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"The information given in this Document is not to be communicated, either directly or indirectly, to the Press or to any person. not holding an official position in His Majesty's Service.

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INDIA OFFICE.

MILITARY REPORT

HONG

ON

KONG

VOLUME I. (GENERAL INFORMATION)

General Staff, The War Office`

1930

LONDON

Printed under the authority of HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE by HARRISON AND SONS, LTD., Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty,

44-47, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C.2.

10R:L/mic/17/20/3/1

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.

THIS DOCUMENT IS THE PROPERTY OF H.B.M, GOVERNMENT.

NOTE,

The information given in this Document is not to be communicated, either directly or indirectly, to the Press or to any person not holding an official position in His Majesty's Service.

DIEU

PROIT

 




MILITARY REPORT

ON

HONG KONG

VOLUME I. (GENERAL INFORMATION)

General Staff, The War Office

1930

LONDON:

Printed under the authority of HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE by HARRISON AND Sons, LTD., Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty, 44-47, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C.2.

This report has been prepared by the General Staff at Hong Kong from the latest information available. It is requested that any errors, omissions, or changes in conditions may be brought to the notice of the Director of Military Operations and Intelligence, The War Office.

Acknowledgment is due to the following for permission to include extracts from their publications:

THE CHINA YEAR BOOK, edited by H. G. W. Woodhead,

C.B.E., published by the Tientsin Press Ltd.

THINGS CHINESE, by J. Dyer Hall. Published by

John Murray.

THE RESHAPING OF THE FAR EAST, by B. L. Putnam

Weale. Published by Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

J. R. E. CHARLES,

Major-General,

Director of Military Operations

and Intelligence.

THE WAR OFFICE,

1st February, 1930.

3.

LIST OF CONTENTS.

Contents.

CHAPTER I.-HISTORY

1. Events leading up to the occupation of Hong Kong by the British; treaties ceding the Island of Hong Kong and the Kowloon Peninsula to Great Britain; treaty leasing the "New Territory to Great Britain; occupation of the New Territory..

2. Military operations in the Colony

"

3. List of books of reference dealing with the History of

Hong Kong

CHAPTER II.-SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

1. General description

2. Central Government

3. Local Government

4. Legal system

5. Finance

..

CHAPTER III.-POPULATION

1. Races; their distribution, numbers, characteristics,

physique and military value

2. Religions

3. Languages; interpreters

4. Education

5. Labour available in different districts; normal wages; how best obtained and organized; availability outside its own district; types of tools used

6. Attitude of races towards each other, and to Europeans

and foreigners

7. Normal diet

8. Foreign residents

CHAPTER IV.-POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. General description and area of the Colony

2. Frontiers of Ceded and New Territory

(B 307/177)x

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3. Principal towns

CHAPTER IV.-continued.

(a) Population

(b) Types of houses and streets; billeting facilities (c) Municipal system

(d) Principal government buildings; ; foreign con-

sulates

(e) Hospitals

(f) Banks..

(g) Factories and engineering works

(h) Power stations

(i) Tramways

(j) Water supply .

(k) Sanitation

..

(1) Supplies; whence drawn

4. Description of port

(a) Control of the port

(b) Landing facilities

(c) Labour supply

(d) Cargo handling appliances

(e) Transit accommodation

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(f) Road and rail communications

• •

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(g) Average amount of coal and other fuel usually in

stock; ownership..

(h) Situation and location of oil tanks..

(i) Details of dockyard and accommodation

(k) Possible aerodromes and aeroplane bases or

anchorages

5. Anchorages and landing places, other than ports. General

remarks

38

38

CHAPTER V.-PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. Geological formation of country

39

2. Mountains

39

3. Rivers

40

4. Woods and forests

40

5. Marshes and swamps

6. Water supply

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• •

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CHAPTER VI-CLIMATE

1. Nature of climate

2. Effect on Europeans

3. Effect on natives

4. Health

5. Effect on animals

6. Effect on facility of movement

7. Temperature (maximum and minimum)

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CHAPTER VI.-continued.

8. Seasons and rainfall

9. Prevalent winds and hurricanes

10. Earthquakes

11. Magnetic variation

Contents.

12. Prevalent diseases and precautions to be taken against

them

13. Clothing suitable for various seasons

14. Insects

1. Roads

CHAPTER VII. COMMUNICATIONS

2 Navigable waterways

3. Railways

4. Telegraphs, telephones and postal

1. Crops

CHAPTER VIII.-RESOURCES

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2. Cattle

3. Dairy produce

4. Transport

5. Minerals

6. Timber

7. Commerce

8. Shipping; ocean and coastwise

1. General

CHAPTER IX.-ARMED FORCES

2. Regular troops

3. Local forces

4. Police force

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CHAPTER X.-AVIATION

1. Aerodromes and landing grounds

2. Meteorological conditions

3. Local fuel resources

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222

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I.-(a) Weights and measures

22

(b) Currency

II. Treaties between Great Britain and China

MAPS

Hong Kong & in. to 1 mile. (G.S.G.S. No, 1393B) Cables and air lines. (O.R. 441)

73

73 75

IN POCKET.

}}

Chap. I.-History.

CHAPTER I.

6

HISTORY

1. Hong Kong is a Crown Colony, the history of which begins with its cession to Great Britain in January, 1841. This cession was confirmed by the Treaty of Nanking, dated 29th August, 1842.*

The Charter of the Colony is dated 5th April, 1843.

In the troubles which preceded the first war with China, the necessity for having some place on the coast whence British trade might be protected and controlled, and where officials and merchants might be free from the humiliating requirements of the Chinese authorities, became so evident that, as early as 1834, Lord Napier urged the Home Govern- ment to send a force from India to support the dignity of his commission. A little armament," he wrote, should enter the China seas with the first of the south-west monsoons, and on arriving should take possession of the island of Hong Kong, in the Eastern entrance of the Canton River, which is admir- ably suited for the purpose." Two years later Sir George Robinson, endorsing the opinion of Lord Napier,

"that nothing but force could better the British position in China,” advised the occupation of one of the islands in this neigh- bourhood, singularly adapted by nature in every respect for commercial purposes.

In the early part of 1839, affairs approached a crisis, and, on 22nd March, Captain Elliot, the Chief Superintendent of Trade, required that all the ships of Her Majesty's subjects at the outer anchorages of Canton should proceed forthwith to Hong Kong, and, hoisting their national colours, be prepared to resist every act of aggression on the part of the Chinese Government. When, in accordance with this decision, the British community left Canton, the Portuguese Settlement of Macao afforded them a temporary refuge, but their presence there was made the occasion by the Chinese Government of threatening demonstrations against the Settlement. In a despatch dated 6th May, 1839, Captain Elliot wrote to Lord Palmerston : "The safety of Macao is, in point of fact, an

* See Appendix II.

7

Chap. I.-History.

object of secondary importance to the Portuguese Govern- ment, but to that of Her Majesty it may be said to be an indispensable necessity, and more particularly at this moment," and he urged upon his Lordship "the strong necessity of concluding some immediate arrangement with the Governor of His Most Faithful Majesty, either for the cession of Portuguese rights at Macao or for the effectual defence of the place and its appropriation to British uses by means of a subsidiary Convention.' Happily for the permanent interests of British trade in China, this suggestion came to nought, and Great Britain found a much superior lodgment at Hong Kong.

:

The measures instituted by the Chinese in reference to Macao decided Captain Elliot that a longer stay there would compromise the safety of that settlement, and accordingly he embarked for Hong Kong on 24th August, 1839, accom- panied by the officers of his establishment, hoping that his own departure might satisfy the Chinese, but when it became evident that they intended to expel all the English from Macao, the whole British community was embarked on the following day, and under escort of H.M.S. "Volage," arrived safely at Hong Kong. At that time there was, of course, no town, and the community had to reside on board ship. The Chinese at first tried to stop all supplies reaching the British, and this led to a miniature naval battle in Kowloon Bay between the cutter "Louise," accompanied by the " Pearl," a small armed vessel, and the pinnace of H.M.S. Volage," against three large men-of-war junks, whose presence had prevented the regular supplies of food. The junks were worsted, and trade was restored for a few weeks, but, the Chinese again becoming aggressive, a naval action took place off Cheun Pee, when the Chinese retired in great distress. After this battle, and in spite of the remonstrances of the British mercantile firms, Captain Elliot decided to remove the British shipping to Kong Too, and it was not until January, 1840, that a British expedition arrived and Hong Kong became the headquarters of Her Majesty's forces.

At first the progress of the Colony was very rapid, and roads and buildings were constructed in the city of Victoria. In 1844 the prevalence of malaria led to recommendations to abandon the Colony, but these were overruled by the governor, Sir John Davis.

In 1860, while Sir Hercules Robinson was governor, the peninsula of Kowloon* was placed under British control by

*This name frequently appears on maps, and in most early writings as Kau-Lung," but the more modern form of "Kowloon" appears now to be that generally accepted. The Chinese characters signify" nine dragons."

Chap. I.-History.

8

a treaty dated 24th October of that year, extracts from which are given in Appendix II, and shortly afterwards became a great camp, the British and French troops of the allied expe- ditionary force to North China being for some time quartered there.

Large local banking, dock, steamboat, and insurance companies were established between the years 1865 and 1872, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 considerably increased the trade of the place.

The Colony steadily progressed, though naturally with some fluctuations in prosperity, until 1889, after which date a period of deep depression, arising partly from fluctuations of exchange, partly from over-speculation and partly from other causes, was experienced, and continued for five years.

2

In 1898 an agreement was entered into whereby China ceded the "New Territory to Great Britain on a 99 years' lease from the 1st July in that year. A copy of the agreement is given in Appendix II.

The reasons for this agreement were, firstly, because it had long been recognized that the safety of the Colony would be seriously jeopardized in the event of a foreign power obtaining the lease of Mirs Bay and the adjacent foreshore, which, lying some 25 to 30 miles north and north-east of Hong Kong, affords a commodious and safe anchorage in deep water no matter what wind is blowing; and, secondly, the possession of the range of hills and the passes leading over them from Mirs Bay towards Kowloon was an essential factor in the defence of the island from an attack from the mainland, for the reason that hostile guns mounted on these hills would command the harbour and town and would even take some of the batteries in reverse. Reference to the Treaty, which was signed at Peking on the 9th June, 1898, shows that it is expressly stipulated that the waters of Mirs Bay shall be British, although a clause is added to the effect that Chinese men-of-war, whether neutral or otherwise, shall retain the use of these waters.

The ceremony of formally taking over the territory was fixed for the 17th April, 1899, when the flag was to have been hoisted at Tai-po-hu, the present headquarters of the adminis- tration, and the day was proclaimed a general holiday.

The inhabitants of the New Territory, however, resented the cession to Great Britain and attacked the parties engaged on the preliminary arrangements, burned matsheds which had been erected for occupation by the police, and gave other evidence of organized opposition, so that it was deemed advisable to commence full jurisdiction on 16th April, on which date the flag was hoisted. In the convention it was

9

Chap. I.-History.

provided that Kowloon City* was to remain Chinese, but the action of the Chinese authorities on the above occasion having been open to distrust, it was decided to seize Kowloon City and Sham-chun; this was accordingly done on the 16th May, 1899, without opposition.

Sham-chun, an important town on the river of the same name just beyond the boundary originally agreed upon, was restored to the Chinese authorities in November of the same year. From 1899 to the present day the Colony has made rapid progress, and Hong Kong now ranks as one of the most important commercial ports in the world.

Though this progress has not been checked by any events involving the use of armed force, it has been interrupted, on more than one occasion, by political and economic disputes which have arisen with the neighbouring Chinese province of Kwangtung. The most important of these disputes were the seamen's strike of 1922 and the general strike and boycott of 1925. The former, though based originally on economic grounds, was exploited and aggravated for political purposes. After lasting for several months and causing great losses, it was settled by economic adjustments.

The settlement of the 1922 strike was, not unnaturally, held by the Chinese to constitute a political victory for Canton, and is considered to have been a contributory cause of the more serious strike and boycott which began in June, 1925, and which were not settled till November, 1925, and end of 1926, respectively.

This dispute, which is one manifestation of the wave of unrest which passed over China in 1925, had no clearly defined basis. The general strike, with which it started, was instituted to bring political pressure to bear on Great Britain.

For a few days great inconvenience resulted, and if, during this time, an external or internal threat to the peace of the Colony had arisen, the action of government forces for the maintenance of order would have been much embarrassed. No such threat arose, however, though whether this was due to the precautions taken and a display of force which was shown, or to other causes, cannot be stated, and in a few weeks the strikers were largely replaced or returned to work. The boycott, however, continued, and was enforced, and caused much loss to commerce, up to the end of 1926.

2. The only occasions on which it has been necessary to employ

* The modern town of Kowloon has been developed at the southern end of the Tsim-sha-tsui peninsula. The old Chinese town of Kowloon lies about three miles to the N.N.E. It is generally known as Kowloon (old) City. Though developments have taken place in the near neighbourhood, the old city remains much as it was in the days of the Chinese occupation.

Chap. I.-History.

"

10

was

troops in Hong Kong were when the New Territory taken over in 1899 and on other occasions to guard the frontier against possible incursions by Chinese soldiery.

On the former occasion a force of some 2,500 Chinese troops assembled near Sheung-tsun, was dispersed without difficulty or loss to British troops; on the latter, small detachments of troops have been sent to reinforce the police, and have succeeded, with the use of but little force, in preventing any organized incursions being made into British territory.

It may, in fact, be said that hitherto the Chinese, whether inside or outside Hong Kong, have never, since 1899, shown the slightest desire to come into physical conflict with British authority in Hong Kong.

3. The following books concerning Hong Kong can be obtained by purchase :-

(a) "Europe in China." The history of Hong Kong from the beginning to the year 1882, by E. J. EITEL. (Published by Luzac & Co., London, and Kelly & Walsh, Hong Kong.)

"

(b) Annual Administrative Reports of Hong Kong." (Published by the Hong Kong Government. Obtainable from Colonial Secretary,

Kong.)

Hong

(c) "The China Year Book." (Published by The Tientsin Press, Limited, 181, Victoria Road, Tientsin. Obtainable at all booksellers in the Far East, and from Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., London.)

(d)

(e)

"

The Directory and Chronicle of China, Japan, &c." (Published by "The Hong Kong Daily Press, Limited," 1, Chater Road, Hong Kong, and 131, Fleet Street, London, E.C.4.)

The China Review.' (Published by Messrs. Kelly & Walsh, London and Shanghai.)

Volume XX contains much of interest concern- ing Hong Kong. It is out of print, but can be found in reference libraries.

(f) Colonial Reports-Annual--Hong Kong. Published by H.M. Stationery Office, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, or through any bookseller.

(g) "The Restless Pacific." By Nicholas Rooseveldt. Published by Scribeners, New York. Obtain- able from Scribeners, 168, Regent Street, Lon- don.

(h) Practically every book dealing with any Far Eastern question devotes considerable attention to Hong Kong.

11

Chap. II.-General Description.

CHAPTER II.

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

1. General Description

The Government is administered by a governor, who is also commander-in-chief, aided by an executive council of six official and three unofficial members.

The Legislative Council is presided over by the Governor, and is composed of the General Officer Commanding the Troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, three other official members appointed by the Governor- usually the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Public Works and the Captain Superintendent of Police--and six unofficial members, one of whom is elected by the Chamber of Commerce and another by the Justices of the Peace. The remaining four, two of whom are of Chinese race but British nationality, are nominated by the Governor. The unofficial members are appointed for a period of four years.

Demands for a greater measure of popular representation were made by the British residents to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1916, 1919, and 1922, but without success.

2. Central Government

The following is a list of the Civil departments of the Central Government :—

Audit Department. Attorney-General's Depart-

ment.

Botanical and Forestry De-

partment.

Colonial Secretary's Depart-

ment.

Crown Solicitors' Depart-

ment.

District Officers. Education. Governor.

Harbour Master's Depart-

ment.

Imports and Exports De-

partment.

Kowloon-Canton Railway,

British Section:

Land Office.

Magistracy, Victoria. Magistracy, Kowloon. Medical Department. Official Receiver's Office. Police Department and Fire

Brigade.

Post Office.

Prison Department.

Public Works Department. Royal Observatory. Sanitary Department. Secretariat for Chinese

Affairs,

Supreme Court, including the Courts of two Judges, the Registry, and the Official Receiver's Office. Treasury.

Volunteer Defence Corps.

Chap. II.-Municipal and Local Boards.

12

3. The following is a list of all Municipal and Local Boards, with particulars of their duties and membership :-

Licensing Board-

To consider applica- 2 official members, 5 mem-

tions for the grant or

transfer

licenses.

Medical Board-

of liquor

To consider applica- 7 tions for the regis- tration of medical and surgical practi- tioners.

Sanitary Board-

To make, and when

necessary

to alter, amend or revoke, sanitary bye-laws and to consider other matters in relation to public health and sanitation.

4. Legal Systems

bers appointed by the Governor.

members appointed by

the Governor.

8 members appointed by

the Governor.

2 members elected by special and common jurors.

The "Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890," regulates the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Admiralty cases.

English common and statute law, as amended by Colonial ordinances, forms the basis of the legal system.

The Law as to civil procedure was codified by Ordinance Number 6 of 1901.

