A Report on the epidemic of bubonic plague in Hongkong in the year 1898

A REPORT

RECE

C. O.

2370

JJAN S

ON THE

EPIDEMIC OF BUBONIC PLAGUE

IN

HONGKONG

IN THE YEAR 1898.

 

ALO

BRARY

DIE

SOIT

ET

QUIMAL

MON

DROIT

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co., GOVERNMENT PRINTERS.

9942 fol pamp.

1898.

:

H

87

D

A REPORT

ON THE

EPIDEMIC OF BUBONIC PLAGUE

IN

HONGKONG

IN THE YEAR 1898.

QUI MAL

DROIT.

DIE

SOIT

ET

MON

HONGKONG:

PRINTED BY NORONHA & Co., GOVERNMENT PRINTERS,

1898.

..

152676)

To The President

of the SANITARY BOARD.

SANITARY BOARD (FFICES,

HONGKONG, 25th August, 1898.

SIR,I have the honour to submit for the information of His Excellency the Officer Administer- ing the Government the following Report upon the epidemic of Bubonic Fever (Plague) which has occurred during the current year.

The total number of cases reported has been 1,315, of which 75 were among non-Chinese; during the first quarter of the year 213 cases occurred (7 being non-Chinese), during the second quarter there were 1,094 cases (66 of which were among non-Chinese), while during July there were 7 cases (2 being non-Chinese), and during August one case was reported, but this was subsequently consider- ed to have been one of Remittent Fever.

The following is a tabular statement of the non-Chinese cases:—

European, Portuguese,

Indian,.

Japanese,

Filipinos,

January.

February.

March.

...

...

April.

May.

June.

July.

Total.

1

8

:

15

...

2 26

6

13

3

9

8

4

24

1

1

3

5

10

1 1

2

...

2

10

5

27 35 4 2 75

The incidence of the disease upon the two sexes is shown in the following table:-

Chinese cases,..

Non-Chinese cases,.

Male,......775 Female,...465 Male,...... 52 Female,... 23

= 1,240

=

= 75

It is interesting to note that among the Chinese the females suffered in a much less proportion during the first quarter of the year than during the second quarter; thus during January-March there were 206 Chinese cases of which 59 were females or 28.6 per cent., while during April-June there were 1,028 Chinese cases of which 383 were females or 37.2 per cent.

The proportion of females in the Chinese population is 29.9 per cent., and I think that the much higher proportion of female cases during the second quarter suggests that many of the earlier cases were imported by males (who are naturally the greater travellers) and that, when the infection had thus become again located in the houses, the women suffered more severely, as would be expected, from the fact that they are more confined to the houses than are the men.

A consideration of the ages of the patients shows that Chinese children suffered very consider- ably, for there were 299 Chinese cases at ages under 15 years, which is equal to more than 24 per cent. of the total cases whereas the proportion of children under that age in the Chinese population is only 18 per cent.

The death-rate among the Chinese was considerably higher than among the non-Chinese, for of the 75 non-Chinese cases 49 died or 65.3 per cent., whereas of the 1,240 Chinese cases 1,111 died or 89.6 per cent.; the determining causes of this higher mortality being, no doubt, inferior physique, less healthy surroundings and lack of the necessary medical treatment of the disease.

The City of Victoria is divided into ten Health Districts, and the first of these to be declared infected with Bubonic Fever were Districts 2, 4, 5, and 6, on March 24th; the remaining districts of the City were subsequently declared infected as were also the districts in the Kowloon peninsula, comprising the villages of Yaumati, Taikoktsui, Mongkoktsui and Hunghom.

With a view to combating the epidemic the following officers were appointed by His Excellency. the Officer Administering the Government, in accordance with bye-law 25 made under section 13 of Ordinance 15 of 1894, to assist the Medical Officer of Health in inspecting and reporting upon dirty or insanitary premises :-

Honourable F. H. MAY, C.M.G., Captain Superintendent of Police; Mr. FRANK BROWNE, Acting Government Analyst;

Mr. JOSEPH J. BRYAN, Assistant Sanitary Surveyor.

(4)

And the following additional staff was placed at our disposal:-

13 European Police Officers.

1 Naval chief petty officer.

24 Sappers and Privates.

16 Chinese Constables.

About 300 coolies.

The various duties performed by these officers and men, in association with the Board's perma- nent staff, were as follows:-

1. Removal of the sick and of dead bodies.

2. Detention of persons who had been in contact with the sick, pending the disinfection

of their clothing.

3. Disinfection of infected clothing.

4. Disinfection of infected premises.

5. Temporary accommodation of persons displaced during the disinfection of infected

premises.

6. House to house visitation, and inspection.

7. House to house cleansing and lime-washing.

8. Disinfection of Public Latrines.

9. Extra flushing of sewers.

(1.) The removal of sick persons and of dead bodies was undertaken by the Inspectors of Nuisances in charge of the several districts, information of the existence of such cases being conveyed to them by messages sent from the Police Stations nearest to their residences; after May 5th, however, it was found more convenient for these removals to be effected by the Police, and this was arranged accord- ingly. Ambulances and dead boxes are kept at the Boaril's matshed shelters at Praya East, Taiping- shan and Praya West, at lunghom and Yaumati, and also at the Tung Wah Hospital. Patients were taken direct to Kennedy Town Hospital and placed in observation wards there until seen by the Medical Officer in charge, until the Native Plague Hospital was opened on May 2nd, (vide infra) after which date all Chinese patients were taken to the Tung Wah Hospital and there examined by Dr. CHUNG, whence those certified to be suffering from Bubonic Fever were drafted to the Native Hospital, or to the European Hospital, as they desired.

Dead bodies were all taken direct to the Public Mortuary at West Point, and were there examined by the Medical Officer in charge, and such as had died of Bubonic Fever were removed to the Plague Cementery at Kennedy Town under the superintendence of a private of the Royal Engineers, and interred there, chloride of lime or carbolized sawdust being placed in the coffins.

(2.) The detention of persons who had been in contact with the sick, pending the disinfection of their clothing and bedding, was effected by Chinese lukongs obtained from the nearest Police Stations by the Inspector of Nuisances of the district in which the infected premises were situated.

(3.) The Inspector furnished the occupants so detained in their own dwellings with suitable clothing, obtained from one of the aforesaid matshel shelters or from the disinfecting station in High Street, and sent the clothing of the persons so detained in baskets, accompanied by a list of the articles sent, to the disinfecting station in charge of a Chinese or Portuguese foreman, who waited at the station while the clothing was disinfected and then returned with it to the house; the period of deten- tion thus did not exceed some two or three hours.

(4.) This clothing was then returned to the owners who were then required to vacate the house for a few hours while the Inspector disinfected, and

(5.) Cleansed it; during this time they were at liberty to go to the Board's matshed shelters and had occasionally to spend one night there pending the proper disinfection of their premises, but were not detained there, being at liberty to go about their daily avocations. When this cleansing and dis- infection of the premises was complete the people were permitted to return to their houses.

6.) A house to house visitation, in search of cases of the disease and of dead bodies, was perforined by Police and Soldiers under the control of the Captain Superintendent of Police, (vide also Appendix B.), and these search parties succeeded in discovering 106 cases and dead bodies, while another fifteen cases were brought to light by Chinese detectives. A house to house inspection was at the same time made, in the infected districts, by the Medical Officer of Health and the officers especially appointed by the Board with the approval of the Governor, in accordance with Bye-law 25 made under section 13 of Ordinance 15 of 1894 who certified in writing what premises were to be

(7.) Cleansed and lime-washed; and this cleansing was done by gangs of coolies in charge of Police and Soldiers, while the lime-washing was done by contract and had to be done to the satisfaction of the Inspecting Officer.

(5)

(S.) The disinfection of the public latrines was effected by means of chloride of lime which was supplied to each latrine by the Board and was used under the direction of the Inspectors of Nuisances.

(9.) The extra flushing of the sewers was arranged by the Director of Public Works and was effected by increasing the frequency of the discharges of the flushing tanks which are placed at the heads of all the main sewers.

The care of the sick was undertaken by the Medical Department, but, in consequence of the difficulty experienced in getting the Chinese to submit to Western treatment, it was decided by the Government to permit the opening of a Native Plague Hospital, under European supervision, and on May 2nd such a hospital was opened at Kennedy Town, within the compound of the Government Infectious Diseases Hospital, and Dr. THOMSON was placed in charge of the sanitary arrangements. This hospital remained open until June 27th, and during that time 224 patients applied for treatment, of whom 209 were suffering from Bubonic Fever; the total number of deaths that occurred there was 173, giving a rate of mortality of 82.8 per cent., as compared with the general rate among the Chinese of 89.6 per cent. which shows, as might be expected, that hospital treatment even by Chinese doctors, under European supervision, produces slightly better results than obtain when the patient is treated by Chinese in his own home. The night-soil from the patients at both Hospitals was burnt, by mingling it with sawdust, sprinkling this with paraffin oil, and placing it on the top of a wood pyre erected on an improvised incinerator within the Hospital compound. The incinerator was of the simplest des- cription, consisting of a couple of parallel walls about 2 feet 6 inches high and 6 feet long, with a grating of iron bars across the top, the ground surface between the walls being concreted.

