九廣鐵路年報 Kowloon Canton Railway Annual Departmental Report 1946-1947

APPENDIX I.I.

ANNUAL REPORT

兴圖

OF THE

書館

GENERAL MANAGER,

A

KOWLOON CANTON RAILWAY

1

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

EDUCATION

DEPARTME

HONG KOLS

APPENDIX I.I.

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE GENERAL MANAGER,

 

KOWLOON CANTON RAILWAY.

   The following Report, the first since the re-occupation of the Colony under the Civil Administration covers a period of 11 months from 1st May 1946 to 31st March, 1947.

2. General. The working conditions of this Department to-day are not comparable with those of the period prior to hostilities against Hong Kong, and therefore any attempt to use the year 1941 as a yardstick is to be entirely unrealistic.

   Perhaps the most striking of these differences are the introduction of the 8 hour day, the high cost of labour and fuel, and the fact that this small line of 36 kilometres is connected intimately with a large Continental Railway, the Canton-Hankow Line, for a total distance of 1275 kilometres with all the delicate day to day negotiations including a difference in currency which such a union involves. It is true that the original connection was made in August 1937, but it then served a predominantly military purpose, commercial traffic being negligible.

3. The meagre rail terminal facilities which existed at Kowloon before the war will soon be inadequate to deal with the traffic offering; they would already have been inadequate, but for China's currency exchange difficulties. Various schemes have been suggested, but an important omission in nearly all of them is the absence of a designated factory area on the mainland which the Railway could serve. Such a site is considered almost as important to the future development of the Colony as a whole, as the effective clearance of cargo through the Port to and from the interior.

The final railway scheme must necessarily conform to the major plan for the development of the Colony, but the time has arrived for detailed plans to be prepared.

4. The legacy left by the Military Administration to the Civil Control was a melancholy one so far as the Railway was concerned. With the exception of 12 locomotives and spares, some bridge girders, and token instruments, the Railway stores were negligible in quantity. No rails or rolling stock were received and at the close of the year only 6 of the locomotives had arrived and these were not provided with

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drop grates or rocking bars when conversion to coal from oil fuel was carried out at Woolwich-with the result that re- conversion to oil burning has had to be resorted to. No machine tools were supplied and the supply situation was becoming so serious that a visit by the General Manager and the Mechanical Engineer to the United Kingdom was sanctioned. They left the Colony on 28th. July 1946, and returned on 11th. September 1946. Orders totalling H.K. $21,678,240 were placed for rolling stock and plant, and at the close of the year small quantities of stores were commencing to arrive.

5.

While no rolling stock was available for the Colony, large quantities of UNRRA wagon material in a knocked-down condition commenced to arrive in the Port during Jan. 1946, and altogether 1261 wagons of various types were assembled by contract under the supervision of the British Section's Mechanical Staff. The assembly enabled CNRRA food, supplies and vitally needed rail materials to be moved up into the interior. Rails and sleepers loaded at Kowloon in these wagons materially assisted the completion of the Canton- Hankow Line between Canton and Wuchang on 1st. July 1946, the date stipulated by Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek for its restoration.

6. The question of the accounts for the period of the Report has placed the Department in a dilemma. To submit a Report without a statement of accounts is to make the report practically valueless, yet for reasons entirely beyond its control the operating expenditure figure

figure can only be approximate owing to non-inclusion of certain debits. The outstanding items are not numerous and are unlikely to affect materially the results as shown. After discussion with officials of the Hong Kong Treasury to which this Department's accounts are tied, it was decided to present an operating and capital account at the same time drawing attention to the fact that the expenditure figure given in the former cannot at this stage be reconciled with the Treasury. The principle is one which has been adopted by private firms in the Colony to form a working basis, and is considered to be the only method by which this Public Utility could present the Hong Kong taxpayer with a current picture of its working results. Subject to the foregoing remarks regarding the incomplete figure as to working outlay the accounts show that there was a balance of receipts over expenditure amounting to $2,205,311.30 or 99.05%.

7. Since the re-occupation of the Colony, Joint Traffic Working between the two Sections of the Line has been carried on by adhering as closely as possible, so far as changed circumstances would permit, to the basis of the former Working Agreement. Towards the close of the year, the

Canton-Hankow Line expressed their wish to have a new Working Agreement, and a draft was submitted for their consideration.

8. The coal supply has had to be carefully watched to secure correct deliveries with such great temptation to theft. Costs have never been lower than $110.00 per ton, the usual figure being about $145.00 loaded to locomotive, and the quality has varied enormously. Japanese, American, North Borneo and South African coals have been received and the Indian, North Borneo and South African coals have given the best results. The South African supply has been particularly good and conforms to the pre-war state of affairs when these coals always proved to be amongst the most satisfactory and economical. Fuel oil, at prices varying from $113.60 to $145.00 per ton, has proved economical when compared with coal giving a saving estimated at 30%. The figures in the statistical statement give a still better result, but they are not truly comparable owing to the difference in consumption between local trips and through running. The re-conversion therefore from coal to oil-burning of four 2-8-0 Austerity Locomotives although forced on the Administration by circum- stances, has proved beneficial in effecting economy and conserving coal stocks.

9. A disagreeable feature of the acute shortage in passenger accommodation on trains has been the flourishing black market in the sale of tickets which included on one occasion a sale of forgeries. Every effort has been made to combat the practice and police prosecutions have been many and the fines heavy, but the practice has not altogether ceased. It is hoped that, with the provision of new booking office facilities in the New Year and repaired rolling stock, the situation will be brought under proper control.

D

 10. The repairs carried out to the Beacon Hill and Taipo Tunnels necessitated by the original demolitions prior to the surrender of Hong Kong, caused some anxiety during the course of their reconstruction. The work had to be done at night with a minimum of suitable tools and on two occasions in the former tunnel large falls occurred, fortunately without loss of life, but which caused delays to the morning trains.

                                     It was essential that repair work should be completed before the next rains, as the shoring provided by the Japanese was proving dangerous due to dry rot and would not last over a further rainy season. Both tunnels were finished by the end of the year, except for minor grouting in the Beacon Hill Tunnel.