5. Finance

Details of revenue and expenditure are contained in the China Year Book and Hong Kong Blue Book.

The Colony has a small public debt. A loan of £200,000 was contracted in 1886. Another loan of £200,000 was con- tracted in 1893, and in 1894 the unredeemed balance of the first loan was converted from 4 per cent. debentures into 34 per cent. inscribed stock, thus bringing it into uniformity with the loan raised in 1893. In 1906 the Government raised a loan of £1,100,000 in London at an average price of £99 1s. Od. per cent., bearing interest at the rate of 3 per cent. This money was originally lent to the Chinese Government for the purpose of redeeming the Canton-Hankow Railway conces-

13

Chap. II.-Finance.

sions from the various persons who had acquired interests in it from the original American concessionnaires. The total cost of the loan, including expenses of issue, was £1,143,933. It has now been fully expended on railway construction within the Colony and the loan has been fully repaid.

A sum of $5,000,000 was presented in 1916 and 1917 to His Majesty's Government for war purposes, three out of the five million dollars thus voted being raised by a local loan in the former year. In 1918 a sum of £550,000 was given for the same object, while the special assessment produced $504,984 in 1917, and $1,052,760 in 1918, all of which was paid over to the Imperial authorities. At the end of 1924 the amount of the consolidated loan stood at £1,485,733, against which there was at credit of the sinking fund £467,272. Against the local loan of $3,000,000 there were the sums of $1,458,182, and £103,455 at credit of the sinking fund. The rateable value of the whole Colony in 1924-25 was $22,147,951, showing an increase of 5.16 per cent. over the previous year. The rateable value of the Colony shows an increase of 55·02 per cent in the past ten years.

Chap. III.-Races.

CHAPTER III.

14

POPULATION

1. Races; their distribution, numbers, characteristics,

physique and military value

A census taken in 1921 showed the total population of the Colony to be 625,166, but the census officers estimated that, for various reasons, the normal population was greater than that by 30,000. The smaller total, however, gave an increase of 168,427, or 36.87 per cent., on the figures for 1911-" the greatest relative increase ever recorded for the Colony." The bulk of the increase took place in the city of Victoria and Kowloon. On the island of Hong Kong there were 347,041, on the Kowloon Peninsula 123,448, in the New Territories 83,163 (i.e., 66,114 in the Northern District and 17,049 in the Southern District), and afloat 71,154. Of the boat population 38,510 were in Victoria Harbour.

The non-Chinese population was composed of 32 different nationalities, of which the following were the principal in point of numbers :-

British (4706 males and 3183 females).

Portuguese

Japanese

Americans

Filipinos

French

Dutch

Danish

Italian

Spanish

Russian

*

·

U

7889 2057

1585

470

232

• •

208

104

36

56

59

36

Twenty-one of the component parts of the British Empire were represented in the British inhabitants, of whom it was estimated that about 4,500 were of European race; the balance of 3,389 is made up of Chinese, Eurasian, Indian and other non-European British subjects.

The above census figures do not include the Navy or the Regular Army.

For latest figures see Hong Kong Blue Book, issued annually.

15

Chap. III.-Races.

It will be seen that a large proportion of the non-British and non-Chinese population consists of Portuguese, who are loyal and prosperous and are on the whole of good physique. There is a great distinction between the Portuguese and other Europeans. The Portuguese of Hong Kong form a European community settled in the Tropics, thoroughly acclimatized, and apparently not recruited to any extent from Europe. In one sense, therefore, they are indigenous; but in another, alien, as they retain their allegiance to their own country, and their connection with the Portuguese colony of Macao.

The Chinese largely outnumber any other race, and under British rule are, generally, well conducted. About one-third of them are British subjects by birth. They are drawn chiefly from the neighbouring maritime province of Kuang-Tung, and may be classified under the following heads :-

(a) PUN-TEI, or native Cantonese. The Cantonese form a highly reputable section of the Chinese popula- tion; they include most of the better class merchants, artisans, servants and labourers. They have frequently proved themselves useful members of the community. Most of the Tan-ka, or boat people, of whom many thousands spend their lives on junks and sampans in Hong Kong harbour, are of the Pun-tei race. (b) HAK-KA. These people, as their name signifies in Chinese, are strangers." Coming originally from the north, they have formed large settlements in various parts of China, especially in the neigh- bourhood of Wai-chow. They are a simple people, pig-headed and often careless about the truth. They supply the barbers, stonecutters, and gardeners of the Colony.

"

(c) HOKLOS, from the neighbourhood of Chin-chow and Swatow. The carriers of the "chairs and pullers of rickshas, which are still extensively used, are drawn from this race.

The Chinese urban population (mostly Pun-tei) has been attracted to Hong Kong by opportunities of business and appreciation of its security, not, in the main, as to a home, but as a miner to his camp; to a place where gold is to be won for enjoyment elsewhere. The average urban Chinese never regards Hong Kong in any other light. He usually returns to his village at least once a year, and, if he dies in Hong Kong, his body is sent home for burial. This does not, however, prevent him from establishing domestic ties in Hong Kong, but the proportion of children to adults is less than it is in

Chap. III.--Races.

16

the case of his compatriots of the rural and boat populations. The rural population of the New Territory is mainly engaged in agriculture and fishing, and is, as a rule, orderly and well behaved.

The Chinese are well built and proportioned, but short in stature, especially in the south, where it is an exception to see a man of six feet in height, the average being five feet four Both sexes inches for adult males and five feet for women. are capable of heavy manual labour, and are unaffected by extremes of climate.

In Kuang-tung Province the Chinese have assimilated the original inhabitants, whose features are now perpetuated in the faces of nominal Chinese. The skinny necks, the simian mouths, and the out-turned feet are marks which can be readily recognized.

It is impossible to define the characteristics of a people who, to a Western observer, display so many contradictory elements "" The of character. Thus Mr. Henry Norman, in his book, Far East," written before medical science was so far advanced, describes the Chinaman and the mosquito as being two great mysteries of creation, while no two writers agree in their descriptions of the predominant traits observed. Any reader, therefore, who wishes to get some insight into Chinese idiosyn- crasies would do well to study the many books devoted to the subject.

(6

The following extracts, as quoted on pages 141-166 of Things Chinese," from Sir Walter Medhurst's writings on the subject of the Chinese people, furnish, perhaps, the most apt description of the particular characteristics of those dwelling within the Colony :-

The Chinese are good agriculturists, mechanics, labourers, and sailors, and they possess all the intelligence, delicacy of touch, and unwearying patience which are necessary to render them first-rate machinists and manufacturers. They are, moreover, docile, sober, thrifty, industrious, self-denying, enduring, and peace-loving to a degree. They are equal to any climate, be it hot or frigid, and all that is needed is teach- ing and guiding, combined with capital and enterprise, to convert them into the most efficient workmen to be found on the face of the earth. John Chinaman is a most temperate They are a sociable people among themselves, and their courtesies are of a most laboured and punctilious character.

The Chinese are essentially a reading people. The Chinese have not, it is true, that delicate percep- tion of what the claims of truth and good faith demand, which is so highly esteemed among Westerners, but they know and prize both characteristics, and practical illustrations thereof

creature.

17

Chap. III.-Races.

are constantly observable in their relations one with the other and with foreigners.

Honesty is by no means à rare virtue with the Chinese.

Both kindness and cruelty, gentleness and ferocity, have each its place in the Chinese character, and the sway which either emotion has upon their minds depends very much upon the associations by which they are for the moment surrounded. When in their own quiet homes, pursuing undisturbed the vocations to which they have been accustomed, there are no more harmless, well- intentioned, and orderly people. They actually appear to maintain order as if by common consent, independent of all surveillance or interference on the part of the Executive, but let them be brought into contact with bloodshed or rapine, or let them be aroused by oppression or fanaticism, and all that is evil in their disposition will at once assert itself, inciting them to the most fiendish and atrocious acts of which human nature has been found capable."

The law-abiding qualities of the Chinese are accounted for if it is realized that in China the unit is not the individual but the family, and a family thus becomes responsible for the good behaviour of its members, while the greatest respect is shown to the "elders." This system of mutual respon- sibility among all classes acts innately as a great deterrent from serious crime and defalcations. But it is obviously not a system which can be enforced by the government of the Colony, which applies towards the Chinese the Western methods of holding the individual responsible. Conse- quently, individualism is showing itself more and more at the open ports, and is breaking up slowly, but irresistibly, collectivism and the family system.

The ignorance of the laws of hygiene, which characterizes all Chinese, and their apparent contempt for those laws even when understood by them, are well known, and even under the strict supervision which is exercised by the sanitary authorities throughout the Colony, these characteristics are a standing menace to the health of the European community. To a foreign observer it is a matter of surprise why the various diseases which this ignorance and defiance of natural laws invite, do not exterminate the Chinese altogether. While vast numbers of people do die every year of diseases entirely preventable, the fact that the number of such persons is not infinitely greater, argues, on the part of the Chinese, a marvel- lous capacity to resist disease and to recover from it. The readiness of the Chinese to throw away their lives on very slight provocation is a characteristic as marked as the tenacity of their hold upon them.

As regards the inhabitants of Southern China, Mr. Putnam

(B307/177)x

Chap. III. Religions.

18

Weale, in his book, The Reshaping of the Far East,” says: "Southern China does not contain much of the true Chinaman. It has mixed so many peoples in its pot that the vices of the half-caste and quarter-caste are uppermost, and superstition holds sway with a strength it does not possess elsewhere. The southern coast is, moreover, the old pirate coast, which the Manchus have never properly comprehended. It is the land of stinkpots and dastardly attacks on sailing ships in former days."

The military value of the Chinese inhabitants of Hong Kong and South China is very low indeed. Why this should be so it is difficult to explain, since they possess so many of the characteristics which go to make a good soldier. At times and under certain conditions they can be as brave as any; under other conditions none are more cowardly. Some privations and physical exertions they will endure with unequalled patience; others, to European eyes far less trying, will overcome them. They are wonderfully patient and intelligent as a rule, and, as a corollary to this, can show great obstinacy and stupidity.

But whatever their individual military characteristics may be, few will dispute that they have hitherto shown themselves almost worthless as combatant soldiers.

2. Religions

The following remarks (extracted from the China Year Book") on religions in China, are applicable, generally, to Hong Kong.

It is customary to speak of the religions of China as three in number-Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Probably a more correct statement of the facts would be that China, apart from the monastical profession of Buddhism, merely recognizes one religion based on a belief in the animation of the universe with good and evil spirits, which finds expression, as one writer has said, in countless acts of propitiation or exorcism, all designed to preserve or restore the proper balance of power between good and evil," and that in this religion are included (1) ancestor worship, the very core of the religions and social life of the people; (2) Confucianism-a moral code rather than a form of worship; (3) Taoism; and (4) Buddhism, the last two supplying the forms of ritual or outward observ- ance without calling for any corresponding degree of religious faith.

Ancestor-worship enters into the life of the Chinese as a religion in a more real form than any other system. The spirits of ancestors are worshipped, and attempts to merit their goodwill and kindly offices are made more conscien-

19

Chap. III.-Religions.

tiously than in the dealings with the numerous deities incor- porated with Taoism and Buddhism. The worship of ancestors is a natural corollary to Confucianism, though antecedent to it.

an

CONFUCIANISM.-The teaching of Confucius was less original philosophy than an attempt to inculcate a standard of morality based on his interpretation of history as he had read it. It is impossible to over-rate his influence on the moral, social and political life of his fellow-countrymen, and that influence, though possibly on the wane now, has extended over 2,000 years. The cult of Confucianism, as practised in modern times, did not, however, become fully established until many centuries after the Sage's death. He is not worshipped

as a god, but sacrifices were officially offered to his manes by the Emperor, in the name of the State, and in numerous temples throughout the country, by officials. The cult, however, does not appeal to the masses, the temple obser- vances being confined to the official classes and the literati. At the same time, Confucian ideals of life and conduct permeate the whole people.

TAOISM. Taoism is, theoretically, the development of a philosophy the doctrine of the right way, the "return " to which represents the consummation of supreme happiness— enunciated by, or rather attributed to, Lao-tzu (flor. 570 B.C.). As practised to-day in China, Taoism is a debased ritual, embodying a polytheistic hotchpotch of witchcraft and demonology. On the subject of Taoism Mr. R. F. Johnston says:-

Most of the Taoist temples (in the territory of Weihaiwei) are poor in outward appearance, and their interiors are often dirty and evil-smelling; while the images of the numerous Taoist deities are of cheap manufacture and tawdry in ornament. . . It is only the larger temples that have resident priests.

The official duties of the priests consist in very little more than looking after the temple buildings, seeing to the repair of the images when their clay arms and legs fall off (this is a duty they often shirk), and calling the attention of the deities to the presence of visitors who have brought offerings and desire to offer up their prayers. Their services as magicians and retailers of charms are also invoked from time to time by private persons. Apart from these (occasional) visits the temples are usually deserted except on one or two annual occasions, such as the celebration of a local festival.

Popular Taoism provides deities or spiritual patrons for all the forces of nature, diseases (from devil-possession to toothache), wealth and rank and happiness, old age, death, childbirth, towns and villages, trades, (B307/177)x

B 2

war,

Chap. III.-Religions.

20

mountains, rivers, seas, lakes and canals, heaven and hell, sun, moon and stars, roads and places where there are no roads, thunder, every separate part and organ of the human body, and, indeed, for almost everything that is cognizable by the senses and a good deal that is not. It need hardly be said that no Taoist temple in existence contains images of all these spiritual personages, or a hundredth part of them. Each locality possesses its own favourites."

BUDDHISM.-Buddhism in China proper, where it was introduced from India during the first century of our era, bears as little resemblance to the religion in its purer forms, such as may be found in other countries, as does modern Taoism to the presumptive doctrines of Lao-tzu, If Buddhism exists anywhere in the country as a pure faith, it will be only in some of the great monasteries, and even in these the monk- hood is almost entirely a degenerate class. As a so-called religion of the people it is hardly distinguishable from Taoism, whose deities it has had to borrow largely, in order to popularize its own temples. Its hold on the people is restricted mainly to beliefs and ceremonies connected with death and burial.

The Dalai Lama is the supreme pontiff of Buddhism, the spiritual and temporal ruler of the greater part of Tibet.

MOHAMMEDANISM.-It is estimated that Mohammedanism is the religion of from fifteen to twenty millions of people in China. They are to be found mainly in Chinese Turkestan, Kansu, Shensi and Yunnan. Although

Although no disabilities are placed upon Mohammedans for their religion, they are marked off from their fellow-countrymen almost as distinctly as if they were of a separate nationality. Individual Moham- medans, however, rise to prominence in Chinese officialdom. It is a debated point to what extent Chinese Moham- medanism conforms to the tenets of Islam otherwise than in abstinence from pork; but, as one observer remarks, the fact remains that some Chinese Mohammedans do still occa- sionally make the pilgrimage to Mecca and well-attended Mohammedan mosques may yet be found in at least half the provinces of China."

CHRISTIANITY.-Christianity, as far as can be established by records, was first introduced into China by the Nestorian priest Alopen in A.D. 635. The Nestorian church was flourishing in the fourteenth century, but at the end of the sixteenth there seems to have been no trace and no memory of it. In the latter part of the thirteenth century China was visited by Roman Catholic missionaries.

The closing of the overland route to China led to a break in missionary endeavours to reach the country until the sea route had become better

better known. St. Francis Xavier

21

Chap. III.-Languages and Interpreters.

attempted to reach China, but died in 1552 at an island off the coast of Kuang-tung. From that date, however, China has been visited by a constant stream of Roman Catholic missionaries, particularly Jesuits. Their scientific knowledge has won them the favour and esteem of the Chinese.

The Roman Catholic Church is to-day represented in all parts of China: it has 50 bishoprics, and there are over 1,300 foreign missionaries.

The history of Protestant Missions in China begins with the arrival in Canton of Robert Morrison in 1807.

Until 1860 only a few ports were open to foreign trade and residence, but the Treaty of Tientsin made the wide regions of the north accessible to foreign trade and travel, and the missionaries took full advantage of it.

The manner in which so many of their fellow-countrymen faced their death in the Boxer Rising, and the immediate rising again of the mission churches amid the ruins wrought in the persecution, opened the eyes of the Chinese and awakened thought. From this time forward the Christian message gained a new and wider hearing in every department of mission work there has been steady advance, and accessions to the churches have been year by year increasingly numerous, To-day there are at work some 18,000 Protestant Missionaries and Chinese Evangelists; there are full communicants to the number of 350,000, and a Protestant Christian community in China of some 700,000 people.

3. Languages and Interpreters

The Chinese language may be divided as follows:-

(a) The ancient style, in which the classics are written; sententious, abbreviated, vague, and often unin- telligible without explanation.

(b) The literary style, less abbreviated and, therefore, more intelligible; it might be described as poetry written in prose on account of a rhythmus, as it is termed, in which it is written. The essays written by candidates are composed in this style, as are also official proclamations.

(c) The business style, which is plain enough to be intelligible; it is prose without the poetry element, and is in general use for commercial purposes, legal documents, official and business correspon- dence. Governmental, statistical and legal works are written in it.

(d) The colloquial, or spoken languages, which are divided into numerous dialects referred to below.

