Dates and events connected with the history of education in Hongkong 1887

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DATES AND EVENTS

CONNECTED WITH

THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION

IN HONGKONG.

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Printed at St. Lewis Reformatory.

1877.

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DATES AND EVENTS

CONNECTED WITH

THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION

IN HONGKONG.

Tong=xong:

Printed at St. Lewis Reformatory.

1877.

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Dates and Events connected with the History

of Education in Hongkong.

 

It is not often that the European Community of Hongkong, far removed as it is from the busy turmoil of life at the great centres of civilization and immersed in the cares and anxieties of a purely commercial life, is agitated by the discussions that excite and divide Society at home. There, life, to the man of active mind, is a scene of con- stant warfare in which he finds himself ranged, almost in spite of himself, on the one side or the other, of the many questions social, political and religious, that are constant- ly cropping up and demanding an answer. Here we are near enough, thanks to the Suez Canal and the Electric telegraph to have prompt and ample information of all that is going on Europe; at the same time we are far enough away to be beyond the influence of the passion and prejudice stirred up in the breasts of even the best men by actual participation in the fray. Party contests in the Commons only ainuse us. Home Rules is but an object of languid curiosity. The battle over the "Inflexible" and her capabilities sets no partizans in hostile array. We stand indifferent between the Turks and the Russians, and judge the one as capable as the other of the most atrocious "atrocities." The question of War or Peace causes little or no excitement. If we consider the matter at all it is only as it is likely to affect Bank shares. Darwinism has, perhaps, its disciples among us but they are non-aggres- sive. Ritualism may have its secret admirers and prose- lytes but they are content to rest in obscurity. Of the many questions that have agitated the mind of Europe during the last dozen years there is only one that has caused any discussion, given rise to any pronounced expres- sion of opinion or excited any angry feeling among us. That question is one of, undoubtedly, the greatest import- ance; one that comes to the front sooner or later in every civilized society; one that must have a definite answer given to it, for it has a practical application not only to-day but to-morrow and for all time.

How shall we best educate our children, and, to whom shall we entrust the work, are questions that every gene- ration has to answer not merely in words, by its writers, but in acts, by its rulers.

Hongkong with its large native population, and with the steady increase in its permanent European population

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has had to ask itself those questions and has not yet, it would appear satisfactorily answered them. The discus- sion, by some thought to have been finally closed, has been re-opened, and the point to be debated is, on whom does the duty primarily rest of educating our children; on the Government as one of its essential obligations, or, on the parents, to be performed by them to the best of their means and ability with aid only from the state as may be requisite in each case. If the state is to undertake the duty then comes the further question, within what limits is the Government to act and is the education it gives to be secular, or, religious and if religious, of what religion.

A great deal has been said and written in Hongkong on this business of education, many things that might well have been left unwritten and unsaid. Charity would not have been wounded so grievously as it has been, if there had been less heat and more consideration.

We do not now intend to join in the discussion, but to chronicle in this pamphlet the dates and events in the educational history of Hongkong, the origin and growth of the secular and of the religious schools and to give a sketch, but only a sketch, of the phases of opinion that have existed at different times on the subject and of the controversies that have been excited by it.

Hongkong as a British colony is thirty six years old, but it was only twenty years ago that any thing was done towards the establishment of schools and the promotion of Education. We purpose to give the educational history of those twenty years, dividing it into five periods, each of which formed an epoch in the development of the school system.

FIRST PERIOD.

From 1857 to 1860.

Schools existed in Hongkong in 1857 both for Chi- nese and Europeans. The Chinese pupils at the Govern- ment school were not less than 420 as appears from the Report for the year 1857. In the Hongkong Govern- ment Gazette of November 27th, 1858, we find a Notice about Government School, by which Parents and Guardians are informed that Schools for gratuitous instruction had been established by the Government of Hongkong, within the City of Victoria, and throughout the Island, wherein

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the Chinese Elementary Books, their Classics, Geography etc, and the English language is well taught by compe- tent Native Teachers. No School Fee would be demanded but a sum not exceeding 25 cash per month, in lieu of Tea, would be expected from each pupil. Complaints from the Parents as well as applications for the Establishment of new schools were to be sent to the Members of the Educational Committee, who were the Bishop of Vic- toria, Rev. J. Chalmers, J. Scarth Esq. Rev. W. Lobschied. This latter gentleman signed as Inspector of Government Schools.

The hours of Tuitions were:

From 6 to 8 o'clock a.m.

From 9 to 12 o'clock a.m. From 3 to past 4 p.m.

In the Government Gazette of the 12th February 1859 we notice a Report, for which the thanks of the Government were given to the Members of the Committee for superin- tending Government Schools.

The number of 675 in the five

The number of

The Report was for the year 1858. scholars had increased from about 420 to months of January to May 1858 inclusive schools was fifteen, and the Inspector made application for permission to establish additional schools.

The course of instruction pursued was the general routine of native Chinese books with an endeavour to im- part at the same time the meaning of the sentence or words more fully than is used in the purely native system of teaching at school; the pupils learned also portions of the New Testament in Chinese, the meaning was explained, and passages were committed to memory.

The first rudiments of spelling with reading English were also taught in the larger schools, and a few facts of Geography were learnt.

There was the continued difficulty of raising the moral and intellectual tone of the Native teachers.

Although the Committee did not intend to place them- selves in antagonism to private schools they expected how- ever in the course of time to attract to the Government public schools a good part of the pupils from the private schools by elevating the standard of the former. The Com- mittee notices the presence of a few girls at some of the schools. The sum of £1,500 was granted by the Colonial Government for the ensuing year, thus providing Educa- tion for each day scholar at the rate of £1, to £1 10s. as

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the Committee had to observe that during the past year special causes had operated to retard the increase in the attendance of scholars and that in ordinary years the num- ber of pupils might be expected to amount to upwards of 1,000 boys.

Besides the free Government Schools appearing in the Report there were several private schools for Chinese.

St. Paul's College was distinguished for the Chinese and English teaching imparting to Chinese according to the principles of the Anglican Church. From it came the best instructed Chinese, who hold at present the highest position among their countrymen.

The European schools were all private, directed by Protestant teachers.

Among the Protestant European schools the most dis- tinguished was St Andrew's school, which was situated just where the Union-Church now stands. It was conducted by Mr. Kemp, who afterwards became the Editor of the Evening Mail.

The Catholics had no free schools for European children. There was a Chinese school with 8 Catholic pupils and an Orphanage for Chinese girls at L'Asyle de la St. Enfance, which was at that time the only Catholic Charitable Establishment in the Colony..

SECOND PERIOD.

From 1860 to 1863.

In the Government Gazette of the 21st January 1860, we find that His Excellency the Governor (Sir Hercules Robinson) had been pleased to appoint the following Gen- tlemen to be a Board of Education for the management of the Government Schools throughout the Colony.

The Right Reverend the Bishop of Victoria, Chairman:

W. T. Bridges D. C. L.

The Reverend J. J. Irwin, The Reverend W. Beach. The Reverend Dr. Legge. J. J. Mackenzie, Esq.

W. C. F. Robinson, Esq.

And on the 5th April of the same year we find the Report and Return of the Board of Education for the year 1859, in which we read that during the year 1859 nineteen school were in the city of Victoria and in the principal Villages of the Island.

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The greatest number of attendants at each school for- med an aggregate of 873 boys and 64 girls. The average attendance of every day throughout the year was 713.

The total expenditure of the year was to £1,260, 13, 6, in which sum were included the stipend of the Inspector of schools, £300, and some smaller sums for his travelling allowance and Chinese Writer, and some disbursements on account of English and Chinese school books.

A few months after, the Rev. Mr. Lobschied resigned his situation of Inspector of Government Schools, and in the month of September the Board of Education submit- ted to his Excellency the Governor a new system of ma- nagement prepared by the Rev. Dr Legge, who, after a short introduction, says:—

"The appointment of an European Inspector was a great improvement on the system by which the Schools were previously conducted, and we owe very much to Mr. Lobschied for the increased efficiency of the old schools under his management, and for the establishment of many new ones. Having been resident in the Colony (with the exception of temporary absence) since 1843, I have re- joiced to witness how attention to the important business of Education has grown, in some proportionable degree, with its general growth and prosperity.

"But great results cannot be realized under the present system. There are about twenty schools distributed over the Island. The pupils are mostly children of the poor, whose attendance is irregular, and cannot be calculated upon for a series of years. The teachers are in general men of no particular qualifications for their work. The teachers of English are young men whose own knowledge of our language is only rudimentary. The Inspector does not himself teach, but his business is to see that the teachers do their duty, and to assist them by his counsel. We cannot expect that he will spend more than two or three hours in each school in the course of every month.'

;}

"The plan which I would recommend instead of this is the following:-"

"First, That there be erected a building in Victoria, in which the schools now maintained in Tae-ping-shan, the upper and Central Bazaars, Webster's Crescent, and near the Mosque, shall be concentrated in different rooms.

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Second,―That in connection with this building there be provided a residence for a European Master, who shall form and conduct English Classes; and that only in the schools concentrated there shall English be tauglit.

"Third, That this European Master, aided by a Board of Education, constituted like the present, or modified as circumstances may rendered desirable, exercise a superin- tendence over the other schools in Aberdeen and the vil- lages over the Island.

"This plan would retain all the advantages of the pre- sent system of inspection, and might be expected to pro- duce real and definite results, which cannot now be looked for.

"In the first place, the Government would have an officer, himself actively engaged in the work of Education.

"In the second place, the English Education carried on under the Master's eye would be more efficient than it is now, and he would be able to collect into his own clas- ses the pupils whose progress and interest in their studies gave promise of their making real attainments.

"In the third place, many young Chinese, well-educa- ted in schools in China, and connected with Chinese firms and families in the Colony, would be found to enter his English classes.

"In the fourth place, an impulse would be given to the Chinese education carried on in the concentrated schools. The teachers under the immediate and daily observation of their superintendent might be expected to be diligent and earnest to further the progress of their pupils. an influence would go out from their schools, which would tell upon those in the villages.

And

"There would be the outlay for the building which this plan supposes, but the permanent expenditure for such a system would not be very much larger than that of the present; And fees should be charged from pupils attend- ing the English classes, who did not enter from the Govern- ment Schools. My own opinion is that these would amount to no inconsiderable sum.'

On the 25th of March 1861, His Excellency, Sir Her- cules Robinson brought to the notice of the Legislative Council the above mentioned scheme and suggested that inland lot 78 in Gough Street, which was reported by the

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Surveyor General as suited for the object in view and could be obtained with the building thereon for a sum not exceeding $20,000 should be purchase. The Council

approved of it.

On the 2st April 1861 there was published in the Government Gazette the Report of the board of Education for the year 1860 in which it is said that, pending the ap- pointment of a successor to Mr. Lobschied, the Rev. Mr. Irwin with Dr. Legge and Rev. Mr. Beach had undertaken to look after the schools. They reported generally in fa- vour of the schools. A total of 936 scholars, of whom 46 were girls, were on the rolls. The cost of each scholar was from £1. to 1, 10.

At the beginning of the year two teachers were ap- pointed to several of the schools, but the benefit has not equalled expectation. The Board is of opinion that ex- cepting in the very largest schools, it will be advisable to encourage a monitorial system in preference, in the arran- gements for next year.

"The attendance has been in general good. It fluc- tuates, however, and in all the schools it gradually dimi- nishes towards the end of the year. This is an evil, which is unavoidable in the village schools, where the children are drawn off to assist in agricultural labour, and where the fishing population is large. But the Board is of opinion that it may be combatted to some extent even in those cases, and more effectively in the schools in Victoria and other benefits also be secured, by the insti- tution of a judicious system of rewards for good attendan- ce, good behaviour and proficiency.

'The Board cannot speak very favourably of the English classes. The teachers, indeed, are willing and attentive, but they need the counsel and countenance also, of an In- spector. Still the Board does not recommend any consi- derable change in the arrangements of this department, for the coming year. Education in English should in its opinion enter more largely into the conduct of the principal schools than it has yet done. Some at least of the young men now employed may be found useful assistants in the new plan of management which the Board has submitted to His Excellency.