 11. It was the custom for many years prior to the war, for most merchants to employ their own coolies for loa ling and unloading cargo at Kowloon. A railway contractor provided coolies when requested to do so at a scale laid down by the

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Railway, but the handling charges incurred were collected by the contractor who paid a small annual fee for this privilege. The system was never really satisfactory and, since the re- occupation, a scheme has been introduced whereby all hand- ling at Kowloon Station has been done by a Railway Contractor, less 10%, which has been retained by the Railway. The scheme has proved most successful, handling being entirely under Railway control and more efficient. Moreover, the Railway share of receipts from handling during the eleven months has amounted to $53,236.00 which is far in excess of the amount earned under the old method.

12. The future is difficult to forecast. As regards the Passenger Service with Canton, keen competition with the river boats may be expected with a possible reduction in fares, though increased operating costs in the case of both rail and water will preclude a return to the pre-war figures. Through passenger trains with Hankow are dependent on the provision of additional coaches by both the British and Chinese Sections of the Line. The immediate prospects for these services are therefore not bright.

 Freight traffic would move in considerable quantities in both directions if the Chinese National currency stabilized. Exports are moving down to Canton from the interior at present in a fairly steady stream, but they are not booked through to Kowloon owing to foreign exchange difficulties and must needs be smuggled out of Canton by devious methods in order to reach the Port of Hong Kong.

13. Another factor which will have a marked bearing on through traffic potentiality is the increasing unserviceability of wagons on the Canton-Hankow Section. Lack of machine tools and other appropriate equipment has caused unservice- ability to exceed the rate of repair and although, as already stated, some 1261 UNRRA wagons have been supplied to the Line, these wagons were not new stock and they are fitted with chilled iron wheels on which flat spots are developing rapidly. Very few spare wheels exist, and beyond endea- vouring to weld the parts as flats are noticed nothing can be done. Even if sufficient spare wheels were made available, there are insufficient wheel presses to effect repairs. The provision of these wagons must therefore be regarded as a very short term policy towards China's Railways restoration programme. Meanwhile, the British Section is also depleted of wagon stock and the delivery date for new stock is uncertain in the extreme.

TRANSPORTATION

14. Despite the difficulties of operating with an inadequate and worn out supply of Rolling Stock and equipment, revenue

 earned during the period under review constituted a record. It is difficult however to judge the value of the results attained compared with pre-war years, as the abnormal conditions created by the aftermath of war, coupled with greatly reduced river competition, have no precedent in the history of the Railway.

 15. The most important event was the rehabilitation and linking of the Canton-Hankow Railway with the combined British and Chinese Sections of the Railway in July, as although the amount of traffic which has passed between the two Railways over this connection since the latter date has been limited owing to economic conditions, it is anticipated that it will have a marked influence on the future prosperity and development of both the Chinese and British Section. For a short period from August 1937 to September 1938, there was a through connection between this Railway and the Canton-Hankow Railway, but this was brought about by the Japanese attack on China, and the subsequent closing of the Yiangtse, which necessitated the Chinese Government finding an alternative means of communication between the interior and the outside world. Conditions then were vastly different to those now prevailing, but the experience gained during both periods indicates that the small British Section will' become one of the principal means of communication to_and from the interior, and that large quantities of goods traffic will flow via Kowloon when normal commercial trading develops.

 16. Through passenger traffic steadily increased during the eleven months under review the numbers carried progressively rising from 13,368 up and 48,358 down passengers in May 1946 to 94,798 up and 71,690 down in March 1947. During the first seven months there was an excess of down passengers over those travelling in the up direction. This was due to the large influx of persons from the interior who, in many cases, were former residents returning from China where they had gone during the Japanese occupation, and numerous persons who owing to unsettled conditions in China, were attracted to Hongkong by the possibilities of employment and trade under a stabilized form of Government and currency. During the last four months, the reverse has been the case, and there are reports that living was cheaper in Canton and employment in Hongkong not easy to find. It is too early to judge whether conditions have stabilized to such an extent that saturation point in Hongkong has been reached, but there are indications that the continuous surplus flow of people to the Colony has ceased, and that conditions are gradually returning to those existing prior to the war, when the flow of passenger traffic between the two cities was practically balanced.

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Total figures are appended below:--

TERMINAL THROUGH TRAFFIC.

No. of Passengers

UP

DOWN

TOTAL

Revenue

417,353 UP

526,644

.$ 921,918.00

DOWN

943,997 TOTAL

1,066,709,00

.$1,988,627.00

SECTIONAL THROUGH TRAFFIC.

$ 246,816.00 262,042.00

No. of Passengers

Revenue

UP

DOWN

153,536 UP 160,725

DOWN

TOTAL

314,261

TOTAL Total Revenue

Total Terminal & Sectional 1,258,258

$ 508,858.00 $2,497,485.00

17. Local passengers conveyed during the eleven months were 596,292; revenue from this source amounting to $530,610.00. Owing to shortage of rolling stock and difficul- ties of maintenance, it was only possible to run a curtailed local service during most of the period, and this affected the number of passengers carried. The service was improved on November 16th and still further improvements were made on March 1st. 1947. There was also intense road competition as numerous lorries operated on the Taipo Road, and although not licensed to carry passengers, most of them did so. Representations were made to Government for a tightening up of control over these lorries and it is hoped that these representations combined with the increased service will result in a rise in revenue. There was also a decrease in the New Territories population in the early months compared with pre-war years, as many who left for free China during the Japanese occupation only returned gradually.

The open-

ing of a road in Chinese Territory from Tamshui to Man Kam To Bridge also affected rail travel as numerous passengers, who prior to the war travelled to Tamshui and Waichow via the Railway to Taipo and thence by launch to Sha U Chung, were diverted to the new Bus Route.

was

18. Through goods traffic amounted to 184,236 Kilos., revenue earned being $690,053.00. The bulk of this cargo conveyed on behalf of UNRRA, commercial firms, and Chinese Government Organizations such as the Ministry of Communi- cations and the Canton-Hankow Railway. The amount of goods traffic carried was restricted owing to shortage of wagons and locomotives and non-return of wagons from Chinese Territory where they were used as covered storage. In other cases this non-return was beyond the control of the

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Railway Authorities as frequent military movements north of Canton resulted in the commandeering of goods wagons. Mercantile firms also laboured under great difficulties as the rapid decline in the value of Chinese Currency, and various Chinese Government restrictions imposed from time to time on imports and exports made normal commercial trading difficult. Down goods traffic was very poor being practically confined to vegetables and farm produce. Since December this traffic has ceased due to difficulties experienced by the vegetable merchant in Canton with the Customs and Railway authorities over examination of cargo. down traffic are given below:-

Up Traffic

Down Traffic

Kilos. Revenue Kilos. Revenue *182,923 $679,877.00 1,313 $10,175.00

*Ministry

Details of up and

of

Communications U. N. R. R. A., Canton-Hankow Railway, Other Chinese Gov- ernment Depts. (Military etc.) Commercial.