Chap. III.-Languages and Interpreters.

22

There are scarcely any books written in them in South China, and yet it is impossible to speak in any other language, and to the great majority of the poorer classes no other is intelligible in its entirety.

The difference between the book style and the colloquial might be likened to the difference between an ordinary English book and some highly scientific or technical work so bristling with scientific terms, technical expressions, or mathematical formula that it would be nearly incomprehensible except to one who had been specially educated for years, making such subject a speciality.

The Chinese language is very rich in nature sounds, vocal gestures, and tones, while the interjectional element appears to have had its full share in the formation of some portion of the language.

Many of the words and terms in use in the Southern Provinces are imitative of sounds in nature, of noises of falling objects, of calls and cries of animals, birds and insects, and of actions by man himself.

It may be remarked here that Englishmen are supposed to acquire Chinese with greater ease than any other Europeans, a fact which may prove an inducement to officers and others stationed in the Far East to commence learning the language of a country which appears likely in the near future to play so important a part in the destinies of the civilized world.

To appreciate the number of different dialects spoken in the various districts of China, it is necessary to realize the huge size and population of the Republic and the great antiquity of the Chinese race. The distinguished Terrien de Lacouperie produces incontestable proofs to show that the Chinese originally migrated from some point in Mesopotamia, south of the Caspian Sea, and fixes the period as being about 4,000 years ago. Chinese writers, however, assert that their legendary history began at a date calculated at 2852 B.C. to 3322 B.C. The Chinese formed their settlements in the upper valley of the Yellow River, and after pushing eastward to the sea, spread northwards and southwards as the population multiplied and increased, and absorbed or destroyed the aborigines. It is only natural, then, that with the lapse of years the manner of speech should be totally different in the various parts of the country, which may be said to fall into three grand divisions : the dry North, the Yang-tze belt, and the Southern Provinces.

The people of the north speak a clean-sounding dialect, Mandarin (called, in Chinese, Kuan-hua), which is the official language of the Republic; in the Yang-tzu belt the speech,

23

Chap. III.-Languages and Interpreters.

which is clear and distinct in the north, becomes more slurred and soft; it is still the official or Mandarin dialect, but each mile farther south you go the harsh gutteral tends to disappear and be replaced by the softer labial. Around the basin of the Yang-tze the gutturals have entirely disappeared and the Che-Kiang Chinese are even laughed at by everybody else as having women's voices.

It will thus be recognized that Mandarin, or variations of it, is understood throughout the Northern and Central Pro- vinces; passing, however, to Southern China, where the inhabitants are but half Chinese in their origin, a traveller is dismayed at the dialects spoken in Kuang-tung, Kuang-hsi, Kuei-chou, and Fukien, for each is an entirely different language from the other and quite distinct from Mandarin ; in fact, few Chinese, excepting the natives of the province, can acquire the dialects of the region, and there is no Chinese but will hold up his hands in horror when you mention this bird-chattering language, but Mandarin, or a variation of it, is, however, understood in Yun-nan, the fifth Province of Southern China.

Cantonese is somewhat akin to the ancient language of China (spoken about 3,000 years ago), while the Hak-ka also contains traces of a high antiquity; in fact, it may be said that all the languages spoken in the south-east of China have traces of the ancient speech.

After the division of dialects proper, of which there are about eight, there are the lesser divisions of sub-dialects and local patois, and it is quite a fallacy to believe that a man who knows one of the dialects, such, for instance, as Cantonese, is then a perfect master of all that may be said by people speaking that language. The real facts of the case will be better understood if one instances the bewilderment of a cockney when stranded amongst a crowd of Yorkshiremen speaking the Yorkshire dialect in its broadest.

Mandarin, as the official dialect, is most widespread; almost all high officials require a knowledge of Mandarin, and those who do not already know it, generally have to learn it. The other languages of China are spoken by smaller populations. but the numbers are still large enough to command respect. Thus 20,000,000 Chinese speak Cantonese in some form or another, and this language is in use throughout the larger part of the Kuang-tung Province, while about one-third of the people of this province speak Hak-ka; in the north-east of the same province there is also a considerable population speaking the Swatow dialect and its variations.

Many of the Chinese in the neighbourhood of Hong Kong and the Treaty Ports have evinced a great desire to learn

Chap. III.-Education.

24

English, as the Chinese are shrewd enough to see that the potentialities of wealth are present in a knowledge of the foreigners' tongue. Of late years this desire has spread, and the Chinese Government itself has taken the movement under its fostering care, and as long ago even as 1896 instructions were issued to the various Viceroys and Governors throughout the Chinese Empire to establish schools for the teaching of the English language, while schools under British Government control have long been established for the same purpose in Hong Kong.

"

The most common means of intercourse between Europeans and Chinese in Hong Kong and the Treaty Ports is Pidgin- English." This mongrel talk is a literal translation of a Chinese sentence into English words, or the Chinese idea of such, for their pronunciation is defective and the letter "r" is dropped and "1" substituted. A few of the words employed are, however, Chinese, so distorted as to be almost past recognition, while Portuguese, Malay, and Indian have also added a few words to the vocabulary; the result is a wonderful gibberish which new-comers often find it useful to learn.

For various reasons there is practically nobody now serving in the British Army with a useful knowledge of Cantonese, or any of the dialects spoken in South China.

There are, however, a number of good interpreters of British race to be found among Hong Kong Government civil servants, missionaries, and merchants, from which any military require- ments can be satisfied. In addition, a large number of Chinese have a good knowledge of English.

4. Education

The most important schools are Queen's College and the Ellis Kadoorie School, at which, though the majority of the pupils are Chinese, some Indians, and a few Japanese attend; the Belilios Public School for Chinese girls, and a Government school for Indians at Soo-kum-poo.

Central School and Kowloon Junior and Victoria schools for children of British parentage have an average attendance of 204. There is also a school for the children of the Peak district with an average attendance of 45. The Diocesan School and Orphanage and St. Joseph's College are important boys' schools in receipt of an annual grant. The Italian, French, and St. Mary's Convents, and the Diocesan Girls' School are the most important of the English schools for girls.

The Hong Kong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for higher education of students who have left school.

The University of Hong Kong, incorporated under the

25

Chap. III.-Labour.

local University Ordinance, 1911, and opened in 1912, is a residential university for students of both sexes for the promotion of arts, science and learning, the provision of higher education, and the development and formation of the character of students of all races, nationalities and creeds.

The University includes the three Faculties of Medicine, Engineering and Art. Admission to all faculties is condi- tional upon passing the matriculation examination of the University or some examination recognized as equivalent thereto.

5. Labour available in different districts ;

normal

wages; how best obtained and organized; availability outside its own district; types of tools used.

In normal times there is an ample supply of labour to meet all requirements. The big engineering and shipbuilding firms employ large numbers of skilled men, and coolie labour (both male and female) is available in large quantities.

AVERAGE RATE OF WAGES FOR LABOUR, 1929.

Domestic servants ..

Gardeners

Labourers

Blacksmiths and fitters Carpenters and joiners Masons and bricklayers Painters

$15 to $40 a month. $12 to $25 a month. 50 c. to 75 c. a day. $1 to $2.50 a day.

$1 to $1.75 a day.

$1 to $1.50 a day.

30 c. to 75 c. a day.

Domestic servants expect only lodging in addition to their pay, but in some cases it may be necessary to provide board for artisans and labourers.

Chinese contractors and employers obtain labour at from 25 to 50 per cent. less wages than the above.

The present tendency is for all wages to go up to meet the increased cost of living.

The majority of big firms obtain their labour through Chinese compradors, who are responsible for supplying all labour required and for issuing pay. Coolies are generally organized in gangs of 20 with a headman for each gang. As most of the labourers come from Canton it can be said that labour is generally available for use in any part of the Colony. Skilled men use the same tools as Europeans. Transport has hitherto been generally effected by coolies carrying baskets slung over their shoulders by means of bamboo poles, but more modern methods are being introduced to meet the rising cost of labour.

Chap. III.-Attitude towards Foreigners.

6. Attitude towards foreigners

26

CHINESE. The proximity of Canton, which for centuries past has been a turbulent city and whose inhabitants are easily swayed by anti-foreign propaganda, must always be considered a factor in any estimate of the true sentiments of the Chinese population of Hong Kong towards Europeans.

A generation or so ago the normal attitude of the Chinese mind, official and unofficial, was one of condescension towards, not to say contempt for, or even hatred of, a people utterly different from themselves in language, dress, habits and customs.

In recent years, however, a closer and wider contact between Chinese and Europeans has brought certain facts to the attention of both, which show that this attitude can no longer be reasonably maintained, and it has been considerably modified, though by no means abandoned. Among the better classes on both sides there is a real appreciation of the good qualities of each other.

Of the peasantry, which composes by far the greater portion of the population of China, it may be said that they possess the good qualities almost always to be found among their class all over the world. In normal times and under normal conditions they show marked courtesy and consideration towards foreigners.

All Chinese appear, however, to be exceptionally susceptible to intimidation, and when subjected to it are liable to act in a manner which makes their friends despair of their ever reaching a level higher than that on which they at present exist. Unfortunately, there is a small but vociferous class in China which frequently exerts itself to work on this failing of its countrymen. This class is largely composed of those who have been educated abroad, and have returned with a grossly inflated idea of their own importance. They are consequently discontented, and as there is no market for the qualifications which they have acquired abroad, they are apt to turn, as they do in other countries besides China, to agitation and intrigue. The average Chinese, when worked on by such people, seems almost to go mad, and to strike against any foreign interests or persons within his reach.

As a rule, however, the attitude of the poorer classes is one of complete indifference to all that does not immediately concern them, and it is only by acting on their easily aroused apprehensions that they can be moved from their apathy.

During the past few years the whole of China has been in the hands of leaders who have impoverished the country by a series of fruitless civil wars. The student class has attributed much of the resulting misery to the foreigner, and has stirred

27

Chap. III.-Diet.

up a strong anti-foreign feeling. When the strike of the Chinese in Hong Kong started in June, 1925, à large pro- portion of the strikers who had originally migrated from the main-land went back to Canton, but they soon returned to Hong Kong. There is little doubt that a large number of the strikers were really unwilling to strike, but were intimi- dated into doing so by threats that their relations in Canton would be victimized if they remained at work.

The Chinese who remained in Hong Kong were orderly and easily controlled. Judging by the experience gained from the strikes of 1922 and 1925, it is thought that the attitude of the Chinese in Hong Kong during any emergency would be one of passive neutrality on the part of the majority, while only a small proportion would be actively friendly or hostile. Riots on a large scale are not anticipated, and it is thought that order could always be maintained by the existing police with small detachments of military in reserve.

PORTUGUESE.-It may be assumed that the Portuguese would be actively friendly in any emergency in the future, as they have been in the past.

7. Diet

Rice is the staple article of diet.

The following diet for a Chinese male prisoner sentenced to imprisonment with hard labour gives an idea of the food required by a Chinese workman to keep him in good condition :-

Rice.. Vegetables Chutney Oil Salt

Tea

Congee (rice gruel)

Rice..

Fresh fish

Chutney

Oil

Salt

Tea

+

8. Foreign residents

11 oz.

11 oz.

2 oz.

Breakfast.

1 oz.

ΟΖ.

Oz.

1 pint 12 oz.

11.0 a.m.

2 oz.

ΟΖ.

Supper.

OZ.

OZ.

Oz.

The number of foreigners in the Colony has been shown in statistics given at the beginning of this chapter. The most

བསམ་*

Chap. III.-Foreign Residents.

28

numerous non-British foreigners are the Portuguese, who are mainly engaged in trade.

The following nations have consular representatives in the Colony :-

General acts as Consul-

Belgium.

(French Consul-

Mexico.

Netherlands.

General for Belgium.)

Nicaragua.

Bolivia.

Brazil.

Norway. Panama.

Chili.

Denmark.

France.

Guatemala.

Italy.

Japan

Peru.

Portugal.

Siam. Spain. Sweden.

U.S.A.

29

Chap. IV. General Description.

CHAPTER IV.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. General description (See Map G.S.G.S. No. 1393B)

Hong Kong is the naval base and headquarters of His Majesty's ships on the China Station, and is the only Imperial coaling station for the British Navy east of Singapore.

The colony has attained very great commercial importance and prosperity by reason of its favourable geographical position, unequalled steamship communications, excellent harbour facilities, and the proximity and ready accessibility of the populous Canton river delta.

The total area of the colony is 410 square miles, of which the main-land contains 286, Hong Kong Island 29, and the other islands the remainder. About one-sixth of the whole area is flat and highly cultivated land; the remainder is mountainous and unproductive.

2. Frontiers

The boundaries of the colony are shown on the map. They extend up to high water mark on the Chinese territory bounding Mirs and Deep Bays,

On the main-land the frontier is clearly marked for the greater part of its length by the Sham-chun River.

It should be noted that the line which separates Kowloon from New Kowloon also divides territory ceded to Great Britain from that which is only leased to her for a period of 99 years from 1898.

3. Principal Towns

For the purposes of this Report, the towns of Victoria and Kowloon, though divided by the harbour, may be con- sidered as one, and the following particulars apply to them taken jointly :—

(a) Population--about 750,000.

(b) The type of house varies from Chinese to European.

Chap. IV.-Principal Towns.

30

The lay-out and streets

and streets are modern, and a great deal of billeting accommodation could be found.

(c) The towns are administered by the government, which constitutes the only executive municipal authority.

(d) The principal government buildings and all foreign consulates are in Victoria, which is also the commercial centre of the Colony.

(e) Several government and other hospitals are located in both towns.

The Military Hospital, Hong Kong, a three-story brick building, occupies one of the very best situations in Victoria. It is on an elevation of about 500 feet, over- looking the harbour and is open to all sea breezes. It has accommodation for 100 beds, including 12 for officers. The hospital contains the usual modern operating theatre, X-ray department, and pathological laboratory. Quarters for nursing sisters, R.A.M.C. personnel and their families are provided close to the hospital. There is no military families hospital in Hong Kong, women and children requiring admission to hospital being sent to the Civil General Hospital (for medical and surgical complaints); maternity cases are sent to the Victoria Hospital.

A military hospital of 100 beds for native troops is situated at Kowloon; it consists of a number of brick buildings on the bungalow plan; it also is well equipped on modern lines.

Mount Austin Barracks, situated on the Peak, is the only so-called sanatorium for the troops. It has accom- modation for two companies and about six married families. As these barracks form a part of the regular accommodation for the British infantry in Hong Kong, their use as a sanatorium is limited. However, arrange- ments are made for the changing of companies from time to time from the Lower Level to the Peak. Convalescent soldiers are sent to Mount Austin on discharge from hospital after a protracted illness. A military sanatorium used to exist at Magazine Gap, about 1,000 feet above sea level. It was destroyed by a typhoon in 1923 and has not since been rebuilt. It was used to accommodate a company of Royal Artillery at a time.

The Naval Hospital is a well-equipped modern hospital, where the sick from the Royal Navy at Hong Kong are treated. It has a staff of three medical officers and three nursing sisters, all of whom are accommodated in the hospital grounds.

The hospitals supported by the Colonial Government

31

Chap. IV. Principal Towns.

are the Government Civil Hospital, the Victoria Hospital for women and children, the Kowloon Hospital, the Lunatic Asylum, and the Kennedy Town Hospital. Patients are admitted to these institutions on payment of 8, 5, or 2 dollars per diem, according to the class of ward. There are also free beds. Both Europeans and Asiatics are admitted. The Government Civil Hospital provides 196 beds in 23 wards. There are 5 maternity wards providing 16 beds. The Victoria Hospital for women and children is situated on the Peak, and provides 41 beds. This institution is being enlarged by the addition of a maternity block containing 20 beds. The Kowloon Hospital provides 48 beds in 11 wards. The Lunatic Asylum provides accommodation for 40 patients.

Kennedy Town Hospital is reserved for infectious diseases, but is rarely used for cases other than smallpox. It provides 26 beds.

The Peak Hospital, formerly a private institution owned by a firm of doctors, is now a Government institu- tion, but is still run as a nursing home. The fees charged are 10 and 5 dollars per diem, according to ward.

The Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals are partially endowed missionary institutions for treatment of Chinese.

The Sharp Memorial Hospital is an endowed institu- tion, situated on the Peak, for the treatment of Europeans who cannot afford to pay large fees.

The Tung Wah Hospital is a Chinese philanthropic institution for the native sick. The patients have the option of Chinese or English treatment. An English Government doctor inspects it periodically.

A matron, 3 assistant matrons, and 35 Eurpoean nursing sisters are employed in the Government hospitals, and two are provided for outside nursing. Chinese girls are trained as nurses at the Government Civil Hospital. There is also a well-equipped Bacteriological Institute and an Analytical Laboratory.

(f) Banks.-As an important centre, Hong Kong has many banks; some of the most important are :—

i. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation; ii. The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China; iii. The Mercantile Bank of India ;

iv. The International Bank;

but there are many others. All are located in Victoria.

Chap. IV. Principal Towns.

32.

(g) Engineering works of all kinds are situated in both towns. Dockyards constitute the most important of these.

(h) Electric power for the Island is provided from a station at North Point, and for Kowloon by one at Hunghom. The former generates 5,000 and the latter 3,500 kilowatts.