In the month of June the plans for the erections of a school house on lot 78 were ready and tenders were called for. This turned out to be the present Central School.

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On February 1862 the Board reported unfavourably of the Schools for the year 1861 in consequence of the resig- nation of the Rev. Mr. Irwin and of the departure of the Rev. Mr. Beach, there remaining only the Rev. Dr. Legge to exercise an efficient inspection of the schools. Sanguine hopes were entertained of a success on the looked for arrival of a Head Master for the Central School.

We read in the Government Gazette of the 4th March 1862; "His Excellency the Governor has been pleased to appoint Francis Stewart Esq. A. M. to be Head Master of the Central School in Victoria until Her Majesty's plea- sure be known.”

During this period the other schools also were pro- gressing, except St. Andrew's school which had been closed in 1860.

St. Pauls College for the education of those who belonged to the Anglican Church, was going on well and the R. Catholic Schools had taken a very good start.

In 1860, in the month of May, schools for European and Chinese girls were opened in Caine Road under the tuition of the good Italian Sisters who had just arrived from Italy. They were joined immediately by Miss Bow- ring the daughter of Sir John Bowring, a very great acqui- sition indeed.

In September of the same year was opened the first R. Catholic School for European boys in a very small house in Staunton Street, with two teachers.

Gradually these two schools developed themselves. and became, the first, the large Italian Convent in Caine Road, the second turned first into St. Saviour's College and then into the present St Joseph's College.

The little school for Chinese Catholic boys had the number of its pupils increased and a small Seminary for Chinese pursuing the ecclesiastical career was also open at the R. Catholic Mission House.

We do not know exactly the sum which was expended by the Roman Catholic Mission. However the first and more important part of the large building which comes under the name of Italian Convent was built at that time and no less that $30,000 have been expended in its con- struction To this sum one must add what was expended for the passage of the Sisters, six in number, from Europe and the total expenses might be calculated at not less than

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$33,000. No grant whatever was ever made by the Go- vernment to the R. Catholic Mission towards all these ex- penses.

Some private schools for Chinese were ably conducted by Protestant Missionaries besides the great many kept by Chinese.

THIRD PERIOD.

From 1863 to 1866.

During this time Mr. Stewart was Head Master and acted as Inspector under the general direction of the Board which had to report annually on the state of the schools.

On the 11th February, 1863, in their report for the pre- ceeding year, the Board mentions the good effect resulting from the opportune arrival of the English Head Master, and they ask for an English Assistant Master. The schools from twenty have been reduced to sixteen, four having been con- centrated in the Central school.

The number of scholars enrolled amounted to a total of 889, including 34 female scholars. The attendance was irregular.

The Board were not satisfied with the village schools and would consider it a desirable arrangement, that the existing school-houses in the four villages of Sai-wan, Show-ki-wan, Shek-o, and Little Hongkong be handed over, under certain conditions, free of rent, to the inhabitants and that the villages themselves be left at liberty( if so dis- posed) to elect and support their own school-masters; they being led to suppose that this scheme will promote the cause of education among Chinese. The result proved the Board were not mistaken, as in their next Report for the year 1863 they say:

"The School-houses in the four villages, from which the Government aid was withdrawn, were handed over un- der certain conditions, free of rent and for Educational pur- poses only, to the inhabitants, by whom they were gladly recei- ved. In the late Government School-house at Show-ki-wan a school is self supported and carried on independently of Government aid. The three other villages also engaged to elect and support a master in their respective schools; but the Board are not in possession of facts sufficient to enable them to report on the efficiency of their present management. In the same report the Board also say that they are happy to learn from the reports of the English

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Head Master and Inspector Mr. Stewart that this mea- sure has had the desired effect of awakening a spirit of heal. thy emulation among the Natives School-Masters and of causing a more general appreciation of the advantages of free education among the Chinese parents.

The Central school under the new system of manage- ment was growing in favour with the most respectable classes of Chinese. The system of payment introduced into the English department was working well.

The number of scholars enrolled in the Government school amounted in 1863 only to 495, but the attendance improved in regularity.

In the Report of the Board for the year 1864 they dwell on the obstacles to be met with in regard to the village-schools. One of the objections, they say, is that the Sacred Scriptures are read in the schools which however was not compulsory; but, they continue, that this objection is more ostensive than real may be gathered from the fact that in a school supported by one of the Missions, where the Bible must be read, there is a regular attendance of forty children while there are only some ten or twelve at the Government school in the neighbourhood."

"The Board have to report a decrease in the num- "ber enrolled for the year" but they find that, the atten- dance is much more regular. The total number of scholars amounted in 1864 to 469.

"The Central school continued to grow in favour with the Chinese. It is attended principally by a class of boys superior to those of the village-schools, and for this rea- son, the Board have resolved that, for the future fees shall be charged against all the pupils. The school was now more efficiently conducted from the appointment of an additional English Master. The Bible is not used as a text-book in English, but it is taught by the Chinese Masters in their own language to those pupils, whose parents offer no objection.'

Nothing is said in the Reports, for 1862, 63, 64, as to how much had been expended. The passage of the two English Masters, the erection and enlargement of the Central school and the salary paid to the European Masters must have entailed larger expenses than in the preceeding years.

With 1865 the Board of Education ceased to exist and Mr. Stewart remained as Head Master and Inspector of schools.

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The private schools kept by the Protestant Mission- aries for Chinese where the reading of the Holy Scripture was obligatory were going on well, and among them St. Paul's College was always prominent till the misfor- tune came of losing its funds on the occasion of a severe bankruptry which happened in Hongkong to one of the principal Mercantile Firms.

The R. Catholic schools have been enlarging their sphere. A Catholic Reformatory was opened in 1863 in a small house at West Point. Sir Hercules Robinson granted to the R. Catholic Mission in Hongkong a large piece of ground in West Point for the Reformatory. The foreign Community very liberally subscribed to the erec- tion of the building and in 1865 the inmates from the Chinese house were transferred into the new building, and their number increased. They were not many, from 12 who had been received at the first starting of the institution they increased till near 30; no larger number was received on account of want of funds. The allowance

of $2 each for 12 boys was made out of the poor box from the Magistracy and this aid enabled the Directors to start in the same building shops where the inmates were taught carpentery, shoemakering and tailoring. The Establish- ment grew in favour with the Community.

The schools for girls at the Italian Convent were pros- pering. An orphanage was started attached to the schools and the building enlarged.

The most prominent among the Catholic Educational Establishments was St. Saviour's College. In 1863 a large building was in course of erection in Wellington Street, which was continued and finished in 1864 along Pottinger Street. The cost of the building amounted $14,000 which was mostly collected in the Philippine Islands by one of the Mis- sionaries. An English Teacher from Europe was got and the small school in Staunton Street, which only numbered 20 pupils was transferred to the new building where they in- creased rapidly. A day and boarding school were kept there and a good number of youth came from the neighbouring Catholic Spanish Colony the Philippines to partake of the benefit of Education. The tuition was strictly commer- cial.

In 1865 the first public Examination was held, which proved a success. A long description of it appeared in the press and H. Excellency Mr. Mercer the acting Governor honoured the Institution by distributing the prizes. A

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Report was read by the Rector of the College, in which he said that besides English four languages were tanght with Arithmetic, Geography, Algebra, Geometry, Music, and drawing; the European pupils were divided in two different classes, one English another Portuguese. There were fifty European day scholars and a few Boarders mostly from the Philippine Islands. To S. Saviour's College were attached two classes for Chinese, one for learning Chinese only, and the others for Chinese learning English; the number of scholars frequenting both schools were up- wards of fifty. His Excellency the Acting Governor, before leaving the College, complimented in a short speech the Fathers of the College and said that he was happy to know that there was so good a school in the Colony, and so like- ly to be useful.

FOURTH PERIOD.

From 1866 to 1872.

On the 12th March 1866 appeared the first Report from Mr. Stewart Head Master at the Central School and Inspector of the Government schools. Mr. Stewart first ack- nowledges the embarassment of his position in having to re- port on the principal part of his own duties. Speaking first of the Central Schools, he says that instruction there given was still of an elementary character.

The books used in the school were those of the Com- missioners for National Education in Ireland.

The progress of the boys was satisfactory. Translation and Composition were subjects of considerable difficulty.

Docility and regular attendance were as good as could be desired. The original constitution of the school has been altered by having the study of the English language obligatory for every one frequenting the Central School, and this explained the reason of the number of the scho- lars having fallen down in 1862. They could receive only a certain number for want of competent teachers. boys are too eager to get situations and there is a great want of them. There came the difficulty of having boys re- maining the time necessary to complete their education.

The

The Chinese assistants have given rise to great diffi- eulty in the proper management of the school.

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One great defect in the school was the impossibi- lity of knowing anything of the private characters of the scholars.

"On one point I must be candid, says Mr. Stewart, Formerly the reading of the Bible in Chinese formed part of the school routine. During the past year this practice has been departed from. The Chinese Masters in the school are not qualified to teach it and one of the teachers has been in the habit of drawing comparisons between the Bible and the writings of the Chinese sages by no means favourable to the former. Under these circumstances I cannot, give that prominence to the reading of the Scrip- tures by which, in a school in a Christian Colony, it ought, perhaps, to be characterised."

Mr. Stewart would be glad to see the Europeans tak- ing more interest in the school.

With regard to the village schools it appears the num- ber of scholars had increased although they did not reach yet the number found in the beginning of 1862.

Mr. Stewart complains of the bad way in which rolls are kept at the schools by the Chinese Masters. However in the whole there was some slight improvement in the vil- lage schools. In all these schools the Scriptures are read and in the four schools which gave most satisfaction during the year, great attention, says Mr. Stewart is paid to the reading of the Bible in Chinese.

"Nothing seems to find favour with the Chinese, says Mr. Stewart, which does not bear a market value. Hence the comparative success of the Central School, English being convertible into Dollars; hence also the neglect of the Vernacular Schools, Chinese being unsaleable.'

The

Lastly attention is called to 12,130 children in Hong- kong who go to no school. "It is impossible, says Mr. Stew- art, to over estimate the detrimental consequences which must inevitable result to the well being of the Colony with so many growing up uneducated and neglected." number of boys going to the Government schools amount to 897. The scholars going to other schools than the Go vernment ones are 1,273, and the children fit to go to any

school are 14,000.

There is no mention made with regard to the ex- penses except that the Central school was maintained at a larger expense than before and to supply it the fees paid. by the scholars amounted to $1,021, 89. Mr. Stewart hints at expenses increasing in the future. "The children

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of Europeans and others, now a numerous class, must soon share with the Chinese in the annual grants made by Go- vernment for public instruction."

In the Report for 1866 Mr. Stewart dwells, almost all through the Report, on the Central school, leaving a few lines only for speaking of the Village Schools.

He is satisfied with the Central School. The Exami- nations were a success.

He had not succeeded yet in forming any good assistant as he had hoped.

His Excellency the Governor has signified his inten- tion of extending the course of study by introduction of Lectures on the simple Elements of Science, Chemistry, Electricity. Mr. Stewart does not expect any great success from it.

A third English Master is recommended.

"I am glad, says Mr. Stewart, that it has at last been decided that the school is to be no longer exclusively con- fined to the Chinese, as this will be the first step to a more general extension of education to other and equally deserving portions of the Community." Mr. Stewart expects to have a very large number of scholars not Chinese, and is glad at the step having been taken. It will not be without difficulties, perhaps serious ones, but these must be encountered for the sake of the reputation of the Government whose duty as well as interest it is to dispense its gifts with perfect impartiality: and for the sake of the many chil- dren in the Colony who are without the means of instruc- tion.

The payment of fees amounted to $1,231, 97. Of the Village Schools nothing new is said. The number of scholars enrolled in the Government School was 623 and the maximum attendant 572.