 19. Receipts from local goods traffic amounted to $48,680.00 the quantity conveyed being 7,260 Kilos. This was consider- ably less than prior to the war due to a variety of circumstances, chief among them being marketing and control of vegetables by Government who arranged direct conveyance from the New Territories to the market by lorries, the lack of fishing in the Taipo area owing to shortage of junks, and road competition.

RATES AND FARES.

20. Prior to the cessation of through traffic in 1938, fares could normally be divided into two classes, those applicable to local traffic and to stations on the Chinese Section other than Canton, and the purely terminal fares in operation between Kowloon and Canton. Owing to intense river com- petition, it was necessary to keep these latter fares at a very low level indeed in order to attract passengers to the Railway. Since the re-occupation of the Colony and the re-opening of the Railway, competition by river companies, due to lack of shipping, has greatly declined, and the result has been that the train accommodation available has been taxed to the uttermost. It was therefore possible to abandon the employ- ment of special low terminal through fares, and to apply the normal fares in operation to local stations and sectional stations to all terminal passenger traffic with an additional It will thus charge of 20% for travel on the Express trains. be seen that economic conditions have resulted in a complete reversal of pre-war methods for the time being, and whilst the comparatively high fares prevailing has not deterred passen- gers from travelling, it is realised that eventually reductions for terminal traffic will have to be made when river competition becomes more intense. Passenger fares varied

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throughout the period but have averaged about 250% above those in force prior to the war, although in the case of terminal traffic, this has meant an increase of approximately 800%.

21. The same principles were applied to all goods rates and the average rates for all classes of traffic were approximately 900% above those in force when through traffic ceased in 1938. In addition a terminal charge of 20 cents per ton was levied on outward goods traffic from Kowloon, this charge being raised in order partially to off-set the reduction in the British Section share of through terminal traffic from 28% to 20% in July 1946.

22.

Considerable difficulties were experienced in adjusting rates and fares for down traffic as until November, the basis for all charges were those laid down by the Chinese Ministry of Communications in terms of Chinese Currency. Down rates and fares were quoted in the latter currency, while those in the reverse direction were quoted in terms of Hong Kong currency. However, from November 16th. and for so long as there is a marked difference between the Hong Kong dollar and National currency, the Chinese authorities agreed to the former currency being the basis for all rates and fares between the two sections, with a transaction rate based on the average of the previous 15 days market rate of exchange as quoted by the Bank of China in Hong Kong. This proved beneficial to both sections as previously owing to the continual and rapid decline in the value of Nationl currency, down rates and fares were frequently much less than those for up traffic, and the lack of a recognized formula for dealing with the situation often resulted in unnecessary loss in revenue being sustained.

OPERATING

23. During the Japanese occunation, quantities of rolling stock and equipment were removed from the Colony, and in addition, no maintenance or repairs were carried out to Railway Property. Signalling equipment and Token Instru- ments etc., were in many cases either looted or damaged, with the result that all operations since the re-occupation have been governed to a large extent by the speed with which new equipment and materials could be obtained, and repair and rehabilitation carried out to existing stock. Owing to the necessity of importing materials for Double Wire signalling from Great Britain, and the shortage of signal lamps, it has not been possible to restore the signalling equipment to its former state of efficiency, but numerous repairs and renewals have been carried out and new Token Instruments received from India have been installed. It is therefore difficult to

9

compare the operating efficiency with that of pre-war years, but a continuous and steady improvement was effected throughout the period under review.

24. The passenger train service increased from a daily average of 8 trains in May 1946 to 24 at the end of March 1947, and there was also a progressive reduction in the time of the through journey to Canton from 84 hours to 4/2 hours. This does not of course compare with the pre-war time of 2 hours 55 minutes, and until new track materials can be obtained and considerable sections of both the British and Chinese Sections of the Railway are re-laid, it is doubtful whether further increases in speed can be made.

25. The daily through service in May consisted of one fast passenger train and one slow train in each direction and this was increased in August to two fast and one slow. The gradual decrease in running time attracted an increasing number of passengers, and the provision of a third train was found necessary. This was introduced in February: the rolling stock consisting of 40-ton covered goods wagons which were converted by the Canton-Hankow Line into passenger coaches by the provision of windows and seats.

 26. The local train service commenced with two trains only in each direction, but the arrival of new locomotives from Great Britain, coupled with repairs and rehabilitation of rolling stock, enabled this number to be increased to three in each direction from November 16th 1946, and to five in each direction from March 1st. 1947. In addition, a rail-bus service was inaugurated on November 16th. and this proved popular with New Territory residents; the number of passen- gers carried and revenue earned by this unit amounting to 21,108 and $15,153.00 respectively.

27. A certain amount of difficulty was experienced in the operation of goods trains, owing to the fact that UNRRA wagons supplied to China were equipped with screw couplings instead of the automatic couplers in common use on this Rail- way and the Chinese Railways. This meant that their use was restricted to block trains as it was not possible to couple them to wagons equipped with automatic couplers. A total of 705 goods trains were run during the eleven months, of which 305 were to Canton, 66 direct to the Canton-Hankow Railway, while 334 were received at Kowloon. Unfortunately the lack of exports from China resulted in the majority of wagons travelling empty in the downward direction.

28.

The timekeeping of through trains generally was not satisfactory, but the reasons were in many cases beyond the control of the British Section. Lack of crossing stations on the Chinese Section and the necessity for continuous imposi-

·

J

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tion of speed restrictions over certain bridges and sections of track caused frequent delays. Movements and handling of traffic at Kowloon were also restricted due to lack of siding accommodation in the early part of the year, and in order to improve the situation in the interests of both Sections, track materials were obtained from the Canton-Hankow Railway on loan to enable two loop lines and three sidings to be restored.