(i) Victoria has an electric tramway system extending along the north of the Island, with a total length of about 10 miles. It operates 54 cars, each carrying 50 passengers.

(j) The principal sources of water supply for Victoria are the Tai-tam reservoirs, and for Kowloon, the Kowloon and Shek-li-pui reservoirs. These provide a supply sufficient for all ordinary present needs. There are also reservoirs at Pok- fu-lum and Aberdeen.

Increasing population having led to the imposition of restrictions in years when rainfall is below the average, extensive new sources of supply are being developed in the Shing Mun Valley.

Both in Hong Kong and Kowloon all public water supplies are from upland surfaces, and purification is by sedimentation, sand filtration and chlorination. The water is soft and of excellent quality.

(k) A water-carried sewage system has to some extent replaced earth closets. Where the latter are in use the excreta are removed by coolies and sold to Chinese contractors for agricultural purposes.

During abnormally dry seasons only an intermittent water supply can be provided. This leads to storage of water in all sorts of receptacles and to the irregular and indifferent flushing of water closets, with the attendant sanitary evils. This matter is receiving the very particular attention of the Colonial Government at the present time, and it is hoped that when the scheme for increased water supplies on the Island and at Kowloon have been completed these evils will disappear.

Storm water, which in Hong Kong suddenly increases to enormous volume, is carried off by a separate system of drains. By this means disastrous flooding of sewers is avoided.

(7) Hong Kong has a well-managed dairy farm and cold storage company. This company supplies fresh milk, eggs, poultry, fresh and chilled meat, vegetables and fruit in large quantities, both to the ships using the harbour and "to the public. The supplies are of the highest quality and the plant is of the best modern type. With this exception the towns draw almost all their supplies of every sort from overseas, except for fish. The Colony produces little more than will support its rural population.

33

4. Description of Port.

Chap. IV. Description of Port.

Hong Kong is a port which handles yearly a tonnage equal to that of the greatest ports in the world. It is equipped on a scale comparable to that of Liverpool or Southampton.

(a) CONTROL OF THE PORT.—A Harbourmaster's department, working under the Government, controls the Harbour, the limits of which are shown on the map.

(b) LANDING FACILITIES.-Personnel, animals, and stores could be landed and moved to their destinations without difficulty.

(c) LABOUR SUPPLY.-Many thousands of Chinese dock labourers are normally available. They work up to 12 hours a day for a wage equal to about 1s. 6d. They are usually reliable, but are easily intimidated by agitators of their own race, and have at times struck work for long periods. The possibility of their doing so, for reasons which cannot be foreseen, must always be borne in mind.

(d) CARGO HANDLING APPLIANCES.-Most of the cargo arriving in the Port is handled by the lifting apparatus of the ships which carry it. There exist, however, in the naval and commercial dockyards fixed and travelling cranes of all kinds with lifting capacities up to 150 tons.

(e) TRANSIT ACCOMMODATION.-Ample transit accommoda- tion for goods is available for any possible military require-

ments.

(f) ROAD AND RAIL COMMUNICATIONS.--For road and rail communications from the Port, see map. Assembly places for troops could be found on the Island, at Happy Valley, and on the Mainland, at King's Park.

(g) AVERAGE AMOUNT OF COAL AND OTHER FUEL, AND OWNERSHIP. At ordinary times from 60,000 to 100,000 tons of coal is stocked in Hong Kong. This is in the hands of various owners, of whom the principal is the Kailan Mining Administration. It is located at various points on the water front, both on the Island and on the mainland. For domestic purposes wood is largely used by the Chinese. This mostly comes down the West River, and stocks amounting to about 2,000 tons are usually held in Hong Kong.

(h) SITUATION AND LOCATION OF OIL TANKS.-The principal stocks of oil in Hong Kong are those held by the Asiatic Petroleum Company, the Standard Oil Company of New York, and the Royal Navy.

The Asiatic Petroleum Company has tanks holding in all 53,000 tons, of which 36,500 tons are held at North Point in nine tanks of capacity varying from 8,000 to 500 tons, and 16,500 at Tai-kok-tsui in seven tanks varying from 4,000 to 1,500 tons.

(B 307/177)X

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Chap. IV.-Description of Port.

34

The principal depot of the Standard Oil Company is at Lai-chi-kok, where there are 13 tanks, each holding about 7,000 tons.

The Naval oil tanks, of which there are 4 with a total capacity of 26,000 tons, are near Yau-ma-ti.

In addition to the foregoing, the Vacuum Oil Company holds stocks of lubricating oil, mostly in cases, and the Texas Company also has an establishment.

(i) DETAILS OF DOCKYARD, &c., ACCOMMODATION available at the Port are as follows.

Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company, Kaulung Docks,

Hunghom (1).

Length.

Breadth.

Depth of water over sill at ordinary spring tides.

No. 1 Dock (Admiralty)

700 ft.

86 ft. at en- trance at top 70 ft. at en- at

30 ft.

18 ft. 6 in.

371 ft. on keel

blocks

264 ft. on keel

blocks

No. 2 Dock

No. 3 Dock

Patent

No. 1 Patent

No. 2

Slip

Slip

230 ft. on keel

blocks

240 ft. on keel

blocks

trance bottom

74 ft. at en-

trance

49 ft. 3 in. at

entrance

60 ft. at en-

trance

60 ft. at en-

trance

14 ft.

14 ft. depth on

blocks. 12 ft. depth on

blocks.

The approaches to the docks are perfectly safe, and the immediate vicinity affords capital anchorage. The docks are substantially built throughout with granite. Powerful lifting shears with steam purchase stand on a solid granite sea-wall, alongside which vessels can lie and take in or out boilers, guns, &c. Capacity of shears, 70 tons. Depth of water alongside at low tide, 24 feet. There is good access to the docks by road.

All up-to-date engineering appliances are available, and steamers up to 700 feet in length can be built. There is a length of 1,000 feet of wharfage in Hunghom Bay, with a depth alongside of 5 feet to 45 feet, and steam shears of 100 and 15 tons,

Kowloon Marino (2).-Reclamation works are still in

35

Chap. IV.-Description of Port.

progress here, and there is every likelihood that the biggest developments for the provision of wharves and docks will take place here. There is good access to the railway. The area at present available forms an excellent site for the forming up of troops.

Holt's Wharf (3).—Can berth two ships with a draught of 25 feet at L.W.O.S.T. Four steam cranes available. Barrier for sheltering lighters. Good transit sheds and warehouse accommodation. Direct access to road and rail. Direct access to assembly ground at (2)

Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Co.'s Piers (4).-Capacity for berthing ships :-

Maximum draught of vessels which may berth alongside at L.W.O.S.T. :-

Number of ships which may berth simultaneously..

25 feet

28 feet

30 feet

22221

32 feet

Steam cranes on rails can go alongside any ship. There are extensive transit sheds and warehouses. No direct access to rail. There is a good road running at the back of the transit sheds.

Man-of-War Anchorage (5).-Torpedo depot and coal sheds. Oil store for the Navy. Vessels of 20 feet draught can lie alongside the western side of the jetty at the coaling camber by placing lighters of 20 feet beam between them and the wall.

Yau-ma-ti Shelter (6).—This is a typhoon shelter for junks and small craft.

Asiatic Petroleum Company's Wharf (7).-Pipe lines laid to the jetty for bunkering ships. Depth alongside, 21 feet.

Cosmopolitan Dock (8).-Length on keel blocks, 466 feet; breadth at entrance, 85 feet 6 inches. Depth of water on sill at ordinary spring tides, 20 feet. There is 550 feet of wharfage alongside, with depths of 8 to 15 feet, deepening rapidly off, and there are steam shears of 20 tons. The approaches to the docks are safe, and there is good anchorage in the vicinity.

Standard Oil Company's Wharf (9).—There are no arrange- ments here for bunkering ships.

Standard Oil Company's Wharf (10).—There are no arrange- ments here for bunkering ships.

China Merchants' Pier and Jardine's Wharf (11).—Maximum

(B 307/177)X

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C 2

Chap. IV. Description of Port.

36

draught of vessels which may berth alongside at L.W.O.S.T., 23 feet. Number of vessels which may berth simultane- ously, 3.

Between (10) and (11) there are many go-downs, but no accommodation for berthing large vessels.

Douglas Pier Central (12).-Maximum draught of vessels which may berth alongside at L.W.O.S.T., 26 feet. Number of vessels which may berth simultaneously, 2. No cranes are available and no warehouses.

Between (11) and (12) a large passenger and cargo trade with riverine ports is carried on.

The whole of the area behind the sea-front between (10) and (12) is very crowded and the facilities for moving troops and stores in this neighbourhood are not good.

Naval Dockyard (13).-This contains a dry dock 490 feet long, and has berths available to take two ships on the outer wall with a draught of 28 feet. It is the most suitable place for the disembarkation of troops and guns on Hong Kong Island.

Causeway Bay Shelter (14).-Typhoon shelter for junks and small craft.

Asiatic Petroleum Wharf (15).—Berthing available here for one oil tanker to discharge, and ships up to a draught of 24 feet to bunker.

GENERAL REMARKS.-The majority of vessels are coaled from lighters. The berthing accommodation is at present very limited.

limited. The majority of big ships load from and unload into lighters. Very extensive harbour development has been planned. The greatest developments will probably take place in Hunghom Bay. (For details, see Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce Report for 1924.).

LABOUR.-Dock labourers are all Chinese. As explained in Chapter III, the population of Hong Kong is a migratory one and it is impossible to say how many labourers would be available in any emergency.

In normal times there is ample labour to meet all demands.

OUTSIDE THE LIMITS OF HONG KONG HARBOUR. Tai-koo Docks. (16)-The main dock has been built to Admiralty requirements.. The dimensions are 787 feet extreme length-750 feet on the blocks-120 feet wide at the coping-77 feet wide at the bottom-88 feet width of entrance at the top-82 feet width of entrance at bottom- 34 feet 6 inches over centre of sill at high water spring tides- 31 feet depth over sides of sill at high water spring tides. The dock has been designed to permit of further increase in

37

Chap. IV. Description of Port.

its length if it should become necessary. It can be filled in 45 minutes and pumped out in 2 hours 40 minutes.

There are also three slipways.

Number 1

Numbers 2 and 3

Length. 1030 feet.

Width.

80 feet.

9931 feet.

60 feet.

No. 1 ..

Nos. 2 and 3

Length.

Steamers that can be taken.

Draught.

Displacement.

325 feet. 18 feet.

3000 tons.

300 feet. 17 feet.

2000 tons.

The building yard is 550 feet long and 500 feet wide, and has been equipped to construct torpedo boat destroyers and all sorts of passenger and cargo steamers.

The engine-shops are extensive and complete. They are capable of undertaking the building of all classes of steam engines, including geared turbines. The chief motive power is electricity generated by gas engines, the gas producing plant being the largest installed in the Far East.

The electric shears, situated on the sea-wall, lift 100 tons at a radius of 70 feet, and wagon and crane roads run the entire length. The sea-wall, which forms the boundary of the yard, is 3,200 feet long. There is a depth of 39 feet at high water spring tides along the greater part of the wall, which will enable ships of any size to berth alongside. The exits from the docks to the main road are not good, and it would be a matter of some difficulty to transport heavy stores from the docks.

Aberdeen Harbour (17).—A safe and well-sheltered harbour. It is so narrow that vessels over 200 feet long cannot lie at anchor without blocking the fairway. Owing to the docks at Aberdeen it is frequently visited by vessels of considerable size, but they either go directly into dock or secure between two mooring buoys off the docks.

buoys off the docks. Fishing vessels resort to Aberdeen in great numbers, and the harbour is generally crowded with them.

The docks are as follows:-

Length on keel blocks.

Breadth at entrance.

Depth of water on blocks at

O.S.T.

Ft.

Ft.

In.

Ft.

Hope Dock

466

85

6

23

Lamont Dock..

333

64

0

16

Chap. IV.-Anchorages.

38

(k) The port of Hong Kong is not at present equipped as a seaplane base, but the nature of its harbour and its great resources would enable it to be used as such with very little preparation.

5. Anchorages and landing places other than ports

(a) The coast is very rugged and rocky; there are, however, numerous places where landings would be possible from ships, which could lie in deep and sheltered waters within a few hundred yards of the coast.

(b) The beaches are generally of firm sand, up to 500 yards in extent, sloping at about 1/20 to deep water.

(c) No facilities exist for making wharves.

(d) Anchorages are usually sheltered and have good holding ground.

(e) Communications along the shore, or inland, are, except by the roads marked on the map, very bad. They consist of nothing but a few steep and difficult footpaths impassable, without great labour, to any but infantry and, occasionally, pack animals.

(f) Good camping grounds in the neighbourhood of landing places can rarely be found.

(g) Water supply, from the streams marked on the map, is generally ample, but in winter some of them dry up. The water would, however, generally need purifying.

(h) Covering positions can in almost all cases be found close to landing places.

(i) Landing at all places except those protected by fixed or movable armament could be covered by naval gun fire.

(j) There are no special facilities for the defence of the beaches against landing, beyond those afforded by sharply rising and scrub-covered hills. There is, however, a great difficulty, in that communications by land to almost all the landing places are so bad that a defending force would be much delayed in moving to oppose a landing.

(k) The many sheltered inlets around the coast could, if required, be used as seaplane bases and anchorages. (See) Chapter X.)

39

Chap. V. Geology.

CHAPTER V.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

1. Geology

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Hong Kong is of igneous origin; the surface is mostly disintegrated or decomposed granite, red earth, and hard rock; but beds of clay are found in several places, even on the tops of some of the higher hills. Embedded in the red earth are huge round boulders of hard blue stone and grey granite, the latter having the quartz, mica, and felspar well propor- tioned and of the best description for building purposes. The granite is, however, concretionary in its structure and irregular in character, and here and there are to be seen large masses of solid stone, which have resisted decomposition and lie embedded in the surrounding matrix.

2. Mountains

The whole Colony, including the New Territories, is extremely hilly. On the Island of Hong Kong the highest peaks are Victoria Peak, 1,768 feet; Mount Parker, 1,733 feet; Mount Kellett, 1,666 feet; and Mount Cameron, 1,500 feet. On the main-land they are Tai-mo-shan, 3,150 feet; Ma-on-shan, 2,310 feet; Pat-sin-Peak, 2,095 feet; Buffalo Hill, 1,992 feet; and many others exceeding 1,000 feet..

On Lan-tau Island a peak of the same name is 3,065 feet. On the Island of Hong Kong there are eight gaps over the main ridge, as follows:-

Mt. Davis Gap

Victoria Gap

Plunket's Gap

Magazine Gap

Wan-chai Gap

Wong-nai-chung Gap

Quarry Bay Gap

Tai-tam Gap

Feet.

385

1

1,250

1,340

787

700

687

980

600

Chap. V. Rivers.

40

There are six passes through the Kowloon Hills, which lie immediately to the north and east of the Kowloon Peninsula in the vicinity of the old frontier line. Taking them in order from east to west, their names are :-

Customs Pass

Grasscutters Pass

Sha-tin Pass

Kowloon Pass

Feet.

763

1,325

963

1,035

Coolie Pass (between Eagle's Nest and Beacon

Hill)

Lai-chi-kok Pass

820 480

It is characteristic of the terrain of the Colony that it is either very hilly or flat. There is but little undulating country.

The hills have usually concave or uniform slopes. They are traversed by numerous paths leading in all directions, but these paths are steep and tortuous. The best of them are only fit for pack animals, and troops can only move on them in single file.

The hills thus form serious obstacles to military operations on any but a very small scale. Control and supply of large numbers of troops at a distance from the roads, which mainly follow the coast line, would be a matter of great difficulty.

Movement off the paths is often impossible, even for infantry.

3. Rivers

There is only one river or stream of any size in the Colony, the Sham-chun, which is shallow and tidal and discharges into Deep Bay. It forms a portion of the boundary between British and Chinese territory, and is navigable at high tide up to the railway bridge at Lo-fu, by boats drawing 3 feet of water.

4. Woods and Forests

The Forestry Department of the Government has in recent years caused large areas to be planted with a tree resembling the Scotch fir. This tree grows to a fair size under favourable conditions, but frequent grass fires, and the depredations of the inhabitants, do much to prevent the extension of the wooded areas.

Except for these planted trees, and the few large trees which usually surround the villages, the hills are bare except for a low scrub, and the flat country is all cultivated.

41

Chap. V.-Marshes and Swamps.

5. Marshes and Swamps

The whole of the flat country is flooded to a depth of 4 to 6 inches during the wet season, for the purpose of rice cultivation. Movement over land thus flooded is possible for infantry, but very slow.

6. Water Supply

In the rural districts and on the mountains water is plentiful, even in the dry season. Except when drawn from above the level of cultivation it must all, however, be purified before use.

7

>

Chap. VI.—Nature of Climate.

42

CHAPTER VI.

1. Nature of Climate

CLIMATE

Though Hong Kong is situated just within the Tropics, a cool winter season is created by the north-east monsoon, which blows almost continuously from October till March, after which the south-west monsoon sets in, bringing a current of hot air, which condenses on reaching the land and gives the atmosphere an exceedingly high degree of humidity during the spring and summer months. It has also a dry and rainy season, which correspond with the above respectively.

