whole building, which I hope will be attended with beneficial effects.

 I am in hopes that the buildings will be completed in a year from the present timo The stables, kitchens, guardhouse, &c. I will propose to commence immediately, so that all may be brought to a completion at nearly the same period.

At the gaol, under the authority of report and estimate No. 5. of 1851, it is propcsed to erect the following buildings, to replace others which were in a very dilapidated state; viz., a new debtors' gaol, a gaoler's house, inner guardhouse, and a military guardhouse. These have been contracted for under very favourable terms, by which a saving on the estimate will be effected. Three of the buildings have been commenced, and are proceed- ing satisfactorily, but the debtors' gaol I have been obliged to postpone, having no accommodation for those persons formerly occupying the buildings pulled down.

 In the repairs of buildings an expenditure of 100l. 16s. 9d. has been made, of a miscellaneous and ordinary character, in addition to which the sum of 25l. 48. 2d. was paid for hired coolics, as watchmen over public property.

 The total sum advanced on account of buildings during the year, both in construction and repair, amounts to 4,1937. 48. 5d.

 An expenditure of 172. 1s. 6d. was incurred as a special service in providing mat sheds for the accommodation of the houseless Chinese tenants burnt out during the great fire.

Roads and Bridges.

The road from North Point to Quarry Bay, a distance of five furlongs, was widened and improved for the sum of 123l. 198. 2d. Stone arches were in every place adopted in lieu of the wooden platform bridges, and a rough stone parapet placed on the seaside for the whole distance. Very soon after the completion of this service a heavy storm, ac- companied with rain, caused so much damage to the abutments of one of the bridges by the failure of one of the adjoining embankments and underwash of the sea, that it was found necessary to rebuild it, and, in doing so, I adopted some further precautions for the prevention of damage to the bridge (which is in a very exposed position), and which I

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

think will preserve it from injury during future heavy weather. This service amounted to 251.

I

A new pathway, distance 1 mile, twelve feet wide, was formed, extending from Aberdeen Street to the first bridge on the Aberdeen Road, for the sum of 991. 198. 6d. The work turned out much heavier than was anticipated, and excessive damage occurred to it during some heavy rains; but the contractor was enabled to finish the work in a sufficiently perfect manner for the purposes for which it is intended, as a public promenade for the inhabitants of the upper part of Victoria during the heat of summer.

In the Lower Bazaar a portion of sea wall was built on a strect abutting on the Strand Road, together with stone steps leading to the Queen's Road, with stone from the old pier at the Albany Godowns, for the sun of 221. 18s. In connexion with the above it was proposed to build other portions of sea wall, but in consequence of the neighbouring tenants neglecting to build at the same time, I have been obliged to postpone the work and close the account.

The Sukunpu causeway was partially repaired, rendering it available for pedestrians, for the sum of 3l. 19s. 6d.

The only other expenditure for repairs to a road during the year was for that extending from the Albany Godowns to Quarry Bay, a distance of 24 miles, which included the portions lately finished, and only partially consolidated, 317. 9s. 10d.

A new bridge and three stone drains were made on a portion of the road to North Point in lieu of wooden platform bridges. These were completed for the sum of 651. A stone arch of peculiar construction, having splayed abutments, and askew on the face, was built on the Aberdeen Road, for the sum of 15%. 168. 8d. ·

ו|

Tho whole of the platform bridges on the road round the island, with the exception of three, viz., one at Tytam and one at Aldrich Bay of considerable length, and the other a sliding bridge, for the convenience of a boatbuilder in Aberdeen, were rebuilt in stone, being seventeen in number, of various sizes, commenced and completed during the year, for the sum of 2951. 168. 8d.

Drains.

In effecting some of the improvements in the Lower Bazaar it was necessary to lengthen and reconstruct some of the old drains; these were partially completed for an expenditure of 481. 138. 11d.; the work unfinished pertaining to ground yet unreclaimed the account was closed.

In Taipingshan and the Queen's Road a drain, the receptacle of much filth, and a nuisance to the neighbourhood, was covered over for the sum of 107. 10s.; and in the same locality a small repair to a culvert, which having become choked burst during a heavy fall of rain, wus effected for the sum of 4l. 10s.

The total expenditure, both in construction and repair to roads, bridges, and drains, has amounted during the year to 667%. 16s. 11d..

The repairs to the harbour-master's pier amounted to the sum of 11. 88. Sil

Sundry Works.

Comprising the sinking four wells in the city at an expenditure of 22l. 4s.; the prepara- tion and erection of boundary stones, 11. 178. Gd.; enlargement of the gallows 147. 13s. 6d. ; and planting trees 127. 10s., inaking a total for that service of 51l. 5s.'

Convicts.

The expenditure incurred under this head has been for the repair and supply of tools, both for labour inside as well as outside the gaol, and amouuted to the sum of 22l. 58. 7d., which consisted principally in the reconstruction of iron work, such as shovels, hammers, and the fittings of wheelbarrows. The greater part of the carpenters' work I was fortunately enabled to complete with convict labour.

Burial Ground.

New tools, costing 1l. 18s. 7d., were supplied to the sexton for this service. The total expenditure during the year, executed under my superintendence, on account of public works, as above enumerated, has amounted to the sum of 4,955l. 08. 8d.

Convict Labour.

This labour, as it always must be here, has been of the ordinary description, viz., in tho construction of such repairs, &c. as this class of men usually perform. We very seldom have any but the very scum of the place; and artificers, either blacksmiths or carpenters, rarely commit such acts as condemn them to hard labour on the roads. Within the gaol this year a greater number of men have been confined for hard labour, I believe, than ever before in the same period. These have consisted principally of sailors, averaging no less than 56 per day. The only work upon which they were engaged was that of breaking stone, picking oakum, making mats, soft rope, or spun yarn, &c. This labour, however, cannot be considered as any degree of punishment, as the oflicers of the prison do not

185

186

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

apportion the work as tasks. The men are merely kept at the labour, light us it is, a certain number of hours. It is to be hoped, however, now that the treadwheel has arrived, a degree of punishment will be given to each according to his descrts, and have no doubt the very name of a treadwheel in a few months will deter many a bad or idle character from placing himself in a situation to try it, and the gaol will not be so crowded with that

class of men for the future.

1

·་

The value of labour which I can estimate as performed within the gaol may be taken at 350 tons of stone broken at 3s. 6d. per ton, 617. 58.;, and sundry carpenter's work in repairs to the gaol wheelbarrows, 107,; making mats, &c., exclusive of oakum picked for the navy at to 51. only: or a total of 76l. 5s. for the whole labour within the gaol.

In addition to the above number of men employed at hard labour within the gaol must be cnumerated an average daily number of ten Chinese employed as cooks, scavengers, water carriers, &c.

!

The work outside the gaol comprises the following services, viz.: 450 men employed under surveillance of police as scavengers, 91. 78. 6d.; in constructing and improving roads, &c., viz., in the Lower Bazaar 3,794 men, roads to Government House and offices 4,495, Albert Road 2,430; sundry small improvements, 155 men; valued at 2267. 10s. 10d.

In the general ordinary repair of roads and streets I have employed 5,093.men upon a length of six miles and three quarters, equal to an expenditure of 1062. 2s. 1d. This gives a much heavier rate per yard than last year, which is to he accounted for by the necessity which existed for a thorough remodelling of some of the streets in the city; particularly those of a steep inclination, and which were most difficult to keep in order. I arranged the drainage differently, by placing the stone channels at the sides instead of in the centre as heretofore.

In the clearance of drains, particularly that near the old ice-house, which was completely choked up

    with silt driven in by the sea, I employed 420 men, equal to an amount of 8l. 15s.

In the Lower Bazaar and on the Queen's Road 355 yards of drains were made under contractors, the stone for which being supplied to them, I employed 2,188 convicts upon that service, as well as in removing to store such materials as were of a valuable nature, and which were constantly being stolen. This service I estimate at 45l. 118. 8d.

In miscellaneous services I employed 674 men, expressing the value of 14l. Os. 10d. Thus the total number of men employed outside the gaol during the year has amounted to 19,699, or 7,324 more than last year, the aggregate value of work performed amounting to 4107. 7s. 11d.

gia được định

The Departinent coolies, three in number, have also had their services turned to account, when not in attendance upon me for other duties, upon the works, as follows, viz., planting trees and other services connected therewith, such as watering those newly planted, and preserving them from the attacks of a worm which' 'to some of the trees does very con- siderable damage by perforating them in a peculiar manner, and then, at night only, they leave their holes and eat the bark, which eventually causes the stoppage of the sap and the destruction of the tree. I have tried lime and tobacco water, oil, and ashes without effect, and latterly have used arsenic; and this latter, I have no doubt, will correct the evil, if its application does not affect the tree itself.

On a variety of small repairs to the roads and streets, where it would be inconvenient to send convicts, I have employed these men 177 days, and in repairing seawalls and rough stone parapets 32 days, and in the clearance of drains, &c. 2-10 days.*

When special portions of work undertaken by contract require constant supervision, the overseer and coolies are instructed in the mode it is to be executed; and in this inanner I have employed them 121 days, in surveying twelve days, marking out ground for work or otherwise.

In measuring and removal of timber purchased, 54 men, being a total of 931 days work in services, all of which are essential, and must be performed by the Departinent.

In conclusion, I have to recapitulate, that the total expenditure on account of works of every description, as executed under my supervision, is as follows, viz. :-

Actual expenditure

Total value of convict labour on roads, &c. Within gaol

£

s. ¿l.

L s. d. 4,955 0 8

410 7 11

76 5 0 = 486 12 11

The Hon. Lieut.-Col. W. Caine,

Colonial Secretary.

Total

I have, &c. (Signed)

£5,441 13 7

CHAS. ST. GEO. CLEVERLY,

:

Surveyor-General.

Enclosure 3.

CENSUS of HONG KONG, 31st December 1852.-

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Total

Total

Population.

Population.

No. of

No. of

Children.

Total.

Children.

Total. Remarks.

Houses.

Boats,

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

Male

Female

Male. Female.

Europeans and Americans

318

93

60

55

526

318

93

60

55

526

Portuguese (Goa and Macao)

179

127

82

90

478

317

169 114 115

745

Indians, Malays and natives of Manilla

411

,168

32

42

25

267

Aliens (chiefly seamen) and temporary

residents

270

270

270

270

!

Chinese, in the employ of Europeans

1,808

231

6

13

2,058

Chinese, residing in the city of Victoria

1,518

10,4242,525

1,079

-954

15,012

Ditto, boat population in Victoria Har- bour

820

3,543 895

762

397

5,597

Total

"...

of

2,38036,059 |3,261 |2,394

357

Ditto, residing in the villages

915

4,017 1,108

618

425

6,168

Chinese.

Ditto, boat population other than Vic.

toria

979

3,611,1,250

796

575

6,232

Ditto, temporary residents, vagrants, &c. -

400

50

450

2,84+

1,799

24,738

6,321 3,435

2,564

37,058

24,738 6,321 3,435 2,564 37,058

(Signed)

CHARLES MAY,

Officiating Registrar-General.

187

General Nature of Occupation of the Inhabitants.

Enclosure 4.

ABSTRACT of RETURNS furnished from each House occupied by CHINESE in the Colony of HONG KONG, stating the Number of Persons resident therein, Mortality, &c, on 31st December 1852.

Children.

Number of Persons who died during the 12 Months.

Name of District or Place.

Male.

Female.

Total

Population of each Place.

Total

Chinese

Mortality.

In the

Male.

Female.

Colony.

Out of

the Colony.

188

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

POSSESSIONS.

City of Victoria

Aberdeen and Vicinity

Hong Kong

Hokisui and Kaseewan

10,504

2,514

979

874

14,671

107

833

209

123

43

1,208

22

85

52

37

24.

198

3

38

28

17

15

98

Hongheongloo

Pokfoolum

Sain an

101

4.

3

113

30

20

15

-10

75

43

41

25

18

: 127

Seiingpoon

37

18

17

13

85

Sheak-o

121

68

34

28

251

Sheaktongtsui

75

35

27

20.

157

Showkewan

419

50

39

32

540

Sookumpoo

801

138

74

72

1,085

80

Stanley

1,172

288

92

65'

1,617

20

88 vi

Tsutcheemoy

69

17

Tytamtook and Tytam

50

32.

21

Wongmakok

6

+

Wangneichong

131

101

Wongkoktsui

6

2

-2380

7

6

99

20

123

.1.

14

55

367

12

11

It is known that a great proportion of the Chi- nese seized with se- vere illness leave this Colony for their. na- tive places; conse- quently, the Deaths

out of the Colony are more numerous than those occurring in the Colony. I estimate the Deaths out of Co- lony to be.770.

Trade.

Fishing and trade. Agriculture. Do. and fishing.

Do. and stonecutting. Agriculture.

Do.

Do.

Do. and fishing. Do. and stonecutting. Stonecutting. Trade.

Do. and fishing. Stonecutting. Agriculture.

Do.

Do.

:

Stonecutting.

14,321

3,622

1,597

1,299,

20,839

204

Government Civil Hospital

Bodies found exposed, died in gaol, and}

i

**54

258

770

(Signed)

1,028

C. MAY,

Officiating Registrar General.

No. 5.

RETURN of the Number and Description of Chinese Vessels anchored or plying in the Harbour and Bays of Hong Kong, on the 31st December 1852, specifying the Number of Persons on Board.

VICTORIA.

ABERDEEN.

STANLEY.

SAIWAN

AND SHOWKEWAN.

SHEAK O'.

TOTAL.

A

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

DESCRIPTION

of

BOATS.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

Children.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Children.

Stone Boats -

Lorchas

·

Cargo Boats Hakow and Full- away Foats

Cooking Boats

Fisting Foats

-

Junks

11

Trading Boats ...

83

=83

199

830

3

13

1.2

Wood Boats

יו

Passage Boats

27

211

4

2

10

Salt Boats

17 .568

2

6

10 104

!

| 「.g!

50

+

Mule.

Female.

No. of Boats.'

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

| No of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

Children.

Children.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Femala.

Cildren.

•I[VJK

Female.

No. of Boats.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Children. TOTAL

Female.

I

| ..

:40

279

a, a

1

IN

T

-

I

1. 1

1

1

-3

8 3

3

16

1

1.

-

t

16 115

Water Boats

Sampans

8 125

51 291

69

66 37

189 512 265 242 119

| མ

oོ

ཝིཏྠ ཋ , སྨཱཋ དྷཱུ

;་。

-

-

24 132 43 39 17 96 13 **2

3

83

3

408 640 504 390 222

,。,』

-

1

1

-

-

1

1

-

-

1

1

1

1

I

1

10

1

1

t

10

9

-

-

I

543 200 139

380

562

504

371

ུ ༔ g ༔

90

1681,390

331 150

154

252

179 319 125 78

33

18

40

3733

35

109

65

46

35

4 16 11

G

4

327 2,190

655 380

300

19

1

1

1

3

15

3

1

1

13

40

998 1,601 1,133

11

199

126|1,122

40 269

ཌ ཧྨ ,༈༙ ༠

30

16

708

115

6

00

2

235

720

1

115

125

125

52 298

69

66

37

470

188

512 265 242

-

6335

843 507

ལྦ | Ë | g

119 1,138

3,325

20

4,064

7

199

1,148

Total

$20 3,543

693 762

397

499❘ 1,272

704

510 342

393 2,012 | 470

234

194

70

200

271

63

46

35

17 56 11

G

+

1,799 | 7,154 | 2,145 | 1,558 972

Memo.-There were no Wood Boats in the Harbour on the 31st December 1832.

Grand Total

11,329

(Signed)

C. MAY,

Officiating Registrar-General.

189

190

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL' POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure 6.

RETURN of Mortality amongst the Chinese during the Year 1852.

City of Victoria

Dead, bodies of Chinese found exposed by the Police in

Victoria, and buried

Number of Chieese died in Government Civil Hospital and

Gaol

Aberdeen and vicinity

Heong Kong

Stanley, Tytam, and vicinity

Sheak-o

Saiwan

Total in Victoria

Population of each Place.

Died in the Colony.

Died out of the Colony.

Total.

17,070

107.

45

107.

45

Wongneichong

Showkowan

Sookunpoo

Total Villagas

Estimated mortality out of colony

Grand Total

·

(Signed)

161

1,208

161:

198 1,754

251"

127

22

22

22

1

སྶཉྫཱསྶཌྭསཊྛ་

867.! 540

12

1,085 !

30

30.

97

97

770

770

258

770

1,028

C. MAY, Officiating Registrar General.

11

Enclosure 7.

RETURN of the average Number of Prisoners confined in Victoria Gaol during every Day of each Month of the Year 1852, and the Number of Deaths during the Year.

Months.

Chinese and Europeans. Coloured

Total.

Number of

Deaths.

Remarks.

Prisoners.

January February

31

130

161

I

One Chinese died of consumption.

31

119

150

1

March

34

87

121

April

31

112

143

One Chinese died of malignant ulcer of the

·fool · ---

One Chinese died of dysentery.

May

45

113

158

June

36

126

162

July

54

127

181

August

58

126

184

·

September

24

135

159

October

13

161

174

2

One Chinese died of hospital gangrene, two Chinese died of dysentery, and one Ma-

nilaman died of fever.

One Malay died of remittent fever, and one

Indian died of dysentery..

November

33

120

162

December

54

103

157

Total

·

444

1,468

1,912

11

Average number in each month Total deaths

Mortality, per cent.

(Signed)

Enclosure No. 8. ·

CHARLES MAY, Acting Sherifi.

- 159 11 6.91

! i

MEMORANDUM showing the Number of Deaths which have occurred in the Garrison of Hong Kong during the Year ended 31st December 1852.

Description of Troops.

PERIOD.

Quarter ending Quarter ending Quarter ending Quarter ending

81st March.

Average

30th June.

Deaths.

Average

Deaths.

Average

30th Sept.

quan

Deaths.

Average

31st Dec.

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength

during the Year.

Number of Deaths during the Year.

Proportion of Deaths to average Strength.

Proportion of Deaths

to entire Force.

Europeans

594

686

L

618

6 611

627

22

Malays and natives

India

380

: 8

377 13 363 11

359

5

369

258

3.6

5.9

37

10.02

Brigade Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

10th February 1853..

(Signed)

996 59

A. E. BURMESTER, Major,

Brigade Major.

SIR,

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure No. 9.

Hong Kong, January 12, 1853.

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge your letter No. 308, of the 11th ultimo, to the address of the committee in superintendence of Chinese Government schools, and in the absence of his Lordship the Bishop of Victoria, and of the chief magistrate, I beg in reply to make the following report upon the schools for the past year.

Since the Bishop of Victoria consented to act as chairman to the committee, and I became associated with his Lordship and Mr. Hillier in March last, the committee have availed themselves of the obliging" aid of the Rev. M. C. Odell in visiting the schools, which have in consequence been subjected to a somewhat more effectual and frequent supervision than up to that time it had been found practicable to afford them. Notwith- standing the advantage thus secured, however, less attention than is desirable can yet be given to the more distant schools at Stanley, Aberdeen, &c., and the zeal shown by their masters, and the progress of the scholars are hence less satisfactory than the schools near at hand. įtem

The returns periodically made by the respective schoolmasters show the average number of scholars monthly under tuition during the past year to have been as follows:-

Victoria Wongneichoong.

Stanley Heong-Kong Aberdeen

40 boys. 28 22

D

13

-

26

"

-

27

These averages are, however, somewhat overstated, the actual attendance, as determined by incidental observation, never having exceeded the following limits:-

35 to 40 boys at Victoria.

20 24

8 14

"

"}

+

29

"

13 24

"

18 22

Wongneichoong. Stanley. Heong Kong. Aberdeen.

191

The spall attendance at Stanley is mainly attributable to the fact that it contains two other schools, the one an eleemosynary institution in connexion with the Baptist mission, and the other an establishment supported by the inhabitants.

The course of study has been very much the same as that pursued in past years, con- sisting of Chinese classics, the Bible, and foreign composed elementary works. These have been principally learnt by rote, according to the usual Chinese method of rudimental education; but of late the committee have required the schoolmasters to give more atten- tion to the instruction of the children in the signification of all they are taught to recite; and manifest improvement in this particular has already been noticed in many boys of the Victoria and Wongneichoong schools.

The committee have as usual used their discretion in fixing the amount of remuneration to be awarded to such masters as have had a smaller number of scholars than that which entitles them to the full salary fixed by Government. Any sums that may be saved by this means might, in my opinion and in that of Mr. Odell, on whom so much of the actual supervision has devolved, be appropriated with advantage to the purchase of trifling rewards of merit (besides the necessary books, maps, &c.), to be given, after general yearly or half-yearly examinations held in the presence of the committee, to such scholars as may show themselves, worthy of the distinction. This would tend to excite an useful spirit of emulation, now so much required as an incentive to exertion; and if, in addition to this, the committee make it incumbent on the masters to adhere to a more methodical system of teaching than that now in vogue, we believe that speedy improvement in progress will be the result. I recommend this measure the more confidently in that the introduction of it by Mr. Odell into some schools under his own charge has already had, he tells me, a a very good effect.

During the past year one scholar from the Victoria School, and four from that at Wong- neichoong, have been admitted into 'St. Paul's College School, making, with those taken into that institution during past years, a total of eleven boys who have been thus privi- leged. One of these has been lately elected to a Government scholarship.

That much is yet required to make the schools real instruments of good is, I believe, the unanimous opinion of the committee; but, apart from the suggestion above made, Í cannot, in the absence of the gentlemen with whom I am associated, venture upon any more important recommendations with a view to their improvement.

The Governmental grant appears to be well appreciated by the natives of the different villages. No measure is, I conceive, better calculated to conciliate and give them confi- dence; and every effort should therefore be given towards placing the schools upon the most efficient footing possible.

The Hon Lieut.-Col. Caine,"

Colonial Secretary.

**But Ajonde Jan

I have, &c.

(Signed) W. H. MEDHURST,

A member of the committee for supervision

of Government schoolt,

Į.

192

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure No. 10.

EXPORT of TREASURE by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers during the Years 1851 and 1852.

1851.

1852.

Value in Dollars.

Value in Dollars.

7,381,238

6,074,845

IMPORTS of OPIUM by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers during the Years 1851 and 1852.

1851.

1852.

No. of Chests. No. of Half Chests.

No. of Cases.

No. of Chests. No. of Half Chests. No. of Cases.

19,061

27

531

15,747

1,157

Victoria, Hong Kong, 15th February 1853.

}

(Signed)

WILLIAM PEDDER,

Harbour Master.

Enclosure No. 11.

MEMORANDUM on the JUNK TRADE of VICTORIA during the Year 1852.

Chinese Secretary's Office, Hong Kong,

March 15, 1853.

ACCORDING to the monthly reports furnished in the manner described in former memo- randums, the number of Chinese coasting vessels which visited Hong Kong harbour during 1852 was 492, and of salt junks 310, importing 173,000 piculs. Of stone cargoes exported the monopolist states he kept no account, as had been his custom to do previously.

The cargoes of the coasting junks and boats were of the usual nature, comprising from their respective ports the undermentioned commodities:-

1. From the province of Fuh-kien alum, beans, camphor, camphor-wood, coal, cotton, cloth, crockery, dates, drugs, salt fish, dried fruit, iron ware, paper, rice, skins, ying-tc, stone, sugar, tea, vermicelli; in 53 junks.

2. From Formosa, camplior, coal crockery, sulphur, tea; in 6 junks.

3. From Chao-chau (capital of the department of the same name in the N.E. of the province of Kwang-tung, adjoining Ful-kien), beans, cotton cloth, grass cloth, crockery, dates, drugs, felt caps, dried fruit, oyster shells, paper, potato flour, rice, shoes, moist sugar; in 64 junks.

4. From other places in the same department, beans, beef suet, crockery, dates, felt caps, fruit, fresh and dried, iron ware, Nankin cloth, oyster shells, paper, pigs, salt pork, sweet potatoes, shoes, tea, sheet tin, salt vegetables; in 48 junks.

5. From Namoa (lying partly in Chao-chau-fu, and partly in Tsiuen-chau-fu, in F'uh- kien), bark, barley, beans, cabbages, cocoa-nuts, cotton, cotton cloth, cowhides, deers' sinews, drugs, salt fish, pears, salt pork, potato flour, rattans, rice, sapan wood, sugar, salt vegetables; in 73 junks.

6, From Hwei-chau-fu (situated between Chao-chau-fu and Kwang-chau-fu), bamboo wills, beans, beef suet, charcoal, ducks, eggs, flour, fowls, fruit, fresh and dried), grain, pigcons, pigs, salt pork, potato flour, salt, sugar, tinsel paper, salt vegetables; in 233 vessels.

7. From Ta-pang (in Kwang-chau-fu, N.E. of Hong Kong), eggs, fowls, pigs, pickled and fresh vegetables; in 7 junks.

8. From Hu-tung, beef suct, fowls, dried fruit, salt meat, pigs, potato flour; in 10 junks.

9. From Hai-nan, bamboo ware, bark, barley, beans, betel-nut, birds' nests, cocoa nuts, cowhides, drugs, dried fish, fowls, grass cloth, hemp, honey, incense sticks, leather trunks, salt meat, oil, pigs, rattans, rice, sapan wood, sheep, timber; in 67 junks.

10. From Singapore, bark, birds' nests, cane mats, red dye, drugs, dried fish, glass, incense, perfumes, rattans, rhinoceros' horns; in 1 junk.

.8

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

TABLE showing the Number of Coasting and Salt Junks monthly visiting Hong Kong Harbour,

- Zampungan Ale len rug with the Quantity of Salt imported.

Marine Janks belonging to

1852.

Fah-kien

Coast.

♪ Formosa,

Chao-chan Fu.

Coast of Chao- chan Fu.

Namoa.

Hiver-chan Fu.

Ta-ping.

c Hutong.

❤ Hai-nan

10.

Singapore.

Marine Junks

Monthly total of

Monthly total of

Salt Junks.

Piculs of Salt imported.

Monthly total of

January

February

March

1

==

I

3

20

46

26,000

1

23

45

26,000

3

1

10

5

1

99

36

19,900

April

2

3

26

3

2

2

-

51

40

22,500

May

14

3

27

6

11

76

June

20

1

1

10

1

44

July

30

8

1

52

August

27

6

43

September

4

18

-

October

7

3

6

-

20

50

27,700

November

7

5

25

46

26,200

December

6

-

7

3

21

44

24,630

Total

43

6

64

48

13.

233

7

10

67

1 492

310

173,100

COMPARISON with previous Three Years.

Junks and Cargoes.

1849.

1850.

1851.

1852.

• 1

Marine Junks, as per month

Salt Junks

72

67

83

41

334

456

543

310

Imported, piculs Salt (as re-

'ported).

335,350

345,050

280,300

173,100

(Signed)

M. E. MORRISON,

Assistant Chinese Secretary.

Enclosure No. 12.

RETURN of the Total Number of FELONY CASES coming under the cognizance of the Hong Kong Police, including those in which no Persons were apprehended.

Year.

Total Number of Cases.

Remarks.

1851

1852

....488

523

Increase in 1852, 35 cases.

(Signed)

C. MAY,

Superintendent of Police

Police Department,}

24th January 1853.

fand volled

193

194

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER, MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure No. 13.

J

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been tried in the Supreme Court of Hong Kong

during the Year 1852.

Number of Cases.

Number of Persons.

CRIME.

Sentence.

Remarks.

Charge abandoned.

Post-:

poned.

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death, ......

Death recorded.

Transportation.

Number of

Persona

5❘ Assault

Assaulting peace officer in execu-

tion of his duty

1

33

Assisting in desrtion

1 1

2

3

1

3

∞ ∞ 122

Attempting to persuade soldier to

desert

Attempting to set fire to a ship

1 Breaking and entering a building

2

3

within curtilage, and stealing therein

Burglary

Burglary and Larceny

Burglary, with wounding

Cattlo stealing

1

2 2

Combining with pirates

2

1167ed

Cutting, with intent to do grievous

bodily harm

2 Forgory

1 Keeping a bawdy house

69 Larceny

1

11 20

Murder on the high seas, aiding

and abetting

Murder on the high seas

Passing counterfeit coin

9 25 Piracy

6 17 Piracy, with wounding

1

3

3

1196-2♡~AQI22

Rape

Receiving goods piratically stolen Robbery

-

3 Robbery, with arms

1 Robbery, with violenco

2 Robbery, with wounding

1 Stealing in a dwelling house

2 Stealing from the person

9 Stabbing with intent to do grievous

1

73 126

bodily harm

Uttering forged receipts

་་།

20

..1 co

12

22 16

1

14

21

7-

1

~ININN

LIAT 1

་།་།

1

11

NI

|

(a)

(a)

1

TH.

1

2

13

1ස

1 1 1 1

1. 1.

(c)1

!!

TOT

(c)12

18

1-1

Total

61 421215

8 18

8 15 36

..

1. l. f

1 1

'

Imprisonment without labour.

(6) This case was postponed from the December Sessions of 1851. (c) Several indictments against same prisoners abandoned.

(d) Previous conviction.

ROBT. DUNDAS CAT, Registrar.

(Signed)

W. H. ALEXANDER, Deputy Registrar.

Enclosure No. 14.

RETURN of the Number of Cases tried before the Honourable tue Chief Justice, and Actions commenced in the Supreme and Vice Admiralty Courts of Hong Kong, during

the Year ending 31st December 1852.

Cases tried before the Honourable the Chief Justice in 1852.

Judgment.

Total.

Court.

Number of Cases.

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

Plaintiff

Defendant.

Nonsuit.

Cases.

Debt and Damages

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Supreme Court :- Common law

..2a

$ 52,000 00

None

None

Chancery

Summary

36

45 c

18,531 03

2

7,025 36

19

21

5

56

ig 103,977 49

Insolvency

Hearings, 2

Appeals

Vice Admiralty Court

Debts in schedule 19,649 76 ** 3,055 00 3,716 34

Insolvents discharged, 2

None

None

None

2

None

None

Total

Judgment.

Plaintiff.

Defendant. Nonsuit

Remaining in

Dependence.

Cases.

Debt and Da mage

Actions commenced in 1852.

Court.

Number of

Cases.

Settled without

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

Trial.

Supreme Court :-

Common Law

23

$ 70,107 06

17

None

None

None

None

None

Chancery

2d

·

Summary

62 e

Insolvency

1

Ecclesiastical

279

9.143 74 Debts in schedule -3,548 76 Assets per appraisement 3,209 15

17

19

21ƒ

None

Petitioner discharged, 1

None

None

None

127

$133,073 80

Appeals

1

Vice Admiralty Court -

11

3,055 00

44,010 09

None

None

1

None

1

None

None

4

a These cases were in dependence on the 1st January 1852. ¿ One of these cases was in dependence on 1st January 1852, one still d These actions being one to stay proceedings at common law, the other a "Comon de lunatico," &c. no amount can be stated. side; they were subsequently tried under the summary jurisdiction. Verdict in both cases for the plaintiff. Amount of debt S 177 50. for defendant 9 In two of these estates there was a will, consequently the property was not appraised,

remaining undecided.

c One of these cases was in dependence on 1st January 1852.

e In two of these cases the defendant was arrested on a capias issuing from the common law ƒ One of these cases was twice tried on petition of plaintiff." Verdict on both trials

(Signed)

ROBT. DUNDAS CAY, Registrar.

W. H. ALEXANDER, Deputy Registrar.

195

Total.

Civil.

Criminal.

Number

of Causes.

Of

which

were

Decrce for Plaintiff.

Decree

for Defendant.

Nonsuited.

Referred to Supreme Court.

Undecided.

(Not

Total of Defendants.

Convicted and punished.

Discharged without Punishment.

Released on Security.

Deported.

Committed

or bailed for Trial at

the Supreme Court.

Total.

Enclosure No. 15.

ABSTRACT of Causes under Cognizance at the Chief Magistrate's Office and the Court of Petty Sessions of Hong Kong during the Year 1852.

COURT OF PETTY SESSIONS.

Civil Causes

how disposed of.

Criminal Causes how disposed of

Number

| Civil Causes

of Causes.

of.

Of

which

were

how disposed

CHIEF MAGIstrate's Court.

Criminal Causes how disposed of.

Total Writs

issued

by Magistrates.

Warrants.

M. F. M. F.M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F.

Civil.

Criminal.

Decree for Defendant.

Decree for Plantiff.

Nonsuited.

Total Defendants.

regis-

tered)

(577 294,283167 59 63 5

3 |420 3 249| 763

-

6

81

-

8

1,195 63 1,132|45|16| 2 |1,653 81 538 27 771 47 68 3

-

30 211 3 4

390

Civil Causes consisted of claims for debts or damages not exceeding 50 dollars, for police rates, and by seamen for wages, &c. Among the Criminal Causes summarily decided were for-

Larceny

Demanding property with menaces

Relating to coin

Unlawful possession of property

Malicious damage to ditto

Assaults, and assaults and batteries

Vagrancy

Combination among workmen

Breach of prison

Convicted and punished.

Discharged without Punishment.

Released on Security.

Deported.

Committed or bailed for Trial at the Petty Sessions and Su- preme Court.

Committed very to the according to Treaty. :,

to Prison pending Dell. Chinese Authorities

Committed to Prison pending Dell- very to the United States Consul according to Act of Parliament re- gulating such Cases,

Undecided.

Suinionses.

Subpœnas.

Distress.

Arrests. · Search.

M. M F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. | F. | M.]

1

་་་

Remarks.

4

121

963 274 58 33

Under the head of "Causes how disposed of" are- included all such causes as were brought before the Court for de- cision or investigation. Those which did not pro- ceed beyond the issue of a summons or warrant, will be found under the hoad of "Total Writs is- sued."

207

Keeping public gambling houses

2

False balances and weights

4

68

Breaches of regulation for sale of spirituous liquors Unlicensed retailing of opium

2

25

Perjury

10

296 Desertion and refusal of duty by seamen :

89

- In British vessels

1

In foreign vessels

1-

nê die fun quêtes

39

33

(Signed)

W. H. MITCHELL,

Acting Chief Magistrate.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

196

STATE OF HER

MAJESTY'S

COLONIAL

POSSESSIONS.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

197

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4.

No. 5.

HONG KONG.

No. 36.

COPY of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir S. G. BONHAM, K.C.B. to the

(No. 33.)

Mr LORD DUKE,

Duke of Newcastle.

Victoria, Hong Kong, April 7, 1854.

(Received 12th June, 1854.)

1. I HAVE the honour to transmit to your Grace the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1853.

Revenue and Expenditure.

2. The total revenue for the year ending 31st December 1853, was 24,7001. 6s. 3 d., exceeding the amount collected in 1852 by 3,3691. 4s. 7 d. The following statement is a recapitulation of the expenditure during the same period, and shows an increase of 1,652l. 19s. 3d. over the expenditure of the preceding year, namely:

Civil Establishment

Judicial Establishment and Police

Ecclesiastical Establishment

Public Works and Buildings

Miscellaneous Expenditure

Pensions

Total

Expenditure in 1852

Excess of Expenditure in 1853

-

£ S. d. 13,974 4 03 14,681 4 2

557 5 0

5,872 3 7 1,283 15 2 50 0 0

- 36,418 12 03 - 34,765 12 95

-1,652 19 3

But this excess, I beg to observe, includes arrears of salaries for 1852 paid in 1853, amounting to 1,6141. 18s. 6d., as shown at page 21 of the Blue Book.

Military Expenditure.

3. The payments made by the Commissariat and Ordnance departments were 50,346/. 11s. 5d., being 461. 9s. 5d. less than in the year 1852.

Public Works.