29.

Accidents both operating and personal are detailed

below:-

1 minor collision.

4 Engine failures.

5 Derailments.

2 Trespassers killed by trains.

17

injured by trains.

6 Level crossing gates damaged by Motor Traffic.

1

""

""

""

""

Rail Traffic.

""

30. A tragic incident occurred on January 1st. when a Rail- bus leaving Fanling daily at 17.30 hours was held up by armed robbers at Mile 1134. As a result of this hold up, a passenger was killed and two others were wounded.

31.

 The number of passengers travelling without payment of fares and with intent to avoid payment has given cause for concern. Most of them were Chinese troops, ex-soldiers and and deserters engaged in smuggling, and when approached for tickets adopted a threatening and aggressive attitude which intimidated Railway employees. However, joint Military and Police action was called for in September and Police searches and strict control at Kowloon and Yaumati stations since has effected improvements. The situation was not.eased by the shortage of Ticket Examining and Collecting staff, as it was not possible to recruit suitable persons for the pay offered.

32. In January lectures were commenced to various grades of Traffic staff on Railway Rules and Regulations as drawn up in the new Rule Book which was approved by the Governor in Council, and distributed in December.

ACCOUNTS - GENERAL

33. On starting the Railway after the re-occupation it was found that all records had been destroyed and forms and account books had to be reconstructed from memory by the clerical staff. No Working Agreement materialized during the year and the method of settling accounts, and reconciling view points, was by meetings of Executives, either in Hong Kong, Canton or Hengyang, and correspondence between the

11

Chief Accountants of each Section. All this tended to slow up accounting, and made work more complicated by reason of unavoidable delayed decisions on Traffic Rates, Transaction and Conversion Rates.

34. The Capital Account as at 1st May 1946 has been compiled on approximate figures after consulting the Accoun- tant General, who advised that the Capital value should be shown at a figure which bears a reasonable relationship to reality. Estimates have been made by the technical staff of the Railway in accordance with the ideas expressed by the Accountant General, and the figure is $16,532,881.19. Additions and Betterments also an approx. figure amount to $2,429,641.80, making a total of $18,962,552.99 at the end of the year.

35. When the British Military Administration period ended on 30th. April 1946, this Department refunded a cash balance of $474,536.67 to Treasury, and the sum of $242,872.81 was due to the Chinese Section in respect of Traffic Earnings up to that date. This amount was subsequently paid to the Chinese Section from 1946/47 Revenue.

    It is not yet known what basis is to be adopted regarding the handover from British Military Administration to Civil Administration and, pending a decision, all book balances. have been brought forward from the British Military Administration period.

36. The net operating revenue was $4,431,700.03 and the operating expenditure $2,226,388.73.

37. An Operating Account has been drawn up for the purposes of this report, which, gives the financial picture of the Railway's working results for the eleven months under review.

38. The last available statements of account of this Depart- ment are those for the year 1939. No figures are available for 1940 and 1941, and a decision has not as yet been given the Department as to the procedure to be adopted in respect of these years. A Profit and Loss Account and General Balance Sheet cannot be compiled until a ruling is made.

39. It should be noted that in the absence of records Depreciation on pre-war Rolling Stock has been calculated on a further life of 5 years for locomotives and 6 years for carriages and wagons.

40. Shortage of staff and continual resignations caused serious delays in compiling final Division Sheets, and it was not possible to make the first post-war half yearly settlement as at 30th. June 1946 until March 28th. 1947. The Chinese

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Section were in similar case.

                Division Sheets up to August 1946 were only accepted by the Chinese Section in March 1947, and unless this rate of progress can be improved the final settlement for half year as at 31st. December 1946, will not be possible until July or August 1947. In March 1947, the Canton Office was checking the statement of accounts as between the two Sections for the month of July, 1946.

41. In November 1946, the Chinese Section asked for Traffic Earnings to be kept apart from debits and credits arising from engine haulage and supply of stores etc. This was done through the medium of an Imprest Account which covers all such transactions outside Traffic Earnings. The Imprest Account has operated successfully and makes for clarity in the cash relations between the two Sections.

42.

The last full year of through running was 1938; but no comparison with that or later years would be of any practical value in view of post-war inflation in wages, cost of stores and operating expenses generally.

43.

MECHANICAL WORKSHOPS.

On re-occupation in September 1945, it was found that nearly all the really serviceable pre-war mechanical equip- ment had been removed, leaving behind only those types of machines which in the opinion of the Japanese were probably too old or not worth-while removing.

44.

Rolling stock found at Kowloon at this period consisted of one 4-6-4 tank wagon, one. Canton-Hankow Railway 0-8-0 tender locomotive, 17 carriages both British and Chinese, and 82 wagons, British and Chinese. All the Chinese rolling stock has since been returned. There remains a considerable quantity, however, of British rolling stock on the Canton- Hankow Railway which has not yet been received. Early in 1946, the Canton-Hankow Railway returned to the British Section one 4-6-4 main line engine, one shunting locomotive, and the British Section 65-ton locomotive break-down crane. In addition, two UNRRA 2-8-2 locomotives out of a total of six which arrived in the Colony were specially assigned to the British Section by UNRRA for the purposes of moving UNRRA/CNRRA supplies to Canton for the interior.

45. During the period under review major repairs have been carried out to two locomotives, 17 carriages and 6 wagons. The work of repair on our own wagons was held up due to track shortage and other facilities which were diverted for the assembly of 1261 UNRRA wagons and the putting into traffic of 65 UNRRA locomotives under our supervision for the Chinese Government Railways. The alternative would have been to congest the whole Railway area with knocked-down wagon material of no value as transport units.

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46. The manufacture of small parts and repairs to equipment have been carried out for the following organizations and Hong Kong Government Departments:--Chinese Ministry of Communications, Medical Department, Royal Observatory, Public Works Department, Urban Council, Police Department and Government Land Transport, as well as the Royal Air Force.

47. The work of restoration has necessarily had to be carried out to less desirable standards than heretofore largely due to the shortage of suitable timber and other materials, and as regards timber in particular, the situation will need careful watching as that used is liable to attack by white ants, making further repair work necessary within a comparatively short period. Nevertheless, a great deal has been done in making available rolling stock safe to use.