The city of Victoria on the island, and town of Kowloon on the mainland, face each other across the harbour, which at this point is only 1 miles broad, so that the high hills com- pletely surrounding this basin modify the prevailing winds, especially during the south-west monsoon.

2. Effect on Europeans

With a European death-rate of 17 per 1,000 the health of Hong Kong would at first sight appear to correspond very favourably with that of England. This figure is, however, entirely misleading, as the population is essentially a young adult one; further, when the health of a European becomes seriously impaired, he leaves the Colony.

In the following remarks on the health and climate of Hong Kong, the figures given in the annual reports on the health of the army are accurate, and may be taken as an index of young adult male Europeans' health under special con- ditions in Hong Kong. No returns are available of the same accuracy for the European civilian population.

Civilian age groups at death are not known, nor is any information whatever available as to the numbers of European civilians who are invalided home each year, nor is it known from what causes these invalids were sent home.

For these reasons it is felt that stress should be laid on the health of the garrison rather than that of Europeans generally.

43

3. Effect on Natives

Chap. VI. Effect on Natives.

The effect of the climate on natives is almost equally difficult to judge, owing to the vast majority being of the poor and ignorant classes, who only resort to medical aid when in extremis.

In such circumstances diagnosis is often incorrect, while no evidence of any kind is available as to the numbers who contract disease and subsequently recover.

This, coupled with a constantly fluctuating population, makes death-rates a very unreliable guide as to the real health of the people.

4. Health

Owing to the proximity of the island of Hong Kong to the main-land, from and to which great numbers of people cross and recross daily, it is unavoidable that occasionally ambula- tory cases of infectious disease arrive in the Colony without detection. The immense amount of shipping entering the harbour daily renders the Colony liable to the inroad of any infectious disease endemic in neighbouring ports, though very effective control is exercised by the Health Authorities over this channel of infection.

During the last thirty years a steady improvement in the health of the garrison has been observed. Hong Kong does not now rival West Africa in unenviable records of ill-health. This is not to say that Hong Kong is a healthy station for Europeans. The incidence of all diseases per 1,000 of strength has declined, but the admission rate for British troops is still nearly 800 per 1,000 per annum. The British civilian death- rate compares favourably with that of England; but, when the age distribution of the populations is considered, it is seen that the comparison is markedly in favour of England. Not only are the majority of British people young adults, but almost all of them have passed some form of medical examina- tion prior to departure from home.

The invaliding rate for British troops is now less than the rate for the whole army abroad, including India.

It has been stated that life insurance companies compute that the probable duration of life" is shortened by five years by a prolonged residence in Hong Kong."

Enteric fever, dysentery and cholera have practically disappeared.

The improvements above noted are the result of the wide- spread adoption of a water carriage system of sewage, which has largely taken the place of the earth closets formerly universal, coupled with the installation of modern pure piped

Chap. VI.-Effect on Animals.

44

water supplies and the construction of adequate surface drains, which latter have reduced the mosquito nuisance in the barracks and residential areas.

Venereal disease, malarial fever and diseases of the digestive and respiratory systems, give rise to the majority of admissions to hospital amongst British troops.

The hot, damp, relaxing climate experienced during the summer months lowers the energy of Europeans and greatly lessens their resisting power to disease.

The effects of this season are accentuated by the fact that it is not possible for residents in Hong Kong to get away for short periods of leave, as can be done in most foreign stations; there being no district having a salubrious climate during the hot season within easy reach of Hong Kong. The absence of a hill station is a great and insuperable drawback to service in this Colony.

The Peak district (altitude, 1,200-1,500 feet) is damp, foggy and enervating during the summer, but at that period it affords residents much cooler nights than are experienced at lower levels, and hence those, who can afford to, usually live there.

It is certainly more healthy than the lower levels, as not only is the climate less trying in the hot weather, but house flies and mosquitos are uncommon, while no bazaars or villages inhabited by Asiatics are permitted in the district.

5. Effect on Animals

The climate of Hong Kong may be said, on the whole, to have very little effect on the general health of animals. The cold weather is ideal for working animals, and apart from the months of July and August, when all work during the middle of the day is avoided as far as possible, no special precautions against the climate are taken.

The general condition of country-bred ponies and mules is always good, and animals received from other parts of China in a debilitated condition rapidly improve when stabled in Hong Kong.

Animals imported from other countries are said not to do so well as the country-bred animal, but probably this is largely due to dietetics, as the food produced for animals in China is altogether different from that from other countries.

6. Effect on facility of movement

During the dry season, i.e., from about the middle of October to the middle of March, much the same physical efforts can be made by troops as in a temperate climate.

45

Chap. VI.-Temperature.

During the remainder of the year the heat and humidity affect the endurance of troops, having their maximum effect during June, July, August and September, when only about 60 per cent. of a man's normal physical output can be expected without considerable wastage.

The passability of the ground is only affected by the climate, in that during the wet season almost all low-lying ground is under water and only passable by the narrow paths and banks which intersect the rice cultivation.

7. Temperature (maximum and minimum)

Records over a period of 40 years show June, July, August and September to be the hottest months, with mean maximum temperatures of 85·3°, 86·7°, 86.5° and 85.3° F. respectively. The coldest months are December, January and February, with mean minimum temperatures of 58·6°, 56·1° and 55.3° respectively.

The mean temperature for the year, over a period of 40 years, was 71.9°, while the highest and lowest temperatures recorded during the same period were 97° and 32°.

>

In connection with these temperatures it should, however, be noted that the absolute mean humidity varies from 0.39 inches in December, January and February, to 0.89 inches in July and August. The enervating effect of the high summer temperature is much increased by the excessive humidity.

8. Seasons and Rainfall

The annual rainfall for the last 40 years has averaged 84.8 inches. There is rain to a greater or lesser amount in every month of the year, but the real wet season commences in May and lasts till the end of August. During that time heavy rains are of frequent occurrence, occasionally causing floods, which do great damage. In inches, the average fall by months during the 40 years in which observations have been taken are as follows:-January, 1·3; February, 1·7; March, 2.7; April, 5.3; May, 11.8; June, 15.6; July, 13.9; August, 14.7; September, 9.8; October, 5.0; November, 1.7; December, 1.0. The highest recorded rainfall in the 40 years was as much as 20·5 inches in 24 hours in May, 1889. The mean maximum in 24 hours, however, is only 3.5 inches, also in May. The maximum fall in one hour was 3.5 inches at 3 p.m. on July 15th, 1886; and the mean maximum in one hour 1.3 inches in August. The mean relative humidity varies from 66° in November and December to 85° in April. It appears always to be higher in March and April than in the months of excessive rain, and lowest in November and

Chap. VI.-Winds and Hurricanes.

46

December. The former months are characterized as foggy, with damp that is very penetrating and harmful.

Fog is very prevalent on the higher peaks. The mean annual number of days during which fog occurs at heights between 2,000 feet and 1,000 feet is 147, and 52 days at heights between 1,000 feet and 800 feet. Only on very rare occasions is hill fog observed as low as 500 feet. March, April, May and June are the most foggy months, and September, October and November the least. The following percentages indicate the seasonal incidence of fog in groups of months at different elevations :-

Percentage of days with clouds between the 2,000 feet

and 1,000 feet levels:-

January, February, July, August; 42 per cent. March, April, May, June; 64 per cent.

September, October, November, December; 15 per

cent.

Percentage of days with clouds between the 1,000 feet

and 800 feet levels :—

January, May, June; 14 per cent. February, March, April; 33 per cent.

July to December, inclusive; 5 per cent.

Fog at sea level occurs on 37 days on the average; the monthly distribution being as follows:—

January February

on 3 days.

4

March

April..

May June..

July August September October

November December

""

"

,,

""

8

6

2

1

1

4

"}

"

"}

""

3

>>

"

1

**

13

3

JJ

"}

9. Prevalent winds and hurricanes

The prevailing winds. are from the north-east and south-west. The north-east monsoon begins in October or November, and lasts till March. The south-west monsoon begins in May and lasts intermittently till September.

Typhoons, though liable to occur throughout most of the

47

Chap. VI.—Earthquakes.

year, are more frequent during the months of July, August, September and October than any others.

(For further details see Chapter X.)

An elaborate system of typhoon warnings is in operation, and it is hardly possible for a typhoon to approach the colony without sufficient warning being received to allow of all possible precautions against damage being taken.

These precautions include the raising of steam by vessels at their moorings, and the removal of those lying alongside wharves to sheltered anchorages. For small craft and native junks special typhoon anchorages are provided.

During the summer, warnings necessitating the adoption of these precautions to a greater or less degree may be received ten or fifteen times.

Though it is comparatively rare for a typhoon actually to strike the Colony with its maximum force (during the last 40 years this has only occurred twelve times), the adoption of typhoon precautions is inevitable. They are the cause of great inconvenience and expense, as they necessitate the stoppage of all harbour traffic for from 24 to 48 hours, till the danger is past.

10. Earthquakes

Slight earth tremors are occasionally felt in Hong Kong, but they have never caused any damage.

11. Magnetic Variation

In 1926 this was 18 minutes west, and increasing by about two minutes annually. A compass can be used in all parts of the country.

12. Prevalent diseases and precautions to be taken

against them

(a) ENDEMIC AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES

Venereal Disease.--Though the incidence of venereal disease is yearly less than it was thirty or forty years ago, it still gives rise to the greatest number of admissions to hospital amongst British troops from any single cause. The admission rate increased during the years of the Great War, and has not yet gone back to the pre-war level, though an annual decline is recorded. No statistics are available to show the state of infectivity amongst the civil population, but as a result of a recent conference between the naval, military and civil authorities on the prevalence of this disease, evidence was forthcoming to show that the proportion of infected persons in Hong Kong is far higher than in England.

Chap. VI. Prevalent Diseases.

48

With the spread of education, the provision of recreation, the attention to personal hygiene, and the resort to free treat- ment which is provided for infected women, it is hoped that the incidence of this disease amongst the troops will abate.

Malarial Fever.-Although this disease does not supply the greatest number of admissions to the Military Hospital, it may be regarded as the greatest menace to the health of Europeans in Hong Kong, as it effects all ages and classes. Since it is not a notifiable disease, its incidence amongst the civil population, European or Chinese, is unknown. Europeans are, of course, all susceptible, and the majority get it during a prolonged stay in the Colony. It is stated that the Chinese do not regard it as a very serious disease, being usually con- fined to their houses for a day or so during an attack. In this connection it is interesting to note that the incidence of malaria amongst the Chinese personnel of the Civil Police is far heavier on Northern than on Southern Chinese. The number available for comparison is, however, small. and no similar figures are available showing the comparative incidence of malaria amongst Southern Chinese when resident in North China.

A very

marked diminution in the admission rate from malaria amongst British troops has occurred during the last twenty years. The annual admission rate was 500 per 1,000; it is now (1928) under 90 per 1,000.

This enormous reduction is due to the surface drainage schemes which have been carried out in and around all military barracks, coupled with the universal use of mosquito nets by the troops. Malarial fever must still be very seriously reckoned with whenever troops have to occupy camps or bivouacs or billets for any length of time, either on the island or mainland, as malaria-carrying mosquitos abound, and the number of infected Chinese is enormous. The issue of mosquito nets for troops on active service in South China would well repay the cost and transport difficulties involved. It must be remembered that the conditions in Hong Kong, where malaria has been so largely reduced, are quite artificial. Except for the mosquito nets, these conditions cannot be reproduced in the open country, and the lamentable experi- ences undergone by the troops at Stanley, where they were stationed in the early days of the colony, are likely to occur again.

Enteric fever.-In recent years diseases of the enteric group have been fortunately rare amongst British troops. During the period 1921-1928 only 8 cases were admitted to hospital.

Europeans do not now suffer to a great. extent from this disease owing to the prevalent practice of resorting to anti-

49

Chap. VI.-Prevalent Diseases.

typhoid inoculation prior to proceeding abroad, and to the vastly inproved sanitary conditions in Hong Kong.

That the disease is prevalent amongst the Asiatic population is shown by the registered death-rate, which in 1923 was 165 from this disease. Enteric is notifiable, but during that year only 256 cases were recorded (including 165 deaths). As the case-mortality is normally 12-15 per cent. of the total cases it would appear that a large number of cases occur which are not diagnosed. It is likely that 1,000 cases occur annually amongst Asiatics in Hong Kong.

Dysentery. The troops do not now suffer from this disease to any extent, though the civil population must do so, as the latest available return shows 400 deaths in one year from it amongst civilians. It is not a notifiable disease. The remarks made about the incidence of enteric fever amongst civilians apply equally to dysentery.

Plague.-Four cases with two deaths from plague occurred amongst the British troops in 1914; since then it has not made its appearance amongst the garrison owing to the energetic measures taken to render the barracks rat-proof. For nearly three years no case of rat or human plague has been reported in Hong Kong. This very remarkable record is a striking contrast to that which prevailed from 1894 to 1913, during which period plague was always present, and often was the cause of hundreds of deaths annually.

Respiratory diseases.-These diseases cause about 20-30 admissions to hospital from the troops each year, usually of a mild type. The civil population suffers severely from all forms of respiratory diseases, 20 per cent. of the recorded annual deaths being from diseases of this class.

Tubercle of the lungs.-The civil population suffers severely from this cause, owing to the dark, ill-ventilated dwellings in which most of them live and to the hot, humid climate during six months of the year.

Europeans who are attacked invariably proceed home, as the climate is not favourable for cure of this complaint.

Dengue fever.-This is common in Hong Kong, affecting Europeans and Chinese alike. It is rarely fatal, but causes distressing pains with fever while it lasts, followed by lassitude and depression out of all proportion to length of the illness or severity of the symptoms.

Yellow fever.-The opening of the Panama Canal was expected to be followed by an outbreak of yellow fever in the Eastern Asiatic Ports. This has, fortunately, not been the case in Hong Kong.

(B 307/177)x

D

Chap. VI. Suitable Clothing.

50

Intestinal parasites.-Owing to the Chinese system of manuring vegetables with crude sewage, these parasites are common in this Colony. The eating of uncooked vegetables is very dangerous on this account.

(b) ANIMAL DISEASES.-Contagious and infectious disease in military animals is practically non-existent, although diseases such as glanders and osteoporosis seem to be fairly common amongst civilian ponies and mules.

(c) GENERAL REMARKS.-It is certain that any commander undertaking military operations in South China, during April to November, in which British or Indian troops take part, would have to allow for a wastage from malaria alone of anything from 40 to 50 per cent. of his force in the first three months. Unfortunately malaria does not confer immunity on European or Indian soldiers; rather the contrary, as recurrences are very common.

Diseases of the intestines are endemic in South China. Village and town sanitation is crude in the extreme; flies abound, and hence, in addition to the dangers of malaria, a force operating in South China is exposed to very grave risks from these diseases. British troops are, however, highly protected from enteric fever; but dysentery, and probably cholera, would appear and might assume menacing pro- portions.

13. Suitable clothing for various seasons

Light drill or silk is the most suitable wear for summer months and tweeds or serge for winter. A gradual alteration should be effected by increasing or diminishing the thickness of the underwear on the approach of winter or summer.

Pyjamas are best made of a silk and wool mixture. Cholera belts are not now as popular as formerly; their use is not essential to health.

All clothing should be loose, and underclothing should on no account be irritating or prickly heat will result.

Cellular underwear is generally worn, and is strongly recommended.

In summer, topees should invariably be worn as a protection against heat stroke, but in the winter months their use is not essential.

14. Insects

The most common insects of medical importance in Hong Kong are mosquitos, flies, sandflies, fleas, and bugs.

Mosquitos are very prevalent except for 3 months during

51

Chap. VI.-Insects.

the cold weather. Owing to the rocky nature of the soil, and the thick vegetation, numerous breeding places are available. The mosquitos which are known to carry malaria, and which are found here, are anopheles sinensis and anopheles rossi. The mean average temperature, except for about 3 months, is suitable for the propagation of these mosquitos, and also for the development of the malarial organism in the insect. Hence the great prevalence of the disease in the Colony. It is the duty of the individual to take steps to prevent mosquitos breeding in the neighbourhood of his quarters. The main points in this connection are:-

(a) Water butts and cisterns should be screened; tins, bottles, &c., capable of holding water in which mosquitos could breed should be got rid of.

(b) Roof gutters to be kept clear of water-fire buckets

to be refilled weekly.

(c) All undergrowth should be cleared away in the vicinity

of the house.

(d) Mosquito nets should be used. On the Peak in the cold weather these may not be necessary, but on lower levels it is advisable to use them all the round.

year

Flies.-The commonest species which have been identified are musca domestica and lucilia. Both these breed in great numbers throughout the year, and are a source of danger to health. They lay their eggs in fæcal matter, and hence can carry the disease germs of intestinal diseases like typhoid and dysentery. They are particularly a source of danger in the Colony owing to the fact that in many parts there is no water- carriage system. All food should be properly protected from flies. Fly traps are also of use, but these measures are of quite secondary importance to the following:

i. Frequent cleansing of all latrine buckets.

ii. Efficient scavenging and removal or destruction of

household refuse.

Sandflies.--These are tiny biting flies belonging to the genus phlebotomus. They prefer damp, shady, secluded places. They bite particularly in dark rooms during the day and towards sundown, but also at night. The ordinary mosquito net has too large a mesh to keep them out; a fine muslin one is required. A more comfortable means of guarding against these pests is to sleep under a fan. The bites are intensely irritating, but sandfly fever is not a common disease here. These insects lay their eggs in rotten debris, or crumbling masonry.