Owing to the proximity of the mainland of China, a considerable number of sick Chinese escaped daily from the Colony, and male their way to Chinese Kowloon (where a small matshed hospital, free from European control, was established) or to the delta of the Canton river, and thus endangered the future welfare of this Colony by infecting neighbouring rural districts which had hitherto kept free from the disease. With a view to restricting this exodus of infectious persons, the police patrol in the harbour was increased, and the following regulations were adopted by the Board :-

CONDITIONS SUBJECT TO WHICH PERSONS SUFFERING FROM BUBONIC FEVER WILL BE PERMITTED TO LEAVE THE COLONY.

Any person suffering from bubonic fever who wishes to leave the Colony may embark between the hours of 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. at a wharf to be erected off the new Reclamation in front of Bonham Strand West subject to the following conditions :-

(1) The patient or his friend shall notify the patient's name and address or addresses at which he has been residing during the last ten days to an officer of the Sanitary Board on duty at the wharf.

(2) The destination to which the patient is to be removed shall be notified to the officer on

duty at the wharf.

(3) The patient or his friends must provide a licensed junk, or licensed boat (the latter to be towed by a launch, in which the patient is to be removed, and must furnish the officer on duty with the number of such junk or boat and the name of such steam-launch. (4) No temovals will be permitted to places within a radius of 40 miles of the Colony. (5) The junk or boat used for the conveyance of the patient must on its return to the Colony at once proceed to the Water Police Station at Tsim Sha Tsui for disinfection. Very few sick persons, however, availed themselves of this official permission to leave the Colony, but a considerable number were still smuggled away, the object being to get out of the Colony without furnishing the addresses at which they had been residing, and it is this suppression by the Chinese of the addresses of infected premises that has necessitated, in each epidemic, a general house to house cleansing and disinfection. A certain number of dead bodies were removed from the Colony under similar restrictions, but, with regard to these also, smuggling was not uncommon, dead plague bodies being even conveyed to Canton in ordinary boxes as cases of hardware, etc., so as to avoid their interment at the Plague Cemetery.

Considerable assistance was rendered to the Board by Mr. H. M. HILLIER, Commissioner of Customs, and the Chinese Officials on the mainland, by furnishing the addresses of fugitives from the Colony who landed in the neighbourhood, thus enabling the Officers of the Bard to disinfect the premises whenever there appeared to be any reason to suppose that a case of Bubonic Fever had

occurred therein.

I attach a list of the addresses of all cases which occurred in the City of Victoria during 1896 and a parallel list of the addresses of cases which occurred this year, and from these lists it will be seen that in no less than 77 houses out of a total of 599 houses known to have been infected, cases occurred during each of these years. The total number of houses in the city of Victoria is roughly 7,000 (exclusive of Barracks and Police Stations) so that the presumption is that many of these 77 houses had retained the infection of the disease since 1896, and not that they were re-infected afresh this year.

27

(6)

I have already somewhat fully discussed the aetiology of the disease in my Annual Report for 1897, but for convenience of reference and to render this report more complete, I append herewith a reprint of the remarks made by me at that time: "This (ie., the occurrence of cases in houses pre- viously infected) appears to me to suggest that the infection of the disease adheres most tenaciously to dwellings which have once become infected, and in view of much of the experimental evidence con- cerning the vitality of the Bubonic Fever bacillus under certain conditions, I am strongly inclined to apply, tentatively, Sanarelli's theory concerning the bacillus of Yellow Fever, namely, that the vitality of the bacillus, outside the living bodies of man and animals, depends largely upon the co-existence of vegetable moulds by which it is nourished, to the infective material of this disease also. It is already well known that a moist atmosphere, defective ventilation, a moderate amount of heat, and the absence of sunlight, are the most favourable conditions for the development of the Bubonic Fever bacillus, while they are also the conditions which encourage the free growth of the vegetable moulds, and it is not unreasonable therefore to surmise that this property of symbiosis, which has also been observed by Metchinkoff in connection with the bacillus of cholera, may have not a little to do with the persistence of the bacillus of Bubonic Fever in damp and ill-ventilated dwellings. This theory may perhaps also serve to throw a side-light upon the origin of the recent epidemic of Bubonic Fever in Bombay and other parts of India, for one of the causes to which the outbreak was freely attributed by scientific authorities on the spot was the consumption of inferior qualities of mouldy grain, which if imported from a district in which the disease is endemic, such as parts of China or North-west India, might well have conveyed the specific bacillus. The following extract from the Indian press bears out this point. In a public lecture in the Sassoon Institute, Bombay, Dr. G. WATERS disposed of the theory that Bubonic Fever had been imported into Bombay from Hongkong by rats in ships. He inclined to the belief that it was not introduced from other ports, but had its origin in the large granaries of the Mandvie quarter of the town. The first outbreak was among the granary employés, and rat murrain was first discovered there. Surgeon-Colonel CLEGHORN, who has made a special investigation for the Indian authorities holds the same opinion. It is stated as a curious fact by both doctors that wheat and rice eaters have enjoyed almost complete immunity from the disease, which has been most pre- valent among the millet eaters (Hindoos)-uillet being a generic term for various kinds of inferior grain.' The grain would probably in such a case be primarily infected by rats suffering from the disease, but such infection would only be retained by the inferior and mouldy grain, the bacilli deposited with the excreta in sound, dry grain being unable to retain their vitality during exportation from the infected to uninfected areas. It is an important fact, in this connection, that many of the historical outbreaks of Bubonic Fever have been associated with a failure of the cereal crops and occa- sionally also with outbreaks of ergotism. It is true that the Asiatic races do not eat their rice and other grain uncooked, but most of the inferior grain is ground into flour, which is made into cakes, and the heat necessary to cook these cakes, which are just browned on the outside, is not sufficient to destroy any bacilli there may be in the flour. I do not wish to suggest, however, that diet is the only, or even necessarily the most important factor in the dissemination of this disease, for I am still of the opinion that the atmosphere in the immediate neighbourhood of a patient suffering from the disease, where such patient is confined in a dirty, dark and ill-ventilated dwelling, is infective to very much the same extent as in Typhus Fever, and that when such atmosphere is breathed for any length of time by a healthy individual, the bacilli have every opportunity of gaining access to the lymphatic system of the respiratory tract by inhalation, and of the alimentary tract by swallowing the mucus and saliva of the mouth and pharynx, to which any particulate bodies in the atmosphere would naturally adhere. I certainly cannot subscribe, however, for the reasons given in my Annual Report for 1895, to the theory which has been so freely canvassed in connection with the outbreak of this disease in Bombay, that infection is contracted, in the great majority of the cases, by inoculation through small abrasions of the skin. These reasons were that the inguinal and femoral buboes have been found to occur just as frequently among the European cases of the disease, who are carefully shod as among the natives who habitually go barcfooted; the Europeans employed in house to house visitation and cleansing work during the Plague epidemics in this Colony of 1894 and 1896, who contracted the disease, all had femoral or inguinal buboes, although it can hardly be denied that their bare hands and arms were, by the nature of the work in which they were employed, far more exposed to any infection by inocu- lation than were their feet and legs; secondly, that only in very rare cases is there any evidence of a wound, of any local inflammation, or of lymphaugitis, although in cases of experimental inoculation of animals these latter have always occurred, except (it is said) in a few cases in which a pure culture of the bacillus has been used, and in view of the fact that pus, blood, sputum and intestinal excreta are the natural media of transmission of the disease, it would be unreasonable to suppose, as is necessary to render this theory of infection by inoculation tenable, that contact of the supposed wound with a pure culture, is in the human subject the almost invariable rule. Another objection to this theory is that none of the diseases which are unquestionably transmitted by inoculation (e.g., rabies, tetanus, charbon, etc.) have hitherto been known to occur in widespread epidemics, and the theory therefore commits us to an entirely new phase in the aetiology of the communicable diseases, and one which certainly ought therefore to be fully substantiated by facts before its advocates cau expect it to meet with general acceptance.

It is difficult, I admit, to explain, with any other theory, why the inguinal and femoral glands should be so frequently the first to betray the disease, but I must confess that I still adhere to the

(7)

explanation of this fact given by me in my Annual Report for 1895, namely, that the disease is essen- tially one of the lymphatic system generally, and that, as can be seen at any post-mortem examination, most of lymphatic glands of the body are in a more or less inflamed and irritable condition, while the special enlargement of any particular group of superficial glands (which does not by any means always occur) is due to purely accidental circumstances, such as by the carrying of heavy weights upon one's shoulder (as is invariably done by Asiatics) during the initial period of the disease, great strain being thus thrown upon one leg, by climbing up and down narrow flights of stairs as was done by the Europeans employed in house to house visitation and cleansing (most of the arduous manual labour was performed by coolies acting under the direction of these Europeans) or in fact by any the ordinary daily avocations of life which happen to be of a laborious nature.

of

Murchison's opinion, although not perhaps scientifically accurate in the light of modern bacterio- logical research, yet indicates the close resemblance of Typhus Fever and Bubonic Fever, for he wrote: Plague is perhaps the Typhus of warm climates, the two diseases being generated from similar causes and differing only in intensity from the effects of climate and other collateral circumstances."