The Report for 1867 dwells a good deal on the Village Schools Mr. Stewart complains very much of the law moral standard of the Masters who were great impos- tors and extremely idle. The pupils at the Chinese School learn little and only by memory without understan- ding what they read. However Mr. Stewart is of opi- nion very rightly that were the large number of unedu- cated children in Hongkong to be forced to frequent even those schools benefit will be derived to them. The most gratifying circumstance is the increasing interest, that is now taken in female education. English is carefully excluded from girls schools. "To the melancholy results,

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says Mr. Stewart, which in nearly every instance have fol- lowed from teaching Chinese girls English I need not more particularly allude. Its effect on the character of the boys is not, I am sorry to find, what one could wish but on the character of the girls it has proved to be fatal.

Speaking afterwards of the Central School, Mr. Stew- art says

"allusion has already been made to the main source of the apparent popularity of the school, the means of money making, which are derived from a knowledge of English. In another respect, I was sorry to be told lately by one who has opportunities of knowing that those Chinese who have no sous at the school look upon the boys in anything but a favourable light. By giving themselves air, by affecting a superiority they do not possess, by form- ing clubs, to the exclusion of those who do not know En- glish, where all sort of dissipation exists, the boys do not place the character of the school in that light which those whose time and energy are spent in their behalf have per- haps a right to expect."

The number of the enrolled was up to 700 and the total number of uneducated children in Hongkong was 10,800, according to Mr. Stewart's statistics.

In the report for the year 1868, we read that with re- gard to the Central School the year has been characterised by much greater attention to certain subjects, which were before, gone though mechanically under a sort of tacit pro- test, the haste for getting employments having been stop- ped, and because of certain regulations published for admis- sion into the customs service, so eagerly looked for by Chi- nese youth. Mr. Stewart endeavours to prove that no dis- advantage comes from the Chinese, educated in Hongkong out of the money paid by the community of the Colony, getting situation, out of the Island and concludes by saying that the Government has a higher object in view than sim- ply getting a monetary equivalent for the instruction, which it is the medium of imparting.

The examination of the boys is greatly appreciated by the boys and there is reason, says Mr. Stewart, to believe that it is regarded with same interest by their relatives.

Mr. Stewart complains that rather severe criticism had lately been passed upon the schools, criticism based not on experience but on a priori reasoning. "I regretted continues Mr. Stewart, last year, and the feeling still re- mains undiminished, that the conduct of the elder boys when out of the school was not what one could wish to see.

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Making the Bible a class book in the school will not reme- dy the present state of things. Time only will do that.

Here he dwells on the secular education, which had been adopted at the Government school in preference. to Christian education. "Christian and secular edu- cation, says Mr. Stewart, must for the present, be accep- ted as two distinct fields of operation in Hongkong, the Missionary will make his choice, the Government its choice." The reason why the secular education has been adopted was the great repugnance which Chinese mind has to religious instruction. However the system was on its trial." When schools, he says, where the Bible is read and religious instruction given, show better results in the future, than they have done in the past, objectors to secular education will receive a patient hearing.' Mr. Stewart concludes with saying that if anything untoward does happen with these boys it may be in connection with, but it will not be in consequence of the education which they are receiving.

Three more schools have been opened in different villages and a system of grant in aid has been inaugurated The school houses, although bad, belong to the villagers. The Government gives $5 a month to each of the three teachers, the rest is supplied in kind by the villagers. This system of grant in aid works very well, as the villagers prefer to have a school master of their own choice. Matters says Mr. Stewart, stand on a different footing when aid

and not support is asked for.

Attention is called again to the large number of children who go to no school which he estimates at 10,697. This fact must be taken, he says, as a measure of the in- difference of the people and not of the niggardliness of the Government. The only remedy he suggests is compulsion.

The Head Master and Inspector dwells very long on some objections put before the public against the Govern- ment School by Dr. Alford Lord Bishop of Victoria. With regard to the Bible teaching, Mr. Stewart says that it has not been abolished but only allowed to fall off and at present the Bible is read in a few village schools. He says that he was told by the Chinese that they would not accept of even free education, of which Christianity formed a part.

But Mr. Stewart continues. "I admit that this is only half the truth; else why do not numbers increase now, when it is most distinctly understood, that the reading of the Bible need not form obstacle, and when it is no longer

17.

necessary to have recourse to dissimulation in this parti cular?" the real reasons, therefore must be different. Mr. Stewart then proceeds to defend secular education from the attack of the Bishop.

With this report we begin to find statistics of the expenses. They were $11, 530; fees paid by the scholars $1,299. 35; average expenses of each scholar at the Go- vernment Schools $11. 18. The maximum Enrolment was 916, and the maximum attendance was 664. The average expenses are taken from the enrolment not from the attendance.

The Report for the year 1869 in comparison with the others is short. It has sixteen paragraphs, of which fif- teen are devoted to the Central School. The last expressed in six lines and a half, is concerning the village schools of which it is only said that the system of Grants in aid in- stead of complete success, is slowly advancing. Three such schools were added during the year.

With regard to the Central School Mr. Stewart re- ports the arrival of the third English Master. Chemistry and Geometry have been added to the course of education. The Laboratory is at last in full working order. The lessons in Chemistry proceed slowly but it is to be hoped, surely.

Although additional assistance has been obtained the number of scholars at the School has not been materially increased.

Although the school has been made open to all only a few availed themselves of the privilege and they remain but a short time. They had some objections to the system of the school.

Mr. Stewart with great reason says: For a boy to come to the school and not to learn Chinese, is simply a waste of time......The school-hours are confessedly long and if it were possible to curtail them it would be done. Prac- tically this is impossible...... To those who wish a separate class and class-room, only one thing can be said. The Central School is no place for them.

The number of scholars enrolled amounted to 924. The expenses, deducting fees, $10,647.00; average expense of each scholar $11,30.

The report for 1870 is divided into three parts. 1. The Central School. 2. The village schools supported by the Government 3. The schools receiving grants in aid.

With regard to the Central School nothing new is said

18-

except that the number of boys other than Chinese is gradually increasing and according to Mr. Stewart's opinion, will in a few years, necessitate another master and an additional class-room.

In the course of the year 95 boys left school. Of these 40 were in business 15 out of Hongkong and 25 in the Co- lony. The remainder 55 left for other reasons.

With regard to village schools it is said that they are Chinese schools pure and simple with Chinese books. No- thing new is said about them.

The schools in receipt of grant in aid were 11 in num- ber and all conducted by Chinese.

These schools differ from the others in this that the villagers provide the school house and select the master, who gets or is supposed to get one half of the salary in kind from the parents of his scholars and the other half amounting to sixty dollars a year from Government.

The grant in aid system is not giving those good results which were expected. "Application for a grant in aid in too many cases means simply a source of revenue to the vil- "lage. Government is considered a fair object for plunder."

Attention is called as usual to the number of unedu- cated children in the Colony. Mr. Stewart blames the pa- rents for it, and remarks that even if education were made obligatory one point would certainly be gained but only one. The extreme poverty of many of the people in the villages and in boats would throw on the Government the onus of clothing and feeding as well as educating if any compulsory scheme were enacted.

The Head Master and Inspector goes on to say that even in England with regard to education there has been only a gradual and a very gradual process; and denies the opinion that in China education is universal and that the poorest coolie can read and write. Those who visit the mainland say that the state of Hongkong is not peculiar.

66

Perhaps, says Mr. Stewart, the greatest educational want in Hongkong is that of a school or schools for Euro- pean and American children of both sexes. In spite of the facilities afforded by St. Saviour's College and the Con- vent, many residents must have much difficulty in know- ing how to get their children taught. The School need not be a free one. After the preliminary expenses of site, and building, with which the Government might fair- ly charge itself, the fees would go far to make the school self supporting. It has been often suggested that the Co-

A

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lonial Chaplain might have such a school under his imme- diate care, but subject to Government supervision. Under whatever regulations it might ultimately be placed, such a school is very much wanted, and it is matter of astonish- ment that parents have not long ago made a strenuous movement in this direction."

"I have only, concludes Mr. Stewart, to add, that I should be very glad if the state of the village-schools was such as to enable me to pay them fewer than monthly vi- sits. As the Central School advances my time is more and more required in it.”

The outlay for 1870 amounted $14,232.01. The ave- rage monthly enrolment was 941 and the average regular attendance 773. The total enrolment for the year was 1,320 and the maximum regular attendance was 950.

With regard to denominational Schools it appears that during this period they went on very well and some of them developped themselves very much.

The Schools under the direction of Protestant Missio- naries with the exception of St. Paul's College (which came to grief for having lost its funds), were prospering.

"Our

We read in the Daily Press October 30 1867. readers will have been generally aware that since the los ses which St. Paul's College incurred through the misfor- tune of Messrs. Dent & Co. the institution has been in a dor- mant state." The Right Rev. Dr. Alford tried however to revive it by turning St. Paul's College into a school for Europeans and Chinese, which should pay its own expen- ses. But unfortunately the good intentions of the Bishop did not succeed through want of pupils who would pay the ra- ther high fees which he was expecting.

Miss Baxter having died, difficulties surrounded the undertaking, of which she was the ruling spirit.

It was evident to us," says the Committee appointed to take charge of her estate, "on enquiring and examination, that the num ber of children congregated in Miss Baxter's two houses in Bonham Road was too large and the resources at her dis- posal too limited to admit of the children being properly accommodated feed, clothed and educated." The Commi- tee concludes that after expending all the available monies there was a deficiency of $1,165. Therefore the School was closed and the children sent to S. Paul's College and to the Diocesan Schools

The Roman Catholic Schools made a tremendous stride in advance, and there has been a moment, in which the

B

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number of the children frequenting the Catholic Schools was nearly equal to the number of the scholars at the Government Schools. When we consider that upwards of $12,000 was granted for the Government Schools, and no grant whatever has been made to the Catholic day schools the progress of these latter is more remarkable.

About the Reformatory we learn that in 1866 the in- mates were 42. The works produced $30 per month. They wanted work and only work to make the institution self supporting. The visitors bear willing testimony to the excellence of the arrangements of the establishment.

Under date March 4th 1867 the Press wrote thus! We known of no charitable Institution in China, which present such strong claims on Christian consideration, as the Re- formatory at West Point." The writers dwells on the great many benefits derived from such an institution to the prisoner, who has finished his time of confinement and cannot get either a place or work in society.

The Girls School, and the Orphanages and Foundling Establishment at the Convent were going on very satisfac- torily. But among all the R. Catholic Establishments the most prominent was yet St. Saviour's College. A public examination was held on the 20st, and 21st December, 1866 and His Excellency Sir Richard MacDonell distributed the prizes on the 22nd. The boys were examined first in Spanish.

"The answers were very satisfactory and considering that the ages of the Scholars varied from 8 to 16 years, were in some cases surprising" (The Evening Mail). Next came the French class. “The examination in this language was praticularly satisfactory" (Evening Mail). Then the Portuguese class. This concluded the work for the first day. On the second day the Chinese and Euro- pean boys were examined in English; with regard to the Chinese boys the knowledge of spelling and grammar was creditable but the accent of the boys was very bad.

"The European boys, were first examined in reading Chinese translating Chinese into English and English words and phrases into Chinese." There were eight of them, and they went on remarkably well (Evening Mail). The master, Arratoon Seth (who was afterwards appointed Interpreter at the Police Court) and Alfredo Souza knew how to speak Chinese fluently." The examination of the Europeans in English was highly satisfactory. On the 3rd day the principal of the College read an address stating the

21

system conducted in the School, and dwelled long on the necessity of European boys learning Chinese that we might have in future some good interpreters. His Excel- lency the Governor in answering the address said: "To the Roman Catholic Missionaries chiefly do we owe any earnest efforts to provide an adequate body of future inter- preters of European parentage. "After the congratulations to the Principal, His Excellency added that when he first arrived he learned that European children were not received at the Central School. He took immediate steps to abrogate such a rule and turning to the Principal, H. E. the Gover- nor said, that any of the boys of St. Saviour's who should like to go to the Central School would have been received. The same remark was made by Sir Richard MacDonnell at the Central School on the occasion of the distribution of prizes held in the following month of January (28th) 1867, when he said that. "He would be glad to see the Government "Schools made sufficiently attractive to draw in the chil- "dren Portuguese and Hindoos." (Press).