4. The total outlay under this is 5,8721. 3s. 7 d., of which 3,8431. 3s. 64d. have been expended in the construction of the new Government House. The annexed reports by the surveyor general show in detail the various works and improvements undertaken by him, as also the progress of his department during the past year.

I may here again remark that the convicts sentenced to hard labour, the chief portion of whom are Chinese, have been profitably employed on public works.

Legislation.

5. Four Ordinances were passed during the year, No. 1 being "for the Regu- lation of the Gaol of Hong Kong," and No. 2 "for the Removal of Doubts regarding the Right of Aliens to hold and transfer Property within the Colony." The two last, No. 3 and 4, were, as already reported, for the amendment of previous enactments.

Population.

6. The enclosed returns by the officiating registrar general show that the total population of Hong Kong on the 31st December 1853, consisted of

198

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

39,017 persons, exclusive of troops. As to the climate, the report of Dr. Harland, the acting colonial surgeon, appended to the Blue Book, contains very accurate statistical information connected with this subject. The sanitary condition of the colonial gaol is given in the enclosed return from the acting sheriff, which shows that amongst its inmates, averaging 138 throughout the year, only three deaths occurred, and all in January. According to the enclosed memorandum, the mortality amongst the European troops was 5.7 per cent., being an increase over that of 1852, when it was 36 per cent. The number of deaths amongst the native troops (Malays and natives of India) was at the rate of 5.3 per cent. being a decrease of nearly 50 per cent. on the mortality during 1852, when it amounted to 10·02 per cent.

Education.

7. No remarkable change has taken place in the number of the local schools; and as to the progress of the five native ones receiving Government aid, I would refer your Grace to the annexed report of the education committee entering fully into the subject.

Trade.

8. The information under this head, from the unwillingness of the parties concerned to afford it (Hong Kong being a free port), may still be said to be as defective as in former years; but from the acting harbour master's returns annexed to the blue book, it will be perceived that 1,103 square-rigged vessels, carrying altogether 447,053 tuns, arrived in Victoria harbour during the year 1853. Of these vessels, 201 imported and 154 exported goods into and from the colony, being a very considerable increase over the numbers returned for 1852, when they amounted to 74 and 79 vessels respectively. The total tonnage of vessels arrived, as compared with that of the preceding year, is also on the increase, and shows an excess of 13,670 tons in 1853. The inclosed return of imports and exports for the year 1853, by the Peninsular and Oriental Company's steamers alone, gives the following result when compared with the previous year:

Chests of opium Treasure

-

Treasure

Imports. 36,499; Increase $10,776,085;

Exports.

20,752

-

""

- $10,659,774

82,331,931; Decrease

$3,742,914

  With regard to the native trade of the colony, I am satisfied it has increased in an equal ratio with the population; but, unfortunately, no reliable statistics on the subject can be given, owing to the absence of any means of obtaining regular returns.

The trade with California has continued undimished, no less than 32 vessels having left for that port during the past year, conveying in them 4,949 Chinesc; three vessels have likewise left for the colonies, carrying 268 emigrants.

Crown Lands.

  9. The following statement is an abstract of the rent roll for 1853, and exhibits the fixed revenue under this head:

Lands leased by mercantile firms

£ S. d. 4,721 12 4

HONG KONG.

No. 6.

No. 7.

No. 8.

No. 9.

No. 10.

Private individuals

""

4,439 8 103

Chinese

"

""

1,586 10 9

£10,747 12 03

Police.

  10. The enclosed return of felony cases coming under the cognizance of the police, shows a decrease of fifty-two cases in 1853.

No. 11.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

199

11. I beg to transmit herewith two statements for the year 1853, showing respectively, the causes under cognizance at the chief magistrate's office and the Court of Petty Sessions, and the criminal cases tried in the Supreme Court; also, a return of the number of civil cases tried and actions commenced in the Supreme and Vice Admiralty Courts, during the same period.

General Observations.

12. As I am about to quit the colony in a few days, after having administered its government for upwards of six years, I beg to annex some statistical tables showing its rise and progress from 1848, the date of my taking charge of it. From these, your Grace will observe that the call on the home Government for parliamentary grant has been reduced from 25,000l. to 8,500l. for the current year; that the expenditure has been reduced from 62,6587. to 36,418/.; that the number of square-rigged vessels frequenting the port has increased from 700 to 1,103, while their tonnage is nearly double; and that the population has in like manner advanced 82 per cent. during the past six years. In conclusion, I have no hesitation in saying, that were this colony taxed in the same way as are the settlements in the straits under the government of the East India Company, it could in a year or two be made to pay its own expenses, without the efficiency of the government being impaired; but I have considered myself bound by the opinions expressed by the committee of the House of Commons, in the session of 1847, upon our commercial relations with China, and in consequence refrained from the imposition of any new taxes. I must, however, with great deference say, after an experience of twenty-two years in the settlements of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore, and Malacca, and six at Hong Kong, I am by no means satisfied with the conclusions which the committee appears to have arrived at in this respect.

I have, &c.

(Signed)

S. G. BONHAM.

&c.

The Duke of Newcastle,

&c.

&c.

Enclosure in No. 36.

SIR,

Surveyor General's Department, Victoria, Hong Kong, March 27, 1854.

 I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the public works under- taken during the last year.

Buildings.

New Government House progressed very slowly indeed, in consequence of the partial failure of the contractor, and a strike amongst the masons to whom a considerable sum of money being due, I was obliged to make arrangements myself for payment, and enter into agreements for the completion of certain unfinished portions, both of the stonework and brickwork, in accordance with the terms of the contract, which empowered me to do so, charging the cost of the several portions against the amount of contract. By these means I have been enabled to expedite the work in some degree, and force the contractor to attend to his own interest, by a closer attendance to his duties and the regular pay- ment of the men. With regard to the workmanship, I have the greatest satisfaction in stating that it is of the very best description, and would do credit to European artisans. I have adopted every expedient I could devise for the preservation of the timber, by giving to it ample ventilation, by saturation in a solution of arsenic, and coating it with coal tar according to circumstances, which my experience in buildings here has taught me to be essentially necessary for the prevention of dry rot, and the destructive effects of white ants.

Contracts have been entered into for the erection of the stables, kitchen and servants' quarters, as well as for the guardhouse or lodge, considerably within the estimate. The whole of the works required for the completion of the service will be completed and the premises fit for occupation about the end of the present year. Expenditure during the year, 3,8431. 3s. 64ď.

Debtors' gaol, guardhouse and gaoler's house (Report and estimate, No. 5 of 1851), The two last-named buildings were commenced at the latter end of the year 1852, and the service is now fast approaching completion. The site for the debtors' gaol being occupied, this building was not commenced until the month of August last. Expendi- ture during the year, 1,1531. 18s. 4d.

A new police station for Wong-nei-chung, upon the site of Leighton's Godown, was authorized under Report and estimate No. 19 of 1853, and commenced in the month of August.

Site (and road to) Government House (Report and estimate No. 11 of 1853).

200

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

This service, as far as proposed in the report, has been completed. Expenditure 1891. 69. 3d. Levelling the ground after the deposit of the cutting, the formation of the road and the maintenance thereof, being in course of execution by convict labour, and will be commented upon in alluding to the services performed by them.

Treadwheel house and works connected therewith, (Report and estimate No. 5, of 1853,) were commenced in August, and are not yet quite complete; the machinery now in course of erection will be finished in a week from the present date. Expenditure during the year 104l. 3s. 4d.

Two schoolhouses for the Chinese were authorized to be built under Report and estimate No. 23 of 1853; estimate, 2077. 8s. 8d.

Repairs.

These have been of the ordinary kind, and comprised the repair of the harbourmaster's office and residence; the floors, roof, and other portions being much decayed, were renewed, and the whole building painted and whitewashed throughout; expenditure, 481. 68. 8d.

Sundry services to the residence of the chief justice, the magistracy, governinent house, government offices, gaol, civil hospital, and burial-ground chapel were effected, at an expenditure of 64l. 19. 11d., as given in detail in the return of expenditure. The police stations required a repair, particularly to the verandahs. I stripped the timbers of all plaster, and coated them with coal tar, and trust they will not require further repair for some time. Expenditure 367.

The Court House. This building having a corinthian entablature formed of brick plastered, resting on wood which had become decayed, rendered it necessary to remove the greater portion, and rebuild it with less perishable materials; this I was able to effect by reducing the projection of the cornice, and supporting it with strong tiles in lieu of the wood, which service was executed for the sum of 351.

Post Office. This building originally very insufficiently erected, became so detoriated that a more than ordinary repair was requisite to render it permanent and suitable as an office and residence. The verandahs had to be entirely removed, all the flooring joists at their insertion in the external wall being_rotten (caused by the alternate action of the sun and rain). In carrying out this repair I erected transverse arches from the pillars to the walls, and upon these placed the new joists, parallel with the building, thus pro- tecting the ends from the weather, and with full ventilation below I have little doubt that they will be preserved by these means for a much longer period than by the original arrangement. This service, estimated at 2031. Os. 84d., was not completed at the end of the year; expenditure thereon, 627. 10s.

Roads.

New works--comprised the erection of two flights of steps from the lower bazaar to the Queen's Road, at an expenditure of 14. In the lower bazaar for the formation of the Strand Road, which is in course of formation by the Crown tenants, it became necessary for Government to assist by the erection of seawalls thereto, opposite each of the streets abutting thereon, and filling in the area proposed to be reclaimed from the sea. This service, authorized under Report and estimate No. 3 of 1853, was commenced in April, but in consequence of the dilatory manner in which some of the tenants proceeded with their share of the work, I was unable to proceed with the government portion. The expenditure during the year on this account only amounted to 311. 58. The greater portion has however since been completed. Estimate, 1921. 148. 2d. Surface drains, estimated at 58% 178. 6d., were also sanctioned for the lower bazaar, and upon this service an expenditure of 311. 5s. was made. In connexion with the filling, &c for the reclamation of land from the sea to form the Strand Road, "covered drains" were required; these were authorized under Report and estimate No. 2 of 1853, amounting to 512. 9s. 74d., but for this service, delayed from the same cause as that referred to above, I made no payments on account up to the termination of the year.

The road extending from Aberdeen Street to the Queen's Road at the naval stores, I was directed to widen and improve, to render it available for carriages; it was sauctioned under Report and estimate No. 21 of 1853,-estimate, 319l. 68. 10d,-and commenced in the month of September. One half of the road is finished, and an expenditure on account made, amounting to 1024. 10s. The road will be finished and open to the public in the beginning of May, previous to which period it is unadvisable to do so, as it requires much rain to consolidate the material, and prove the drains and retaining walls

secure.

Repairs to roads were made from Aberdeen Street to Aberdeen Road, amounting to 91 on one mile and 383 yards; from the Albany Godowns to Quarry Bay, amounting 11. 4s. 2d.; and a further repair and improvement of the same road estimated at 581 48. 2d. was authorized, but not completed at the end of the year; the Wong-nei- chung Valley Road amounting to 12., and on the the Queen's Road West amounting to 126.. forming a total distance of 1 miles. The remainder of the roads and streets in the .island were kept in repair by convict labour.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Bridges.

Sundry services were effected to bridges on the road round the island, amounting to 67. 78. 6d., and the bridge at Soo-kun-poo, injured during a heavy flood, was repaired for

the sum of 10%.

A sewer 100 feet in length for the use of some new houses in Aberdeen Street, was executed for the sum of 20%. 16s. 8d.

The expenditure for the repair and supply of convict tools during the year amounted to 15l. 3s. 3d., a small sum in comparison with former years. This is to be attributed to the employment of convicts for these services; some Chinese carpenters and a European blacksmith having been condemned to hard labour, were occupied in the above work. The total expenditure during the year, as executed under my supervision, has amounted to the sum of 5,870l. 78. 01d.

Convict Labour.

The labour of the convicts has comprised the ordinary general services we can derive from it, viz., in breaking stones for the roads, picking oakum, mat making, &c., within the gaol walls, and labour on public works outside the walls. Within the walls some effective work has been performed by the carpenters in the repair of tools, as well as in the ordinary repairs of the gaol; timber and other materials being supplied from con- demned buildings. I was thus enabled to turn their labour to account, particularly in the formation of a new set of beds or stretchers for the chain gang, the renewal of several windows, reflooring one room, a passage and covered way-and a variety of other useful repairs, which must otherwise have been paid for. By the regulations lately made for the gaol, the gaoler is required to keep an exact account of these and other miscellaneous works performed by the convicts, so that a more direct comparison may be made of the value of the work as a set off against the expenditure for their maintenance.

The stone broken for the roads amounts to 400 tons, which I estimate at per ton, 3s. 6d., equals 70%. The greater quantity of this I propose to use in metalling the new road to Government House, which being formed entirely in filling will require to have its surface rendered as hard and as unyielding as possible to preserve it from the action of the heavy rains. The value of work performed by the carpenters and blacksmiths, the latter for a short period only, exclusive of materials, I estimate at 38%.

Without the gaol walls an average number of ten men are employed daily as water carriers, scavengers, &c., and in a variety of other purposes for the general duties of the gaol. Upon public works they have been employed as follows; viz., in scavenging under police direction in various parts of the city, 208 men, valued at 41. 6s. 8d.; in the im- provement of streets and roads, 6,914 men, valued at 1447. Os. 10d.; in repairs to roads and streets, 4,142 men, valued at 862 5s. 10d.; in cleansing drains, &c., 237 men, valued at 41. 18s. 9d.; in the formation of the road to new Government House, 5,609 men, valued at 1167. 17s. 1d.; and in miscellaneous services, such as planting trees, weeding, cutting grass, &c, 1,495 men, valued at 317. 2s. Ild., thus forming a total of 18,605 men employed on public works (being 1,094 men less than last year), expressing the value of work performed at 3871. 12s. 1d.

The three coolies attached to the department have been usefully employed during the year at work of the ordinary miscellaneous character-viz., 154 days in the supervision of labour, 391 days repairing roads, streets, and bridges, 182 days in transplanting or in the care of trees, 126 days clearing drains, 17 days at the Government House site, 45 days at the delivery of stones from Albany Godowns, 17 days miscellaneous; total 932 days.

The total expenditure by the department on account of

public works during the year amounted to Value of convict labour outside the gaol to ditto

ditto

inside

ditto

Ditto Services performed by department coolies, at 31. 2s. 6d.

per month

Actual value of all services during the year

4

8. d.

5,870 701

387 12 }

108 0 0

37 10 0

-6,403 9 1

Hon. Lieut-Colonel W. Caine,

&c.

&c.

&c.

I have, &c.

(Signed)

CHARLES ST. GEORGE CLEVERLY,

Surveyor General.

201

202

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure in No. 36.

SIR,

Surveyor General's Department,

Victoria, Hong Kong, March 29, 1854. I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the progress of my depart- ment for the year 1853, for the information of his Excellency the Governor.

 In the month of February Mr. Power, the accountant and clerk of deed registry, submitted an application for leave of absence for one year, upon medical certificate for the benefit of his health. This having been granted, the duties of his office were per- formed by Mr. Morgan (auditor's clerk) until the month of August, when the state of his health required a change of air, and he was obliged to proceed on medical certificate to England, but unhappily only reached Ceylon, where he died. Previous to the intel- ligence of the death of Mr. Morgan Mr. Chapman had charge of the office, and gave much- satisfaction. After the receipt of the intelligence of Mr. Morgan's death the acting appointment was transferred to Mr. H. Reinhard. During the period of Mr. Morgan's services in the office, I regret to say, his health was so bad it was impossible for him to give that attention to it which it necessarily demanded, and he was reluctantly compelled to call in the assistance of some of his brother officers from time to time; assistance, however, which though willingly given was manifestly insufficient, and a variety of arrears accumulated, consequent upon the repeated changes and the sickness of Mr. Morgan. This arrear neces- sarily interfered much with my own duties, and it was with the utmost difficulty I could comply with the requirements of bis Excellency the Governor and others, for the various documents required by the service.

 The duties required from the holder of the office of the clerk of deed registry and accountant, are not like those of a clerk in other offices: in this office they are of a peculiar and miscellaneous character, and it required both dilligent care and the closest application on the part of Mr. Reinhard to bring the office again into proper working order; and I have the greatest satisfaction in thus giving him every praise for bis conduct, which he richly deserves.

 In the supervision of the work at Government House, the three sappers attached to the department have given much satisfaction; and, although the workmanship there has been executed in the most praiseworthy manner, I cannot accord any praise to the contractor. I believe he has had some pecuniary difficulties; and, having been most inattentive, I was, in consequence, obliged to employ day-labourers to construct a stone drain required by the contract-to guarantee payment of certain dues to stonemasons and bricklayers-- and make other arrangements for carrying on the contract, which by its terms I was empowered to do.

 By this means the men were induced to proceed with the work; a greater number have lately been placed on the building, and it is now progressing favourably. The assistance given by the sappers, as overseers, is entirely confined to Government House, and thus I have had the entire responsibility of all other supervision of work upon myself alone. This has comprised, together with Government House, the works at the gaol, two guard- houses, residence for gaoler, debtor's prison, treadwheel house, police station at Wong-nee- chung, boat-houses for the harbour master and police, and two school-houses for the Chinese;

to which must be added the repairs to the several public buildings which have been executed during the year, the new road from Aberdeen Street to join the Queen's Road at the Naval-Stores (which it is proposed to call Bonham Road), the constant attention demanded from me in the lower bazaar, not only for the examination of the public works being partially carried on in conjunction with the crown tenants, but for the purpose of defining the several boundaries of the small lots, into which the area is divided, according as they became reclaimed from the sea. These services, coming as they did altogether, occupied so much time, that I was kept from my attendance at office more than I have ever been before: thus the necessary detail drawings for Government House, and the other houses and works, were much delayed, or hurriedly executed, which was extremely inconvenient, coupled as it was with the arrears in the registry office already alluded to.

 The supervision of convict labour is also entrusted to my care. For this work I have the services of the sergeant of the guard (an active, intelligent person) at present, and to whom occasionally the duty is very severe, particularly when I am obliged to work the gang in separate parts of the town. This I avoid as much as possible, from the difficulty of properly guarding them; and, notwithstanding that the guard is sufficiently large, they are occasionally careless, and convicts escape. This is, however, of rare occurrence; and, considering the facilities they have of hiding themselves in the ravines, or over the broken, irregular surface of the hills in the vicinity of the town, or in a variety of ways when working in the town, it is seldom the case that a man is recovered.

 The Chinese overseer and three coolies-continue to give every satisfaction; and, indeed, without them, or some such assistance always at my command, it would be impossible for me to execute the various services demanded of me. I occasionally despatch one or more of them to superintend the repair of roads, or other services, by small gangs of convicts; as I have initiated them in the most effective mode of making repairs; and the guard, as well as convicts, being so frequently changed, they are unable, or unwilling, to complete any services which are not specially directed by some third person.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Within the gaol, the ordinary hard labour has been carried into effect in breaking stone for the roads; and latterly, three carpenters and one blacksmith bave done much service in effecting such miscellaneous services as are necessarily demanded in buildings so occupied, as well as in the repair of tools of all kinds used by the men, both within and without the gaol walls. Three hard labour machines were fixed in position by these artisans, and the blacksmith was usefully employed in cleaning, oiling, and arranging the various parts of the treadwheel, previous to its erectiou.

I have to report the satisfactory termination to the law suit, instituted indirectly against the Government for the resumption of marine lots Nos. 8 and 8 a, alluded to in my last year's report.

The number of leases or extension of leases, issued from and prepared in the office has amounted to 12 during the year.

Sales of land by public auction were held, comprising an area of 8a. Ir. 51p. which produced a premium of 165l. 16s. 8d., and an addition to the rent roll of 24ïl. 8s. 1d. per annum.

Two lots were resumed by Government, which were either abandoned by the proprietors, who were not to be found, or were taken possession of for non-payment of rent in accordance with the term of the leases, making a reduction in the rent roll of 2731. 12s. 24d. per annum; but, as the new sales produced the sum as stated above, the rent roll at the termination of the year amounted to the sum of 10,747%. 12s. O‡d. only; 32l. 4s. 11d. less than last year.

The registered transactions in land-viz, transfers, mortgages, &c., were nearly similar n number to those of last year, and consisted of 40 memorials for absolute sale, affecting 49 lots; 14 mortgages, or satisfaction of same, affecting 26 lots; and the remainder of a miscellaneous character, comprising, in the whole, 63 memorials, referring to 83 lots.

The fees received in my office during the year have amounted to the sum of 121. 10s. for issue of leases, and 103l. 5s. 3d. for registry; forming a total of 115l. 15s. 3d.

In conclusion I have to report, that the various members of the department have given perfect satisfaction to me during the year, and, my own health not having suffered in any material degree, the duties of the service have been carried on without difficulty, except from the temporary inconvenience caused by the changes of clerks, and the death of Mr. Morgan alluded to before.

Hon. Lient. Colonel W. Caine,

&c. &c.

&c.

I have, &c. (Signed) CHARLES ST. GEORGE CLEVERLY,

Surveyor General

203

Enclosure in No. 36.

CENSUS of HONG KONG, 31st December 1852.

204

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Population.

Population.

Total

Total

No. of

Houses,

No. of

Boats.

Children.

Total.

Children.

Total.

Remarks.

Male. Female.

Male.

Female.

Mule. Female.

Male.

Female.

Europeans and Americans

312

86

41

37

Portuguese (Goa and Macao)

148

137

Indians, Malays, and natives of Manilla

268

38

888

88

83

91

24

ཆཚསྶ

476

312

86

41

37

476

459

416

175

107

113

811

22

352

370

Aliens (chiefly seamen) and temporary

residents

194

194

194

194

Chinesc, in

the employment of

Europeans

1,746

141

15

153

2,055

Chinese, residing in the city of Victoria

1,346

10,899 2,655 1,301 1,107

15,962

Ditto, boat population, Victoria Harbour

871

4,219

1,135

604

422

6,380

Ditto, ditto, other than Victoria

997

4,187 1,295

752

505 6,739

Total

of

›25,715

6,114 3,117 2,494

37,536

Ditto, resident in the villages

918

3,200 808

505

307

4,820

Chinesc

Ditto, temporary residents and vagrants

700

80

780

Ditto, emigrants waiting passage to California, &c.

·

800

"

800

2 634

1,868

26,673

6,375

3,325

2,644

39,017

26,673

6,375

3,325

2,644

39,017

(Signed)

The Result of previous Censuses was

C. MAY,

Officiating Registrar-General

33,292 of every description.

Total

19,463 Chinese only.

1847

Total

-

"

23,872 of every description.

In 1850

Total

"

24,157 of every description. 22,453

1848

-

21,514

"

39

33

1849

>>

}}

29,507

1851

1852

-

"}

32,983

"

"

>>

37,058

In 1844

"}

1845

·

·

" 1846.

-

Enclosure in No. 36.

ABSTRACT of RETURNS furnished from each House occupied by Chinese in the Colony of Hong Kong, stating the Number of Persons resident therein, and Mortality, during the Year ending the 31st December 1853.

Children.

Deaths during Year 1853.

Name of District or Place.

Male.

Female.

Total

Population of each Place.

Total

Mortality.

General Occupation

of the Inhabitants.

Male.

Female.

In the

Colony.

Out of the Colony.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

conse-

It is known that a great proportion of Chinesc when seized with se- vere illness leave this colony for their na- tive places; quently, the Deaths occurring out of the colony are more nu- merous than those in the colony. I esti. mate the Deaths oc- curring out of the colony at 820.

Trade.

Fishing and trade. Agriculture.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Fishing and trade. Do. and agriculture.

Do. and stonecutter. Do.

do.

Do. and trade.

Do.

do. Do.'and agriculture.

Agriculture. Do.

Do.

City of Victoria

Aberdeen and Vicinity

Hong Kong

Ka-su-wan and Ka-su-wan

Hoong-heong-loo

14,045

2,866

1,316

1,260

19,487

106

749

130

71

30

980

10

70

50

37

26

183

30

5

20

10

65

60

4

3

73

Pok-foo-lum

Sai-wan

32

21

13

7

76

49

39

24

22

134

Sei-ing-poon

43

21

13

83

Shek-'o

143

42

36

29

250

Sheak-tong-tsui

271

5

5

3

284

Show-kewan

215

25

40

17

297

3

Soo-koan-poo

659

137

39

888

26

Stanley

623

165

76

908

15

Tsut-chec-moy

54

15

7

82

Ty-tam-took and Ty-tam

49

30

25

12

116

Wong ma-kok

12

8

2

5

27

Wong-nee-choong

106

94

68

46

314

8

Wong-kok-tsui

35

12

12

1

60

17,245

8,674

1,821

1,567

24,307

173

Bodies found exposed, died in Gaol, and

Government Civil Hospital

·

and}

56

229

820

Do.

1,049

(Signed)

C. MAY,

Officiating Registrar General

205

206

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF

HER

MAJESTY'S

COLONIAL

POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure in No. 36.

RETURN of the Number and Description of Chinese Vessels anchored and plying in the Harbour and Bays of Hongkong on the 31st December 1853, specifying the Number

Description

of

5

Boats.

VICTORIA.

Adults.

Children.

ABERDEEN.

Adults.

Children.

No. of Vessels.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Vessels.

Male.

No, of Vessels,

of Persons on Board.

STANLEY.

Adults.

Children.

SAIWAN AND SHOWKEWAN,

Adults.

Children.

SHEAK'O.

Adults.

Children.

1

I

1

1

1

I

1

1

1

1

1

Female.

No. of Vessels.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Vessels.

Male.

Female.

Male.

Female.

No. of Vessels.

Male.

I

Junks

13

234

1

3

46

1

1

19

-

Trading boats

Wood boats

81

698

2 23

1

6

26

2

8

00

2 15 225

4

3

2

-

11 126

5 18 14

12

122

89

63

52

41

2

9

-

Passage boats

33

39 429

10 41

5

18 132 60 29 16 12

97

22

23

22

Salt boats

19 646

48

8

62

<

-

10

80

Lorchas

-

6

60

1

-

1

1

1

1

1

Cargo boats

Fishing boats

Hakow and Pull- away boats.

268

63 378 183 94 29 38 266 97 101 48 121 161 333

-

-

1

-

965 82 193 98 1701,399 352 263 200

3 50 10

15

18

113

73

J

-

1

2 233

1

1

1

1

--

-

1

1

-

-

-

1

Cooking boats

3

11

22

4

2

1

Gươ

3

Water boats

5

30

13

4

3

2

4

1

Sampaus

412

886 521 154 246 420 588

602

Stone boats

10

98

2

-

-

93

35

1

Bum boats

-

10

30

12

4

1

1

1

J

Total

·

8714,219 1,135

604 422 591 1,948

810 375

72 156 283 63 36 19 31

1

-

-

1

t

229

366 2,112

441

325

1

I

-

243

I

I

-

1

1

64 31

33 14

2

+

2

9

1

3

-

1

38 123

42

51

323

32

}

2

I

1

1

1

1

}

1

J

TOTAL.

Adults.

Children.

Of

Boat

Female.

Male.

Female.

Popu

lation.

-

17

299

299

102

949

8

34

5

996

25

251

68

70

55

444

1

69

658

92

93

43

886

1

37

788

48

-

836

6

60

-

-

60

63 378 183

1

9342,680

541

572

161

333 268

282

94 29 684

3644,157

113 73 787

14

22

4

2

42

-

-

7

34

14

3

4

ca

55

2

1

11,0211,825 1,219

317

352 13,713

-

-

12

107

3

113

1

-

10

30

12

4

47

2

1

11,868 8,406 |2,430 |1,356 927 13,119

C. MAY, Registrar General,

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

207

Enclosure in No. 36.

RETURN of the average Number of Prisoners confined in the Victoria Gaol during every Day of each Month, for the Year 1853.

Prisoners.

Months.

Europeans.

Chinese and Coloured.

Total

Deaths.

Remarks.

January

55+

98+

154

3

February

294

113

1421

March

17

105

1221

April

244

103

128

May

271

1231

150+

June

34

1184

1521

July

183

125

144

August

241

103

128

September

41+

106+

1474

October

468

1064

1534

November

264

972

1244

December

201

894

110

366

1,292

1,658

3

Average number of prisoners each day during the year Total deaths

Mortality, per cent.

(Signed)

1 European from diarrhea. 12 Chinese from dysentery.

1381

·

3 24

C. MAY,

Acting Sheriff.

Enclosure in No. 36.

MEMORANDUM showing the Number of Deaths which have occurred in the Garrison of Hong Kong, during the Year 1853.

Description

of

Troops.

PERIOD.

Quarter ending Quarter ending Quarter ending Quarter ending

31st March.

30th June. 30th Sept.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average

Strength.

Deaths.

Average Strength during |

the Year.

Number of Deaths during the Year.

Proportion of Deaths to average. Strength.

Proportion of Deaths to

entire Force.

31st Dec.

Europeans

Natives

569

10

657

3

645

9

645 14 629

36

5.7

-5'6

352

4

343

9

341

2

268

3

326

18

5*3

955

54

(Signed)

P. MACLEAN, Captain.

For Brigade Major.

SIR,

Enclosure in No. 36.

REPORT on the Five Chinese Schools receiving Government Aid.

Victoria, Hong Kong, 16th January 1854.

In reply to your letter, No. 256, of the 10th of December, 1853, calling for a report of the government elementary schools during the year 1853, we have the honour to state, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, that,

1. The attendance of boys at the schools has averaged 21 for each school, the greatest number being at the Victoria school, 31; and the smallest, 12, at the Stanley school. At

208

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Stanley and Aberdeen the numbers are always very inuch reduced during the fishing season, when the greatest part of the scholars are withdrawn to assist their parents in the labours of the fishery.

 2. The course of instruction has been, that half the day has been devoted to the study of the Scriptures and books composed under the superintendence of foreigners, and half to the study of the Chinese Classics.

3. A work on geography, published by Mr. Muirhead, at Shangae, at the expense of Mr. Lancelot Dent, has been introduced into the schools with considerable advantage; and two Chinese pupil teachers, from St. Paul's College, have, since the month of May last, attended the Victoria and Wongneichoong schools once, and latterly, twice a week, for the purpose of teaching English, in which the boys have now begun to show some progress. 4. During the year, there have been several applications, by boys, for admission into St. Paul's College; but one pupil only, from the Wongneichoong school, has been admitted, (but see par. 8).

 5. Two of the schoolmasters have died during the year. There were many candidates for the vacancies, and selection was made of those who appeared to have had most ex- perience in teaching, and to be otherwise best fitted for the office.

6. Two members have been added to the committee, the Rev. Mr. Odell and the Rev. Dr. Legge; and this addition may, it is hoped, secure for the schools better supervision, though those in out villages must necessarily be left much to themselves, owing to their distance from Victoria, the difficulty of access to them, and the more important occupations of the members of the committee, which do not permit them to leave the town frequently. 7. Two school-houses have been commenced by the surveyor general; one at Victoria, on a site adjoining the European part of the town, yet overlooking and adjacent to the Chinese part; the other at the village of Wongneichoong. Great improvement will doubtless result from the erection of these buildings, and we trust that his Excellency will see fit to sanction, during the coming year, the erection of similar buildings at the three other villages-Aberdeen, Stanley, and Heongkong, in lieu of the apartments now used as schoolrooms, which are confined, incurably dirty, and altogether unsuitable.

 8. On 4th instant an examination of the scholars was held at St. Paul's College, and prizes were distributed in accordance with the suggestion made in our letter of 13th September last, and approved by his Excellency. After the examination, seven of the most promising scholars were selected by the Lord Bishop of Victoria, and transferred, with their entire satisfaction, to the college, to receive a better course of instruction. Four of these were from the Wongneichoong school.

9. A request was made during the year by the residents at West Point, that a school might be established in their neighbourhood. A similar request was made by the resi- dents of Sookunpoo; and at the outlying village of Sheako, where the population is agricultural and stationary, a school might be set on foot with great benefit to the vil- lagers, who are for the most part too poor to obtain this advantage without assistance.

 10. We think that the study of the English language should in this, an English colony, be encouraged as much as possible, not merely in regard to its utility as a mental exercise and a means of obtaining what is valuable in English literature, but in regard to the effects to be produced by such a knowledge in preventing misunderstanding, and establishing a bond of union between the many thousand Chinese who have made this place their residence and the handful of Europeans by whom they are governed.

Hon. Lieut.-Colonel W. Caine,

&c.

&c.

&c.

We have, &c. (Signed) G. VICTORIA, M. C. ODELL, C. B. HILLIER, J. LEGGE

Enclosure in No. 36.

IMPORT of OPIUM by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers during the Years 1852 and 1853.

1852.

1853.

15,747 Chests.

36,499 Chests.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT ·

IMPORT of TREASURE by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers during the Years 1852 and 1853.

1852.

Value in Dollars.

116,311

1853.

Valne in Dollars.

10,776,085

EXPORT of TREASURE by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers during the Years 1852 and 1853.

1852.

1853.

Value in Dollars.

Value in Dollars.

6,074,845

2,331,931

(Signed)

E. R. MICHELL,

Acting Harbour Ma..er.

Victoria,

20th February 1854.

209

Enclosure in No. 36.

COMPARATIVE RETURN of the Total Number of Felony Cases coming under the cognizance of the Hong Kong Police during the Years 1852 and 1853, including those in which no Persons were apprehended.

Years.

Number of Cases.

Remarks.

1852

523

1853

471

Decrease in 1853, 52 cases.

(Signed)

Police Department,

16th January 1914. }

D. R. CALDWELL, Acting Superintendent of Police

210

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure in No. 36.

ABSTRACT of Causes under cognizance at the Chief Magistrate's Office, and the Court of Petty Session, during the year 1853.

Number of

Causes.

Civil Causes, how

disposed of

COURT OF PETTY SESSIONS.

Criminal Causes, how disposed of.

Civil.

Criminal.

Total.

Of which

were

Decree for Plaintiff.

Decree for Defendant.

Non-suited.

Referred to the Su- preme Court.

Total Number of De- fendants.

876

404 | 472 | 252 63

33

81

Convicted and Pu- nished.

Discharged without Punishment.

Released on Security.

Deported.

for trial at the su-

Committed or Bailed

preme Court.

Ordered to find Secu-

rity or to quit the Colony.

M.

F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F.

8 788 12 390

5213 5

25 2 141

5

Civil Causes consisted of Claims for Debt or Damages not exceeding $50; for Police

Rates; and by Seamen for Wages, &c.

Among the Criminal Causes were for-

Larceny

Burglary

Robbery

Piracy

Receiving Stolen Property

Demanding Money with Menaces

Relating to Coin

-

Unlawful possession of Property (under Police Ordinance) Malicious damage to Property

Assaults

Vagrancy

Keeping Public Gambling Houses, &c.

False Balances and Weights

Breaches of Regulation for Sale of Spirituous Liquors Unlicensed Retailing of Opium

Desertion and Refusal of Duty by Seamen-

-

283 7

·

15

21

13

-

6

·

9

-

117

58

+

320

-

180

10

2

·

17

2

14

#

11 5

Perjury and Malicious Prosecution

In British Vessels

In Foreign Vessels

CHIEF MAGISTRATE'S OFFICE.

Number of Causes.

Civil Causes how disposed of.

Criminal Causes, how Disposed of.

Civil.

Total.

were

Criminal.

Of

which

Decree for Plaintiff.

Decree for Defendant

or Dismissal, in na-

ture of non-suit.

M. F. M. F. M.

1,171 16 1,155 15

1 1,784 | 102 | 779 59

F.M. F. M. F. M. F. M. F.

509❘ 32

50

85

5

5 236

60

45

The 16 Civil Causes were for the most part Claims for Police Dues.

TOTAL WRITS 188UED BY MAGISTRATES.

Warrants.

Summonses.

Subpoenas.

Distress.