The various statistical tables are included at the end of the report.

WAY AND STRUCTURES.

48. The Department has been fortunate in that no serious accident has occurred on the Main Line, in view of the fact that the Permanent Way is now 30 years old and no mainten- ance had taken place during the Japanese occupation period. This satisfactory state of affairs is mainly due to the vigilance of the Permanent Way Staff and the co-operation of the Traffic and Locomotive Departments.

49.

From the date of re-occupation practically no stock of spare serviceable Permanent Way materials was available, and owing to shortage in the local market materials were difficult to obtain. An Administration Circular was issued calling on all staff engaged in Traffic movements to be extremely careful because in the event of extensive damage resulting to the Permanent Way material might not be replaceable.

 50. Rails in some sections of the main line have worn to more than 50% of the area of the head. No less than 17 cracked rails were replaced at various places between Sept. 1946 and March 1947. Thirty-five lengths of worn-rails on the outer- side of the curve at Mile 10 were interchanged with those on the inner-side on 24.12.46. This change was a somewhat desperate expedient to keep the line in reasonable running order until new rails could be secured.

 51. Up to the end of May 1946 many rotten sleepers in important places, such as rail joints and curves, had not been changed, because sleepers for renewal had not yet arrived.

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The first consignment of 646 Australian hardwood sleepers arrived in June 1946.

During the year, the following quantities of sleepers were purchased:-

Hardwood sleepers.

FROM AUSTRALIA

FROM

FROM

INDIA

BANGKOK

2122

4996

6325

304

Bridge & Crossing timbers. 502

Some 600 concrete sleepers in the Main Line were damaged from time to time by defective parts hanging down from rolling stock before the staff was sufficient to carry out proper examinations.

52. The Department working short-handed had a very busy year in carrying out the heavy rehabilitation programme. The re-laying of missing tracks with loaned material and the repairs to tunnels, bridges and workshops had to be done concurrently in the interests of safety and, above all, without interference to traffic.

53. Re-laying Track. Five miles of track were removed by the Japanese during the war. The Chinese Government Rail- ways afforded assistance with the loan of 180 lengths 75-lb. rails, 600 lengths of 110-lb. rails, 5400 sleepers and a corresponding number of fishplates. Unfortunately, they had no switches, crossings and fastenings, and so these accessories had to be made locally. The following lines were replaced:-

Siding along praya wall at Kowloon..... Siding for assembling wagons at Hung Hom Loop line to Holt's siding..

Siding along praya wall at Hung Hom...

Middle Road South, Kowloon..

Crossover between Mid-Road, South and No.

3 Road, Kowloon

1172 ft. long point to end. 1471 ft. long point to point

844 ft. 2460 ft. 1004 ft.

""

19

"

""

""

"J

end.

11

""

188 ft. 1698 ft. "" 1501 ft.

"

19

point

"

11

""

"?

""

Loop line at Yaumati Station..

Loop line at Taipo Market Station.

Portion of Main Line at Lowu...

Siding at Yaumati Station.

2144 ft. long.

484 ft. long point to end.

Materials for

Many other sidings have yet to be re-laid. these sidings have been indented for from the Crown Agents, with poor chances of delivery, and every avenue is being explored for the supply of sufficient rails as early as possible from other sources.

54. At Hung Hom, 1/4 mile of track was re-aligned in order to eliminate two sharp curves. Rails and sleepers for this work were obtained from sidings at Fanling and Lowu.

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55. Two constructional-sidings, built by the Japanese at the Taipo and Beacon Hill Tunnels, were removed in order to eliminate the danger of unattended facing points.

56. The service line between Hung Hom Loco Yard and Kowloon Station was converted to an assembly line for UNRRA wagons.

             This necessitated the installation of a Block Station and the laying of a cross-over road at No. 2 Bridge for controlling the traffic between Kowloon and Yaumati as well as that between Kowloon and the Hung Hom workshops yard.

57. Out of the total length of 7212 ft. of brick arches in the Beacon Hill Tunnel, 2646 linear ft. had been destroyed during the War. In addition, there were numerous cracks in the remaining portions of the arches. Red bricks numbering 1,300,000 were purchased for replacing the mission arches. A contract for this job was signed on 15.8.46 and completed in March 1947. The Contractor could only work about 6 hours per night, because the work had to be done without interference to normal traffic. The work remaining to_be done consists of repairs to minor cracks by Cement Gu

58. The arches in Taipo Tunnel (900 ft. long) were also damaged during the War. In the central portion of the Tunnel where demolition had occurred, reinforced concrete arches over a distance of 100 ft. were erected to replace the brick arches and the cracks were grouted by Cement Gun.

 59. Major Bridges No. 25, No. 33 and one pier of Bridge 47 were also demolished during the retreat of the British forces in December 1941. The Japanese rebuilt these bridges. apparently in a hurry and left many parts undone, such as sides and bracings. A contract for reconditioning Bridges No. 25 and No. 33 was completed in November 1946.

On February 1947, cracks in one of the piers of Bridge No. 47 were found to be developing further. Arrangements were made immediately to reconstruct the pier. Minor repairs to sidewalk and bracings of this bridge still remain to be done.

60.

The

    Signals. The double-wire signalling mechanism at Yau- mati, Taipo Market and Fanling was looted during the Japanese occupation period. Efforts to obtain materials from India for restoring this system were not successful. alternative was to put back the old system of signalling as a temporary measure. The contract for this work was com- pleted by the end of the year. Meanwhile procurement for the double-wire signalling material has been requested from the United Kingdom.

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

16

61. Station buildings had been abused and neglected during the period of Japanese occupation. Much material and labour were required to put them right, especially the Yaumati station building where the gutters, ceilings and other wood- work had been looted. As timber was expensive and difficult to obtain, old tunnel-shorings were used. Painting was done by the Permanent Way Departmental painting gang, and by the end of the year the station buildings at Yaumati, Shatin and Taipo had been overhauled. Those at Fanling and Sheung Shui are now receiving attention.