On December 23rd 1867, the examinations went on pretty well and Father Raimondi read an address at the distribution of prizes held by His Excellency Sir Richard MacDonnell. The Principal of St. Saviour's College dwel- led especially on proving the difficulties one meets here in educating Chinese. They dont study for the sake of ac- quiring knowledge but for the sake of dollars and to enable them to earn money and the Very Rev. Father anticipated that with very few exceptions we would never succeed in having Chinese conversant with our Sciences, but we must content ourselves with forming chiefly clerks and com- pradores. To which H. E. the Governor replied that even in this there was something got in forming good clerks and compradores. He afterwards said that he was sorry he had not been present at the Examinations, but Judge Ball who presided at them had informed him that "there was deci- ded and satisfactory improvement since last year (The Press). He therefore congratulated the Principal on the progress made during the year and was glad to be there to give himself the medal which he had promised in the pre- cedent year to give to the school for the best pupil.

""

On the 22 March 1869 took place the next public exa- mination with distribution of prizes at St. Saviour's Col- lege.

An address was read by Father Raimondi in which he proved that comprising the Portuguese boys, who were

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22-

attending private schools, there were scarcely five or six: Portuguese boys not attending any school. At St. Saviour's only they had 72 Portuguese boys, and at the Convent comprising the boarders and orphans they had not less than 143 girls of upwards of seven years of age and with very few exceptions almost all Portuguese.

Several of the pupils at St. Saviour's had got situa- tions in Mercantile Firms.

Besides St. Saviour's schools which were strictly com- mercial, there was a small Seminary for Chinese boys pur- suing higher studies.

The Reformatory was going on well. A grant had been made by the Government to the Reformatory as well as to the orphans at the Convent. The whole amounting to $1256 for the year.

Father Raimondi then mentioned the large number of uneducated boys in the Colony. When he read in Mr. Stewart's Report that there were 10,000 uneducated child- ren in Hongkong, he could not help recognizing the fact, that if left in ignorance they would be 10,000 more thieves. Three schemes for remedying the evil had been suggested. 1. Compulsory education. 2. Separate schools for the better class. 3. Trade schools. These last are recommen- ded by the very Rev. Father as Chinese are eminently a tra- ding people.

His Excellency Sir Richard MacDonnell answering the address said that "although there was no more stre- nous supporter of the Protestant Church, than himself, still he must confess that in this Colony the efforts of the R. C. brethren far out stripped and were in excess of those of all other denominations, and he thanked Father Rai- mondi and those connected with him for the results they had so successfully accomplished" (Daily Press) With re- gard to a compulsory system of education in Hongkong His Excellency was not for it. Then he continued saying; "Father Raimondi lad made reference to the grant which had been made to the Reformatory at West Point; he thought it needed some explanation, since the grant had been made on behalf of the Government. The facts were simply these. If it was not for this Institution the Government would have thrown upon its hands a great number of des- titute children for whom a maintainance would have to be provided. Buildings would have to be erected, Superin- tendents provided, and a large expense therefore entailed upon the Colony. Now all that he had done was to make

23

a very good bargain for the public. He had made a cal- culation based upon which he had given about one fourth of what would otherwise be necessary to expend from the public funds. He could say that the children had the very best of care from those who now had charge of this very valuable Institution, and no one could do better for them especially for the female school, than the Sisters who had charge of it." (Press).

In April 1870 appeared a printed Report of the R. C. Schools for the year 1869 " which is ably drawn up and is also of much interest." (Press). At St. Saviour's College the number of the pupils was 93.

At the Convent, comprising day scholars, boarders and orphans, the girls reached the high number of 260. At the Reformatory there were 52 boys.

With regard to the assiduity of the Catholic boys at school in general there was reason to be satisfied, as out of 121 Portuguese boys over seven years old residing in the Colony, 115 received education, while it appears from the report of the Government schools that of 13,094 Chinese boys over the same age residing in Hongkong only 2,639 frequented the schools.

There were 12 European boys at St. Saviour's Schools studying Chinese.

Concerning the Reformatory Father Raimondi says, "it is with pride we assert that during the six years the Re- formatory has been opened not one of the former inmates has been brought before the Magistrate and even out of the number who have been sent there by the Police not one after leaving the Reformatory, has been brought up a second time to the Police Court."

The next Report published in 1871 is longer and has more details.

The Reverend Principal after having expatiated on the particular branches of education afforded in the R. Catholic Schools existing in the Colony and having infor- med us of the fact that several of the pupils could speak more than three languages and one of them not ten years old could translate from English into Spanish, French and Chinese and do it tolerably well, he sums up and says It is now ten years since the Convent schools were opened; seven years since the Reformatory at West Point was set on foot; six years since St. Saviour's Col- lege was founded. Looking back to our labours, we have reason to be satisfied with our success. We have here a

24-

school where the European children can obtain a sound and practically useful and commercial education. For the Chinese we have an industrial and commercial school. Our Seminary opens to every Chinese who wishes it the gate of all knowledge in teaching him the Latin language. Of the 76 who during its brief existence have passed through the English classes in this College, 70 have got situations and are all doing well, some in Manila some in the Coast Ports and the remainder in Hongkong. A few of them are getting, at twenty years of age, salaries of over one hundred dollars a month. Our Anglo-Chinese school has turned out about forty young Chinamen, who are all employed well, some at Shanghai, others at Canton and in Hongkong."

"The work at the Reformatory was rather hard having to deal with young ragamuffins. However in these seven years the industrial schools at that useful Institution have been successful A few of those boys first admitted are there still now paid assistants, and useful aids to us in our work. We are rather proud of them. Fourteen are in good situations in Hongkong as carpenters shoemakers and tailors. Of the boys, who are at present in the Refor- matory not less than 30 are working well and satisfactori- ly, 68 others have spent a short time in the Reformatory and have gone away without fully acquiring a trade but we have not heard of any being brought before the Magistrate a second time.'

66

During the ten years the Italian Convent has been opened nearly one hundred girls of good family have re- ceived a complete education of the best description. Two hundred Chinese destitute children have been saved from death, and trained up to be useful girls and women. Up- wards of 300 girls over ten years of age have been rescued from misery and fed clothed and taught. These girls and infants but for the Sisters must have eventually become a charge upon the Colony. About eighty girls have been respectably married.'

His Excellency Major General Whitefield Lieut Go- vernor before distributing the prizes said: "I have with me the strongest sense of gratification at learning the highly satisfactory and most cheering results, which have attended the institution of these Establishments and after having encouraged the boys to perseverance in their studies His Excellency concluded "it only now remains for me in my own name and I think, I may add

+

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the name of the Community to thank Father Raimondi and the other Reverend Gentlemen connected with these schools for their untiring zeal and energy in this good work which has produced such happy results; and equally deserving of our praise and admiration are those pious and good ladies who have retired from the world for the purpose of devoting their whole lives to the welfare and the benefit of the orphans, the widow the sick and destitute.' Then H. E. distributed the prizes among which was a golden medal given by himself,

It would be rather difficult to make up an account of all the expenses incurred during this period by the Ro- man Catholics to sustain their schools and Charitable Ins- titutions. Not comprising the costs for enlarging both the Convent and the Reformatory the maintenance only of the Schools and Charitable Establishments were costing not less than $12,000 a year distributed thus:

Italian Convent,...... Reformatory,....

St. Saviour's College,. Other Schools,..

$6,000

.$2,400

.$3,000

$ 600

The Roman Catholics of Hongkong therefore expen- ded from 1866 to 1872 in education $72,000. From the Government the grant made for the year 1870 was to the Reformatory and to the Convent for the charitable works (not for the school) $1,256, so that during this period the R.Catholic Mission received from the Government no more than $2,512, which was not even sufficient to cover the expenses for building which have not been included in the

sum.

FIFTH AND LAST PERIOD.

From 1872 to 1877.

Sir Richard MacDonell thought it convenient to throw open the Central School, which was only for Chinese, to the Europeans and although the Government had chosen the secular system for it, people of different denominations have been invited to send their children there. In 1866 Sir Ri- chard MacDonell expressed his wishes at the denominatio- nal St. Saviour's College and in 1867 at the Central School. In January 30th 1872 in his speech on the occasion of the distribution of prizes at the Central School after having eu- logized Mr Stewart as the square man for the place he said:

1

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"The majority of those present were Chinese, and most "of the inhabitants of the city were also Chinese but he "was pleased to see Japanese, Portuguese and other na-

tionalities among them." (Mail).

In the China Mail of 15th February 1872 we find a well written correspondence in which it is urged on the Government to give a grant to the existing Catholic schools, where some hundred day scholars were educated and not a farthing granted by the Government. The reason was ex- pressed. "We know, the correspondent says, "that the principles held by the Catholic world require that schools for Catholics should be erected and maintained and this is the reason why our Catholic friends are so hard at work to have schools of their own creed".

The same newspaper has a leading article on February 22nd of the same year in which the editor corrects a para. graph of a contemporary with regard to a Pastoral issued by Father Raimondi in which the Very Rev. gentleman had stated the doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning education.

In reference to the criticism which appeared in the Daily Advertiser on the said Pastoral a Correspondent in the China Mail of February 27th writes thus: "The article (which appeared in the Daily Advertiser) it not the best calculated to promote harmony between the Head of the Catholic Community, and his flock, and the Government and if the Editor of the D. A. has only this way in his hand to make his party triumph, he has committed a gross mis- take in writing the article. When he first wrote that the Pastoral had created great disatisfaction in the Portuguese Community, he was ignorant of the fact, that he could not inflict a greater injury on the Portuguese Community than by making that assertion. The Portuguese Community is proud of being Catholic; and as Catholic cannot be dis- pleased with hearing what the Catholic Bishops, with the sovereign Pontiff, in a word, their Church says with regard to education." The correspondent continues af- terwards. "After all, what has Father Raimondi done? what all the Catholic Bishops do now and again. The Catho- lic Bishops of Ireland issued a Pastoral in which after ha- ving exposed the doctrine of the Church concerning educa- tion in stronger terms, than it has been done by Father Raimondi they address their flock saying: "We must urge upon you to join your Bishops and Clergy in asking our ru- 'lers by the right of the constitution to grant us a pure

66

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27.

"Catholic education" With concern to the tenor and con- tents of the Pastoral the correspondent says: "The Rev. Prefect exposed before his flock what has been taught by the Catholic Church, avoiding reference to any parti- cular school urging only that the decision of the Church shall be complied with; shall not Father Raimondi be free to do his duty ? The doctrine referred to is exposed afterwards; "The Catholic Bishops with the Sovereign Pontiff have emitted their decision grounded on the experience and long study of years and years proving that schools where only secular education is imparted cannot do for Catholic chil- dren. "Of the intention of the Fatherthe correspondent says: He had to explain the doctrine of the Church he had not the least intention of offending or attacking any body; his duty speaks by himself and he does it."

In the Report from Mr. Stewart for the 1871 we read that the Central school continues steadily to advance in number, but at the native schools the number of the enrolled and the attendance diminished. He says that the Che- mistry class has been highly succesful. The number of those who left the school was greater by 30 than in 1870 and of the 134 boys who left during the year 50 have obtained situations.

With regard to the instruction to be given, the prob- lem which the Central School is working out for itself is, says Mr. Stewart, whether it is to be one of elementary instruction for the many or of higher instruction for the few. It would be premature, at present to attempt to solve the problem, and it might be disastrous to adopt at once, either courses.

Mr. Stewart, says the Editor of the China Mail "puts the number of children in the Colony who get no education at 11,000 (roughly).".

To accept the number of uneducated children above given as implying that there is either a necessity or possibility of providing schools for them would be erroneous, and he suggests, that some ap- proximate statistics of the relative proportions of elegible and inelegible children the position and means of whose parents would render any education, except that of the most elementary nature in Chinese possible or useful to them. Here is the question how many are such. We must not of course, be added be understood to overlook the importance of affording facilities for that pure elemen-

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tary teaching, which we have excluded from any clasifica- tion with that given at the Central School and here the 11,000 present a formidable phalaux.