Arrest.

Search.

Total.

937

267

81

39

2

1,326

 Under the head of " Causes how disposed of," are included all such causes as were brought before the Court for decision or investigation. Those which did not proceed beyond the issue of a summons or warrant, will be found under the head of "Total Writs issued."

(Signed)

C. B. HILLIER,

Chief Magistrate.

M. F.

14

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

211

Enclosure in No. 36.

RETURN of CRIMINAL CASES that have been tried in the Supreme Court of Hong Kong during the Year 1853.

Number of Cases.

Number of Persons.

CRIME.

Convicted.

Acquitted.

Death,

Death recorded.

Transportation.

Hard Labour, over One Year.

Hard Labour, One

Year and under.

No. of Cases.

No. of Persons.

No. of Cases.

No of Persons.

abandoned.

Sentence.

Remarks.

Charges Postponed.

-

|

1

1251AR

((a)1

1111111

12 12 1

1

I

1

|(6)1

# 1 1 1 1||

NIA -

3

1741

J

27 |

|

F1111

Abduction of girls under 16 years

of age

11

1

Assault

1

2

-

Attempting to commit felony

Burglary

Larceny

Larceny in a dwelling house

23 Manslaughter

Misprision of felony

Murder

-

Murder on the high seas

1 Obtaining goods under false pre-

tences

1❘ Perjury

9 Piracy

1912-

13121

♡ 12 1 pa

34

1

Piracy with endangering life Piracy with wounding

Receiving goods obtained by false

pretences

Receiving stolen goods

Robbery with arms

2 Robbery with wounding

2 Stealing and receiving

1

·

Wounding with intent to do some

grievous bodily harm

·

I

1

11

1

Total

-

-

23 8

1

1

2

INITI

8

4 9

5 13

1 1 1 1 1

}

(a) Two years' imprisonment and $100 fine to the Queen, and further imprisonment until such fine be paid; the period of imprisonment to be reduced to one year if the child is restored to its father within a month from the date of

sentence.

(b) Prisoners tried on an information for receiving stolen goods.

(e) Strongly recommended to mercy.

(d) Witnesses absent.

(e) Prosecution withdrawn, prisoners convicted, the one for obtaining goods under false pretences, the other for receiving the same,

(Signed)

W. H. ALEXANDER, Deputy Registrar.

N. R. MASSON, Acting Deputy Registrar.

32 44

Enclosure in No. 36.

RETURN of the Number of Cases tried before the Honourable the Chief Justice, and Actions commenced in the Supreme and Vice Admiralty Courts of Hongkong, during

the Year ending the 31st December 1853.

Cases tried before the Honourable the Chief Justice in 1853.

63

$91,425 92

Judgment.

Total.

Court.

Number of Cases.

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

Plaintiff.

Defendant.

Nonsuit.

Cases.

Debt and Damage.

Supreme Court:-

Common Law

$27,222 53

(b)

Chancery

Summary

49 (g)

Insolvency

Nil

10,433 74

Nil

85

Nil

14

Nil

Appeals

1

Vico Admiralty Court

5(d)

769 65

53,000 00

Actions commenced in 1853.

212

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

Judgment.

Total

Court.

Number of

Casca.

Amount of Debt and Damages claimed.

Settled without

Trial.

Remaining in

Dependence.

Plaintiff.

Defendant.

Nonsuit.

Cases.

Debt and Damage.

Supreme Court:

Common Law

28

Chancery

Nil

$130,316 43

Nil

17

3

1

7

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Summary

84 (e)

14,158 71

19

85

13

17

Insolvency

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

141

$168,277 51

Ecclesiastical

22 (ƒ) | Assets per appraisement 7,780 87

Appeals

1

Vice Admiralty Court

6

769 65

15,302 35

(a) Three of these cases were in dependence on the 1st January 1853 (the remaining three in dependence were settled without trial), (6) In one of these cases, marked as judgment for plaintiff, the verdict was for plaintiff on one count and for defendant on the others. This action being a "commission de lunatico," no amount can be stated.

(d) Three of these cases were in dependence on the 1st January 1853.

(e) In one of these cases the defendant was arrested on a capias issuing from the common law side, and was subsequently tried in the summary jurisdiction ; verdict for $111 24. ☞) In three of these estates there was a will, consequently the property was not appraised. (9) One independence from 1852.

(Signed) W. H. ALEXANDER. Acting Registrar. N. R. MASSON, Acting Deputy Registrar.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Enclosure in No. 36.

RECAPITULATION of Returns, showing the Progress of Hong Kong from 1848 to 1853

inclusive.

Population,

Years.

exclusive of Revenue.

Troops.

Parliamentary

Police Rates included

Square-rigged Vessels arrived.

Grant. Expenditure.

under Revenue.

No.

Tons.

£

£

£

£

1848

21,514

25,091

25,000

62,658

2,575

700

228,818

1849

29,507

23,617

25,000

38,286

3,116

902

293,465

1850

33,292

23,526

20,000

34,314

2,811

883

299,009

1851

32,983

23,721

15,500

34,115

2,958

1,082

377,084

1852

37,058 21,331

12,000

34,765

2,325 1,097

443,383

1153

39,917

24,700

9,200

36,418

2,704

1,102

447,053

Victoria, Hong Kong,}

7th April 1854.

(Signed)

J. G. BONHAM.

213

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

215

HONG KONG.

No. 38.

COPY of a DESPATCH from Lieut.-Colonel CAINE to the Right Honourable

(No. 79.)

MY LORD,

Lord Join Russell.

Victoria, Hong Kong, June 9, 1855.

(Received, July, 1855.)

  I HAVE the honour to forward the Blue Book for 1854, as transmitted to me by the Colonial Secretary, with his letter No. 302 of the 5th instant, to which I beg most particularly to call the attention of your Lordship.

I trust the state and prospects of the colony as shown therein will be satis- factory to Her Majesty's Government.

The Right Honourable Lord Jolin Russell, M.P.,

I have, &c. (Signed)

W. CAINE.

&c.

&c.

&c.

Enclosure in No. 38.

SIR,

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong, June 5, 1855.

I HAVE the honor to forward the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the past ycar 1854, and take the opportunity to note the great advance recently made by this colony.

2. The revenue for the year has amounted to 27,0451. 3s. 51d., and the expenditure to 34,635. Os. 1d.; the revenue being in excess of that for 1853 by 2,344. 17s. 1d., and the table of expenditure showing a reduction of 1,7137. 11s. 11d.

This result must be considered most satisfactory.

3. As regards military expenditure, the payments made by the Commissariat and Ordnance Departments are stated together at 41,540l. 11ş. 10d., being 8,8051. 19s. 7d. less than during the previous year.

4. The outlay on account of public works amounts to 5,238l. 12s. 7d., of which 3,262/. 8s. 10d. was expended on the new Government House, now close on its completion. The total amount is under that of last year by 6331. 11s.

The number of convicts at labour on the roads has exceeded that of 1853. and more work has consequently been obtained from them.

5. Six ordinances have passed the Legislative Council during the year; one to meet a temporary object by raising an additional police rate, another to

216

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S 'COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

regulate the markets, and three having reference to the Supreme Court The sixth respects the unclaimed balances of intestate estates, and is again under consideration of the Council.

:

}

:

101

With the exception of this last all have received Her Majesty's confirmation, as has a Regula Generalis, passed in November for increasing the number of criminal sessions of the Supreme Court, and reducing fees.

AZN 6. By the returns of the Registrar General it will be seen that a most remarkable increase has taken place in the Chinese population of the colony. In 1853, the Chinese numbered 37,536, in 1854 54,072. This increase is mainly referable to Victoria, and arises directly and indirectly from the confusion which has prevailed in the city of Canton and its neighbourhood, more particu- larly in the latter half of the year. The influx of people flying from the troubles that threatened the provincial city caused the direct addition to our numbers; and as amongst these were many tradesmen, business also came with them, and with increase of trade came further increase of population.

The Registrar General's Returns are of course exclusive of troops, and I may dd that to the presence of these troops, though much reduced in number, is to be attributed the confidence with which, during the recent disturbances, the colony has been regarded.

 7. The colonial surgeon's Report is interesting, and his remarks on the néces sity of drainage and ventilation have already received consideration, but the habits of the Chinese render them difficult to be dealt with in these respects.' Small pox/scems to have been the principal scourge of the island during the past year, and I think it may be said that with this exception the climate is indoubtedly improved.

 8. The Report of the Chinese Education Committee does not show a very satisfactory result, but the attention of Government is directed to the subject.

 9. That the trade of the colony is largely increasing, the removal of so many mercantile firms to this place is a sufficient proof, and a glance at the harbour will show the great improvement in the extent and importance of the native trade.

 It is, however, much to be regretted that the numerous piratical bands infesting the surrounding waters present a serious check to the further development of this branch of commerce.

10. An emigrant officer was appointed in May, and I believe the measure to have been attended with good effect. The efflux of Chinese to California and New South Wales, especially to Melbourne, still continues.

 11. The number of Chinese and others who resorted, as above described, to Hong Kong during the year rendered it necessary to make provision for their habitation, and two sales of land by public auction were accordingly held.

 The result of these is as follows:-Four acres for building lots have been leased; the annual rental on which due to Government amounts to 4921. 5s. 3d., and the premium paid on the leases to 1,1771. 1s. 8d.

 In the Surveyor General's letter, No. 18, of 28th March, which will be found in the Blue Book, and is well worthy of perusal and consideration, the necessity

Page 305.

Page 305.

Surveyor General's

Reports.

is shown of extending the city along the water in a western direction. As in 28th March 1855. that locality are to be found almost the only valuable spots now left for carrying Pages 298 and 301.

on trade with facility, and as, should this ground not be disposed of, the town itself, especially in the Chinese part, will be unhealthily over-crowded, I would carnestly support Mr. Cleverley's recommendation that the land to the westward be planned forthwith for sale.

1.

.

 The nearer portion of the ground to which I allude has already been sold, and in the stagnant days of the colony was thrown back on the hands of Government; the further part has been occupied, but is now abandoned by the Naval Department, who have acquired a more convenient position in the centre of the town.

 I see, therefore, no obstacle to the sale of this land as suggested, for if neces- sary a battery can be erected here, which will meet all the requirements of the Ordnance officers.

 12. As regards crime, I learn from the Superintendent of Police that this has not, as might have been expected, increased in proportion with the augmented population. Still there is an increase as shown in the Gaol Returns, and a heavy expenditure is incurred on this account.

$

 I am not aware of any further points demanding particular remark, but am convinced that a careful perusal of this book will induce considerable surprisc

1841-1886

217

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

and satisfaction at the progress made by Hong Kong in 1854, and I am glad to be able to state that this progress does not to the present moment show any sign of relapse.

I have, &c.

(Signed)

W. S. MERCER.

The Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Caine, Lieutenant Governor.

March 28, 1855.

Surveyor General's Office, Victoria, SIR,

I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon public works in during the past year.

Buildings.

progress

Government House, contrary to my expectation, is not yet complete, notwithstanding 1 have made every possible exertion to expedite the work. The contractor and his securities received notice that the bonds would be enforced if more active progress was not made, but they complained that it was impossible to obtain some materials unless at a inost exorbitant rate, and others could not be obtained at all in consequence of the troubles in Canton, and the numerous hordes of pirates which infest the approaches, laying embargoes upon

all Chinese vessels passing to and fro; in addition to which the difficulties of the contractor have been added to by the increased wages he has had to pay to labourers of all kinds, and this, coupled with his previous losses, as reported last year, has caused the great delay in the completion of the work. I have great satisfaction, however, in stating that although I have necessarily been obliged to dispense with much ornamental plaster work, as no gypsum has been procurable, the decoration of the building has been satis- factorily performed, and I am in every respect perfectly satisfied with the execution of the work.

.

*

The stables, kitchens, offices, and guard house, from the causes above enumerated, have been delayed in a similar manner. At the present date, however, the works have so far advanced that little is now required but painting, so that the whole premises will shortly be fit for occupation. Considerable advances have also been made towards the completion of the grounds and public roads, effected partly under Report and Estimate, No. 11, of 1853, and partly by convict labour, the planting and grassing being executed and charged to Report and Estimate, No. 1, of 1848. With the former of these two services delay has also occurred, as the greater portion of the trees required are necessarily procured out of the colony; fortunately, however, by the kindness of the proprietors I obtained a con- siderable supply by thinning some of their gardens, and these, although removed in winter and at an unfavourable time, have succeeded remarkably well, and but few have died in the immediate vicinity of the principal building. I have planted a sufficient quantity of trees and shrubs, and nothing now remains but to complete the grassing and planting on the slopes...

It was originally intended to have enclosed these grounds with a post and rail fence, but this was abandoned, and a rough stone wall has been erected instead, affording bettor protection and of imperishable materials at a cost of 2351. 4s. 10d. This wall embraces the whole area attached to the house, with the exception of a length of 140 feet up the slope of the embankment on the west side, and where the erection of a wall is imprac- ticable. To effect the inclosure in that direction I propose to plant a thick hedge of prickly pear and bamboos, which will be quite sufficient protection. This embankment has been formed with considerable difficulty, it being no less than 80 feet in hight, and has consequently taken a considerable time to consolidate; it suffered materially during the early part of last year, but, having grassed it over and prevented any flow of water thereon, its surface has been preserved from injury, and it is now assuming a green and secure appearance. H

The works in laying down branch-pipes to the "main" for the supply of water to Government House has been in progress also, but I fear some extensive supplementary service must be effected to render the supply perfect at all times, for I perceive that there is insufficient water in the dry season (for four months) to keep the pipes from the tank to the barracks always full, and unless they are so the water is not forced through any of the ascending branches, so that it is absolutely necessary to adopt measures to remedy this, which must be done by the erection of another tank in some convenient locality, so as to collect the streams, say 80 feet vertical below the present tank, and connect it with the main, with suitable stopcocks to regulate the supply, render the scheme perfect, and; above all, to provide for a large' demand in case of fire or other emergencies.

Under authority of Report and Estimate, No. 23, of 1853, two small school-houses for Chinese wore erected, one in Hollywood Road, the other in the Wongneichung Valley. The sito chosen for the former was on the side of the steep hill, so that one corner of the school had to be supported upon a retaining wall fourteen feet in height, the whole, how- ever, resting upon the natural ground, and as I imagined a secure foundation. However, subsequently to a heavy full of rain on the 28th May, when no less than nine inches fell, a settlement was observed in the north-west angle of the building, and on the same day a considerable slip of ground at the base of the hill occurred. On a careful examination of the surface I found it to-be cracked in a variety of places, and with each succeeding

15

218

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

shower further slips occurred; these continued to advance until the 19th June, when a alip more extensive than the former so far injured the hill that no less than half an acre was ruptured in such a degree as to force over the retaining walls at its base, and destroyi some premises adjoining, whereby one man was killed and others injured." This slip naturally affected the school-house, and in so great a degree that it was considered advis able to pull it down to save the materials; accordingly these were sold by auction on the 4th September, producing the sum of 417. 13s. 4d., and before the whole were removed the greater portion of the site was destroyed.

Arrangements were accordingly made for the prevention of further damage to the bill by the resumption of all the ground unbuilt upon so as to stop further cuttings at its base, and a report and estimate has been submitted for rendering it more permanently secure, and so as to save the upper part of Hollywood Road; dandi aaskasuda moi ir Git

The debtors jail, Report and Estimate, No. 5, of 1851, was completed during the year, And I trust it will be considered useful, and supply all the wants such a building is required to provide for; expenditure amounted to 2482, a balance; however, remained upon the contract amounting to 78% 5s. which I have exacted as a fine for non-completion of the work according to the proper time; the contractor gave me the greatest possible trouble and tried every means in his power to scamp his work, but I ain happy to say the whole as finished is as complete and substantial as I could wish, jih nas mat bola, dobał The erection of the treadwheel under Report and Estimate, No. 5, of 1853, was com- pleted during the year, and although the work was one of considérable difficulty, it acts remarkably well, and is easily regulated to suit one or ten men if placed upon it. The power is, however, applied to no useful purpose...

Police station at Wongneichung, Report and Estimate, No. 19, of 1853' was completed, it provides accommodation for three Europeans, six Indians, and one Chinese constable; it has been satisfactorily executed, and now that there is an almost certain prospect of a town springing up in the immediate vicinity, it is satisfactory to find that the position has been well chosen. Payinent on this account was made amounting to 135

Boat-houses for the harbour master and police, Report and Estimate, No. 20, of 1833, which provided for the accommodation of the crews also was finished during the year, and payment of balance due was made amounting to 2381. 68. 8d. This work has been satis- factorily performed, and I have no doubt it will be found suitable, and provide for all the present wants of the service.

The Post Office had a thorough repair during the year, under the authority of Report and Estimate, No. 22, of 1853, payments on account of which amounting to 132. Is. 1d. were made. The course of this repair and the mode of carrying it into effect were explained in my last report.

Trivial repairs to sundry Government buildings, amounting to 87 48. 4d., were made under Report and Estimate, No. 24.

...

At the town of Stanley, the police station was repaired, and the roof raised, and the whole better ventilated and drained, under the authority of Report and Estimate, No. 2, of 1854, for an expenditure of 20l. 168. 8d.

Repairs to the inagistracy were effected under Report and Estimate, No. 27, of 1853, amounting to 19%. 11s. 8d.

Upon some of the public roads, trees to a limited extent were planted, Report and Estimate, No. 1, of 1854, and payments made amounting to 157., this service is extended as circumstances appear to demand annually.

A

Upon the alteration which took place by placing a police instead of a military guard at the gaols, it became necessary to provide a kitchen, the latter guard not requiring one, it did not form part of the plan for the guard-house; the service was executed for

· 10%. 8s. 4d. under Report and Estimate, No. 8, of 1854.

; 1

Repairs to the police stations in Victoria, under Report and Estimate, No. 26, of 1853, amounted to 10l. 8s. 4d.

A variety of services, which, strictly speaking, are of a miscellaneous nature, I am obliged to charge either under the head of "construction" or "repair;" and under that of the former, for buildings account, I made payments amounting to 19%. 178., requi- sitions Nos. 2, 3, and 8 for protection to Government buildings, the purchase of flags, watchmen, coolio hire, &c.; under the latter head, upon requisitions Nos. 1, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11, I made a variety of repairs to the following buildings:-Government offices, police stations, gaols and governor's residence,-amounting in the aggregate to the sun of 574. 9s. 6d. Thus the total payment made on account of buildings, whether under con- struction or repair, amounted to the sum of 4,5891. 5s. Izd.

Drains.

13

Under Report and Estimate, No. 12, of 1853, I constructed a drain on the steep slope of the hill from Government House Road to Albert Road, for the sum of 60%. This drain carries a large body of water from the upper level, and was intended to preserve the heavy, embankment adjoining from injury by the fall of water over its surface. The service was effected with considerable difliculty, as it was made over treacherous soil, partly in cutting and partly in filling, and, as was anticipated, it received soine damage before it was finally completed. It is placed at an angle of 60 degrees, and the velocity of the water is consequently excessive. I have reduced the quantity of water that formerly found exit there, and thus lessened the danger of failure.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

219

Some covered drains in the Lower Bazaar, estimated at 51l. 98. 74d, were commenced, and an expenditure under report and estimate made, amounting to 342. 48. 41d. ; but in consequence of the unconsolidated state of the new ground in which they were to be placed, I have not yet completed the service.

The Queen's Road, from the barracks to the Albany Godowns, extending over a length of 1,565 yards, had side channels placed thereto, at an expenditure of 1667. 5s. 11d., by which the surface drainage has been materially improved, and the district much bene- fitted.

The total expenditure on account of drains for the year, amounted to 260l. 10s. 3žd.

Roads.

The road from Aberdeen Street to the Aberdeen Road, and on to the naval stores, commenced in September 1853, under Report and Estimate, No. 21, of 1853, was not completely finished at the termination of the year; for during the summer I found it impracticable to carry on the work, in consequence of the failure of somo embankmonts, retaining walls, and drains; I accordingly thought it desirable to suspend the works, that the material might have time to consolidate. On the termination of the rains the work was proceeded with; but the contractor being unable to finish the work to my satis- faction, the balance unpaid upon the contract was exacted as a fine for non-completion of the works up to time, and authority given to me to expend it in the completion of the service, as well as to devote the balance due on the estimate to the further improvement of the drainage works in connexion therewith, as the experience of the rainy season showed that that was absolutely necessary for the preservation of the road.

The payments on account amounted to 1434. 68. Sc., leaving a balance of 731, 10s. 2d. to be expended as above.

The Government portion of the sea wall in the Lower Bazaar, Report and Estimate, No. 3, of 1853, was completed during the year, and payments made to the amount of 1311. 98. 2d. An unappropriated balanco of 30%. remains upon the estimate, which I considered advisable to retain in hands for emergencies, as, from the nature of the foundation, I anticipated some degree of settlement; and this has actually occurred to the extent of two feet in deptli in one place, where the water was no less than twelvo feet deep at low tide. This settlement having now abated, I am enabled to bring the wall up to its intended level. In connexion with this work, and the remainder of the district, surface drains were commenced; but in consequence of the unconsolidated state of the material, I could not complete them. A payment of 51. 5s. 11d. only was made on this head, under Report, and Estimate No. 4 of 1853, leaving a balance of 221. 6s. 2d. for the completion which is now in course of execution.

A small payment was made for work in the repair of the Queen's Road West, Report and Estimate, No. 15, of 1853; which service had been completed, however, before the termination of the year.

The Sukunpu Road was repaired during the year at a cost of 34l. 16s. 9d., and has been kept in very good order during that period.

A balance due for the repair of the Coast Road to Quarry Bay, amounting to 81. 4s. 2d., was made during the year, together with the sum of 401., under Report and Estimate, No. 9, of 1854 for current repairs; the account for which is not closed. The road suffered but little injury from the heavy gales of the summer; the surface is in satisfactory order; and the drains perfect in every respect. The total expenditure under this head amounted to 3671. 2s. 8d.

Convicts.

Repairs to the plant or tools of the convicts were made for an expenditure of 20l. 1.3s. 1d. A very large amount of work, however, for this service has been performed by the convicts themselves within the gaol.

Convict Labour.

The labour performed by the convicts has been of the usual character in the formation and repair of roads, and has comprised the labour of 599 men in scavenging in the city, under the police on duty in some of the districts; in the repair of roads and streets, 6,263 men, and in the formation of roads to Government House, 6,125 men; in repairing and cleansing drains, 241 men; in removing materials from the Albany Godowns, for the purpose of making drains within the gaol, 378 men; and for services of a miscellaneous character, 1,346 men; forming a total of 14,952 men, the value of whose services I esti- mate as follows, at the rate of 5d. per day :-

Scavenging

ו

Construction of roads

Repairs to roads

Drains

Removing building materials Miscellaneous

وو

£ S. d. 12 9 7

599 at 5d. 6,125

· 6,263

127 12 1

"

241

378

23

1,346

"

در

130 9 7

5 0 5

7 17

28 0 10

£311 10 0

220

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

 This amount of labour has been executed under my personal superintendence. Within the gaol, however, a far larger and less profitable number of inen has been employed under the inspection of the gaoler; the labour, as far as it goes, is in some respects valuable. I obtained a large supply of broken stones for the repair of roads, and in this service the gaoler's return gives a total number 11,847 men; but the quantity of stone broken was very small indeed for that number; the stone available, however, was large, and consequently required considerable labour to break it to the size necessary for our roads.

The value of this labour I estimate at 120/.

Cooks and water carriers amounted to 3,650 men, expressing

a value of work, if performed by free labour, equal to Picking oakum, 5,693 at 2d.

·

Carpenters and blacksmiths, 60+ at Is. 2d.

Breaking stones as above

J

£ s. d.

71 17 6

47 8 10

30 4 0

120 0 0

£369 10 4

So that no less than 21,794 men have been kept to hard labour within the gnol. The class of men confined for simple imprisonment, debt, those on the treadwheel, and the sick, amounted to 19,339, from whom no effective labour whatever has been derived.

The total value of labour as estimated by me as performed by convicts, is-

Outside the gaol Within the gaol

£ 8. d. 311 10 0 369 10

Total

£681

0 4

 The coolies of the department, when not in attendance upon me in surveying or in other occupations, have had their labour turned to account as follows :-In planting trees, 494 days; in supervision of public works under contract or otherwise, 236 days; re- pairing roads, 20 days; clearing drains, &c., 158 days, and sundry services, 18 days, all of which work would otherwise have been obliged to be paid for, and consequently it may be presumed they have earned the value of their wages, which amounts to 371. 10s. per

annum.

Recapitulation of expenditure and value of services performed :-

£ 5. d. 4,589 5 91 260 TO 31 367 2 81 20 13 }

Buildings

Drains

Roads

Convicts toola

Total expenditure

£5,237 11 10

Convict labour

£681

Department coolies

0 4 37 10 0

Actual valuc of all services

718 10 4

£5,950 221

I have, &c. (Signed)

(Truo copy.)

SIR,

CHAS. ST. GEO. CLEVERLEY,

Surveyor General.

W. SIMON, Colonial Secretary.

Surveyor General's Office,

Victoria, March 28, 1855. I HAVE the honour to submit my annual report upon the progress of my de- partment for the year 1854 for the information of the honourable the Lieutenant Governor.

The supervision of Government House and the works in connexion with it occupied a very large share of my attention, and the extreme difficulty I have had with the contractor in forcing him to use more expedition and employ a greater number of men has been excessive; his pecuniary losses I believe, are considerable, and this coupled with the rise in the prico of labour and of all building materials has added to his losses, and in a measure prevented the completion of the work; for instance, during the greater part of the year but little lime has reached the colony from the neighbourhood of Canton, and the supply has been maile almost entirely from the kilns on the opposite Cowloon shore, and for which an exorbitant price was demanded.

 Fortunately, before the blockade I obtained nearly all the marble tiles I required, the deficiency, however, I have supplied by slate and stone. The earthenware railings for

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

the verandah I am still unable to get from Fushan, where such articles aro made, and I have totally failed in procuring gypsum for the fine mouldings and enrichments of the cornices and ceilings; thus I have been obliged to alter the designs in a material degree, which I much regret. However the work, slowly as it has progressed, is admirably executed, and is perhaps as perfect a building as can be erected in China.

Unfortunately, at a time when I required the most efficient superintendence, the sappers attached to the department were ordered home, and at the end of August I was deprived of their services altogether. The want of these men I have felt greatly, parti- cularly in all plumbers and bellhangers work (nt which the Chinese are very deficient), so that my personal superintendence upon cach particular piece of work during its exe- cution was rendered absolutely necessary, and thus occupied my time for several hours of the day occasionally.

The supply of water to Government House and offices was originally undertaken by the Royal Engineers' departinent, and transferred to me to complete, but unfortunately the pipes delivered for the service were insufficient; nor were there any stopcocks, fire- plugs, or suitable curved pieces or junctions such as were estimated for and required, and as these cannot be made here in a satisfactory or substantial manner, the difficulties in executing the work have been very great indeed; however, no doubt the service when complete will answer effectually; but before it can do so soine further works are necessary to increase the supply of water or prevent waste at the barracks; this, however, must form the subject of a special report and estimate, as I am afraid the balance of the estimate for that service will be insufficient, as nothing but a supplementary tank will provide for the deficiency.

221

As regards the supply of water to the gaol also similar difficulties occurred, and it was by a mere accident that I obtained a supply of iron pipes such as I required, but tho stopcocks I was obliged to cast in copper, and attach lead pipes for turns and junctions in situations where only iron should be used; indeed throughout the whole the difficulties have been greater than could be imagined by an unprofessional person, from the want of those materials which, had I had time, might have been procured from England.

The principal tanks situated in Mr. Lyall's grounds are at an elevation suflicient to command all the streets in the town, and when the pipes as demanded from England I arrive, they may be laid down immediately as proposed for the conduct of water in caso of fire; in connexion with this service I should be happy to commence the other tanks proposed in various places in the city for the storage of water, but not having the proper pipes to build into them for supply and exit, and there being no cement in the city either, the service cannot be further proceeded with at present.

The want of water in the whole of the city during the dry season is very great indeed, and as the population increases and the drainage becomes more rapid and effective, this deficient supply is more apparent and severely felt, so that at no distant period 1 imagino

                                           I it will be incumbent upon the Government to collect the streams west of the city for the use of the dense population in the Lower Bazaar and Tappingshan, as in the foriner district well water cannot be used for domestic purposes, and in the latter the tennuts are unable to afford pecuniary means to construct them so as to be generally useful to the community.

Some works for the drainage of parts of the Queen's Road, Eastern District, were carried into effect, and although the general intention was merely to provide for the discharge of rain water, the drains have been used for purposes to which only covered sewers are applicable, and this being the case it is not surprising if, during the dry season particularly, the filthy deposit from the Chinese houses should become most offensive; again, in places where the police compel the tenants to sweep the drains in front of their houses, the evil resulting from that is perhaps in the end worse than the former, for they invariably deposit the refuse sweepings of their shops, wood shavings, masticated sugar- cane, and rubbish of every possible kind, into the small drains in connexion with the sewers, so that they become blocked up, and when they are most required they are inefficient.

This practice I have in vain tried to rectify, and until a more stringent and summary process is made legal the evil will not be abated.

As regards the drainage of the lower bazaar, about which complaints have been made, the causes enumerated above refer in a more remarkable degree, for there the streets are perfectly level; the whole area has been reclaimed from the sea, and the drains are all built upon unconsolidated ground, and settlements occur which I have rectified as soon as possible; but the great cause of mischief to the drainage here lately has resulted from the practice of discharging rubbish over the sea-wall, and to this the attention of the police has repeatedly been drawn; but as the "force" is small the practice has not been abated in any degree that I can perceive, and it is with the utmost difficulty I have been enabled to keep the drains free, as when once the mouth of the drain is blocked up the deposit accumulates to such a degree that nothing but its removal by hand is of any avail; it being understood that there is in all the drains in the whole district of Victoria an insufficient quantity of water passing through them, there is no incans at my disposal for flushing them periodically, and it is only in the height of the rainy season that this is effectually done by the flood water.

Thus, whatever may be the appearance of the town and whatever may be tho apparent

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

defects in portions of its drainage, it must not be placed to insufficient construction, but to the causes cnumerated above; and when these are remedied, and the filthy customs of the Chinese arc in some degree abated, that district thickly as it is populated may become as clean as any other in the city. I must, however, remark that with the increased number of buildings, increased drainage is demanded as well as a more perfect construction of streets, some of which, although having houses therein, have never been drained or even formed; this, however, the Hon. the Lieutenant Governor has taken into consideration, and I am at this date preparing reports and estimates for the whole of such services as I consider imperatively necessary for the improvement and health of the city; and I trust they will be carried into effect now that the prosperity of the colony is increasing so rapidly.

 During the year two land sales have been held, comprising an area of four acres, pro- ducing a rental of 492l. 5s. 3d., and premium 5,650 dollars; and as only six small lots were resumed during the year, yielding an aggregate rental of 231. 93. 5d., the rent roll amounted to 11,250l. 68. 1ąd.

 It was apparent, however, at the termination of the year, that the demand for land was steadily increasing, and this has been fully proved by the result of subsequent sales.

 It is a question now of very considerable importance, in which direction to extend the city; there is little or no really available ground for the erection of such houses as the Chinese require in the rear of the city, as the ground is so steep, and thus the extension of the city westwards is what I most strenuously advocate, as it gives us a more extended sea frontage, which is of such vast importance, and in its rear is a large vacant area of 100 acres, and though rough and rocky is of suitable inclination for streets, and in no way inferior to the space upon which the present city is erected. Unfortunately, however, the proposed erection of a battery at the west end of the city interferes with this scheme, which I much regret, as I feel convinced an equally suitable site for a battery is obtain- able, viz., at the old battery at the naval stores; it was the point originally determined upon for the defence of the western entrance to the harbour, and if such a work is really · required I confess I should prefer seeing it erected there, as from its position it would com- mand not only the entrance referred to but have an extensive range of the harbour to the eastward; whereas the battery in its present position has a mass of houses on its imme- diate right, and is thus prevented from employing its fire in that direction; however, this is a subject for the consideration of the Government.

 Should this area not bo devoted to the extension of the city, my attention has been turned to the necessity of concentrating it; and with this view I think it desirable to make a further addition, by the reclamation of the ground from the sea in front of the Bouham Strand, and to cut down the hill called Possession Point. This hill stands on a base of about 300 fect square; and the whole of this space is occupied by one single house-a police station. By the removal of the hill, accommodation might be provided for upwards of a hundred houses; and with the extension of the land seawards, an addi- tional frontage of 1,800 feet is obtained, which would give in a double row 240 houses, or 340 houses in all-giving accommodation to at least 3,000 Chinese. The hill would be cut down for nothing; the former area would be sold by auction, and an assessment would fix the rate for permission to the tenants to extend their frontages, and occupy the latter.

 If neither of these plans can be carried into effect, measures must be adopted for the establishment of a town cast of the Albany Godowns. A portion of this area I have attempted to sell on two occasions, but with no satisfactory result. A few houses aro built in the neighbourhood, but are occupied by boat builders, and people of no wealth or benefit to the colony.

 On this area, however, the Lieutenant-Governor proposes to form the necessary strects preparatory to the next land sale, and this service also engages my attention.

 The duties of the department, in carrying into effect the public works during the year, are fully set forth in my report upon that subject.

 Within the office I had, in consequence of the absence on leave of the accountant and clerk of deed registry, nearly the samo difliculties to contend against as reported last year. Mr. Reinhard, who then held the acting appointment, was removed to the Treasury on the 30th April, and until the month of October I had mercly the services of a young lad who had never been in any office before, and however willing he might have been to execute his duties in such a satisfactory manner as he or I could wish, was unable to do so; neither his education nor abilities permitted it. I cannot, however, but express my satisfaction at the desire he always ovinced to comply with the requirements of the oflice and accede to all my wishes.

 At this period Mr. Power, the regular clerk, arrived and resumed his duties; the arrears he had to bring up were very considerable, as indeed in the keeping of the office books I was obliged merely to post up such services as were actually necessary, and keep all the current work distinct therefrom, as with such a variety of changes as I had during Mr. Power's absence it was impossible to effect the work with any accuracy or satisfaction. To execute this service, and at the same time carry on the ordinary increasing work of the office, was a task by no means inconsiderable, and I have now, as in all former reports, to express my entire approbation of his conduct.

 The transactions in land, as registered in the oflice, are as follows:- -49 menorials of absolute sale of property, affecting 57 lots; 14 memorials affecting mortgages on 25 lots;

.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

223

8 assignments affecting 11 lots; 2 judgments of Supreme Court; in the whole 73 memo- rials referring to 93 lots, being ten more than were registered last year.

The fees for the above registries as received amounted to 1087. 15s., and fees for the issue of lenses to 491. 7s. 6d.

In the month of June the burial, ground was again placed under my charge, with Mr. Buchan as secretury, at the usual salary.

A new scale of fees was also established on the 2d December 1854, às published in the Gazette, and for the whole year the total amount due for 122 interments and the erection of four monuments amounted to the sum of 1194 16s. 8d.

The Chineso overseer and four coolies (one being a messenger or office coolie) attached to the departinent performed their usual avocations to my entire satisfaction; the labour of three of them, when not in direct attendance upon me, is fully set forth in my Report upon Public Works. I find their services of much value, and indeed absolutely neces sary to enable me to execute the duties of my office unassisted as I am by any competent European. The overseer is now well instructed in all operations in surveying and in such like operations; and his duty is to report such services ns are required to the roads or public works, and bring to my notice such encroachments or other irregularities as may be perceived by him, as well as to give a daily report of number of men employed on all public works, whether under contract or otherwise, including that of the convicts both within and without the gaol walls.

