311395 )






li ty Bork

1.2o.4 5

53899 III

First Preface .

The Principal Events and notes on Trade anul In

dustry for the period prior to the close of Sir Jons POPE

HENNESSY's administration in March , 1882, have been

taken largely from Dr. E. J. EITEL's History of Hong

kong. The information under these headings subse

quent to that date has been mainly extracted from official

publications. The notes on Public Il'orks have been

furnished by the Director of that department. In the

brief summary of Legislation the Ordinances in force at

the end of 1901 have been given the numbers they bear

in Sir John CARRINGTON's edition.

Under the heading Trade the figures dealing with

ships cleared and entered exclude steam -launches and

junks whether engaged in foreign or local trade. The

excess in numbers of emigrants returned over emigrants

left is accounted for by many that leave from various

Treaty Ports of China returning vill Hongkong.

Under Finance the percentage of expenditure de

voted to Non-effective Charges is based on the inclusion

under that head of Pensions and Interest. General Ad

ministration covers the Governor's Ollice, the Colonial

Secretary's, Registrar General's and Audit Departments,

the Treasury, the Post Office, the Harbour Department,

the Observatory, Charitable Allowances, Transport and

Miscellaneous Services. Law and Order include the

Supreme Court, Magistracy, Law Officers, Land Registry,

Police, Fire Brigade and Gaol. The Botanical and

Afforestation as well as the Medical and Sanitary Depart

ments are included under Public Health . Public In

struction comprises the Education Department, Queen's

College and Ecclesiastical Allowances ; Public IVorks

covers the Public Works establishment as well as

annually recurrent and extraordinary works. Defence

includes the Military Contribution and Volunteers.



The statistics given under Climate were obtained

from various sources prior to 1884 when the Observatory

at Kowloon was established .

The Population statistics prior to 1869 are exclusive

and for that and subsequent years inclusive of the Army

and Navy in the Colony. Except for the years 1904

for the

and 1905, when the population of New Kowloon, i.e., of

the New Territories South of the Kowloon Hills, is

included , these statistics do not take those Territories

into consideration . The population of the New Terri

tories according to the Census taken in 1901 was 102,254

of which 17,243 were in New Kowloon .

Under Public Instruction the figures given from

the year 1875 onward show the number of Grant-in - Aid

Schools in place of the number of Mission Schools and

the average daily attendance in place of the total num

ber of scholars as the progress of education is considered

to be thereby more correctly indicated. In the earlier

years the total number of schools under European super

vision and of scholars enrolled in them are alone avail


The statistics under the heading Public Order

require no comment. Those under Defence referring

to regular troops are taken from returns by the Principal

Medical Officer.



December, 1906.

Second Preface.

In 1910 it was decided that the Historical and

Statistical Abstract, being a most useful record for

reference, should be printeil as a separate publication

once in every 10 years,, the nexpired decade only

appearing in the Civil Service List, the first issue of

this separate record to be compiled and published in

1911 up to and including 1910 .

Under Finance a new suu -head has been added for

1910, Undertakings of Government. This column in

cludes the Post Office and Kowloon -Canton Railway.

Previously the Post Office had been included in ( eneral,

Administration .

To the Departments under Public Oriler has been

alled District Otlice. A District Officer was appointed

for the New Territories on 23rd September, 1907.

Queen's College is no longer a separate Department.

On 20th May, 1909, the Secretary of State approved of

its being brought under the Education Department.

The Army and Navy and the New Territories have

been included in the figures shown under Population

since the year 1907. The figures given are approximate

only - except for the years in which a census has been

taken .



1st April, 1911 .

1 .

( 1.) - HISTORY .




Pr. Ev. - Principal Events. P.W. - Public Works.

Tr. & Ind . — Trade & Industries. II.K .-- Hongkong.

1841 .

Captain Charles Elliot, R.N., administered

20.1.1841 to 10.8.1811.


Pr. Ev.-H.K. is taken over (26/1 ) and Govt.

administered by Capt. ELLIOT as Chief Superintendent

of the Trade of Br. subjects in China in accordance with

proclamation issued by him (29/1 ), which also declared

that Chinese should be governed according to laws of

China and others according to laws of Gr. Britain . 2nd

proclamation ( 1/2 ) promised free exercise of religious

rites, social customs and private rights. Br. and foreign

merchants came from Macao to prospect ( Feb.). Build

ing commenced (March ). Messrs. Jardine, Matheson &

Co. erected first substantial house and godowns at East

Point. Military and naval establishments first located

near West Point and mercantile centre at Wong Nei

Cheong Valley but this proved too unhealthy. Chinese

settled to W. of this valley in " the Canton Bazaar " and

near site of later Central Market in “ the Bazaar ” .

About 2,000 Tan -ka or boat people came to Colony. In

Ist issue of H.K. Govt. Gazette ( 1/5 ) Ch. Magistrate

appointed and in 2nd issue ( 155 ) original census pub

lished. Proclamation of 7/6 declared H.K. a free port.

- 2

At 1st sale of lands, subsequently disallowed, 33 marine

lots aggregating about 9 acres sold for total annual rent

of £ 3,032. Outbreak of malignant malarial fever in

Jume, violent typhoons on 21-22 & 25-26 /7 and destruc

tive fire on 12/8 retarded progress of new Colony. Har

bour Master, Clerk of Works, Colonial Surgeon and

Land Officer appointed .

1842 .

Sir Henry Pottinger, Bart., G.C.B., in charge of Govern

ment from 11.8.ISHI to 25.6.1943 ; Governor

26.6.1813 to 7.5.15-14 .

(17. A. R. Johnston administered during the latter half

of 1841 and 1842).

Pr. Ev.-- Establishment of Superintendent of

Trade moved from Macao to HI.K. ( 27/2). Treaty of

Nanking (29/8) confirmed cession of H.K. On (con

clusion of war fleet and troops, except garrison of 700,

left and arrangements made to bring local affairs under

Col. Oflice, Superintendency of Trade, held by Gov.,

still remaining under Foreign Office. Post Office organ


Committee appointed (29 / ) to investigate claims

to land and lay out town ; main street called Queen's

Road. Baptist Chapel opened there (7/7 ). " Friend of

China ” newspaper established (17/3 ). " Tr. & Ind.

Mexican and other Republican dollars declared to be

standard in all matters of trade ( 27/4 . ) P.W.-- Barracks

erected on Cantonment Hill, at Stanley and at Aberdeen .

Central Market, subsequently removed to site on other

side of Queen's Road , opened (10/6 ). Road constructed

from Wong Nei Cheong to Shau Ki Wan .


Pr. Ev . - Following on Royal Warrant appointing

the Chief Superintendent of Trade, Sir HENRY POTTINGER,

to be Gov. & C. in C. of the Colony of H.K. and its

3 -

Dependencies , Col.

Col. Govt. was organized with a

Lieut. Gov., Col. Sec ., Treasurer, Chinese Sec. , Legal

Adviser, Col. Surgeon , Col. Chaplain , Ch . Magist .,

Harbour Mr., Col. Surveyor and Land Officer, and Post

master. Also 18 officials and 26 unofficials appointed

J.s of P. City named “ Victoria ” (29/6 ). Col. Chaplain

first officiated in matshed church (21/12 ) ; he started St.

Paul's College for training Chinese to be C. of E.

ministers. R. C. church in Wellington Street con

secrated ( 18/6 ). Mosque built. Morrison Education

Society, transferred from Macao, opened school on Vor

rison Hill ( 11/1 ) . Hosps. established by Med . Missionary

Society and by naval and milit. authorities. Health

very bad ; between May and Oct. 24 % of troops and

10 % of European civilians died of fever. Committee of

Public Health and Cleanliness appointed. Attempts

made to check land jobbing. Tr. & Ind. - At end of

year 12 large English firms, 10 English merchants on

smaller scale and about 6 Indian firms. As a result of

peace junk trade declined and opening of 5 treaty ports

including Shanghai (11/1) adversely affected trade of

H.K. First I.K. built vessel “ The Celestial ” of so

tons launched from patent slip at E. Point (7/2 ). Leg.

Royal Instructions of 6/4 constituted Ex. and Leg.

Councils, each of 3 members exclusive of Gov.

1844 .

Governor Sir John Francis Davis, Bart., ( 8.5.1844 to V

18.3.1848 ).

(Major-General G. C. D’Aguilar administered on various


Pr. Ev.---Attempt to regulate population by Re

gistration Ord. opposed at first public meeting in H.K.

(28/10) and by general strike (30/10). Supreme Court

opened ( 1/10). Police force organized (1/5 ). At land

sale on 22/1 101 lots aggregating 25ac. sold for £ 2,562

annual rental. Anglo-Ch. College for training Ch.

- 4

ministers opened by London Miss . Soc Seamen's Ilosp .

built by public subscription (38/9 ). Tai Ping Shan

Market started.Amateur Dramatic Club formed (18/12).

Tr. & Ind.- Trade except in opium declined, partly

owing to restrictions imposed by Ch. authorities under

Sir H. Pottinger's Supplementary Treaty of 8/10/43.

Piracy round H.K. also affected junk trade. First opium

ord. passed (26/11) and farm let for $ 720 p.m. Salt

tax instituted . Leg . – First sitting of Leg. Council

(11/1). Land Registration Ord. ( No. 1) established office

for registration of conveyance of realty and made provi

sion for security of titles.


Pr. Ev. - Police l'ates introduced and house Pro

perty rated after some opposition. Consul for 1. S. A.

appointed (12/11). P. & 0 . S. N. Co. started monthly

mail steaivers ( 1/8 ) . School for English children and

Union Church opened . " China Mail " newspaper

started ( 20/2 ). Tr. & Ind .-- Attempt made to put

currency on gold basis soon failed. Branch of Oriental

Bank Corporation established (April). Opium farm let

for $ 1,710 p.m. P.W.- Wong Nei Cheong Valley

drained, road made round it , and colonial cemetery with

chapel openedl. Road constructed from Shau Ki Wan

to Tytam (5.3 m .). 3 landing Piers on City front and : 3

Police Stations in City bult. Temporary Govt. Ho.

completed ( 11/1). Leg. Summary offences Ord .

(No. 1 ) passed.


Pr. Ev.--Much friction between judicial and

executive branches of Govt. Vice-Admiralty Court

established ( 1/3). Consuls for Denmark and Portugal

appointed (11 & 12/3 ). H.K. Club opened (2015

265 ). Tr.

& Ind .-- Junk trade revived . Attempt of merchants

to obtain protection for tea shipped at H.K. failed .

Opium farm let $ 1,560 p.m.




Pr. Ev. - Sir J. Daits made ineffectual milit. ex

pedition to Canton ( 2/4 to 8/1) to secure fulfilment of

terms of Nanking Treaty of 1812. Also failed in attempt

to establish commercial relations with Annam (Oct.).

Difficulties between judicial and executive branches of

Govt. culminated in trial of Ch. Justice by Ex. Council

( 22/11 ) . Parliamentary ('omm . appointed (March ) to

enquire into commercial relations in China reported

adversely on monopolies, petty regulations and expensive

establishment in H.K. Milit. authorities decided to erect

defensible barracks at Stanley (873). Foundation stone

of St. John's ('athedral laid ( 11/3). China Branch of

chased Asiatic

Royal from Dent & Ind .Courthv.

Co. Tr. (15/1).

Soc.&organized pur

Licences sub

stituted for opium farm .. P.W .--Magistracy, Victoria

Gaol ( reconstructed in 1865) and Police Stations at

Queen's Road East (now abolished ) and at Aberdeen

(since superseded ) constructed . 2,110 yards of City

drains laiil.

1848 .

Governor Sir Samuel George Bonham , ( . ('. B ., (20.3.1848

to 12.4.15 ).

( Major -General Staveley, ( '.B ., administered on various

occasions up to 25.2.1851).

Pr. Ev . - Large excess of expenditure over revenue

required reduction in establishments and stoppage of

P.W. Colonial llosp), organized (1/10 ). 13 vessels lost

in typhoon (31/8-1/9 ). Amateur Dramatic Club revived

(2/12). Tr. & Ind . - Opening up of goldfields in

Sacramento Valley initiated commerce and coolie emi

gration to San Francisco which grew rapidly in following

years . H.K. & ( anton Steam Packet Co. established

( 1910 ). P.W .--Govt. Offices near Cathedral and

Court house in Queen's Road completed and road from

Aberdeen to Stanley (6 m . ) constructed .



Pr. Ev . - HIEŃ Fung became Emperor of China

( 25/2 ). Sir G. Bonham's interview with Viceroy SEN

(17/2) failed to gain permission for merchants to enter

Canton City. 83 pirate junks destroyed (Oct.). 15

Justices of Peace selected by Gov. to advise him . Com

mission of enquiry into land tenure appointed (Oct. ).

St. John's Cathedral opened ( 11/33) and placed under

Bishop of Victoria created by Letters Patent of 11 5.

Various missionary schools including the one for English

children had to be closed for want of support. Victoria

Regatta Club formed ( 25/10 ). Tr. & Ind.-P. & 0 .

S. N. Co. commenced running regular steamer between

H.K. and Shanghai. Leg.-- Various Ords. connected

with administration of justice passed this year were

superseded later.

1850 .

Pr. Ev . - Revolt originating in Kwang Si after

wards developed into Tai Ping rebellion . 13 pirate

junks destroyed in Mirs Bay (4/3 ). 136 men of 59th

Regt. died out of strength of 568, mostly from fever .

Plague broke out in Canton in May but did not spread

to H.K. London Mission Hosp. closed for want of funds .

First Bishop - G . Smitu ---arrived ( 29 :3 ) ; became chair

man of Educational Committee which administered Govt .

grants to schools and took charge of St. Paul's College.

Tr. & Ind.— Attempt of Canton Hoppo to prevent

H.K. river steamers carrying cargo from H.K. to Canton

checked . Leg . - Two unofficial members nominated

by J.s of P. to Leg. Council which previously consisted

of 3 officials exclusive of Governor.


Major -General Jervois, K.G., administered on various

occasions between February, 1851 and April, 1854.

Pr. Ev . - Discussion between Govt. & J.s of P. re

Municipal Govt. which had been going on since 1819

- 7

led to no result. London Missionary Society opened

chapel for treatment of out-patients (May ). 472 houses

North of Queen's Road destroyed by fire. Cricket ( lub

established ( June). P.W.- 5 wells sunk for City Water

Supply. Road from Albany Godowns to Wong Nei

Cheong (now called Wan Chai Road) constructed and

first Praya reclamation scheme partly carried out.

1852 .

Pr. Ev. - Disturbances in . S. China incident on

Tai Ping rebellion sent many Chinese to H.K. 19 cases

of piracy in H.K. waters. Tr. & Ind.- ( i reat increase in

emigration to Straits Settlements and California. Emi

gration to l'eru also benefited H.K. for a time till abuses

connected with its trade necessitated abandonment..

Coinage of Br. dollar first mooted on account of Mex.

dollars, Ind . rupees and Br. coins being at a discount.

P. & 0. S. N. Co. established regular monthly steamer

between H.K. and Calcutta thereby giving Colony fort

nightly communication with England. Exchange at

6 months' sight stood at 4 10. a 5 /- on December 30th .


Pr. Ev.-- Shortlivell Tai Ping dynasty establisheil

at Nanking visited by Sir G. BONilam who decided no

liberal policy to be expected from it. Piratical fleet

destroyed (1015 ); nevertheless 70 cases of piracy during

year including that of S.S. Aratoon Apcar ( 5/8 ) . At

tempt to revive school for English children failed.

Tr. & Ind.-- Emigration to Br. Guiana put on regular

footing and that to Australia commenced . Chinese

Govt . legalised importation of opium Exchange at

6 months' sight stood at 5/- on December 29th . P.W.

-Wong Nei Cheong l’olice Sti ., Police Stn . No. 9 in

Caine Road, and 2 slaughter houses constructed ; all

subsequently abolished . Leg.-- Ord. No. 1 maile it

lawful for aliens to hold and transfer real property.

-- S


Governor Sir John Bouring, Kt . , LL.D., ( 13.4.1854 to

5.5.1859 ).

(Colonel W. Caine administered on various occasions up

to 8.9.1859).

Pr. Ev . - Kowloon City and other towns to N.E.

of H.K. taken and re -taken by Tai Pings and Imperia

lists . Rebels blockaded Canton River and threatened

city, many Chinese taking refuge in H.K. (Dec.). On

outbreak of Crimean war batteries erected for defence

of Colony. 73 soldiers stricken with fever and dysentery

in one month . 6 cases of beri-beri, previously unknown

in H.K. , occurred among Ind . troops. Tr. & Ind .

Emigration to Jamaica started (Nov.). Opening of

Japan by convention of 14/10 had little immediate

though important ultimate effect on H.K. trade. H.K.

and Canton Steam Packet Co. broke up ( 13/12 ). P.W.

Wong Nei Cheong School ( 26 scholars) completed ;

afterwards given up .


Pr. Ev.--- Tai Ping and Imperialist fleets of war

junks ordered out of H.K. harbour ( Jan.). Rebels

retired from Canton river before Br. force sent from

H.K. Sir J. Bowring failed to get recognition of this

service from Viceroy Yeu. Commission enquired into

administration of Police force (Aug.). 800 deaths among

Chinese from fever between 6/2 & 28/4 . Serious con

flagration in centre of town ( 16/2 ). St. Andrew's school

for Br. children established but failed after a few years.