It is rather surprising" says Mr. Stewart "to find in quarters when one would expect more correct information grave doubts as to the position which the school holds with religion" Mr. Stewart complains that "it seems to be the fate of secular education to be distorted and misrepresented. It will not be so always. Ten years will see the supersti- tion exploded......It is surely too late in the day to assert on the one hand, that education whatever protestations are made to the contrary must be roligious and on the other that if it is secular it must be irreligious. Such lan- guage is as applicable to the exchange or the counting house as it is to school or College. Science and language are distant from dogma as the details of the share Mar- ked. These are merest truism."

At the end of April the question arose on the want of having a school for European middle class, and on the 25th of June a general extraordinary meeting took place at the City Hall to discuss it. About 30 people attended it. Sir Arthur Kennedy was present and expressed his idea that if a school should be had, it ought to be a secular one. His Excellency openly declared that he had no earthly sympathy with sectarianism. Mr. Francis warmly advo- cated religious education. Mr. Stewart the Inspector of Go- vernment School spoke on favour of secular. He de- nied that the education given at the Central School was atheistical but he admitted the term Un-Christian. He said that one of his rules was, that the words Protestantism and Catholisism were never to be mentioned in the school. On being asked parenthetically by Mr. Francis how history was taught Mr. Stewart said he only wished to defend him- self. The meeting ended by appointing a Committee to enquire into the necessity of a school and on which basis it should be conducted.

The Editor of the China Mail commenting on the pro- ceedings of the Meeting thinks that the earliest so- lution of the difficult would be the establishment of a Church of England school. The Catholics, he says, have taken up a defined position. "Catholic education for Ca- tholic youth" and having both the will and the ability to carry out the programme, we are relieved of the necessity of reconciling the conflicting claims of Catholics and Pro- testants.'

""

On the 26th July took place the annual public exa-

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"The

mination of the scholars in St. Saviour School. Acting Chief Justice who takes great interest in the suc- cess of the schools, examined the various classes assisted by Dr. Pottinger and the energetic Prefect Rev. T. Rai- mondi with very satisfactory results." (Mail.)

On the next day H. E. Sir Arthur Kennedy distribu- ted the prizes, after which he said some words of encou- ragement to the boys, adding that: "In this Colony there were great wants on account of the diversity of the popula tion and this school supplies many of them. The require- ments of the many nationalities belonging to Father Rai- mondi's Church were, he believed, supplied by it and they mi- ght always rely on his cordial support. There was room for all and from what he knew of the perseverance of those intrusted with the instruction of the youngsters he was sure these schools would always show satisfactory results. (Press.)

The three Reports which were published during the year 1872 concerning the three Catholic Educational Es- tablishments, St. Saviour's College, the West Point Refor- matory, and Girls school speak in favour of the progress made in the Roman Catholic Schools. With regard to the system of education the writer of the Reports says:

"We earnestly hope that none of our readers will be scandalized at hearing that we impart to Catholic youth a Catholic education. It is the doctrine of our Church that religion cannot be separated from education, and it would be the greatest wrong we could do them to suppose, that our Catholic Community would prefer being indepen- dent of the rulers of their Church. We speak of Catholics as we do not at all interfere with the religion of those boys who are not Catholic. In a certain quarter a warm enlo- gium has been made lately on secular education. It is neither our wish nor our business to enter here into a discussion on this question; we must say however that a secular education will not do for us Catholics, as it is at variance with the principles of our Church, and therefore to favour secular education among Catholics would be in effect to countenance their deviating from the principles of their Church, which would be proselytising. The op- position, which has been made in every part of the world to the endeavour to secularize education makes us confident that it is not yet too late to assert that education must be religious. Experience teaches that an Education which in principle is notreligious, leads practically to irreligion." Af-

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ter having censured the term, superstition, used in the report of the Government School by Mr. Stewart to express the support given to religious education, the Very Rev. Father continues: "It is a great mistake to take men for 'boys, and boys for men, and we are at a loss to under- "stand how boys going to school can be compared to young men who go to a counting house, there being a "sensible and visible difference between a boy seven years "old and a lad of eighteen. The comparison instituted "in a recent Report between the study of the Sciences and "of Language and the dealings in the Share Market is not by any means logical as the former is more general and more comprehensive than the latter, and if these are the "merest truisms, we know not, whither the elementary "rules of logic are gone.'

C

As

In the proceedings of the Legislative Council held on 20th September 1872 we remark a vote of $600 a year for the Reformatory and $1,800 for the Sisters of Charity. for schools the Governor proposed a system of grants-in-aid which should be paid according to results "The question, however, before the Council, His Excellency said, was a purely charitable matter. The vote being for housing and feeding the wretched foundlings brought to the orphana- ges." (Mail.)

In the Report for the year 1872 on the Government Schools we read that four more schools for Chinese have received grants-in-aid and that one was added to the number of Government Schools properly so called. The number of the scholars had increased by 188; the regularity also had improved. The schools at Little Hongkong and Yau-ma-ti gave rise to much annoyance. The outlay for 1872 was $15,879, 63, from which deducting the fees from scholars at Central School, there remains the sum of $14,187, 92. The total annual enrolment was 1480, the maximium month- ly enrolment 837. The maximum regular attendance 1,157; the minimum 665. Number of boys attending schools of all denominations 3,102; total number of uneducated chil- dren 10,000.

A scheme of grants-in-aid for schools was agreed to in the Meeting of the Legislative Council, April 24th, as also was the proposal for the formation of a Committee, which would take in hand the translation of some of the English books in use at the Irish National Schools into Chinese for use in the schools that came under this scheme (Mail). The grants-in-aid being given only for results in se-

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31

cular instruction the point occurred, said the Mail, "what measure, are to be taken to render the teaching in Chinese Schools sufficiently undenominational as to fairly come under the term secular. It must be recollected that the Classics, in fact all native books as yet used in schools under purely Chinese control are not secular but confucian. It would hence seem that in order to provide suitable works for secular teaching in Chinese, something suitable would have to be selected. Both their style and matter render near- ly all works of the novel class objectionable; nor in view of the absurd farrago of supernatural nonsense contained in most of the native historical works, would they be more sui- table. It would in fact appear that series of elementary works in good Chinese would have to be composed or translated in order to meet this difficulty. This fact, that Chinese edu- cation is not secular because it is not Christian, has been some what oddly overlooked in many quarters, though the Inspector himself has long been conscious of the necessity of such books as we allude to." (Mail.)

1.-

The grants-in-aid scheme was the following:-

Before any grant can be made to a school, the Go- vernment must be satisfied that

(a). The school is conducted as a public elementary school.

(b). The school is not carried on with a view to pri- vate emolument.

(c). The school premises are healthy, well lighted, drained and ventilated, properly furnished, and contain sufficient internal space for the average attendance.

(d). The master is competent.

(e). The average attendance is not under twenty. (f). The time devoted to secular instruction is not less than four hours daily.

(g). The school roll is carefully kept and proper di- cipline maintained.

(h). The organization is good, and the work in accor- dance with a proper time table.

2.- The Government will not interfere in any way with:

(a). The religious instruction of a school.

(b). The hours for such instruction, provided they are either before, or after the four hours of secular instruction required by this code.

(c). The appointment of a teacher, provided he is competent.

(d). The school books, provided they are sufficient,

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as regards the secular instruction which they contain for the purposes of the Standards.

(e). The style of hand writing but a bold round hand is recommended for European writing.

(f). The stipulations of this code, without six months previous notice in the Gazette.

3.— Grants will be subject to cumulative reduction of five per cent on the whole sum gained by a school, in each case where the Inspector reports defects in:

(a). The teaching.

(b). The accomodation.

(c). The keeping of the school roll.

(d). The organization.

(e). The discipline.

(f). The books and apparatus.

Due regard in all these cases will be had to circum- stances.

4. A school receiving a grant must be :-

(a). Open at all times to Government inspection.

(b). Represented by a Manager distinct from the tea- cher, who will conduct all correspondence with the Go- vernment, sign the Receipt for the grant, and furnish all Returns which the Government may require.

5.— In the case of Chinese Schools not under European Supervision, the Inspector will be Manager when

necessary.

6. The Government will not bind itself to give a grant to all Schools claiming them under the foregoing condi- tions, but will be guided by the circumstances of each case, and by the amount of money at its dispo- sal for educational purpose. In all cases where a grant is refused, the reasons for the refusal will be given.

7.- The Government will reserve to itself the power to withdraw or reduce grants. In all cases the reasons for the withdrawal or reduction will be given. No grant will be withdrawn or materially reduced, until a second examination is held by the examiner assisted by two assessors, the one chosen by the Government, and the other by the Manager.

8.- One fourth of the total grant made to a School will be handed to the teacher as a personal payment 9.— A detailed account, with proper vouchers, of the ex- penditure of the remaining three-fourths must be fur- nished by the Manager annually.

14

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10. Grants will be made for definite results in secular

instruction only.

11.-These results will be ascertained at the annual exa- mination of the School by the Inspector, or by such examiners as the Government may appoint.

12. Examiners who are not in the service of the Govern-

ment will be paid for their assistance.

18. Schools eligible for grant-in-aid will be :--

Class 1.-Schools in which a Chinese education is given. Class 2.-Schools in which a Chinese education is given

with English in addition.

Class 3.-Schools in which a European education is given

in the Chinese language.

Class 4.-Schools in which a European education is given

in any European language.

Class 5.-Schools in which a European education is given

in any European language, with Chinese in addition. 14. The basis of examination will be two hundred dai- ly attendances of not less than four hours each, at secu- lar instruction, in the course of the year.

15.--Children who have satisfied that condition will be

examined in accordance with the standards.

Then come the standards which are six.

For Schools in Class 1. the value of a pass in the first standard is two dollars; in the second standard is four dollars with a gradually increase to eight in the sixth stan- dard.

For Schools in Class 2. half-a-dollar more is given, beginning from the second standard.

For schools in Class 3. in the first standard the grant is two, in the second four, in the third six and then gradually rises to nine dollars.

For schools in Class 4. in the first three standards is as in the Class 3. In the fourth standard the grant is eight dollars gradually rising to ten in the sixth.

For schools in Class 5. beginning from standard 2. half a dollar is added to that of the Class 4.

No capitation grant will be given for the mere atten- dance of scholars below standard 1; and no grant will be made for any subject not specified in the code.

In the Report on the state of the Government Schools in Hongkong we have very good news. There has

been a large increase of scholars. The village schools are 29 in number, of these 14 receive aid to the extent of $60 a year each.

+

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The outlay for 1873 has been $16,694, 40. The an- nual enrolment of scholars was 1,838 the maximum regu- lar attendance 1326. The minimum monthly eurolment was 852 and the minimum regular attendance 760.

We see in the Report for the first time six denomina- tional schools receiving grant-in-aid. The total number of their pupils is 442 and the amount of grant $265, 16.

One of these was St. Saviour's which the report states was under the management of the Revd Father Palmer.

Mention is made for the first time also of the Morrison Scholarship.

"In the month of May last, Mr Stewart says, the sum of $3,000 was handed over to Trustees by the members of the late Morrison Education society to found a scholarship at this school.

"Whether the school will ultimately enjoy the benefit of the scholarship, unfettered by conditions inconsistent with the system on which it is conducted is a question which can- not be much longer delayed. A legal decision on the point at issue, which seems to be the only practical solution will have to be obtained soon, if no arrangement can be made in the meantime.

"The difficulty which has arisen in this matter, con- tinues Mr. Stewart, points to recent discussion on the School and to the dissatisfaction which has been expres- sed by some at what they are pleased to call its "godless' character "After having referred to the past annual Report in which the question has been so often reviewed Mr. Stewart continues :-

CC

Theoretically right or theoretically wrong, the po- sition of the Government with regard to education is per- fectly intelligible and has been found to be eminently prac- tical. It is simply an endeavour to meet, as far as can possible be done, every denomination, Christian and Pagan, on common ground, and a determination to refrain from wounding the susceptibility of any one on the point of all points, on which men are most susceptible. If a precise statement cannot be given of the exact spot, on which all are thus met, it does not follow, that no such meeting- place has been found, To wait till a theory has been per- fected, before action is taken in a matter of vital impor- tance to the well being of the colony as well as of indivi- duals, is to follow the example of Rusticus in making no effort to wade or swim the stream, but contenting him-

اد

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self with waiting on the bank until all the water shall have run down.'