The marked recurrence of cases in houses previously infected, even after an interval of more than twelve months, has convinced me that only the most thorough disinfection, and even in some cases the removal of all existing unsound woodwork, will eradicate the disease from an infected dwelling, and I have decided to abolish the processes of disinfection by burning sulphur and by washing the floors with some coal tar preparation, which have hitherto been in vogue in this Colony, and to adopt the system of disinfection, which has proved so successful in Paris, of spraying floors, walls, etc. with a 1 in 1,000 solution of Perchloride of Mercury; the rooms will subsequently be exposed as far as it is practicable in the ill-ventilated and mostly back to back dwellings in which these cases occur, to a free current of air by opening all doors, windows and ventilators as fully as possible, and keeping the premises unoccupied for a few days. There is, however, but one course for the Government to adopt, if this Colony is to be kept free from this and other filth diseases, and that is the absolute prohibition of back to back houses, and the compulsory provision of an adequate amount of light and ventilation in all the Chinese dwellings in the Colony."

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

FRANCIS W. CLARK,

Medical Officer of Health

(8)

Appendix A.

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever which were reported as occurring in the City of Victoria during the

Street.

1896.

Years 1896 and 1898.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

1898.

House No.

No. of Cases.

1

No. 1 Health District.

Bowrington Canal,...

Coffee Plantation,

Ewo Street,

""

17

""

""

Hill-side,

Jardine's Bazaar,

...

No. 1 Health District.

1

Blacksmith's Lane,

1

1

4.

2

3

2

""

Caroline Hill,

1

28

1

East Point Hill,

5

41

1

(Hon. Bell-Irving's Stables),

1

Ewo Street,

25

:

1

Fuk Hing Lane,

2

Great George Street,

25

6

1

Irving Street,

2

1

16

1

13

1

""

""

""

42

1

15

1

""

27

""

""

44

1

31

1

"

""

""

"}

56

38

1

""

"?

""

62

2

Jardine's Bazaar,

5

32

70

21

1

""

"}

"

29

1

37

1

,,

19

33

1

54

1

""

19

,,

"}

35

1

60

1

""

""

D

""

""

49

1

1

""

""

"}

""

3

Keswick Street,

14

2

""

""

Lamont's Lane,

1

Lamont's Lane,

Leighton Hill Road, Morrison Hill Road,

}}

""

Matshed, Wanchai, Praya East,

""

"}

""

""

22

""

115

* :** 652

Leighton Hill Road,

1

1

No. 2, Police Station,..

2

2

2

Praya East,

70

1

14

2

122

1

""

"

1

161

1

"}

"

1

1

"

"

91

1

Quarry Bay Road,

2

97

1

Royal Naval Hospital,.

1

1

Russell Street,

2

Race Course,

Wanchai Road,

2

Tung Lo Wan,

1

3

1

Valley Road,

1

5

1

Wanchai Road,

11

1

""

19

1

13

1

,,

"?

17

69

1

25

1

""

>>

33

1

*

69

1

""

""

43

2

71

1

""

"

"}

""

65

1

131

1

""

""

"}

13

119

1

""

Chapel,

1

""

>>

Wild Dell Buildings,

1

School,

2

Wong Nei Chong,

Wong Nei Chong Road,

: :

>>

50

1

Wong Nei Chong,

1

1

""

Village,

26

1

Yee Wo Street,

2

47

54

No. 2 Health District.

No. 2 Health District.

Albany Street,

...

14

1

Albany Street,...

16

1

99

**

>>

20

1

"

"}

*

"}

22

**

"}

"

26

2

""

"

17

25

"}

**

27

1

*

,,

""

T

19

1

""

"

2

*Amoy Lane,

* Amoy Lane,

2

1

"}

>>

1

1

"

""

**

17

**

اوار

15

1

"

18

1.

Arsenal Street,

Commissariat Lane,

Convent, French,

*Cross Street,

1

8

Blue Buildings,

Cross Lane,

23

* Street,

7

})

"

כי

26

222-

"

21

"

""

*

""

21

1

"

Carried forward,

26

Carried forward,

18

19

11

16

3678088 : ~ : *

1

1

1

9

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

4

2

1

2

7

1

16

1

20

1

4

2

21

1

23

Street.

(9)

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, c.,-Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

House No.

No. of Cases.

"1

وو

وو

1896.

No. 2 Health District,-Contd.

1

Brought forward,

Fletcher Street,...

""

""

""}

""

>>

1898.

10 1-

5

7

26

1

9

35

10

11

2122 N

No. 2 Health District,-Contd.

*Cross Street,

""

*

Fletcher Street,

Brought forward,

23

26

I

31

1

30

I

32

1

*

>>

22

11

35

1

2

Garden Road, (Dairy Farm),

1

"}

""

17

1

Han Fung Lane,

2

""

19

1

Hill-side,

1

"1

21

Holy Infant Lane,

4

1

""

""

22

1

Kennedy Road, (Laundry),

2

"

23

1

10

""

"

"

27

28

1

""

22

"

Street,

2

31

20

1

"

""

""

"

39

""

*King Sing Street,

11

1

*

Garden Road,

Hau Fung Lane,

Hill-side,

""

Kennedy Road, ...

Street,

""

King Sing Street,

""

Lung On Street.......

Nullah Lane,..........

1

Lung On Lane,

1

1

McGregor Barracks,

2

1

Street,

21

1

"}

3

34

1

""

""

4

*Murray Barracks,

7

14

1

Naval Yard,

1

5

1

Nullah Lane,

17

11

1

18

2

8

2

26

1

*Murray Barracks,

27

):

""

40

1

"

1

41

1

""

"

""

""

1

*

-15

1

""

"}

""

12

1

52

1

""

"1

""

>>

16

1

**

65

"

13

2

68

3

""

""

"}

21

1

3

12

"7

""

""

23

1

Praya East,

9

1

""

35

1

36

1

19

"}

""

,,

43

1

45

1

,,

"

*

45

47

1

"

""

""

47

1

5

"

"

17

49

Queen's Road East,

9

1

"1

""

53

1

21

1

"

""

"}

"}

65

1

***

27

1

"}

>>

">

71

1

""

""

""

"}

""

(Temple),

1

106

1

""

Praya East,

20

112

1

"

"}

118

1

:

"}

"1

""

"}

Queen's Road East,

4

124

1

""

>>

80

148

1

""

""

""

""

8-1

"}

">

86

****

151

2

""

""

153

1

"

"}

"}

""

114

1

154

1

"

"}

""

27

*

116

1

161

1

27

>>

72

"}

!

126

1

164

2

""

"

"}

*

27

1

171

1

??

"}

,,

""

47

1

177

""

""

27

85

3

180

2 I

27

""

""

121

1

203

1

""

"7

"}

143

1

213

1

"}

""

"

***

151

1

223

1

>>

""

""

153

5

225

1

""

""

""

"}

157

1

261

1

"

A

">

159

1

265

1

"

"}

""

""

***

161

6

"}

""

,,

""

229

1

Rock Lane,

2

})

""

237

1

"1

""

Shan Ping Lane,

4

2

259

1

}

"}

"

27

3

""

"}

Ship Street,......

7

1

Rock Lane, Ship Street,

2

1

*

11

I

""

""

2

1

**

21

19

"

26

2

32

1

22

"

"

"

"}

,,

*

""

"

""

"

3

1

6

""

""

11

1

Sow Wah Fong,

10

15

1

14

1

""

>>

Carried forward,

133

Carried forward,

134

Street.

( 10 )

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,—Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

House No.

No. of Cases.

1896.

1898.

""

#

"}

27

>>

""

No. 2 Health District,-Contd.

*Ship Street,

""

Shek Kai Lane,...

""

""

Brought forward,

Spring Garden's Lane,

Swatow Lane,

""

No. 2 Health District,-Contd.

133

Brought forward,

21

1

......

Spring Garden Lane,

4

St. Francis Convent,

2

1

Swatow Lane,...

-H

4

1

"

22

*

""

""

4

6

""

Tai Wo Street,

14

"

21

1

""

""

""

Tai Wo Street,

1

""

Tai Wong Street,

10

1

9

2

""

""

""

Tai Wong Street, Tik Lung Lane,

13

1

*

""

15

I

"}

""

""

27

""

17

1

*

""

""

>>

""

1

*Tik Lung Lane,

"

2

1

"}

6

Triangle Street,

"7

Tsing Kai Lane,

134

2

6

12

1

13

1

14

2

16

1

3

2

6

1

12

1

2

1

1

1

6

1

15

1

54

A

1

8

1

Tsui In Lane,

1

""

Tsu Lung Lane,

4

1

""

*Ui Iling Lane,......

20

1

U Hing Lane,...