Tr. & Ind . — Sir J. BOWRING's treaty with Siam started

trade between H.K. and that country. 3 new ports in

Philippine Is . opened. P.W.- Praya scheme which

re -established crown rights over reclaimed foreshore in

front of town opposed by European lot-holders (5/12).

Leg .--- Leg. Council increased to :3 unofficial and 6

official members.

- 9


Pr. Ev.-- Anti-foreign placards and hostility of

officials in Canton culminated in arrest there of Chinese

crew of H.K.Lorcha “ Arrow ”. Surrender and apology

refused by Viceroy and forts and official residences in

Canton bombarded without result except destruction of

European anton and Whampoa factories by Chinese

mob. S. of S. refused to consider proposal ( 17/1 ) to

license gambling houses, Serious fires at Tai Ping

Shan (27/1) and Western Market ( 23/2) . Volunteer Fire

Brigade ( 23/1) and hinese l'ire Brigade ( 7/3) organized.

Govt Ho. completed . Villas and farms established at

Pok Fu Lam . Anglo -Chinese College closed at end of

year. Leg .--Ord. No. 1 authorized recognition of

Chinese wills in local courts .


Pr. Ev. S.S.s Foima and Thistle captured by

Chinese soldiers ( Jan.). 400 Europeans poisoned with

arsenic believed to have been introduced into bakery at

instance of Chinese officials (15/1 ); great excitement

caused thereby in H.K. and in England led to Lord

Elgis superseding Sir J. Bowring as plenipotentiary in

China and to “ Arrow " war with that country, which

was not however prosecuted during year owing to Ind .

mutiny. France joined Gr. Br. and ultimatum issued

to Viceroy ( 21/12) . 32 cases of piracy between 1/11/56

and 15/2157; afterwarıls decreased. Local educational

movement at low ebb). Tr. & Ind . — Junk trade fell

off owing to blockade of Canton River. New docks

established at Aberdeen ( June ). P.W.- Three Police

Stations erected . Praya scheme partly carried out.

Town now lighted by 350 oil lamps (1/10 ). Central

Police Station finished. Leg . - Three official and one

unofficial members added to Leg. Council.


Pr. Ev . Canton captured by allied forces (5/1 )

and administered till 21/10/61 by allied commissioners.

- 10

War transferred to N. where Taku Forts captured ( 2015 )

and Treaty of Tientsin signed ( 26/6 ) but not ratified.

Public meeting (29/7) to discuss èxodus of Chinese from

and stoppage of supplies to H.K. enforced by Chinese

oflicials led to capture of Nam Tau in San On district.

H.K. passage boat Wing Sum captured by pirates. Much

disease ; Asiatic cholera and hydrophobia said to have

been first introduced . Violent discords in Civil Service

and prosecutious of newspapers Tr. & Ind.- Opium

farm re -established and let for $ 33,000 p.a. Salt tax

abolished. P.W .-- Central, Western , Eastern, Tai Ping

Shan , So Kun Poo (46 stalls) and Wan Chai (40 stalls)

Markets constructed ; all except last two abolished or

superse led later. Police Station No. 77 erected ; super

seiled in 1902. Leg .-- The Markets Ord . passed this

year lasted till 1887. An Ord. for practitioners in law

empowered barristers to act as their own solicitors.

Meetings of Leg. Council made public ( 253 ).


Governor Sir Hercules Robinson, Kt . , ( 9.9.18599 to 15.3 .


(.171. 11. T. Nereer administered from 10.7.1861 to 8.2.

1801 ou from. to 11...156-1 ).

Pr. Ev.- Defeat of Br. fleet at the Pei Ho (25/6 )

and ultimatum to China (Dec.) Sir J. BOWRING recom

mended annexation of Kowloon for commercial and

sanitary value (2973) and C. 0. urged this on W. 0. in

connection with renewal of war . Operation of Imp. Ch .

Mar. Customs commenced at Canton, opposed by II.K.

merchants. S.S. C'umfa plundered by pirates. Agita

tion in England on account of disclosures with reference

to Civil Service discord prejudicial to II.K. Ophthalmia

epidemic Diocesan native training school started .

H.K. Br. of R. Asiatic Soe. wound up and library

embodied in that of Morrison Education Soc. Tr. &

Ind.---Contract Emigration contined to Br. Colonies.

Native boat-building greatly increased. P.W. -Civil

- 11 -

hosp. ( 9 wards with 71 beds) completed ; superseded in

1874 . Schools built at Shek Ho ( 26 scholars ), Little

H.K. ( 13 scholars) and Aberdeen ; all subsequently given

up or superseded. Public station erected at Stanley.

Bill to complete Praya scheme thrown out by influence

of commercial houses.


Pr. Ev . - Renewal of war with China. Chusan Is.

oceupied (21/1), Taku Forts taken (26/8 ). Peking

ocenpied ( 133/10) and Peking ' onvention (27/10) secured

ratitication of Treaty of Tientsin and further converted

into cession a lease of the Kowloon Penin , which hail been

obtained from Canton Viceroy on ( 21/3) . Pawnbrokers

closed their shops in ineffectual protest against new

Orul. P.O. transferred to local Govt. ( 1/5 ). Grant rise in

value of land and consequent increase in revenue. Board

of Education formed for management of Govt. schools

( 21 ! ) . Tr. & Ind .-- Shipping interests developed by

commissariat and transport services during war. P.W.

- Tanks constructed at Bonham Road for City Water

works. Station St. , Tai Ping Shan , Centre St. , Second

St. , West St. , East St. , Sai Ying Pun and Peak Roals

laid out. Shau Ki Wan School (57 scholars) built.

Leg .--The Pawnbrokers Ord . (No. 1 ) regulated this

business .Oris. constituting a marine court of enquiry

and a board to grant navigation certificates were sub

sequently superseded.

1861 .

Pr. Ev. - Emperor of China HIEN FUNG died

( Jan.), and Prince Kung head of regency. Occupation

of Canton by allies terminated 21/10. Kowloon Penin

sula fornially handed over to Great Britain ( 19/1 ) and

discussion with regard to military lands there at once

commenced . Piracy of “ North Star ” 4 miles out of H.K.

Three district schools merged into new Govt. Central

School. Tr. & Ind.-H.K. Chamber of Commerce


formed and establishment of Chinese Imperial Maritime

Customs opposed by it . P.W.- Accommodation for

610 Scholars provided for Central School in Gough

Street. Robinson Road with bridge across Glenealy

laid out . Police Stations built at Pok Fu Lam and Shau

Ki Wan ; latter superseded in 1872. Quarters for

signalmen provided on l'eak . Lock Hosp. constructed

this year afterwards became part of Govt . Civil Hosp.

1862 .

Pr. Ev. - Chinese issue of 11.K. Gazette started

( 18 . Registrar Gen. made intermediary between Govt.

and Chinese. Cadet system introduced by appointment

of 3 student interpreters ( 3/1 ) . Strike of cargo boatmen

against registration under Ord. of previous year. Trial

made of recruiting Indian police in Bombay and Madras

and floating station for water police established. Mili

tary opened sanitarium at Peak which proved failure .

Volunteer Corps consisting of battery of artillery armed

with 3 prs, and 4 ; " howitzers first formed (1/3.) Miss

BAXTER started Eurasian Schools. Piracies of “ Henrietta


Louise ”, “ Imogen ”, “ Eagle ” and “ Iron Prince " all

close to II.K. Typhoon (27/7) resulted in considerable

loss of life. P.W.- Road from Victoria Gap to Pok

Fu Lam ( 11 1. m .) laid out. Timber landing piers

provided at Pottinger and Ice Flouse Streets and Obser

vation Place. Town ( 'lock Tower ( 124 ft. high) erected

by public subscription . Leg . - Military Stores Ord .

(No. 1 ) passed to stop supply of stores to Tai Ping

rebels. Volunteer, P. O. and i'olice Ords. passed this

year subsequently superseded. Ord . empowering barris

ters to act as their own solicitors repealed in 1871.


Pr. Ev. - Commission appointed to enquire into

unsatisfactory working of Victoria Gaol. Chair coolies

struck for nearly 3 months when brought under a licen

sing Ord. of this year. Piracy of “ Bertha "" near

Stonecutters' Island (22/7 ) . Sailors' Home at West


Point opened (311). Drinking fountain erected opposite

City Hall site. Tr. & Ind . - Fluctuations in value of

Mexican dollar led to proposal to establish mint at

H.K. and to make standard dollar and sub . coins based

on it only legal tender. Messageries Maritimes mail

steamers started ( 1/1 ) and regular steamer communica

tion with Br. N. Borneo established (Dec.). P.W.

Reservoir ( 2,000,000 galls.) at Pok Fu Lam , comeeted

by aqueduct with ? tanks above City, completed ;

supersedded in 1871. No. 4 Police Station constructed

this year afterwards abolished and quarters built for

Supt. Bot. and Afforest. Dep. superseded in 1892.


Pr. Ev. - Sir R. ILART head of Ch . Imp. Maritime

Customs ( 19/7 ). Tai Ping rebellion crushed by capture

of Nanking (197). Wholesale deportation to i anton of

professional beggars. Many “ drain -gang ” and other

burglaries and murderous attacks. Riot of Malay sea

men, police, and 99th reg. ( 12-11/9 ). Piracy of “ Chico”

( 28/1). Marine and inlanı lots at Kowloon sold on short

leases. Military contribution of C20,000 p.i., estimated

to be }th of imp. military expenditure, imposed on

Colony. Band (11 t ), Rifle Co. ( 1,5) and Canton Det.

(17/9 ) added to Volunteer Corps which numbered 200

active and 200 hony, members at end of year. Public

Garden ( 9 acres) between Garden and Albany Roads

opened (6/8 ). First gas lighting in Victoria ( 1211 ).

Heavy rainfall (6/6 ) caused collapse of houses. Tr. &

Ind.- Prospectus issued in July of H.K. & Shanghai

Banking Co .; 6 banks already established at H.K.

P.W.- Proposal for new Praya wall and reclamation

fell through owing to opposition of lot -holders. Car

riage road laid out to Shau Ki Wan . Bowrington Canal

(600 ' long and 90 ' wide ) formed . Sai Ying Pun Market

(6 shops and 81 Stalls) built. Leg . - Mercantile Law

Amendment Ord. ( No. 1. ) amended laws of trade and

commerce. Compilation of edition of ord. in force

completed (Oct.).


1865 .

Mr. IV . T. Mercer administered from to 10.3.

1866 .

Pr. Ev. - l’roject of railway to connect Calcutta

with Canton and H.K. mooted. Decided that criminals

not to be extradited to China without guarantee that

they will not be tortured. Committee appointed to

enquire into mortality of troops. Board of Education

abolished and Education Dep. placed under Inspector

who was also head of Central School. St. Saviour's ( R.C.)

commercial school establisheil. i'iracy of “ Georg Andl

rews ” outside Lyemun l'ass and of “ Nuevo Lepanto ”

near Lan Tao. Tr.. & Ind.-- Union Dock Co. registered

( 31/7) with capital of $ 500,000. H.K. Canton & Macao

Steamboat Co. started ( 19/10 ) with capital of $ 750,000 .

P.W .-- Central Police Station ( for officers and 176

constables ), Victoria Gaol (120 single and 8 associated

cells and accommodation for clebtors , Post Office ( sort

ing and 11 other rooms ), Volunteer H.Q. (demolished

1905), Su Kun Pu School ( for 150 scholars) and Sai

Ying Pun School (for 75 scholars ) completed. City

lighted with 100 gas lamps in March. Battery Roail

laid out at West Point and first sections of Robinson

and MacDonnell Roads in Kowloon . Leg . - Companies,


associations and partnerships of more than 20 regulated

by Companies Ord. ( No. 1 ). Ords. Nos. 2 to 7 con

solidated criminal law of H.K. on lines of U.K. dets

of 1861.


Governor Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell, Kt . , 1.B.

(11.3.1866 to 11.1.1972).

(Major-General H. W. Whitfield administereil from

29.10.1968 to 12.12.1S6S and from 13.4.180 to

8.10.1871 ).

Pr. Ev.-H.K. Royal Mint opened (7/4 ); it had

cost $ 100,000 to establish and involved annual expen


diture of $ 70,000 ; commission appointed in Oct. to

enquire into its working. System of branding and

deporting criminals and flogging them if they returned

to H.K. introduced . Volunteer l'orps disbanded owing

to non -attendance of members. Tr. & Ind.-- Period

of commercial depression which lasted till 1869 set in ;

2 banks suspended payment. H.K. & Shanghai Bank

converted into Corporation by Ord. (No. 2) ; capital

$ 5,000,000. H.K. & Whampoa Dock ('o .. formed ( 11/10);

capital $ 750,000. P.W. - Mint Buildings and Harbour

Office completed ; latter re- constructed in 1874. Leg .-

The Companies Registration Ord . ( No. 1 ) extended pro

visions of Companies Ord . of previous year.


Pr. Ev.-- Commencement ( 15/10) of what hence

forth known as Blockade of H.K .; Chinese cruisers

patrolled neighbouring waters levying tax on junks

trading with non -treaty ports ; this was at first supported

by British representative at Peking as means of checking

smuggling from H.K. Commission reported in favour

of closing Mint. Expenditure decreased to Secille

balance in estimates. 11 licensed gaming houses opened

( 15/9 ); afterwards increased to 16. St. Paul's College

C. of E.) closed for lack of funds. Praya wall destroyed

by typhoon ( 8/8) in which several large vessels and

many junks lost. Nearly 500 houses destroyed by fire

( 28/11 ) . Tr. & Ind.- New dock of H.K. & Whampoa

Dock Co. opened at Aberdeen ( 15/6) . First of regular

Pacific Mail S. S. Co.'s steamers from San Francisco

arrived (31/1 ). H.K. Hotel Co. started operations in

July. Two important and some smaller firms failed .

Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/11 on December

31st. P.W.- Slaughter House at Belcher's Bay (super

seded 1894 ), Governor's Peak Residence (re-constructed

1902) and Gaol on Stonecutters' Island (since aban

doned ) completed . Land reclaimed at Kowloon Point

by 500 ft. of sea -wall. Leg . - A Stamp Ord . passed

- 16

for revenue purposes, after much opposition from com

mercial community. An Ord. for the maintenance of

order and cleanliness authorized licensing of gaming

houses .An Emigration Ord . directed against abuses

such as had come to light in connection with coolie

emigration from Macao was subsequently strengthened.


Pr. Ev.- Attempt made by Canton Vicersy to collect

customs dues in H.K. from junks proceeding to ! hina

defeated . Agitation against licensing of gaming houses

st rted by H.K. Missionaries was taken up in the U.K.

Mint closed after making only $ 20,000 in seigniorage ;

buildings sold for $ 65,000 and plant to Japan for

$ 60,000 ( June). Marine lot-holders successfully resisted

attempt of Govt. to make them re-construct sea -wall.

Exchange at 6months' sight stood at 4/1 } on December

31st . P.W. - Police Station No. ? built. 8. acres

reclaimed by 2,700 ft of sea -wall from Wilmer St. to

Bonham Strand West. Leg.--- Amendments made tɔ

Stamp Ord . The Suppression of Piracy Ord. (No. 1 ) ,

directed against assistance given in H.K. to pirates,

soon had good result. Volunteer Fire Brigade estab

lished by Fire Brigade Ord. (No. 2) . The Treasonable

Offences Ord. (No. 3) assimilated law on this subject

with that of U.K.


Pr. Ev. - The Suez Canal, destined to have great

effect on H.K. trade aa few years later, was opened on 18/33.

The S. of S. expressed strong disapproval of raising of

revenue from gaming house licences and of manner in

which this revenue was used . Police Schools established .

District watchmen , paid for by Chinese, first enrolled

and placed under Reg. Gen .; immediate effect was fric

tion between Reg. Gen. and Capt. Supt.of Police. Duke

of Edinburgh visited H.K. (31/10 to 16/11) and opened

City Hall ( 2/11 ) . Tr. & Ind.- Improvement in trade

17 -

in spite of falling off of junk traffic due to Blockade.

Messageries Maritimes and Pacific Mail doubled number

of steamers and 2 new local Steamship ( 'os started .

Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 4/5 ] on Decenaber

30th . P.W.- Police Station No.6 at Victoria Gap and

llarbour Inspectors' Quarters built; latter afterwards

given mp. Leg.--Proportion of unofficial to official

members in Leg. Council increased from 3-7 to 4-6 (25/8 ).

Promissory Oaths Ord . (No. 1 ) and Public Assemblages

(Regulation of Trallic) Orl. ( No. 2. ) passed.


Major -tieneral 11. 11. Illitticla administered from 13.4.

1570 to .10.1571.

Pr. Ev .-- Proposal of H. M. Minister at Peking that

Chinese consul should reside at H.K. opposed by Gover

nor . Notice given by Lieut .-Gov. as to closing gaming

houses from 1/1/71 (lisallowed by S. of S. The Tmg

Wa - a Chinese free hosp. to be managed by Chinese

directors under ( ovt. supervision - established by Oril.

( No. 3 ) . Typhoon of 26/9 caused great loss of life and

property. H.K .--Amor -Shanghai (Gt. Northern ( ' o .) cable

opened for traffic. Tr. & Ind. --Commercialexploring

Expedition to Kwang Tung and Kwang Si initiated by

Chamber of Commerce. H.K. and Whampoa Dock Co.

absorbed Union Dock Co. and increased capital to

$ 1,000,000 . Exchange at 6 months' sight stood at 1/4 on

December 31st. P. W .-- Gaol Officers' Quarters built;

afterwards used mostly as gaol hosp. Leg . - Public

Places Regulation Oril. ( No. 2) passed to maintain order,

etc., in public buildings, gardens and other places.