>>

In one of the leading articles, which appeared in the China Mail, January 28th, 1875, we read about the Morrison scholarship being next day given as a prize at the Central School, "It will be recollected that two of the Trustees the Revd. Dr. Eitel and J. Lamont objected to the exclusion of Christian instruction from the course prescribed for the candidates, while Mr. Stewart was equally unable, in view of the essentially secular character of the Central School, to sanction its being included. It was, however finally agreed that in view of the present purely secular character of the school the religious part of the course should be held in abeyance until such time as the regulations admitted of its being made a part of the system.

On January 20th took place the annual public exami- nation at the Central School with the distribution of pri- zes by His Excellency Sir Arthur Kennedy. After having eulogized the Schools H. E. touched upon a sub- ject (to which he had already alluded last year) the absen- ce of religious instruction in the school, which was not in- troduced simply because any attempt in that direction would be impossible in a school composed of mixed natio nalities." To suppose therefore, continues His Excellency, that the Government was opposed to religious instruction was a great error." (Mail.)

(Mail.) It would be rather curious, His Excellency continued, to mix arithmetic with theology. He thought the boys should find their religious instruc- tion somewhere else." (Mail). Dr. Eitel next referred of the Morrison scholarship in his address to the boys; "He understood that for the present the scholarship con- nected with the name of a Christian gentleman, the Rev. Dr. Morrison, was to be given year after year without re- ference to any religion whatever, but solely on the result the examination. He would encourage the boys to strive to acquire knowledge, for knowledge was power, and he hoped they would contribute to the restoration of the ancient grandeur in China." (Mail.)

The Editor of the China Mail on February 1st wrote a long leading article on the education-question with the heading "Secular Education." "The speech, he says, of His Excellency Sir Arthur Kennedy on Friday last both justi- fies a fresh allusion to the topic, and suggests to us cer- tain considerations, which seem to us worthy of the atten- tion of the Government." Then he states the condition of

"

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"

36

the Colony in regard to education and having named the four distinct communities possessing no religious sympathy with each other but who fairly agreed upon other questions to live in peace, he comes to the Roman Catholics, "to meet whose views Protestant statesmen have of late years ap- proved secular education; or education without any direct or distinct religious teaching. Now, he says, considera- ble disappointment has been caused in a great many places, as it has been in Hongkong, at the total rejection by the Roman Catholic priesthood of any such measure of conci- liation and a great many people are apt to attribute the attitude of theirs to a wrong source. We may frankly ad- mit, that we were ourselves somewhat astonished at some arguments recently used to us in support of their action, and must equally admit that they have a great deal more cogency than we could have supposed." Then the Editor goes on proving practically the basis upon which the Ca- tholics start that there can be no education or instruction given to children that does not partake of religious tinge" with regard to the books of the Irish National School course they find, he says, they cannot read all the lessons if undenominationalism is to be actually enforced "and moreover they do not accept a merely dry narrative of so called facts as worth anything for the purpose of instruc- tion." The position (the Catholic) taken up, continues the Editor, might be irritating, but it was logical, and it pro- duced in our minds a perfect hopelessness of any success attending in Hongkong a policy of conciliation such as that aimed at by the advocates of secular education. We should strongly advocate undenominational instruction, if it pro- mised to lead to any results, such as the education of Catholic children who would otherwise get no education at all. But we honestly hold that, were the Government Schools made essentially Protestant to-morrow, they would scarcely lose a single pupil. If our supposition be right it is difficult to see what argument remains to the advoca- tes of secular education in Hongkong. We should say, the Editor of the China Mail concludes, do away with it alto- gether and expand the grant-in-aid system for denomina- tional schools. Make the Government Schools, "Protes- tant," but afford a liberal measure of support to those un- der Catholic or any other auspices, provided the competent authorities were convinced that the facts of education were well taught, no matter what deductions were drawn from them. This would be the only really effective way of pro-

37

viding for the education of all classes and yet leaving con- science free."

Some letters appeared in the same newspaper, two in favour of and one against religious education. In one of them we read." In reference to Hongkong itself how suicidal must be the educational policy which, in the vain hope of securing the approbation of the Romanists, treats Chris- tianity as is it were of no value; certainly as of far less importance than arithmetic or Geography." Mail Februa- ry 3rd) In another complaints are made concerning the use of the Morrison education fund, on account of a rumour being "afloat that the money given for protestant teaching has "been hurriedly applied to what you yourself (Mr. Editor) "call" pagan teaching" to avoid the imminent risk of a legal decision which would have handed it over to the "only Protestant Chinese and English School at present "in the Colony. I allude to St. Paul's College. This is, "Sir, a vital question in these days of enquiry into the ul- "timate destination of trust funds." The Editor puts a note (we think the disposition made of the Morrison Trust money the best that could have been made under the cir- cumstances. But we should now have no objection to see it turned over to St. Paul's College to found a Morrison scholarship there; nor we suspect, would the Trustees.)

66

St. Paul's College, under the strenous efforts of Bis- hop Burdon, was, at this time, reviving again.

In the Report on Education for the year 1874 which was published on the 27th February of the same year we read; "The Morrison scholarship which was referred to last year as being involved in much difficulty, may now be considered as settled. Details have yet to be arranged, but no question of principle remains and the school has al- ready enjoyed the benefit of it. When the scheme for its administrations is complete a detailed account of it will be given."

"The total number of scholars taught in the schools which are subject to Government supervision, says Mr. Stewart in the same Report, was 2,565, giving an increase of 283 over the previous year..... .In the Government Schools, properly so called there was an increase of 93 and in the Schools which receive grants-in-aid there was an increase of 190." Of the 93 above mentioned 56 were in the village schools, the rest in the Central School. The to- tal number of scholars enrolled in nine denominational Schools receiving grants-in-aid was 632 and the amount

.

!

38

of grant $1,391, 50. The total number of children atten- ding schools of all denominations was 3800 of whom 1981 belonged to the Government Schools, leaving 12,300 un- educated children.

At the end of the year the Right Reverend Bishop Raimondi published a Report on the Roman Catholic Edu- cational and Charitable Establishments. They were :- 1. An elementary European free School

in Caine Road....

.45 boys.

2. An elementary European free School

in Wanchi.............

.20 boys.

3. An elementary Chinese free School in

Wanchi.....

.28 boys.

4. An elementary Chinese free School,

Wellington Street......

.24 boys.

5. An European commercial free School,

Wellington Street....

110 boys.

6. An Anglo-Chinese free School, Wel-

lington Street......

.25 boys.

7.-A private School for Europeans in

Hollywood Road....

40 boys.

12 European.

.100 girls.

8.-A Seminary in the Mission House 10 boys Chinese

for scientific studies......

9.-A free school for European girls in

Caine Road....

10. Another free school in Wanchai (24 European girls.

Wanchai{

18 Chinese girls.

11.-A private School for Europeans in

Hollywood Road....

12. Another private School for Europe-

ans...

18. A third private School for Europe-

ans.

14.-West Point Reformatory

.20 girls.

...28 girls.

.20 girls.

50 boys Chinese.

.62 girls.

.58 girls.

17. A School for the blind in Caine

Road......

.9 girls Chinese.

15. An orphanage for Europeans in Caine

Road..

16.-An orphanage for Chinese in Caine

Road.....

18. An orphanage for Chinese in Spring Garden.....

.72 girls.

19.-A House of the Good Shepherd in Wanchai. 20.--An asylum for enfeebled women in Caine Road.

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21. Two houses of The Holy Infancy for foundlings

Caine Road and Spring Gardens Infants, 100 Chinese. 22.-A small hospital for poor women Caine Road.

""

The Right Revd. Gentleman concludes his Report by saying When we arrived in this Colony in 1858 we found 8 Catholic boys going to school. At the present time we have over 700 children who are taught in our schools and charitable establishments, 100 infants in the Convent, and several others in the nursery. In all we would say that nearly 1000 children could at present be numbered in the Catholic educational and charitable establishments in Hongkong. Of course our system of education is purely religious, but with this no one can find fault: our schools are mostly frequented by Catholic children, and our Church enjoins a religious education. Moreover we are convinced that it is only by imparting sound Christian principles we shall be able to form useful members of society; and without these, we shall never make the people of the East enter into the manners and customs of civilized nations: because Christian principles alone can eventually break down the barrier that exists between the Eastern and Western peoples Two great proofs of this truth we could cite. Everyone is convinced that the fact of Turkey not accepting Christian civilization, renders her unfit to associate with any Euro- pean Power, and in China, the Government opposes the spread of Christianity on the assertion, that Christian Chinese imbibe European principles and thereby become too friendly to the Foreigners. This can be easily seen from the well known Imperial Memorandum."

Some days after, on the 7th January 1876, a meeting of the Legislative Council took place.

His Excellency Sir Arthur Kennedy proposed a vote for a grant towards the rebuilding of the Roman Catholic Church of St. Joseph. One of the honourable members op- posed it, "his chief reason being that he understood the priests of the Catholic Religion here were opposed to the un-sectarian and liberal education provided for children by the Colony...... We ought then, be continued, to be care- ful that the public money was not given to support a policy of ecclesiastical tyranny which would keep chil- dren from the public school. He felt strongly on the sub- ject. Education meant the welfare of the people: Religion would follow education. They should be taught Religion at home, education providing the means of engrafting it into children. It was monstrous that the ecclesiastical aid

- 40

sought by Catholics in cases of death, etc, should be refu- sed on the ground of persons having availed themselves of non-sectarian education. He begged to oppose the grant. (Mail.) Another Honorable Member said "it might be well to ascertain whether the Bishop or the Priests had anything to say by way of excuse." (Mail). He had heard of their refusing the sacraments to those who attended the Central School. He thought it advisable to postpone the vote."

A correspondence appeared in the Hongkong Times on the 20th of the same month signed "A Roman Catholic Layman," of which we take the following extracts.

Turning to the speech of the Hon. Mr.--with the very greatest possible respect I must say I think he has spoken a little hastily. Quoting your report he says, speaking of the application. "It is a purpose for which I think public money should not be given." The Hon. gentleman is per- fectly aware that in the rank and file of the British Army, and among the Officers and Men of the Royal Navy, there is a goodly number of Roman Catholics, who, by sea and by land, side by side with their comrades of other religions, help to maintain the honour of the British flag. Their priests when serving as Army Chaplains upon the staff of their respective regiments or otherwise, are accorded the same rank as Protestant chaplains according to their respective terms of service, and upon the home station the Imperial Government provides the means of Roman Catholic wor- ship for soldiers of that Religion. Shall it be said, that when removed to a far distant land the duty of providing church accommodation, must be entirely born by their co- religiousists? To my mind it is clearly the duty of the Go- vernment to provide a church for their Irish and English Catholic soldiers, and I do not think they could do it as cheaply, in another way, as by uniting with the funds al- ready in hand the amount asked by for our Right Revd. Bishop. Of course we, the English and Irish portion of the Catholic community here, require a church; but one by a third of the size of St. Joseph's would accommodate us, since we are but few in number. It is quite certain that if sufficient church accommodation already existed it would be placed at the service of the Roman Catholic part of the forces stationed here; since there is not, it is but fair to apply to the Government for aid in the way we have done. And supposing every thing to be true that has been said about the opposition of the Clergy in another direction, I cannot see how this can possibly affect the question

41

of the grant, which is not applied for as an aid for the En- glish and Irish Roman Catholic civilians but a discharge legislative duly to the Roman Catholics, military and ma- rine. The Home Government, I am persuaded, looks upon it in this light, since as His Excellency says, "Whatever sum the Council agrees to vote will be sanctioned by the Secretary of state.