The supervision of the convicts labour has, as usual, been performed by me, and as the amount of their work has been reported on, I have but to remark that I consider it would be more advantageous to the public service if the sentences of the magistrates to hard labour within the gaol were considerably reduced, as that class do not perform such effective service as those employed on the roads. I require a large amount of broken stone certainly, but if this service was performed by task-work I am convinced that one- half of those working inside the gaol last year would have broken as much stone as the whole number, and thus placed at my disposal the labour of at least 5,000 men; since the commencement of the year this has been rectified as far as possible.

The serjeant of the guard, Antonio Mathews, over the convicts on the roads acts as their overseer, has given much satisfaction, and exerts himself to inake them perform as much work as possible, and he is improving in the knowledge necessary for the repair or formation of the roads or works he is directed to execute.

I have to report that in consequence of the stringent measures instituted against Mr. Duddell, he proceeded to comply with the terms upon which the market had been granted to him, which consisted in the reclamation of ground from the sea, the construc- tion of a sea-wall, and the erection of a police station, &c, and suitable buildings for the market, none of which services had been carried into effect, to the great inconvenience of the public, but as he is now proceeding with much vigour it is probable he may finish the work in the time set forth in his bond.

1 regret to have to allude to the still prevailing practice of burning the brushwood on the hills; it causes incalculable mischief to the whole island, stops the growth of all indigenous trees, and I need hardly say detracts in no inconsiderable degree from tho natural beauty and picturesqueness of the districts.

The preservation of the trees, whether planted by Government for the general good, or the natural growth of the island, I conceive should be specially the duty of the police or the tepos of the localities in which these fires annually occur; it perhaps would be impossible to catch the men in the act, but as it is well known who are the parties who do the damage, if they were properly warned as to the consequences, and two or three-severe punishments inflicted for removing the charred or burnt brushwood, the evil would be corrected in one season; the healthiness of the island consequent upon the steady increase of vegetation would be materially improved and the temperature considerably reduced.

In the early part of the summer my health suffered very materially from a most pecu- liar eruptive fever, which confined me to the house for upwards of a month. I attribute this, the only severe sickness I have had during any residence in Hong Kong, to careless- ness in exposing myself to the sun, notwithstanding my experience of its danger. I regret to say, however, that each succeeding suminer produces its ill effects upon my constitution, for during iny service of nearly twelve years in this climate, I have never obtained leave of absence to England, and but once for a period of six weeks to Shanghae; and thus it is perhaps surprising that I should have had such equable health or have been so seldom unable to do my work, considering my duties so frequently call me to perform services out of doors, and with frequent exposures to the sun which no other officer of Government ever has to undertake.

I have, &c. (Signed)

S. G. CLEVERLEY,

Surveyor General.

(True Copy.)

W. MERCER,

Colonial Secretary.

224

SIR,

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

REPORT of CHINESE EDUCATION COMMITTEE....

Victoria, Hong Kong, February 16, 1855. In compliance with the instructions of the Hon. the Lieutenant Governor contained in your letter No. 406 of December 19, 1854, we have the honour to forward the follow- ing report of the Government schools during the past year.

Tho

 These schools are still five in number: no increase has been made though applications have been forwarded for the establishment of elementary schools in other localities. school accommodation provided by Government is therefore sufficient for one hundred and fifty children only, and from the returns of the Registrar General we estimate that in private native schools about two hundred and fifty children are under instruction.

 The number of Chinese children within the colony is eight thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, and the amount spent by Government in education during the past year was 1247. 78. 11d. sterling.

 The average attendance at the Government schools was one hundred and twelve. The Victoria school had thirteen more than its complement; the Wongneichoong school two less; and the others, situated in the out villages, many less. The emolument of the schoolmaster fluctuates with the number of his scholars, while this remains below thirty; above that number, the master has no interest in the increase of pupils.

The Wongneichoong schoolhouse is the only one which is at all suited for its purpose; the rest are hired rooms, most dirty to behold, and most unpleasant to visit.

 English is taught in two schools by two Chinese lads, whose united remuneration is five pounds a year. The subjects of instruction are similar to those nientioned in our last report.

 Under the present aspect of affairs education in Hong Kong, as aided by Government, may be pronounced at almost its lowest ebb. It has neither the means of present good nor the elements of future advantage. It has neither suitable buildings, suitable masters, nor suitable supervision. As the Government has expressed no intention of originating an efficient scheme and voting the requisite funds, it does not lie within our province to do more than report upon what now exists; and for the improvement of this we think indispensable, first, the building of suitable school houses; secondly, the establishment of paid apprentice teachers; thirdly, the appointment in cach school capable of enlargement of an assistant schoolmaster, with a knowledge of the English language, receiving a salary of not less than twenty dollars a month; fourthly, the appointment of an inspector to pay at the least weekly visits to each school, and report to the committee the results of each visit.

(True copy.)

We have, &c. (Signed)

G. VICTORIA, C. B. HILLIER, JAMES LEGGE,

M. C. ODELL, Committee for superintending

Chinese Education.

The COLONIAL Surgeon's REPORT for 1854.

Topography and Clintate, &c.

THE nature of the climate and topographical description of Hong Kong require no remark, both having been (I presume) fully detailed in former reports; nor is there now any occasion to describe the position of the several police stations, with the accommodation of each, such being already well known to the authorities.

Hospital.

The hospital situated at the corner of Grahamn Street, and for some years past in use, was shortly after my appointinent as colonial surgeon removed to the present building, as I considered that it did not afford the necessary accommodation, and was further deficient in ventilation and drainage, all of which essential requisites the present buikling possesses.

Fevers.

The prevalent diseases during the year have been, as usual, fever and bowel complaint. The intermittent fever of this colony is most pertinacious in its attack, any individual having once suffered being liable to a recurrence of the disease, until the constitution is completely sapped and the patient reduced to a state of the most distressing debility. The remittent fever is less frequent but more fatal; it is often the result of the former, but by no means invariably so. During the year inany cases occurred, but with the exception of a few fatal ones the disease was amenable to treatment. During the months of October and November the fever of the cold season (an obscure remittent) has been unusually prevalent, difficult to check, and the convalescence slow. This class of disease generally lays the foundation of some organic affection of the abdominal viscera, especially the spleen

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REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

225

and the liver, the former of which is almost invariably more or less affected, and that after comparatively mild attacks of the primary disease; under such circumstances, no perfect recovery can be expected while the patient remains in the colony.

Hepatic Affections

Have been of a much milder character than last year, and not so prone to run into abscess.

Bowel Affections

Are extremely common in this climate, and, however mild at first, soon assuine a most tedious and intractable character. Dysentery, acute and chronic, has in some instances resulted fatally, but the total number and proportionate mortality have been under the annual average. Nothing but change of climate, and that immediate, holds out any hope of restoring the patient's health; but this being in most instances impracticable, the obvious consequence is a large mortality from the disease. Diarrhea has been very prevalent. Stomatitis has in many instances accompanied it, and been frequent as a separate disease. The chlorate of potash combined with vegetable tonics has invariably cured it.

Pulmonary Affections,

Though not frequent, are still to be met with. This climate, from the frequent and sudden changes of temperature which take place during the cold season, often within a few hours, and the vast disparity between the general temperature of summer and winter, is particularly illfitted for persons with any tendency to disease of the lungs, and fatal to those in which it actually exists.

Rheumatism

In the acute form has also prevailed. Speedy relief has generally been obtained by the local application of leeching, and large doses of the iodide of potass internally.

Tho juvenile portion of the community, hitherto almost entirely exempt from the prevailing discases, has suffered to an unusual extent from fever and, one of its most painful and trying sequela, boils, the irritation and pain of which are sufficient to test the equanimity of the most stoical. They have also suffered much from intestinal worms and diseases directly produced by the irritation of these parasites in the alimentary canal. On the whole the amount of sickness and mortality may be considered under that of last year. Daring the hot season, although it set in with much illness, and the range of the ther- mometer in July was higher than has been noticed for several years, yet no unusual mortality resulted. The increase of sickness during the last three months of the year has been undoubtedly owing to the high range of temperature at mid-day, with the absence of rain.

Small Poz.

The frequent occurrence of epidemics of small pox is a matter urgently calling for the interference of Government. This scourge has again appeared in the island, caused not by any sporadic or isolated cases of the disease, but by the obstinate adherence of the Chinese so-called medical practitioners to inoculation. Of the value of vaccination as a preventative, it is needless for me to urge anything in support. The application of the law of England to this island, prohibiting inoculation of small pox matter under a penalty, would soon put an end to those outbreaks of a pestilence, so dangerous to the whole community, European and native.

Venecal Affection

Is here of frequent occurrence, and often of a most virulent character. To check the discaso in this colony some prophylactic measure is essentially required; but knowing as I do that the present active and zealous Acting Attorney General is preparing a special ordinance on the subject, I lay therefore this important sanitary improvement in his

able hands..

Having now given a short summary of the chief diseases of the colony, I shall advert to topics which I consider to be of very great and vital importance, naincly, sewerage, drainage, ventilation, and cleanliness; and I do so the more particularly from the very great influx of Chinese, and consequent increase of buildings.

Having carefully examined the streets, lanes, and several of the dwellings of the poorer classes (natives) in Victoria, with a view to sanitary improvement, I beg to submit the following remarks; however, before so doing, 1 must express my regret that Hong Kong should present so much filth and so many nuisances, the moro especially as its site is in many respects well adapted for drainage and sewerage. In carrying out my assertions, it will be only necessary for me to report on the Taipingshan district. The lanes (certainly not streets) are in a most objectionable state, containing almost invariably cowsheds, pigsties, stagnant pools, the receptacles of every kind of filth, all which nuisances have remained unheeded for a considerable time. In this district are two large open

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

drains, which are at all times most offensive. These drains receive all the refuse of the district through which they pass, and being open through most of their course (excepting when 'they cross a road) filth of all sorts is thrown into them, and necessarily evaporates dele- terious gases from their entire surface. The premises situated at the west end of the Hollywood Road are in a filthy state, and great complaints are made of the offensive effluvia (dripping through the walls) by almost every European passer-by.

 The great want of privics and suitable depots for dirt is observable everywhere the native population reside. Nothing can be more offensive than the laying out to dry of large quantities of manure on small patches of ground in the rear of this locality, and in many instances adjoining the upper or Western Road, the emanations from which not only interfere with the pleasantness of a walk much frequented by the inhabitants of Kong Kong, bnt must be sources of annoyance to those living in the adjacent neighbourhood. I am, therefore, of opinion that Victoria is in need of drainage and sewerage, of better paving and scavenging.

 2. That the dwellings of the natives are faulty in construction, being erected apparently with the view of having the greatest number in the smallest possible space, and without any regard to ventilation and drainage.

 3. That disease prevails most where the dwellings are overcrowded, and where little if any attention is paid to cleanliness, ventilation, and drainage.

 4. That the inhabitants of lanes and other crowded localities be compelled to whitewash their dwellings at least twice a year, and to make free use of water upon the pavements and channels every morning.

 5. That, the absence of sanitary measures in Hong Kong leads to the development and dissemination of disease. It is well known that damp and dirt, nuisance of all kinds, and particularly animal and vegetable matter in a state of decomposition, are circumstances that favour the propagation of disease; whatever renders the atmosphere impure impairs the health and predisposes the body to disease, and when numbers of sick are crowded together in close, dirty, and unventilated rooms, discase spreads with virulence and malignity.

<<

I shall conclude these few remarks by a statement of Dr. Arnott:-" Aerial movements are to man what the constant gliding past of a clear river stream is to fishes which "inhabit it; and as certainly as we should destroy the trout of a stream by confining them "in a small portion of the watery element until it became a dirty puddle, so should wo destroy or injure human beings when we too closely confine around them a portion of "the aerial cleinent."

J. CARROLL DEMPSTER, M.D.,

Colonial Surgeon.

"C

(Signed)

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 365

227

HONG KONG.

No. 41.

Copy of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir JOIN BOWRING to the Right Honourable H. LABOUCHERE, M.P.

(No. 82.)

ŞIR,

Government Offices,

Victoria, Hong Kong, May 24, 1856.

(Received August 6, 1856.)

I HAVE now the honour of forwarding to you the Blue Book for the Year 1855, and have no doubt you will share my satisfaction in reviewing the position and the prospects of the colony.

2. I need not refer to the various topics which the Colonial Secretary has made the subject of his interesting and comprehensive letter, except where some observation seems specially required.

3. The increase of trade in all its branches, though not recorded in custom house statistics, is a matter of notoriety, and evidenced by every indication of prosperity.

4. There is an improvement in the character of the Chinese population.. Many of the natives, growing in wealth, have grown in respectability. There is more disposition than there has ever been among a better class of Chinese traders to settle on the island, while many great commercial houses in China, both British and American, have lately marle Hong Kong their central point of establishment. The development of steam navigation, the rapid extension of trading relations with Australia and California, the increase of trade on the coasts of China, the opening of Siam, and the security which the flag of Great Britain. offers against piratical attacks, are among the causes which have led to the happy results we are daily witnessing.

5. My exertions will be zealously directed to the securing for the colony an income from sources which shall in no respect interfere with its progressive prosperity, and which shall be adequate, without assistance from the Imperial

228

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REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Treasury, for accomplishing the various objects of public improvements which are likely to be most substantially and permanently useful. These will of course be the subjects of special reports.

6. The topic of the public health occupies the constant attention of the Government. Exaggerated statements as to the mortality in the colony having been industriously circulated, and false reports prevailing as to the prevalence of fatal epidemics, I caused an investigation to take place, the result of which shows, that for the months of February, March and April the average mortality. did not exceed 1 in 7000 per day.

་། ། །་་

7. I think it is desirable that there should be in the colony a re-distribution. of duty, and a revision of salaries, and that the recommendations of the Colonial Secretary are entitled to much consideration; but tue inquiries and investigations must naturally take a more distinct and special shape. It would, however, be useful to know that Her Majesty's Government looks favourably on proposals for a readjustment of functions and their appropriate recompence.

8. I see no adequate cause for anticipating any such defalcation of the revenue as will be incompatible with the proper payment of officials and the progress and management of useful public works.

9. I would not venture, even supposing there were a chance of the proposal, being entertained by Her Majesty's Government, to support the recommendation" from the Colonial Secretary of a differential duty in favour of teas shipped for England from Hong Kong. In my view the whole system of differential duties is obnoxious in principle, fraudulent in practice, and disappointing in result. Nor can I suppose that Parliament would ever sanction so retrogressive and. unsound a measure, especially in the case of a self-supporting colony, not, producing in itself a single chest of the article in question.

(Signed)

The Right Hon. Henry Labouchere, M.P.,

I have, &c.

JOHN BOWRING

&c.

&c.

&c.

Enclosure in No. 44.

  (No. 289.) SIR,

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong, April 25, 1856,

   I HAVE the honour to forward to your Excellency the Blue Book for the year 1855, the perusal of which will I believe. fairly prove that the past year has been the most promising since the foundation of the colony.

T

 2. The two points most worthy of notice are, the increase of the population and the favourable result of the land sales.

 S. Within the last eight years the population has been more than trebled," while an increase of nearly 17,000 is shown over the returns of 1854. The number as given in the Registrar General's Comparative Table is, for the past; year, 72,607; for the previous year, 1854, 55,715; and for 1848, 23,998.

 4. The state, still somewhat unsettled, of the neighbouring province, is of course the moving cause of this influx of people, and it is useful to observe that during each of the past years the increase has been at about an equal rate. pgdo

 5. One natural and necessary result of the increased population is the increase of trade, which is admitted on all sides, though the Government is unprepared to prove it by statistics, owing to the, in all other respects, wise and judicious absence of a custom house.

 6. Several merchants have, however, during the past six months, remarked to me on the large trade (and this a ready money trade) springing up here, in a manner for which they are unable to account; and only yesterday one gentleman informed me, that but a short time back he sold an entire ship's cargo, to the value of some $30,000, in the course of a single morning.

20

 7. The class of Chinese traders, notwithstanding, is comparatively low, and not wealthy, as evinced in part by the high rate of interest ruling in the colony, which may be quoted at 3 per cent. per mensem, or 36 per cent. per annumd

 S. But now that the large European and American houses have, to some, extent, fixed branch or head establishments here, as many have during 1855; it is possible that the richer native men of business may be induced to follow; and I think we may now begin to entertain a hope that such firms as the Chin-Chew...

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 367

Hongs may settle here, and the project be realized which Sir John Davis did his utmost to encourage in the infancy of the colony, upwards of ten years ago.

229

9. The revenue of the colony may next call for remark, and of this the most important item comes under the head of rent from leased lands. The Surveyor General in his report, as will be seen, puts this down as 16,2291., while the Treasurer shows the collection during the year to have been but 11,144. 17s. 11d.

:

10. I have examined into this discrepancy, and find that the Surveyor General must have fallen into some error, for he has overstated the rent roll, which stood at the close of 1855, and still stands, at exactly 14,779%. Ss. 7d., while the difference between this sum and the amount actually collected may be probably accounted for by casual arrears, and the collection of a portion of the rents between Christmas of 1854 and the new year of 1855, the same strict measures for the collection of a correspondent sum not having been taken during the final week of 1855.

I

11. The net increase on the rent roll during the year, subtracting reduc- tions, &c., is 3,5281. 17s. 5d.

12. Akin to the rent roll revenue, as connected with land, is the large amount received as premium on the various lots exposed to public auction. This has been most remarkable in 1855. The number of land sales was nine, and the premia realized amounted to 15,720/. 16s. 8d., nearly half of which was derived from six valuable marine lots sold on 16th November last.

!

18. Of the other items of revenue those requiring any special notice are the opium and spirit licences, which show, especially the former, some increase, owing to the increased population, and to the same cause may be traced a similar increase under police assessment and fees of office.

14. On expenditure little comment is required, but it must not be lost sight of, that while the revenue rises with the colony so must the expenses, and the increase under this head of 6,178l. 11s. 1d. is attributable to public works, mainly, and to the necessarily increased police force, besides some additions to the now underhanded and always underpaid departments of government.

15. Of public works the most important is Government House, which was completed for your Excellency's reception on the first October last, and cost, up to 31st December 1855 the sum of 15,318. 15s. 4d. Throughout the city of Victoria, culverts and side channels have been industriously proceeded with, and a great improvement in these respects has been effected. During the latter part of the year the erection of tanks for water for general purposes and in case of fire has engaged the Surveyor General.

16. I observe that the Surveyor General has noticed the irregular burials, and damage done to young trees by the Chinese, and I have to say that almost weekly I have called the attention of the Superintendent of Police to these offences, and I hope at last with some little effect; but these nuisances, with a large Chinese population and a very inefficient police, are most difficult of suppression.

17. The principal subjects into which the ordinances and notifications of the year have been connected are Chinese emigration, the administration of justice, and the registration of ships.

18. This port has become concerned largely in Chinese emigration, the returns showing that 14,683 left during the year, and this business is, I believe, on the increase. The emigration officer is useful and necessary, but it is to be hoped that as soon as circumstances permit the appointment will be transferred to an assistant harbour master, as a far more convenient and suitable arrange- ment.

19. The ordinances for the administration of justice are adaptations of the law reforms introduced into the mother country.

20. The imperial act to amend and consolidate the laws regulating merchant ships and seamen, known as "The Merchant Shipping Act, 1854," came into operation on 1st May 1855, and some notifications regarding it have been issued in the Gazette, while an ordinance, No. 4. of 1855, establishes a registry for colonial vessels.

21. Of the councils it is only necessary to say that their reconstruction is under the consideration of Her Majesty's Government.

230

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REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

22. The police is notoriously inefficient for the purpose of prevention of offences and nuisances, but seems to answer its end as regards the protection of property by night. The whole system is under revision.

23. On the currency your Excellency has already addressed the Secretary of State.

24. Sir John Davis, in noticing the Blue Book for 1845, attached some importance to the establishment of foreign consulates here, and it will be seen that all the commercial countries of importance are now represented by consuls or other consular officers at this port.

 25. I have already remarked on the absence of a custom house, and on the consequent impossibility of furnishing accurate returns of imports and exports, but the Harbour Master's tables will give valuable information on this head. It must not, however, be supposed that either the imports are consumed in the colony or the exports its production.

 26. From the very nature of the island of Hong Kong little is to be said of its agriculture, and as little of its manufactures in the serious sense of the word. The fisheries are more noticeable, upwards of 1,100 boats belonging to the colony being engaged therein, and the outlying villages, such as Stauley and Aberdeen, being largely employed in drying and curing the produce.

 27. Crime of the more serious kind is rare in comparison with the population, but larcenies and petty offences occupy much time before the magistrates

court.

 28. Piracy, the chief hindrance to the prosperity of the colony, has been repeatedly reported on to the Home Government, and it is to be earnestly hoped that some effective decision may be speedily arrived at.

 29. The gaol is fortunately situated in a very healthy part of the town, but as the inhabitants of Victoria have increased so have the smaller classes of crimes, and consequently the prisoners in confinement. It will be absolutely necessary, and that without delay,' to extend the gaol buildings, and provide further accommodation on the ground reserved southward of the present premises. The lengthened illness and subsequent death of the gaoler has caused some little confusion in this department, but improvement is now apparent.

This

 30. From the shipping report another and very fair proof of the favourable position of the colony may be gathered. Whereas in 1854 the number of vessels anchored in the harbour was 1,100 with a tonnage of 443,554, in 1855 the returns show 1,786 vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 604,580. gives a large increase of tonnage, and a comparatively large increase of ships, from which results, if statistics, or I should say if these statistics, are to be relied on, I would draw this inference, that the average of a ship being, in 1854, 55 tons over the average: ship in 1855, the increase has been in the smaller vessels, that is, in those employed in the coasting trade, which trade is the life and strength of the colony.

 31. On the subject of education, with special reference to the present and future provision of interpreters, your Excellency some time back appointed a commission of inquiry. This being a question so purely of personal and individual opinion has considerably embarrassed the commission in forming a conclusion, but I trust that a report may be shortly presented. In the mean- time I may not be out of place in noting that negotiations are on foot for regaining the valuable assistance of Mr. Caldwell, whose secession from the service was attributable to no act of the Colonial Government.

 32. In the month of November the Government, after full and mature reflection, published its project of a praya on the sea front of the city, and I remark this as one of the important events of the past year, and the introduction of a great future improvement and much benefit in many ways to the colony.

 33 Another useful project was a new carriage road to Stanley, but this has been abandoned for the time, as the estimated outlay exceeded 6,000%., a sum too large to be borne by the colony, now deprived, as it is this year for the first time, of all assistance by parliamentary grant.

 S4. There is one all important subject for which I may observe no provision seems to be made in the headings officially furnished for the compilation of the Blue Book, but which cannot be, and I think never has been, passed over in this document. I refer to the subject of health, which is introduced in the annual report of the colonial surgeon.

:

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 369

35. In that report I have not much to notice, save that the colonial surgeon seems to be unaware that much has been done during the past year to improve the sanitary condition of the city. Tanks to ensure a proper supply of water are nearly completed, Captain Cowper is engaged in a thorough revision of the sewerage and drainage, and an ordinance to regulate buildings and suppress nuisances has recently passed the legislative council.

36. Another ordinance on the subject of health has been referred to the Home Government, and this important matter is receiving every attention.

2.

37. It is satisfactory to find that, notwithstanding the large increase of the population, the past year is pronounced very healthy for foreigners, and I do not find that the colonial surgeon states it to have been more fatal than its predecessors to the Chinese inhabitants; and on communication with the superintendent of police I am confirmed in my belief that there has been no special mortality beyond what increased population will account (for; and, further, that this city is not considered by the Chinese more inimical to health than the towns of the main land.

38. The civil hospital should be enlarged, and measures to effect this are in course of adoption.

231

39. There is one point that I wish to take this special opportunity of bringing to your Excellency's notice. The numerical strength, construction, and several duties of the Government departments.

40. The Colonial Secretary's office should be relieved of various duties accidentally but unavoidably imposed upon it. The harbour master should act as registrar of shipping, and should perform the various details required in other places from the regular custom house officer, such as giving certificates of the landing of goods, &c. which have been required during the war, and are given by the colonial secretary on the oath of those applying.

+

41. The emigration business I have already suggested should go to an assistant harbour master, an officer who would relieve the harbour master of certain of his duties.

༣ ཐཱ དྷཱ་ ་

42. There seems to be some lack of knowledge in the harbour master's department of the shipping in the harbour and the particulars connected

with them.

43. The Treasury and Audit Office should be relieved from all care of and control over the monies and financial concerns of the superintendency and consulates.

44. The shrievalty should be severed from the magistracy, and a different arrangement made for the performance of the duties of coroner.

45. The gaol staff requires reorganization, and the immediate head of that establishment should be of a higher class than gaoler, say one officer with the customary title of governor of the gaol, and emoluments according.

46. But these propositions and some other similar have, if I recollect rightly, been already made, and will receive every attention from your Excellency and the Home Government.

I

47. One subject more occurs to me, and that is the position of the servants of government as to pay and retiring pension.

48. With more inducement in the form of either, and especially the latter, I am of opinion that the departments might be better served.

19. The pay is a matter of colonial consideration, and a question here of ways and means, but the pension concerns the Imperial Government, and I remark that in all acts and regulations on the subject of superannuation the colonial service of Hong Kong, where the health of the government officers is compara- tively exposed to much danger, and where the casualties among them have been so many and so fatal, is placed on no better footing than the service at home, in the possession of a bracing and temperate climate, surrounded by every luxury and every convenience for the prolongation and enjoyment of life.

50. I foresee in the course of the current year several changes in the various offices of government, and upon the future efficiency of the service; even the promise that this subject shall receive consideration from Her Majesty's Govern- ment will have a beneficial effect.

51. I would notice another point before concluding.

52. I have said that the expenses of the colony will rise with its prosperity; I add that the increased revenue will not suffice for the many improvements advisable.

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REPORTS, EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

53. The grant from parliament is no longer available, and it becomes a question whether the necessary improvements are to be set aside for years, or whether some means of carrying them out may not be devised.com

54. In consideration of the many expenses incurred by the colony on acco of the general trade with China, from which the mother country reaps abundant a harvest, may we not justly receive some favour in compensation for the loss of the grant.

"

55. A suggestion was once made that the Home Government should impose a differential duty of, say, 1d. a pound on teas shipped for England from Hong Kong (see a letter written by Mr. J. R. Morrison under instructions from Captain Elliot, dated Macao, 28th June 1841). If this measure were adopted, the result needs no demonstration.

56. I take the liberty of bringing the point once more forward, and of submitting it to the consideration of your Excellency.

1. Y PARSHUL 1

I have, &c. (Signed) W. T. MERCER,

Colonial Secretary.

Sir John Bowring, Knight, LL.D., Governor,

&c.

&c.

&c.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 343

233

HONG KONG.

No. 36.

EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir JOHN BOWRING to the Right Honourable H. LABOUCHERE, date‹l

(No. 125.)

Government Offices, Victoria,

Hong Kong, August 1, 1857.

(Received Nov. 3, 1857.)

 I HAVE to apologize for some delay in forwarding the Blue Book, and for its incompleteness in some particulars. The many changes that have taken place among the functionaries,-the absence of several heads of departments from the colony, the state of political affairs, which has disturbed to a con- siderable extent the ordinary resources of the Government, and auginented in various and unanticipated ways the demands upon the public revenue,- added to my own somewhat shattered health, will all, I doubt not, induce you to look with indulgence on any shortcomings or defects in the returns I have now the honor to forward..

I must, however, add, with respect to the public service generally, confided as it has been in many important departments to gentlemen new to official life, that I have every reason to be satisfied with their exertions, placed as we have all been in circumstances of almost unprecedented danger and difficulty.

And I think it is a subject of fair and honest congratulation, that, whatever mistakes, if any, have been committed, or whatever censures, deserved or not, have been directed against the Executive authority, we have succeeded in maintaining the public tranquillity, and in carrying the colony through, not alone the ordinary perils which the interruption of friendly relations with the neighbouring province of Kwangtung necessarily brought with it, but through those more mysterious and occult dangers, in the shape of assassinations, poison- ings, and incendiarisms, encouraged by large pecuniary premiums, and by appeals to every passion of cupidity, malignity, and hatred to which barbarism could look for allies.

Up to the present moment, I have not drawn for one penny against any Parliamentary grant. We have found in the surplus revenues of former years, and which it was proposed to appropriate to important public works, the means of temporarily providing for the heavy augmentation of charges; but I shall have ere long to avail myself of the promised aid.

The report of the acting colonial secretary does not appear to require many observations from me. I concur generally in his views as to the state of the revenues and expenditure of the colony. I see nothing in our financial position to prevent the colony, under ordinary circumstances, from being a self-supporting colony as regards the whole of its civil establishment. The taxation upon the inhabitants is light indeed, and there is no impost but for a specific service; indeed the Crown revenues make up for the deficiencies of those expenses which ought to be provided for out of the taxes specially levied for the particular services. The police rate, now 10 per cent. on rental, is altogether insufficient to pay the cost of police, jails, &c. The lighting rate has not up to the present time covered the expenditure associated with that department of outlay; and at the present moment the reserved fund which I had intended to be applied solely to public works of utility and importance has been temporarily absorbed by the urgencies of our present position. If Lord Elgin consents to make and enforce these claims upon the Chinese Government on behalf of this island which I should undoubtedly have done had the powers of negotiation remained in my hands, I shall not only be able to repay any amount with which I may be assisted by the

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Imperial Treasury, but be enabled to resume all those undertakings which have from time to time been reported on, many of which have received your sanction, but have been necessarily suspended in order to avoid financial embarrassments. This may be a fit occasion to state, that though on the departure of Mr. Rienaecker it was officially reported to me that, whatever irregularities there may have been, the balances of public money were found to be quite correct, subsequent discoveries have caused, me much solicitude, and I wait with anxiety the report of the commission which I have charged with a thorough investigation of all the accounts since the period of the last audit by the London board. The illness of the Lieut. Governor, who has been confined by gout to his house for the last six weeks, has impeded the progress of the inquiry, in which I shall have the assistance of members of the com- missariat, whose practical knowledge of accounts will on this occasion be invaluable.

Mr. Bridges' opinions on the subject of legal reforms are entitled to much attention. I can confirm those opinions by the results of my own observation. The general Legislation of 1856 has, I believe, been of a most salutary character.

In the eulogiums on Mr. Caldwell's services, and the estimate of the value of his assistance, I cordially concur. To no one individual has the colony been so much indebted on its passage through our troublous times. The check upon the growing population of the colony is less than might have been anticipated; the blanks are gradually filling up; the respectable Chinese are returning, and I am persuaded there will be (if nothing unexpected occur) a gradual and a growing increase, all concurring to render Hong Kong one of the most pros- perous and progressive of colonies under the protection of the British fling. When the Praya is completed, when the docks are built, communications facili- tated, our sewerage and drainage improved, new markets provided, and various public buildings undertaken (as the state of our finances will allow), I think we may safely look forward with pride and confidence to a satisfactory futurity.

Whatever remains to be done for the melioration of the public health (and there is much required), the small average mortality of the colony is the best answer to those who are constantly demanding more than we are able to concedc. I have had great satisfaction in receiving of late frequent testimonies to the great superiority in the salubrity and cleanly appearance of the portions of our colony inhabited by the native population, as compared or contrasted with similar localities in the towns and cities of British India, or other oriental regions.

I am as dissatisfied as ever with the state of public education in the colony. The commission I nominated never made any report, and lent me no assistance whatever in this great work. Mr. Hillier was removed first to` Siam, and then from this world's cares. Mr. Medhurst was shifted to Foochau. Mr. Wade has been absolutely overwhelmed with his own duties (and has been lending habit- ually great and gratuitous assistance to the colonial department). To confess the truth, I have wholly failed in discovering any really efficient co-operation in this important work. You will better estimate the difficulties of this question when I mention that for the last six years 2501. a year has been voted by Parliament to the bishop's college, for the education of six persons destined to the public service, and that not a single individual from that college has been yet declared competent to undertake even the meanest department of an interpreter's duty, though I have no doubt of the bishop's zeal and wish to show some practical and beneficial result from the said parliamentary grant. I must also add, that to the missionaries alone I can at present look for active assistance, and that their special objects do not usually fit them for the direction of popular and general education.

As to the trade returns, though unable to furnish any accurate statistics of imports and exports, the enormous augmentation of the tonnage entering the harbour in 1856, namely, 8113,07 tons, being an increase of 206,727 tons on the shipping of 1855, is undeniable. evidence of the prosperous state of that department of commerce; and I may add, that the enormous importations of rice from Siam since the treaty of 1855 have created a new trade, and have been most instrumental in keeping the food of the people at tolerably reasonable rates, which otherwise might have mounted (as in many parts of China) to famine prices.

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 345

As to the criminal returns, I am assured by Mr. May, who was long engaged in the police service in London, that the proportionate number and gravity of offences committed here is considerably less than those of the British metropolis; and when it is remembered that Hong Kong has been the recipient of the scum of Canton, the vilest and fiercest of the population of China, the results cannot but be a matter of congratulation, and serve to show that our police, with all its defects, has not been wholly insufficient for the protection of persons and property.

I have desired the colonial treasurer to prepare a report on the present financial state and future prospects of the colony, which I hope to be shortly enabled to communicate to you.

The estimates for the year 1858 are in the course of preparation. The extreme pressure of public business has led to some delay in getting them ready.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. H. Labouchere, M.P.,

(Signed)

JOHN BOWRING.

&c.

&c.

Enclosure in No. 36.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong, May 29, 1857.

SIR,

I HAVE the honour to submit to you the Blue Book for Hong Kong for the year 1856. As I was absent from this colony during the whole of such year, with the exception of the first 15 and the last six days, it will not be in my power to lay before you a report similar to those written by Mr. Mercer, whose locum tenens I have the honour to be, and for past events I must entirely rely upon the information furnished by the different heads of departments.

2. The revenue for the year has amounted to 35,500L 8s. 9d., and the expenditure to 42,4262 6s. ážd, showing, as compared with 1855, a decrease in the revenue of 12,4731 2s. 4jd., and an increase in the expenditure amounting to 1,6121 15s. 3§d.

However unsatisfactory this may at first sight appear, the causes which have produced the decrease on the one hand and increase on the other are not such as in any way tu militate against the welldoing of the colony. In the year 1855 the influx of population caused a great demand for laud, and thereupon almost every available lot was put up for sale, and no less a sum than 15,7207. 16s. 8d., realized from this source alone. In 1856 the premiums, &c. arising from land sales amounted to only 1,1414. 23. 2d., showing a falling off of 14,5791. 14s. 6d. Were, therefore, the amounts realized by land sales deducted from the revenue in 1855 and 1856 it would be found that instead of a decrease there has been an increase of receipts in 1856 of 2,1067. 128. 24d. A single item will also account for the increase of the expenditure, and that is, police and jails, which are in excess over 1855, 1,933/. 17s. 10d. This excess was caused by the necessity imposed (consequent on the Canton difficulty) of considerably increasing the police force, apprehending an unusual number of persons, and taking a great number of extra precautionary measures. If, therefore, I cannot report very favourably to your Excellency on the debtor and creditor colonial account for the year 1856, yet I cannot find any symptom of falling off. The colony would appear on the whole to be gaining ground; slowly, perhaps, as compared with the remarkable year 1855; but not to retrograde is to advance in a settlement like this. I now proceed to remark on the public works.