(B 307/177)x

D 2

Chap. VI.-Insects.

52

Fleas occur in great numbers on all domestic animals; rat This fleas carry plague germs from the infected rat to man. is the only human disease which is known to be spread by fleas. Fleas and their larvæ cannot withstand drying, but they can live for weeks in a damp warm atmosphere, even though deprived of food. They are found in great numbers in dwelling-rooms which have been closed for some time and left in a dirty condition.

Ticks infest all dogs. They get on the animal from the grass. Those found in Hong Kong are of no importance medically, and do not bite man.

Bed bugs are another common pest in the Colony. The common species is the cimex rotundatus. This insect breeds and lives in the crevices of beds and furniture. It is a blood- sucking insect, and comes out at night for this purpose. No proof has been brought forward that they convey any disease. Infested rooms should be fumigated with sulphur, and crevices in furniture, particularly bedsteads, treated with paraffin, naphthalene, or creosol. Bed bugs are said not to occur in

rooms with a stone floor.

53

Chap. VII.—Roads.

CHAPTER VII.

1. Roads

COMMUNICATIONS

The classification of roads in Hong Kong and the New Territory is shown on map in pocket. (G.S.G.S. No. 1393B) Those classified as Al are of good quality, their lay-out, surface, drainage and bridge work being according to modern practice.

Those classified as A2x are probably a common type of road built in newly developed territories, where the volume of traffic is small. No War Office classification exactly fits them. They would take heavy military traffic for a short period in the dry season (October-March), but as they have practically no foundations they would soon break down under continuous traffic of this nature.

There are also on the Island of Hong Kong a large number of paths of very good quality, many being asphalted. They are numerous, but their gradients are too steep to allow of their use by wheeled traffic.

In the towns of Victoria and Kowloon themselves there are alternative routes to the main through route.

On the main-land there are no roads, other than those shown on the map, that are passable by wheeled traffic. There are, however, many paths, which are old Chinese tracks. For details concerning these latter the reader is referred to the route report of the New Territory.

2. Navigable Waterways

The Sham-chun River, which follows the frontier dividing the New Territory from Chinese Territory, is navigable by small craft from its mouth in Deep Bay to the point where it is crossed by the Kowloon-Canton Railway.

At high tide native boats drawing 3 or 4 feet can reach this point, and occasionally penetrate a mile or so down the branch of the river which leads into the New Territory from the railway bridge.

This river is the only navigable waterway in the Colony, but, as such, it is of no importance, and only serves the Chinese villages and fields which lie along its banks.

Chap. VII.-Railways.

54

It constitutes, however, an important obstacle to military movement from north to south, and thereby considerably strengthens the frontier defence.

3. Railways

i. GENERAL DESCRIPTION. The main line connects Kowloon with Canton, a distance of 111 miles, and is divided into two parts, viz. :-

(a) Kowloon-Canton Railway (British Section), 22 miles

long.

(b) Canton-Kowloon Railway (Chinese Section), 89 miles

long.

The common gauge is 4 feet 8 inches.

(a) is that portion of the line which lies in British Territory and is administered by the Government of Hong Kong.

(b) is in China and is maintained by the Canton Govern- ment.

The senior employees are British and the subordinates Chinese.

The junction of these two sections is on a bridge which crosses the Sham-chun River.

In normal times express trains run from Kowloon to Canton and vice-versa but of late years through traffic has been frequently suspended owing to the unsettled condition of affairs in China.

In addition to (a), there was a small branch line connecting Fan-ling Station, on the main line, with Sha-tau-kok. This branch line had a length of 74 miles and a gauge of 2 feet. For the greater portion of its length this line ran alongside a good motor road, which has recently been constructed by the Public Works Department. This line has now been taken up.

ii. A funicular railway operates between Victoria City and the Peak with a 10-minute service, the journey taking eight minutes. Each car is capable of holding from 40 to 50 men, and guns can be taken up on a separate truck.

iii. BRIDGES, EMBANKMENTS, &c.-The British section of the main line is carried over numerous small streams by means of plate or lattice girder bridges, carried on granite piers and abutments.

The largest bridge crosses the Sham-chun River on the frontier. This bridge is of the lattice girder type and has a span of 104 feet.

Owing to the mountainous nature of the country the line required many cuttings, embankments and tunnels.

From Kowloon to Tai-po the railway passes through a number of tunnels and heavy cuttings. The largest tunnel is encountered under Beacon Hill at a distance of 4 miles from

55

Chap. VII.-Railways.

Kowloon. This tunnel is 14 miles long. North of Tai-po the country is flatter and there is more embankment than cutting. The track is single except for loop lines and sidings at the various stations.

The branch line from Fan-ling to Sha-tau kok was carried over certain streams by means of reinforced concrete bridges on concrete piers and abutments. Other streams were spanned by joist girders on concrete abutments.

The line for the main part ran at the side of and level with the new motor road.

iv. The facilities for entraining and detraining troops, animals, vehicles, tanks, stores, &c., are poor.

With the exception of the Kowloon terminus and the siding at Fan-ling Station, there is nothing in the nature of loading ramps.

Platforms are low, and access to trains is obtained by means of steps at each end of a coach. This is not conducive to the steady entraining or detraining of troops.

v. There are 8 to 10 local trains in each direction daily. Accommodation could be attached to any of these for about 400 hundred men and 50 tons of stores. Special trains with accommodation for 1,000 men or about 600 men and 100 tons of stores and/or guns could be arranged at any time.

There has been no great achievement with regard to move- ment of troops; but, in times of disturbances, special trains have been ready at half-an-hour's notice to convey troops to the border.

During the training season there are several movements of troops which, in the past, have always been carried out without a hitch. As an instance, on 16th February, 1928, a special train for 25 officers and 500 other ranks left the camp of Lo-wu at 5.32 a.m. and arrived at Sha-tin (14 miles) at 6 a.m., and a special train for 9 officers and 465 other ranks left Kowloon at 7.30 a.m. and arrived at a point one mile south of Sha-tin (64 miles) at 7.45 a.m.

vi. STATEMENT OF ROLLING-STOCK AND DESCRIPTION OF RAILS.

(a) Standard Gauge.

Locomotives--

Main line

Others

Tractive force

.. 12 (max. weight, 106 tons).

4 of 35,700 lb. and 8 of 24,724 lb. 2 (max. weight, 29 tons). Tractive force of

10,604 lb.

Total

14

Chap. VII.--Telegraphs, Telephones, &c.

Motor coaches (2).-Capacity 46 each coach.

56

Coaching stock.-Total, 35 (61 feet long, max. tare 36 tons). Total 3rd class carrying capacity, approx. 2,000.

Goods stock.-96 30-ton bogie trucks, 35 feet long, max. tare 15 tons. 34 15-ton trucks, 19 feet long, max. tare 8 tons.

(b) Rails.-Weight of rails: The rail is flat-bottomed and

weighs 85 lb. to the yard.

The average railway gradient is 1 in 100.

The distance apart of stations and length of crossing loops is shown on following table :----

Distance

Name of Station.

between

Mileage.

Stations

Length of loop-line, Point to Point

in miles.

(in feet).

Kowloon

Yau-ma-ti

0.00

2.32

2.32

2,292

Sha-tin..

7.14

4.82

1,846

Tai-po

*Tai-po Market..

Fan-ling

*Sheung shui

Lo-wu Engine-Shed

13.08

5.94

1,883

14.37

1.29

902

18.54

3.17

1,862

19.52

0.98

0

21.61

2.09

1,712

*These are not crossing stations.

4. Telegraphs, telephones and postal communications

1. GENERAL SYSTEM.-(a) Telephones-

(a) Telephones-see attached map, No. 2, which shows the Colonial Government system and also cables. The military fortress communications and separate administrative system are not included; neither is the system of the Hong Kong Telephone Company, which is purely of an urban nature (City of Victoria, Kowloon and Kowloon Old City, and the Peak District). The exception is one underground cable to Repulse Bay, and this is shown on the map.

(b) Telegraph communications are under the control of the Colonial Government, but only comprise circuits from the General Post Office to their W/T stations at Cape D'Aguilar, Gap Rock and Royal Observatory, also to Peak Signal Station. In addition they operate the Kowloon-Canton Railway signalling.

57

Chap. VII.-Telegraphs, Telephones, &c.

There are three civil telegraph circuits.

i. An aerial circuit of the Great Northern Telegraph Company, which exists to the interior, but is liable to go out of order owing to the continual unrest prevailing in China.

ii. An underground circuit of the Great Eastern Telegraph Company to their cable hut at Pok-fu-lum.

iii. An underground cable of the Great Northern Tele- graph Company to their cable hut at Deep Water Bay.

(c) Postal communications under the Colonial Government.

2. ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM.—(a) The Public Works Depart- ment controls maintenance and new construction.

(b) The Postmaster-General controls traffic and accounts. (c) The Electrical Engineer, Public Works Department, is the executive officer.

3. TYPE OF EMPLOYEE AND CAPABILITY.-This is Asiatic labour under European supervision. On the whole the average standard of capability is high, provided that the supervision is efficient.

4. LINES-UNDERGROUND OR OVERHEAD.-In the City of Victoria and in Kowloon the greater part of the lines are underground, or will be put underground in the near future ; outside the above-mentioned places all lines are aerial, except :--

(a) Buried 25 pair cable between City and Cape D'Aguilar

W/T station.

(b) Buried 25 pair cable between Kowloon and Fan-ling-

Sheung-shui.

(c) Buried 25 pair cable between City and Peak Signal

Station.

5. NATURE OF TELEGRAPH POLES, &C.-These are of iron, as wooden poles are liable to damage by insects. Porcelain insulators are in general use. There is no local supply of iron

poles.

6. TYPES OF

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE APPARATUS.-

(a) Telegraph apparatus—

i. Morse tape instruments.

ii. Ordinary sounder with relay.

iii. Polarized sounder, without a relay.

iv. Neale instruments, for signalling work only, on

Kowloon-Canton Railway.

Chap. VII.-Telegraphs, Telephones, &c.

58

(b) Telephone apparatus.-There are two main Government telephone exchanges, one in Hong Kong and one in Kowloon. Ericsson type magneto boards. Total capacity, 400 lines. Number of subscribers, 280. Subscribers' instruments, Erics- son magneto type, desk and wall pattern.

7. WIRELESS STATIONS, SITE, TYPE. STATIONS NORMALLY WORKED WITH.-The following W/T stations are in use in the Colony :-

(a) Cape D'Aguilar.-Position: Lat. 22.12.38 N. Long. 114.15.18 E. System: Marconi synchronous spark 5 K.W. Marconi valve transmitter, 6 K.W. Normal wave-lengths: 600 for spark; 2800 for C.W. Hours of working: Spark continuous; C.W. variable. The station is employed on 600 metres with ship to shore traffic, and on 2800 with land stations, viz., Kuan-chow-wan, Hanoi, Yun- nan-fu, and in normal times with Canton and Swatow, handling ordinary commercial messages. (b) Royal Observatory.-A 1 K.W. telephone telegraph 11⁄2 set is to be installed for meteorological traffic with ships at sea, and Pratas Island. The wave-length to be used has not yet been definitely settled; it will probably be 750/800 metres for telegraph, and 200/300 or 1200 for telephony, depending on arrangements with naval authorities.

(c) There are also small sets one-quarter to one-half K.W. fitted at Gap Rock Lighthouse, Wag-lan Light- house, for communication with the shore only, and wireless telephones 30/100 watts fitted at water Police Station and Cheung-chau Island, also on Government Rescue Tug and No. 4 Police Launch. Wireless stations have recently been established at Tai-ho, on Lan-tau Island, and Victoria Peak.

8. CABLE LANDING PLACES.-Shown on map No. 2

59

Chap. VIII.-Crops.

CHAPTER VIII.

RESOURCES

1. Crops

The Colony contains 249,885 acres, of which 48,755 are cultivated and 201,130 uncultivated.

2 crops rice (paddy) and 1 catch crop

2 crops paddy..

The acreages occupied by the principal crops are as follows :

11,500

22,079

2,182

8,694

2,200

2,100

1 crop paddy Sweet potatoes Ground nuts Sugar cane

2. Cattle

In addition to the animals on the military establishment there are about 210 horses in the Colony. These are almost all Chinese ponies" imported from Mongolia for sporting purposes.

«

About 1,750 horned cattle are used in the country districts for agricultural purposes.

purposes. In addition large numbers of cattle, sheep and goats are imported for slaughter.

3. Dairy produce

There is, in Hong Kong, a dairy farm company which produces excellent supplies for the European population, and the small, but increasing, numbers of Chinese who make use of them.

4. Transport

(a) MOTOR TRANSPORT.-(i) The numbers of motor vehicles available in the Colony in 1929 were as follows:-

Motor cycles

Motor cycles with side cars Motor cars

Vans, trucks (light)

Lorries, 1 ton and over Buses

410

201

1,769

23

507

148

Chap. VIII.-Minerals.

60

(ii) These are almost all concentrated in Victoria and No Kowloon, in the hands of a large number of owners. single agency is of outstanding importance.

(b) DRAUGHT TRANSPORT-Nil, except for that on military establishment.

(c) PACK TRANSPORT.-This is almost non-existent, except for that on the military establishment.

(d) CARRIER TRANSPORT.-This is the original native method of land transport. It is used exclusively wherever motor transport is not available, and very often when it is.

(i) The normal load for a full-grown man is from 60 to 140 lb., according to the difficulty of the country and the distance to be covered. On the average a coolie can carry 75 lb. about 15 miles a day. Loads are carried on poles on the shoulder; heavy loads are dealt with by two or more coolies as necessary.

(ii) Coolies can be hired through many contractors or Their wages vary from 40 to 70

compradors.

cents a day.

(iii) Coolies will work anywhere in the Colony, but can only be relied on when conditions are in every way those to which they are accustomed. Any variation in these, and, above all, the slightest hint of danger, is sufficient to render them useless. This unreliability would make them of very little value on active service, even under European supervision.

5. Minerals

No minerals have yet been found in the Colony in workable quantities.

6. Timber

No timber, suitable for anything but fuel purposes, exists in the Colony. Afforestation is, however, being pushed on, and it is possible that small quantities of commercially valuable timber may be produced in the future.

7. Commerce

(a) The imports and exports of the colony may be obtained from "The China Yearbook," which is published annually.

(b) TAXATION.-The principal item of the colony's revenue is "Licences and Internal Revenue," which, in 1924, amounted

61

Chap. VIII.—Shipping.

to $16,701,771. This sum is chiefly following:-

1. The opium monopoly, producing 2. Stamp duties

is chiefly made up by the

5,147,043 3,704,677

3. Assessed taxes, 7 per cent. to 13 per cent. on annual rent of house pro-

2,880,187

2,007,015

1,229,262

perty

4. Tobacco duties

5. Liquor duties

There is no income tax in the colony.

(c) MANUFACTURES.-The principal industries of Hong Kong, in order of importance, are:-

Ship building and repairing.

Sugar refining.

Cement and rope-making.

In addition a number of smaller industries are growing up, such as distilleries and ice plants, match, tobacco, rattan, glass and other factories.

The importance of Hong Kong lies, however, in its function as an entrepot for trade and not as a productive centre.

8. Shipping-ocean and coastwise

(a) The total of the shipping entering and clearing the Colony during 1927 amounted to 298,707 vessels of 44,127,161 tons. Of these 51,289 vessels of 36,834,014 tons were engaged in foreign trade. The former totals are made up as follows :-

Class of Vessel.

Number.

Tonnage.

British ocean-going

3,861

9,660,440

Foreign ocean-going

6,767

16,039,742

British river steamers

7,549

7,300,082

Foreign river steamers

1,165

561,135

Steamships under 60 tons (foreign trade)

7,893

233,374

Junks, foreign trade

24,054

3,039,239

51,289

36,834,012

Class of Vessel.

Number.

Tonnage.

Steam launches plying in waters of the

Colony

..

Junks, local trade

219,555

27,863*

5,771,970

1,521,177*

* Includes 15,358 dust and conservancy boats of 993,280 tons.

Chap. VIII.-Shipping.

62

Of the value of imports and exports during 1923, 75 per cent. was borne by coastal steamers, river steamers, or junks, and 25 per cent. by ocean-going steamers.

The number of fishing boats plying in the waters of the colony is estimated at about 11,500.

(b) PIRACY.-Local and coasting shipping is much affected by piracy, which has been prevalent for centuries in the waters adjoining Hong Kong. The depredations of the pirates and the cost of preventive and protective measures prescribed by Hong Kong Ordinances constitute an appreciable charge on trade, which is still further hampered by the insecurity which prevails, particularly in river traffic. Until the whole charac- ter of Chinese government in the territory adjoining the colony undergoes a complete change, it is not likely that this pest will be completely eradicated.

63

Chap. IX.-General.

CHAPTER IX.

1. General

ARMED FORCES

The G.O.C. the British Troops in China is also Area Com- mander, Hong Kong.

The garrison of Hong Kong consists of Regular British and Indian troops and the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps.