"The Hon. member-has imported a question which seems to me quite foreign to the matter, viz., education. However, since it has been raised and the Hon. Mr.-seems to think some explanations are due from "the Roman Ca- tholics" there seems to be no honourable alternative but to show cause for the alleged conduct of our Right Rev. Bis- hop and Clergy,-First I take objection to the uncalled for invective of the Hon. Mr.-who denounces the action of the Roman Catholic Church as a system of ecclesiastical ty- ranny." The foundation of the Unity of the Catholic Church is based upon obedience-and to stigmatize as the tyranny of the Priests that which is the universal teaching of the Church is to display a very superficial knowledge of what is taking place all over the world; for, in every part of the world, the Roman Catholic Church through her Bishops and Priests is teaching the same principle as is taught by the Clergy of Hongkong, who, alike with the spiritual flocks entrusted to their charge are bound to inviolable obedience to their Supreme Head. To justify the charge of "ecclesias- tical tyranny" it would be necessary for the Hon. Member to prove that the majority of Roman Catholics, both here and elsewhere, are groaning under a burden against which their better sense rebelled. But this is far from being the case, for all Catholics yield a willing obedience to the teaching voice of the Church: I say all, because, in com- parison with the few rebellious ones, who are willing to barter their birthright, the Faith, for a mere "mess of pottage, secular instruction, the majority of the willing ones is over- whelming!" The correspondent proceeds to explain the practise of the Roman Catholic Church with the parents who against its prescription send their children to school, which are not carried on upon Catholic principles and then he continues :—

"1

"But apart from this the religious aspect of the ques- tion, let us take a common sense view of the case. Does not every society or corporation reserve to itself, either in its corporate or executive capacity, the right to expel or cut off from its benefits recalcitrant or non conforming members?

42

Most certainly, otherwise it could not continue to exist, If a kingdom be divided against itself, how shall that king- dom stand?" this, if I mistake not, is a principle; then why inveigh against our Church, for doing only what every mere secular, or commercial corporation claims and exer- cises the right to do?

"The Hon member, who seems desirous of great achie- vements upon the education question, appears to my mind to be singularly unfortunate in the selection of his premi- ses. He says,

"If anything in the world is conducive to the welfare of man, it is education." And again 'Religion will follow education." These premises are so fraught with error and misconception that I might dare to say there is no christian minister of any denomination in Hong- kong who would be found to defend them....

"As well might the Hon. Gentleman tell us that the cart will follow the horse if the connection be sundered."

At the annual examination and distribution of prizes held at the Central School by Sir Arthur Kennedy, His Excellency after having eulogized Mr. Stewart, in whom he had all confidence, and the School, said: Of course there will be various opinions about it, as there are on the subject of education as to the system etc. I am not going into that. It is a much discussed question and will be discussed to the end of time. I have thought, I have read of the matter, and I have heard it discussed here and else- where, and I still remain of the same opinion. After having advocated secular instruction His Excellency said: The only thing I should be sorry to see here would be that the school should be deserted by Europeans, because in that case we should see the strange anomaly of the Chi- nese portion of the population receiving a better education than the European. That is my own private opinion His Excellency after having dwelt on the equality imparted to all in that no attempt was made to interfere with any body's conscience concludes his arguments by saying: “As I said before that is a debateable point and I dont want to

go into it. (Press.)

His Excellency having distributed the prizes spoke of the necessity for a new building which he hoped would be carried out very shortly.

The Daily Press in a leading article compared St. Sa- viour's School with the Central in favour of the last and the Hongkong Times dwelled on the good coming from hav- ing the European mixed with Chinese in the same school.

--+-་

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A correspondence appeared in the Hongkong, Times Janu- ary 22nd, in which we read: During the present week, the Daily Press made a comparison between the Central School and a certain denominational School which was most unjust; but on this point, it is unnecessary to dwell, as Mr. Stewart detected the error and very kindly correc- ted it. Now how can the Central School, the primary ob- ject of which is to train Chinese, be fairly compared with the other schools in the Colony; It is said to be the best school in the Colony, until it is proved to be such, people cannot believe it" With regard to St. Saviour's School the correspondent says: there is nothing in the past his- tory of St. Saviour's School to be ashamed of, and I hesi- tate not to say there is a bright future in store for it, I know many young men holding honorable positions in the world who were educated in that school. Within the last twelve months eleven of its scholars have been sent out to fight the battle of life, and are succeeding admirably." After having spoken of the arrival of the Christian Bro- thers and of the increase of scholars at St. Saviour's School since they took up the management of it, the writer says: "The Portuguese have nothing to lose by sending their children to Catholic Schools, on the contrary, they have much to gain; the standard of secular instruction in them is not second to that of the Central School; in them every power of the child's soul, every faculty intellectual moral, and spiritual, is brought forth into full bloom. These young minds are formed to know and love their Creator- to embrace what is good, and to avoid what is evil.

"To return to the Central School, I have often asked myself, "Why is there so much noise made about this School, year after year; Do its patrons fully believe in its utility and principle? If they do, I think this hubbub might be dispensed with. Why are they so troubled for a few boys turning their backs en that school seeking else- where that which is denied them there-viz., a religious education?

Finally, it is stated that the commingling of Europe- ans and Chinese boys is productive of much good--that they are in this way induced to look upon each other as equals; fatal delusion. As long as the sublime principles of Christianity are withheld from the Chinese mind, so long will they detest Europeans, and the morals of the lat- ter will be in no wise improved by intercourse with, and the society of the former.

44.

In the Government Gazette of the 12th February appear- ed the annual report from Mr. Stewart on the state of the Government Schools for the year 1875.

In the Native Schools supported by Government there had been a decrease of 38 as compared with previous years. "This was owing to a change of four of the masters."

"In spite of defective accommodation and other draw- backs, the Central School is steadily progressing there being an increase of 28.

Mr. Stewart dwells in some paragraphs on the exami- nation papers. The examinations are held by the masters in Committee.

The grant-in-aid schools are still nine in number. The total number of scholars at these schools was 679 and the amount of grant given to them, was $1,451,00.

The outlay for all the schools was $18,895,99, from which deducted the fees remains a sum of $16,300,99.

We read in the Daily Press that 28 of the late pupils of the Central School had been drafted for service in the Foo- chow arsenal.

From Mr. Stewart's report for the year 1876 we learn that there was a marked increase in attendance at all the schools, whether taken collectively or in accordance with the classification usually adopted in these reports.

One very important feature in the history of the year was the great increase in the number of girls at the various schools. Mr. Stewart dwells on the denominational schools, which receive grants-in-aid. "Experience has shown the necessity of one or two modifications of the ori- ginal scheme. It is now evident that the values of the pas- ses should be raised and it will be also proposed to pay for attendance." With regard to the results of the examination held at these schools the passes amounted to 77 per cent. Eleven schools received grants-in-aid. The total number of their scholars was 751 and the amount of grant was $1,697.

"The school book Commitee's books which were at first neglected and not a little despised are now read in all the schools in the Colony over which there is Government supervision.

The expenditure during the year amounted to $18, 624,85, from which deducting the fees received there re- mains the sum of $15,836,00.

The total number of children attending schools of all denominations in the Colony was 4,640-of whom 2171-

45-

were frequenting the Government Schools and 2,469 be- longed to denominational Christian Schools and native Con- fucian Schools, leaving 12,000 uneducated children in the colony, the total number of children therein, from six years of age up to sixteen, being, according to the sencus, 16,640.

The last report of schools which appeared for the year 1876 was that of the Roman Catholic Educational and Charitable Institutions. The different Establishments are taken according to their local position, beginning from the East, and the report furnishes detailed accounts of the work done by each in all branches.

The number of the children has increased. A new College was opened in Caine Road; leaving in St. Sa- viour's the Chinese, divided into three different schools; all the Europeans have been transferred to the new St. Joseph's College.

We read in the Report the following:--

"It is extraordinary how these schools have prospered under the direction of the Christian Brothers. These admi- rable teachers first arrived in Hongkong and took charge of the European boys at St. Saviour's on the 15th November 1875. There were then only 70 pupils, and three of the Brothers were more than sufficient for the work. In the month of June 1876 the pupils were 125, and nothing but the want of accommodation prevented a large increase in the number. The transfer to the present premises in Caine Road was made about that time, and a fourth class was formed. At the end of last year the pupils frequent- ing St. Joseph's schools numbered one hundred and sixty-five, and, as we write, there are not far from two hun- dred, with five masters, thus leaving more room at St. Saviour's for the Chinese, among whom also there has been an increase lately.

"The building now known as St. Joseph's College was formerly a private house, and although, for a dwelling house very large and commodious, it is far from being large enough for the number of pupils frequenting it.

"It was the best and largest we could get at the time. It would be by no means easy at the present time to find another building more suitable, and it would cost a very considerable sum of money, even if land could be had, to erect a proper school house, or, even to enlarge the present We have not the means and know not where to look for them.

one.

"

It is a great mistake on the part of those who have to

-46

deal with such questions to omit from their calculation all consideration of the much greater expenditure, both by way of capital monies sunk in buildings and fittings and for current expenses, entailed on those who undertake the education of the European youth of the Colony, as com- pared with the expenditure required for setting up and maintaining a school for Chinese.

Twenty dollars a month will pay the rent of a Chinese school house. A hundred dollars a month has to be paid for a suitable house for a like number of European boys and their masters. In like proportion are the salaries of Chinese and European teachers, and, while the former can be had here at no expense, the latter have to be brought from Europe at a heavy cost. It is no exaggeration, there- fore, to say that a properly qualified European teacher cannot be provided, every thing comprised, at a less cost than $200 a month, while the teacher of a Chinese school or class costs, first and last, his salary, for a good one, say twenty dollars a month.

"We were rather astonished to note the other day in the Government Report on Education that each boy brought up at the Central school costs the Government on the average eighteen dollars and thirty cents a year, whereas the same boy at one of the Chinese schools only costs the Government three dollars and twenty four cents.

"Of course the difference is clearly attributable to the presence of European teachers at the Central school, and to the necessarily more expensive buildings and greater cost of maintenance; but the same difference that exists between the cost of educating a boy at the Central school and at the Native school, exists also in the cost of educating a European boy, and a Chinese boy and for the same rea- son. It is hardly equitable therefore to place Chinese Schools and European Schools on the same level.

"We have every reason to be satisfied with the atten- dance of the boys of St. Joseph's. There has been a great improvement in that respect latterly, although we have not yet come up to the English Standard. We must not forget, however, that if, in Hongkong there do not exist cer- tain influences and reasons, which interfere with school attendance in England, there are causes in operation here which have no equivalent in a colder climate. Sickness among children is more prevalent here and there is a greater dread of it among parents. The climate is far more trying, and between the extreme heat and the heavy rains.

T

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47

it is not easy for the children of poor parents to come to school daily; the distances too are great, and there is undoubtedly an absence of cheap and easy means of con- veyance. The indolent habits incidental to birth and re- sidence in a hot climate, must count for something also, and a wise administrator will allow for it.

66

If all these things are taken into consideration, it will be seen that there are difficulties in the way of a high average number of attendances here as well as in England, though they differ in kind and degree.

"In other English Colonies similarly situated, these difficulties have been taken into consideration and allowed for to an extent that one would ever look for here. Hong- kong is not London, neither can European boys in Hong- kong be expected to bear the climate as well, and do as much work as Chinese boys."

"In concluding this Report, it is almost needless to say that in all our schools the character of the education given is markedly religious and that we are more than ever con- vinced that education without religion is not only useless but mischievous. In our own sphere we shall ever act up to this principle, not seeking to interfere in any way with. the education or training of those who, not being Roman Catholics, have views and opinions of their own. We can- - not, however, avoid remarking the strong tendency that has been shown lately in Hongkong in favour of denomi- national as opposed to secular education. Several schools have been opened recently for children of the different denominations, in which special religious instruction is given, and these schools are prospering.

66

If an account were taken of the number of children of all ages frequenting denominational schools in Hongkong and of the number frequenting the strictly secular Go- vernment schools, the numbers would be found, we believe, to be about equal, while, if the pagan Chinese are excluded, the number of children of Christian parents seeking re- ligious instruction would largely preponderate, being not less than 700 Christian children brought up in denomi- national schools against 60 who prefer secular education, thus proving clearly that the vast majority of Christian parents in the Colony are in favour of a religious training for their children.