3. The surveyor general's office has passed through three hands during 1856. Mr. Cleverly, having gone home on leave in the month of February, was succeeded by Captain Cowper, RE, and when that officer fell a victim to a lamentable accident in Canton, he was succeeded by the present acting surveyor general, Mr. Walker. The carefully pre- pared report of that officer sets forth in detail the various labours of his department during the year, the aggregate amount of expenditure on which has been 9,2471. 3s. lid. I do not find any specific items to which I deem it necessary to draw the attention of your Excellency; but I may perhaps be permitted to remark, that the general state of the roads, streets, and drains in and about the town of Victoria reflect the highest credit on the surveyor-general's department generally, and if kept up in their present condition will enable the town of Victoria to bear the test of comparison with any colonial town.

4. The Legislative Council passed during the year 1856 no less than fifteen ordinances. Of these, up to the 31st December, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 had been con- firmed by Her Most Gracious Majesty. Ordinances 1, 4, and 6 of 1855 were also confirmed during that year. The changes introduced by the local legislature appear to have been of a most important and beneficial character, especially as regards the practice and procedure of the supreme court, and the administration of civil and criminal justice. Ordinances.6,.7, 8, 13, 14, and 15 had either been passed at too late a period in the year to afford sufficient: time for obtaining the approval of the Queen thereto, or were required to stand the test of trial before being confirmed.

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5. The registrar general's department was towards the close of the year again placed under Mr. Caldwell, whose knowledge of the Chinese character and local dialects render him in my humble opinion, not only the colonial officer best suited for this particular office, but also the most necessary servant of the Queen in this colony. His return gives the amount of our population to be 71,730,-a decrease of a few hundreds as compared with 1855, but when it is remembered that the increase in 1855 was nearly 17,000 it is satis- factory to find that the experience of another year proves such large increase, although due at the time to accidental circumstances, to have been permanent. Only five houses are stated to have been empty in the town of Victoria; and this is a fact to which I must draw the attention of your Excellency, as a great proof of prosperity.

6. The ascertained number of deaths in the colony appears to be 2,443, or not quite 3 per cent.; but the habits of the Chinese will, I am afraid, prevent us from relying upon any calculation of this description as a proof of the healthiness or unhealthiness of the locality. That Hong Kong does not deserve the character for insalubrity which attaches to it in Europe is a matter which no resident here for any length of time will think at all doubtful.

Education.

It is much to be regretted that the benefit conferred upon the community by the numerous places for education which appear in the returns should be so nearly nominal as it seems to be at present. The free school at Saint Paul's College, under the direction of the Bishop of Victoria, has been for many years past in receipt of a yearly donation of 25OZ per annum from the Imperial funds; but I should be at a loss to specify the advantage accruing from such outlay, either to the community in general or to the colonial Government, in the shape of interpreters or trustworthy employés. Nineteen, other small schools, under the superintendence of the Educational Committee, and at the expense of the colonial Government, are scattered throughout the Chinese population of the colony, These may, and it is to be hoped will, in time yield fruit; but nothing can, I fear, well be at a lower ebb than education generally here, and so it must, I am afraid, continue for some time, chiefly owing to want of funds.

Exports and Imports.

The usual tables of exports and imports have been prepared for the Blue Book, and on being referred to will show no falling-off in the arrivals at the port; but in the absence of a custom-house, and any means of ascertaining with any certainty the correctness of such details, I feel myself unable to rely upon the returns here laid before your Excellency. They may be taken for what they are worth; but revenue and population are the only tests by which I should be inclined to try the advance or falling-off of our condition.

Crime.

The criminal returns of the supreme court show that 183 persons have been tried under 85 charges, and of these 100 have been convicted, 46 acquitted, the prosecution was abandoned against 36, and 1 stood over for trial in 1857. Piracy and cases connected with piracy account for no less than 34 of these cases and 45 of these convictions, and piracy must necessarily have been committed out of the colonial jurisdiction. Considering the amount of our population, the remainder of our calendar speaks in favour of the small amount of crime existing in 1856; but there must be a much more efficient police at the service of the colonial Government before the tenuity of the list of convicted criminals can be taken as a favourable symptom of our moral progress.

His Excellency the Governor,

&c.

&o.

Stc.

I have, &c. (Signed) W. T. BRIDGES,

Acting Colonial Secretary.

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REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

237

HONG KONG.

No. $7.

EXTRACT of DESPATCH from Governor Sir JOHN BOWRING to the Right Hon. HENRY

LABOUCHERE, M.P.

Government Offices, Victoria, Hong Kong, March 25, 1858.

(Received May 21, 1858.)

I HAVE the honour to lay before you the Blue Book of this colony for 1857, and to call your attention to the observations thereon of the Acting Colonial Secretary, who has during the past year rendered very valuable and active service in bringing about a state of things which I hope will be deemed satisfactory, while at the same time I venture to state that various changes now in progress or in contemplation will add to the financial prosperity, and advance the good government of this growing and improving settlement.

  It may well be a subject of congratulation that with so little, and I hope it will ultimately prove with no pecuniary sacrifice, we have passed through a crisis which warranted much anxiety and apprehension. If the Executive was armed with strong powers for the defence and protection of the colony, I may well aver these powers have been used with moderation, that the ordinary course of judicature has not been interrupted, that the public tranquillity has been admirably preserved, and that substantial meliorations in most of the departments of administration have signalized the period on which I have now to report.

  If the claims to some imperial grant as compensation for heavy charges imposed on the colony for imperial purposes shall be recognized by Her Majesty's Government, our public works will be carried on with an activity which local resources will not allow. Our market system is undergoing a thorough revision, and new and convenient market

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 places are being erected by means we have been enabled to provide. The docks at Aberdeen (a private enterprise) are rapidly progressing. The praya or quay is already making great advances in the part of the city where the Chinese population have had principally to be dealt with, and I hope the time is not distant in which the resistance of the opulent European merchant will be subjugated without any demand upon the British treasury for carrying on this very important work.

  It would be a source of gratification to me if the liberality of Parliament, on the recommendation of Her Majesty's Government, would enable me to construct a prison more efficient for discipline and security, more in harmony with the intelligence and benevolence of our times, more adapted to the necessities of a rapidly growing population; and as our gaols are the recipients not only of the criminals of the island but of the offenders collected all along the coast, and sent by the different consulates for punishment to Hong Kong, I cannot but hope that we may be relieved from a portion of the charges which are not entailed upon us for local but for national purposes. *

  So, again, as regards proper buildings for the magistracy, and for the supreme court, and all offices connected with the administration of justice. This island provides and pays for all the machinery of appeal and superintendence associated with our vast trading interests in China. These interests supply nearly one eighth of the whole revenues of Great Britain and British India; on an average searcely less than ten millions sterling. Those revenues may naturally be expected to come to our aid, as this colony contributes so largely to their creation and protection.

  Our civil hospital†, now in a very unsatisfactory state, has a somewhat similar claim. Hong Kong, independently of its own commerce, is the calling place of the ships of all nations, the central point from which vast relations are directed, so that its harbour and its streets are crowded with strangers.

  Following the course which is adopted in the letter of the Acting Colonial Secretary, I would observe, that in the past year the character of the legislature has been greatly improved, and established on broader basis by the augmentation of the number of its members, while from the beginning of the present year publicity has been given to its proceedings by publishing an analysis in the Government Gazette. I propose to extend these reports into greater details, and hope Her Majesty's Government will in the course of the present year consent to the admission of the public to the debates of the council.

  As regards the ordinances and notifications reported in the Blue Book, I think the stringency of several, called for in the peculiar circumstances of the colony, may now safely be lessened; while at the same time I cannot but state that the severest of the checks which it was deemed necessary to impose have met with the general approval of the inhabi- tants, not excepting the respectable part of the native population, upon whom, on the Chinese continent, far heavier restrictions are habitually placed. From the 1st of April the right of the Chinese to circulate in the streets without passes will be extended from eight to nine o'clock p.m.; but the maintenance of the power to interdict nocturnal ramblers is a cheap, efficacious, and even popular measure, and one quite in conformity with the local legislation of the Chinese. With reference especially to the Registration Ordinance, No. 6 of 1857, I consider many of its experimental provisions wholly to have failed. I surrendered my own judgment to some extent when I consented to the passing this Ordinance; but there was a strong feeling that some system of registration would add greatly to the public security. I concur with Mr. Bridges in thinking that it is as impracticable to register a population like ours as to hold mercury between the fingers.

  I reserve my opinion as to the operation of the Venereal Disease Ordinance, though I am, on the whole, disposed to think favourably of its action, with the special attention Mr. Bridges has kindly given to the subject.

  With reference to the finances of the colony, you will observe generally, that if the expenditure (mainly for public works) has been considerably increased, the resources have been augmented in adequate proportion; and while the demands for outlay will for the most part be of a transitory and temporary character, the increased income is likely to be permanent and substantial. Though it is undoubtedly my desire to expend con- siderable sums upon public buildings and improvements, I will take care that no embar- rassments shall be created; and, unless circumstances wholly unanticipated should arise, no claims shall, without your sanction, be made on the imperial treasury.

  * £5,000 out of the £10,000 voted by Parliament will be applied to the building and re-arrangement of the gaola.

† 2,000 will also be applied to the hospital out of the Parliamentary grant.

Note. The public are now admitted to the Legislative Council Chamber during the debates.

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REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

239

As regards our income, I have been enabled to reduce the police rates from 10 to 8 per cent., in consequence of the increased value of property on the island, which has, with the augmented rate (upon the original 5 per cent. as before levied), enabled me nearly to accomplish the desirable object of paying from the police rate all the charges of police. I have also been enabled from the augmented returns of the lighting rate to increase the number of lamps from 250 to 350.

Most of the now available land in the colony, especially that having sea frontage, having been disposed of, I cannot look to premiums on future sales of land as an impor- tant aid to our revenues. It is, however, to be anticipated that the building of docks and other attractions on the south side of the island, will bring us some resources from that quarter.

I have little doubt the opium monopoly, under the new arrangements reported by this mail, will give us at the least an increase of from 5,000l. to 6,0001. a year.

Though it is not possible to estimate the augmentation of income likely to result from the proposed changes in the market system, there is every reason to believe that while the public will be relieved from the oppression of an intolerable monopoly, the treasury will be considerably benefited.

 It may also be fairly expected that from no longer allowing the public monies to be dormant in the strong vault, but by using the chartered banks for the deposit of our balances, there will be a considerable receipt in the shape of interest.

 We have now under consideration the system of licensing taverns and other places of public entertainment, and hope to improve the existing arrangements, and thereby also to serve the revenue.

 With regard to the police*, I am quite alive to its many defects, and the desirableness of increasing its activity and efficiency; but we have very indifferent materials for con- structing a thoroughly satisfactory corps. Europeans, under the influence of the climate, so easily fall into habits of intoxication and other irregularities; the mixed races, to whom we must principally look, are tainted with so many oriental vices; the inquiries I instituted as to the aptitudes of the Malays, and the practicability of importing a body of them with their families, were very discouraging; while the Chinese population is almost universally so mendacious and corrupt as to render them for the most part wholly untrustworthy; these, and other practical difficulties, entitle any shortcomings to be regarded with leniency. But I have found a general concurrence in the opinion that in the last year there has been a very marked improvement, both in the appearance and in the real value of the police. The augmentation of its numbers during the period of our greatest anxieties and perils enabled the Superintendent, as it returned to its normal state, to root out many of its most defective members.

 It is due to Mr. Bridges to say, that he has been specially active in his attention to this important arm and instrument of Government.

In the opinions conveyed to you by Mr. Bridges, as to the improved management of the jail under Mr. Inglis' governorship, I most heartily concur. He appears to me to be doing all that he can in the present inappropriate and ill-constructed edifice. Your views with respect to the construction of a new gaol will, of course, influence my decision, as to the suggestion of the Acting Colonial Secretary, for the future appropriation of the present building to prisoners under short sentences.

Under the Surveyor General's Department I have little to add to the remarks of Mr. Bridges. The expenditure which is applicable to public works must mainly depend upon the balance which the cost of fixed establishments and other absolutely necessary outlays may leave at the disposal of the Government. Charges of an uncertain character must necessarily be provided for, though they can scarcely be approximately estimated. Our buildings, roads, drains, watercourses, bridges, and public works of every descrip- tion are so much affected by the fluctuation of the seasons, by typhoons and storms, and the fierce elements which the tropics bring into irresistible activity, added to the entire dependence of the colony on foreign supply for most of the materials of construction (except granite, of which we possess a superfluity), that much uncertainty must attend the expenditure of the Surveyor General's Department.

I attach great importance to the question of an adequate water supply. Though the island owes its very name to the reputation of its waters, the vast increase of population, the enormous demands for the shipping, and the insufficiency of present arrangements (though much has been done) to provide a sufficiency of water, all serves to show that measures for providing for the necessity of the case should have early attention, which I will not fail to give.

*£3,000 out of the Parliamentary grant is applied to police and gaol expenses.

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  The growth of the native population, a growth still likely to progress, makes the services of the Registrar General and protector of the Chinese more and more important. The Chinese houses in the city are not only crowded but crammed, while the increasing proportion of females to males shows tendencies of the most encouraging character. It is impossible to walk through our streets without observing a marked improvement in the domestic comforts as in the dress of the people. Localities where there were a few years ago nothing but rude and ragged shantees are now being covered with respectable dwellings of bricks and stone. Shops exhibit undoubted evidence of progress and pro- sperity; and I observe many of the respectable shopkeepers of Canton establishing them- selves among us. The prejudices against the colony are gradually wearing away; and, notwithstanding very many uncorrected and not easily traceable abuses, I think there is among the Chinese a strengthening confidence in the integrity of the higher officials, in the due administration of justice, and in the protection of the inhabitants against arbitrary and despotic acts.

If we could ensure the retention of the services of the present Colonial Surgeon, I should be well satisfied with the present arrangements, except that I think Dr. Menzies is inadequately paid. I have great pleasure in reporting my thorough approval of the manner in which the duties of the Colonial Surgeon have been lately discharged.

You will observe a great defalcation in the quantity of mercantile shipping which entered the harbour in 1857 as compared with 1856.

Vessels.

1856.

Tons.

Vessels.

1857.

Tops.

Entered

2,091

811,307

1,070

541,063

Decrease

1,021

270,244

This is principally to be attributed to the stoppage of the river trade with Canton, which employs ordinarily many steamers, whose frequent voyages greatly add to the amount of the return.

Public education has taken an important stride in the course of the past year, but this I hope is only an introduction to a far greater advance. I have personally visited many of the schools, and observed a very marked improvement. We have lent the services of the inspector, W. Lobscheid, for a short time, to the allied authorities at Canton, where his knowledge of the local idiom cannot but be very useful.

I have to add that, by the Colonial Treasurer's report, there will remain to us from the services for the year 1856 a balance of about 4,700%.

EXTRACT of a REPORT from Mr. BRIDGES (Acting Colonial Secretary) to Governor

Sir J. Bowring.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

March 20, 1858.

    I HAVE the honour to lay before your Excellency the Blue Book for 1857. It contains the details of perhaps the most remarkable year in the history of this colony, and it will not be impertinent to advert to some of the more prominent events before remarking in detail upon the several establishments.

   The commencement of 1857 found Hong Kong, in consequence of recent occurrences at Canton, suffering under a panic among the foreign residents, and an apparent intention on the part of all the more respectable part of the Chinese to return to the mainland. The almost universal poisoning, by arsenic, of foreigners, which occurred on the 15th of January, brought this feeling of insecurity to its height, and the knowledge that for the next three succeeding months a crafty and unscrupulous enemy was in our imme-

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241

diate vicinity, solely occupied in devising plots against both life and property in the city of Victoria, demanded unceasing vigilance on the part of the executive. By the great goodness of God the Government and the community have passed unscathed through these varied trials; and instead of the colony having suffered, I may confidently assure your Excellency that more real substantial progress has been made and improve- ment effected, in 1857, than in any previous year; and if, in the face of such trials, every portion of our revenue has given signs of a steady movement in advance, slight fears need now be entertained for the future prosperity of Hong Kong.

Three undertakings, which must necessarily exercise a great influence on the com- mercial prosperity of the island, the comfort of its inhabitants, and the appearance and safety of its capital, have been successfully commenced during the past year. I refer to the docks now in progress at Aberdeen, the rebuilding of the public markets, the erection of several new ones, and the construction of the Bowring praya. The docks are a private enterprise, fraught with most important consequences to that portion of the island which has been selected for their site, and the conditions upon which they are built will always afford to Her Majesty's ships the means of repairing all accidents which may occur to them in the China seas. By a judicious sale of certain portions of the market property ample funds have been obtained for rebuilding and constructing all the edifices necessary for a thorough re-arrangement of the market system, and there is every reason to suppose that the result of the change will be the destruction of a system of almost monopoly, which was injurious to the consumer, and not beneficial to the finances of the Government, and that the next Blue Book may tell of both an increased revenue from and diminished prices in the markets. That part of the Bowring praya which abuts on the Chinese portion of the town is in course of construction, and although the European Crown lessees apparently manifest less inclination to meet the wishes of the Government on this score, I can hardly doubt that persistence in a firm but con- ciliatory line of conduct with regard to them will eventually be successful. One great step in advance has at any rate been effected with regard to all; the value of the encroach- ments on the sea frontage has been assessed and levied, and no slight addition thereby made to the rent roll of Crown, lands.

Striking changes have also been effected in the thorough lighting of the town, the numbering and registration of all the houses, the complete organization of the night pass system, the most beneficial police measure which has hitherto been carried into effect in this colony, and, finally, the registration of houses of ill-fame, and their restriction to certain portions of the town.

It is no slight satisfaction to me to be enabled to report that only one act of peculiar atrocity, the murder of the oldest English resident in China, Mr. Markwick, by his own servant, appears worthy of notice in the year's calendar of crime; and there the swift punishment which followed a criminal who seemed to have escaped beyond our juris- diction was a source of satisfaction to the whole community, and a lesson full of warning to the Chinese population.

The Legislative Council has also assumed an entirely new character during the past year; its numbers have been increased by three official and one un-official members, whilst the vacancies created by the two original non-official members have been supplied. It must, therefore, be considered more in the light of a legislative body than has hitherto been the case; and its last act in the session of 1857 having been to decide unanimously on the publication of the records of its proceedings, no complaint can hereafter be fairly raised against it of a desire to avoid public comment on its acts.

I now proceed to make such observations as occur to me on the different topics sug- gested by the Blue Book.

1.-Legislature.

The Legislature passed during the year 12 Ordinances and one Rule of Court. Of these, the last named, and Ordinances 1, 4, 7, 8, and 9, had at the end of the year been confirmed by Her most Gracious Majesty the Queen; Ordinance 2 was suspended by your Excellency in Council, in consequence of instructions to that effect received from the Colonial Office; Ordinances 3, 5, and 6 were still under consideration; and Ordinances 10, 11, and 12 were passed too late in the year to admit of any notice with regard to them being received from home.

The general character of the legislation has been important, and presents more ground for remark than most preceding years. Ordinances 2 and 9 have enabled the Executive to keep our large Chinese population in hand during a season of great anxiety and some danger; and there is every reason to believe that the restrictive measures therein legalized

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

are highly satisfactory to all the respectable portion of the colonists, both native and foreign. The Registration Ordinance 6 was as to some of its provisions strongly opposed by me in the Legislative Council, and the more intimate knowledge of the people which the duties of my office have forced on me convince me that I was quite right in such opposition. With a fluctuating population such as ours it is impossible to carry out a system of personal registration, and it would be very injudicious to attempt so vexatious a proceeding, and then fail after all. Many of the other provisions of this Ordinance are admirable, but it attempts too much. Should it be remitted for recon- sideration, it can, I think, be substantially improved. The only other Ordinance which demands particular mention from me is 12, for checking the spread of venereal disease, which came into operation at the close of the year. This enactment is, I believe, the first instance in which an English legislature has attempted to control the 'evils arising from prostitution; and I am firmly convinced that no more wise or beneficial measure was ever introduced in this or any other part of Her Majesty's dominions. Like most other experiments, the first essay is perhaps far from being perfect; but, nevertheless, a vast amount of good must be the immediate result; and it is no slight satisfaction to me personally to have been allowed to co-operate in so good a work.

Colonial Treasurer.

The returns from this department will perhaps be more closely scrutinized by the home authorities than those of any other in the Colonial Government, and unless carefully dissected they may lead to some misconception. There will at first sight appear a most striking similarity between the increase of the revenue and of the expenditure.

The gross and net increase of the former having been 24,0731. 4s. and 23,3417. 13s. 10d., and of the latter 23,5251. and 23,0711., respectively, thus apparently making the burdens on the colonial purse keep pace with its increasing prosperity; but, unless I am very much mistaken, it can be fairly demonstrated, that whereas the greater part of the outlay of the year 1857, was produced by political causes, the pressure of which had passed away before the close of the year, the additions to its revenue are of a permanent character, and more likely to advance than to fall off.

The principal sources of the increased receipts are,--

Police assessment

·

Premiums on land sold

Markets

Fees and fines Special receipts Interest

£ s. d. 3,508 9 6

13,602 12 10

·

1,460 11 1

2,032 1 4

-

1,450 16 4

900 0 0

"

22,954 11 2

With the exception of the second item of this list, the great amount of which was caused by a sale of houses attached to the markets, the remaining five owe their increase to a more judicious management of Government property, a determination to make the community bear a fair proportion of its municipal expenses, and a decided increase in the population and the value of house property. Unless a change take place in the fortunes of the colony which no one has a right to anticipate at present, each successive year (supposing a similar line of policy to be persevered in) will increase these separate heads of

revenue, and

prevent a repetition of what has occurred this year, a falling off in the receipt from licences, but the trifling diminution there, 1857., may fairly be set down rather to accidental causes than to any failure in the prosperity of the colony.

The additions to the expenditure are principally to be attributed to,-

Increase of establishments :--

Auditor General Registrar General

Police and gaols

·

Carry forward

S. d. 422 4 1 1,167 0 1

s. d.

·

4,046 14 11

5,635 19 1

5,635 19 1

11

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Brought forward

Increase, exclusive of establishments:-

Police and gaols

-

£5,635 19 13

- 2,101 19 8

Works and buildings, roads, streets, &c. - 8,410 11 7

Purchase of buildings Special expenses

-

1,971 14 8 - 8,448 9 5

15,932 15 4

21,568 14 6

243

I shall explain in another place the causes which have led to so considerable an increase in the departments of the Registrar General, the police and gaol, and works and buildings.

Purchase of buildings 1,9717. 14s. 8d.

The re-arrangement of the market system rendered it necessary to buy the remainder of the term of years of one of the market lessees, and it was expenditure on this account that has added so materially to this item of outlay.

Special expenses 3,7971. 10s. 6d.

The items which create this total are :-

Emptying dust bins

Lighting street lamps

£ s. d.

- 182 18 4

- 862 3 1 -1,130

Charter of the " Phoebe Dunbar" to deport certain Chinese Ditto of the steamer "Eaglet" to protect the harbour

Passage money from Singapore to the Peninsular and Oriental Steamer for officer and men of the 59th Regiment who were sent as guard in the "Phoebe Dunbar"

Other incidental special expenses

4 2

891 4 2

306 17 7

424 3 2

8,797 10 6

Whereas the sum expended under the head of special expenses in the preceding year, 1856, a period unmarked by any unusual contingencies, only amounted to 3497. Is. Id.

3. Police and Gaols.

The excess of expenditure on Police and Gaols in 1857, as compared with 1856, has been 5,9867. 14s. 11d. of which only 3811. Os. 7d. is on account of the gaol, and the remainder, 5,605l. 14s. 1ld., on account of the police.

As the police and the gaol have no connexion with each other in this colony it will be better that I should treat of them separately.

 The unusual precautions which it was found necessary to take during the first six months of 1857 necessitated a large temporary increase to the police force, and its consequence was a considerable additional expenditure, but when the emergency passed off reductions were at once made, and by the close of the year the force had returned to its old strength, except as regards the water police, consisting principally of Chinese, and whose services cannot well be dispensed with. The general pay of subordinate members has been slightly increased, and I am inclined to hope with beneficial results, as a better class of men seem willing to enter the service now than at any previous period.

I cannot, however, refrain from putting on record my opinion that the police force is still in a most unsatisfactory condition; and although the materials which compose it preclude the possibility of its ever attaining a high state of efficiency, yet a close and constant attention paid by myself personally convinces me that were greater activity made use of by the Superintendent of Police the force could be considerably improved.

The Gaol.

 The excess of expenditure here in 1857 over 1856 has been 3811. 7d., and this is to be attributed to an alteration in the establishment of the appointment of a governor, slight additions to the salaries, and a vast increase in the number of prisoners, who have averaged 321 each week throughout the year.

 But had this increase been thrice its present amount it would, I think, have been cheaply purchased, considering the wonderful improvement which has resulted from

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

relieving the sheriff of the custody of the prisoners, and placing them under the care of Mr. Inglis, the present governor. I should occupy far too much space were I to attempt to enumerate the changes for the better; and I will therefore confine myself to saying, that the gaol, up to the early part of 1857, had every possible defect of management save one, and that want of cleanliness, and now it is as well regulated as it can possibly be, considering its deficiencies in accommodation and want of security. It must, however, be again repeated, that whereas, according to the rules of prison areas in England, (far too limited for a climate like this,) there is only space for 190 prisoners at one time in Victoria gaol, the average has been 70 per cent. in excess of this. The smallest number on the returns gives 245 and the largest 584 occupants at any one period; and I cannot but feel considerable regret that the state of the colonial finances compels the continuance of a system so dangerous and so much to be lamented. As, however, there appears to be a promise of funds available hereafter for enlarging the gaol, I would respectfully suggest to your Excellency that the best course then to be pursued will be, not to extend the present premises, but to construct a separate prison elsewhere for the prisoners under long sentence, and to reserve the existing gaol for the short sentence men of all descrip- tions. Now the European seamen sent in for refusal of duty or intoxication herd at least all day with the European transports of every dye of crime, running the risk of making themselves worse, and alleviating in an improper manner the severity of the punish- nishment of the felon convict, by giving him an unceasing change of companionship, and enabling him to convey messages out should he wish to attempt to escape. Now, also, the same evil exists to a still greater degree from the admixture in the hospital and the common yard and at meal times of Chinese transports with the minor vice and crime of the native population, who, coming in merely for days, weeks, or months, convey to the lifer or the twenty years' man all the petty details of the most recent robberies or remarkable burglaries or piracies, to the deeper contamination of all parties. It is evident that we are unable to rid ourselves of our European transports, and can only at rare intervals draft off batches of our Chinese to Labuan. I would, therefore, wish to see the construction of a convict gaol, to be reserved solely for that purpose. It could, I believe, be erected at hardly more expense than is required for the enlargement of Victoria gaol, a work otherwise of indispensable necessity. Were that done hardly any money need be spent on the last-named building, which would be sufficient for the accommodation and custody of all the less aggravated form of offenders.

4. The Surveyor General.

  The aggregate amount of expenditure debited to this department during the year 1857 amounts to the large sum of 17,0211. 16s. 6d., which is divisible into 10,7577. 6s. 11d. for works and buildings, and 6,2621. 9s. 7d. for roads, streets, and bridges.

  Works commenced in former years and completed in this have demanded an outlay of 5,2911. 7s. 7 d., and works still in progress 11,7301. 8s. 11 d.

  The principal buildings which have occupied the attention of the Surveyor General have been the Central and West Point Police Stations, both of them important additions to the efficiency of the force, the one in the centre of the town and the other at i western extremity. The markets, of which the two principal are being rebuilt, and four new ones constructed, as are also two substantial slaughterhouses. This will, perhaps, be the most fitting place for me to recall to your remembrance how the large amount of funds have been provided (exceeding 14,000l.) required for these alterations. The old market system was perhaps as faulty a one as could have existed. Portions of Crown lands had been granted to lessees, on condition of their erecting markets thereon and paying a certain annual rental. But it had not been provided that the whole of such land should be devoted to market purposes, and consequently the lessees appropriated a considerable portion of it to building houses thereon totally unconnected with the market, but which paid then very remunerative rents, while the markets proper remained in a disgraceful state of dilapidation, were carved out into separate monopolies, and were but of secondary importance to the lessees. One of the leases falling in in September last, it was resolved to take the whole market system into the hands of the Government. It was further resolved to sell such of the above-mentioned houses as were distinct from the only two then existing markets, the central and western, and apply the amount thereby realized in perfecting the new market arrangement. That sale realized the singularly large sum of 14,8227. 14s. 4d. or thereabouts; and when I mention that the amounts received from the markets notwithstanding such sale, and before the additional markets have been opened, considerably exceeds the old market revenue, the wisdom of the change demands no comment, for we shall exchange the old markets, such as I have

.

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

245

described, and contributing but slightly to our exchequer, for six markets and two slaughterhouses in a perfect state of repair, and yet the colonial treasury will not have been called upon to expend a shilling, and reports an already increased market rental.

Returning from this somewhat long digression, there is but one other point connected with the Surveyor General's department to which I would wish to allude. That one is the imperative necessity of commencing at an early day a thorough water supply to the town. In England this might be left to private enterprise; here it must be taken in hand by the Government or altogether neglected; and I fervently hope that there will be no great delay in the matter, for the continuance of a long drought, such as occurred within the last seven years, would, I really believe, threaten the very existence of this fast- growing community. We have now a permanent town population of nearly 40,000 souls entirely dependent on a few mountain streams.

I would very earnestly press this danger upon your Excellency, because its possibility presents itself to me each succeeding year as I see the houses extending now east and now west, and yet nothing done to prevent the also increasing diminution of our water supply during the dry season.

A famine of water would destroy all the progress that has been made during the last five years. An expenditure of about 20,000l., to be easily raised on loan at a moderate rate of interest, such interest to be charged on the rental of the Crown lands, would render us for ever secure.

5. Registrar General.

As the coloured population exceed the white in this community in the proportion of about 54 to 1, and everything connected with the Chinese, who compose nine tenths of the former class, passes more or less through this department, it is virtually the most important in the colony. I cannot speak in too high praise of the manner in which the present Registrar General discharges all his duties; and it is a pleasant duty incumbent on me to have to record that I am convinced your Excellency has no more zealous and certainly not so efficient a subordinate under your orders. The population returns furnished from this department have been prepared with unusual care this year, and after a close personal inspection of them I think I may say they can be taken as very fairly correct. The gross amount of inhabitants shows an increase of about 5,000 over the preceding year, and that chiefly in the boat population; but this comparison is scarcely to be relied on, and therefore it may be sufficient to say that there is hardly a vacant house to be found of any description in the town of Victoria, and that rents have gone up at least 30 per cent., for there can be no surer criterion than this of the present flourishing state of the colony.

I would, however, wish to point out one or two facts to be elicited from these lists; the first of which, that the average proportion of Chinese females to males is far higher than it has ever previously been, a result only to be produced from the colony being at last considered a home by the natives, and not a mere place of business; the other point is one of painful interest, and forces the conclusion on me that the killing of female infants must be a widely prevailing crime among our rural and boat population.

In the town districts, we find,

Boys

In the rural population,

Boys

In the boats,

Boys

-

3254

Girls

464

Girls

4212

Girls

3547

341

2348

I would fain attribute such a remarkable difference to another cause than the one above stated, but I am unable to do so. A comparison of the returns of the last nine years presents the same feature, and even shows the disproportion to be rather increasing than diminishing.

6. Colonial Surgeon.

All things are changed for the better, and will doubtless so continue while we retain the services of our present, active, zealous, and skilful surgeon. The fresh duties which devolved on him at the close of the year with regard to the Lock Hospital have been cheerfully taken in hand, and augur well for the success of that most necessary institution. Dr. Menzies having arrived in the latter half of the year, I shall take upon myself to add

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ȘTATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

to his report, that 1857 was a more than average unhealthy year, in consequence, I believe, of the failure of the usual amount of rain, but still, on the whole, there is every reason to believe that the colony is gradually improving in salubrity, however bad may be the character that it bears in this respect at home.

7. Imports and Exports.

  I have deviated from the usual custom of adding to the Blue Book tables of the supposed imports and exports, because, after a careful investigation, I am convinced no reliance can be placed on such returns in this colony. We have no custom-house machinery here of any description whatsoever, and no means of ascertaining whether the lists furnished by captains of ships are true or false. Such being the case, I think it preferable, in a document of so much importance as the Blue Book, to avoid anything which may possibly mislead, and will merely add that there is every reason to believe far larger trade operations have taken place within the colony in 1857 than in any preceding year.

8. Education.

  It is with the utmost pleasure that I can at last say that the Government education of Chinese children throughout this colony shows signs of healthy vitality. It must have been a painful subject in former years to notice how little was done in this respect; but now that the services of Mr. Lobscheid have been permanently secured, to superintend the whole system, I believe that a new era has commenced. Your Excellency is aware of my having personally visited all these schools throughout the island, and that inspection has satisfied me that if a prudent liberality in the employment of competent native teachers is persevered in the rising generation of our Chinese fellow subjects will not be such aliens to us in feelings and habits as the great bulk of our population is at present. It is only through the native schools that this very desirable change can be introduced; and I would hope that the expenditure on their account in future years will be on a somewhat larger scale than has hitherto been the case. With an aggregate amount of 7,586 children of the land population, to say nothing of 6,560 belonging to the boats, a daily attendance of less than 500 is hardly a result to be alluded to with satisfaction, after we have held this island for 15 years; but I am afraid that I must remark that there is not at present accommodation for more, and that until proper schoolrooms are erected at the public expense this number can hardly be increased. The committee refer to the report of Mr. Lobscheid, as being appended to their own. The Bishop has gone on a visit to the ports, without returning such report, and I am therefore unable to lay it before your Excellency on this occasion.

  Having thus brought to the notice of your Excellency all the more salient points bearing on the Blue Book, I am almost afraid that I have exceeded the limits of an official report of this nature, but if I have done so I trust your Excellency will pardon me, and attribute my error to the very great interest I take in the colony.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

247

109

HONG KONG.

No. 18.

Cory of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir JOHN BOWRING to the Right Honourable Sir EDWARD B. LYTTON, Bart., M.P.

SIR,

(No. 54.)

Government Offices, Victoria,tvara

Hong Kong, 29th March 1859.

1

I HAVE now the honour to forward to you the Blue Book of this colony for the year 1858.

I venture to anticipate your satisfaction with the results which the volume records, and trust that the present position and progress of the colony, and its bright prospects for the future, will enable you to approve of the general conduct of the government during the five years in which I have been honoured with its charge.

  2. As the period is now approaching when I am to surrender my trust into other hands I deem myself justified in laying before you the statistics; of my administration, and in comparing the five years which preceded that administration with the five years succeeding.

;:

!

i

!

3. The following are the Returns of Revenue and Expenditure, Parliamentary Grants, Population, and Shipping, from the years 1849 to 1858 inclusive: in quei m

TABLE showing the REVENUE and EXPENDITURE of Hong Kong, PARLIAMENTARY GRANTS, POPULATION, and SHIPPING for the years from 1849 to 1858 inclusive.

A

Years.

Parlin-

!

Revonuc.

mentary Grant.

Total Income.

Expenditure. |Population.]

Shipping.

1849 1850

1851

1852

1853

£ 5. d. 23,617 3 3 23,526 16 43 23,721 7 61| 21,331 181| 24,700 6 31

£

£ 5. d. £

Nos. S. d. 25,000 48,617 3 3 38,986 162 | 29,507 902 20,000 | 43,526 16 44| 34,314 12 3 15,500 | 39,221 7 6 | 94,115 7 6 12,000 || 33,331 1 81 34,765 12 91 9,200 33,900 631 36,418 12 0

·

'Tons.