62. The rehabilitation of the European Class "A" & "B" Quarters under semi-austerity conditions was carried out and supervised by Messrs. Palmer & Turner, a local firm, and was completed in August 1946. The repairs to the native Staff quarters were carried out departmentally under semi-austerity conditions. The only woodwork obtainable at the time for joists, windows and doors will not last long and must be renewed with suitable hardwood within three years.

63. To alleviate the housing difficulty, 7 Nissen huts were erected at Hung Hom to accommodate those of the Loco Department staff who are on call duty.

64. Before the war, the maintenance of the Workshops buildings were under the control of the Chief Mechanical Engineer. Since the re-occupation of Hong Kong, this Department was called upon to rehabilitate them and take over their future maintenance. The majority of roofing sheets were found to be rotten, lead flashings were stolen and 740 sheets of large glass were either broken or missing.

Five different contracts were carried out for the repairs of the workshop buildings. 3133 sheets of roofing, 700 pieces of large glass as well as other material were renewed. The Erecting Shop, Machine Shop, Carpenters Shop, Wagon Shed and Running Shed were repaired. The Paint Shop still remains to be done.

65. A new latrine of the pit-type was erected at Yaumati Station. It was constructed of cement concrete and brick masonry. The old latrines at out-stations were of the bucket- type, and were built of steel-work which had corroded during the Japanese occupation period. The structure has been the subject of favourable comment from the Health Officers of the Colony, and with certain minor improvements it is suggested that it be made standard for other similar erections in Hong Kong and Kowloon.

66. Land. During the year, permits for land at Hung Hom Reclamation for storage purpose had been issued to the following:-

17

1.

Ministry of Communications,

Chinese Government

2. China Vegetable Oil Co.

3.

C.N.R.R.A.

72,739 s.f.

55,150 s.f.

74,07 s.f.

    380,068 s.f. of land in the same locality had been occupied by the R.A.F. and Military who had paid no rental and had not vacated by the end of the year.

67. Advertising spaces. The following spaces were let for advertising purposes:-

Inside Kowloon Station Building. Outside Kowloon Station Building.

Opposite Nathan Road...

Prince Edward Road Bridge.

504 s.f.

1,294 s.f.

950 s.f.

888 s.f.

68. From September 1945 to June 1946 essential tools, such as beater picks and cold chisels had not been supplied. beater picks had to be ordered from a local manufacturer.

The following plant was received during the year:

Two Whitmore Cement Guns.

One Holman Air-compressor.

One Wickham Heavy duty Trolley and Trailer. One Wickham No. 17 Small Motor Trolley.

One push trolley.

200

69. Robbery was prevalent during 1946. Cement weighing 11⁄2 tons was removed from Taipo Tunnel on 6.4.46. An unsuccessful attempt at robbery of explosives stored inside a magazine at Taipo Station was made on 14.4.46. In both cases the robbers were armed.

Typhoon Damage.

70.

                 The typhoon of 18.7.46 did consi- derable damages to embankments and buildings, and repairs were effected by contract. The cost amounted to $69,491.59.

71.

Speed. The speed restriction over the Main Line was 25 m.p.h. as from 12th. January 1946. From September 1946 onwards there has been a progressive improvement to 35 m.p.h., except for some sections.

72. H. E. the Governor, Sir Mark Young, inspected the Line and Workshops on 12.7.46.

73. Staff. During the year, the post of Engineer of Way & Works was vacant, and Mr. K. L. Hu, the Assistant Engineer acted.

18

On 25.10.46, Sub-Inspector Ngai Chau Tin was authorised to carry out the duties of a Permanent Way Inspector until the arrival of the latter officer.

On 1.2.47 Mr. Hung Shek Chiu was appointed to the post of Permanent Way Inspector on probation.

STORES.

74. A Board of Survey at the end of the year reported that the Stores in general were found to be in good condition and kept in accordance with regulations.

75. It has not been possible however to place a total value. on the balance of unallocated stores on hand at the end of the year.

    This is due to the non-arrival of debits in respect of considerable quantities of Stores received from Great Britain through the Military Authorities, and the non-receipt of debits from the Central Government Stores for certain Stores drawn from them.

76. All Stores left behind by the Japanese were taken on charge at the commencement of the year at prices which were approximately the same as those being paid for similar items during the Military Administration. A Board of Survey held towards the end of the year found a large quantity of these Stores to be unserviceable, and authority was given to write them off to the amount of $14,773.97. In addition, it was found that the original valuation placed on these stores was too high, and authority was obtained to write down the value of the remainder by $52,741.14 to prices approximately equivalent to current market rates prevailing at the end of March, 1947.

77. Stores obtained locally through the Military Authorities during the period of the British Military Administration were taken on charge at the commencement of the period under review at approximately current market rates. The balance still in stock at the end of the period were written down in value to prices which conformed to local current costs.

78. The value of Stores obtained through local sources other than the Government Stores during the eleven months amounted to $2,462,724. Of this sum $753,192 was in respect of coal, while $803,663 was expended on fuel oil and petrol. Purchases of sleepers through the local market cost $165,490.

79. Prices generally declined throughout the period, the decrease between May 1946 and March 1947 in many instances being from 30% to 40%.

STAFF

19

80. I desire to express my keen appreciation of the loyalty and hard work performed by the staff of all Sections of this Department. All important records were destroyed and the Account books and forms had to be reconstituted entirely from memory.

           Vigilance on the Line has prevented accidents arising from cracked rails and collapsed shorings in tunnels. Improvisations have had to be resorted to continually in the absence of proper tools, and considerable ingenuity has been shown in this direction. The rapid turn-round, examination, and cleansing of what passenger stock was available has involved long hours of duty in all weathers without suitable clothing. This conscientious attention to duty has been afforded despite the mental anxiety of how to make ends meet on salaries generally inconsistent with present day costs. The Administration's action in obtaining rice supplies for the staff in bulk and arranging for its distribution was greatly appre- ciated. It has saved man-hours and reduced physical strain by avoiding long waits at rice shops.

81. A successful venture in the form of a Workmen's Lunch Club which provided a rice meal with meat or fish and vegetables for 40 cents daily had to be abandoned after running for some months owing to the cut in the Government rice ration. Nevertheless, before it closed down, it had done much to restore the health of the workers and, in the absence of transport, enabled them to rest after food instead of being obliged to walk considerable distance to obtain a mid-day meal.