1

9

1

1

""

"}

19

"}

13

1

12

1

""

""

>>

27

15

1

14

1

""

""

""

""

27

1

*

20

1

""

17

""

25

29

1

28

1

"2

*

31

2

31

1

""

}}

""

1

Wanchai Road,

24

I

""

"

*Wanchai Road,

26

1

*

26

1

"

་་

32

1

36

2

3 3

""

""

""

34

1

64

1

""

""

52

1

1

>>

>>

58

2

""

66

I

"}

3

***

""

""

"

*Wellington Barracks

2

*Wellington Barracks,

Wing Fung Lane East,

Wing Fung Street,

1

2

1

West,..

5

1

17

1

Wing Fung Street,

10

1

20

1

""

"}

9

24

2

""

""

""

""

"J

19

""

15

26

1

27

44

1

11

>>

Wing Fung Lane West,

10

1

48

1

22

""

**

""

5

4

""

""

""

191

191

No. 3 Health District.

Castle Road,

Caine Road,

""

Cathedral Compound,

1

No. 3 Health District.

Beaconsfield Arcade,

7

1

Bowen Road,

21

1

Caine Road,...

1

"}

*Glenealy, *Hongkong Hotel,

*

*Hongkong & Shanghai Bank,

*Italian Convent,

Kai Un Lane, Lower Albert Road, Mosque Terrace,

Mosque Street, Matsheds,

***

1

1

2

Duddell Street,

""

*Glenealy,

*Hongkong Hotel,

*Hongkong & Shanghai Bank,

5

1

1

1

3

4

1

1

1

1

Ice House Lane,

1

3

*Italian Convent

1

: : : :

Ι

Lower Castle Road,

1

1

1

""

Mosque Terrace,...

4

1

}

Mosque Junction,

43

I

1

45

1

""

Mosque Street,.

2

1

19

""

37

2

""

"}

43

1

""

Carried forward,

17

""

Nethersole Hospital,

Peddar's Street,

Praya Central,...

Reclamation (Kien On Mat-

shed),...

Carried forward,

1

1

1

..

:

:

I

26

"

?

Street.

( 11 )

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,-Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

House No.

No. of Cases.

1896.

1898.

No. 3 Health District,- -Contd.

No. 3 Health District,-Contd.

Brought forward,

17

Brought forward,

26

Queen's Road Central,

10

1

Praya Reclamation,

1

16

1

""

""

Queen's Road Central,

5

1

17

I

17a

1

""

"}

>>

21

1

19

1

""

""

""

24

1

Seymour Terrace,

Upper Albert Road,

West Terrace,

6

2

1

:

GI

House),

1

Reduaxella Terrace,

Robinson Road, (Mr. Lemm's

Robinson Road,

......

St. Paul's College Pathway,

West Terrace, ..

Woodland Terrace,

6

1

"}

""

Villa East,

""

Zetland Street,......

26

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

41

"}

No. 4 Health District.

*Chinese Street,

"}

""

*Central Police Station, *Cheuk On Lane,

Chuk Hing Lane,

Cochrane Street,

""

No. 4 Health District.

32

34

39

>>

""

D'Aguilar Street,

34

87

"}

""

40

وو

199

Ezra Lane,

"

29

17

"}

""

""

Elgin Street,

""

""

""

Gage Street,

""

""

Graham Street,

Gutzlaff Street,...

""

*Hing Lung Street,

Hollywood Road,

*

>>

""

""

"

*Jubilee Street,...

Li Yuen Street East,

*

"

Street West,

""

""

""

""

"}

Lok Hing Lane,

""

>>

"2

""

Lyndhurst Terrace,

Old Bailey Street,

""

*Pottinger Street,

""

"}

""

""

""

"}

Peel Street,

"}

""

>>

"

Praya Central,

27

"

"

""

Queen's Road Central,

"}

""

63

1

Carried forward,

63

* ON 5 128 127 198

51

11

2

Arbuthnot Road,

20

1

Caine Road,..................

1

"

""

*Central Police Station,...

"Kingsclere,"

Central Market (Fish Stall No. 134),

14

1

7

1

21

1

3

1

i

Chinese Street,

9

1

1

11

2

""

">

1

13

1

">

1

Chuk Hing Lane,

1

1

1

Chuk On Lane,

1

}

1

**

3

1

1

Cochrane Street,

29

1

2

1

D'Aguilar Street,

24

2

3

1

38

1

""

>>

6

1

52

1

1

"7

Elgin Street,

""

18

1

9

1

48

""

19

1

50

2

""

Gage Street,

""

5

I

I

9

""

""

11

}

""

""

54

1

12

""

8

1

Graham Street,

23

1

43

""

""

1

1

Gutzlaff Street,

4

19a

1

*Hing Lung Street,

1

1

196

1

Hollywood Road,

""

""

13

1

11

"

4

1

12

""

""

25

1

13

"

""

2

18

""

>>

1

*

196

"

"

1

1

21

1

>>

2

1

25

I

""

10

1

26

19

??

6

1

16

"

1

65

2)

""

9

1

??

"}

13

1

*Jubilee Street,

13

16

14

37

}

13

4

1

Ku Yau Lane....

60

1

Li Yuen Street Eust,

1

* * * * *

י

West,.....

11

Carried forward,

Street.

1896.

( 12 )

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,—Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

1898.

House No.

No. of Cases.

No. 4 Health District,-Contd.

Brought forward,

No. 4 Health District,- -Contd.

63

Brought forward,

57

Queen's Road Central,

Shelley Street, ...

""

""

21

""

""

""

2

1

1

""

Pottinger Lane,

Street,

3

1

11

4

I

*

""

""

6

1

35

""

8

2

43

""

""

Stanley Street,

11

1

16

2

""

"2

Praya Central....

21

31

1

""

"}

"

33

1

""

"

(Marine Club),

27

""

#:

*

36

1

"}

"

""

"

39

I

Queen's Road Central,

>>

"}

47

1

""

""

"}

";

62

I

"}

27

A

">

>>

84

1

22

"}

""

"

86

1

1)

""

"}

"}

""

Staunton Street,

4

""

""

1

*Shelley Street,

4

""

""

*Tit Hong Lane, Tung Tak Lane, *Victoria Gaol, Wellington Street,

9

1

Stanley Street,......

8

1

TAO: MAGO: UN: *&EE

13

1

1

3

2

1

39

1

2

36

1

37

1

45

1

46

2

70

1

1

4

I

10

1

5

2

7

1

...

>>

"}

1

14

1

"}

""

1

21

1

""

5

24

1

"

""

*

70

1

*

36

1

22

""

""

"}

103

1

50

1

""

*

""

"1

15

1

54

1

17

M

""

38

1

1

"

"1

""

دو

44

4

Staunton Street,

1

""

>>

46

1

*Tit Hong Lane,

9

4

""

""

62

Tung Tak Lane,

6

1

"}

64

*Victoria Gaol,

3

"

"}

67

Wai San Lane,

2

1

""

68

1

5

1

"

""

"

""

74

1

""

Tak Laue,

1

"

76

}

2

1

17

>>

""

80

1

3

1

""

>>

">

"}

91

1

Wellington Street,

14

1

""

94

1

41

2

""

""

""

""

3

58a

1

""

""

""

"}

Wai Tak Lane, .

2

586

1

""

""

1

*

70

1

""

""

,,

""

Wai San Lane,

5

J

*

103

1

"}

Wo On Lane,..........

2

105

1

""

*

>>

""

"

""

""

"}

I

2

""

"

9

1

Wing Wah Lane,

9

1

12

1

*Wo On Lane,...

8

""

Wyndham Street,

*Yan Shau Lane,

31

Wyndham Street,

18

1

65

1

59

1

27

"

1

1

73

1

""

1

"}

""

*

*Yan Shau Lane,

1

1

3

1

"

1

""

""

130

124

No. 5 Health District,

Alice Memorial Hospital,...

Alveston Terrace,

Aberdeen Street,

#

$1

">

#2

}}

19

""

""

}}

>>

སུ་་་ ུ་;

Carried forward,'

No. 5 Health District.

Aberdeen Street,

2

1

1

16

1

""

"}

12

1

30

1

""

36

1

**

36

4

"}

"}

17

37

1

"

>>

26

39

1

"}

""

38

51

1

27

""

44

55

1

,,

77

57

*

4

""

45

59

1

"

47

I

4

"

27

2

Chun Hing Lane,

3

:

16

Carried forward,

24

Street.

( 13 )

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,—Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

House No.

No. of Cases.

1896.

No. 5 Health District,—Contd.

Caine Road, Gage Street,

""

""

""

""

""

"

......

George's Lane,

Gilman Street,

Brought forward,

1898.

No. 5 Health District,-Contd.

16

Brought forward,

24

1

Chung Wo Lane,

6

1

15

1

10

1

""

">

17

1

13

2

""

""

21

1

19

1

""

""

30

1

Elgin Street,

6

1

6

1

17

1

1

Gage Street,

32

1

"}

""

44

1

""

""

Gilman's Bazaar,

3

1

George's Lane,...

""

Gilman's Bazaar,

2

1

7

1

10

1

31

I

15

1

""

"}

""

*

Gough Street,

"}

""

""

Graham Street,

20

1

35

1

""

32

1

36

1

1

Gilman Street,....... Gough Street,

24

1

...