1871 .

Pr. Ev.- Monopoly of gaming house licences sold

( 12/1 ) for $ 15,000 p.in .; protests from Colony and agi

tation in U.K. resulted in abandonment of licensing

system (8/12). System of branding and deporting


Chinese criminals and flogging them if they returned to

Colony abolished ( 25/5 ). Agitation against inefficiency

of police force. Typhoon of 29 damaged houses and

shipping. H.K.-Cape St. Jacques -Singapore (Eastern

Extension Co.) cable opened for traffic on 9/6. Tr. &

Ind.-H.K. Wharf and Godown Co, formed . Exchange

at 6 months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 30th . P.

W .---Public Gardens extended by 8.2 acres between

Albany Road and Glenealy Ravine. Whitfield Police

Station built at Causeway Bay. Pok Fu Lam Reservoir

(66,000,000 galls. ) completed for City Waterworks.

Leg.--Legal Practitioners Ord . (No. 1 ) dealt with the

en rolment, etc., of barristers and attorneys.

1872 .

Governor Sir Arthur: E. Kennedy, K.C.M.G., ( .B ., ( 16.1.

15,2 to 1.3.1877 ).

(17. J. Gardiner Austin administered from 15.10.1874

to 5.11.1875 and from 11.3.1875 to 2.12.1875 ).

Pr. Ev.--Board of Examiners in Chinese for Govt.

Officers established . Gardens and Afforestation Dept.

placed under representative advisory committee. Pro

vision made for registering all births and deaths. System

of branding and deporting Chinese criminals re-intro

ducell. Coolies struck (Aug.) against tax on coolie

lodging-houses. Bad year for malaria ; dengue cases

occurred for first time ( Sept. ). St. Peter's (C. of E.)

church for seamen ( 14/1 ) , Tung Wa Ilosp. for Chinese,

and St. Joseph's (R. C.) ( hurch ( 30/11 ) opened. Vic

toria Recreation Club amalgamated_boat club , gymna

sium and swimming bath (30-11 ). Tr. & Ind . -- New

period of depression commenced . Much discussion on

Blockade of II.K., and on adulteration of grey shirting

in England. Attempts to form brokers' association

failed. Commercial capabilities of West River explored.

Ist issue of one dollar notes by H.K. & Shanghai Bank

(Oct.). Revenue from opium farm $ 122 , 100 and Com


mission appointed (8/6 ) to enquire into working of

monopoly recommendel letting for 3 years instead of

for 1 year as had been done since 1858. Exchange at 6

months' sight stood at 4/4 on December 31st . P.W.

Wan Chai School (for 119 Scholars ), Shau Ki Wan

Market (30 stalls) and Shan Ki Wan and Hung Hom

Police Stations built, last superseiled in 1885 .


Pr. Ev.- ( ardens and Afforestation Dept. consti

tuted sub-dept. under Surveyor Gen. ( 15/12) . . Horticul

tural Society started for annual flower and vegetable

shows ( 13/2 ). System introduced ( 21/4 ) of Govt. grants

in -aid for secular education based on result of examina

tions ; R.C. Schools declined to take advantage of it .

Victoria English School established but eventually be

came l’ortuguese ( R.('.). First newspaper under solely

Chinese management published in H.K. Tr. & Ind.

Several important commercial undertakings failed .

Commission appointed to consider question of Blockade

of H.K. Exchange stood at 1/13 on December 31st .

P.W.- Yau Ma Ti Police Station built and East Praya

partly constructeil. Leg .-- Standing Rules of Leg.

Council revised ( 217 ) . Law with respect to carriage

and deposit of explosives, etc. amended by Dangerous

Goods Ord. ( No. 1 ) . Puisne Judge added to Supreme

Court for summary jurisdiction by Supreme Court Ord .

(No. 3 ) and Summary ('out, established in 1871 ,

abolished by Supreme Court (Summary Jurisdiction )

Ord . (No. 4 ).


Pr. Ev . - Ittempts to enforce provisions for regis

tration of servants contained in an Ord . of 1866 failed.

Scholarship established in connection with Govt. Central

School ( Jan.). In typhoon of 22-23/9, 35 foreign ships,

over 2,000 lives and about $ 5,000,000 worth of property


lost in 6 hours. On other occasions 2 ships lost on rocks

and I by collision in or near harbour. Tr. & Ind.-

Chinese petition sent to Queen and meinurial to S. of S.

with regard to Blockade. Increased export of tea from

China accompanied by complaints of adulteration. China

Merchants S. N. Co. started with design of taking coast

ing traile from foreign ships. H.K. & Shanghai Bank

lent $ 600,000 to Chinese Government at 8 % on security

of maritime Customs. Exchange stood at 1/11 on

December 31st. P.W.-- Temporary Hosp.. (5t beds)

provided in Hollywood Road ; it was (lestroyed by fire

on 26/12/78. Harbour Office in Victoria re -constructed

and new Harbour Office built at Aberdeen . Mint Dam

and Blue Pool Dam re-constructed for City Waterworks.

Roads and wells provided at Peak. Leg. -- Emigra

tion Ordl. passed to supersede legislation of previous

year in connection with coolie trade from Macao.


Pr. Ev. - TX Ties became, under the style of

KWONG S. , Emperor of China with the two Empresses

as regents (233/2 ). St. Saviour's ( R.( .) School re-organ

ized ils St. Joseph's College ( 15/11). Tr. & Ind.

Depression in trade indicated by further failures. New

proposals put forward for dealing with Blockaule. Hanoi

and Haiphong under French protection opened for trade

(15/9 ). Supply to H.K. of subsidiary coins from London


Mint started (19/7 ). Mr. (afterwarıls Sir Thomas) J.Nek

son Vanager of H.K. & Shanghai Bank . Cosmopolitan

Docks completed (Oct.). Exchange stood at 3/113 on

December 31st. P.W. - Lighthouses at Cape D'Aguilar

( 1st order) and on Green Island ( Ith or ler) completed

and lights exhibited on 16/1 and 1/7 respectively.

, provided at Shek

, Tong Tsui. Leg. 30

market stalls .

Letters Patent (8/6 ) vested Govt. in Lient. -Gov. or l'ol.

Sec. in event of Governor's death , incapacity or absence.

Ord . No. 7 provided for systematic record of marriages

in one general register.



Pr. Ev.--Census taken . Extensive housebuilding

operations on Peak. Fir trees planted on Mount Davies

above Kennedy Road. Tr. & Ind. - Opium Farm let

for 1 year from 1/3 at $ 110,000. Exchange stood at

4/1 ] on December 30th . P.W .-- Cape Collinson Light

house completed and 6th order light exhibited from 173.

Kennedy Road, ( 1.82 m . long ) opened. Powder Maga

zine constructed at Stonecutters' Island ; superseded in

1905. Leg.- Chinese Passenger Ships, Public Gam

bling, and P.O. Ords ., passed this year, subsequently

superseded .

1877 .

( orernor Sir John Pope Hennessy , (22:2.1.1871 to


(.177. W. H. Marsh administered from 31.5.1871 to

6.9.1977 .)

Pr. Ev.--Public branding and flogging ofcriminals

stopped and their deportation restricted & lenient treat

ment of first offenders advocated by new Governor.

First Chinese ( Sivil marriage solemnized at Reg . Gen.'s

oflice (7/6 ). First Chinese (No Choy) admitted to local

bar (1815 ). St. Joseph's ( R.C.) ('athedral re -opened for

service (36 ). H.K. entered postal union and postage

rates reduced . Tr. & Ind . — Opium Farm let for 2

rears at $ 132,000 p.a. Exchange stood at 3 / 10 % on

December 31st. P.W.– Cattle Depôt ( for 120 head )

first provided at Kennedy Town. Conduit, ( 33.8 m .

long), constructed to convey water from Pokfulam

Reservoir to City. Leg .– Letters Patent of 9/4 revoked

supplementary ( harter of 8/6/75 and made minor altera

tions in constitution of Colony. Companies Ord . passed

this year afterwards incorporated in No. 1 of 1865.


Pr . Ev.--Po Leung Kuk established by Chinese to

prevent kidnapping of girls and ill treatment of domestie

6) .

servant girls. Many burglaries incluling armed attack

on Chinese Bank in Wing Lok Street (25/9 ). Public

meeting to discuss insecurity of life and property in

Colony ( 7/10 ). Serious fire in Victoria : 368 houses and

$ 1,000,000 worth of property destroyed ( 2.5-26/ 12 ) .

Volunteer corps formed under Ord. of 1862 at time of

strained relations with Russia . Tr . & Ind.- China

Sugar Refinery Co., Ltd., established . Exchange stood

at 3/63 on December 31st.

1879 .

Pr. Ev.-- System of deporting criminals resumed.

Two thirds of police force ordered (17/3) to be always

on night duty . Local Committee reported on defence

questions for Royal Commission at home. Revision of

education code confined secular system to Government

schools and gave freedom to grant-in -aid schools as to

religious instruction. Botanical separated from Survey

Department. St. Patrick's Hall in Garden Road opened

on 17/3 and R. C. Church at West Point on 22 /:.

Lutheran Church erected . Visit of General ULYSSES

GRANT ( 30/4 to 12/5 ) . Tr. & Ind.- Trade depresseil :

much discussion on detriment to it resulting from action

of Chinese revenne cruisers. H.K. & Whampoa Dock

Co. purchased ship -building slips of late Capt. Sands

( 1/9 ). Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 205,000 p.a.

Exchange stood at 3193 on December 30th . Leg. -

Merchant Shipping Consolidation Ord . passed this year

superseded in 1891.


Pr. Ev.-- Military authorities reported on insani

tary condition of Colony. Telegraphic communication

established with Philippine Islands ( 1/5) . kickshaws

first used in 11.K. ( 222/4 ). Polo Club started ( 27/1 ) .

Tr. & Ind.--- Cosmopolitan Dock ( ' o. established at

Sham Shui Po (5-) but their dock subsequently (31/12)

purchased by 11.K. & Whampoa Dock Co. H.K. Ice Co

registered (31/2 ). Exchange stood 3/93 on December


30th . P.W.- Additional block erected at Govt. Civil

Hosp. originally used for Lock Hosp. Leg .-- Naturalisa

tion Ord. giving European resident ( E. J. EITEL)

privileges of British Subject within Colony but not else

where, passed this year , formed precedent frequently

followed afterwards.

1881 .

Mr. 24.10.1SST

J. S. Tonnochy administered from 11.9.1881 10


Pr. Ev.- ('ensus taken . Speculation in land and

house property resulted in considerable increase in

Colonial revenue . Severe gale (14/10) damaged small

craft in harbour. 36 houses destroyed by fire in Tai

Ping Shan ( 19/1 ). . Telephones taken into use in Colony.

First issue of “ Hongkong 'Telegraph ” newspaper ( 15/6 ).

Visit of Prince ALBERT VICTOR and Prince GEORGE of

Wales ( 20/12 to 31/12 ). Exchange stood at 3/81 on

December 31st. P.W.- A smaller proportion of the

public revenue devoted to Public Works than in any

year since 1851 and no works of importance in hand .

Leg. --Macao Extradition Ord. ( No. 1) provided for

apprehension of fugitives from justice from Macao.


Mr. William Marsh,, ( '.11.G .., administered from 8.3.1882

to 29.3.1883.

Pr. Ev. - Previous year's speculation in land and

house property followed by numerous bankruptcies. Mr.

0. ('ILADWICK, C.M.G., reported as Sanitary ('ommissioner

on sanitary condition of Colony. Enrolment of Volun

teers in new Artillery Corps commenced ( 20/12 ). Tr.

& Ind. - Luzon : ugar Refinery Co. established (25/3).

Opium Farm let for 1 year at $ 210,000 p.a. Exchange

stood at 3/73 on December 30th . Leg.-- Banishment

and Conditional Pardons Orıl. (No. 1 ) enabled Gov.-in

Council to banish aliens for 5 years. New Volunteer

Ord . superseded Ord . of 1862.

24 -


Governor Sir George Ferguson Bouen, G.C.M.G., (30.3.

1883 to 19.12.1885 ).

Pr. Ev . - Sanitary Board first established .' Dis

turbance among hawkers owing to enforcement of new

regulations ( 22/5) . Belilios Scholarships instituted

( 29/11 ) . New St. Joseph's (R. C. ) College for boys

inaugurated (6/1). The Peak Church (C. of E.) opened

( 17/6 ). H. K. connected by cable with Shanghai (29/5 )

and Foochow ( 18/6 ). Canton-Kowloon Telegraph Line

opened for traffic ( 9/7). Tr. & Ind. - Opium boiled at

Govt. Factory and Dross Farm let. Exchange stood at

3/8 on December 3 ! st. P.W.– Breakwater, 1,400 ft.

long, constructed at Causeway Bay to provide safe anchor

age of 100 acres for small craft. Observatory at Kowloon

completed. Leg .--Distress of Rents Ord . (No. 1 ) .


Pr. Ev.- War broke out between France and

China ( 5/8) and gave rise to some unrest in Colony.

Piratical attack on S.S. “ Greyhound ” a few hours out

of H.K. Strikes of butchers (10/6 ) and of cargo-boat

people and coolies ( 3/10) . Serious fires at Hung Hom

in Br. Kowloon ( 11 and 16/12). Jockey Club formed

(4/10 ). Hongkong-Macao cable opened for traffic (4/7 ).

Tr. & Ind . — Opium boiled at Govt. Factory and Dross

Farm let. Exchange stood at 3/6 on December 31st.

P.W .-- European Lunatic Asylum (8 cells , etc.) con

structed near Govt. Civil Hosp. 23 acres reclaimed at

Causeway Bay. Water Police Station and Time-ball

Tower erected at Tsim Sha Tsui. Yau Ma Ti Market

extended (30 stalls) . Leg.-Medical Registration Ord .

- 25

1885 .

Sir William Marsh , K.C.M.G., administereil from

20.12.1885 to 25.4.1887.

Pr. Ev .--Peace declared between France and

China ( 6/4) allayed unrest. Agitation with regard to

overcrowding of City of Victoria led to appointment of

Land Commission . Tr. & Ind . - Ropeworks estab

lished at Kennedy Town. Opium Farm let for 1 year at

$ 159,000 . Exchange stood at 3 4 ] on December 31st.

P.W. - Police Boat Basin (0.13 acre ) with launch slip

and boat shed constructed at Tsim Sha Tsui and Police

Station at Hung Ilom . Leg . - Weights and Measures

Ord. ( No. 2 ) , Bills of Exchange Ord ., modelled on

English Act, (No. 3 ), and Married Women ( Disposition

of Property) Ord. ( No. 5 ) passed. Municipal Rates

Orıl., subsequently modified , fixed rates it 13 % for

Victoria ( police 8 %, lighting 11 , fire -brigade i and water

2) , at 83 % for the Peak, at 6 % for Kowloon, etc.

1886 .

Pr. Ev. - Land Commission recommended reclama

tion by Govt. Agreement ( 11/9) with China by which

movement of opium to and from II.K. was to be regis

tered and arrangements made for settling disputes

between H.K. junks and Chinese Customs put a stop to

so called H.K. Blockade which had been detrimental to

trade. Tr. & Ind . - Opium Farm let for 3 years at

$ 182,400 p.a. Exchange stood at 33 on December

31st. P.W .-- 22 acres reclaimed at Kennedy Town by

sea -wall 3,690 ft. long. Lazaretto ( for 4 Europeans and

16 Chinese ) constructed on Stonecutters' Island. Loan

of £ 200,000 at 41 % for carrying out public works raised

by issue of debentures. Leg . - Royal Instructions of

11/10 revoked previous and enacted new instructions :

official members of Leg. Council fixed at 7 , unofficial at

5. Printers and Publishers Ord . (No. 4 ) regulated

printing of newspapers and books. Usury Ord. ( No. 5 )


made 8 : legal rate of interest . Bills of Sale Ord. (No.

7) passed to prevent fraud on creditors and Peace

Preservation Ord . (No. 10 ) for prevention and suppres

sion of riots .


Major -General W. Gordon Cameron , C.B., administered

from 20.4.1887 to 5.10.1887.

Pr. Ev . - Chinese School of Medicine founded .

Alice Memorial Hosp . ( London Missionary Society ) for

Chinese opened ( 17/2 ) . Exchange stood at 3/13 on

December 31st. P.W.- Police Stations erected at

Kenneily Town (subsequently used as Infectious

Diseases Ilospital) and Mount Gough. Leg.-- Defama

tion and Libels Ord. ( No. 1 ) passed. Triad and other

Unlawful Societies suppressed (No. 2) . Jury Ori . ( No.

5 ) amended and consolidated law relating to Jurors and

Raw Opium Ord . (No.'9) better regulated trade in

opium .


Governor Sir William Des Vaux (6.10.1887 to 7.5.1891).

(1/7. Frederick Stewart administered from 7.3.188S to

20.3.1SSS, from 24.11.1888 to 18.12.18SS and from

30.8.ISS9 to 23.9.1889 ).

Pr. Ev. - Sanitary Board reconstituted under aa

Public Health Ord. of previous year and Colonial Surgeon

made president. Bad year for small-pox, 99 cases being

admitted into hospital. Wire- rope tramway, commenced

20/9/85, from St. John's Cathedral ( 100 ft.) to Victoria

Gap ( 1,1300 ft.) opened for trallic ( 30/5 ). Exchange

stood at 3/05 on December 31st . P.W .- ('attle Depot

at Kennedy Town extended for 210 additional head .