293,465

33,292 883

299,009

32,989 1,082

377,084

37,058 | 1,097

443,383

39,017 1,103

447,053

Average per Annum

1854

1855

1856

1857

1858

Total for 5 years - 116,896 15 13

23,379 7 0

27,045 3 51 47,973 11 14 35,500 8 9 58,842 2 7 62,476 9 8

Total for 5 years

231,837 15 64

Average per Aunum 46,367 11

81,700 198,596 15 14

16,340 39,719 7

178,600 613 171,857 5,067 1,859,994

35,720 1 24

34,371 1,013

371,998

4,400 | 31,445 S 54

34,635 0 1

56,0111,100

443,354

14

47,973 11 14 | 40,813 11 2 35,500 8 9 *10,000 68,842 2 7

10,000| 72,476 9 81

24,400 256,237 15 67246,552 5 5

4,880 51,247 11 11 49,270 ́ ́9°

72,925 1,736

G04,570

42,426 6 5 65,497 19 7

71,7302,091

811,307

77,094 1,070

541,063

62,979 8 14

75,503 | 1,007

716,476

353,263 |7,004 | 3,116,770

70,652 1,400

623,354

             * For measures of precaution and defence. Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

9th March 1859.

(Signed)

W. T. MERCER,

Colonial Secretary.

  4. I have placed among the Parliamentary grants the two sums amounting to 20,000%. voted in 1857 and 1858, but as they are on account of special objects, and not for the ordinary services of the colony, I may state that the Imperial assistance should be estimated at nil since 1854, or if averaged over the five years of my government it amounts to 8801. per annum, in contrast to an average of 16,3401. for the five years preceding.

5. As regards the ordinary revenue it has been doubled during my administration, and the last year of my government, as compared with the last year of my predecessor, presents an increase of 37,7761., or more than 150 per cent.

6. The total income of the colony (including Parliamentary grants) presents an average augmentation of 11,528., being about 30 per cent., but taking the last year of the

:

248

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

two periods the difference in favour of the second is 26,561, or more than 70 per cent.

:

7. With reference to population the average increase during the last five years is 36,281, or more than 100 per cent. But, as regards the returns of 1857 and 1858, I am persuaded there must be some error, as the continued building of Chinese houses, crowded to excess and occupied at greatly raised rents, affords substantial evidence of a great augmentation of the population during last year, and that augmentation I feel: justified in believing is not less than 10,000 souls. I calculate the present population: of the colony at 85,000. Its fluctuating, and ambulatory character may excuse and account for inaccuracies in the census.

   8. Nor are the shipping returns less satisfactory. They show in the five years an average yearly increase of 487 vessels representing 251,350 tons, being 68 per cent. The increase of 1853, as compared with 1858, is 269,423 tons, representing 60 per cent.. The extension; of our relations with all the countries of the furthest East, the circum- stance that Hong Kong is the place of arrival and departure of mail communications, and the head quarters of all the great commercial establishments: in China are likely to preserve and perpetuate the rank it has now obtained of being one of the most exten sively visited harbours to the east of the Cape of Good Hope. There are few ports whose tonnage returns cqual or even approach those of Hong Kong.

   9. I would add here that during the last five years the general value of lands and houses has enormously increased, and that in the last year.no important sales of Crown lands have taken place, so that this source of revenue has not come to our aid. There is difficulty in finding locations either for Europeans or Chinese: I expect that the development of relations with the ports in China to the north, with Japan and other circumjacent regions, will lead to an extension of the population towards the cast, while to the west the growth of a superior character of Chinese houses is one of the most marked and pleasing signs of improvement. There can be no doubt of the present opulence of many of the Chinese settlers who came penniless to the colony, and who from labourers and fishermen have become shopkeepers; from shopkeepers, merchants and shipowners. Their relations with foreign countries are everywhere spreading, and they carry on their transactions with many of the subordinate ports which are little known to or visited by foreign merchants. I may mention, as illustrative of Chinese, enterprise, that in a place only lately opened to foreign trade (Zamboanga, in the Island of Mindanao), the importation in 1858 by tlie Chinese of inanufactures, principally British, amounted in value to 400,000l. sterling.

   10. As regards the prospective resources of the colony, a valuable piece of ground in the most frequented part of the city, will be soon at the disposal of Government, and will, no doubt, produce a considerable sum of money. The purchase of the large house (as advised in my Despatch, No. 16, of 25th January last) for the new Civil Hospital will enable us to remove the mount called Pedder's Hill, on the top of which the present incommodious Civil Hospital stands; the materials of the mount will be conveniently near to assist in recoveries from the sea and the formation of the Praya, and the removal of these materials will leave a large level spot as public property. If any portion of it, or the building erected. on it, should be appropriated to public purposes, the Court House and Post Office might be removed thither without any public inconvenience, and for these edifices a great price would be given in consequence of their adjacency to the seal frontage.

"

i

11. I cannot doubt that both to the east and the west of the city there will ere long be an augmented demand for land. Population is rapidly growing in the neighbourhood of Spring Gardens, and the removal of Hospital Hill, which is close to that locality, would provide valuable ground and furnish excellent materials for extending and utilizing the sca frontage. The western extremity of the city is filling even more rapidly with Chinese settlers; and I quite concur with the Colonial Secretary in opinion, that the deprecatory observations on the futurity of the colony, which have obtained circulation in England, are the results of a hasty and uninformed judgment, to which the statistics of Hong Kong furnish an emphatic and most convincing reply.

:

   12. The improvement of the roads leading to Aberdeen and Stanley, and the erection of the Aberdeen Docks, now nearly completed, will bring to the southern portions of the island a population whose presence must tend greatly to increase. the value of the Crown

                                               : :: property.

་།

   13. The possession of the small, peninsula opposite the island is become of more, and more importance. To say nothing of questions of military and naval defence, it would be of great commercial and sanatory value to us (while to the Chinese it is not only of no

I

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

:

249

111

value, but a scat of anarchy and a source of embarrassment). I hope therefore, measures will be taken for obtaining a cession of this tract of land.

  14. One subject I wish again to press on the attention of Her Majesty's Government. There have been many proposals to tax the commerce of Hong Kong for general and special purposes. Believing that the satisfactory development of our prosperity is mainly due to the emancipation of all shipping and trade from fiscal vexations and exactions, I trust no custom house machinery will ever be introduced either for the collection of tariff or harbour dues, or for any purpose which may check the free ingress and egress of all shipping to and from the port, nor the free transfer of commodities from hand to hand. Hong Kong presents another example of the elasticity and potency of unrestricted com- merce, which in my judgment has more than counterbalanced the barrenness of its soil, the absence of agricultural and manufacturing industry, the disadvantages of its climate, and every impediment which could clog its progress. Its magnificent harbour invites the flags of all nations, which there is nothing in its legislation to repel. Its laws give no privileges to any, but afford equal security to all; and I am persuaded the equity with which justice is administered is beginning to produce a most salutary effect on the minds of the Chinese people.

1

  15. The year through which we have passed has been one of great embarrassment. The unhappy misunderstandings among the officials, fomented by passionate partizanship and by a reckless and slanderous newspaper press, made the conduct of public affairs one of extreme difficulty; and in a colony like this where, if functionaries are displaced, it is not easy to find fit successors; the distance from home and the indifferent reputation of the climate (not a good one certainly, but its unhealthiness has been much exaggerated,) render it so little attractive, that few desirable candidates can be found for official em- ployment. I had sometimes reason to fear that the machinery of administration would be absolutely dislocated by the unseemly contentions which could not but greatly impair the efficiency of officers so frequently engaged in mutual recriminations. Many heads of departments were absent from the colony; illness interfered with the usefulness of others. We are now happily at peace, and I hope shall continue so, and that my successor will be spared the anxieties which have surrounded me. I am, however, strongly confirmed in one conclusion, that it is impossible the public service should not suffer if functionaries, 'especially the higher ones, are allowed to profit by private professional engagements. The enormous power and influence of the great commercial houses in China, when associated directly or indirectly with personal pecuniary advantages, which they are able to confer on public officers who are permitted to be employed and engaged by them, cannot but create a conflict between duties not always compatible with one another. The colony is quite in a condition liberally to provide for its public servants, and to Her Majesty's Government and to the colony alone ought they to look for remuneration of their services. In reference to colonial disputes, I cannot pass over in silence the great claims which Mr. Caldwell, the Registrar General, has upon the colony and upon Her Majesty's Government for rendering aid, such as he only could render, and of which so much evidence has been given in the past year, while everything has been done by his enemies to undermine his reputation and destroy his efficiency.

.

  16. The satisfactory state of the revenue for the past year is referred to in the report of the Colonial Secretary, and the position of the finances is still more gratifying from the fact, that the augmentation of the income grows not out of transitory and uncertain but from those permanent sources which are more likely to be strengthened than weakened by the progress of time. It must be remembered that we have no direct taxation, but the police and lighting rates, which barely suffice to cover the expenditure under those particular heads. One impost has been removed whose productiveness was small and whose annoyances and inconvenience great, that upon salt, which having been wholly freed from taxation, has become an article of increased commercial importance.

  17. After providing for the fixed and ordinary expenses, a handsome balance will remain for application to public works. Those recommended for special attention will be adequately provided for. The Government grant for the Civil Hospital has enabled us to obtain a building singularly well adapted to the object, placed on a very healthy locality, and which being in good repair saves the costs, delays, and uncertainties of erecting a new building.

18. The gaol too will be promptly proceeded with. Beyond the Parliamentary grant for 5,000l. it is doubtful whether more outlay will be required for the present year. The healthiness and accessibleness of the site has determined in the negative the question of its removal, considerations paramount to that of the value of the ground were it sold by the Government for general purposes.

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   19. I regret that I am compelled to leave the Bowring Praya in a far less advanced · state than I had hoped for. As to the importance of this great improvement, its value to the salubrity-the police-the appearance of Victoria-there cannot be two disinterested opinions. It has been advocated by a succession of governors, strongly recommended by a commission specially appointed to weigh all the objections which could be urged against it and finally approved by positive instructions from Mr. Secretary Labouchere (in his Despatch, No. 128. of 10th November 1856), whenever, after the completion of the public works then sanctioned, the funds of the colony should furnish means for its construction. The resistance to the Praya which has been perseveringly led by Mr. Dent, L. C., has been confined to a few influential, I may say almost omnipotent, merchants in this colony, who having largely invaded the rights of the Crown and appropriated to their private use what was always intended (as all the leases provide) for public purposes, have, whenever the question, came to be discussed of the erection of that portion of the Praya of which they hold the frontage, created and kept alive an opposition under which the Government has been temporarily compelled to succumb. I should mention here that the whole amount of land recovered and appropriated by the lessees against the rights of the Crown amounts to 298,685 square feet in addition to leases granting only 260,326 square feet. The opposition to the Praya was carried home to the Colonial Office, but. Mr. Secretary Labouchere advised that Mr. Dent's objections had been duly considered by Her Majesty's Government but were not held to be valid. I received Lord Stanley's orders, in the apprehension that the finances of the colony might become embarrassed, not to appropriate to the work any of the income of 1858. But in the meanwhile and without the expenditure of a farthing of the public money the Chinese have consented to make and to pay rent for a large portion of the Praya in front of their holdings, and their work is now nearly completed." Amicable arrangements have been come to with most of the holders of marine lots in front of the city, and that portion of the l'raya of which the frontage properly belongs to the Government is in process of construction; the immediate question which required solution was the formation of that part of the Praya between the sea and the property leased to Messrs. Dent and Messrs. Lindsay to the west, and which would enable us to communicate from the parade ground with Pedder's wharf (in addition to which a very small portion to the cast, on ground claimed by, the military authorities, but surrendered by General Straubenzee, after examination, would have to be constructed). The estimate for the sea wall, filling in, and piers proposed to be added for the special convenience of Messrs. Dent and Lindsay, was calculated at less than 14,0007. on tenders received.

FOR

   20. I caused a thorough investigation to be undertaken as to the finances of the colony, and learnt from the Colonial Treasurer that there would be a balance of from 20,000l. to 25,000l., at least, applicable to public works when all those legislated for had been com pleted, and that this sum was lying at interest in the Oriental Bank Corporation, waiting for appropriation...

:

نا.

21. In this satisfactory state of things I called upon the Acting Attorney General to advise me as to the most prudent and conciliatory mode of proceeding consistent with the instructions from home and with the proper maintenance of the rights of the Crown. After much consideration, and as I have reason to know, consultation with other and non- official members of the Legislature, he advised me to introduce an ordinauce which he assured me would pass the Legislature, as by it he would secure compensation to all- parties who might possibly be injured by the measure, and morcover provide for the surrender of that right belonging to the Crown, of arbitrarily fixing the rental of any land conceded to the lessees, or the amount of damages suffered, by allowing a reference to the valuation of a jury. The Acting Attorney General thought that this proceeding by ordinance whose provisions were all subjected to the revision of the Council, and whose character was even more conciliatory and conceding than I had ever contemplated, was far preferable to my applying simply for a supplementary vote for 14,000%, the sum proposed to be taken in the service of 1859 for the work under consideration. The Surveyor General had also urged objections against my proceeding by asking a vote of money for the proposed work, and carrying it out under the undoubted powers which the leases gave to the Crown. He represented that his own position was a very painful one, having the undivided responsibility of fixing rents and damages,-a responsibility, from which he desired to be relieved. I therefore appointed the Surveyor General, the Colonial Treasurer, and the Acting Attorney General to draw up an ordinance, and was advised by them individually and collectively that they were satisfied with the ordinance they had prepared; it gave every security to the finances of the colony, remedied the objections of the Surveyor General, and was satisfactory to the Acting Attorney General in all questions of a legal character.

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  Mr. Dent (voting however alone) opposed the first reading of the ordinance (of which I have the honour to enclose a copy). Before the second reading my shattered health compelled me to leave for the Philippine Islands, and 1 found on my return that no progress had been made other than the insertion of the ordinance thrice in the Govern- ment Gazette.

  The second reading was appointed for the 4th February last. Before going into Council I had some conversation with the Acting Attorney General, who then informed me he was satisfied the ordinance would pass, as he had the assurance of one of the non-official members that it would have his support, and I certainly never doubted that there would be a majority in its favour. The Judge was absent on judicial duty, the Lieutenant Governor from indisposition. Mr. Dent moved the adjournment of the question sine die; he was seconded by Mr. Jardine (both these gentlemen have large interests in the question) and supported by Mr. Lyall; these are the three non-official members. The Colonial Secretary voted with Mr. Dent. He stated that he approved of the Praya, but was averse to legislation on the subject, and did not see his way through the financial question. In this no doubt he exercised an independent judgment of which I do not complain, especially as Mr. Mercer was absent when the ordinance was prepared; but the Surveyör General, one of the authors of the ordinance, voted against it, saying he had changed his mind. The chief magistrate also voted against the Government, and the second reading was rejected by 6 to 3. The term of my office approaching, my health much shaken, I have not thought it becoming to exercise the power with which I am invested, and to pass the ordinance, or to use the authority of the Crown under the leases, and carry on the works in spite of opposition; but shall leave to my successor the carrying forward of an undertaking, whose benefits to the colony it is not easy to exaggerate, and for whose progress and completion the surplus revenue, which I am happy to say is still augmenting, will afford ample means.

  22. As regards the proceedings of the Legislative Council on the three points adverted to by the Colonial Secretary, viz., the Opium Ordinance, the Markets' Ordinance, and the Chinese Immigrants' Ordinance, I have to observe :-

  23. That though the opium monopoly was not so productive as was anticipated in the year 1858, the defalcation is principally attributable to the flight from the colony of so large a number of Chinese, estimated at not less than twenty-five thousand, and this exodus is specially worthy of attention, as showing the immense influence exercised by the mandarins of the continent upon the Chinese population, nor will that influence be broken until the Chinese inhabitants of Hong Kong can dissociate themselves from the power of clanship, and secure their families and relatives who reside in China from the persecution of the authorities. The Chinese contractor was among those who fled, and though his security was compelled to pay the amount for which he had given bond, it was necessary to make concessions to the new contractor at a final loss to the revenue of about 950 ~ This source of income is likely to increase with the increase of the number of the Chinese in the colony. While this Despatch was being written tenders for the Opium Farm have been received, and the highest for the current year is 6,812. 10s., nearly equal to the highest in 1858.

24. As regards the Markets' Ordinance I cannot attribute to its provisions the high price of the nccessaries of life. There is abundant field for competition among the owners of shops and stalls, but the powers and the habits of confederation among the Chinese are too strong to be dealt with by legislation. European residents have inherited from the East India Company some of the mischiefs of their monopoly. Their agents were somewhat reckless in expenditure provided for at the public cost. Table allow- ances were made on the most liberal scale, and enormous prices were paid for all the articles of consumption. A system grew up which has never been wholly superseded. Our compradors (or managers of the household) invariably pocket large profits on domestic expenditure. They come to an understanding with the market people, who also thoroughly understand one another, advancing prices wherever they are able, and resisting their reduction with too successful pertinacity. We are in the hands of our Chinese servants, and few persons (not being Chinese) are to be found in the colony capable of making a bargain with the sellers of commodities. The Market Ordinance, so far as it has operated, certainly diminished the evils of monopoly, and transferred to the Government in the shape of augmented rental a portion at least of the profit which was before in the hands of two or three privileged persons. Some modifications, the result of experience, will, I think, be desirable; but in my judgment they ought not to affect the more substantial provisions of the Markets' Ordinance.

  25. The question of emigration grows in importance as the demand for labour increases in the colonies. Hong Kong continues to be the port whence emigrants who can pay

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for their passages and are able to take care of themselves and their own interests prefer to embark, and it will be seen by the Harbour Masters' Report no less than 13,856 left this colony for Australia and California in the past year. I am quite of opinion that the stringency of the Chinese Passenger Act ought to be relaxed as regards emigrants paying their own passage, selecting their own vessels, and able to secure themselves against abductions and fraud. But with reference to hired labourers for the colonics I am thoroughly convinced that the grossest crimes, abominations, and abuses exist in the mode by which they are collected on the continent of China. It is perfectly truc that there is in China a superfluity of labour, much misery, and difficulty of obtaining food, and that it would be a blessing both to China and to the countries to which this surplus labour should be transferred if means could be found for its transfer which would give security against the horrible practices of the crimps now engaged in the collection of emigrants, and against whom when discovered not only is public indignation so strong as frequently to expose them to assassination, but there have been several cases in which they have been condemned to death by the ordinary process of Chinese law. Such, however, is the temptation which extravagant premiums and profits offer to the Chinese brokers, and such the passion for money getting among the Chinese, especially when, as in the cases in question, there is more to be gained by craft and cunning than by persevering industry, that I am persuaded nothing but an understanding with the Chinese authorities on the whole subject of emigration, and their co-operation for the prevention and punishment of abuses, and for the prote. tion of the emigrant himself, will ever place the Coolie shipments on a satisfactory basis. I think the period still remote in which the emigration of women can be anticipated. The failure of the plans which were some time ago adopted in the Philippine Islands, adjacent as they are, and covered with Chinamen, many of whom are rich and influential, and would lend them cordial aid in the introduction of their wives and families, show how little is to be hoped for in that respect. In the commercial capital of Manila (Binondo) I found by the census that there was only one Chinawoman and seven female children amidst about six thousand Chinamen. It was estimated a few years ago that Hong Kong would in 1858 be able to furnish 2,500 females to be married to Chinese Catholic converts in the Philippines. I have no reason to believe that a single one has been shipped for the purpose.

   26. And if I may here be allowed an observation on the more general question, I have come to the conclusion that it is impossible imported labour should in the long run compete with the free labour of Eastern tropical countries, whose powers of production are now beginning to develop themselves. How should the West Indies, with no advantage of soil or climate, and to whom the cost of the labourer must be heavy, whether from the charge of introducing him or the value of his labour when introduced, how should they stand the rivalry of regions where every natural advantage is associated with the moderate pay and moderate profits of the native cultivator? In the countries I have visited, such as Siam, the Netherland, and the Spanish Eastern Archipelago, there are productive capabilities which, whenever they are assisted by capital and improved machinery, must place the West Indian Colonies at an immense disadvantage. In the course of a short time the agricultural element in China will probably receive a vast development. In two years, and with small advance in prices, China was able to fill the vacuum in the silk markets produced by the failure of the French and Italian crops, and to send to Europe in a single season for a value of nearly 10,000,000l. sterling of raw silk. I believe her cotton-producing power to be enormous, and am surprised that more attention has not been given to China in the discussions which have often looked for a supply of this all-important raw material to regions whence only disappointment will come. The southern provinces of China have also great aptitudes for sugar production. I hope I may be excused this seeming digression.

27. I concur with the views of the Colonial Secretary as to the Legislative Council, and think its action must be more limited and defined. Since the arrival of Mr. Chisholm Anstey in the colony the character of the Council has undergone a marked change. Instead of a consultative body called in to assist the Government in the matters submitted to it by the Government, Mr. Anstey declared that he took his seat as an independent legislator, and not as a servant of the Crown, and that he was there, if he thought fit, to criticize and oppose the views of the executive. It has happened that when an ordinance has been prepared by Mr. Anstey, and when not a word of previous objection has been breathed by him in his official capacity, he has taken occasion to attack both Government and ordinance, and to do his best to lower the character and credit of the Government in the public opinion by his opposition. I have, even known him in Council repudiate the authority of the Superior Law Officers of the

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Crown when their opinions had been formally conveyed to the Government. "Elaborate speeches were frequently made to be reproduced in the scurrilous newspapers of the colony; nor was Mr. Anstey's example without influence on other official members, for the Chief Magistrate generally followed in Mr. Anstey's footsteps, and on more thau, one occasion (and without the slightest previous communication) vituperated the Govern- ment in strong terms. I have referred to the proceedings of the Surveyor General in reference to the Bowring Praya Ordinance, in which, without any previous advice to me, he followed the example of Mr. Anstey, and voted against the very ordinance he had prepared and recommended. It appears to me absolutely necessary that the powers of the Legislative Council should be better understood, and that the disposition so strongly manifested to encroach upon the functions of the executive should be checked by some authoritative opinion of Her Majesty's Government, on which subject I beg to refer specially to my despatch, No. 116, of 30th August 1858, enclosing Dr. Bridges' views of

the matter.

1

  28. The appointment of an Auditor General in the colony as a distinct officer has undoubtedly been of great benefit, and Mr. Rennie has discharged his duties, with thorough efficiency; but as the Auditor General is equally the servant of the diplomatic and colonial departments, receiving half of his salary from each, some new arrangement will be necessitated by the removal of the Superintendency from Hong Kong. There will be an advantage to the colony from the absolute separation of the colonial from the diplomatic and consular accounts, and no doubt some such arrangement will have to be made by Her Majesty's Treasury.

:

  29. I must mention here that two other colonial officers receive pay from the funds voted by Parliament to the Superintendency, namely, the Attorney General, who has 2501. a year for his services as adviser to the Chief Superintendent, and 2001 to the Surveyor General for his trouble in revising estimates, preparing plans, or rendering other services connected with his department in the consular ports. This want will have to be provided for, I imagine, independently of the Colonial Surveyor.

30. Provision will have to be made for the loss of the services of gentlemen of the Commissariat who have been employed by the Colonial Treasurer. Within a few days we have had notice that two of these gentlemen are about to leave.

  31. It is undoubtedly desirable that some additional accommodation should be provided for the Harbour Master, but the plan suggested two years ago appeared to me, on the representations of the Acting Surveyor General, Mr. Walker, so objectionable, and necessitated so large a sacrifice of valuable Government property, that I directed the stoppage of the works, and think the subject must be reconsidered in connection with the Praya; meanwhile, though the offices of the Harbour Master are not in all respects what could be wished, they are very tolerably convenient, and the situation in all respects commodious.

  32. The Colonial Secretary refers to the importance of obtaining a greater supply of water for the city. I agree with him that it is a very useful object, but I do not think the ordinary revenue of the colony can be properly or judiciously applied in furnishing capital for construction of water-works. Such undertaking are not ordinarily, nor can they in my judgment be wisely, entered upon from the yearly public revenues. If a joint stock company cannot be formed-respecting which there may be some doubt,- the means might be furnished by the issue of bonds, whose interest would be secured by a water rate, There would be some advantage in the existence of such securities as capital is often overflowing here, and it is sometimes difficult to invest it at even 5 or 6 per cent. interest. The large houses have refused to receive deposits on such terms. It is certainly no obligation of the Government to furnish individuals with water any more than any other necessary of life, and, as undertakings such as water companies must partake of the character of commercial speculations and involve great responsibilities, I am strongly of opinion that our annual income is not fairly applicable to such speculations. I am quite willing that the Government should give appropriate facilities for an important public object, but the objections to a Government building Sailors' Homes, or engaging the ordinary sources of revenue in supplying the pecuniary means for costly undertakings of uncertain result are, in my mind, unanswerable. It is said we have recognised the principle in establishing a lighting rate, but there is no analogy. No great outlay of capital is involved in the erection of lamp-posts and the providing lamps. It is a far different question when a Government undertakes to provide water for the inhabitants of a large city, that undertaking implies a large expenditure of capital. Mr. Cleverly's estimate of outlay is 25,000, but after this expenditure there may be difliculty in collecting a water rate from the Chinese population, who have been in the habit of supplying themselves from the tanks or the multitudinous streams in the

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6

colony. There is another great objection. It has been openly avowed by some of the opponents of the Praya, that it is their purpose to swamp "the surplus revenue by devoting it to other and hitherto unauthorized public works, and water-works have been prominently put forward for this very object." I doubt not that the question will be maturely considered by my successor, and that he will take care no sinister private interest shall prevail over or defeat a great public good. One of the peculiar difficulties against which this Government has to struggle is the enormous influence wielded by the great and opulent commercial houses, against whose power and in opposition to whose personal views it is hard to contend.

33. The provisional manner in which the place of Colonial Chaplain has been frequently but necessarily filled has been a subject of just complaint from the Bishop. I hope it will be obviated in future. I concur in the deserved compliments which the Colonial Secretary pays to the value of Mr. Beach's services during the absence of Mr. Irwin.

34. The outward appearance, discipline, and general efficiency of the police have greatly improved during the past year; and the complaints under this head which for- merly were frequently addressed to the Government are now much diminished in number. Considering the indifferent materials from which the selection must necessarily be made, the present state of the corps is satisfactory and creditable to Mr. May.

35. I have referred elsewhere to the services of Mr. Caldwell; they have been so many and great, and he has been so cruelly and unjustly persecuted, that I should be glad if some mark of the favourable opinion of Her Majesty's Government, as to the value of those services, were conferred upon him; and I beg to call to your attention the honourable testimony borne to his deservings in a Despatch from the Admiral, on leaving this station, copy of which is forwarded by this mail. Mr. Caldwell has several times intimated to me his wish to quit the public service in the colony, his reputation having been so severely attacked and his influence damaged by Mr. Anstey; these attacks still finding echoes in our infamous public press. I cannot but say that the loss of Mr. Cald- well would be irreparable. I have used my personal solicitations to detain him here.

   36. I have, in an earlier part of this report, referred to the question of the removal of the gaol, concurring with the opinion of the Colonial Secretary, that the present site should not be abandoned. There will be the means of enlargement, and to some extent of classification, and though there is much to be desired in the way of change, there have been notable improvements in gaol managements during the last two years to which I can bear personal testimony.

   37. The Acting Colonial Surgeon's Report makes suggestions to which becoming atten- tion will no doubt be paid. He is quite right in stating that the registers of deaths, and the same may be said of births and marriages, are in an unsatisfactory state.

                                             I had some conversation with the Bishop on the subject, and he assured me he was by no means contented with the existing state of things, and the attention of Mr. Austey, while Attorney General, was called to the matter. do not know whether the returns kept by ministers of the Church of England, either in this colony or in China, are sent to the Registrar General in London, as the Consular Records are. I believe not; nor in the case of catholic or dissenting registers does any proper machinery exist, as far as I am aware, for reporting the statistics of birth, marriages, and mortality, to the metropolis. A question was sometime ago submitted to the law authorities at home, as to the validity of protestant marriages celebrated at Macao; the question was left in so uncertain a state that many of Her Majesty's subjects, who had been married at Macao, have thought it. prudent to be re-married in Hong Kong. As the Legislative Council of Hong Kong is charged with law-making for British subjects in China, and as no doubt the late treaties will necessitate the transfer of that power to some other authority, I hope steps will be taken to secure accurate records from the clergy of the Church of England in the various ports of China, which probably the Bishop of Victoria would not be unwilling to transmit to the proper authorities in England.

38. It may be stated, notwithstanding the mortality of the past year, which I deem exceptional, that there is a progressive melioration in the sanitary state of the colony. Chinese habits are difficult to change or even to modify, but there is no comparison between the general cleanliness of Hong Kong and that of any Chinese city which I have ever visited. I would add, that in Eastern regions generally there are few cities so free from nuisances in the parts occupied by the native population. Comparisons between the well-governed towns of Great Britain and the crowded parts of Oriental regions are scarcely just to those who have immense difficulties to overcome; but the present state of Hong Kong may be advantageously contrasted with that of many localities as they existed in England a generation or two ago.

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  39. The progress of education has been satisfactory. We owe much to the zeal and aptitude of Mr. Lobscheid, the school inspector. The Government has given every encouragement to public instruction, and instead of 9157. voted for the service of 1858, has allotted 1,500/. for the present year.

  40. I have so often expressed an opinion as to the inconvenience and absurdity of making the sovereign the standard of exchange in a country where gold is no legal tender, and of maintaining an accountancy in pounds sterling and pence in a colony where not a merchant, shopkeeper, or individual has any transaction except in dollars and cents, that it would be wearisome and intrusive to repeat what I have so urgently put forward. As regards the diplomatic service now provided for by the colonial chest, the removal of the Superintendency from Hong Kong will necessitate a change of system, and after the strong representations that have been made to the Government, I trust the colony will be allowed to keep its accounts, as everybody but the Commissariat and the Government keeps them, in the only currency that is recognized by the usages of the place.

  41. I am informed that it is intended to enlarge the dimensions of the dock at Aberdeen, and that it will be competent to receive the largest frigates which come to these waters. The works are constructed of granite and admirably efficient.

42. The elevation of the water springs at Pokfoolum being considerably above that of Victoria, the supply of water abundant, and the distance not more than four miles, I am of opinion with the Colonial Secretary, that this locality presents many advantages for furnishing water for the city; but as I have before reverted to the subject in this report, I would add that I cannot come to a satisfactory conclusion in the existing divergence of opinion, as to the course best to be pursued. I have only to recommend a thorough inves- tigation of the matter. Meanwhile, I am happy to say that the number of fire engines in the colony belonging to Europeans and Chinese is considerable, and that a little improvement in the organization of the service attending in cases of fire, would greatly add to the public security. No part of the city is far from the sea, and this advantage ought to be made more available than it has hitherto been.

  43. My views as to the desirableness of adding the small peninsula opposite Hong Kong to the colony, it will have been seen, are in perfect accordance with Mr. Mercer's. It will not, I fear, be so easy now to negotiate for its transfer as it would have been some months ago when we obtained land for the Wampoa consulate; but I am strongly of opinion the sooner the question is discussed with the Chinese authorities the greater is the chance of a favourable solution.

"C

  44. I need not go over the ground pre-occupied by Mr. Mercer in reference to the effect which the extension of trade with China will have upon the colony of Hong Kong. I believe that extension will add to its prosperity as a commercial depôt, and to its value as a territorial possession. Never had a colony to contend against a greater amount of prejudice, ignorance, and misrepresentation. If having "a bad name" could have ruined it its perdition was inevitable, but who can withstand the testimony of facts and figures- facts in figures I might say. Hong Kong is the seat and the centre, the directing and controlling place, round which the vast commerce of the China seas is gathered. Here are the heads of the great houses, the merchant princes of the east; from hence the instructions emanate which govern the proceedings of all the ports in China. Here are the principal banking establishments; liere may be said to be the intelligence and the concentrated wealth of the largest commercial establishments in the Oriental world. If Hong Kong be but a barren and unhealthy rock," it has directed millions upon millions to the Imperial and Indian treasuries, through immense disadvantages, contrarieties, and an "unworthy reputation;" it has made its way to a commercial position, of which a few years ago nobody dreamed. On every side fine houses are rising, hills are being levelled, valleys filled, ground recovered from the sea. I have had occasion to hear the opinion of almost every foreign traveller who for years has visited the colony; and while they have looked on the shipping, traversed the streets, and witnessed the general activity of the population, I have seldom heard anything but expressions of wonder and admiration, with the frequent addition, "You, indeed, know how to colonize!" How few harbours in the world can boast as Hong Kong can of an average daily entrance of 2,000 tons of mercantile shipping. In how few has there been so rapid an increase of foreign population, seeking the protection of our laws and the participation in our commerce! Such progress, such prosperity, such prospects, are the best answer to all misrepresenta- tions, whatever be their origin, their motive, or their circulation.

  45. The far greater question, as to the influence which may hereafter result from the Russian movements down the Amoor, their settlements on the coast of Tartary, their position at the Court of Peking would open the field to far graver considerations

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than I can here venture to discuss; nor ought the vast extension of the territory of the United States and the wonderful augmentation of the population and commerce in North-western America to be lost sight of in anticipating and providing against future contingencies.

+

46. I conclude with the consciousness that in surrendering the important trust confided to me by Her Gracious Majesty, after trials and perils of no common character; neither the public interests nor the honour of the Crown have suffered while confided to my keeping, and in the humble hope that such will be the view of Her Majesty's Government.

I have, &c.

JOHN BOWRING.

The Right Hon. Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, Bart. M.P., (Signed)

&c.

&c.

Enclosure 1. in No. 18.

Sin,

REPORT OF THE Colonial SECRETARY ON THE BLUE Book for 1858.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

8th March 1859.

    The last Return having this day reached me, I am enabled to lay before your Excellency the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1858.

   2. I must remind your Excellency that I was absent on leave from the colony until the end of November, and, consequently, have not had an oppurtunity of personally watching the progress of events during the year in question.

   3. I base my remarks, therefore, on the returns themselves, iny own lengthened experience of Hong Kong, and such information as I have obtained in casual conversations with Mr. Bridges, who, during my absence in England, discharged so efficiently the duties of my department.

   4. It will be seen that the revenue for 1858 is 62,4767. 9s. 8jd., being a net increase of 3,6347. 7s. 1ịu. over that for the previous year, while the expenditure in 1858 has been 62,9791. Ss. 12d., or 2,5187. 11s. 51d. less than in 1857. This result is so far satisfactory on both sides of the account.

   5. Of the public works I am happy to say that the orders of the Secretary of State are being now carried out, that tenders have been invited for extending the gaol, and that at the end of the current month a new and commodious civil hospital will be provided.

6. The principal points in the legislation of the year are the regulation of the sale of opium by Ordinance No. 2, the organization of a new market system under Ordinance No. 9, and the control of vessels carrying Chinese emigrants by Ordinance No. 13.

   7. The total number of ordinances passed during the year is 15, of which, though none have been disallowed, only 10 have as yet received the confirmation of Her Majesty.

   8. The Market Ordinance it will, I think, be necessary to revise, as there are defects in the working of it, and I may remark, that if it was intended to cheapen provisions, it has failed in its object, for all the necessaries of life are at ruinous prices. I hope that this subject will again receive the attention of the Legislature.

9. The Legislative Council has been remodelled, and will, I have no doubt, prove a most useful body; but I fear that it oversteps its proper functions at times, occupying itself with matters having no concern with legislation, and trenching on the powers of the executive. This, if unchecked, will sooner or later be found a scrious evil.

10. Coming in succession to the Civil Department, I have first to note the satisfactory measure by which a severance was effected between the two offices of Colonial Secretary and Auditor General, for it was simply impossible that one person could conduct with efficiency the duties of both.

11. The Colonial Treasury has been carried on with aid from the Commissariat, but as this was never intended as a permanent arrangement, I think it right to suggest to your Excellency the necessity of putting that department on a proper footing.