30

1

17

1

*

32

دو

""

""

">

""

33

1

33

1

""

39

1

36

1

""

"}

Hollywood Road (Totsai Chapel),

"

57

1

77

1

""

""

Hollywood Road,

"}

67

1

72

1

Hong Ning Lane,

5

I

48

1

""

I On Lane, *Kau U Fong,

""

""

+01:

4

1

I On Lane,

""

1

2

8

1

3

2

"J

""

15

1

6

1

22

""

2

8

}

"

22

""

*Mee Lun Lane,..

6

1

1

44

*

1

11

""

1

Kau U Fong,

"

1

1

"

"}

11

1

8

1

,,

""

""

""

Man Hing Lane,

""

"}

On Wo Lane,.

Praya Central,

1

1

10

1

"2

1

*Mee Lun Lane,

6

1

">

1

8

1

""

""

1

On Wo Lane,

4.

1

52

1

Peel Street,

Ι

1

3

3

1

"

""

""

Pak Tsz Lane,

4

1

9

3

""

14

1

""

""

*Peel Street,

3

21

1

12

11

25

2

"}

}}

""

""

23

1

51

1

""

""

""

1

"}

Praya Central,......

5

Queen's Road Central,

Sam Ka Lane,

*Shin Hing Lane,

Shing Wong Street,

Staunton Street,.......

159

1

Queen's Road Central,

3

1

...

*Shin Hing Lane,

4

J

2

9

1

??

Ι

Staunton Street,

39

1

2

41

"}

"}

"

""

""

Synagogue

وو

Tung Man Lane,

"}

""

27

")

""

""

>>

وو

T

ung Shing Lane,

Tung Wah Lane,

Un Woo Lane,

:22:1 ལྱཱ མ པོ

15

"}

1

45

1

"

27

23

1

48

1

29

""

35

1

1

""

""

43

1

Tung Man Lane,

13

1

1

39

I

""

5

1

Tung Shing Lane,

}

1

17

1

2

22

"

18

1

وو

""

22

1

Tung Wa Lane,

23

1

Wa On Lane,

2

1

24

1

5

""

.1

1

1

""

ellington Street,

...

113

1

2

1

123

1

""

Wellington Street,

117

1

124

"

186

128

1

""

""

??

""

Wing Kat Lane,

9

1

180

}

"7

Wing On Lane,.......

5

1

192

1

6

1

Wing On Lane,

4

1

"}

38

1

24

}

"}

""

43

Yan Wo Lane,...

1

1

27

77

44

""

>>

蛋蛋!

45

17

90

106

Street.

(14)

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,--Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

House No.

No. of Cases.

1896.

No. 6 Health District.

1898.

No. 6 Health District.

Bouham Strand,

Bridges Street, ...

""

"

**

""

147

1

Bridges Street,...

4

1

28

1

13

1

22

2

22

1

22

66

1

24

2

""

""

26

1

11

""

54

1

"

""

62

1

""

""

*

>>

""

:

66

1

7

}}

Circular Pathway,

10

1

Circular Pathway,

7

1

18

1

15

3

""

"

""

23

1

30

1

22

""

""

""

25

1

1

22

""

29

>>

27

1

Hillier Street,

41

1

"}

"}

3

Hollywood Road,

88

Ι

""

""

Hollywood Road,

110

1

91

1

"}

>>

117

2

111

1

"}

""

""

""

***

121

1

114

1

;)

""

""

""

131

1

115

2

"}

""

""

""

147

""

""

157

****

117

1

">

""

1

121

1

""

,,

""

""

124

1

>>

""

137

I

""

""

152

1

>>

"}

201

1

""

""

1

"

Jervois Street,

Jervois Street,.......

11

Kwai Wa Lane,......

1

Kwai Wa Lane,

1

Kwong Yuen Street, East,

1

Kwong Yuen Street, East,

4

1

Lower Lascar Row,

7

1

29

West,

6

1

11

7

1

""

""

"

ور

""

""

Man Wa Lane,

Mercer Street,

Praya Central,

17

1

10

1

1

""

Ladder Street,.......

""

""

10

1

15

1

4

...

""

""

114

1

""

Lower Lascar Row,

Ping On Lane,...

""

Praya Central,...

10

1

3

1

5

...

90

1

7

""

""

Queen's Road Central,

294

1

Queen's Road Central,

197

1

Shing Wong Street,

4

I

4

""

"}

Square Street, ...

5

1

13

1

Upper Lascar Row,

13

1

Wai Yau Lane, .......

3

1

Wing Lok Street,

1

Square Street,...

""

""

Tsui On Lane,..

U Hing Lane,

Un On Lane,

Upper Ladder Street,

Upper Lascar Row,

Wing Wo Street,

10

Wah Hing Lane,

Wing Lok Street,

""

36

No. 7 Health District.

...

6

1

1

1

72:

1

1

73

No. 7 Health District.

Cheung Hing Street,

1

I

2

I

""

""

3

1

*Cleverly Street,

1a

1

I

8a

1

14

45

1

Hollywood Road,

186

1

190

192

201

Carried forward,

13

""

"7

*

Cleverly Street,

la

1

East Street,

3

1

"}

""

4

1

East Street,...

""

""

6

1

""

"}

16

1

*

""

"}

دو

""

35

1

وو

""

"}

**

39

Ι

""

""

45

1

*

"}

"

""

#

48

1

""

""

""

"

Hollywood Road,

186

1

""

""

Carried forward,

10

Street.

( 15 )

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,—Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

House No.

No. of Cases.

1896.

1898.

No. 7 Health District,-Contd.

Brought forward,

No. 7 Health District,--Contd.

10

Brought forward.

13

Hollywood Road,

205

1

1

Ladder Street,...

10

1

""

Sk

وو

Lower Lascar Row,

""

""

*Lower Rutter Street,

""

Morrison Street,

""

Pó Léung Kuk,...

20

I

Lower Lascar Row,

17

1

50

21

1

""

""

""

4

22

""

3

Ι

*Lower Rutter Street,.

1

1

5

1

"}

""

1

11

1

...

""

""

3

1

12

"

""

1

1

27

""

1

New Street,

......

13

1

No. 8 Police Station,

Possession Street,

1

Pound Lane,

1

Pound Lane,

6

1

Queen's Road Central,

314

1

3

Taipingshan Street,

7

1

Taipingshan,

3

......

Tank Lane,

7

Ι

""

Queen's Road Central,

Taipingshan Street,

77

308

1

1

1

39

Kwong Fuk

Upper Lascar Row,

2

1

Chi Temple,

1

...

28

1

Taipingshian,

2

""

23

29

1

Tank Lane,

9

2

30

1

Tung Loi Lane,

21

1

"

""

Upper Rutter Street,

2

1

Upper Rutter Street,

4

1

1

1

""

"}

""

">

***

4

2

""

""

>>

""

*

1

Upper Station Street,.

1

1

""

>>

9

1

6

2

""

وو

""

""

10

2

10

1

""

"2

""

>>

>>

Upper Station Street,

>>

22

1

1

U Yam Lane,

"}

"

Wah Lane,

3

1

2

3

1

""

""

West Street,

"

20

24

1

50

1

""}

"}

""

""

"}

West Street,

4

1

10

1

13

1

27

1

45

64

No. 8 Health District.

Berlin Foundling Mission...

Eastern Street,

""

""

Heung Lane,...

...

Hollywood Road,

"

""

""

21

Hospital Road,

New Street,

""

""

"}

وو

""

""

"

No. 8 Health District.

1

Connaught Road,

:༅ :ཤྲུ::

38

1

Fat Hing Street,

40

Government Civil Hospital,

2

Heung Lane,

16

2

Hollywood Road,

228

224

1

232

""

246

1

"

""

1

Li Sing Street,

9

1

11

""

">

5

13

"

""

15

New Street,..............

11

16

12

""

27

1

13

1)

30

oP Yan Street,

*

"}

„Praya West,

""

30

Possession Street,

Po Yan Street,

5

,,

113

1

Praya West,

22

6

Queen's Street,

*

1

Queen's Road West,

27

1

**

79

2

>>

""

**

106

Queen's Rond West,

RRRRRR

110

""

">

""

""

"}

"

**

202

203

2

*

209

1

Carried forward,

44

"

Carried forwar

95 113

14

45

106

00

Street.

(16)

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, Sc.,—Continued.

1896.

No. 8 Health District,-Contd.

Brought forward,

Tsung Sau Lane, East,....

#

,,

""

29

""

""

West,......

27

""

""

"

""

""

Wo Fung Street,

House No.

No. of Cases.

19

0:692

15

Street.

1898.

No. 8 Health District,— Contd.

House No.

No. of Cases.

44

Brought forward,

60

1

Queen's Road West,

137

1

1

138

1

2

170

1

"}

};

171

1

"}

""

173

1

دو

177

1

194

1

"}

""

198

2

""

""

208

1

""

27

5

""

"7

Sai Woo Laue,.......