Leg. -Letters Patent of 19/1 revoked Charter of 5/4/13

andLetters Patent of 9/4/77 and re-enacted provisions

for govt. of Colony. Royal Instructions of 19/1 revoked

- 27

those of 11/1/86 and re- enacted them with slight moli

fications. Regulation of Chinese Ord . ( No. 3 ) provided

for registration of householders and tenants, for appoint

ment of District Watchmen , for regulation of ceremonies,

etc., and for issue of night passes. Coroner's duties

transferred to Vagistrates by ( 'oroners Abolition Ord.

( S ). ) ) .


Pr. Ev.- : 3: 3.11 inches of rain fell in great storm

of 299 5 and 30/3 ( 16.16 in 7 hours) and did considerable

« amage. Tr. & Ind. --Opium Farm let for 3 years int

$ + 17,600_pi. Exchange stood at 3/1., on December

Bist. P.W .-- Queen's College , commenced in 1881 ,

completed and provided accommodation for 921 scholars,

subsequently increased. Original Tytam Scheme for

City Waterworks completed and provided impoumding

reservoir (312,3:30,000 galls. ), tunnel ( 1.38 m . longi,

conduit ( :} m . Jong ), 6 filter beds ( 3.245 sq. yds. dgg .

area ), and service reservoir (5,700,000 galls.); total

capacity of storage reservoir now 378,330,000 galls.

Leg. - Chinese Emigration regulated by Ord . No. I and

law of evidence consolidated by Evidence Ord . ( No. 2 ) .

Praya Reclamation Orl. (No. 6 ) provided for extensive

reclamation in front of West Praya at cost of Marine

lot-holders. Chinese Extradition Orid . (No. 7 ) gave

effect to Art. SST of Treaty of l’ekin .


12. Francis Fleming, ('.J.G ., administered from

19././890 to 22.12.1890 .

Pr. Ev.- Visit of Duke and Duchess of Connaught

( April ); Duke laid memorial stone of Praya Reclama

tion . The Scheme initiated by Mr. (afterwar Sir )

Pau CHATER Wils to reclaim 65 acres extending 2 miles

from Vaval Yard to beyond Gasworks at West Point ;

new road along front to be called Connaught Road .

Lighting of low levels in Victoria by 50 arc lamps


begun 1 12. Piracy of Passenger S.S. Namoa 50 m .

from Hongkong ( Dec. ) . Exchange averaged 3/2 for

the year and stood at 3/5 on December 31st. P.W .-

Pokfulam filter beds ( 1), with area of 1,360 sq . yds.,

coustructed for City Waterworks. Leg. - Law relating

to infant vaccination amended by Vaccination Ord.

(No. 2) and those relating to jurisdiction , etc., of Magis

trates by Magistrates Ord . ( N0.3). Merchandise Marks

Ord . ( No. 1) framed on lines of English Act.

1891 .

Major -General Digby Barker administered from 1.5.189 1

to 9.12.1991.

Pr. Ev.- ('ensuis taken . Tr. & Ind. - Fluctua

tion in exchange and speculation mostly in trading and

mining ventures outside Colony resulted in financial

depression. Exchange averaged 3/4} for the year and

stood at 3/1 on December 31st. P.W .-- Foreshore at

Kennedy Town ( 8.55 acres) reclaimei . Lunatic Asylum

for Chinese (16 cells, etc.) near Civil Hosp ., District

School at Sai Ying Pun ( for 186 scholars ), and new

Police Station at Aberdeen erected . "The Peak, pre

viously dependent on well water, now supplied from City

Waterworks by pumping. Leg. - Gambling Ord . (No.2)

passed to stop gambling among Chinese, and Companies

( Sale of Shares) Ord . ( No. 5 ) to stop gambling in shares.

Bankruptcy Oril. (No. 7) brought law of Colony into

line with that of V.K. Opium Farm regulated by

Prepared Opium Ord . (No. 8.)

1892 .

Gorrrnor Sir Ililliam Robinson , K.C.N.G., ( 10.12.1891

to 1.2.1898 ).

( 1/1. ( 1. T. 17. O'Brien administered during absoner of

( 0vernor in 189:3).

Pr . Ev . - State aid withdrawn from Church of

England in Colony, and Cathedral handed over to trus

tees. ( as lighting introduced at Kowloon. Tr. & Ind.

- 29

Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 310,800 p.a. Exchange

averaged 3/4 } for the year and stood at 2/8 on December

31st . P.W. - Gap Rock Lighthouse completed and con

nected with H.K. by cable ; 1st order light exhibited 1/4.

City Waterworks distribution scheme completed. 10

Public Laundries opened at Wan Chai. Cattle depôt at

Kennedy Town extended for 120 additionalhead, Albany

Nullah trained. Govt. house ball-room , new quarters,

etc., for Supt. B. & A. Dept. & staff quarters (for 11 ) at

Govt. Civil Hosp. completed. Hosp. Ship Hygeiu ( since

abolished ) opened (Aug.). Leg .-- The Patents Ord .

( No. 2 ) .


Pr. Ev.--Heavy fall in silver seriously affected

public expenditure and new 35 % loan of € 200,000 raised

for carrying out certain public tvorks. School for girls

on site of former Central School, with accommodation

for 608, presented by Mr. E. R. Belilios, taken over by

Govt. The Po Leung Kuk , a Chinese institution for the

protection of women and children , formed in 1878,

incorporated. Volunteers organized as a field battery

and machine gun company. Waglan Lighthouse com

pleted by Chinese Govt.; light exhibited 95. Exchange

averaged 2 /8į for the year and stood at 23 on December

30th . Leg.- Volunteer Ord. (No. 4 ) superseded Ord.

of 1882. Nethersole Hosp. (London Missionary Society )

for Chinese women opened (5/9 ).

1894 .

Pr. Ev . - Some trouble caused by clan fight in

March. First outbreak of bubonic plague, at its height

between May and July, produced temporary exodus,

estimated at 100,000, and great interference to trade.

War between China and Japan , declared 1/8, for a time

partially paralyzed Chinese markets. Caterpillar plague

injured pine tree plantations. Typhoon of 5/10 did some

damage in harbour. £ 110,000 of the 1886 4 !% loan of


£ 200,000 converted to 35 % at cost of £ 1,800 and balance

of £60,000 redeemed from sinking fund ; total loan now

£341,800 of 3 % stock. Hong Kong-Labuan ( Borneo )

Singapore cable opened for traffic 115. Exchange

averaged 2/2 for the year and stood at 2 - on December

31st. P.W.- New Slaughter Houses provided at Ken

nedy Town. Roads laid out in E. of Kowloon.


Pr. Ev .- Strike as protest against new lodging

house regulations lasted from 23/3 to 4/4 ; on 27/3 over

20,000 coolies out. Tr. & Ind. - New British dollar

introduced . General improvement in local stocks

and undertakings. Opium Farm let for 3 years at

$ 296,000 p.a. Exchange averaged 2/03 for the year

and stood at 2 13 on December 31st. P.W.- Resumption

of insanitary properties at Tai Ping Shan com

pleted . Central Market ( 138 shops and 150 stalls),

commenced 1890 , and Gaol extension ( 155 cells, etc.),

commenced 1893, completed. Additional 4,400,000

gallons impoumded at Pokfulam for City Waterworks;

total capacity of storage reservoirs now 382,730,000

gallons. At Kowloon original waterworks to supply

250,000 gallons a day from 3 wells N. of Yau Ma Ti

opened, Macdonnell Road extended to N. , ('attle Depôt

( 112 head ) built at Hug Hom , and Signalling Station

established at Blackhead's Hill. Leg . - The Private

Vehicles Licensing Ord. (No. 5 ) .

1896 .

Pr. Ev. - In second plague epidemic 8 Europeans

died but dislocation of business much less than in 1891.

Commission appointed to report on insanitary dwellings.

Military contribution of Colony fixed at 17 % of gross

revenue exclusive of capital expenditure on works and

buildings. Typhoon of 29/7 caused considerable damage

to property. Tr. & Ind . - Unprofitable year for trade,

importations except of flour and kerosine oil being on

- 31

limited scale and sales generally unsatisfactory. Exchange

averaged 2/24 for the year and stood at 2/ 1,16 on December

30th . P.W .-- Streets laid out at Tai Kok Tsui. Leg.

-Additional Royal Instructions of 7/7 substituted 0. C.

Troops for Ch . Justice on Leg. Council and increased

numbers of Unofficial Members from 5 to 6. British

North Borneo Extradition Ord. (No. 1 ) passed. Factors

Ord . (No. 3 ) and Sale of Goods Ord . ( No. 4 ) introduced

mutatis mutandis provisions of English Aets.

1897 .

Pr. Ev.- Area at Causeway Bay set apart as

Queen's Recreation Ground . Tr. & Ind. - Trade on

the whole unsatisfactory and adversely affected by

fluctuations in exchange and scarcity of money . Ex

change averaged 2/03 for the year and stood at 1/11!. on

December 31st. P.W .-- For City Waterworks Tytam

dam raised to impound additional 94,670,000 galls. ;

total capacity of storage reservoirs now 477,400,000 galls.

Maternity Ilosp. provided at Govt. Civil Hosp . Leg.-

Partnership Ord . (No. 1 ) on lines of U.K. Act, Probate

Ord . (No. 2 ) , Protection of Women and Girls Ord .

(No. 4) and Vagrancy Ord . ( No. 9 ).


Major-General Ililsone Black , C.B., administered from

2.2.1898 to 21.11.1898.

Pr. Ev . - Penny post established. By convention

between U.K. and China, signed at Peking on 9/6 , area

on the mainland S. of line joining Deep Bay with Mirs

Bay (270 sq . m .) together with Lantao and other island's

(90 sq . m .) leased to Great Britain for 99 years ; this

area designated The New Territories. Tr . & Ind .

West River opened for trade on 3/6 and regular com

munication established but interfered with by piracy.

Import trade of Colony improved particularly in rice

and coal. Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 372,000 p.a.

Exchange averaged 1/10 , for the year and stood at


1/11 ,'. on December 31st. P.W .-- 1893 loan fully

expended . Tai Ping Shan improvement scheme com

pleted. Barker Road (5,660 ft. long) and Chamberlain

Road (2,310 ft. long) opened on Peak . Tai Kok Tsui

Market ( 32 stalls) erected. Leg . - Registration of

Trade Marks Oril. (No. 6 ) and Liquor Licences Ord.

(No. 8) .


Governor Sir Henry Arthur Black , K.C.A.G., ( 25.11.1898

to 21.11.1905 ).

Pr. Ev. - New Territories taken over by hoisting

British flag at Tai Po on 16/4 ; on account of opposition

including attack on Br. Troops by some 2,600 Chinese

on 19/4 , in which Chinese authorities were believed to

have connivel, Sham Chun City beyond new boundary

occupied from 16/5 to 13/11. 2 machine gun , 1 infantry

and 1 engineer companies added to Volunteers. Tr. &

Ind . - Ilongkong Cotton Spinning, Weaving & Dyeing

Co. started operations (1/6 ). Green Island Cement Co.

previously at Macao commenced manufacture at Hok Un

near Kowloon for local use and export. Sugar refineries

did well. Exchange averaged 1/11 for the year and


stood at 1/11,6 on December 27th. P.W.–Laying out

of streets at Mong Kok Tsui, N. of Yau Ma Ti, begun.

Wong Vei Cheong Reservoir ( 33,994,000 galls .) com

pleted for City Waterworks ; total capacity ofstorage

reservoirs now 511,394,000 galls. Leg.-N.T. Exemp

tion of Laws and Regulation Ords. (Nos. 0 and 8) for

administering N.T., Prisons Ord. (No. 1 ),, Criminal

Procedure Orid. (No. 9 ) , Merchant Shipping Oril.

(No. 10 ) supplementary to English Acts, and an Ord .,

afterwards superseded, for sanitary regulation of buildl



Pr. Ev.-11.K. served as Br. base during Boxer

troubles in the North . In typhoon of 9/11 H.M.S.

Sandpiper, 10 launches and over 110 junks sunk and

3 :3

over 200_lives lost in 3 hours. Soldiers' Club opened

( 14/4 ). Tr. & Ind . — Chinese Customs placed difficul

ties in way of river steamers trading with West River

Ports. Output of granite from Shau Ki Wan and Kow

loon quarries estimated at $ 15,000 and $ 80,000 respec

tively. Cotton Spinning Co. experienced difficulties on

account of labour supply. Exchange averaged 2/4099

for the year and stood at 2 /1,6 on December 31st.

P.W .-- Blake Pier (200"' X 10 ') built. City Disinfect-.

ing Stn . completel. Signalling Station established on

Green Islan « , and Waglan connected by cable with H.K.

Wong Sei Cheong Recreation Ground extended . Police

Stations erected at Tai Po, Sha Tau Tok , Au Tan and

l'ing Shan in N.T. and connected by telephone. Leg.

-V.T. Extension of Laws and Land Court Ords. ( Nos.

t and 8 ) for administering N.T. , P.O. Orıl. ( No. 6 ), and

Police Force Ord . ( No. 11 ) . New Edition of the Statute

Laws of the Colony put in hand by Sir J. L'ARRINGTON .

1901 .

Pr. Ev.-- Census taken . Plague mortality higher

than in any year since 1894 and S. of S. petitioned to

send out Sanitary experts to investigate. Tr. & Ind.

- Import trade depressed. Cotton Spinning Co. wrote

own shares and brought in fresh capital. Opium Farm

let for 3 years at $ 750,000 p.a. Exchange averaged

1/11:4005 for the year and stood at 1/10 ,' on December,

31st. P.W.- Associated converted into single cells and

new block (78 cells ) constructed atGaol. Police Station

erected at Sai Kung in N. T. Leg.--Defence Contri

bution Ordl. ( No. 1 ) raised annual military contribution

of Colony from 17 ! % to 20 % of gross revenue. Cole of

Civil Procedure ( No. 3) regulated procedure in Supreme

Court. Inother Ord ., afterwards superseded, was passed

for sanitary regulation of buildings. Trustees Ord .

( No. 5 ) and Fine Arts Copyright Ord. (No. 18 ) were on

lines of U.K. Acts. Rating Ord. (No. 6 ) left rates at

Victoria at 13 % and raised them to 103 % at the Peak ,

121 % at Kowloon and 7 to 101 % at other places .


1902 .

Major -General Sir 11. J. Gascoigne, K.C.N.G., adminis

tered from 4.1.1902 to 8.9.1902.

Pr. Ev.- Mr. O. CHADWICK & Prof. SIMPSON

reported on Sanitation of Colony. Committee on

Education made various recommendations including

more instruction in Chinese. Penny letter postage

extented to Br. Agencies in China. Volunteer Corps

re -organized into ? Artillery and 1 Engineer Co.

Tr . & Ind . - Manufacture of rattan furniture for export

started on large scale by American firm . Cotton spin

ning did better than in previous years, sugar refining

Worse . Exchange averaged 1 8 :1721 for the year and

stood at 17. on December 31st. P.W.- Governor's

new Peak Residence completed. New quarters provided

for gaol staff (6 married and 40 single Europeans and

56 Indians). Police Stations erected in Victoria (No. 7) ,

at Sheung Shui in N. T., and at Tai () in Lantao. New

Kowloon Water Works commenced ( Apl.). Leg .

Four Ords, dealt with land in N. T. Water-works Con

solidation Ord . had for its object economizing of water.

1903 .

Pr. Ev.-- New Education Code made grants de

pendent on results of inspection and not of annual

examinations. New wing of Tug Wa Hospital opened.

Letters to Europe first sent by Siberian Railway ( 13/10 ),

Tr. & Ind.--- Brussels Sugar Convention coming into

effect 1/9 improved condition of sugar refining industry.

High price of raw cotton prejudicially affected cotton

spinning. Exchange averaged 1/8 52133 for the year and

stood at 1/812 on December 31st. P.W.- Victoria Hosp.

for women and children ( 14 beds ) on Peak and 10 ft.

road from Kennedy Town to Aberdeen ( 5 m .) handed

over by Jubilee Committee. Ladder Street Resumption

Scheme completed. Ist public bath - house ( 10 baths)

opened at Wanchai. Conduit Road ( 2,900 ft . longi

opened. N. T. Survey completed. New Government


Offices commenced ( June ). Foundation Stone of the

New Law Courts laid (12/11 ). Leg .. –- The Public

Health and Buildings Ord. ( No. 1) superseded all

former. Ords. dealing with this matter and made

extensive and minute provision for improving health of

Colony. Waterworks Ord. (No. 16 ) repealed Ord. of

previous year and made other provisions for economizing

water supply. Four Ords. dealt with land in N. T.

1904 .

Mr. F '. 11. Jay, C.I.G., administered from 22.11.1903 to

Pr. Ev . - Outbreak of war between Russia and

Japan ( 8/2 ) bronght influx of colliers, etc. and decrease

of foreign ships. Speculation resulted in heavy losses

among Chinese. Attempt to start emigration of inden

tured labourers to S. Africa failed owing to local

opposing interests and was abandoned after shipment

of 1,746. Land Court determined 354,277 claims to

land in V. T., where there was evidence of increasing

prosperity. Mounted troop added to Volunteers and vol.

Reserve Association established. Tr. & Ind . - Cotton

spinning did bailly at commencement but better at end of

year. Sugar industry brought large profits to refineries.

Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 2,200,000 p a. reduced

to $ 2,010,000 p.a. from 1/11. 3 ' 6 " El. Tramway from

Kennedy Town to Shau Ki Wan ( 9 m .) opened for

traffic. Exchange averaged 1/ 10 :07176 for the year and

stood at 1/113 on December 31st. P.W.- Praya

Reclamation completed. TytamTytam Byewash Reservoir

added 26,301,000 galls. to storage for City Waterworks;

total capacity of storage reservoirs now 5 :37,695,000 galls.

Kennedy Town Cattle Depôt extended to hold 1,241

head 2nd public bath -house ( 38 baths) opened at Tai.

Ping Shan. Gascoigne Road at Kowloon and 14 ft. road

to Tai Po ( 16 m .) in N. T. completed . New Rifle

Ranges provided behind Kowloon City.. Leg. –– Sugar

Convention Orid. (No. 14 ) forbad importation of bounty

- 36

fed sugar. Pilots Ord . (No. 3 ) provided for exam . and

licensing of Pilots. Hill Dist. Reservation Ord. ( No. 4 )

reserved residential area at the Peak .


Governor Sir Matthew Nathan, K.C'.M.G ., 29.7.1904 to


Pr. Ev . - Russo - Japanese war and especially prox

imity of Russian fleet (April -May ) and subsequent

sinking of Br. S.S. “Oldhamia” (1875 ) and “ St. Kilda ”

( 4/6 ) gave rise at H.K. to various questions as to duties

and rights of neutrals. Before signature of armistice

on 1/9 shipping tended to return to normal conditions.

Govt. of H.K. on 2/10 lent the Hu Kwang Viceroy

£ 1,100,000 repayable in 10 annual instalments for

redeinption of Canton - Ilankow Raily. concession .

Unsuccessful negotiations carried on through year in

connection with Ch . section of Canton -Kowloon Railway.

Parcel post arrangement with Germany came into force

( 1/6 ) and postage to Australia reduced ( 15/7 ) . Revised

rent roll introduced in N. T. Anglo -Chinese Govt.

School opened at Aberdeen . Tr. & Ind.- Trade

adversely affected by over-speculation in 1904, by

fluctuations in exchange, by boycott of American goods

as protest against U.S.A. exclusion law and by reduction

of Br. fleet in China. Imports to and exports from

China fell off. Sugar refineries, ( 'otton Spinning ('o .

and cement and rope factories did good business. There

was falling off in repairing and docking ships. Exchange

averaged 1/11:2 :335_for the year and stood at 2/03 on

December 30th . P.W.- l'reliminary Survey of Br. 1

section of Canton -Kowloon Railway carried out, route 11


selected and land partly resumed. ('onstruction was

commenced under P.W.D ). at the latter end of the year.

Ist order light from Cape D’Aguilar transferred to new

tower at Green Is . Disinfecting Stn. at Kowloon , Mong

Kok Tsui Market ( 10 stalls) and Yau Ma Ti District

School (for 200 scholars ) completed.. Resumption

: 7

scheme finished at Kau ( Fong ( 27,156 sq ft.) and

commenced at Mee Lun Lane 900 ft . Robinson and

Gascoigne South roads extended . Leg.- 12 (including

4 financial and 6 amending ) Ords. passed of which most

important were N. T. Land Ords. ( Nos. 3 & 9 ) for

facilitating lanıl transfers and settling land disputes.

1906 .

Mr. F. H. Jay, ( '.II.C ., administered from 15.12.1906

to 23.1.1907.

Pr. Ev.- Commission appointed to enquire into

administration of Sanitary Laws ( 28/4 ). The cons

truction of the Kowloon -Canton Railway (British Section )

was taken over by the Construction Staff appointed by

Consulting Engineers in May. The Beacon Hill tunnel

was commenced, South face (15/9 ) North face ( 1/12 ) .

Saimam ” on West River,

Piracy of British Steamer “ Säinam

British Missionary killed ( 13 : 8 ). Severe typhoon

( 18/9 ), 15 European including Protestant Bishop and

some 10,000 Chinese drowned, 2,113 Chinese craft

reported lost, 17 European vessels and launches foun

dered or badly damaged. British Steamer “ Hankow

burnt at wharf, 111 lives lost ( 14/10 ). Census taken

(6/11 ). Kowloon-Canton Railway Final Loan Agreement

sigueil ( 10/11). Tr. & Ind. --General depression in

trade ; heavy losses through fall in price of Indian

yarn ; shares in local undertakings much depreciated

in value. Increased importation of Australian four.

Iron inining started and a large Flour Mill opened in

the New Territories. Exchange averagerd 2 /1.7064 for

the year and stood at 273 ,"; on December 29th . P.W.

Harbour Office, Western Market, Bacteriological

Institute, Volunteers' Ileadquarters, Taipo Quarters, and

Gunpowder Depôt completed. ('onsiderable progress

made with Kowloon roads and extension of Conduit

Road in Victoria ; Mee Lun Lane resumption scheme

well advauced ; new Kowloon Reservoir brought into

use and rider main system completed. Leg. - 17 Ords.


passed including Married Women's Property and

Criminal Evidence Ords. (Nos. 5 & 11 ) designed to

bring local law into line with English statutes.

1907 .

Governor Sir Frederick Jolm Dealtry Lugari, K.C.M.G.,

( '.B ., D.S.O., 29.7.1907.

(Mr. F. II . Jay, ( '.I.G ., administered from 21.4.1907 to

28.7.1907 ).

Pr. Ev.-- ('ommission appointed to enquire into

administration of Sanitary Laws reported ( 19/3). Claim

for compensation, on account of lives lost in Sainuun.

piracy, settled. Survey of Chinese Section of the Kow

loon -Canton Railway commencel. 11.R.II. the Duke of

Connaught accompanied by H.R.JI. the Duchess of

Connaught and Princess Patricia of Connaught visited

the Colony (6/2 ). Sir M. Vathan appointed Governor of

Natal ; succeeded by Sir F. J. D. Lugari, who was

appointed 1/5 and arrived in Colony 29/7. Tr. &

Ind . Continued depression of trade accentuateid

towards the end of the year by world -wide restriction of

commerce following upon financial crisis in America .

Shipping in particular suffered. The local sugar industry

held its own but shares in the majority of local under

takings further depreciated in value. I project to start

a Brewery made headway. Development of iron mining

in N. T. arrested . Tin smelting increased . Assessment

made in July for year 1907-8 showed that rateable value

for whole Colony had decreased by 2: 52 % . Opium

Farm let for 3 years at $ 1,452,000 p.a. Loss and

inconvenience caused by depreciation of subsidiary

currency and over- issue of sub. coin by the Canton Mint.

Exchange averaged 2 / 1-8199 for the year and stood at

1/92 on December 31st. P.W.-The Tytam Tuk

Waterworks ( 1st Section ) were practically completed

affording a further permanent storage of 195,914,000

gallons and of 210,370,000 with movable weir added . A

Mortuary at Kowloon and a Market of 68 stalls at Quarry


Bay were completed, also the extensions to Conduit Road

East and West, the first extension of the Kowloon City

Road towards Customs House Pass and a further exten

sion of Robinson Road Northwards. The Mee Lun Lane

resumption scheme was also finished. Leg . -– 16 Ords.

(5 amendment) passed ; Hongkong College of Medicine

incorporated ; H.K. & S. Bank authorized to increase its

capital from ten to twenty million dollars and to continue

incorporated for a further term of 21 years ; Life

Insurance Companies Ord . passed .

1908 .

Pr. Ev.-Mr. H. N. Mody offered to present Colony

with buildings necessary for a University : Committee

formed to promote the undertaking and collect endow

ment fund . Instructions received from H.M. Govern

ment that all opium divans in Colony must be closed .

Disastrous Typhoon on the night of 27th to 28th July.

Riot in town of Victoria on 1st and 2nd November in

connection with boycott of Japanese goods by the

Cantonese. Tr. & Ind . - Money plentiful owing to

lack of remunerative employment. No sign of revival

in the real estate market. Import business on the whole

showed some improvement on the preceding years in

spite of the downward tendency of exchange and the

growing tendency of trade to go direct to Canton. The

sugar refining industry showed better results. The

Cotton Mill had a poor year. The shipping industry

shared in a world wide depression in the carrying trade,

and this was reflected locally in a marked falling off in

the business of the Dock Company. All export business

anıl especially silk suffered as a result of the great

financial crisis in America. Loss by depreciation of sub

sidiary currency continued ; the Government withdrew

from circulation and demonetized $ 780,000 of subsidiary

silver coin and $ 30,000 of bronze coin . Exchange

averaged 1 9 :6727 for the year and stood at 1 /81% on

December 31st . P.W.- The new Time Ball Tower was

completed and brought into use .A section of the new



Land Office at Tai Po was completed for the use of the

Assistant Land Officer. The new Slaughter Houses and

Animal Depôt at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon, were completed

and brought into use . The extension of P.W.D. Offices

was carried out. Wanchai School was extended and its

accommodation practically doubled . Saiyingpun School

was also enlarged by the erection of an additional storey .

The Quarters at the Victoria School had another storey

added. The European Quarters in Mount Gough Police

Station were considerably enlarged. The Transvaal

Coolie Emigration Depôt was purchased for a Quarantine

Station and buildings, etc., put in order. Staff Quarters

in Government Civil Hospital were extended. Obelisk

at Kowloon in memory of the French sailors drowned in

Typhoon 1906 was unveiled . 12 New Fire Alarms were

installed in City. Nathan Road was extended from

Market Street to Kowloon Farm Lot No. 2. In New

Territories the Kowloon City Road was extended from

its point of intersection with the Military Roads to its

point of bifurcation to Customs Pass and Chin Lan Chun

Village. Blake Pier Permanent Shelter was completeil.

New Service Reservoir at West Point was completed :

capacity 148,000 gallons ; also a new 8 " rising main to

Peak. Leg . - 22 Ordinances ( 9 amendment) passed :

the principal matters dealt with were-- public health and

buildings , fire insurance companies, foreign corporations,

breweries, chemists and druggists, and theatres. Public

Health and Buildings bill passed after much debate and

permanent Head of Sanitary Dept. created (result of

Commission ). Chinese Emigration Ordinance 1889

amended and “ assisted emigrants” recognised, affording

additional protection and safeguards. Small Debts

Court instituted in N.T., and Widows' and Orphans'

Pension Fund transferred to Hongkong Government.

1909 .

Pr. Ev . - International Opium Conference at Shang

hai (Feb.). 20 opium divans in H.K. closed (1/3 ). The

headings from each end of Beacon Hill tunnel met


( 17/5) . Opium Ordinances amended and consolidated

in accordance with the resolutions of the Shanghai

Conference, additional restrictions and safeguards being

imposed in respect of morphine, compounds of opiums

and cocaine ( 1/9 ). Duties imposed on intoxicating

liquors ( 17/9) . Very severe typhoon (19-20 / 10 ). Con

ference held in H.K. between Portuguese and Chinese

Commissioners for delimitation of boundaries of Macao

( June -Nov .). Total endowment fund of proposed H.K.

University amounted at close of year to $ 533,196

exclusive of $ 718,614 promised. Tr. & Ind. - The

local money market was easy throughout the year. Real

estate showed faint signs of revival. In imports a large

business was done. Exports were active; silk in

good demand . The sugar refining industry prospereil.

Shipping showed a slight improvement on the previous

year, but this was not reflected in the local docking

industries which suffered from insuflicient work . Loss

by depreciation of subsidiary currency continued : the

Govt. withdrew from circulation and demonetized

$ 779,712 of subsidiary silver coin and $ 40,616 of bronze

coin. Exchange averaged 1/9 :0601 for the year and

stood at 1/9 ,'. on Dec. 31st. P.W. - The old stables

adjoining the Government Offices were extended and

raised to render the upper storey available and so provide

additional accommodation for the staff of the Public

Works Department. A bungalow on the mainland at

Tai Po for the Assistant District Officer was completed .

A staircase from the ball- room to the grounds of Govern

ment House was constructed . A road from Ma Tau Kok

to Tai Shek Ku was completed ; the level of Des Vaux

Road, Kowloon , (re-named Chatham Road ), was raised ;

and arrangements were made for the construction of a

new road traversing Marine Lot 29 from Queen's Road

East to Praya East. The old fish pond at Tai Wo Shi

( N.T.) was filled in . The Albany Filter Beds were

reconstructed and extended, and the filtering area

increased from 3,246 to 4,945 square yards. Extensive

resumptions of land at Kowloon Point were effected with

a view to providing a site for the terminal station of the



Kowloon-Canton Railway . Public latrines were con

structed at Tai Kok Tsui, in Chuk Hing Lane, at Wong

neichong Village and adjoining Kennedy Road to the

westward of the Peak Tramway. Ping Shan - Shataukok

Road surveyed and part constructed. Leg. - 46 Ordi

nances (32 amendment) passed : the principal matters

deal with were - opium , liquor, trade marks, railways,

and the construction of a harbour of refuge at



(Sir F. H. May, K.C.M.C., administered from 30.4.10

to 31.10.10 .)

Pr. Ev. - All opium divans in H.K. and the N. T.

closed (1/3 ). Opium Farm let for 3 years at $ 1,183,200

p.a. (1/3 ). H.B.M.'s Government make the Colony a

grant of £ 9,000 for the year 1910 on account of loss of

opium revenue. Foundation stone of H.K. University

laid by Sir F. D. Lugard ( 163). Endowinent fund of

Uviversity stood at $ 1,239,826 (exclusive of $ 96,460

promised ) on 31st Dec. Considerable scarcity of water

owing to dryness of the season , but heavy rains in June

removed anxiety. Plague cases decreased to 25 , the

lowest since 1997. Trouble at Macao with pirates on

Colowan Portuguese troops and gunboats

Island :

engaged : many pirates escapeil, some afterwards

arrested at Cheung Chau Island in the N.T. July ).

British Section, Kowloon -Canton Railway, opened by

Sir Henry May ( 1/10 ) . Portuguese Republic proclaimed

in Macao ( 10/10 ). Tr. & Ind.- The local money

market was easy during the first 6 months of the year,

but afterwards inclined to be tight, owing probably to

the fall in rubber stocks. Financial crisis in Shanghai

caused by rubber boom ; many banks failed (Aug./Sept.).

In imports of raw sugar there was a heavy falling off

due mainly to producers in Java sending direct to Vor

thern markets without trans -shipment in A.K. There

was also a falling off in import and export of raw

- 13

opium due partly to an additional tax on opium

imposed, contrary to treaty , by the Canton Govern

ment. Compounds of opium including morphine also

declined due to restrictive legislation by Government.

The year was fair generally for merchants and manu

facturers : yarn , piece -goods, and tin did well. The

number and tonnage of ships entering and clearing in

the Colony was the largest yet recordeid, being 515,177

vessels of 36, 441,496 tons, an increase as compared with

1909 of 17,897 vessels and 1,610,651 tons. There was a

considerable improvement in the industry of ducking

steamers in H.K .: during the latter part of the year the

industry gained aዜ considerable impetus, which has since

been maintained. Subsidiary currency remained at a


and ou


: the Gove

monetized $ 5,27


rnme2,nt012.25thdr fro cir

ewe valum e ) ofculsil

( fac ativer


sub -coin and $ 255 ,116.79 (face value ) of copper coin..

Exchange averaged 1/9 :60216 for the year and stood at

1/10 on 31st Dec. P.W. -A new block containing 78

cells was constructed in Victoria Gaol. An extension

of the Land Office at Tai Po for the accommodation of

the District Officer was completed . A small slaughter

house for Shaukiwan District was built at Sai Wan Ho.

Argyle Street, Kowloon, was extended eastwards as far

as the Railway to afford access to Yaumati Station and

the diversion and alteration of Chatham and Gascoigne

Roads on account of the construction of the Railway

were completed. In the N. T. the road from Castle

Peak Bay was completed as far as I'n Long and the

extension from San Tin Village to Au Ha Gap was well

advanced . The large nullah west of the University site

was tramed. Ferro - concrete piers at Kowloon City and

at the Gunpowder Depot, Green Island, were completed .

Causeway Bay was deepened to 1 foot below low water.

The Kowloon Water Works Gravitation Scheme, begun

in 1902, was completed. A 12 " main for conveying

Tytam Water to the Western district of the City was

laid in Caine Road. The sites of several houses which

had collapsed in Morrison Street were acquired in con

nection with the re-construction of the Old Western

14 -

Market and further extensive areas were resumed at

Kowloon Point to provide a site for the terminus of the

Railway. Leg . – 31 Ordinances (21 amendment)

passed : Ordinances relating to the N.T. consolidated :

the principal other matters dealt with were -- copyright,

crown suits, lepers, midwives, oaths, and volunteer

reserre .

1911 .

Pr. Ev. - Preparation of revised edition of Ordi

nances begun by Sir F T. PIGGOTT ( March ). By an

Agreement dated 8/5 between Great Britain and China

no Indian pium permitted to be im ; orted into China

unless accompanied by certificate of Indian Government

that such opinn was exported from India for consumption

in China. Coronation of HI.M. KING GEORGE V celebrated

( 22/6 ). II.M. Government made the Colony a grant of

£ 12,000 for the year 1911-12 on account of loss of opiumi

14.Venue . Board of Chinese Verpacular Primary Educa

tion constituted ( 7/9 ). Chinese Section Kowloon -Canton

Railway opened for through traffic ( 4/10 ). Revolutionary

movement in China reflected in Colony by some rioting

( 6/11 ). Peace Preservation Ordinance proclaimed ( 29/11 ) .