12. The Harbour Master is much in want of suitable accommodation for his department, and I strougly advise the completion of the building commenced for this service over two years ago.

   13. In noticing the recent return of the Colonial Chaplain, I take the opportunity of mentioning that among the community I hear but one opinion of the very satisfactory way in which the duties of that office have been discharged during Mr. Irwin's absence, by the Rev. Mr. Beach.

   14. The Police of the colony is in better form than I have ever seen it, and considering what I learn to have been the troubled and hazardous condition of the colony during certain periods of the past year, I look upon Messrs. May and Caldwell as entitled to great credit for the activity and zeal shown by them in their respective posts.

   15. The gaol has, I have already said, been commenced upon for extension, and I wish to state my objection to the scheme at one tine proposed, whereby a second gaol was to be built elsewhere.

u

16. This measure would entail a double establishment and an increased expenditure, while it is most important to bear in mind the fact that the present site is the healthiest in the island, a matter of no little consequence when a crowded gaol is the subject of our consideration.

;

17. In due time the enlargement of the gaol will render possible the proper classification of prisoners. 18. The Registrar General has given 75,003 as the population of the island; but I am greatly inclined to question the accuracy of this return, it is less than last year's by some 1,600, and only about 4,000 over that for 1856. It is most evident to me that the crowds in the houses and streets are far more numerous than I have ever yet seen them at any period since the census was first taken.

1

19. The outlying villages may have diminished in population, for the Colonial Surgeon's Report makes mention of an estimated number of 1,400 falling victims to cholera in Aberdeen alone, but as the main contributor to the Census Return is the city of Victoria, I look to the districts of this city for

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

257

119

verification of my own opinion, and in this opinion, if I mistake not, I am supported by you Excellency.

20. Appended to the Registrar General's Returns will be found 1st, the Military Mortality for the year, and 2ndly, the Colonial Surgeon's Report.

21. As regards the mortality in the garrison, though 6.52 per cent. is an increase on 5.60 of the preceding year, yet keeping in view the severe summer and the hard work endured by the soldiery during 1858, it does not show any great cause for anxiety, for the per-centage was 4.62 in a year of almost perfect quietude (1856), and the present slightly increased rate falls into insignificance before the 17.89 per cent of 1850, or the still more disastrous times, now long past, of 1843 and 1844, in which latter year the mortality was over 35 per cent.

  22. The death of Dr. Harland, a serious public loss, occurred during the year; ne is the fourth colonial surgeon whom I have seen fall a victim to the climate.

23. His temporary successor has given a very creditable report considering his short tenure

of oflice.

  24. The statistics suggested by Dr. Chaldecott might, I imagine, be procured, and the point is one worth consideration, but it must not be inferred from Dr. Chaldecott's words that no register of deaths is preserved.

  25. There might be some difficulty in ascertaining particulars of disease, but record is made of all deaths occurring amongst the European community.

  26. Dr. Chaldecott mentions two discases as of novel appearance in the colony, and a knowledge of Hong Kong for nearly 15 years enables me to confirm his statement, that cholera and hydrophobia were never known here before.

  27. Of the latter malady, the Acting Colonial Surgeon says little beyond registering the fact of its appearance, and I presume he is right in attributing cholera to the filthy state of the native parts of

the town.

:

  28. This is a point which has long engaged the attention of the Government, and though our efforts have been sometimes unworthily opposed, and sometimes even frustrated, I perceive much improvement in the general cleanliness of Victoria.

  29. Still in a crowded city like this, with an oriental population, it is vain to expect freedom from muisances such as are complained of.

  30. The various suggestions of the Acting Colonial Surgeon will of course receive due consideration, and I observe nothing more in his report requiring special observation.

31. This report, however, establishes the fact which I have never heard disputed that the past summer has been unusually unhealthy.

32. Your Excellency will be happy to see that education has made some progress in the Chinese community, and considerable interest is attached to the Report of the Education Committee, which, by your Excellency's direction has been already published in the Government Gazette for general information.

33. On the subject of the specie circulation of the colony, the members of the Executive Council have recently given their individual opinions, and these are now before the Secretary of State for the colonies.

34. Concerning imports and exports I have but to repeat what has been stated in former years, that the judicious absence of a Custom House renders it impossible to give a return of these.

35. But a reference to the Harbour Master's Tables is very satisfactory, showing an increase in the tonnage arrived in port of 175,413 tons.

  36. Of the gaol I have already spoken, and in the Blue Book will be found the fullest particulars connected with the conduct of it.

  37. It remains for me to notice the dock in course of erection by Mr. Lamont at Aberdeen, a most important work, and one that will have much influence on the future of the colony. It will not, I believe, be opened for use before the next autumn, but when ready it will prove of great service to Her Majesty's navy, and the mercantile shipping resorting to the port.

  38. When the road between Victoria and Aberdeen shall have been widened and completed, I calculate upon a rise in the value of portions of the land on either side, especially in the neighbourhood of Pokfoolum, where building is now commenced on one or more of the farin lots sold there in June 1856.

39. I may here mention one public work of the very highest consequence which is under considera- tion-the water-works. The paucity of hill streams on this side of the island renders the procural of a suflicient water supply for the city a matter of extreme difficulty. In the winter or dry season this want is severely felt by all classes of the community, and it is in this very season that conflagrations occur among the Chinese houses, when water in readiness and abundance is a demand of necessity.

40. In my opinion the best plan is to lead the water from Pokfoolum, round the side of the hill, attracting the smaller rivulets in the course; but I make this suggestion with diffidence, as I know that professional engineers are not agreed as to the proper mode to be adopted.

41. An early decision must be come to, as this is the most important work that presses on the attention of the Government.

42. I cannot refrain from bringing to notice the trouble, inconvenience, and even danger that arises from the growth of a village at Tecm-cha-tsoy on the Kowloong shore. It has been raised by pirates, resetters, and vagabonds of every kind; and being within ten minutes sail of Victoria, it affords an casy refuge to criminals wishing to fly from justice.

43. It is of course on Chinese territory, but the Kowloong mandarin exercises no jurisdiction over it, and the evil will continue until a part of the Kowloong Peninsula shall become a dependency of this colony, a measure I would strongly advocate, and about which I cannot foresee much difliculty.

44. I

may point out in support of this suggestion, that the Kowloong shore forms the northern side of Hong Kong-harbour, and it may be made a question with foreign nations whether a foreign vessel anchored on that side of the harbour is amenable to the laws of this colony.

258

120

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

   45. And now, sir, in concluding this report, I hope I am not going beyond my duty in making some remarks on the political position of Hong Kong, and the erroneous notions concerning it, that I observe sedulously presented to the public at home.

   46. In an article in the "Times" newspaper (17th December 1858) are to be found misrepresenta- tions which the most ordinary local knowledge is sufficient to correct.

   41. We are told that "Iong Kong feels itself humiliated and displaced by the opening up of China," and that "all the success, whether of arms or of diplomacy, which is so valuable to the rest of the "world, and so important to the great interests of humanity, is rather carped at than celebrated," here... It is further stated that the cause is to be traced to the "natural tendency" of the 'long_Kong merchants "towards their own interests."

   45. Now this proposition is entirely incorrect, and I presume it to be femíded, if it have any founda- tion, on the worthless remarks of the colonial newspapers, to which--little regard, save for party purposes, is ever given by any one.

   49. But the allegation of the cause is based on a thorough misconception of the character and position of the Hong Kong merchants. The writer evidently assumes that the merchants here resident have no connection with the ports of China or beyond the colony, whereas this may be said to a certain extent only of the storekeeping and small trading interests.

50. It is a fact that of all the leading firms in China there is hardly one that for the last fow years has not found it necessary to have at least its agency in this place, and at the present moment a large majority of the principal houses have established here their head quarters, and from this port all their commercial operations with China and elsewhere are regulated and directed.

   51. The head partners of the houses reside in Hong Kong, and their subordinates carry on the business at Shanghai and the other ports under instructions from this centre; hi like manner the banks have their chief manager here, and their sub-branches elsewhere on the coast.

•.

   52. Surely if in a distant part of his estate a landed proprietor shall discover a valuable mine, the worth of his mansion house is not diminished but increased thereby; and as he must have some position from which to manage the affairs of his whole property, he will hardly think it expedient to abandon his house, ready made to his hand, and fix is abode in a locality, which for purposes of general management is, to say the least, not a whit more convenient.

   53. If a new colony were founded by us in these seas (and of this there is no rumour, and, I may add, · for it no necessity), it might in time be a greater place than an "insalubrious rock" like Hong Kong; but it is absurd to say that a British colony with British institutions situated on the seaboard of China is not of more assistance to "the policy of civilization" and the highest interests of commerce than any single port in the China waters, the mercantile transactions with which, however extensive they may be, the chief foreign merchants have decided to conduct from the old established rendezvous and starting point of postal communication.

54. As to the assertion that "Hong Kong has grown into whatever importance it may at present possess from its proximity to the single privileged port of Canton," the truth lies precisely in the contrary direction, and any China merchant knows that the less trade thrives in Canton, the more will it prosper here. Cauton's difficulty was Hong Kong's opportunity, and on the burning of the factories in November 1856, and the consequent withdrawal of the foreign merchants from that port, a trade sprung up in this harbour, which has continued ever since, but was altogether unknown, so long as Canton flourished.

55. I am afraid that the only true blot hit by the writer to whom I am referring lies in our "half-a- dozen newspapers," for it is not to be denied that the senseless and shameless scurrility of the Hong Kong press is a reproach to the colony, and a discredit to the community who encourage it by their support, though they may be free from the imputation` of directly inciting it by their approval.

!

56. I do not imagine that the political importance of Hong Kong in another aspect has escaped the notice of Her Majesty's Government; but, while on the subject, I may say a few words on the following

                                       Ι point: The Russians have now firmly established their colonial settlements at the mouth of the Amoor River and elsewhere in Tartary. In due time a naval depôt, and doubtless on a large scale, will be found there. This will exercise its influence all along the coast of China.

57. How shall such influence be counteracted? It has been answered that the new colony of British Columbia has been fostered with this view; but though the prestige of that settlement inay be felt on the Eastern waters of the North Pacific, it will be unknown on the Asiatic side; and even could it be recognized there, it must be borne in mind that British Columbia is 5,000 miles from the nearest station of the great China trade, while Hong Kong, with its long organized naval yard; and its convenient dock, is within casy distance of most of the Chinese ports, and not more than 1,000 miles from the port furthest north, and nearest the Amoor, which is again equally distant from the same port, and further than Hong Kong from the others.

58. I hold it then for certain, that we must have and retain a colony on the China coast; we have one and there is no occasion for another; many considerations point to the inexpediency of another; let us then make the most of what we have, and not become chargeable with the folly of crying down the utility or under-rating the importance of Hongkong on the groundless supposition that the colony will be displaced by the opening up of China," or the still more fanciful idea that it will be found "inimical to the policy of civilization."

59. I have only to add that the remarks I have just offered to your Excellency's notice are made in entire ignorance of the intentions of the Secretary of State for the colonies with regard to Hong Kong and its future government, which will probably be known to us in the course of the ensuing month.

His Excellency Sir John Bowring,

&c.

&c.

&c.

have, &c. (Signed) W. T. MERCER,

Colonial Secretary.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

Enclosure 2. in No. 18.

THE COLONIAL SURGEON'S REPORT For 1858.

259

121

                        Civil Hospital, Victoria, 3rd March 1859. The universally lamented and untimely death of my friend, the late Colonial Surgeon, has imposed upon ine the duty of making this report, a duty which will be but very imperfectly fulfilled on account of the short period I have held the office, and in consequence of my time having been so fully occupied, in the practice of my profession and other duties.

  I would call the attention of the Government to the fact, that one most important source of informa- tion which would make the Colonial Surgeon's Report of much more value that it is at present, is entirely wanting to him. There is no proper registration of deaths in this colony, and therefore when it is asked what per-centage of the inhabitants of this island die from climatic diseases, and what form do these diseases assume, only a general and imperfect answer can be given. And yet it is of great importance that this answer should be as perfect and comprehensive as possible, for it is daily more and more satisfactorily proved that a very great proportion of the diseases to which men fell victims are owing to causes which are entirely preventable by human means, and which only need to be made evident.in order that they may be got rid of.

I would subunit that it is highly desirable, and at the same time very feasible, that the same system of registration of deaths should be established here as is in use in England, and that interment of the body should not be allowed to take place until the sexton has received a proper form of certificate of death, filled up and signed by the medical attendant of the deceased.

Of course this should not be insisted upon in the case of the Chinese, nor perhaps in that of the Portuguese inhabitants of the colony, as all the former and many of the latter are not attended by duly qualified medical men, and those who do attend them would not be able to fill up the certificates in a satisfactory manner.

Were the registration of the causes of death properly carried out, we should in a few years be in possession of a body of statistics which might prove of the greatest value.

That the sanitary condition of this colony stands in great need of improvement has been more than once pointed out in previous Colonial Surgeons' Reports; but I ain moved to insist upon this necessity the more pressingly in the present report, in consequence of the colony having been visited during the year by one of the most terrible of those "preventable diseases," whose ravages, if not entirely owing to, are at least most fearfully aggravated and extended by neglect of proper drainage and cleanliness, the evil results of which must act with double force in a community so crowded together as that of Victoria, and in a climate so favourable to the decomposition of animal and vegetable products.

I am happy to learn that steps are to be taken to remedy the defects at present existing. Previously to last autumn, no well authenticated case of cholera was recorded to have happened in Hong Kong, and so confident were the medical practitioners of the immunity of the place, that it was at first thought by them that the cases of the disease at first reported were in fact merely severe cases of diarrhoea. But it soon became only too evident that the disease amongst us was the truc Asiatic cholera, for no single symptom was wanting, and it destroyed its victims in an equally short space of time.

As was to be predicted of it, the disease first attacked the worst lodged and worst fed part of the community, the Chinese, then some Indian servants, and then the European scamen both on shore and afloat, and at the same time some of the soldiers of the garrison and the prisoners in the gaol. Finally, in three cases it attacked the higher class of European inhabitants of the colony, and in one of these cases proved fatal.

At the same time the Portuguese in Macao suffered severely from the disease, and cases occurred in the forces at Canton and in some of the men-of-war in the river.

The disease afterwards visited the east coast, reached Shanghae, and it is also reported raged with great virulence over a great part of the Japanese empire.

What per-centage of the Chinese population of Hong Kong was attacked by the disease, and what pro- portion of those attacked died, it has been impossible to ascertain. It is well known, however, that a very considerable number were carried off by it. For instance, it was reported that as many as 1,400 were destroyed by the disease at Aberdeen.

The late Colonial Surgeon attempted to procure information about the disease from the Chinese medical practitioners of the place, and many reports were sent in to him; but these, except that they prove that the disease was wide spread, are comparatively valueless. Some boast of having saved two-thirds and others three-fourths of their patients; but in these numbers most probably mauý cases of tire simple diarrhea which accompanies cholera, and is supposed to be its first stage, was -doubtless included.

The remedies they advise for it are numerous, but they are all derived from the vegetable kingdom, and not likely to prove beneficial.

 Their disquisitions as to the nature and cause of the disease are as vague and unsatisfactory as those of their European brethren.

 The following is an approximate estimate of the number of cases of cholera which occurred among the white population afloat and ashore :-

CASES OF CHOLERA Asiatic, OCCURRING IN VICTORIA IN 1858.

Localities.

Cases.

Deaths.

Military Hospital

29

Naval IIospital

7

Civil Hospital

13

Gaol

3

Seamen's Hospital, St. Francis' Hospital, and private patients

23

1420

5

Total

75

34

Mortality, 15.93.

260

122

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941 REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

  With regard to the beneficial effects of treatment in these cases much cannot be said. One practice which was adopted by the late Colonial Surgeon, and which in several cases appeared to have a most marked and decided beneficial effect, was the early application of the solid nitrate of silver, so as to make a circular blister about four inches in diameter over the pit of the stomach.

  In the cases which came under my observation, this plan, even when adopted at a too advanced period of the disease, never failed to check the vomiting and to prolong life, though it did not always succeed in saving it. I consider the treatment well worthy of a inore extended trial.

+

  Hydrophobia, another disease heretofore unknown in the colony, also made its appearance during the past year. In one case the attack came on six weeks to a day after the infliction of the bite, and proved fatal in a few hours. Another man, who was bitten by the same dog, fell a victim to the disease in the commencement of the present year, the first symptom showing itself ten months after the bite. In this instance an attempt at suicide was made, which shortened the patient's sufferings by a few hours.

  The climatic diseases usually prevalent in the colony were of their ordinary character, with the exception of fever, which was somewhat more prevalent than usual, and manifested a tendency in many cases to put on a typhoid form, with imperfect intermissions.

  In the autumn of the year a number of cases of phagedaenic ulcers of the leg and foot, of a most obstinate and formidable character, occurred amongst the Chinese prisoners in the gaol, and in two or three instances also attacked the Europeans.

  An extensive trial of the prophylactic virtue of quinine wine (a dose being given the first thing every morning), was made in the garrison at Canton, and the reports of the different medical officers bore evidence to its very great utility and benefit.

  I would strongly recommend that a similar plan be adopted with those constables who are sent to the out-lying stations on the island, such as Aberdeen, Stanley, Sow-ke-wan, and Siwan, for I have noted, not only since I have been Acting Colonial Surgeon, but also in former years, that the worst and most obstinate cases of fever and dysentery arise among the men placed at these out stations; and I believe it to be a fact that, if their stay be at all prolonged at either of these stations, scarcely ouè escapes altogether the ill effects of the malaria.

These cases of disease might, I believe, be almost entirely avoided if the Superintendent of Police were to insist that the constables stationed at these places should take every morning a dose, either of quinine mixture or of quinine wine.

  The experiment of establishing a sanatarium on Victoria Peak, recommended some years ago by the late Dr. Morrison, then Colonial Surgeon, has again been agitated during the past year, and, I believe, stands a fair chance of being put to the proof, both by the military authorities and by private enterprise. I believe that the difference of temperature would tell very favourably in many of the diseases which occur here.

I shall conclude this report with the following Statistical Tables having reference to the Gaol, the Civil Hospital, the Seamen's Hospital, the Police Force, and the state of the weather during the year:

Victoria GaÓL.

The following Table shows the Number of Cases and Mortality under cach Disease

during the Year 1858:-

Disease.

Cases.

Deaths.

Discase.

Cases.

Deatlis.

Abcess

Amentia

2

Brought over

91

18

Berri Berri

16

Icterus Hernia

1.

Bronchitis

3

Ophthalmia

Cholera

Colica

Constipatio

Contusio

3

Ouchitis

2

Phagedaenic Ulcers

27

Phthisis

.1

Pneumonia

3

Diarrhea

15

Kheumatism

11

Dysentery

7

Syphilis, primary

22

Epilepsy

Syphilis, secondary

Febris Intermittens

22

Scabies

-

4

Febris Remittens

Wounds, gunshot

.2

Hæmatemesis

Hæmorrhoids

Wounds, incised Dyspepsia

1

Hæmoptysis

Carried over 91

18

Total

163

23

Mortality, 13.69.

Table showing Rate of Sickness and Mortality in the Victoria Gaol,

during the Year 1858 :-

Average Strength,

Total Sick. Total Deaths.]

Rate of Sickness.

Rate of Mortality.

266

163

23

61.27 per cent.

8.64

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

THE CIVIL HOSPITAL.

The following Tablo shows the Number of Cases and the Mortality under cach Discaso

during the Year 1858:-

261

123

Disease.

Cases. Deaths.

Abscess

Amputations

Anasarca

Apoplexia

Ascites

Bronchitis

Burns

Cholera Asiatica

14

·AGGIONA

1

2

3

5

Colica

21

Constipatio

15

Contusio

11

Delirium tremens

6

Diarrhea

32

Diplopia

1

Dysenteria

19

Dyspepsia

1

Febris intermittens

108

Febris remittens

22

Fistula in Ano

Fractura

3

Gonorrhea

11

Granular conjunctiva

Carried over

319

119-2-10 | | | | 8 | 2

Diseasc.

Cases. Deaths.

Brought forward

319

70

-

Hepatitis Hæmoptysis

1

2

Hæmorrhoids

Heart disease

Icterus

Lapra

1

G

Mania

Orchitis Phthisis Pneumonia

Psora

Rheumatism

Stricture of Urethra

1

23

Syphilis, primary

32

1

Syphilis, secondary

8

3

21

Ulcers

22

5_

Vertigo

Variola

5

Wounds, gunshot

9

Wounds, incised

70

Total

4.50

80

Mortality, 17.88 per cent.

  The apparently heavy mortality in this hospital is owing to the number of deaths entered under the heads of "Dysentery," and "Intermittent and Remittent Fever," and "Diarrhea." A very large majority of the fatal cases under these heads were destitute Chinese and Indians, who had been picked up by the police in a moribund condition, and were only brought up to the hospital to die.

THE SEAMEN'S HOSPITAL.

The following Table shows the Number of Cases and Mortality under each Disease during the

Year 1858:-

Amputation

Discase.

Berri Barri

Cholera Asiatica

Colica

Contusions

Debility

Delirium tremens

Diarrhea

Dislocation

Cases. Deaths.

Dysentery

64.

Febris intermittens

51

Febris remittens

1

Fractures

6

Gastritis

Gonorrhoea

| | = | | -~ |-* | | | -8

Hepatitis

7

Hernia

3

Heart Disease

3

Carried over

165

39

Discase.

Cases.

Deaths.

Brought forward

G

165

39

Ophthalmia Orchitis

Paralysis Phthisis

Pneumonia Rheumatism Scorbutus

Spinal Disease

Stricture of Urethra

2

Syphilis, primary

38

Syphilis, secondary

Ulcers Variola

7

11

12

Wounds, gunshot

2

Wounds, incisel

Other diseases

7

Mortality 16 per cent.

Total

288

48

262

124

January

February March

April

May. June

July August

September

October

November

December

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

THE POLICE.

Table showing the Admissions into Hospital and Deaths during the Year 1858.

European. Indian.

Month.

Chinese.

Admis-

Deaths

sions.

Admis sions.

Deaths

Admis- sions.

[Deaths]

Total Admissions.] Deaths.

Total

25

1

88331GJAGOAN

Totals

51

......... | | | - | ~

FUT-1

10

13 14

32

27

18

RATORER

5 --oral-el

20

2 198

4

13

Table showing Rate of Sickness and Mortality in the Hong Kong Police Force in the Year.1858:-

Strength.

Total Sick. Total Deaths.

Rate of Sickness.

Rate of

Mortality.

279

257

7

92.11 per cent.

2.50

per cent.

28

8

12

16

17

24.

38

3.1

26

21

14

21

257

7

METEOROLOGIcal Table.

Showing the range of the Thermometer and Barometer, Direction of the Wind, Rain fall, &c.

Weather,

Thermometer,

Barometer,

Month,

Wind.

Max.

Med. Min. Max. Med. Min.

January

February

Marchi

April

May

June

*28228

GG

67

63

75

80

81

86

322383

57

G7

59

71

GG

75

363933

50 29.94 29 89 29.83 29.95 29.90 29.86 29*85 29 77 29.75

N. E. & E.

E. & N.E.

79 29-61 | 29:57|29.54

**2*88

RP2383

July

91

84

79

August

01

84

78

September

90

83

+2

October

82

78

69

1

    November December

77

GG

GO

72

65

59

E.N.E. | 29*82 | 29*77 | 29.73

E.S.E. 29.70 29.66|29.64| E.-S.W.L_S.E.

S.W.-S.E.

29 07 29 83 | 29.70 SW.-S.E.

Rain 15 days, 2-80 inches ; only a few fine days, Rain 0:28, 5 slight showers.

Rain 18 days, 3·69 inches; overcast.

Rain 6 days, 0-71 inches; generally fine.

Rain 22 days, 15:45 inches; a few fine days. Rain 19 days; 27·91 inches; heavy thunder from 22d to 25th-18:50 inches rain fell in three days; latter part five.

Rain 21 days, 6-37 inches.

| 29*94 | 29°69 | 29.57 | S. W.-S.S.W.-S.E.| Rain 17 days, 12:07 inches.

30 12 29·80 | 29.67 S.W.-S. E.-N.E.

Rain 16 days, 5'42 inches.

| 29-92 | 29×70 | 29.64| S,W,-E.-N.E. | Rain 0:54, clear, fine.

| 30*09 | 29-91|29,79|NE.-SW.-E.N.E.| Rain 0·15.

| 30·00 | 29*87 29.75 E.N.E.-N.W. Rain 014; several days cloudy, overcast,

I have to add a few observations with regard to the Central Police Station, the Civil Hospital, and the Gaol.

The drainage of the Central Police Station is in a very unsatisfactory state, and requires immediate amendment. It seems that the station is entirely surrounded by a drain which has not a suflicient fall into the sewer, and that the contents of two privies pass into this drain, and must remain there for a considerable time.

   Such an arrangement cannot but be injurious to the health of the many persons who inhabit the station, and I have myself in the summer several times noticed a most offensive cfiluvium to arise from it.

The Superintendent of Police has, I believe, called the attention of the Surveyor General to the

matter.

   I need not dilate upon the necessity which exists for the enlargement of the present Gaol, and the improvement of the hospital accommodation therein, as the Government is fully alive to it, and has already appropriated funds for the purpose.

A large and commodious house situate at West Point, on a site which, as far as sanitary matters are concerned, is unobjectionable, has been purchased by the Government for a Civil Hospital. On the fitness of the building for this purpose I cannot now report, as its former owners have not as yet

vacated it.

T. A. CualdecOTT,

Acting Colonial Surgeon.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

263

125

No. 35.

Enclosure 3. in No. 18.

GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION.

His Excellency the Governor is pleased to direct the publication of the following letter and return from the Superintendent of Police, în explanation of a portion of the Colonial Surgeon's Report, which appeared in the Government Gazette, of the 19th ultimo.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

No. 24.

8th April 1859.

By order,

W. T. MERCER,

Colonial Secretary.

SIN,

Police Department, Victoria, Hong Kong, 5th April 1859. I HAVE the honour to bring to your knowledge for the information of his Excellency the Governor, that perceiving from the Colonial Surgeon's Report for 1858, published in Government Gazette of the 19th ultimo, that the statistical returns referring to sickness and mortality in the police force of the colony did not clearly exhibit the actual amount of sickness as compared with strength of force, I wrote to the Acting Colonial Surgeon on the subject, enclosing a return compiled from the daily state of sick. The substance of my note was, that although his statistics were fully comprehended by him and myself, that they were likely to lead to erroneous conclusions by the casual observer; and that as the actual amount of sickness had been so remarkably small when the calibre of the force and its duties were considered, and more especially when placed in juxta-position with the amount of sickness in the military forces in the colony, that I considered it very desirable that the return should be clear and explicit. With this view I enclosed the return before alluded to, and begged that he would forward it with his remarks thereon, to the Honourable the Colonial Secretary, to be considered as an addendum to the yearly report before specified.

The Acting Colonial Surgeon replied to my note (of his note I enclose a copy), promising to comply with my request.

From a verbal communication with you, I ascertained that the return has not been forwarded; the cause I am assured being that the Acting Colonial Surgeon forgot the subject, having to occupy himself in making arrangements for his passage.to England by last mail.

I have, &c.

I have, therefore, the honour to lay the return before you for the information of his Excellency.

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

Honourable W. T. Mercer, Esq.,

Colonial Secrctary.

RETURN of MEN Sick during the year 1858, inclusive of trifling Cases not admitted into Hospital:-

Month,

No. of Men No. of Days

sick.

sick.

Remarks.

January February

March

April

30

21

17

May

Junc

July

43

August

September

October

31

November

December

32

8289-**

147

$9

89

20

126

130

Total average Strength of Force-279.

19

99

216

Total Mortality during Year-7.

39

276

40

269

188

24

227

264.

344

2,150

Showing an average of sick, as compared with average strength of force, of 5% per diem, or average daily ck of 2.6 per cent.

C. MAY, Superintendent of Police.

east view

INFORMATION SERVICES

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

HONG KONG.

149

265

No. 21.

COPY of DESPATCH from Governor Sir HERCULES G. R. ROBINSON to his Grace the Duke of NEWCASTLE.

(No. 86.)

MY LORD DUKE,

Government Offices, Victoria,

Hong Kong, July 3, 1860.

      I HAVE the honour to forward the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1859, together with a report on the contents of it, prepared by the Colonial Secretary.

2. The finances of the island are in a sound and satisfactory condition. The colony is self-supporting, and the present year commenced with an excess of assets over liabilities of nearly 43,000l. The ordinary revenue of the island, exclusive of the sale of Crown lands, may be estimated at 70,000l. It is derived chiefly from three sources:- 1st, rents of lands, houses, and markets; 2dly, licences, of which those for the sale of spirits and opium are the most remunerative; and, 3dly, a police and lighting rate, being a tax upon houses for the maintenance of the police throughout the island, and for lighting the city of Victoria. The ordinary expenditure, exclusive of public works, may be calculated at about 50,0007.; thus leaving about 20,0007. available each year for extraordinary expenditure and public works.

3. The only public works of any magnitude that now remain to be carried out are the new gaol, and the water supply for Victoria. The former is now being urged forward with all despatch, and the latter is to be commenced forthwith. The cost of these undertakings will amount together to about 60,000%, which will be met by the balance at present in hand, and by the annual surplus revenue, as the works will extend over several years.

   4. The Registrar General's returns which accompany the Blue Book afford much curious and interesting information in reference to the population, which on the 1st January last was estimated at-

Males Females

TOTAL

-

62,204 24,737

86,941

30,837

56,104

In boats In houses Total population 86,941

Of this number 30,837 were found to be living on the water in 3,786 boats, and the remainder, 56,104, on shore, in 4,261 houses, making a total of 8,047 teneinents. The population consists of Chinese and foreigners in the following Boats proportion :-

Ilouses

-

3,786 4,261

Total tenements

8,047

Chinese

Other than Chinese

$5,280 1,661

86,941

The other than Chinese are composed of--

Males.

Females.

Total.

European and American

755

279

1,031

Goa, Manilla, Indians, and others of mixed blood Aliens; chiefly seamen and temporary residents

453

24

477

150

150

1,358

303

1,661

In these returns the military stationed in the island, and the crews of the ships of war, and the merchant ships in the harbour, are not included.

The 4,261 houses are classified as-

European Chinese

-

724 3,537

and the European houses consist of 168 public buildings, and 561 private dwellings, shops, and offices.

" and

   The boat population of over 30,000 are put down as living chiefly in " sampans fish-boats, which together numbered 3,110 in the harbour and bays of Hong Kong on the 1st January last. This is a feature peculiarly Chinese; every boat of every grade

266

150

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

in China is a family roof, generally sheltering three and frequently four generations of human life, and how the amphibious occupants are sustained is a question which has long puzzled every foreign observer.

5. The Harbour Master's returns show that, exclusive of men-of-war, river steamers from Canton and Macao, and lorcas and junks from the various ports of China, 1,158 vessels, aggregating 626,536 tons, and belonging to 22 different nations, entered the harbour of Hong Kong during the past year.

  The growing importance of our harbour as a point of departure for emigrants is also deserving of notice. During the past year 35 vessels, aggregating 36,850 tons, and carrying 10,217 emigrants, of whom 593 were females, left this for the following places:-

17 vessels for Australia.

San Francisco. Demerara.

16. 2

 This emigration, it will be observed, with the exception of the two cargoes of contract labourers for Demerara, is composed altogether of persons who pay their own passages and emigrate at their own expense, showing that when the emigrants are free agents the securities provided by the terms of the "Chinese Passengers' Act" are duly appreciated. The provisions of this Statute would have rendered it impossible for the emigration of kidnapped coolies for Cuba, which has recently attracted so much attention, to have been conducted in any vessel from this port, or in a British vessel from any port in China. This traffic, which has reflected so much disgrace on all connected with it, has therefore been carried on under foreign flags, and chiefly from the Chinese ports of Shanghai, Swatow, and Whampoa, and from the Portuguese settlement of Macao.

6. Towards the close of last year a scheme of family emigration which up to that time had been considered an impossibility was successfully inaugurated by the despatch of the "Whirlwind" for Demerara, containing 311 male and 64 female emigrants, under contract for five years' service in that colony. This vessel was shortly afterwards followed by five others, containing 1,317 males and 269 females, making a total of 1,625 male and 333 female contract emigrants shipped from this port for Demerara up to the close of the season in April last. It is, I think, scarcely possible to overrate the importance of the success of this experiment, when viewed in its probable bearing upon the future of the British West Indies. The government of the neighbouring provinces, the two Kwangs, has now legalized emigration, and established regulations for the management of it. Family emigration has been proved to be practicable; a J when once the infamous coolie traffic shall have been suppressed, and the people acquire confidence in the promises made to them by the agents

h colonies, which they

will soon do, as favourable accounts have already been received from the first two batches sent to Demerara, I believe there will scarcely be any limit to the supply of labour which the West Indian planters may obtain from hence, of a class too far more suited to their requirements than any they have hitherto obtained, for the Chinese coolie is stronger and hardier than the Indian, and more steady, industrious, and frugal than the indolent and eccentric negro.

   7. This being a free port no means exist for obtaining precise information as to the growth of trade. But as our interests here are purely commercial, as every one, with the exception of public officers, is living either directly or indirectly upon the profits of trade, the increase of shipping and of population, the growth of both the foreign and native quarters of the town, and the enormous increase which has lately taken place in house rent and the value of land, all afford abundant evidence of the extension of commerce, and of the daily increasing importance of the place as an entrepôt for the trade of all nations.

8. As I only arrived in the colony towards the close of last year, I have not felt called upon to do more than merely glance at some of the most striking features presented in the returns now transmitted. Indeed Hong Kong is so totally unlike any other British dependency, and its position is in many respects so grotesquely anomalous, that I have felt some further experience of it to be absolutely essential before venturing upon any more detailed report of the condition and prospects of the colony.

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle,

&c.

&c.

&c.

I have, &c.

HERCULES G. R. ROBINSON.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

267

151

HONG KO

Enl, in No.

Enclosure in No. 21.

REPORT OF THE COLONIAL SECRETARY ON THE BLUE Book for 1859.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

May 26, 1860.

SIR,

In placing before your Excellency the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1859, I think it necessary to explain that the chief delay in its completion has been caused by the disorganization of the Harbour Master's department, to which I shall make subsequent and more

detailed reference.

   2. The shipping returns only reached me on the 12th ultimo, since which date I have been so fully occupied, that it has been only at uncertain intervals that I have found time to make the customary review of the affairs of the colony during the past year.

   3. In 1858 the revenue amounted to 63,7217. 8s. 5‡d, while in 1859 it reached 65,2251. 2s. 24d.; the increase or decrease in the several items is generally incidental, and in no case large, and the main increase may be attributed to the fees under Ordinance, No. 12. of 1857, which had not in 1958 been accounted for, an omission which as it originated in my absence in England I am unable to explain.

Revenu

   4. The expenditure which in 1858 was 63,5821. 4s. 101d. was 66,1097. 3s. 94d. in 1859. This is Expenditu shown chiefly in the purchase of a building for a civil hospital, and the temporary addition to the police force during the last summer.

   5. A considerable augmentation of the population is shown, to the extent of 11,433, being the Populati difference between 75,503 last year and 86,941 in 1859. On this head I must repeat what I said in my last report, and express my opinion that the population of Hong Kong is still considerably under estimated, though I admit the difficulty of arriving at a correct calculation.

   6. The European houses show an increase of 8, or 724 against 716, and the extravagance of house rent, which is still rising, will lead of necessity to further building of this kind, so far as our now limited space will permit.