""

""

2

23

1

...

*

""

22

Shiu Cheung Lane,

Sutherland Street,

""

Tsung San Lane, East,

"}

Tsz Mi Alley

1

1

1

13

1

West,..

2

2

1

8

1

27

">

"}

""

16

1

18

Ι

وو

Tung Wal Hospital,

Wilmer Street,...

2

1

Wing Lok Street,

1

Wo Fung Street,

51

127

1

1

:

92

No. 9 Health District.

No. 9 Health District.

Centre Street,

2

1 Algar Court,

*

22

""

""

Eastern Street,

First Street,

5

22 CO —

2

Centre Street,

12

14

~ 27

2

2

1

22

""

3

22

1

""

""

36

29

"

24

""

""

""

""

40

2

Des Voeux Road,

2

""

54

1

First Street,.......

7

1

??

}}

75

1

10

2

29

""

,,

"}

88

1

11

1

""

"

""

"

92

15

1

""

""

99

"

""

"}

104

""

15

"}

107

1

31

""

""

112

1

""

""

>>

117

1

""

23

+ 31

121

2

""

""

27

#

115

1

""

""

127

1

""

""

Fuk Sau Lane,

1

""

6

1

"J

""

7

1

"

";

""

High Street,

7777

1

"}

17

I

"}

"J

22

1

"

225

"}

""

26

1

*

རྒྱུ ནི རྒྱུ མི མ མི ངེ རྒྱུ མཻ མི སྤྱི ི ནི ནི ནི མི

25

1

39

1

46

2

48

1

55

1

69

1

76

2

83

1

86

1

95

1

97

1

98

1

103

1

110

1

115

1

"}

"}

37

1

116

2

""

""

""

49

1

119

2

"

""

""

58

I

125

1

"

,,

>>

"

55

}

3

29

""

""

87

1

Fuk Luk Lane,

""

"

1

"

""

Ki Ling Lane,

1

10

"

Leung I Fong,

Lunatic Asylum, On Wai Lane,

10

1

I

"}

1

2

Praya West,

176

1

Fuk Sau Lane,

22

Fuk Shing Lane, High Street,......

184

1

""

""

""

Pokfulam Road,

14

: 25: acãow:

2

1

9

1

1

6

1

1

12

1

59

1

4

23

Carried forward,

46

Carried forward,

54

Street.

(17)

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,-Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

1896.

No. 9 Health District,- ·Contd.

di

1898.

No. 9 Health District,-Contd.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Brought forward,

46

Pokfulam Road,...

16

]

Ki Ling Lane,... Kung Shun Lane, On Wai Lane,....... Pokfulam Road,

Brought forward,

51

1

1

4

1

1

6

1

""

""

""

""

"2

24

1

..

2

Queen's Road West,

227

1

"}

Praya West,

...

Queen's Road West,

1

208

1

250

1

246

1

19

">

""

266

1

258

1

"}

""

"}

""

302

1

278

1

29

""

305

1

298

1

";

";

}}

""

317

Ι

301

1

"1

""

22

"}

328

Ι

322

2

""

22

330

1

342

2

""

17

"

""

I

345

1

""

""

""

*

No. 7 Police

*

No. 7 Police

""

}}

"}

""

Station,...

Sai Yuen Lane,..

358

1

Station,......

358

1

1

1

Queen's Road West,

363

1

*

""

""

""

,,

""

""

""

""

7

1

2

""

14

1

Sai Yuen Lane,

13

2

15

1

*

14

2

"

""

...

26

I

I

""

""

Second Street,

...

6

1

Second Street,..

18

1

1

53

1

""

"

}}

22

9

1

*

55

2

""

""

"

"}

52

1

**

61

1

""

""

"}

">

*4

55

2

63

1

""

""

61

2

""

""

""

"}

69

1

62

1

""

"}

12

22

71

1

68

1

"}

""

"

""

...

72

1

76

1

73

2

""

"}

""

"1

...

78

1

80

1

""

"}

""

""

...

96

1

91

1

""

""

""

117

1

""

>>

""

93

121

I

101

2 2

""

""

""

""

103

1

""

""

105

}}

111

1

22

112

1

""

21

115

2

};

"}

116

I

""

Sheung Fung Lane,

*

6

1

,,

""

""

*Sheung Fung Lane,

""

6

I

10

1

17

1

16

1

""

""

""

20

1

3

"

""

"}

""

Shing Hing Lane

3

I

Sheung Hing Lane,

16

1

""

""

Third Street,.

8

Shing Hing Alley, Third Street,

11

2

*

"

"

;)

19

*

17

""

""

::L-╗!

I

2

9

1

17

3

}

32

1

45

1

""

""

""

36

1

67

2

""

""

""

44

1

68

]

""

"

"

22

51

1

94

]

""

""

>>

""

27

......

65

1

100

""

22

""

71

102

1

""

15

""

>>

79

1

104

""

""

87

106

1

"}

"}

92

112

2

""

""

93

1

114

1

"}

""

??

""

96

1

126

1

"

""

""

103

5

""

""

""

"

105

1

Torsien Street,..

10

,,

}:

121

I

U Lok Lane,

16

1

""

>>

124

1

Ui On Lane,

1

1

""

128

1

Uun Fuk Lane,

6

2

"}

""

1

"}

Un Shing Lane,

4

1

>>

U Lok Lane,

4

1

16

1

,,

""

Carried forward,

108

Carried forward,

146

Street.

( 18 )

Addresses of all Cases of Bubonic Fever, &c.,-Continued.

House No.

No. of Cases.

Street.

1896.

No. 9 Health District,~Contd.

Brought forward,

U Lok Lane,

......

12

Ui On Lane,

""

""

""

""

Western Street,......

1893.

No. 9 Health District,--Contd.

108

Brought forward,

7

I

Un Shing Lane,

со

8

1

Western Street,

1

""

"2

1

27

"}

1

""

""

1

19

1

115

House No.

No. of Cases.

146

17

1

9

1

21

1

22

2

153

No. 10 Health District,

*Bonham Road, "Fairlea,"

";

Basil Mission,

Hill Road,

...

No. 10 Health District.

9

2

Belcher's Path,

2

1

*Bonham Road, "Fairlea,"

1

3

"Westward Ho,"

1

1

1

I' Yik Laue,

7

1

Connaught Road,

1

9

1

Hill Road,

7

17

I

Holland Street,

19

1

Kennedy Town Hospital,...

2

1

Kennedy Town Matshed,...

1

29

"">

I' Yik Lane,

10

1

"Praya West,......

188

1

14

1

198

Ι

19

1

"}

"

17

39

1

Isolation Matshed,

2

>>

27

Pokfulam Road,.......

13

1

#Queen's Road Wost,

337

1

Kennedy Town, Feather Factory,..... Pokfulam Road,

1

3

1

365

*

13

1

>>

"

366

1

19

""

17

""

""

387

1

22

""

Praya West,............

6

394

1

""

Praya Kennedy Town,

19

1

498

1

3

""

""

508

I

""

22

Queen's Road West,

256

1

574

1

297

1

19

""

""

1

364

1

""

""

>

""

Sai Wo Lane,

1

*

366

2

""

>>

Sam To Lane,

1

...

Sheep and Swine Depôts,.

1

Second Street,

129

2

3 9

368

1

""

370

1

>>

""

374

2

""

"

1

376

I

**

"}

"}

Tung Wo Lane West,

1

393

I

""

2

1

406

""

"3

;"

1

408

""

>>

99

""

A

""

9

1

410

1

12

"}

""

>>

21

1

471

I

""

""

"}

""

""

Third Street,

132

1

473

1

29

"

138

1

594

1

""

29

19

""

""

169

1

Third Lane,

3

1

Sam To Lane,.......

""

9

1

17

1

Second Street,

163

1

Sixth Lane,....

6

1

...

Third Street,

150

1

184

1

""

Tung Wo Lane, West,.

13

1

Whitty Street,

Whitty Street,...

Wo On Hong,...

3

-:

1

42

62

( 19 )

Appendix B.

Report on House to House Search during epidemic of Plague by Honourable F. H. May, C.M.G.

No. 75.

M

POLICE OFFICE, HONGKONG, 14th July, 1898.

SIR, I have the honour to forward, for the information of the Board, the following report on the work carried out during the recent epidemic of Plague in connection with the house to house search for plague patients.

The work, which began on the 19th April and ceased on the 11th June, was organised in the following manner :--

No. 2 Health District was divided into 2 sections and a search party consisting of 2 European Police Sergeants, 3 Soldiers and 3 Chinese Constables visited each section on alternate days.

No. 4 Health District was divided into 3 sections and a search party consisting of 1 European Police Constable, 2 Soldiers and 3 Chinese Constables visited one section a day.

No. 5 Health District was divided into 4 sections and a search party consisting of 1 European Police Sergeant. 1 European Police Constable, 4 Soldiers and 3 Chinese Constables visited one and a half sections a day.

No. 6 Health District was divided into 3 sections and a search party consisting of 1 European Police Constable, 2 Soldiers and 3 Chinese Constables visited two sections a day.