Viany cases of disorderliness, assaults and petty thefts,

Armed military patrols paraded the streets daily. Tr. &

Ind. During the early part of the year trade prospects

were favourable, but the unrest in Kwang Tung province

considerably curtailed credit, and business, especially in

The import trade, suffered severely: Money was easy at

the beginning of the year but became tight during the

latter months. The imports of raw sugar showed a further

falling off since 1910. The opium trade was greatly affected

by the ( pium Agreement of May. Prices fluctuated greatly

and certified opium reached the abnormal figure of $ 5,000

iu September, only to decline later. The actual imports

and exports show a decrease of roughly 30 % as compared

with 1910. The total of the shipping entering and

clearing at Ports in the Colony amounted to 513,570

- 45


vessels of 36,179,152 tons. This decrease as compared

with 1910 is largely due to the unrest in China and strikes

in the l'pited Kingdom . The flour trade was particularly

good, the receipts in Hongkong being nearly doubled.

The price of rice was high and fluctuated greatly, and the

Hongkong rice merchants lost heavily . Silk, piece goods,

yarn and coal all suffered from the political unrest during

the latter half of the year. A few firms benefited by a

boom in fancy goods, European clothes, hats and boots

which was the direct result of the revolution . Ex .

change was fairly steady with a slight upward tendency

towards the end of the year when it stood at 1 /10,7.

P.W. - The new building erected between Connaught

and Des Vaux Roads for the accommodation of the Post

Office, Treasury, & c ., was completed and occupied in

the middle of the year. The following other buildings

were also completeli : -Kowloon Market : No. 2 Police

Station (reconstructed and enlarged ) : Tsun Wan Police

Station : two Government. Paviliovs (reconstructed as

permanent structures ) : Hospital, & c., at Quarantine

Station, Lai Chi Kok : Staff Quarters at Kennedy Town

Hospital : Workshops and Sheds for dustcarts, &c. , at

the City Disinfecting Station and Quarters for Searchers,

Imports and Exports Office. Two public latrines in

Mee Lun Street and Rutter Street and a trough closet

under the ramp leading to the Government Civil Hospital

were constructed . A road was constructed to the west of

the Peak Tramway connecting Bowen and May Roads

and sundry improvements were carried out in Wongnei

chong and Shaukiwan Roads. In the New Territories, the

road from Castle Peak Bay was completed as far as Au Tau

l'olice Station and the section of the same road extending

from San Tin to Au Ha Gap was also completed. A

portion of the last-mentioned section extending from Fan

Ling Railway Station to Au Ha Gap was utilized for the

construction of a light railway which was extended

eastwards to Shataukok. Important nullah -training works

were carried out in the valleys both north and south of

Magazine Gap, in the neighbourhood of the Military

Hospital on Bowen Road, at Shaukiwan and at Pokfulam.

- 16

Two new flushing tanks for the low level sewers of

Victoria were constructed and extensive drainage works

were carried out at Monykoktsui, Shamshuipo and Shauki

wan West . Leg . - 65 Ordinances (43 annendment)

passed : Ordinances relating to liquors consolidated : the

principal other matters dealt with were — Chinese partner

ships, companies, Crown Solicitors , electricity supply,

interpretation, Mercantile Bank note issue, money lenders,

revision of Ordinances, societies, and University.

1912 .

Governor Sir Francis llenry May, K.C.M.G., 4.7.1912.

(Mr. Claud Severn administered from 16.3.12 to 3.7.12 ).

Pr. Ev.- Importation of Persian Opium into China

prohibited from 1st January. Disturbed condition of

adjacent Chinese Territory owing to withdrawal of military

posts along, frontier resulted in some serious raids into

British territory . Indian troops drafted to various points

along frontier ( 26/6 ), withdrawn ( 30/11 ). Embaryo

placed by Canton Authorities of limestone from

Kuangtung for Green Island Cement Co. ( July ). Sir

HENRY MAY on landing was fired at by Chinese fanatic

but escaped unhurt ( 317) . Cheung Chau Police Station

attacked by pirates and three Indian Constables killed

( 19/8 ) . Joint expedition by Portuguese and Chinese to

eradicate pirates from island of Wong Kam near Macao

proved abortive (20/8 ). Boycott of Low Level Tramway

on account of their refusal to accept Chinese subsidiary

coins began (November ). Tr. ' & Ind.- Exchange

during the year showed a distinct rise owing to the

projected borrowings in China, good barvests in India,

and the forced buying of silver by the Indian Government

to replenish their reserve. In December it stood at 2/1 .

The Indian Yarn trade was fair and keen interest was

shewri by Chinese dealers in the product of the local mill.

Piecegoods clearances were fair but business was generally

unprofitable. The trade in woollens was also fair.

17 -

Sundries business was excellent during the first half of

the year. The market was still however suffering from

excessive speculation induced by the demand for European

articles of clothing. The Silk Market suffered indirectly

through the Balkan trouble and the Presidential elections

in America. Trasle in matting was fairly satisfactory .

An important business was done in Metal, especially

Silver, Quicksilver, Nailrods, Lead, Copper, Tin and

Yellow Metals at greatly advanced prices brought about

partly through labour troubles and advanced transport

rates. The consumption of Kerosine Oil was about the

same as in 1911 , but prices were lower than in previous

years owing to severe competition between the two import

ing Companies. The consumption was interfered with in

the latter half of the year by difficulty of native junk

transportation through piracy. The Flour trade male

great strides, there being imported nearly 200,000 bags of

American Flour more than in 1911 which was a record

year but fluctuations in prices resulted in heavy losses to

importers and there was much speculation. The demand

for Rice was at first small but increased substantially,

notably from Japan. There were considerable fluctuations

in the price of Opium mostly in a downward direction and

during the revolution Patna declined to $ 2,965 . Violation

of treaty rights, extensive smuggling of uncertificated

opium and presidential mandates ordering the entire

abolition of the trade within the year all contributed to a

situation which was extremely anxious for those interested.

The total shipping entered and cleared amounted to

488,649 vessels of 36,735,149 tons, the decrease as com

pared with 7911 being due entirely to a large falling off

in the number of steam launches and junks formerly

employed in local trade. P.W.- The new building for

the Courts of Justice was completed in the beginning of

the year and was formally opened by His Excellency the

Governor on 15th January, 1912. The following other

buildings were also completed :- Additional Storey and new

Wing to Yaumati English School : Market and Slaughter

House, Aberdeen : Stables near the Disinfecting Station,

Yaumati : Lighthouse and Quarters, Kap Sing Island :


Additional Wing to the Maternity Hospital. The construc

tion of the road on the east side of the Peak Tramway con

necting Chamberlain and Plantation Roads was completed

and extended down the hillside towards Barker Road

with which it will eventually be connected. Sundry

improvements were carried out io the Bonham and Wony

neichong Roads, and the forming of the streets in connec

tion with the Tai Hang Village Improvement Scheme was

completed. In Kowlovų, the approaches to No. 2 Railway

Bridge from Chatbam and Gascoigne Roads were improved

and in the New Territories the construction of the roadls

from San Tin to Au Tau and Kam Tin to Au Tau was

commenced . Important nullah -training works, amounting

to over 4,000 feet in length were carried out in the

neighbourhood of Shaukiwan, Wongneichong and Pokfu

lam as well as in the City, the Hill District and Kowloon.

The sewer in Craigmin Road in the Hill District and the

stormwater drains in Hill and Bonham Roads were

extended and the large drainage works at Shamshuipo and

Kowloon City were completed . The filling in of a large

area to form a new site for Ap Liu Village, near Sham

shuipo, was also completed . Extensive purchases of land

to the south of Salisbury Road, Kowloon, required for the

terminal station of the Kowloon -Canton Railway were

effected . Leg .-- 13 Ordinances ( 22 Amendment) passed :

the principal other matters dealt with were - advertisements

regulation, airships, boycott prevention , Chinese Congreg :l

tional Church, Chinese marriage preservation , criminal

sessions, copyright repeal, crown solicitors, deportation,

final revision of ordinances, foreign copper coin, full court,

holidays, innkeepers, limited partnerships, revenue officers

power of arrest and vehicles and traffic regulation.

1913 .

(Mr Claud Severn administered from 21.8.13 to 24.12.13 .

Pr. Ev . - Re - constituted Appeal Court under the

Presidency of Sir Havilland de Sausmarez opened ( 2/1 ).

Certain districts contemplated by the Government to be

- 19 –

proclaimed as boycott areas announced ( 4/1 ) . The boycott

of the Low Level Tramway which commenced in November

of the preceding year came to an end early in February. A

Cadet Company in connection with the Hongkong Volunteer

Corps formed ( March). SS. Tai On pirated ( 2/4). АA

Day of Prayer for China in Christian Churches appointed

by the Government of China ( 27/1 ). A bomb factory

seized at Tai Kok Tsui (3/7 ). Independence of the

kwangtung Province proclaimed by Governor -General

Chan Kiring-ming ( 1817 ) . Lung ihai-kwong

( advanced

from Kwongsi to restore the authority of the Central

Government arrived at Canton ( 11/8 ). Diocesan Girls' .

School opened (September ). Many piracies occurred in

the waters of the Canton River delta throughout the year.

Tr. & Ind .-- Exchange rose during the summer months

13 the result of the issue of the Quintuple Loan and Indian

purchasers of silver but generally the tendency was

downward in consequence of the suspension of the Indian

Specie Bank In December it stood at 1/11 ). The Indian

Yarn trade was the smallest since 1906. Piecegoods may

be said to have had an average year . The Woollen tra le

was bad and there were heavy stocks for which an outlet

could n it be found . The Sundries market was suitering

heavily from the effects of over-speculation during the

tirst and second revolution and there were many failures

among the smaller dealers. Japanese competition was

strong. The Silk Market was exceptionally good . Exports

of Cassia were at the lowest they have been during the

past 20 years. The Matting industry was very much

hampered owing to the uncertainty of duties due to the

U. S. A. tariff' revision. Prices were low and very unre

munerative to manufacturers. The Metal business opened

with boom prices but these were not maintained and declines

in all lines set in. The consumption of Kerosine Oil shewed

a decrease as compared with 1912 due to the general unrest

of the people in South China. The Flour import for the

year amounted to 5,176,623 bags of a total approximate

value of $ 11,000,000. Imports from America 4,774,623

bags, Canada 320,000, Australia 82,000, a total reduction

on 1912 imports of 518,000 bags. The demand for

- 50

Canadian flour continued to increase . The new crops of

Rice were quite up to expectations and the prospects for

1914 were good. The Indian ( pium trade was at an

absolute standstill. In accordance with the British

Government's agreemest with China no further importa

tions of opium were permissible until existing stocks were

exhausted . Prices were - Patra $ 5,650-5,875 , Benares

$ 5,475-5,700, Malwa $ 4,900-5,000. Persian, (the trade

in which is restricted to Japan ), was $ 1,150. The total

Shipping entered and cleared at the Port amounted to

490,225 vessels of 37,7 42,982 tons which compared with

the figures for 1912 shows an increase of 1,609 vessels of

1,007,933 tons. P.W. - The following new buildings

were completed during the year : -- Sanitary Inspectors?

Office and Quarters, Wantsai District, in Queen's Road

tast ; New 2 -storeyed south block of the Western Market

at junction of Bonbam Strand and Morrison Street ; New

Operating Theatre to the Government Civil Hospital ;

Extension to the Government Slaughter House , Kennedy

Town ; Extension of the Belilios Public School in

Hollywood Road ; Western District Sanitary Office and

Quarters, Pokfulam Road ; Stables for Sanitary Department

at Leighton Hill Road ; Vegetable and Fruit Market at

Yaumati ; Extensions to Royal Observatory ; Police

Station at Cheung Chau in the New Territories. Impro

vements and extensions were carried out to the following

roads : — Wong -nei-chong Road,, Belchers Street, Hau

Fung Lane, Reclamation Street, Argyle Street, Canton

Road, and Mody Road. In the New Territories, the San

Tin -Au Tau and the Kam Tin - Au Tau Roads were

completed and also some short lengths of roads in the

neighbourhood of Fan Ling and Sheung Siui. Close on

6,000 lineal feet of nullahs were trained in the neighbour

hood of Shaukiwan, Wongreichong Pokfulam , as will as

in the City, Hill District and Kowloon. Considerable

extensions of the existing diamage System in Hongkong

and Kowloon were carried out a large area in the neighbour

hood of Shamshuipo was filled in to provide sites for those

inhabitants of that village who had been dislodged by

improvements carried out there. Extensive water work's


were in progress during the year : --the construction of a

new impounding reservoir to contain 1,500 million gallons

at Tytam Tuk and the erection of a new Pumping Station

in Pokfulam Road to supply water to the Hill District.

The construction of aa service reservoir and filter beds at

Shaukiwan was completed . Leg.--30 Ordinances ( 14

Amendment) passed : one Ordinance to re ,, eal the Sugar

Convention Ordinance subsequently disallowed. The most

important matters dealt with were : --General Loan and

Inscribed Stock , Prohibition of the Circulation of Foreign

Notes, Prohibition of the ( Circulation of Foreign Silver and

Nickel Coins, Steam Launches and River Trade Steamers

(Protection against Piracy ), and Education.


Pr. Ev . - Presidential Mandate issued in China

«declaring kweiw : Cheng, Kalyan, Dolon - Sor, Chinfeng,

Taonaniu, Lieng -kow, Hulutao in North China open

to international trade ( January ). Jr. Ellis Kadoorie

offered to Lady May $ 15,000 towards an Institute in

Hongkong to be called the “ Helena May Institute for

Women ( January). Supreme Court of Hongkong


sanetioned removal of Morrison Library from the City

Hall to University of Hongkong ( March ). During

March two steamers ( hildar and Shingtai were pirated

while in April the S.S. Tai On was attacked and burned

off Kio . Many pirates afterwards brought to trial and

executed in Canton. Floods in the West River, great

loss of life and property ( June). A sum of $ 50,000 was

voted by the Hongkong Legislative Council and a Com

mittee was appointed to raise a public subscription for

food relief purposes ( July ). Death of Sir Kai Ho Kai,

Kt ., C.M.G., ( 21/7 ). Austria -Hungary declared war on

Servia ( 28/7 ) . "Germany declared war on Russia ( 1/8 ) .

War declared by Great Britain on Germany at 11 p.11 .

4/8 . France declared war on Austria -Hungary ( 10/8 ) .

War declared by Great Britain on Austria-Hungary at 12

m.n. 12/8 . Japan declared war against Germany ( 23/8) .

- 52

War declared between Great Britain and Turkey ( 5/11 ) .

Supreme Court of Hongkong declared a Prize Court

( 21/8) . Prince of Wales' National Relief Fund opened.

$ 100,000 voted by the Hongkong Legislative Council

( 22/10 ) . Fall of Ísingtau (i7/11

/11). .

Tr. & Ind.--Ex

change presented no novel features until the outbreak of

war which caused a serious slump, rates on 4th and 5th

August being 1/87, but on the 11th Angust recovered to


1 / 11.1 . At thie end of the year however they ruled

between 1/87 and 1/9 ! T.T. Indian Yarn trade had an

unsatisfactory year, the losses suffered equalling those of

1906. During the early part of the year there were

occasional upward fluctuations ; the European war caused

aa decline which in November reached 25 per cent. The

total turnover was 155,000 bales against 125,000 for 1913

and 180,000 for 1912. Piece-goods had a very bad year

owing to the Hoods in the West River, depreciation of

kwang Tung notes, and the European upheaval. Fancies

and Novelties began fairly well but fell away. The

Woollen trade was bad and large stocks remained on band.

Sundries business was not satisfactory. Stocks were

heavy and demand poor. Trade in better class sundries

tended to get more and more into the hands of the big

department stores and the old fashioned shop keepers had to

tiirn their attention more to cheap Japanese sundries .

The Tailoring and Outfitting trade was poor, and many

shops had to close before the end of the year. The Silk

Market which opened very promisingly and continued

good for the first half of the year became greatly restricted

on account of the unprecedented West River floods

causing destruction to the mulberry trees. The European

War brought about the complete collapse of the trade.

Exports to Europe 22,928 bales as against 37,300 in 1913,

and Exports to America 16,967 bales as against 18,800 .

The export ot Cassia Oil was spasmodic all through the year .

Prices averaged about $ 155 per picul for 70/75 per cent.,

$ 165 per picul for 75/80 per cent., $ 175 per picul for 80/85

per cent . Matting and mats exported to America fell off

by about one-third in comparison with the preceding year .

kerosine consumption increased. The flour import for


the year from America was 3,516,420 bags and from

Canada 423,334, making a total of 3,939,754, a decrease

of 1,236,769 on the previous year. Australian shipments

were small. The demand for Canadian flour continues to

increase. The demand for rice from America, South

Africa and Canada almost doubled itself. The importation

of Indian Opium entirely stopped . Stocks of certified

opium in Hongkong and Shanghai amounted to 7,800

chests. The formation of an opium combine gave the

importers an opportunity of clearing holdings before the

trade was abolished . Prices ranged as follow : -Patna

Nei S5,975-9,325, Patna Old $ 3,750-9, 300 , Benares

New $ 5,800-9,050 , Bep : res Old $ 5,575-9,150, Malwa

$ 5,550-9,150 . The total Shipping entered and cleared

amounted to 517,439 vessels of 36,756,951 tons, an

increase over 1913 of 27,211 vessels but a decrease of

986,031 net register tons. P.W. — The following build

ings were completed during the year : - New Magistracy

(with the exception of certain internal fittings ), Subor

dinate Officers' Quarters at Breezy Point and Mount l'arish

in Victoria and adjoining King's Park, Kowloon , stables

for Sanitary Department adjoining No. 1 Police Station,

two underground trough closets, one in Pottinger Street

and the other in D’Aguilar Street, a urinal at Happy

Valley, additions to the Printing Office, Victoria Gaol,

and additions and alterations to the Hung Hom Police

Station.. The following new roads were completed during

the year :-the first portion of the road on the North face

of the Victoria Peak' commencing from Victoria Gap and

the road to give access to the lots situated on: the ridge to

the East of Happy Valley. Belchers Street was extended

through J.L. 239 and the old road from Deep Water Bay

to bankiwan through Stanley was improved by diverting

and widening it at several points. In the New Terri

tories the extension of the road at Castle Peak Bay and

the construction of the pier there were practically com

pleted during the year as was also the road from Taipo to

Fanling with the exception of two bridges. Upwards of

10,000 lineal feet of siream courses were trained in the

neighbourhood of Shaukiwan and Pokfulam in the City


- 54

and Hill Districts and in Kowloon. In the New Terri

tories, a small amount of training was carried out in the

vicinity of the Railway Bungalows at Taipo. Consider

able extensions of sewers in connection with new building

lots were carried out in Hongkong and Kowloon . The

reclamation in front of K.M.L.s 29-31 was completed.