   7. The Chinese houses arc increased by 261; and here I think it right to explain, lest the increase of the houses should not seem in ratio to that of the population, that a large portion of the population is housed on boats in the harbours.

8. But the fact is that our population has outgrown our means of accommodation, and the only remedy is the occupation of Kowloong on the opposite side of the harbour, where level ground and convenient water frontage will draw off the superabundance of people, invite settlers, and improve trade.

   9. The steps taken in this matter are well known to your Excellency, and were reported up to date in Colonel Caine's Despatch to the Colonial Office, No. 109. of 17th June last year. Since that date the state of our political relations with China has rendered it impossible to complete the transfer of the land, but with the sanction of his Excellency Mr. Bruce, Mr. Parkes has procured a lease of it from the Kwangtung Government, and Her Majesty's military forces are now encamped upon it.

10. These proceedings will be found reported in your Excellency's Despatch, No. 33, of 26th ultimɔ, and it is earnestly to be hoped that on the final settlement of our affairs in China the otherwise worthless Kowloong peninsula will be ceded to us, and incorporated with the colony of Hong Kong. Should this negotiation be overlooked, anarchy and confusion will, on the retirement of our troops, resume possession of the ground, public justice will be daily thwarted, and the Government of Hong Kong placed in a constant state of embarrassment.

Kowloon

Vessels.

11. There is not much to be inferred from the returns of square-rigged vessels entering the port, Square-rig as these show an increase in number but a decrease in tonnage; the fair conclusion being that the coasting trade has improved; but in a free port there is no documentary proof of this.

12. The Chinese or native trading craft show an increase of 337 in number over the previous year, while the native boat-building trade has risen some six or seven fold over 1858, and the number of fishing boats frequenting the bays and harbours of Hong Kong is estimated at 2,500, against 2,000 of the previous year.

   13. As for public works, the civil hospital has been purchased and refitted, the gaol extension has been commenced, as has been the reconstruction of the magistracy. New roads have been opened for the purpose of giving access to such building sites as seem eligible, the drainage of the city has been furthered, and the road to Aberdeen has been widened so as to render it passable for carriages.

14. In addition to this a large amount of minor services will be noticed.

Native Cr:

Boat-build

Trade.

Fishing B

Public We

Aberde

15. The Aberdeen road just mentioned leads to the important granite dock, a work of private enterprise, situated six miles from Victoria, and destined, when opened, as it shortly will be, to Dock. enhance the value of Hong Kong as a shipping and commercial station.

16. This structure is singularly solid and well executed, and I believe not to be equalled in the east. Mr. Lamont, long resident at East Point as a shipwright, is the owner, designer, and builder.

   17. In the last Blue Book Report reference was made to a system of waterworks that was much Waterwor desired. The necessity for this was seriously proved during the past year, the first half of which was remarkable for a continued drought; and it was not till 15th June, after eight months of dry weather, that the rains began to fall. There was much inconvenience and even suffering in consequence.

18. The waterworks, however, have not been lost sight of, and a practicable plan has been advertised for and accepted; but as the matter belongs more immediately to the present year than to the late, it is only necessary to note that this important work is in satisfactory progress.

268

HONGKONG.

Land Sales.

Civil

152

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

19. The land sales have not been numerous during the year, and require no special mention. Not much ground now remains available and of any value; and as I have already said, the Kowloong land is greatly wanted, not only for convenience, but it may be also said actually on the score of the health of the inhabitants of Victoria.

20. I now come to the state of the public departments, which one and all are very far from being Departments. efficiently conducted; and it is to be desired that Her Majesty's Government take into serious consi- deration the means of supplying a proper civil service to this colony, and thus giving the Governor that assistance without which the administration of the government can only be carried on under difficulty and discouragement.

Supreme Court.

Treasury.

Audit Office.

Magistracy.

Harbour-

master.

Legislation.

Education.

Crime.

Health.

Relations with

21. The Supreme Court is worked by an acting judge, an acting attorney general, an acting deputy registrar, and an acting clerk of court, while the registrar has been compelled to undertake important duties in addition to his own.

22. The treasurer's department has been put in a better footing during the year, and the services of commissariat officers have been dispensed with. It should be noted that after three years' service the treasurer is forced to return home.

23.. The audit office has been efficiently conducted, but the auditor general is compelled to leave the climate after two years' service.

24. At the magistracy the chief seat has been long vacant, and the holder of the second is absent on home leave. This, as will be seen from the returns, weakens the Supreme Court, and deprives the police force of its head.

25. The harbour-master's department has been the most unfortunate. The harbour-master is at home, and unlikely to recover his health so far as to resume his duties. The acting harbour-master who succeeded him died after a long illness. The naval officer who took his place, after a few weeks resigned for active service afloat, and the present acting harbour-master is only now restoring some order and regularity to a department which is one of the most important in the colonial govern- ment, but which has been long in a state of confusion, to which remedies have been applied in vain.

26. The legislative enactments during this year have been seven in number, of which none have been yet disallowed, and all confirmed, but the Appropriation Ordinance for 1860 and the Supple- mentary Estimates Ordinance for 1859. The legislation generally has not been of a nature to call for any special remark, beyond noticing the restoration of decorum in tae conduct of the Legislative Council.

27. Under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. Lobscheid Chinese education has made consi- derable advance, and the schools established throughout the island are increasing in number, and in good favour with the Chinese population.

28. There has been a slight increase over 1858 in the number of criminals, but not greater than may be accounted for by the increased population. I am unable to account for the large increase in the number of writs issued from police and petty sessions court, except by attributing it to police- rate defaulters.

*

***

30. The year has not been an unhealthy one, though several old residents have been forced to leave, and some have sunk before reaching home. There is a manifest improvement, year by year, in the sanitary condition of Hong Kong, and this will be shown yet more when Kowloong shall be finally and completely attached to the colony.

31. Our relations with the neighbouring towns and villages on the mainland of China have been the Chinese. undisturbed during the past twelve months, chiefly owing to our occupation of the provincial city of Canton, and the salutary lesson taught the people of the surrounding districts by the assault and capture of Mamtao in August 1858. Our supplies come in plentifully and regularly; and indeed it has been matter for observation and surprise that provisions have been so abundantly furnished on the large demand recently made by the Expeditionary Force, French as well as English, assem. bled in our harbour.

32. The year 1859 has been one of transition, but of progress also; and to foretell the continu- ance of that progress is not a hazarduous venture when we look to the evident and cheering improvement that has taken place in all the departments of Government since your Excellency's arrival in September last.

33. I admit myself one of the few who have never from first to last desponded as to the ultimate future of Hong Kong, and think confidently with Sir John Davis, who in the preface to the work published by him in 1852, wrote, "it may be predicted that a British colony with 25,000 [now 85,000] Chinese subjects in sight of the south coast of China is destined to play a part in the "drama of the future."

His Excellency Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson,

&c.

&c.

&c.

I have, &c. (Signed)

T. MERCER, Colonial Secretary.

1841-1886

269

HONG KONG.

No. 20.

COPY of DESPATCH from Sir HERCULES G. R. ROBINSON to His Grace the DUKE of

(No. 85.)

MY LORD DUKE,

NEWCASTLE, K.G.

Government Offices, Victoria, Hong Kong, 5th June 1861.

I HAVE the honour to forward the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1860. 2. The details of it, as far as they go, are most satisfactory; but as this is a free port, and there is no Custom House or other administrative machinery of any kind available for the collection of commercial statistics, the schedules relating to imports and exports,- particulars of information in a mere commercial entrepôt such as this, of greater interest and importance than any other,-are blank.

  As regards the native traffic of our waters, the Government is without any information whatever, Chinese vessels being allowed to come and go, and their cargoes to be trans- ferred from hand to hand, without any interference or even question. As regards the foreign traffic, the only information at present available is that obtained through the harbour master's oflice, of the number, nationality, and tonnage of vessels which enter and clear during any given period; and I do not see how it would be possible for the Govern- ment to obtain here trade returns sufficiently accurate and precise to be of any value, without imposing on the shipping an amount of trouble and annoyance which would not be compensated for by the result. I am glad, therefore, to be able to report that there is a prospect now of this information being supplied by a Chamber of Commerce which has been established within the last few weeks, and which I understand proposes to undertake, amongst other desirable objects, the collection of reliable commercial sta- tistics without any interference with the freedom of the port.

3. Although, however, the accompanying returns afford no direct information as to the nature or progress of either the native or foreign traffic of our waters, they afford ample indirect evidence of the fact that the commerce of the place is rapidly extending, as it must be evident that when the revenue, population, shipping, houses, boats, and land sales are all on the increase, the main interest upon which all these depend must be prospering also.

Revenue and Expenditure.

4. The revenue of 1860 exceeds that of 1859 by 28,9571. 10s. 03d., being respectively 94,1827. 16s. 3d., and 65,2251. 6s. 2d. The expenditure for the same period is increased by 6,2811. Gs. 04d., being in 1860, 72,390l. 12s. 10d., and in 1859, 66,109l. 3s. 9d.

  The increase in the revenue is shown under each of our three main sources of income, -Land, Licenses, and Taxes; and also under the head of Post Office, an item which appears for the first time in the accounts, in consequence of the transfer of the Hong Kong Post Office to the local Government on the 1st May 1860. The largest increase is under the head of Land Revenue, which exceeds that of 1859 by nearly 17,000l., in consequence of the great rise in the value of land and the large premiums realized at the Government land sales. The increase under the head of Licenses and Taxes, which latter are limited to police and lighting rates, is attributable to the growth of the town. The revenue of 1860 is not only the largest ever raised in the Colony, but, without any additional taxation, is four times greater than that of 1851, as will be seen from the following

return.

Year.

Revenue

£ s. d. 35,500 8 9 58,842 2 7

Revenue.

Year.

£

s. d.

1851

- 23,721 7 6

1856

1852

- 21,331 1 $

1857

1853

- 21,700 6 3

1858

- 62,176 9 8

1854

- 27,045 3 5

1859

- 65,225 62

1355

-

- 47,973 11

1860

94,182 16 3

270

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

The increase in the expenditure is attributable to the additions made to the salaries by the Civil List Ordinance passed last year, and to a larger outlay upon public works. The expenditure of last year was distributed as follows:·

Ordinary expenditure Public works

Total

S. d. 52,607 16 2

19,782 16 8

72,390 12 10

Rovenue

Expendituro

-

s. d.

94,182 16 3 72,390 12 10

The receipts of the past year have exceeded the disburse- ments by 21,7921. 3s. 5d., which, added to the surplus of former years, left an excess of assets over liabilities, on the 31st December last, of nearly 65,0007, available for the service of the present year.

   The prospects for the current year are equally satisfactory. I subjoin a financial estimate, from which it will be seen that, notwithstanding the large expenditure of 52,000l. upon public works, it is expected that at the close of this year there will be a balance of 40,000l. available for the service of 1862.

FINANCIAL ESTIMATE for 1861.

RECEIPTS.

EXPENDITURE.

Excess of assets over liabilities on 1st

January 1861 Estimated Revonue of 1861

£65,000 90,000

Estimated ordinary Expenditure Estimated Expenditure on Public Works

£63,000

52,000

*

115,000

Probable balance on 31st December 1861

40,000

£155,000

£155,000

   The financial estimate for 1862, which is now being prepared, and which I also sub- join, leads me to hope that after an expenditure of 45,000l. next year on public works, the Colony will find itself at the close of that year, with all the large public works at present in progress completed, and an excess of assets over liabilities of about 20,000!.

FINANCIAL ESTIMATE for 1862.

RECEIPTS.

Excess of assets over liabilities on 1st.

January 1862

Estimated Revenue for 1862

EXPENDITURE.

Estimated ordinary Expenditure for 1862 £65,000 £40,000 Estimated Expenditure on Public Works

90,000 on 31st December 1862

Probable balanco

45,000

110,000

20,000

£130,000

£130,000

Public Works.

   5. The only public works at present in progress of any magnitude are the new gaol, the Victoria waterworks, and the Praya; together they will cost not far short of 100,000l. ; and it is calculated that without involving the Colony in any financial embarrassment, they can all be completed before the close of next year.

   Another great improvement which is in contemplation, is the lighting of the city of Victoria with gas; but this, however, is about to be undertaken by a private company, the Government not being required to assist in any way beyond granting the use of the public streets for the purpose of laying the pipes. When the works are completed, it will be optional with both the Government and private individuals to consume the gas or not, as they may see fit; the price of it, which will be mainly dependent on the price of coal, being left a matter for future arrangement.

Legislation.

   6. Nineteen ordinances have become law during the past year, amongst which I may specify as the most important---

No. 11. "An ordinanceão constitute a marine court of inquiry in Hong Kong." No. 12. "An ordinance to provide a supply of water for the city of Victoria, and to

appropriate a sum not exceeding 30,000l. for such purpose."

No. 13. An ordinance for the establishment of a civil list."

66

No. 15. "An ordinance for the registration and regulation of boatmen and others

   employed in licensed cargo boats, and for the survey of such boats." No. 16. "An ordinance to amend the law relating to newspapers in Hong Kong." No. 17. "An ordinance to constitute a board of examiners for granting certificates

"of competency to masters and mates in the mercantile marine."

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

Population Returns.

271

7. The Registrar-General's returns show improvement under every head. The popu lation has increased during the past year by about 8,000, being estimated on the 1st of Jar Jary last at

Males Females

Total

-

69,810

25,107

94,917

In boats In houses

·

-

28,559 66,358

Total population 94,917

Of this number 28,559 were found to be living on the water in 8,925 boats, and the remainder 66,358 on shorë in 4,861 houses, making a total of 8,786 tenements. The population consists of Chinese and foreigners in the following proportion -

Bonts

Housos

3,925 4,861

Chinese Other than Chinese -

92,441 2,476

Total Tenements 8,786

The other than Chinese are composed of-

94,917

Males.

Females.

Total.

European and Americans

-

-

1,151

441

1,592

Goa, Manila, Indians, and others of mixed blood Aliens, chiefly seamen and temporary residents

710

7.1

784

100

100

1,961

515

2,476

In these returns the military stationed in the Colony, and the crews of the ships of war and of the merchant ships in the harbour, are not included.

The houses show an increase over the previous year of 600, and are classified as,-

European houses

Chinese ditto

1,017

3,814

4,861

The European houses consist of 178 public buildings, and S74 private dwellings, shops,

and offices...th

The Chinese boat population, of over 28,500, are put down as living in,-

Junks Trading boats

12 Fishing

"

27 Cargo

""

· Wood

16 Stone

"T

""

Coal

42 Hakow

>>

"1

Salt

89 Sampaus

Passage

38

""

Water

"

Bumboats

Pilot boats

7 3.2

5

Shipping.

659

166

106

305

2,421

Total boats

3,925

 S. The Harbour Master's returns show that, exclusive of men-of-war, Canton and Macao river steamers, and Chinese craft, 1,534 vessels, aggregating 875,199 tons, and belonging to 26 different nations, entered the harbour of Hong Kong during the past year; being 376 vessels in excess of the number that entered during 1859. Of the 1,534 that entered last year, 1,262 entered with cargoes, and 272 in ballast.

Emigration.

9. Forty-eight emigrant ships, aggregating 40,789 tous, and carrying 14,390 males and 798 females, cleared from this port for the following places, during 1800:-

11 for Australia

Males. with 4,526

Females.

Total.

4,526

24 San Francisco

"

""

6,799

411

7,240

4

Demerara

961

352

""

""

1,313

$

""

1

Vancouver Island Moulmain

""

2,038

2,038

66

66

""

"

14,390

793

15,183

Being an increase of 13 ships and 4,916 emigrants over the numbers of 1859. A large part of this increase went to Vancouver Island, to which port emigration from this took place last year for the first time.

272

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

General Observations.

10. Amongst the occurrences in 1860 there are two which deserve to be noted here, although they find no place in the accompanying volume; the first is the assembling and fitting out here of the large naval and military expedition, which was despatched from this for the North early last year, and the second is the acquisition of the Kowloon Peninsula. 11. After the events of last year, the importance of Hong Kong in a political point of view can never again be questioned; and the manner in which it was enabled to respond to the great and unusual demands which were made upon it for money, transports, and supplies, without interfering with the ordinary tradal operations, showed a marvellous elasticity in the commercial-resources of the Colony.

12. The establishment of British jurisdiction over Kowloon is a great boon to this Colony. It is a portion of the main land opposite, about three miles deep by one mile in breadth, which projects into the centre of our harbour. From the weakness of the Chinese Government and our inability to interfere directly, the place had become the resort of thieves, resetters, and pirates, who preyed upon the shipping in the harbour, and who were amenable to no practical control. As a mere matter of police, therefore, the accession is of great importance; but it is of still more importance in military, sanitary, and commercial points of view, as it commands the harbour and shipping, possesses good sites for building, open to the South-west monsoon, which Victoria is not, and is capable of supplying every deficiency of Hong Kong as a commercial harbour in the way of docks, deep sea piers, and store houses for bulky cargoes upon the water's edge.

   13. Satisfactory, nevertheless, as the accompanying returns are, and rapid as the growth of the Colony has been during the last two or three years, I cannot myself see that it is ever likely to become anything very different from what it is at present, or that there is even now any prospect of the vast expectations which were formed of it in its infancy, being realized. If the trade of the port increases, as I think it must with the growth of the general trade of China which must follow upon the opening of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Pecheli, and the free navigation of the Yang-tze-Kiang, and the facilities requisite for conducting an increased business are forthcoming here, then the Colony will steadily but moderately advance also. If, on the other hand, these changes have the effect of drawing the trade into other channels, or if the necessary facilities for its extension should not be found here, then the Colony will either retro- grade or remain stationary. In any case Hong Kong is not, I think, destined to become a great Chinese settlement, with a population equal to half that of Canton, or even a quarter, say 250,000. The island has no natural advantages beyond a good harbour, happily situated at the southern threshold of the Chinese empire, and forming, as it were, the entrance gate of its scaboard. It has neither agriculture nor manufactures. It pro- duces nothing for either export or consumption, and is not capable of growing supplies sufficient to feed its inhabitants for one single day. The population must therefore be fed by sea-borne supplies, and the numbers must, I conceive, be limited to the amount of fixed employment which can at all times be found here. If we could offer the starving myriads of the opposite continent unlimited employment, which would yield the settler even two meals a day of rice and fish, with two-pence a day for tobacco and luxuries, with common shelter and commonest clothing, I believe we might congregate a million souls under our rule within two years; but we have no such field of labour to offer, or fixed employment of any importance beyond the labour connected with our harbour and our public and private works. Unless therefore Hong Kong should become the fixed seat and centre of some vast industry, such as the tea trade, employing great masses of human labour of men, women, and children, (of which I cannot at present see the slightest prospect,) it can never become a great Chinese settlement, and our numbers must always be limited to the amount of employment which the native and foreign traffic of our waters, and the foreign local development of the Colony itself, may afford to mere rude and unskilled labour.

  1. Without, however, ever becoming a great settlement or a productive British plantation, Hong Kong is well calculated to subserve most important political and com mercial ends; and these, it is satisfactory to know, are being steadily realized.

I have, &c.

(Signed) HERCULES G. R. ROBINSON. ::.

Ilis Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G.

&c.

&c.

&c.

SIR,

1841-1886

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

(No. 387.)

Enclosure in No. 20.

273

Colonial Secretary's Office, Victoria, Hong Kong,

June 1, 1861.

Ir is two months since I received in draft the Blue Book of this Colony for the past year, 1860; but I find, on my recent return from leave of absence, that, owing to pressure of work in the office, it is only now that I am enabled to place it herewith in your Excellency's hands.

:

.

  2. All the occurrences of the year having passed under your Excellency's own observation, it is not necessary that I make the customary report on this occasion otherwise than briefly.

1.

  8. The population shows an increase of nearly 8,000, being 86,941 in 1859, and 94,917 in 1860; while to the houses a large, and to the boats a considerable addition has been made, being 600 to the former, and to the latter 139. The number of houses in 1859 was 4,261, and in 1860, 4,861; of boats, 3,786 in 1859, and 3,925 in 1860.

  4. As to Revenue and Expenditure, the returns are,-for 1859, revenue, 65,2251. 6s. 24d.; expenditure, 66,1091. 3s. 94d.; for 1860, revenue, 94,1827. 16s. 3d.; expenditure, 72,8901. 12s. 10d., showing an increase of nearly 30,000l. on the revenue, against a little over 6,000l. increase in the expenditure.

  5. The Shipping exhibits a great augmentation; but as the past year is concerned with the large transport service of the recent expeditionary force, it may be well not to frame any decided conclusions on this particular proof of prosperity, satisfactory though it be.

  6. In connection with the shipping interests, however, it may be noted that a signal station has been established at Victoria Peak, 1,770 feet above the sea, and that the dockyard at Aberdeen has been completed, and is now in full work. There is ample room, however for three or four dockyards in Hong Kong, and enquiries about Stonecutters' Island have been made, with a view to the construction of one or more at that spot.

7. The legislative enactments have been 19 in number. Three are connected with the Merchant Shipping Act; one regulates pawnbroking, or I should say sceks to regulate, for hitherto it has been a dead letter, through the power of combination so remarkably possessed by the Chinese; one organizes a system of cargo boats, and provides a remedy against the habitual plundering of goods between ship and shore; this was also strongly opposed by the Chinese, but is now in successful operation; another ordinance provides waterworks for Victoria; another establishes a civil list for the Government of the Colony; and another gives some security to the public against the adventures of the press. The rest of the legislative measures require no special mention. 8. Coming to the state of the departments, I regret that I can give no more favourable report than last year. Four public officers have died; Messrs. Newman and Gunthorpe, acting harbour masters; Walker, assistant surveyor, and Cooper Turner, crown solicitor, while Mr. Chapman, postmaster general, and Mr. Inglis, harbour master, have botli quitted the Colony in a state of health that renders it impossible for either to resume his duties.

9. In addition to the loss sustained in these officers, I may note that Mr. Lobscheid, inspector of Government schools, has resigned, and that Messrs. Forth, Rennie, Mitchell, Masson, and Murray are absent in England on leave.

  10. In fact, at the present moment, out of 20 chiefships of a department, or like, offices, 12 are held on acting appointinents, and of the remaining eight, two, if not three, are likely to be soon invalided.

  11. The Harbour Master's Department alone has had no less than five heads during the year, Messrs. Newman, Gunthorpe, Harris, Thomsett, and Inglis.

  12. During six months of the year Mr. Alexander, registrar of the Supreme Court, presided most ably at the police magistracy.

4.18. I am bound to say, on the subject of our police, that the materiel of our force shows no improvement during the past year; nevertheless their duties as a preventive body are tolerably conducted. The question is one which has baffled one and all of us for years past, but I do not despair yet of seeing something in the form of a constabulary more creditable to the Colony, ⠀

  14. The Surveyor General's Department has been fully occupied; the Harbour Master's Office is nearly ready; the Gaol Buildings are progressing, and considerable activity has been shown in the construction and improvement of roads.

  15. The villages of Aberdeen (the locality of the dockyard) and Showkeawan have been settled, and the irregular mode of squatting checked. The land in both places has been duly surveyed, planned, and sold. The tenants, therefore, have legal property in their ground, secured by Crown leases.

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STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

16.A commencement of the waterworks scheme has been made, and, it is hoped that by the beginning of 1863 the city of Victoria will be amply provided for in this respect...

.:

  17. Great and satisfactory progress has been made with the Esplanade or Praya, on the sea front of the city,

I

  18. Every attention has been given to education, and an improved scheme, designed by Dr. Legge, is about to receive trial.

  19. The want of a place of transportation for convicts is much felt, and it would be a great relief to the Colony if it could be arranged to draft off annually a certain number of prisoners sentenced to penal servitude. This failing, it will be necessary to build a distinct gaol for such, prisoners, and to appropriate Stone Cutter's Island for this purpose. The evil is really pressing, for even after the conclusion of the new gaol buildings, the presence of so large a number of long-sentenced convicts will render it a difficult matter to classify crime correctly and conveniently.

buck

20. In a review of occurrences during 1860, it is impossible not to mention the transit through the Colony of the large expeditionary force, British and French, military and naval.

.i:

21. It was a subject of wonder how the markets of Hong Kong furnished supplies for the enormous number of men (not less than 30,000 in all) thus suddenle quartered in the Colony and its waters for a period of from five to six months; the island of Hong Kong could not well have afforded the level ground, and the acquisition of Kowloon, under lease from the Chinese provincial Government, was a necessary consequence.

  22. As the final cession of this ground under convention, and its subsequent incorpo- ration with, the Colony, are events of the current year, I make, no further allusion, to them here. :

23. But besides that the land was admirably suited and indispensably wanted, for temporary occupation by our passing troops, it was required, in permanence eventually for the commercial purposes of the Colony; and I entertain sanguine hope that, if full consideration be given to the wants of the community and the wishes of the local Government, the acquisition of this new territory will prove, of much importance to Hong Kong as a mercantile entrepôt.

24. I have referred to the sojourn and passage of the expeditionary force, because it is a point of interest, and I am not aware that it has been duly noted elsewhere

25. It deserves, however, to be put on record, as showing the utility of this possession, and justifying the opinion of one of the members of the commission for enquiring into the military defences of the colonies (Mr. Elliot) when he classed Hong Kong among the "places which, irrespectively of any intrinsic value as colonies, may be deemed "stations important to the general strength of the empire."..

His Excellency Sir Hercules Robinson, Knight,

Governor and Commander-in-Chief,

&c.

&c.

&c.

I have, &c.

(Signed).

W. T. MERCER,

Colonial Secretary.

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

275

135

HONG KONG.

No. 22.

COPY of a DESPATCH from Governor Sir HERCULES ROBINSON to his Grace the Duke of NEWCastle, K.G.

(No. 113.)

MY LORD DUKE,

Hong Kong, June 5, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to forward the Blue Book of Hong Kong for the year 1861.

Revenue and Expenditure.

2. The financial condition of the Colony is most satisfactory. The revenue of 1861 exceeds that of 1860 by 33,0587. 7s., and is nearly double that of 1859, being respectively :-

Year.

Revenue.

£ s. d.

1859

1860

1861

-

65,225 6 2

94,182 16 3

127,241 3 3

The expenditure for the same period has also increased, being for-

Year.

Expenditure.

1859

1860

1861

£ S. d.

66,109 3 9

72,390 12 10 109,632 0 9

3. The increase in the revenue will be seen, by a reference to the comparative statement at pages 34 and 35 of the Blue Book, to be mainly under the heads of "Rents" and " Licences." The premiums on the leases sold during last year, in conse- quence of the increase in the population and the consequent enormous rise in the value of land, realized 36,3741. against 18,182/. in 1860, being an increase under this head alone of 18,1927. The permanent increase in the rent roll of the Colony during the same period was 2,7471. The monopoly for preparing and selling opium realized last year 12,4127. against 10,3931. in the previous year. In short, the returns show an increase under almost every head of revenue, and they are all to be explained by the increase of the population, which was found at the close of each of the last three years to be:-

Year.

1859

1860 1861

Population.

86,941

·

94,917

-

119,321

4. The increase in the expenditure is attributable partly to the augmentation of the establishments, rendered necessary by the growth of the Colony, but chiefly to the large outlay upon public works. The expenditure of last year may be classed as follows :~~~

Ordinary Expenditure Public Works

£ s. d. 64,143 15 11

Total

45,488 4 10

£109,632 0 9

£

s. d.

127,241 3 3

109,632 0 9

being less than the revenue of the year by 17,6097. 2;. 6§d., thus :-

Revenue of 1861

Expenditure

Excess of Revenue over Expenditure

£17,609 2 6

5. At page 43 of the Blue Book will be found a statement showing the actual financial condition of the Colony at the close of the last year, by which it will be seen that at that date the assets exceeded the liabilities by 82,781l. 17s. 4d. Of this balance 61,550%. was deposited in the chartered banks, bearing interest at from 5 to 6 per cent. per annum.

276

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Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

  6. The prospect for the current year is equally satisfactory. I subjoin a financial estimate for 1862, from which it will be seen that, notwithstanding a proposed expen- diture during the present year on public works of 50,000%, it is calculated that at the close of the year there will still be a balance to the credit of the Colony of 82,000l.

FINANCIAL ESTIMATE for 1862, corrected up to 1st June 1862.

Receipts.

Expenditure.

£

£

Excess of Assets on Liabilities on 1st

January 1862

Estimated Revenue for 1862

·

82,000 120,000

Estimated Ordinary Expenditure Estimated Expenditure on Public Works ̧

70,000

50,000

£120,000

Probable balance on 31st December 1862 -

82,000

Total

£202,000

Total

£202,000

Public Works.

7. The expenditure under this head during the year 1861 has been as follows:-

1. Works and Buildings

£ S. d. 28,746 15 4

2. Roads, Streets, and Bridges

12,470 12 10

3. Land and House purchased

4,270 16 8

Total Outlay on Public Works in 1861

£45,488 4 10

Works and Buildings.

   8. The services upon which the greater part of this expenditure was incurred was the new Gaol, the Victoria Waterworks, the Lock Hospital, and a new schoolhouse and police station at Showkewan, the rest being the various usual and miscellaneous works not requiring any special report. The greater portion of the Gaol as now contemplated on the present site is finished, and but one section now remains to complete what may be designated the Bridewell; this will be finished at the end of the present year. The waterworks are progressing; the reservoirs and tanks are approaching completion; and as the whole of the pipes and other materials have arrived, and the main already laid, there is no doubt that this service also will be satisfactorily finished by the end of the year. The Lock Hospital appears to answer its purpose, and the school-house and police station referred to were for the village of Showkewan, which is increasing and likely to be a place of some importance for the Chinese employed in the export of salt fish.

Roads, Streets, and Bridges.

9. The principal work under this head was the Praya opposite the public streets, abutting upon it, and for portions of Government land adjacent also. The work has been carried on in conjunction with the Crown tenants under special arrangements as regards the land reclaimed. A very considerable portion is finished, and both sections, east and west of the parade ground and Military Hospital, will be completed by the end of the year, forming a continuous sea road of one and a quarter miles east and one and a half miles west. The inland roads and streets were principally at the west extension of the city, and intended for the opening up of that area to render it accessible and avail- able for building purposes. A large and expensive undertaking in connexion with the streets was the drainage, not only for the general wants of the houses, but for the discharge of the enormous quantity and rapid flow of rain during floods,-a difficult and expensive undertaking on so steep a site, with a rocky, loose, and treacherous soil to deal with. Landing piers for cargo boats and public steps were also provided under this head in suitable localities as the Praya work was in execution.

Land and House purchased.

10. The system of education approved of for Chinese requiring the establishment of a central school, a house with a sufficiency of land attached for additional erections, was purchased in the most convenient locality. The school has been opened since the commencement of the present year, and is giving satisfaction.

11. The proposals for supplying gas to this city, referred to in my Report of last year, and since then approved by your Grace, I fear, will not be carried into effect, as there appears to be an entire misunderstanding between the proposer of the scheme and the company forming in London, who were to furnish the requisite funds. Should the

1841-1886

STATE OF HER MAJESTY'S COLONIAL POSSESSIONS.

277

137

proposer fail to satisfy the Surveyor General, in accordance with his agreement, of his intention to proceed with the works on the terms agreed to, the concessions made by me will be cancelled, when I shall be at liberty to make other arrangements with other persons who have stated their willingness to undertake such a service.

Legislation.

12. Five ordinances were passed during the last year, but none of them of sufficient importance to call for any special remark here.

Population.

13. The Registrar General's returns, which will be found at pages 193 to 205 of the Blue Book, continue to show improvement under almost every head. On the night of the 31st December last the population was found to consist of-

Males Females

Total

87,945 31,376

119,321

being an increase of 20,404 on the census of the previous year, a portion of which is attributable to the acquisition of Kowloon Peninsula, the population of which is estimated for the first time in the accompanying returns. Of the population of 119,321, 30,909 were found to be living on the water in 4,284 boats, and 88,412 on shore in 6,183 houses, making a total of 10,467 tenements. The population consists of Chinese and foreigners in the following proportion :-

Chinese

Other than Chinese

-

116,380 2,941

119,321

The other than Chinese are composed of,-

1

Males.

Females.

Total.

European and American

1,146

411

1,557

Goa Manilla Indians, and others of mixed blood Aliens, chiefly seamen and temporary residents -

1,206

78

1,284

100

100

2,452

489

2,941

In these returns the military stationed in the Colony, and the crews of the men-of- war and the merchant ships in the harbour, are not included.

14. The houses show an increase over the previous year of 1322, and are classified as,-

Chinese European

·

4,939 1,244

6,183

The European houses consist of 177 public buildings, and 1,067 private dwellings, shops and offices.

15. The 4,284 boats in which over 30,000 Chinese were found to be living in the harbours and bays of the Colony when the census was taken, are described as,-

Junks

Trading boats

Wood boats Passage boats Salt Lorchas

Cargo boats

-

32

13

20

48

-

89

5

291

56

Coal

Bullock

Fishing

Water

Stone

Hakow and Pulluway

Sampans Bumboats

·

Total boats

-

4

692

36

98

304

2,557 39

4,284

278

138

Hong Kong Annual Administration Reports, 1841-1941

REPORTS EXHIBITING THE PAST AND PRESENT

16. I annex to this Despatch a summary of the Registrar General's statistical returns for the last eleven years, which will show at a glance the steady progress which the Colony has made during that period in each of the particulars to which I have just referred.

Shipping.

Vessels.

1,014

  17. The Harbour Master's returns, pages 279 to 293 of the accompanying volume, show that, exclusive of men-of-war, river steamers from Canton and Macao, and Chinese craft of all descriptions, 1,259 vessels, aggregating 658,196 tons, and belonging to 24 different nations, entered the harbour of Hong Kong during the past year. Of these, 1,014 vessels of 520,500 tons entered with cargoes, and 245 vessels of 137,696 tons in ballast.

Tons.

520,500

245

197,696

658,196

1,259

  18. The return of tonnage of vessels arriving last year shows an decrease of 217,003 as compared with the previous year, but an increase of 31,660 tons on the year 1859, which last offers the fairest comparison, as the large number of transports taken up for the expedition to the North in 1860 made that year altogether an exceptional case. American tonnage has, it will be observed, decreased, while British shipping has increased proportionately. This may be in some measure due to the disturbed state of America, but doubtless the late treaty is showing itself in the extended commerce of Great Britain in these seas.

Emigration.

  19. During the past year 37 vessels, aggregating 38,852 tons, and carrying 12,840 emigrants, of whom 993 were females, left this port for the following places :-

23 for San Francisco with

""

8 Sydney

6 Demerara

"J

"

Males.

Females.

Total.

-

7,101

633

7,734

-

2,809

2,809

1,937

360

2,297

11,847

993

*12,840

Being a decrease of 11 ships and 2,343 emigrants on the numbers of 1860. But this is explained by 2,038 emigrants having gone in 1860 to the newly-discovered gold fields of British Columbia, while there are none to that Colony for the last year; and there is also a decrease of emigrants to the Australian Colonies. The California returns show an increase of 494; and to the British West Indies there has been an increase of 984 emigrants during the year 1861.

  20. During the same period 2,167 Chinese have returned to the Colony en route for their homes in China from the following places :-

Males.

From San Francisco

1,158

Females.

23

Total.

G

19

Sydney and Melbourne

·

958

" Singapore

28

1,181 958 28

2,144

23

2,167

21. As an instance of the wealth which these enterprising and industrious people acquire at the gold fields I may instance the ship Minerva, which arrived here from Melbourne in September last with 350 Chinese passengers in possession of gold to the value of about 43,000l.

Sanitary,

  22. The Colonial Surgeon's report, with the tables attached to it, (pages 209 to 227 of Blue Book,) show that the past year has been marked by the absenc