82. The staff on return to work suffered from considerabie debility arising from malnutrition which has taken many months to eradicate, but the general health is now good.

(Sd.) I. B. Trevor,

General Manager, Railway.

28.6.47

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE

DURING THE YEAR

At the Beginning

of the Year

New Lines and Extensions

Additions and

Betterments

Property

Abandoned

Net Capital Expenditure

At the End of

the Year

3

4

5

6

7

1

PART I-Construction Accounts. C-1 General Expenditure... C-2 Preliminary Expenditure..

2

753,619.68

80,045.23

753,619.68

80,045.23

20

C-3 Land

5,210,696.83

5,210,696.83

C-4

Formation

2,703,100.42

2,703,100.42

C-5 Tunnels

2,991,727.14

470,219.78

470,219.78

3,461,946.92

C-6 Bridgework

1,277,706.66

26,644.93

26,644.93

1,304,351.59

C-7 Line Protection

90,074.47

90,074.47

C-8 Telegraphs and Telephones...

11,419.10

(X)

19,200.00

19,200.00

30,619.10

C-9 Track

440,329.66

187,900.23

187,900.23

628,229.89

C-10 Signals and Switches,

43,162.06

43,162.06

C-11 Stations and Buildings. C-12 Central Mechanical Works...

800,145.98

800,145.98

242,445.93

36,968.74

36,968.74

279,414.67

C-13 Special Mechanical Works..

C-14 Plant

101,956.00

(X)

50,400.00

50,400.00

152,365.00

C-15 Rolling Stock..

1,739,700.00

(X) 1,398,857.00

1,638,308.12

3,378,008.12

C-16 Maintenance

C-17 Docks, Harbours & Wharves C-18 Floating Equipment.

1,129.75

45,613.28

239,451.12

1,129.75

45,613.28

Total Cost Property.

16,532,881.19

2,429,641.80

2,429,641.80

18,962,522.99

(X) Estimated cost. Debit not yet received.

OPERATING ACCOUNTS.

OPERATING EXPENSES

CURRENT YEAR

AMOUNT

Percentage on total operating

expenses

Main Line

E-1 General Expenses

Administration

Special

E-2 Traffic Expenses

E-3 Running Expenses

Locomotives

Carriages & Wagons. Motor Vehicles................. Traffic .....

E-4 Maintenance of

Equipment

Locomotive Department

E-5 Maintenance of Way and

Structures

Engineering Department Other Departments.......

CURRENT YEAR

OPERATING REVENUE

AMOUNT

Percentage

on total operating

revenue

21

tA

BA

Local Line

R-1 Passengers Service,

Passengers

530,609.75

11.97

183,515.54

8.24

R-2 Passengers Services,

3,250.94 186,766.48 326,345.94

.15

Other

6,338.90

.14

14.66

R-3 Goods Service, Goods.. R-4 Goods Service, Other... R-7 Profit on Central

48,680.15

1.10

11,510.00

.26

617,828.52

27.75

Mechanical Works.....

131,951.74

2.98

67,757.61

3.05

R-8 Rent

89,651.67

2.02

1,973.54

.09

R-9 Incidental Revenue..

83,784.28

902,526.49

1.89

32,147.53

719,707.20

1.44

Through Service

R-1 Passengers

Service,

537,697.44

24.15

Passengers

2,497,485.42

Other

444,007.74

11,863.93 455,871.67

19.94

.53

R-2 Passengers Service,

R-3 Goods Service, Goods... R-4 Goods Service, Other... R-9 Incidental Revenue.. R10 Auxiliary Operation, Foreign Haulage.....

R-11 Interchange of Rolling

287,460.61 690,052.63

196.00

53,978.88

56.36

6.49

15.57

1.22

Stock

3,529,173.54

Total Operating Expenses

Balance net revenue

2,226,388.73 2,205,311.30

100.00

Total Operating Revenue. Balance net loss..

4,431,700.03

100.00

4,431,700.03

4,431,700.03

(1) Operating expenditure

$1,343,250.24

(2) Portion of Special Expenditure charge-

able to Revenue

(3) Depreciation on Rolling Stock......

66,795.74

(a) Passengers

57,900.89

(4) H.C.L. and Rehabilitation Allowances... (5) Pensions and Gratuities.

634,902.35

(1) Net Revenue

(2) Government Transportation

(b) Goods

$4,414,899.14

16,468.65 97.80

99,991.56

(3) Government rentals etc.

234.44

(6) Rent and other Special allowances to

staff

21,881.68

(7) Staff passages

1,666.27

Total Operating Expenses...

$2,226,388.73

Total operating revenue..

$4,431,700.03

22

22

PREVIOUS YEAR

COST ASSIGNMENT & STATISTICS

Miscellaneous.

CURRENT YEAR

1. Average cost of repairs per Locomotive

per annum..

2. Average cost of Locomotive repairs per

engine Km

32.027.60

.70

¡

3. Average cost of repairs per passenger

car per annum......

10,985.88

4. Average cost of repairs per goods wagon

per annum.

1,900.33

5. Average cost of Lubricants per engine

Km for Locomotives......

.02

6. Average cost of Lubricants per train Km for passenger and goods carriages...

.03

23

A-COST FOR RUNNING COAL BURNING LOCOMOTIVES

PREVIOUS YEAR

1

CURRENT YEAR

2

1.

Total cost of coal.....

2. Average cost per ton..

3

$168,250.50

(For Main Line Engine)

154.50

3.

Cost per train Km.

4.61

4.

Cost per engine Km.

4.18

5.

Total weight of coal tons......................

1,089.00 tons

(For Main Line Engine)

6.

Weight per train Km. Kg.

30.31

7.

Weight per engine Km. Kg.

27.14

B-COST FOR RUNNING FURNACE OIL BURNING

LOCOMOTIVES

PREVIOUS

YEAR

1

CURRENT YEAR

2

3

1 Total cost of Furnace Oil.

$ 20,380.12

2. Average cost per ton..........

$

137.00

3. Cost per train Km.

2.53

4.

Cost per engine Km.

2.44

5. Total weight of Furnace Oil.......

1,487.60

6. Weight per train Km. Kg.

18.43

7. Weight per engine Km. Kg.

17.94

:

24

Train

Kilome-

terage

.