The construction of the Depôt for coaling and repairing

Government launches was commenced on a part of this

reclamation and at the close of the year the slipway for

Government launches was nearing completion. Good

progress was made with the construction of the masonry

dam of the new impounding reservoir at Tytam Tuk and

with the laying of the neressary mains and foundations

for additional pumping plant. The new pumping station

on Pokfulam Road to supersede the one on Bonham Road

was completed and brought into use during the year.

The construction of extensive filter beds and of a large

service reservoir for the supply of the Western District of

the City was undertaken towards the close of the year.

The construction of the large breakwater and the other

works in connection with the 1 yphoon Refuge at Mong

koktsui were nearing completion at the end of the year.

Leg . - 33 Ordinances ( 19 Amendments) passed. The

principal matters dealt with were : --Opium , Cremation,

Seditious Publications, Public Lighting, Obscene Publica

tions, Dentistry , Wild Birds and Game Preservation,

Piracy Prevention, Trading with the Enemy, Special

Police Reserve and Alien Enemies ( Winding up) .


Pr. Ev . - Tiger killed in New Territories. I Euro

pean and 2 Indian Constables died from wounds (8/3).

Hannametal restored to owner by Hongkong Prize Court

( 1/4 ) . Bank of China anthorised to issue 3,000,000

dollars in subsidiary notes ( 22/4) . Japan presented

Ultimatum to China ( 715 ). Chinese Government submitted

to Japan's demands ( 9/5 ). A sum of £4,500 remitted to

the Overseas Club for two aeroplanes for the British

- 55

Government. One presented by the partners of the Tai

Yan Bank and the other by general subscriptions among

the British and Chinese communities ( 2015 ). British

Chamber of Commerce inaugurated in Shanghai ( 25/5 ) .

Shanghai suffered from a severe typhoon (28/7 ). Disaster

in Kwongtung Province by the flooding of the West River.

Thousands lost their lives and thousands more were made

homeless. Fire in Canton ;; estimated that 10,000 people

perished. The Hongkong Government voted $50,000 in

addition to a relief fund raised by the Tung Wah Hospital

( 29/7 ) . American Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai

organised ( 18/8 ) . Their Majesties the King and Queen

presented their portraits to the Colony: (23/9). New

French Convent orphanage opened by Lady May (6/10).

Open -air fête in the Public Gardens in aid of the British

Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem

(27/10 ) . Important judgment delivered by Sir Samuel

Evans, President of the Prize Court, on the status of

Arnhold, Karberg & Co. ( 23/11 ) . Death of the Hon . Mr.

E. A. HEWETT, C.M.G , (24/11) . Election of the Hon. Mr.

1 ). LANDALE as Chairman of the Hongkong General Cham

ber of Commerce ( 9/11 ). President Şuan Shih - kai invited

to ascend dragon throne by the provincial delegates at

Peking (13/12). Memorial stone of new Harbour Refuge

at Mongkoktsui laid by His Excellency the Governor

( 16/12). Tr. & Ind.— Exchange showed a steady.rising

tendency beginning in January with ls. 9d. and ending

in December with ls. 11d . There were no violent fluctua

tions during the year. The market in Indian Yarn ruled

steady for the most of the year ; the volume of business

transacted during the year was 108,000 bales, being

30,700 bales more than in 1914. In the piecegoods trade

there was a good business in fancy goods, but big stocks

of grey and white shirtings accumulated owing to the

shortage of dyes. Woollen goods reached a very high

price owing to the fact that Home spinners and weavers

were busy on war contracts ; an opportunity was there

fore presented of disposing of stocks barboured in the

Colony since 1911. In October and November silk

prices reached a very high figure. Exports to Europe


amounted to 13,474 bales as against 22,928 in 1914; and

exports to America 26,800 bales as against 16,967. There

was not much business in opium , stocks havir.g been sold

to the Chinese authorities. ' Imports of kerosene increase i

by 10 per cent. Business in metals was almost at a stand

still for want of material. Large profits were made in

shipping, freights reaching very high rates. The total

shipping entered and cleared during the year amonated

to 531,602 vessels of 33,884,919 tons. Floods in the

( anton province had

had a most disastrous effect on trade

during the year. P.W.- The following buildings were

completed during the year : - Married Quarters for Police

in Caine Road , a new

new block in the lower yard of

Victoria Gaol (containing 78 cells ), a School in the Hill

Dis: rict, new P.W.D. Stores in Bullock Lane, a low -power

Wireles Telegraph Station at Cape D'Aguilar, an addition

to the Land Office at Tai Po to provide quarters for a

Land Bailiff and a Police Station at Lok Ma Chau in the

New Territories . A new road, 20 feet wide, connecting

the old Aberdeen -Stanley Road with Deep Water Bily was

completed. Upwards of 5,000 lineal feet of stream

courses were trained in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen ,

in the City and Hill District, and in Kowloon. In the

New Territories, the training of the streams in the vicinity

of the Railway bungalows at Tai Po was extended .

Considerable extensions of sewers in connection with new

building lots were carried out in Hongkong and Kowloon.

The construction of the large breakwater and other works

in connection with the Typhoon Refuge at Mongkoktsui

was completed in August and a commemoration stone was

laid by H.E. the Governor in December. Good progress

was made with the construction of the musonry dam of

the new impounding reservoir at Tytam Tuk whilst the

laying of two new pumping mains and the extension of

the pumpiny station to accommodate the additional plant

were completed. Good progress was also made with the

construction of extensive filter beds and a large service

reservoir for the supply of the Western District of the

City. The whole of I.L. 3 was resumed in connection

with a scheme for the extension of the Central Police


Station . Leg.- 35 Ordinances ( 14 Amendment )

passed. The principal matters dealt with were:-Seditious

Publications (Possession ), Estate Duty, Post Office,

Asiatic Emigration, Companies, Deportation , Military

Stores (Exportation ), Declaration of Ultimate Destination,

Alien Enemies (Winding up ), Trading with the Enemy,

and Travellers Restriction .

1916 .

( Mr. Claud Severn alministered from 6.11.16 to 8.12.16 .)

Pr. Ev . - Yaumati Dispensary opened by His Ex

cellency the Governor (25/1) . Inauguration of new

Catholic Orphanage at West Point (2/3 ). Sailors of the

Royal Navy on service in the China Sea entertained by

Hongkong ladies ( 18/3 ) . Rousing War Speech by His

Excellency the Governor at the annual dinner of Hongkong

Volunteer Corps Sergeants' Mess ( 25/3 ). Establishment of

a school for study of Chinese suggested at Annual Meeting

of the Hongkong Chamber of Commerce (28/3 ). Wreck

of the S.S. Chiyo Maru near eastern extremity of Lema

group of islands. All passengers rescued ( 31/3) . Rival

factions met at Hoi Chu, Canton , to discuss ways and

means of preserving peace in Kwongtung Province. The

Conference ended in bloodshed ( 12/4 ). New Pavilion ou

Hongkong University Athletic Ground declared open by

His Excellency the Governor (3 5) . China Coast Officers'

strike ended , the guild being recognised and extra pay and

bonus granted ( 1415 ). Death of President Yuan Shih

kai ( 6/6 ). Memorial Services in the Union Church and

St. John's Cathedral for Lord Kitchener and for those who

were killed in the naval battle off' Jutland ( 11th and 14th

June ). Canton -Kowloon train attacked by robbers in

Chinese Territory. Casualties were numerous ( 15/6 ).

Chinese Parliament re-opened by President Li Yuan -hung

( 1/8 ) . Political unrest for a considerable period in

Kwongtung culininated in attacks on the City of Canton

from the North and West which continued for some weeks.


All business in Canton almost entirely suspended. Hun

dreds killed and the hospitals crowded with wounded

(5/8 ). Hongkong Police Reserve Club opened by His

Excellency the Governor (9/8 ). Opening of the Helena

May Institute ( 12/9 ). Opening of Ellis Kadoorie School

for Indians ( 15/10 ). “ Our Day ” -on

– behalf of the Red

Cross Funds-- total drawings of $ 41,000 effected ( 19/10 ).

“ Heather Day ” in Hongkong, proceeds of £ 1,582 effected

( 1/12 ) . Opening of National Mission (2/12). Tr. &

Ind.— Exchange opened at 1/111': and reached 2/45 in

May ; it then dropped to 2/1 ( 30th June), but again

advanced until it reached 2/43 on the 31st December.

Business transactions in Indian yarn amounted to 141,800

bales during the year, an increase of 33,000 bales over

the previous year. The piece goods market was some

what restricted owing to delay in supplies from Home.

Towarıls the end of the year a large number of orders

were booked as a result of the rising exchange. Business

in white sbirtings still remained dull owing to the scarcity

of dyes. Supplies of woollen goods were short as the

Home mills were occupied in making Army cloth ; prices

were too high to permit ( f much business being done.

Flour imports during the year amounted to 1,604,033

bags, a decrease of 471,086 as compared with 1915.

There was little business in opium . The consumption of

petroleum and its products decreased about 40% during

the year on account of scarcity of tonnage, abnormally

high freight rates, and the disturbed condition of South

China. Metals were in strong demand throughout the

year. The demand for Tin Plates was exceptionally

strong . It was difficult to place orders for Siructural

Steel and Shipbuilding material as American mills were

booked up. The total shipping entered and cleared during

the year amounted to 642,794 vessels of 36,381,459 tons,

an increase of 111,192 vessels and 2,496,538 tons over

1915 . P.W.-The only building worthy of mention,

completed during the year, was a new block of Quarters

for Subordinate Officers (6 houses) on the east side of

Happy Valley. Matsheds were erected at Castle Peak

Bay for occupation as a Police Station. The Creek at Au

- 59

Tau was bridged by a ferro -concrete bridge, thus livking

up Castle Peak Bay with Fanling, Taipo, etc., and the

widening of the road from near Sheung Shui to San Tin

to 20 feet in width was completed. Upwards of 6,500

lineal feet of stream -courses were trained in the neigh

bourhood of the City, Aberdeen, and Pokfulam , and in

Kowloon. Considerable extensions of sewers in connec

tion with new buildings were carried out in Hongkong

and Kowloon. An additional filter- bed, being the fourth ,

in connection with the Kowloon Water Works, was

constructed below the Taipo Road, near the 5th mile

stone . Somewhat extensive dredging operations off

Kowloon Point in connection with the erection of

a ner vier, 655 feet in length , by the Hongkong &

Kowloon Wharf & Godown Company were complete l.

An additional telephone cable, containing 20 cores, Wils

laid across the Harbour but was unfortunately so seriously

damaged by a vessel during a storın in September that it

had to be taken up again. Good progress was made with

the new impounding reservoir at Tytam Tuk and with the

additional filter beds and service reservoir for the supply

of the Western District of the City . The filling -in, level

ling, and draining of Sookunpoo Valley to form an addi

tional recreation ground also made good progress.

Leg.- 15 Ordinances ( 4 Amendment) passed. The


principal matters dealt with were :-False Passports and

Suspected Persons, Punishment of Incest, Trading with the

Enemy (Extension of Powers) , Marriage of British Subjects

(Facilities ), Registration of Persons, Trading with the

Enemy (Amendment ), Pharmacy and Poisons, Taxation

of Tobacco, War Loan, and Bills of Exchange.

1917 .

(Mr. Claud Severn administered from 10.11.17 to

17.12.17 . )

Pr. Ev.- Joint Conference of the National Medical

Association and the Medical Missionary Association inau

gurated at Canton ( 24/1 ) . Foundation stone of the new


Chinese Y.M.C.A. 'building in Bridges Street laid by the

Bishop of Victoria ( 10 :2 ). Launch of the Autolycus, the

largest ship built in British Overseas Dominions, by the

Taikoo Deckyard and Engineering Co., Ltd. (27/3).

Hongkong Constitutional Reform Association formally

inaugurated at a public meeting in the Theatre Royal

( 3/5 ) . A St. George's Society for Hongkong formed at

a meeting of Englisbmen in the City Hall (31/5) . Re

storationof the Emperor of China by Chang Hsun and the

monarchist party ( 1/7 ). Premises of the Deutsche-Asia

tische Bank, in Queen's Road Central, sold by auction for

$ 335,000 . Tr. & Ind . - Exchange fluctuated between

2/31 and 2/45 until the end of April when a steady

advance was made until it stood at 3/27 at the end of

September ; a sharp decline then took place with subse

quent recovery and the rate on 31st December stood at

3- The yarn market suffered from the violent fluctua

tions in prices during the year. A crisis was at one time

imminent following on a sudden fall in prices coupled

with a rise in exchange. Later in the year, however, the

position improved and some profitable business resulted .

Though Manchester prices continued to rise the enhanced

value of the dollar allowed of a good volume of business

being done in piece goods, the prices of which would

otherwise bave been beyond the reach of the Chinese.

The trade in woollens was negligible owing to high prices.

The trade in Sundries was mostly with Japan and

America, the former supplying most of the articles

formerly imported from Germany. Imports of Flour

amounted to 1,072,089 bags. Due to war conditionis,

Japan took first place with 922,377 bags as against 81,700

in 1916 , while only 11,850 bags were imported from the

United States as against 975,771 in 1916. Business in

opium was practically at a standstill during the year.

The consumption of kerosene increased by 5,000,000

gallons. The metal market generally was good for the

first half year, but later owing to a lessened demand from

Japan prices declined and the year closed with a weaker

tendency. Shipbuilding materials were entirely under

Government control and it was difficult to obtain supplies .


The total shipping entered and cleared during the year

announted to 621,090 vessels of 34,105,067 tons, a

decrease of 21,704 vessels and 2,276,390 on 1916 .

P. W.- The Taitam Tuk Scheme, Second Section,


commenced in 1912 completed October 22nd .

Scheme comprises ( i ) A Storage Reservoir at sea level,

capacity 1,420 million galls. (ir)

ii Extension of existing

Pumping Station to accommodate additional machinery.

(iii) Two additional sets of Pumping Machinery, ench

capable of raising 3 million gallons per day to Taitam

Tunnel. (iv) Two suction mains, 18" diameter and 0:52

mile in length . ( 0) Two rising mains 18" diameter and

1.93 miles in length. The Dam has an extreme length

of 1,255 feet with an extreme height from foundations to

the roadway of 170 feet, to the crest of the overflow 161

feet. Is of cement concrete faced with granite. Pump

ing Machinery, supplied and erected by J. Simpson & Co.

of London, vertical inverted direct-acting type. Engines

triple expansion, piston rods of three cylinders directly

connected to single-acting plunger pumps. Designed to

run at 30 revolutions per minute. Three boilers Lan

cashire type each 26 ' 0 " in length by 7' 0" diameter ; two

capable of running the whole plant. Satisfactory progress

made with the additional Filter Beds and Service Reser

voir for the Western District of the City . Central Police

Station Extension progress substantial. Considerable

road construction and improvements carried out. Coastal

Road from Shamshuipo at Castle Peak commenced.

Existing road from Deep Water Bay to Repulse Bay

widened, regraded, and diverted where necessary for motor

traffic. Road from Fanling to Castle Peak : section from

San Tin to Au Tau widened to 20 feet. Taipo Road ,

between 5th and 9th milestones, widened and improved ,

shortening the section by 3,100 feet. 10,383 lineal feet

of stream -courses trained in the City, Peak, Shaukiwan ,

Pokfulam , and Kowloon Districts. Extensions of the

sewerage systems made in Hongkong, Kowloon, and

Shamshuipo. New Recreation Ground, Sookunpoo Valley,

completed . Leg . - 32 Ordinances ( 12 Amendment)

passed . The principal matters dealt with were :


Crown Land Resumption, Alien Enernies (Winding up)

Amevdient, Trading with the Enemy and Export of

Probibited Goods, Rating ( Special War Rate), Military

Service, Legal Proceedings against Enemies, Liquors,

Deportation , Opium , Ferries, Importation and Exporta

tion, Contracts ( War Restrictions), and Fire and Marine

Insurance Companies Deposit.


(Mr. Claud Severn administered from 12.9.18 to

31.12.18 ).

Pr. Ev.- Sensational affair at Gresson Street be

tween the Police and a gang of armed desperadoes :

Detective Inspector O'Sullivan , Detective Sergeant Clerk,

an Indian constable, and a Chinese detective shot dead ;

Sergeant Wills and one of the principal Chinese detectives

wounded ; two robbers killed, one shot himself, two

escaped, subsequently arrested (22/1). Opening of the

Taitam Tuk reservoir by 9.9.the Governor (2/2 ) .