Nos. 7 and 8 Health Districts were divided into 3 sections and a search party consisting of 1 European Police Constable, 2 Soldiers and 3 Chinese Constables visited two of the sections each on alternate days.

No. 9 Health District was divided into 3 sections and a search party consisting of 1 European Police Constable, 1 Soldier and 2 Chinese Constables visited two of the sections each on alternate days. The remaining section in No. 8 Health District and the remaining section in No 9 Health District were visited by a search party consisting of 1 European Police Constable, 2 Soldiers and 3 Chinese Constables each on alternate days.

The total number of searchers employed was 45.

There were 62 cases of plague discovered by the search parties; of these 52 were alive and 10 dead. There were also 8 cases of suspected plague removed to Hospital which were pronounced not to be plague. All cases of plague or suspected plague, with the exception of those found in No. 9 Health District up to the 14th of May, were removed, in the first instance, to the Tung Wa Hospital where they were diagnosed by Dr. CHUNG and forwarded, if pronounced plague, to the Plague Hospital. After the 14th May the cases in No. 9 Health District were also forwarded, in the first instance, to the Tung Wa Hospital.

There was only one complaint made by the public against the Police engaged on house to house visitation. On investigation it was found to be without foundation. There were two complaints against the soldiers which were apparently well founded, and the men were removed from this duty, otherwise the soldiers did their work in a very orderly manner.

The search parties worked from 9 a.m. to noon and from 2 to 5 pm. Each party was allowed half a day off duty once a week, and 24 hours' leave once a month.

The sections into which the Health Districts were divided, with a memo, of the number of houses in each, are filed at the Police Office for reference in the future if desired.

I have the honour to be,

The Acting Secretary,

SANITARY Board.

Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

F. H. MAY, Captain Superintendent of Police.

( 20 )

Appendix C.

Report on Plague work at Kowloon by Mr. Frank Browne, (Acting Government Analyst).

GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL,

HONGKONG, 22nd June, 1898.

SIR,I have the honour to report for the information of the Board that the cleansing work in British Kowloon, for which I was appointed in April last by His Excellency the Acting Governor on the recommendation of the Board, is now concluded.

2. A great deal of cleansing was done particularly in Yaumati. The following table shows the extent of the cleansing carried out at the expense of the Government :-

No. 11 District (Hunghom and Villages:)

Floors washed only,

29

Cleansed and lime-washed (floors),...202

Obstructions removed,

88

No. 12 District (Yaumati, &c.:)

36

528

68

875

* Coolies employed-one day each,.496

Where washing only was required in houses, the inmates usually carried out the work of their own accord, which fact will explain the small amount of washing only, that was done by the Govern- ment. Although an opportunity was afforded to the tenants to do the lime-washing required, very few availed themselves of it ou account of the expense.

3. The obstructions removed consisted of bunks, cocklofts, cubicles, doors, josses, and latrines, which had been erected in such a way as to deprive the rooms of light and air. A great improvement has been effected in most houses by these removals as the removal of a single obstruction has in many cases converted a dark ill-ventilated room into a healthy and cheerful habitation. However, experience has shown that these obstructions are put up again as soon as vigilance is relaxed, so it is earnestly hoped that special attention will be directed so that such structures may be at once demolished if

re-erected.

No. 11 District-(Hunghom and Villages).

4. Cleansing in this district was commenced on April 20th, and completed on May 23rd. The houses here are for the most part very good and substantial, but in the event of another epidemic attention should be particularly directed to Shung On Lane and Dock Lane, in which the houses are inferior. Several cases of plague having been traced from Shung On Lane, on May 7th the whole of Hunghom was disinfected with a mixture of salt, manganese di-oxide, and sulphuric acid. It was considered advisable to disinfect the whole of the place as a number of dead bodies had been found on the hill-side, and it was impossible to find out which houses were infected and which were not, so the safest plan was adopted of disinfecting them all.

No case of plague could be found to have occurred in the houses of Hunghom after the disinfec- tion although several bodies (see table of cases of plague attached) were afterwards found on the bill- side, but the number of these bodies being only 11 from May 7th to June 13th, a further disinfection on a wholesale scale was not considered necessary.

No. 12 District—(Yaumati, Tai Kok Tsui, Mong Kok Tsui, &e.)

5. Cleansing operations were commenced on April 20th, and the work was completed on June 2nd. A number of cases of plague having occurred at Tai Kok Tsui a visit was paid to this village on April 24th, when it was seen that a large proportion of the inhabitants were living in insanitary dwelling-huts, boats, and hovels. On April 26th the whole of the district was disinfected with salt, manganese di-oxide, and sulphuric acid. The people in the huts, boats, and hovels were for the most part trespassers on Crown land; they were not agriculturists but apparently merely loafers of no use to the Colony. In an industrial centre like Tai Kok Tsui, such dirty and insanitary hovels are particularly objectionable; fortunately, now, many of them have been destroyed. Since the disinfection on April 26th no further cases of plague have occurred in the houses at Tai Kok Tsui, but several cases have been found in the hovels and on the foreshore. The majority of the houses in Tai Kok Tsui are well constructed and with the hovels removed there should be little fear of plague another year.

6. It was early seen in Yaumati from the number of deserted floors that a number of bodies had been carried out from the houses and placed in the street or in other open places.

The whole place was therefore disinfected as in Tai Kok Tsui, on May 7th, and the number of dead bodies found in the street, subsequent to this disinfection, being considerable, chlorile of lime was placed on every floor at Yaumati on May 17th.

* Exclusive of lime-washers who were paid by piece-work.

In

( 21 )

7. It was not at all surprising to find so many dirty houses in Yaumati, considering that with the present arrangement of the kitchen it is absolutely impossible to prevent smoke from penetrating the living rooms. There are but few houses in Yaumati that have proper arrangements for carrying away smoke.

many houses the smoke is continually present in such quantities as to be extremely irritating to the eyes and nostrils of an European. Can people living in such houses be expected to keep either their houses or themselves clean? But, worst of all, in order to keep the smoke out of the living rooms, the inmates block up the window between the kitchen and the living room so that a through current of air is shut off from that direction. This smoke nuisance can easily be abated as suitable clay fire-places can be easily and cheaply put in.

8. Many dark houses would be greatly improved by letting a small square of glass into the roof. Dark houses were nearly always dirty.

9. Houses 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Fourth Lane are in a dirty and insanitary condition; they are little better than hovels. They have been disinfected three times; some boats on the foreshore above high water mark at Yaumati should be removed.

10. The houses in Fuk Sing Lane will require a lot of attention as a number of cases of plague have occurred there. The drains in several of these houses have had to be unblocked several times; probably they need repair.

11. On May 31st all the sampans in the district were examined. The boats were very clean for Chinese sampans. No sick people were found except two children just recovering from small-pox.

Disinfection and Disinfectants.

12. A large number of houses have been disinfected with chlorine. The process employed for disinfecting simultaneously a large number of houses without removal of the inmates was to place in each room on each floor two ounces of a mixture of one part of salt, and one part of manganese di- oxide. On this mixture was poured six ounces of dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 4). This gave off slowly but continuously for about 12 hours a stream of chlorine, which did not greatly interfere with the inmates, who were told to open all their doors and windows if the action of the chlorine became too suffocating. Throughout Kowloon the Chinese gladly receive this disinfectant, and, speaking generally, we found that they were ready to obey any directions in order to be protected from plague, provided that such directions did not mean that they were put to any expense.

13. For disinfection of closed houses in which plague had occurred the following process was employed:-

Close the doors, windows, and all apertures as completely as possible; [a carpenter is required for this]. Then place half a pound of chlorinated lime in a pot and well mix with a quart of water, place in the centre of the floor and pour on a quart of diluted sulphuric acid (1 in 5). Where the floors are large two pots to each should be used. Cominence to disinfect on the top floor.

The following quantities of substances for disinfection have been used:—

3 cwt. manganese di-oxide.

3 cwt. salt.

800 pounds of sulphuric acid.

3,000 pounds of chlorinated acid.

House to house Visitation.

14. This was carried out by Sergeant CAMERON and P. C. CORMACK after the cleansing of the whole district of Kowloon was completed on June 2nd. All the Chinese houses in British Kowloon were visited. The visitation was considered by me to be unnecessary after June 18th.

Conclusion.

15. C. P. O). LOVELL was in charge of a cleansing party from April 20th to May 13th when his place was taken by P. C. CORMACK who returned to his ordinary duties on June 19th. Sergeant CAMERON was in charge of a cleansing party from April 20th to June 18th, after which he returned to his ordinary duties.

C. P. O. LOVELL, P. C. CORMACK and Sergeant CAMERON carried out extremely satisfactorily the work entrusted to them.

16. Herewith is attached a return showing that in No. 11 district 26 cases of plague were removed from March 16th to June 13th, and that in No. 12 district during the same period 149 cases of plague were removed.

I have the honour to be,

The Secretary,

THE SANITARY BOARD.

Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

FRANK BROWNE, Acting Government Analyst.

( 22 )

Return showing Number of Cases of Plague sent from Kowloon between 16th March and 13th June, 1898, in No. 11, Health District, (Hunghom).