"The Secular schools supported by the Government have at their disposal means of attracting and rewarding which our denominational schools have not. Government de-

48-

frayed the first cost of them, maintains, and keeps them. We have had out of our poverty to build our own schools, provide them with books and appliances, get out teachers from Europe, and pay them. If any help is to be had from the Government, it is only in aid of current expen- ses and does not pay interest on capital.

If our denominational schools were put in a position to hold out equal educational advantages to the pupils as do the Government schools, the fact that we give a religious education also, would not prevent Chinese coming to us. So at least the Revd. Mr. Hutchinson testified with refer- ence to the Baxter Schools under his supervision, which are strictly Church of England schools. The same would hold good for us.

Hongkong is not only largely supplied with Roman Catholic Schools and Charitable Institutions, but it is also of importance as the only European possession on the Coast of China, and as the centre of all mail and telegraphic communication. This determined us to establish here all the Procurations or agencies for the Missions throughout China.

Hongkong is territorially extremely small; but com- mercially it is one of the most important and valuable of the possessions of the British Crown. From a Roman Catholic point of view it is the most important for its size of any place out of Europe, and we think that a larger educational development for Catholics ought to be fa- voured."

With regard to the expenses incurred by the Roman Catholics in carrying on their Educational and Charitable Institutions during this last period, we take the sum of $16,000 a year as certainly less than the real amount ma- king in five years the sum of $80,000, to which we must add the expenses for enlarging the Convent, for buy- ing the building for St. Joseph's College and for the pas- sage of six Christian Brothers for St. Joseph's and three for the Reformatory, amounting to $20,000, which added to the former, makes a total of $100,000.

The Government aided them with a grant of $2,400 a year for the orphans in the four Charitable Institutions making in five years $12,000 to which we have to add $418 as a grants-in-aid to St. Saviour's School during the years 1873-74-75 amounting to a total of $12,418.

1

}

:

----་ ོ་

49

Here we stop having reached the year 1877, in which we are writing.

Hongkong December 1877.

J. T.

Year.

TABLE I.

Was it necessary to adopt Secular Education in Government Schools?

1857. The pupils learned portions of the New Testament in Chinese, the meaning was explained to them,

and passages were committed to memory

1864. In the Village Schools it is objected that the Sacred Scriptures are read, but that this objection is

more ostensive than real, may be gathered from the fact that in a School supported by one of the Missions, where the Bible must be read, there is a regular attendance of 40 children, while there are only ten at the Government School in the neighbourhood

1865. Mr. Stewart takes away the reading of the Bible in Chinese. The Masters are not qualified for it.

1867.-Mr. Steward complains of the behaviour of the pupils of Central School, and of the criticism passed on the Central School. He endeavours to answer the objection put against the Government School by Dr. Alford, Bishop of Victoria. "The reason why secular education has been adopted was the great repugnance which Chinese mind has to religious instruction.........

He has been told by the Chinese that they would not accept of even free education, of which Christianity 'formed a part. I admit, he continues, that this is only half the truth, else why do not numbers increase now when it is most distinctly understood that the reading of the Bible is not enforced?

1869. Sir Richard MacDonnell eulogizes the Roman Catholic Schools.

1871.-Major General Whitfield, Lieut. Governor, does the same.

Mr. Stewart's Report. It is surprising to find in certain quarters grave doubts as to the position which the Central School holds with regard to religion. It seems to be the fate of secular education to be distorted and misrepresented. It will not be so always. Ten years will see the superstition exploded...........

1873.—Mr. Stewart's Report. Dissatisfaction has been expressed by some at what they call "the godless character" of the Central School. The system adopted is simply an endeavour to meet as far as can possibly be done every denomination, Christian and Pagan. (In the preceding year Sir Arthur Kennedy said that the Catholic Schools were supplying the requirements of the Roman Catholics in Hongkong, see Table III.) ...

1875.-Sir Arthur Kennedy at the Central School touches on the absence of Religion from the School and

supports it.

The Editor of the China Mail suggests that the Government Schools should be made Protestant ... 1876.—Sir Arthur Kennedy at the Central School speaks again on secular education. "It is a much

discussed question......... it is a debateable point."

Page.

10

13

16

22

2225

24

28

34

35

36

42

A Correspondent in the Hongkong Times asks why is there so much noise made about the Central School, year after year. Do its Patrons fully believe in its utility and principles; if they do such a hubbub might be dispensed with.....

43

Total number of children from 6 to 16 years of age in the Colony, 16,640; Children going to school, 4,640; Children going to Government schools, 2,171; Children going to denominational schools, Christian or Confucian, 2,469; Uneducated children, 12,000.............

Report on the Catholic Schools for 1876. If our denominational Schools were put in a position to hold out equal educational advantages to the pupils as do the Government School, the fact that we give a religious education also would not prevent Chinese coming to us. So at least Mr. Hutchinson testified with reference to the Baxter Schools under his supervision, which are strictly Church of England Schools. The same would hold good for us, aud a little before this we read: If an account were taken of the number of children of all ages frequenting denomi- national Schools in Hongkong, and of the number frequenting the strictly secular Government Schools, the numbers would be found, we believe, to be about equal, while if the pagan Chinese are excluded the number of children of Christian parents seeking religious instruction would largely preponderate, being not less than 700 Christian children brought up in denominational schools against 60 who prefer secular education, thus proving clearly that the vast majority of Christian parents in the Colony are in favour of a religious training for their children.

44

47

A

TABLE II.

Was secular education adopted in hostility to Denominational Schools?

Year. 1866.--The Central School was no longer exclusively confined to the Chinese 1867.--Christian and secular education, says Mr. Stewart, must for the present be accepted as two distinct fields of operation in Hongkong, the Missionaries will have their choice, the Government its choice.

At the Central School H. E. Sir Richard MacDonnell says he would be glad to see the Govern- ment School made sufficiently attractive to draw in the children of Portuguese and Hindoos. (Sir Richard MacDonnell in the precedent year at St. Saviour's College, after having highly praised the Roman Catholic Schools, said that when he first arrived he learned that European children were not received at the Central School. He took immediate steps to abrogate such a rule.)

1872.--Sir Richard MacDonnell is glad to see at the Central School some Japanese, Portuguese and boys

of other nationalities besides Chinese....

A Meeting took place at the City Hall, 30 persons attended it. Sir Arthur Kennedy said that if a school should be opened, it ought to be a secular one. He had no earthly sympathy with sectarianism. Mr. Stewart supported secular education, Mr. Francis religious education. being asked by Mr. Francis how he taught history Mr. Stewart answered he wanted only to defend himself.

The translation of English books into Chinese is to render the teaching in Chinese School sufficiently

undenominational to fairly come under the term secular......

In the grant-in-aid system are prescribed four hours of continued secular education. 1875.-Morrison Scholarship to the Central School. Dr. Eitel and J. Lamont, Trustees, objected to the exclusion of Christian instruction from the course prescribed, it was finally agreed that in view of the present purely secular character of the School, the religious part of the course should be kept in abeyance until such time as the regulations admitted of its being made a part of the system.

}

Correspondence in the China Mail about Morrison Scholarships. "The money given for Protestant teaching has been hurriedly applied to pagan teaching to avoid the imminent risk of a legal decision in favour of S. Paul's College.".

Page.

14

16

21

22

26

28

31

31

35

37

The Editor of the China Mail has no hope that undenominational instruction will lead to any result

such as the education of Catholic children.......

36

Correspondence in the China Mail, “how suicidal must be the educational policy, which in the vain hope of securing the approbation of the Romanists treats Christianity as if it were of less importance than Arithmetic or Geography.".

37

Meeting of the Legislative Council, a Member opposes the grant towards rebuilding St. Joseph's Church, because he understood that the Priests of the Catholic religion here were opposed to the unsectarian education provided for children in the Colony.

39

A correspondent in the Hongkong Times confutes the assertions made by the Member at the Legis- lative Council. The grant proposed has nothing to do with the education question. The Priests here do what the Roman Catholic Church prescribes and what every secular and com- mercial corporation claims to........

40

1876. Sir Arthur Kennedy at the Central School: The only thing he should be sorry to see there would

be that the School should be deserted by Europeans.

42

A correspondent in the Hongkong Times asks the reason why they are so troubled for a few boys turning their back on that School, seeking elsewhere that which is denied there viz: a religious education.

43

કહે

ROMAN

TABLE III.

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS.

Year.

Page.

1857.—A Chinese elementary School. An Orphanage for Chinese.

4

1860.-A Girl's School is opened in Caine Road. A Boy's School is started in Staunton Street.

1863.-A Reformatory is opened in West Point. St. Saviour's College is built.......

8

11

11

1864.- An Orphanage for Girls is added to the Schools at the Italian Convent in Caine Road.

1865.-H. E. Mr. Mercer, Acting Governor, at St. Saviour's School, said that "he was happy to know that

there was such a good School in the Colony."

1866.-H. E. Sir Richard MacDonnell, at St. Saviour's School, says "to the Roman Catholic Missionaries chiefly we do owe any earnest effort to provide an adequate body of future interpreters of European parentage." H. E. gives a medal to the School......

1869.-Sir Richard MacDonnell at St. Saviour's School, "he must confess that in this Colony, the efforts

of the Roman Catholic Church far outripped and were in excess of those of all other denomi- nations in promoting education. The grant to the Reformatory had been made on behalf of the Government."

́1871.-Major General Whitfield, Lieut. Governor, at St. Saviour's, "I have with me the strongest sense of

gratification at learning the highly satisfactory and most cheering results, which have attended the institution of these establishinents.".

12

21

22

26

24

Then H. E. distributed the prizes, among which was a gold medal given by himself.................

1872. A Correspondent in the China Mail urges the Government to give a grant to the Roman Catholic Schools. Father Raimondi in a Pastoral states the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, concerning education. "The Catholic Bishops with the Sovereign Pontiff have emitted their decision grounded on the experience and long study of years, proving that Schools, where only secular education is given, cannot do for Catholic children.........

25

27

The Editor of the China Mail thinks "that the best solution would be the establishment of a Church of England School. The Catholics have taken up a defined position, Catholic educa- tion for Catholic children; and having both the will and the ability to carry out the programme we are relieved of the necessity of reconciling the conflicting claims of Catholic and Protestant.”

Sir Arthur Kennedy at St. Saviour's School said: in this Colony there were great wants on ac- nt of the diversity of the population, and this School supplies many of them. The require- ments the many nationalities belonging to Father Raimondi's Church, were, he believed, supplied by it

from what he knew of the perseverance of those intrusted with the instruction of the youngsters, he was sure these Schools would always show satisfactory results. The Report on the Roman Catholic Schools has some hints on the endeavours made by some to proselytize the Catholic children to secularism. The writer censures the term superstition used by Mr. Stewart in his Report against the supporters of religious education............. 1875.-The Editor of the China Mail supports the views of the Catholics, opposing secularism, and advocates that a liberal measure of support should be afforded to those under Catholic or any other auspices, provided the competent authorities were convinced that the facts of education were well taught, no matter what deductions were drawn from them.....

28

29

29

36

Report of the Roman Catholic educational and charitable establishments and their progress: they

were 22 in number.

38

The writer makes some remarks corroborated by facts on the necessity of religious education................. 1876.--A correspondent in the Hongkong Times writes in favour of St Saviour's School, proving that its

standard is not inferior to that of the Central School.

39

43

St. Joseph's College for boys is opened.

45

Report for 1876, an increase of scholars. It is a mistake to omit from the calculations all consi- deration of the much greater expenditure entailed on those who undertake the education for the European youth.................

Expenses incurred by the Roman Catholics for their educational

and Charitable establishments.

In the 2nd period

3rd 4th

17

$ 33,000... $ 14,000.

""

5th

"

$72,000. $100,000...

Total

$219,000

45-46

Granted by the Government.

page 8

From 1857 to 1870 ...$

..page 20

11

19

""

25

1870 to 1872 1872 to 1877

"}

""

$2,512... 25 $12,418... 48

"}

""

48

"}

Total

$14,980

LIGE PLASTT VIA HYL