Analysis of Train and Locomotive Kilometerage. From 1st May, 1946 up to 31st March, 1947.

Classification

Oil Burning Engine Kilometerage

Coal Engine Kilometerage

Total Kilometerage

Railbus

Kilometerage

Ordinary

By B.S.Engines 34,588.00 Km. By C.S.

36,330.00

39

15

Passenger

Special By B.S. By C.S.

""

2,600.00,,

Nil

Nil

50,610.00

23

2,600.00

Nil

""

33,024.96 Km. 67,612.96 Km. 14,561.28 Km. B.S.-British Section 14,280.00

C.S.=Chinese Section

B.S. British Section |C.S.=Chinese Section

Mixed By B.S.

""

By C.S.

45,211.62 13,160.00

""

Nil 12,775.00,,

45,211.62 25,935.00

39

B.S.-British Section |C.S.=Chinese Section

**

Goods

Service By B.S.

""

Nil

Nil

Nil

By C.S.

""

""

29

Ballast Train By B.S.

By C.S.

" "

356.00 Nil

""

3,553.00

Nil

""

3,909.00

Nil

99

By C.S.

"T

82,755.62 49,490.00

"

"1

36,577.96 27,055.00

"

""

119,333.58

76,545.00,,

14,561.28

Total Train Kilometerage By B.S.

Assisting

By B.S. By C.S.

Nil

""

211.60 Nil

211.60 Nil

"}

"

Supplementary

Locomotive

Locomotive Kilometerage

By B.S. By C.S..

11

11

86,499.62 57,740.00

"3

"?

12

""

38,449.96 124,949.58 31,561.00 89,301.00

"

Kilometerage

Light

By B.S. By C.S.

"

11

433.50 2,156.00

2,084.06

19

""

2,517.56 1,459.50,, 3,615.50

""

Shunting & By B.S.

"7

Standing in

By C.S.

12,515.46,

Nil

89,493.74,,

Nil

102.009.20,,

Nil

steam @the

rate of 8 Km.p.h.

Total Loco. Kilometerage

By B.S.

35

By C.S.

99,448.58 59,896.00

""

99

""

130,239.36 229,687.94

33,020.50

92,916.50

17

B.S.British Section |C.S.=Chinese Section

1

OTHER OPERATING REVENUE (Miscellaneous)

2

CURRENT YEAR

(May, 1946-March, 1947)

Percentage

R-6

R-7

R-8

Rents

R-9

Telegraph

Profits of Central Mechani-

cal Works

Incidental Revenue.

3

$

4

5

$

131,951.74

2.98

89,651.67

137,763.16

2.02

3.11

(1) Advertising

23,938.07

(2) Station and

Train

privileges

2,726.02

(3) Sales of unclaimed & confiscated goods....

(4) Profits of Stores

Transactions

(5) Miscellaneous

Government

R-10

Auxiliary Operation

(water supplied)

(Foreign Haulage).

R-11

Interchange of Rolling Stock

Total.

111,099.07

(A)359,366.57

(A) Home Line Foreign Government

8.11

.$305,153.25

53,978.88

234.44

$359,366.57

25

ANALYSIS OF GOODS SERVICE PART I-Goods Service R-3 Goods

CURRENT YEAR

(May, 1946-March, 1947)

PERCENTAGE OF

26

Kinds of Goods

No. of

Kilogrammes

Originating

No. of

Kilogrammes

Carried

Kilogrammes

Kilometers

Kilogrammes

Kilogrammes

Revenue

Revenue

Carried

Kilometers

on Home Line

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

General Merchandise:- Public

Government

$

¢

188,335,813 | 189,648,813 1,848,260

1,848,260

Total Part I.

190,184,073 | 191,497,073

6,694,124,767 48,959,751

6,743,084,518

731,090.83

7,641.95

99.03

.97

99.27

97.42

.73

1.02

(A)738,732.78

100.00

100.00

98.44

(A) Home Line.

.$ 41,038.20

IC

Foreign Government

690,052.63

7,641.95

$738,732.78

Shunting

Handling Receipts Demurrage

Total Part II.

Total Parts I & II.

PART II-Goods Service R-4 Others.

LIB

1,706.00

10,000.00

(B)11,706.00

750,438.78

(B) Home Line Foreign

.23

1.33

1.56

100.00

11,510.00

196.00

$ 11,706.00

Kinds of Tickets Used

Ordinary: --

First

Second

Third

Government:

Civil

Military

Privilege

1

ANALYSIS OF PASSENGER SERVICE PART I-Passenger Service R-1 Passengers.

CURRENT YEAR

(May, 1946-March, 1947)

PERCENTAGE of

27

Number Originating on

Number of

Passenger

Units

Revenue

Kilometers

Number

Carried

Passenger Kilometers

Revenue

Home Line

Carried

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

$

17,697

34,478 1,223,958

189,518.83

1.86

2.09

5.70

41,118

1,077,254

80,733 1,708,227

2,866,020 53,592,866

302,575.30

4.35

4.91

9.11

2,455,966.84

92.11

91.74

78.93

5,112

5,112

123,150

3,931.63

.27

.21

.12

Excursion

Excess Fare

58,620.07

1.76

Sleeper Charges

Special Charges

Monthly & Season Tickets...

Scholar Tickets

1,780 24,220

Total Part I..

1.167,181

1,780 24,220

1,854,550

34,690 577,340

58,418,024

1,038.00

.10

.06

.03

16,444.50

1.31

.99

.50

3,028,095.17 (A)

100.00

100.00

91.15

(A) Home Line

Foreign Government

.$ 512,707.62

2,497,485.42 17,902.13

$3,028,095.17

Baggage & Specie:-

Public

Government

Parcels:

Public

Railway Service...

Carriages & Animals:

Public

Government

Special Trains:

Public

Government

Postal:

Miscellaneous

Total Part II..

Total Parts I & II.

PART II-Passenger Service

R-2 Others

$ 1,961.10

.06

238,783.24

7.19

53,047.58

1.60

7.59

(B) 293,799.51

3,321,894.68

(B) Home Line

Foreign Government

8.85

100.00

6,334.70 287,460.61

4.20

$293,799.51

V

香港

HONG KONG

VG

共圖

EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT

BONG KONG

ww

RIES

G PUBLIC LIBRAR