The police force receives some military training, but under the police ordinances it is not a military body, and the Governor is not empowered to utilize it for military service.

2. Regular Troops

(a) COMPOSITION OF THE GARRISON (PEACE DISTRIBUTION).

R.A.-

H.Q.

3 British heavy batteries.

1 A.A. section.

H.K.S. Bde., R.A.-

H.Q.

1 mountain battery.

3 heavy batteries.

R.E.-1 fortress company.

Infantry-

2 British battalions.

1 Indian battalion.

R.C. of S.-1 command section.

R.A.M.C.-

1 company.

R.A.S.C.

Hong Kong Mule Corps.

Detachments of the various departmental corps.

(b) PARTICULARS OF CERTAIN UNITS.-(i) Hong Kong- Singapore Brigade, R.A.-This, as an Imperial unit, is liable

Chap. IX. Regular Troops.

64

for service in any part of the world. The brigade consists of British officers and other ranks on the R.A. regimental estab- lishment, the remaining personnel being Indian.

Enlistment is for five years with the colours, which may be extended to 10 years. Re-engagement is for 21 years. There is no reserve service.

In addition to the batteries stationed at Hong Kong there is one heavy battery at Singapore which completes the brigade. Twenty per cent. of this unit are relieved annually by exchange with personnel from the batteries at Hong Kong.

(ii) The Fortress Coy., R.E.-Partly British, partly Chinese personnel. Latter are recruited locally, enlisting for 12 months, with option of extending to complete 5 years. Re-enlistments up to a total of 20 years, by periods of 5 years, is permitted; thereafter extensions of 1 year at a time. No reserve service. The unit is liable for service outside China.

(iii) Command Section, Royal Corps of Signals.-The section has a sub-section composed of Chinese personnel, to which the above remarks concerning recruiting and service apply.

(c) QUARTERS.-(i) Command Headquarters is in Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island.

(ii) Royal Artillery-

(a) British.-One British heavy battery is in Lyemun Barracks on Hong Kong Island; the remaining two British heavy batteries are on Stonecutters Island. (b) Indian.—The Hong Kong and Singapore Brigade is

quartered at Kowloon.

(iii) Royal Engineers.-The Fortress Company is concen- trated at Wellington Barracks, Victoria.

(iv) Royal Corps of Signals.-The Command Section is concentrated in Wellington Barracks.

(v) Infantry-

(a) British.-One battalion is at Victoria. Portions of it are quartered in Murray Barracks, Wellington Barracks, Victoria Barracks, and Mount Austin Barracks. The battalion temporarily in Hong Kong is quartered at Sham-shui-po, Kowloon. (b) Indian.-The Indian battalion is on the main-land in

Whitfield Barracks at Kowloon.

(vi) The Hong Kong Mule Corps is divided so that some transport is available on Hong Kong Island and some on the main-land.

65

Chap. IX. Regular Troops.

(d) EMERGENCY QUARTERS.—(i) Statement of the total number of units that could be quartered, as a temporary measure, in existing barracks and hutments.

(a) Murray and Mount Austin Barracks-

1 battalion.

(b) Victoria and Wellington Barracks-

2 companies British infantry and details (150).

(c) Whitfield Barracks and Whitfield Camp Barracks-

1 Indian battalion.

1 mountain battery (H.K.S.).

1 mule corps (H.K.). Details (250).

(d) Gun Club Hill Barracks-

Headquarters and 3 heavy batteries (H.K.S.).

(e) Lyemun-

1 heavy battery R.A.

2 infantry companies (British).

(f) Stonecutters-

2 batteries R.A.

Details (50).

(g) Sham-shui-po Hutted Camp—

2 battalions (British).

Details (250).

(ii) The extent to which additional troops could be housed in buildings (other than military) in the Colony and " New Territory." This depends on whether the Emergency Powers Act is in force or not. Should it be put into force, accommodation to any extent can be commandeered.

Should the Act not be put into force, accommodation can only be obtained by utilizing such vacant houses, go-downs &c., as are available or billeting by arrangement with owners. It is impossible to lay down definitely the exact amount which would be forthcoming, but two battalions or the equivalent numbers could probably be accommodated.

(iii) Suitable sites for camping grounds, and the numbers that could be accommodated at each site.-Camping grounds exist in the following places :-

Tai-lam Lo-wu

Sun-wai

For 3 batteries, British or Indian. For 1 battalion,

For 1 battalion,

J

Volunteer Camp, Fan-ling (B 307/177)x

For 200 men,

E

Chap. IX. Regular Troops.

66

If time is available, the following further camps can be erected (minimum figures) :—

Along Ts'un-wan-Ping-shan road—

• •

So-kun-yau Siu-hang Chung-uk-wai

Ko-tung area ..

Fan-ling golf course Sun-wai

1 battalion or equivalent.

2 battalions

2

334

"}

"}

""

"

>>

""

وو

The following places if commandeered would hold :-

Fan-ling golf course

Deep Water Bay

Happy Valley

Polo ground

Soo-kun-po

• •

4 battalions.

1 battalion.

3 battalions.

1 battalion.

1

"}

(iv) Statement of climatic conditions affecting housing of all troops under canvas.-From the middle of March to the end of October it is impossible to place troops under canvas.

Troops usually go into camp from November till the end of February.

(e) TRAINING FACILITIES.—(i) Period of individual and collective training seasons—

Individual.-April 1st to September 30th. Collective.-Remainder of year.

(ii) Training camps-when and where held.-Infantry to Sun- wai or Lo-wu, 5 weeks each battalion, during period November- February.

Artillery--Practice Camp, Tai-lam, November-December. H.K.V.D.C.-Four week-end camps during winter at Fan--

ling.

(iii) Artillery range.-Near Tai-lam Camp.

The range is very hilly and the number of possible positions for wheeled artillery very few, being confined to the immediate vicinity of the track up the valley.

For mountain howitzers the range is excellent, but with guns questions of crest clearance further limit the number of possible positions.

The presence of two villages (Un-tun and Tai-lam) in the centre of the range is inconvenient.

A road, of indifferent quality, has been constructed up Tai- lam valley. This leaves the main Castle Peak Road 14 miles from the camp site, and, at present, extends about 1 miles up the valley.

Two hills, one on each side of the valley, known respectively

67

as

(6

Chap. IX.-Regular Troops.

Middle Spur" and Tai-lam Hill," provide observation over most of the target area.

The longest range obtainable is about 10,000 yards. The camp site is alongside the main public road from Kowloon to Castle Peak. It is large

It is large enough for three batteries at a time.

The water supply is good; it comes from a stream which runs down the hillside, and is dammed and diverted in order to fill tanks for chlorinating purposes.

There is a pier at Castle Peak about 1 mile from the camp along the main road from the camp at which stores, &c., can be landed from a lighter

This pier is not broad enough for guns, which have to be landed on the open beach between the camp and the pier. The best landing place is opposite the Chinese Cafeteria, and 60-pounders and 6-inch howitzers have been landed there from a barge with a special ramp made in Ordnance.

Communications to headquarters and on ranges are, at present, of a temporary nature.

The range is not a good one, the country generally being impassable for wheeled artillery, hence manœuvre, except for mountain artillery, is impossible.

It is, however, the best place obtainable in the Colony for artillery practice, and if proper communications are provided quite useful artillery training can be carried out there.

(iv) Rifle ranges.

(a) Military-

"

C

Kowloon A " Range Kowloon B" Range Lyemun

1,000 yards-10 targets. 600 yards 8 targets. 600 yards- 2 targets.

High West (The Peak) 1,000 yards

Whitfield Barracks

(Kowloon).

Kennedy Road (Hong

Kong),

Mount Austin

Barracks.

Gun Club Club

Barracks.

Hill

Hill

Whitfield Camp

Barracks.

Victoria Barracks

(B 307/177)X

4 targets- Colonial Government pro-

perty.

30 yards W.D. property.

30 yards-Colonial Govern-

ment property.

Miniature outdoor-Colonial

Government property. Two miniature outdoor

W.D. property.

One miniature outdoor

W.D. property.

One miniature indoor

W.D. property.

E 2

Ghap. IX.-Local Forces.

(iv) Rifle ranges—continued. (a) Military-continued.

Detention Barracks

One miniature outdoor

W.D. property.

Block, Queen's One miniature outdoor

68

"E

"

Road.

Tai-ku Range

(b) Civilian-

W.D. property.

600 yards-4 targets.

(v) Co-operation with land forces for training purposes.

(a) Individual training.-Lectures and instructors from Regular units for the H.K.V.D.C. are provided under arrange- 'ment made direct between the H.K.V.D.C. and Regular units concerned.

(b) Collective training.---Local conditions do not admit of anything more extensive than battalion training. The H.K.V.D.C. collective training is confined to two week-ends in camp for each company. The H.K.V.D.C. are invited to attend any exercises from which it is thought they might obtain instruction of value.

(vi) Training areas.

(a) The Fan-ling-Sheung-shui Valley is the area in which battalion and company training is carried out. It is suitable for infantry, with pack transport, pack artillery, and, in a limited degree, for field artillery. The area is hilly, but not to such an extent as to eliminate training under conditions of civilized warfare.

(b) Kowloon-Customs Pass Area is suitable for training for mountain warfare.

(c) Kowloon Reservoir Area, by permission of the Colonial Government, provides facilities for training of light artillery.

(d) Colonial contribution.—The cost of the Imperial garrison is met from Army Votes, but towards this the Colonial Govern- ment of Hong Kong pays a contribution of 20 per cent. of the assessable revenue or the cost of the garrison, whichever is the less. At present 20 per cent. of the revenue is the less.

3. Local Forces

!

(a) HISTORY.-The Volunteer Defence Corps is constituted under Volunteer Ordinance No. 2 of 1920 (as amended).

Although not credited with any actual war service, the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps took an active part in quelling disturbances in the New Territories in 1899, and was

ť

69

Chap. IX.-Local Forces.

entrusted with the duty of surprising and seizing the city of Kowloon.

During the war of 1914-1918 the Corps was mobilized and assisted the Regular garrison in the duties of manning the defences of the fortress. Altogether 463 men from Hong Kong joined the Imperial Forces during the war. The majority of these had received some previous training with the local forces.

(b) COMPOSITION.-Personnel is British European, except for a Portuguese company and a platoon of mixed Asiatics. The Corps is organized as follows:-

Headquarters.

1 battery of artillery. 1 company of engineers.

1 signal section.

2 machine gun companies.

1 infantry company (Portu-

guese).

1 M.I. company.

1 section armoured cars. Medical section. Reserve company.

(c) COMMAND AND STAFF.-A Volunteer officer, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, acts as commandant of the Corps. The adjutant is a Regular Army officer seconded for this duty.

(d) COST.-The Colonial Government bears the whole cost of the local forces.

4. Police Force

(a) CONSTITUTION.-The Hong Kong Police Force is con- stituted under Police Ordinance No. 11 of 1900 (as amended by No. 29 of 1901, No. 5 of 1911 and No. 31 of 1923), and No. 18 of 1929.

(b) TERMS OF SERVICE. The Force is not a military body and the Governor is not empowered to utilize it for military

service.

The first term of engagement is for a period of 5 years.

(c) ESTABLISHMENT.-Officers (British), 10; Other Ranks (British), 246; Other Ranks (Asiatics), 1,758. Total, 2,014.

(d) COMPOSITION.-The percentages of races constituting the Force are as follows:-British 13, Indians 28, Chinese 95.

(e) COMMAND AND STAFF.-The Police Force is commanded by an Inspector-General with headquarters at Victoria.

(f) ARMAMENT.-The Force is armed with S.M.L.E. rifles, Vickers, Lewis and Thomson machine guns.

(g) TRAINING.-The Force receives some instruction in infantry drill and in the handling and use of the above weapons, and undergoes an annual course of musketry.

Chap. X.-Aerodromes.

CHAPTER X.

AVIATION

70

1. Aerodromes and landing grounds

(a) An R.A.F. aerodrome and seaplane base has been established at Kai-tak, on the North shore of Kowloon Bay. Mat-shed hangars have been built. Extensive reclamation

is being carried out and a combined R.A.F. and civil aerodrome is being designed, with a landing ground extending 1,500 yards in length and 500 yards in breadth.

(b) A good landing ground is available close to Fan-ling Racecourse in the New Territory, and this is used during the training season. The extension of this landing area by re- assumption by the Government of the adjacent land is con- templated.

(c) The harbour is suitable for seaplanes.

2. Meteorological Conditions

(a) AIR TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.-From November to March the mean air temperature is about the same as the English summer temperature, and the density in winter approximates to the mean density over England at similar heights.

From April to October the temperature is high, June to September being the hottest months. The mean density at sea level then approximates to the mean density at a height of 2,000 feet over S.E. England, while the minimum density likely to be experienced corresponds to the mean density at a height of 3,000 feet over S.E. England.

(b) WINDS. From September to March the prevailing wind is easterly up to at least 5,000 feet. In the lower layers northerly winds are also frequent from November to January, but at 5,000 feet there is a tendency for the wind to veer slightly towards S.E.

-

From April to August the veer is more pronounced, and in June, July and August the prevailing direction is from the south up to 2,000 feet and from S.W. at 5,000 feet.

At higher levels, above 10,000 feet, the prevailing direction

71

Chap. X.-Meteorological Conditions.

is from S.W. in November, from W.S.W. from December to April, and from W. in May and June. From July to October the direction is variable.

Leaving direction out of account, the mean wind speed near the ground is from 12 to 16 m.p.h. from September to April, and from 10 to 12 m.p.h. from May to August. At 2,000 feet the average speed varies from 17 m.p.h. in January and February to 22 m.p.h. in June and July. The highest hourly run of the wind recorded at this height during five years was 75 m.p.h.

The speed at this height is greatest in the early morning and least in the afternoon-the reverse of the conditions found near the ground.

(c) CLOUD AND RAINFALL.--The months of greatest cloudiness are from February to June, when the amount averages more than 7/10ths of sky covered. The rainy season extends from May to September, the wettest months being June, July and August. The most frequent form of cloud is cumulus, the average height of the base being rather less than 5,000 feet. Low clouds enveloping the high ground are most frequent in March and April, when they may persist throughout the day. This phenomenon is also experienced occasionally during the rainy season.

The period most free from cloud is from September to January and of these months November, December and January are the driest. During this period, however, observations show that the sky is more than 7/10ths covered with cloud below 5,000 feet on 50 per cent. of occasions. 7 a.m. is the time of greatest, and 7 p.m. the time of least cloudiness during this period of the year.

(d) SPECIAL PHENOMENA.-(i) Typhoons.-The main typhoon season extends from May to October. The typhoons affecting the Hong Kong area usually originate to the north-east or north of the Philippines and move north-westward at an average rate of from 12 to 15 m.p.h. The diameter of a typhoon may vary from 50 to 400 miles and the disturbance may affect a particular area for two or three days. The weather is usually fine until the centre is within 200 miles, when the sky becomes overcast with heavy clouds and the wind rises rapidly in squalls to gale force with heavy rain, which, about 100 miles from the centre, becomes torrential. The wind often exceeds 110 miles an hour, the maximum force usually occurring before the central calm area is reached. The size of the central calm area varies considerably; the average diameter may be taken as 14 miles. Light variable breezes or squalls sometimes alternate with complete calms in this

Chap. X.-Local Fuel Resources.

72

area, and the weather clears. After the centre has passed bad weather is again experienced, similar to the weather associated with the approach of the storm, but the changes occurring in the reverse order.

High and dangerous seas are experienced throughout the passage of a typhoon, and even in the central calm area little moderation takes place except near land in cases where this area exceeds 20 miles in diameter.

The average number of typhoons in the China Seas yearly is about 20, and of these about three-quarters affect Hong Kong or adjacent coasts. Typhoon warnings are issued by the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, and are displayed at various ports.

(ii) Typhoon squalls, which are of small diameter-seldom exceeding a few hundred yards-and usually last only a few minutes, occur occasionally in April and May. They are usually preceded by heavy rain clouds of waterspout forma- tion, and are very violent.

(iii) Thunderstorms rarely occur in winter, being confined almost entirely to the rainy season. They are most prevalent during June, July and August, when they average five or six a month.

(e) Fog is most frequent in March and April, affecting Hong Kong and the surrounding seas. It also occurs in January and February, when it is confined chiefly to the early morning.

(f) Light.-During the autumn and winter months the light is normally good, with high visibility. During the spring and summer visibility is poor and the light from a photographic point of view is bad. Twilight is short owing to the latitude (22°).

The light is never oppressively glaring, and does not adversely affect the eyes when flying.

3. Local fuel resources

Hong Kong is the distributing station for South China of several important oil companies, such as the Asiatic Petroleum Company, Standard Oil Company of New York, Texaco Company, and Vacuum Oil Company.

Consequently very large stocks of petrol and oil of all sorts are always held at the depots of these companies. The locations of the principal storage depots are given in Chapter IV.

73

Appendix I

APPENDIX I.