Date.

March

16th Matsheds, Hunghom,

17th Foreshore

""

""

20th

12

??

27

26th

""

""

**

Where from

""

April

339

30th Hunghom, West,

31st 8, Market Street, Ground Floor,

9th Foreshore, Hunghom,

21st

23rd No. 102, Market Street,

""

13, Hunghom, West,

23rd Foreshore, Tokwawan,

""

23rd

+9

""

25th

May

1st

""

99

""

""

""

".

""

5th

6th

Hok Ün, Village,

No. 6, Shung Ön Lane,

68, Market Street,

68,

12th Hok Ün,

15th Foreshore, Hunghom,

16th Hill-side, Tai Wan,

16th Foreshore, Hunghom, 16th | Hok Ün,

18th Foreshore, Hunghom, 24th

19

"

27th Huughom, West, 29th Hill-side, Hunghom,

1st Foreshore, Hunghom,

June

11

3rd

11

"

Totals,......

Males.

Females.

:

..

Remarks.

Dead.

1

1

I

Ι

,,

1

""

Sick. Dead.

1

I

""

Ι

"

1

""

1

1

1

Sick. Dead.

1

"

1

"

1

1

19

1

,,

1

1

1

""

1

"

""

17

9

Return showing Number of Cases of Plague sent from Kowloon between 30th March and 3rd June, 1898, in No. 12,

Date.

Where from

Health District.

Males.

Females.

Remarks.

March 30th

Hongkong Regiment, Kowloon,

31st

Rifle Range,

31st

No. 48, Battery Street,

""

1

Sick.

1

Dead.

1

Sick.

"

9th

""

""

9th Taikoktsni,

9th

"

"}

9th

""

""

16th

19

April

7th No. 46, Temple Street,

8th Yaumati,

17

1

Dead.

1

1

Sick.

...

1

Dead.

1

1

39.

39

*

23rd

""

19

""

24th Hill-side, Hung Chung,

""

10th Foreshore, Yaumati,

"1

19th Fuk Tsun Heung,

20th Foreshore, Yaumati,

Taikoktsui,

23rd No. C. M. Dock Launch,

24th No. 16, Fuk Sing Lane,

1

1

1

1

1

F

"}

""

51

**

""

I

26th Station Street,

رو

29th Taikoktsui,

1

""

""

May

1st No. 158, Station Street,

I

2nd Indian Barracks, Kowloon,

1

*

"1

2nd Taikoktsui,

1

Sick.

Dead.

A

وو

#9

3rd Foreshore, Yaumati,

1

39

4th Hung Chung,

4th Foreshore, Taikoktsui,

5th No. 63, Reclamation Street,

I

ì

Sick.

""

27

5th No. 15, Station Street,

*

5th No. 15,

""

5th Mati,

*

19

7th Station Hospital Kowloon,

7th Yaumati,

"1

8th

8th Taikoktsui beach,

I

11

Carried forward,..

19

14

1

99

1

Dead.

1

1

1

...

Sick.

Dead.

1

Date.

( 23 )

Return showing Number of Cases of Plague sent from Kowloon, etc.,-Continued.

Where from

Males.

Females.

Remarks.

Brought forward,

19

14

May

8th Foreshore, Yaumati,

1

...

Dead.

8th Kowloon City,

1

Sick.

"

9th No. 17, Battery Street,

I

Dead.

9th

1

99

9th Taikoktsui,

Ι

"

93

10th

Foreshore, Stonecutters' Island,

1

10th

No. 94, Taikoktsui,

1

29

10th

On a boat at Yaumati,

1

12

""

""

11th

No. 17, Fuk Shing Lane,

1

Sick.

11th

1

Dead.

""

11th

1

""

""

11th No. 27, Station Street,

1

Sick.

""

11th

11th

""

12th

་་

12th

""

"

12th

"

13th Yaumati,....

Foreshore

39

14th

""

14th

12

""

14th

37

"

*

""

""

15th Hill-side,..

""

16th No. 54,

11th

On a boat at Yaumati,

No. 36, Taikoktsui,

On a boat at Yaumati,

No. 6, McDonnell Road,

12th No. 1, Reclamation Street,

14th No. 8, McDonnell Road,

,, 26, Elgin Road,

14th On a boat at Yaumati,

14th Foreshore, Stonecutters' Island,

13

14th No. 52, Battery Street,

15th No. 23,

15th | On a boat at Taikoktsui,

16th No. 54, Station Street,

16th No. 70, Reclamation Street, 16th No. 54, Station Street,

""

16th Matsheds at Kung Chung,

17th No. 52, Reclamation Street,

Dead.

1

I

""

">

1

""

1

""

25

1

Sick.

1

Dead.

1

Sick.

1

1

Dead.

1

1

1

1

"J

1

1

...

1

I

Sick. Dead.

""

1

"

""

16th No. 91,

""

16th No. 27, Mati,

""

"

17th Reclamation Street,

""

17th

On a boat at Yaumati,

""

""

17th

Praya, Fuk Tsun Heung,

17th

Matshed at Taikoktsui,

""

18th

No. 33, Battery Street,

""

18th

No. 81, Taikoktsui,

1

1

>>

""

19th No. 56, Reclamation Street,

""

19th Hill-side, Mongkoktsui,

**

""

19th No. 56, Station Street,

1

وو

""

19th Foreshore, Taikoktsui,

1

"

""

19th No. 56, Station Street,

1

""

19th

Fuk Tsun Heung,

1

Sick.

20th

19

21st

No. 25, Battery Street, On a boat at Taikoktsui,

1

1

19

""

21st Foreshore, Mongkoktsui,

1

22nd

Yaumati,

1

""

""

22nd Rifle Range,

}

""

23rd | Yaumati,

23rd Yaumati.............

29

"

23rd No. 44, Station Street,

12

23rd No. 11, Elgin Street,..

24th Reclamation Street,

وو

24th Foreshore, Mongkoktsui,

1

1

Dead.

1

"

1

::

"

1

"

1

""

1

"

1

""

??

"

A

24th | No. 155, Station Street,

""

24th

Station Street,

59 25th Yaumati,.............

::

+

I

Sick.

39

:)

25th No. 24, Fuk Sing Lane,

""

25th Foreshore, Stonecutters' Island,

25th Sixth Lane, Yaumati,

26th No. 9, Elgin Road,

26th

""

""

10, Temple Street,

""

26th Foreshore, Stonecutters' Islaud,

""

27th Yaumati,................

1

1

1

1

Dead.

1.

39

Sick.

Dead.

Sick.

27th No. 2, Canton Villas,

Carried forward,...

56

49

Date.

( 24 )

Return Showing Number of Cases of Plague sent from Kowloon, etc.,-Continued.

Where from

Males.

Females.

Remarks.

>>

"

""

12

""

29th | No. 60,

Brought forward,

May

27th

No. 4, Fuk Tsun Hung,

27th

78, Taikoktsui,

29

27th Foreshore,

"}

27th Hillside, Mongkoktsui,

27th

"

""

28th No. 13, Reclamation Street,

"

28th

27

Foreshore, Yaumati,

39

39

""

On a boat at Yaumati,

27th Foreshore, Cosmopolitan Dock,

28th

28th

,, 51, Mongkoktsui,

On a boat at Yaumati,

29th No. 6, Kennedy Street,

29th Yaumati,..........

29th | No. 46, Mongkoktsui, 29th

""

""

29th No. 13, Kennedy Street, 29th No. 64, Station Street,

"2

30th Hill-side, Yaumati,

30th Rifle Range,

56

49

}

Sick.

J

1

Dead.

1

""

1

"

1

1

1

Sick.

Dead.

1

"

1

"

""

1

""

1

:

,,

1

27

1

""

1

1

"

30th On a boat at Yaumati,

1

"}

30th

1

19

""

31st

No. 129, Station Street,

1

"

71

31st

On a boat at Yaumati,

1

""

"1

A

,,

31st Foreshore, Mongkoktsni,

1

31st Reclamation,

1

"1

31st

Yaumati,

1

Sick.

39

June

1st Matshed at Kung Chung,

1

"

"

1st

No. 22, Mongkoktsui,

I

2nd

Foreshore. Yaumati,

1

"}

3rd

""

Hill-side, Fuk Tsun Heung,

1

""

""

3rd

No. 4, Ship Lane, Taikoktsui,

1

""

1)

4th

No. 31, Temple Street,

1

4th On a boat at Taikoktsui,

1

4th

1

""

""

4th McDonnell Road,

1

""

"1

5th

No. 12, Station Street,

1

27

7th

"

No. Market Lane, Yaumati,

1

Sick.

7th

No. 33, Mongkoktsui,

1

Dead.

7th

Kowloon Road,

I

""

8th Hill-side, Yaumati,

1

""

10th Mongkoktsui,

1

Sick.

10th Taikoktsui,

1

""

""

"

11th No. 48, Temple Street,

1

Dead.

12th

On a boat at Yaumati,

"

39

12th

Foreshore, Yanmati,

1

Totals,

85

64