Weights, Measures and Coins

Catty 1 lb. or 604-53 Grammes. Picul 133 lb. or 60-453 kilogrammes. Mow one-sixth of an English acre Li usually considered one-third of an English mile. Standards of weights, measures and length vary all over the country, but for Customs purposes the above equivalents for weights apply. The following is the new standard which the Government is trying to have adopted generally :-

10 Ssu

10 Hao

10 Li

10 Fen

10 Ch'ien

16 Liang

10 Sho 10 Ko

10 Sheng

5 Tou 2 Hu

10 Fen 10 Ts'un

=

=

1 Hao.

1 Li.

WEIGHTS

1 Fen (Candareen).

1 Ch'ien (Mace).

1 Liang (tael)-37.301 grammes. 1 Chin (catty)—596·816 grammes.

1 Ko.

1 Sheng.

CAPACITY

1 Tou = 10:354688 litres. 1 Hu.

1 Shih (sometimes called Tan). Commodities, even liquids, such as oil, spirits, etc., are commonly bought and sold by weight.

LENGTH

1 Ts'un (inch).

1 Ch'ih (foot) .32 metre.

10 Ch'ih

1 Chang

180 Chang

-

3.2 metres.

1 Li= 576 metres.

Currency

The currency of Hong Kong consists of the following coins :-

SILVER

(1) The silver dollar of Mexico.

(2) The British dollar.

Appendix I.

74

(3) The Hong Kong dollar, half dollar, and 20 cent, 10 cent and 5 cent pieces issued from the Hong Kong Mint.

(4) Half dollars, 20, 10 and 5 cent pieces, coined at the Royal Mint and Birmingham Mint and imported from England.

COPPER

Copper coins representing one-hundredth part of the dollar (called one cent), and one-thousandth part of the dollar (called cash), imported from England.

NOTES

There is very little silver in circulation in Hong Kong, the medium of exchange is principally in the form of notes of the four European banks. The denomination of the notes issued are: 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 1,000 dollars.

TAELS

The Chinese tael is a unit or weight of silver of a given fineness, representing the standard for practically all banking and commercial operations. The tael is the ounce in China and is equivalent to 1 ounces avoirdupois.

"}

As a coin the tael is purely fictitious-no such coin exists— and in China the tael is used both as a measure of weight and a measure of value.

Most of the currency taels used in trade and finance are in the form of "shoes" of silver, or small ingots of silver, weighing about 50 taels.

The value of the tael fluctuates with the price of silver Details as to the various kinds of taels used in different parts of China, and their comparative values, can be obtained from the majority of reference books on China.

75

APPENDIX II.

Appendix II.

EXTRACTS FROM TREATIES BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN, CHINA AND JAPAN

Treaty of August 29th, 1842.

ARTICLE III.

Cession of Island of Hong Kong to Great Britain.

It being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships, when required, and keep stores for that purpose, His Majesty the Emperor of China cedes to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, &c., the island of Hong Kong, to be possessed in perpetuity by Her Britannic Majesty, her heirs and successors, and to be governed by such laws and regulations as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, &c., shall see fit to direct.

Treaty of October 24th, 1860.

ARTICLE VI.

Hong Kong.-Cession to Great Britain of that portion of Township of Cowloon (Kau-lung) which was leased to Mr. Harry Parkes.—Lease cancelled.-Liquidation of Chinese Claims. With a view to the maintenance of law and order in and about the Harbour of Hong Kong, His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of China agrees to cede to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and to her heirs and successors, to have and to hold, as a dependency of Her Britannic Majesty's Colony of Hong Kong, that portion of the township of Cowloon (Kau-lung), in the Province of Kwang-tung, of which a lease was granted in perpetuity to Harry Smith Parkes, Esquire, Companion of the Bath, a member of the Allied Commission at Canton, on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty's Government, by Lan-Tsung-Kwang, Governor-General of the Two Kwang. It is further declared that the lease in question is hereby

Appendix II.

76

cancelled; that the claims of any Chinese to any property on the said portion of Cowloon (Kau-lung) shall be duly investi- gated by a Mixed Commission of British and Chinese officers; and that compensation shall be awarded by the British Government to any Chinese whose claims shall be by the said Commission established, should his removal be deemed necessary by the British Government.

Convention between the United Kingdom and China respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory.

Signed at Peking June 9th, 1898.

(Ratifications exchanged at London, August 6th, 1898.)

Whereas it has for many years past been recognized that an extension of Hong Kong territory is necessary for the proper defence and protection of the Colony.

It has now been agreed between the Governments of Great Britain and China that the limits of British territory shall be enlarged under lease to the extent indicated generally on the annexed map.* The exact boundaries shall be hereafter fixed when proper surveys have been made by officials appointed by the two Governments. The term of this lease

shall be ninety-nine years.

It is at the same time agreed that within the city of Kowloon (Kau-lung) the Chinese officials now stationed there shall continue to exercise jurisdiction except so far as may be inconsistent with the military requirements for the defence of Hong Kong. Within the remainder of the newly-leased territory Great Britain shall have sole jurisdiction. Chinese officials and people shall be allowed as heretofore to use the road from Kowloon (Kau-lung) to Hsi-nan.

It is further agreed that the existing landing place near Kowloon (Kau-lung) city shall be reserved for the convenience of Chinese men-of-war, merchant and passenger vessels, which may come and go and lie there at their pleasure; and for the convenience of movement of the officials and people within the city.

When hereafter China constructs a railway to the boundary of the Kowloon (Kau-lung) territory under British control, arrangements shall be discussed.

It is further understood that there will be no expropriation or expulsion of the inhabitants of the district included within the extension, and that if land is required for public offices, fortifications, or the like official purposes, it shall be bought at a fair price.

If cases of extradition of criminals occur, they shall be dealt

77

Appendix II.

with in accordance with the existing Treaties between Great Britain and China and the Hong Kong Regulations.

The area leased to Great Britain, as shown on the annexed map,* includes the waters of Mirs Bay and Deep Bay, but it is agreed that Chinese vessels of war, whether neutral or otherwise, shall retain the right to use those waters.

This Convention shall come into force on the 1st day of July, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, being the thirteenth day of the fifth moon of the twenty-fourth year of Kuang-Hsü. It shall be ratified by the Sovereigns of the two countries, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in London as soon as possible.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorised thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Agreement.

Done at Peking in quadruplicate (four copies in English and four in Chinese) the ninth day of June, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, being the twenty-first day of the fourth moon of the twenty-fourth year of Kuang-Hsü.

(L.S.) CLAUDE M. MACDONALD.

(L.S.) Seal of the Chinese Plenipotentiary.

* Not reproduced.

:

78

INDEX.

PAGE

A

Abandonment of Colony, Re-

commendations for, in 1844

7

territories

Aberdeen Harbour

Accommodation, Barrack

""

37

Boxer rising

...

64

Boycott...

Quarters

Emergency

Administration, system of 11, 12

Admiralty dock Aerodromes and

...

Buddhism

65

...

...

Building material

PAGE

Botanical and Afforestation.

Department

Boundaries of colony and new

11

...

29

...

...

21

20

...

39

...

...

...

34

landing

C

grounds Afforestation

...

40, 60

28

70

Afforestation and Botanical

Camps, areas suitable for

training

65, 66

66

...

Department

11

Agreements

between Great

Britain, China and Japan 75-77

Agreements leasing new terri-

...

Cargo, handling appliances

tory, reasons for

8

Carrier transport

Agriculture

29, 32, 40, 41

...

Cantonese

Canvas, housing of troops

under...

...

15, 26

...

25, 60

36, 37

Air temperature and density... 70 Anchorages, within limits of

Hong Kong harbour 34, 35, 36 Anchorages, outside limits of

Hong Kong harbour

Cattle

Chinese, attitude

Chinese, classification of races

inhabiting colony

888 8888

66

33-

59

...

towards

foreigners

...

***

26, 27

15

...

Chinese, characteristics and

Anchorages, and landing places

military value of

16-18

other than ports

38

Chinese language

21-24

...

Animals, diseases of

50

Cholera

...

43, 50

effect of climate on 44

"

Christianity

...

...

Appendices :-

Climate

...

20, 21 42, 43

(1) Weights, measures and

coins

...

73, 74

(2) Extracts from treaties between Great Britain,

Coal, stocks of

China and Japan

75-77

Area and situation of colony... 29

Coins

Artillery ranges

66

Assembly places for troops on

Asylum, lunatic

Hong Kong Island ...

Attitude of Chinese towards

foreigners

33

...

Commerce

31

...

Clothing, suitable

Clouds, prevalance of

Coaling of ships, system of Coastal trade

...

Colonial contribution to cost of

Imperial Defence

Communications, cable

50

46, 71

33

...

36

...

...

...

73, 74

...

...

60, 61

56, 58

>>

road and rail 33,

26

...

54, 55

telegraph,

telephone and postal

56, 57

B

Banks

Compradors

Confucianism

18, 19

31

Constitution of colony

...

Bed bugs

Barrack accommodation

Battalion training areas

Bays and beaches

Boat population

64

...

Conservancy, system of

68

Consuls, foreign

...

38

...

Control of port

...

52

Coolies

4.

25, 60

14

Corps, local volunteer, com-

Books of reference, list of

10

position and cost of

AF80F 85HOBY DRAES**8 8

61

68

25

11

32

28

33

69

79

Index.

list of...

Cultivation

Currency

PAGE

Council, executive

""

legislative

Crops, principal, with acreages Crossing stations and loops,

11

Forestry and Botanical Depart-

11

ment

59

Food supply

Frontiers

56

Fuel resources, local

...

29, 32, 40, 41

Funicular railway

PAGE

11

32, 59

29

...

33, 72 54

...

73, 74

G

D

D'Aigula Cape wireless station

58

Dairy produce

32, 59

Garrison

Death-rate, European

42

Geography

...

Defence, expenditure

68

Gaps through mountain ranges 39,

Geological formation of coun-

40 63-69

29

...

Demand for greater measure

try

39

of popular representation ... Demarcation of new frontier

11

Glanders

...

50

29

Governor

11

Dengue fever

49

..

Government, system of

11, 12

Dialects...

21-24

...

Diseases

Diet, of Chinese labourers

Dock company, Hong Kong

and Whampoa

Docks, description of

Domestic servants, wages of

Drainage system

27

43, 47-50

H

34

Hak-kas

15

...

34-37

Harbours

29, 33--36

25

Health

43, 44

32

...

""

resorts, lack of

44

Dysentery

43, 49–51

History

...6-10

Hok-los

15

E

of

Earthquakes

Education

Electric power

""

tramway system

47

24

32

...

32

Emergency quarters for troops 65

Engineering works

Enteric fever

...

Entraining troops, facilities for 55

Establishments, civil ...

...

...

...

J.J

64

2.9

R.A.

...

63, 64

32

Hospitals

...

30, 31

43, 48

Houses, types of

29

...

Hygiene, ignorance of laws of,

11, 12

amongst Chinese

...

17

""

military 63, 64

Europeans, effect of climate on 42

Executive Council

11

I

rison

Expenditure on Imperial Gar-

Expenditure on local forces

F

6989

68

Imperial garrison

69

Imports and exports

...

Industries

...

63-69 60

61

Hong Kong Island, population

Hong Kong only Imperial coal-

ing station east of Singapore 29 Hong Kong, Whampoa Dock 34 Mule Corps

Singapore Brigade

14

Finances

12, 13

Fleas

Flies

52

...

characteristics

51

Fog, prevalence of

Foreign residents

Foreigners, attitude of Chinese

...

Insects

...

46, 72 14, 27

...

towards

Forestry

26

Chinese to

...

Influence of Chinese student

class on their compatriots 26, 27 Inhabitants, foreign

...

Chinese, and their

14

15-18

51, 52

24

...

...

Interpreters in Chinese lan-

guage...

Intimidation, susceptibility of

...

26, 33

...

...

40, 60

Irrigation

41

...

Index.

80

PAGE

J

Meat supply

PAGE

-32, 59

Jetties and wharves

34-36

Judicial establishment

11, 12

Medical Department

statistics

Meteorological conditions

11, 12

42, 43

70

Junk anchorages

35, 37

Military expenditure on Im-

périal garrison

68

"

foces

K

"

hospital

""

expenditure on local

operations in colony 9, 10

69

...

30

...

tion of

Kowloon, new city

Kowloon Peninsula, cession of 7, 8,

Kowloon Peninsula, popula-

...

Kowloon, meaning of name

Kowloon, cession of town

Kowloon, old city, seizure of...

76

Minerals Monsoons

60

...

...

...

42, 46

Mosquitos

50, 51

14

Motor transport, available in

7

...

colony

59, 60

75

Mountains and passes..

39, 40

...

9, 29, 30

Movement, effect of climate on 44,

9

45

Kowloon, Marino reclamation Kuang-tung province

35

Municipal system

30

...

9, 23

N

L

Labour and wages

25, 33, 36

Landing facilities

33

""

Nationality of inhabitants Naval hospital

dockyards and anchor-

...

14 30

...

...

""

places, other

than

ages

34-36

ports

38

Navigable waterways

53, 54

"

places, cable

58

New Kowloon

9

...

...

grounds, aeroplane places, seaplanes

Languages, Chinese

Legal system

Legislative Council Light and visibility Lighters

Liuid fuel

70

New territories, cession of

8

38, 70 21, 22

""

description of

39,

.40

12

frontiers of

29

""

...

...

11

military ex-

...

72

...

...

...

35, 36 33, 72

peditions to

New territories, railways and

roads through

...

9, 10

53-55

Loans

12

***

...

27

Local resources

forces, history and com-

...

32, 59

O

position of

boards

68, 69

12

Lunatic asylum

...

*

31

Ocean-going shipping, statistics

of

Officers, local forces

Oil tanks, location of ...

Operations in connection with

new territories

61

69

...

...

33, 72

9, 10

68

...

50

50

Ordinance, under which volun-

Osteoporosis

Outfit for Hong Kong

32, 34, 37

teers are regulated

47

...

20

48

61

M

Machinery, facilities for repair

of

Magnetic variation

Mahommedanism

...

+

Malaria

...

...

Manufactures

...

...

Maps

in pocket at end of

Marshes and swamps

...

Measures and weights...

P

book

41

73

Pack transport Passes

59, 60

39,40

81

Index.

PAGE

PAGE

Peak district

Physique of Chinese

Pidgin English

...

Pok-fu-lum reservoir

Piracy

Plague

Police Force

Port control

Portuguese

Population

...

30, 31, 44

16

24

Seaplane bases and anchor-

ages, possible

Seasons and rainfall

38

45

62

Sham Chun, river

...

29, 40,

53

49

town

9

32

....

Shipping statistics

61

11, 63, 69 14, 15 33

Signals, typhoon

47

...

6, 7, 14, 15, 27

Special phenomena regarding

weather conditions ...

Strategical importance of Hong

71, 72

Postal services

56, 57

Kong

29, 61

Power station

32

Strikes ...

9, 27

Prevalent diseases

canes

winds and

Principal towns

ings Products

Pun-tei...

Government

...

...

47-50

Stone, for building

39

hurri-

...

46, 72

29, 42

build-

ing of...

30

Student class, Chinese, influence

of unpopular opinion

Suez Canal, influence of open-

Suitability of climate to British

26, 27

8

...

59, 61

15

troops Supplies, coal

43, 50

33

food

""

32, 59

oil

>>

33, 72

water...

32, 38, 41

R

Races, distribution, character-

istics and military value of 14-18

Railways

crossing stations and

33, 54, 55

loops rolling-stock

17

Rainfall...

56

Tai-tam reservoir

55, 56

Taoism ...

45

Taxation

39

Reservoirs

Regular Units, assistance by, to

Regligions, Chinese

Repair of ships, facilities for

Resources, local, supplies

Telegraph system

volunteers in the Colony

68

...

Telephone system

63,

Temperature

64

Ticks

18-21

34,

37

Tonnage, tables of shipping

entered and cleared

Torpedo depot

32

Trade

...

...

32, 59,

Training facilities

...

60

Trees

>>

??

""

fuel... building

33, 72

material

Respiratory diseases

Revenue

Rifle ranges

Rivers Roads

...

...

39

Tramway system

Transit accommodation

Transport, railway

...

49

motor

"

...

...

...

...

12, 60, 61 67, 68

pack

...

carrier

...

""

40

inland water

32

19

60, 61

56, 57

56, 57, 58

45

52

61

35

...

..

61

...

66-68 40, 60

32

33

...

54, 55

59

60

60

53

...

...

...

33, 53

19

Treaties, between Great Brit- ain, China and Japan, ex-

tracts from Typhoons

...

...

75-77

46, 47, 71, 72 -

S

Sandflies Sanitation Sanitary board

Schools ...

(B 307/177)X

51

...

32

***

12

24

U

Underground cables

57

F

Index.

PAGE

82

PAGE

Vegetables

Venereal disease

V

Variation, magnetic

...

...

Victoria City, description and

47

Water supply

military operations

...

Wastage from disease

32, 38, 41 during

50

50.

Weights and measures

73, 74

44, 47

Whampoa Dock Company

34

Wharves and jetties

34-37

population of

29, 30

Winds

+

46, 47

Visibility

7,2

Wireless stations

58

Volunteer Force, general infor-

Woods and forests

40, 60

mation concerning

68, 69.

Y

W

Wages, rates of

25, 33

Yau-ma-ti shelter Yellow fever

35

...

49

B 307/177)x Wt. w. 2574--9132

Wt. w. 2574-9132 625 4/30 H & S Ltd.

Gp. 307.

INDIA OFFICE RECORDS

My 11293

MICROFILM