Serious fire at the shipyards at Cheung-sha-wan : 500

people homeless ( 3/2 ). Earthquake shock felt in Hong

kong : serious damage at Swatow, over 800 people injured

( 13/2 ) . Disaster at the Race Course : collapse of Chinese

matsbeds caused a fire ; over 600 bodies recovered ; racing

abandoned (26/2 ) ; exhaustive enquiry commenced (4/3)

concluded ( 12/4 ). The Bishop of Victoria dedicated, it

St. John's Cathedral, tablet in inemory of the late Dr. J.

M. ATKINSON, former Principal Civil Medical Officer of

Hongkong (20/3). The new pavilion of the Taikoo Bow

ling Club declared open ( 1/6). H.E. the Governor un

veiled tablet in remembrance of the late Rev. N. C. POPE,

St. Andrew's Church, Kowloon ( 717 ) . Indian constable

ran amok at Tai 0 : Sergeant Glendinning killed ( 17/7 ) .

Landslide at Morrison Hill Road : fifty - ton rock crashed

into houses, six killed ( 4/8 ) . Lady May launched the

War Drummer, the first standard ship built in Hongkong

-Hongkong & Whampoa Dock Co. ( 10/8 ). H.E. the


Officer Administering the Government (Hon . Mr. CLAUD

SEVERN, C.M.G.)) opened the new Chinese Y.M.C.A.

( 10/10 ). Armistice celebrations in Hongkong - public

holiday ; special meeting of the Legislative Council ;

thanksgiving services at the local churches ; meeting at

the Hongkong Club ; mass meeting at the Theatre Royal

( 13/11). Memorial services for men who dieil on active

service (29/12). Tr. & Ind.- Exchange opened at 3/

and steadily avlvanced to 3/8 at end of September, when it

fell sharply to 3/2 , recovering subsequently ; the r : te stood

at 341 on 31st December. Violent fluctuatiuns were again

experienced in the yarn market, but importers as well as

Chinese dealers did a fairly profitable trade. The piece

goods trade was adversely affected by the disturbed conci

tions in China, up -country dealers fearing to keep large

stocks. Manchester prices increased considerably during

the year and little new business was placed , European

importers continuing to draw on their old stocks bought

at lower prices. There was a steady advance in the prices

of woollens new stocks of which were for the most part

unobtainable. In the Sundries trade Japan continued to

be the chief source of the supply, war restrictions render

ing most of the regular lines unobtainable in Great Britain

and the U.S.A. Australia supplied many wants, food

stuffs in particular, in a restricted mamer. The year was a

very poor one for the flour trade, owing to high prices and

lack of tonpage. In February the Japanese Government

put an embargo on the export of flour, except under

special licence, and difficulty was experienced in getting

flour from Australia as freight space was very limited .

Imports of flour amounted to only 706,509 bags, of which

42,500 bags came from Japan , 312,009 from Australia ,

and 322,000 from Shanghai. The slump in the opium

market continued during the year. The unsettled state of

the neighbouring province seriously hampered the sale of

kerosene in the interior, especially in Hainan , the Luichow

Peninsula, and Yeungkong. The metal trade was very

profitable during the first half of the year, but the news of

the Armistice klocked the bottom out of the market and

resulted in the cancellation of aa large number of orders.


Little business was done in the soy trade as stocks were

very low owing to shipping difficulties which prevented the

arrival of molasses. Shipments of bristles were much

above normal, due almost entirely to war require

ments. Buyers in both the U.S.A. and Great Britain

complained of the poor quality of the South China

bristles. A good business was done in Ginger and

Human Hair Little business was done in Aniseed Oil

and Cassia Oil . The total of shipping entered and

cleared amounted to 579,541 vessels of 29,518,189 tons,

a decrease of 53,537 vessels and 4,974,484 tons.

P.W. - Market at Shamshuipo completed. Central Police

Station Extension practically at a standstill owing to

difficulty in obtaining steelwork . A new road froin the

north end of Taitam Tuk Dam to Taitam Gap, 20 feet in

width , completed , also a new road, 40 feet wide, west of

Aberdeen Village. Considerable portions of the old road ,

eastward and westward of Aberdeen Village, widened to

30 or 40 feet and otherwise improved for motor trattic .

Extensive improvements to Pokfulam Road in progress.

New Territories l'oad, 20 feet in width , from 3rd inilestone

Taipo Road to the village of Tsün Wan , nearly 6 miles,

completed. Extensive road construction or improvements

in progress, both Hongkong and mainland . Upwards of

3,200 lineal feet of stream -courses trained in the neigh

bourhood of the City, Tsat Tsz Mui, and Kowloon.

Extensions of sewers in connection with new buildings in

Hongkung, Kowloon, and Shamshuipo. Filter Beds and

Service Reservoir for the Western District of the City

nearly completed . Piers hitherto used by ferry launches

between the City and western side of Kowloon Peninsula

resumed by Government. Areas known as Kowloon

Marine Lot 83 and Kowloon Inland Lot 1178, in Hunghom

Bay, resumed by Government at a cost of $ 383,807.90

for future railway and whartage developments. Leg.

15 Ordinances (6 Amendment) passed. The prin

cipal matters dealt with were :-— The Malay States

Extradition Ordinance Repeal, Indecent Exhibitions, Bills

of Exchange ( Time of Noting), Claims against Enemies,

Dangerous Sinoking Prevention, Peak District (Resi

- 65

dence ), General Military Service, Copyright, Anglo

Portuguese Commercial Treaty, and Opium .


( overnor Sir Francis Henry May, K.C.M.G., LL.D.,

( 4.7.191 , retired 28.2.1919.)

(.Mr. ( 'laud Serern, C.V.G., administered from 1.1.19. to


( Governor Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs, K.C.J.G.,

assumed alministration 30.9.19 ).

Pr. Ev.-Mr. Wei Yuk created Knight Bachelor in

New Year Honours ( 1/1 ) . Meeting in City Hall in

celebration of the termination of the war (5/1 ). Meeting

in City Hall under auspices of Constitutional Reform

Association ( 9/1 ). Retirement of Sir Francis HENRY

MAY, K.C.M.G., L1.1)., from governorship of the Colony

annomced as from end of February, 1919 ( 22/1). Joint

session of Executive and Legislative Councils ; resolution

passed acknowledging the services rendered to the Colony

by Sir FRANCIS HENRY May ( 25/1 ) . Arrival of Vice

Admiral Sir F. C. Tudok, Commander - in -Chief, China

Station ( 13/2 ). Víeeting of Hongkony War Charities

Committee; organisation wound up ( 3/3 ). His Excellency

the Officer Administering the Government ( Mr. Claud)

SEVERN, C.M.G.) opened the new University Medical Schools

(2315 ). Peace Celebrations (18/7 and 1917 ). Disturbances

owing to shortage and high price of rice ( 26/7 ) ; Govern

ment relieves situation by buying rice and selling at cost

price. Last parade ofthe Hongkong Police Reserve ( 20/9 ).

Arrival of ' llis Excellency the Governor, Sir REGINALD

Edward STUBBS, K.C.M.G. (30/9) . Meeting of Kowloon

residents to form a Kowloon Residents' Association ( 1/12 ) .

Escape of four prisoners from Victoria Gaol ; Warsler

Speed and an Indian Warder murdered ( 15/12) . Last


parade of Hongkong Defence Corps ( 17/12) . Tr. &

Ind.- Exchange opened at 3/4 and dropped to 3/03 in

March , when it rose until on 15th December it reached

6/2 . It fell to 4/101 by the 31st December. In the Yarn

market the general tendency was towards higher prices.

A strong demand for cloth existed and both manufacturers

and traders of cotton goods experienced a very prosperous

year. The year was on the whole a good one in the piece

goods business. Manchester prices dropped about March,

but a rapid rise soon followed due to heavy buying by

Shanghai and other Chinese centres. The increased prices

were, however, fortunately off-set by the continue rise

in Exchange. Little business was done in woollens owing

to the high prices ruling in the United Kingdon. British

Sundries began during the year to find their nay to China

in increasing quantities. With the Japanese boycott there

a rose a certain demand for Chinese manufacturer goods.

There was no market for opium . The price of kerosene

fell 70 cents on packed and 45 cents on bulk , due to the

advance in sterling Exchange and the lower cost of tin

plates. The metal market was dull and prices fluctuated

considerably. Owing to shipping difficulties and the high

Exchange very little business was done in Soy, Aniseed

Oil and Cassia Oil . A large business was done in

Feathers and Human Hair. There was practically no

export trade in Bristles ; owing to excessive adulteration

foreign buyers would not touch the South China article

without certain guarantees, which merchants were unable

to give. The total of shipping entered and cleared

amounted to 649,168 vessels of 33,615,169 tons, an

increase of 69,627 vessels and 6,096,980 tons. P.W.

Central Police Station Extension practically completed ;

also an extension of the Harbour Office building, to

accommodate Iinports and Exports Office and an exten

sion of the Lunatic Asylum . A third storey added

to the Public Works Department Annexe. In Kow

loon a second block of quarters for Subordinate Officers

(6 houses) completed and, on Lantao Island, a mar

ket at Tai )0 completed . Improvements to Pokfulain

Road continued and the remaining two sections of motor


road round the Island, extending froin Repulse Bay to

Taitam Tuk and from Taitam Gap to Sbaukiwan , com

pleted . Widening of Queen's Road East undertaken . In

Kowloon, a new road to Taikoktsui completed. 20- It.

road from Tsiin Wan to Castle Peak completed, thus

forming a circular route, 57 miles in length, on the main

land . Tai Po Roard Improvements continued. 3,400 lineal

feet of stream - courses trained in Hongkong and Kowloon.

Main sewer laid along east side of Mount Kellett to

connect with outfall sewer from Matilda Hospital . Filter

Beds and Service Reservoir for Western District of the

City cornpleted. Beaconsfield Arcade resumed at a cost

of $ 275,000 and R.B.L. 111 at a cost of $ 31,002. K.F.L.

11 resined at a cost of $ 41,076.73 for extension of

Coronation Road north wards. Leg.-23 -

– Ordinances ( 7

Aviendment) passed . The principal matters dealt

with were :-Non - Ferrous Metai Industry , Banking

Business ( Prohibited Control), Termination of the Present

War ( Definition ), Marine Stores Protection, Enemy Aliens

Restriction , Rice and Military Service Repeal.


Pr. Ev.-- Appointment by H.E. the Governor of

Committees to consider the development of the Colony's

economic resources and the question of the protection of

life and property during typhoons ( 10/1 ). Honorary

degree of LL.D. conferred on Sir HENRY MAY, G.C.M.G.,

and Hon. Mr. Claud) Severn, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary,

by the University of Hongkong ( 16/1 ). Kowloon Resi

dents' Association formed at a ineeting in the City Hall

( 20/1 ). Formation of Aero Club of Hongkong ( 3/2) .

Destructive fire at West Point ; 53 deaths ; damage esti

mated at $ 1,500,000 ( 3/2 ) New Hongkong Volunteer

Force Bill passed ( 5/2) . Honorary degree of LL.D. con

ferred on Sir JOHN

John JORDAN, P.C., K.C.B., G.C.I.E. ,

K.C.M.G., by the University of Hongkong ( 7/3) . Peace

Celebrations Executive Committee decided on erection of

Cenotaph on site in front of Hongkong Club ( 16/3 ) ;



decision confirmed at meeting of General Peace

Celebrations Committee ( 21/3 ). Strike of Chinese

engineers and fitters employed in Hongkong dockyards

( 3/4 ); strike of fitters of Hongkong Tramway Company

( 10/4 ) ; settlement reached ( 20/4 ). First meeting of

newly -appointed Board of Education ( 14/4) . Arrival in

Hongkong of H.R.H. the Crown Prince of Roumania

( 10/6 ). Government announced its decision to contribute

$ 1,000,000 to the Endowment Fund of the University of

Ilongkong, and to meet the existing indebtedness of the

University, amounting to $570,000 , in accordance with

the recommendations of the Hongkong University Com

mission (( 13/9 ). Arrival of new Bishop of Victoria, Dr.

DUPPCY, in succession to Dr. LANDER, retired ( 3/11). Sir

MAURICE FITZMAURICE arrived to inspect and report on

the development of Hongkong Harbour ( 13/11 ). Public

Meeting in City Hallapproved of the erection, as a War

Memorial, of аa Club for the joint use of the Services and

civilians, to be run under Y.M.C.A. management ( 2/12).

Arrival of Major -General Sir George M. KIRKPATRICK ,

new G.O.C. China, ( 29/12 ) . Tr. && Ind.-- Exchange

opened at 4/11 and rose to 5/8 on 2nd March , when it

began to fall rapidly until it touched 3/6 on 10th June,

rising to 4/4 on 15th September, and decliving to 3/04, on

20th December. The rate on 31st December was 3/2.

The Yarn market was dull ; demand was very slack owing,

to a great extent, to the civil war in South China. Prices

fell rapidly in April following on a heavy slump in Japan

where there were large accumulations brought about by

the holding back of Yarn byspeculators. This collapse

demoralized the markets in China and India. In piece

goods Manchester prices steadily advanced , but later in

the year, owing tv an absence of demand, prices declined

by about 50% . During the latter half of the year busi

ness was slack and the year closed with fairly large stocks

in the Colony. As a result of the rise in Exchange large

orders for woollens were placed in Bradford early in the

year, though prices were abnormally high, and even when

the dollar began to decline orders were placed in the hope

of a recovery in exchange. The expected recovery did


not materialize and the year closed leaving importers with

stocks of high priced goods on which heavy losses had to

be faced . The Sundries tradle was not a good one chiefly

as a result of the high prices prevailing early in the year.

Strikes in the United Kingdom interfered to a considerable

extent with deliveries. Šotor car sales were good during

the latter half of the year. There was no business in

opium ; there are now only a few chests in the Colony

which are left on the hands of former opium merchants.

The kerosene trade generally was normal, though some

large dealers suffered losses through looting and incen

diarism during the fighting in the interior. Business was

quiet in Japanese buyers, having

the metal market.

greatly overbougbt, disposed of their surplus stocks at

very low prices, and firms that could finance it bought up

much of this stock and stored it . There was, therefore,

practically no purchasing in foreign inarkets . Little busi

ness was done in Yunnan Tin , Bristles, Ginger, Feathers,

and Cassia Oil. A good business was done in Aniseed

Oil. Exports of Human Hair approximated 7,051 piculs,

valued at $ 163,429. Exports of Mats and Matting

amounted to about £ 507,360. The total of shipping

entered and cleared amounted to 683,497 vessels of

40,122,527 tons, an increase of 34,329 vessels and

4,507,358 tons over 1919. P.W. Central Police Station

and Harbour Office extensions completed . In Kowloon

a Fire Brigade Station was completed . The erection of

several houses for Government Officers was commenced .

A road commencing at Morrison Gap Road and terminat

ing at Wanchai Gap was completed as was also the Findlay

koad extension . Extensive widening and improvements

were carried out to the Shaukiwan Road . In Kowloon a

road commencing in the Kowloon City Road and termin

ating near the New Station of the China Light & Power

Co. was completed . A considerable extent of the low

lying areas east of Shanghai Street and vorth of Fife

Street was brought up to the district formation level with

tilling obtained from the cutting being carried out in con

nection with the extension of Coronation Road northwards .

Extensive improvements to the Taipo Road between the

70 -

9th and 18th milestones were nearly completed. Progress

was made with the widening of Wanchai and Queen's Roads.

Upwards of 4,000 lineal feet of stream courses were

trained . A section of the 18" main which will eventually

connect the Eastern Filter Beds was laid from Wong-nei

chong Village to Morrison Gap Road. A new 18 " supply

main was laid from the Kowloon Filter Beds to Yaumati.

The Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co. , Ltd. made con

siderable extensions to their dockyards at Hunghom by

laying down additional slipways, extending workshops

and providing houses for their stafi'. Leg. - 17

Ordinances ( 6 Amendment) passed. The principal

matters dealt with were :-Foreign Corporations (Execu

tion of Instruments under Seal), Volunteer, Treaty of

Peace Orders, Societies, Plants, and Criminal Intimidation .

Printed by Noronha & Co., 3A , Wyndham Street, Hongkong.










Local. Imperial.

1841 ......


si . 1842 ...







pal 9,535 54,234

ecu 1844 538 189,257

7 of 63,769


22,242 52,545

1845 672 226,998


27,047 29,223

1846 675 229,255


31,079 18,394

1847 694 229,465


25,072 40,302

1848 700 228,818


23,617 11,910

1849 92 293,465


23,527 14,150

1850 883 299,009







TURE . al. Non- General

DITURE . effective Adminis Public Public

Charges . tration . Health . Instruc Public



tion . Wor

$ L



51,896 .06 43.72 2.67 2.68 42.52



. . . DO

34,766 50,393 .05 36.84

3.09 2.70 39,58 17.7




36,419 50,346 .14 36.49

2.78 1.83 39.60 19.1


34,635 41,541 .03 33.89

72,84 2.06 3.17 441


900 18.9



34,830 1.21 28.40

1.50 2.15 39.02 27.7

42,426 39,823 .15 27.12

50,91 1.48 2.36 43.90 24.9

65,498 .33 26.03

62,3 1.23 1.93 38.10 32.3

62,979 239,814

38,? 24.71 1.87 8

2.69 37.82 32.9

66,109 267,468

34, .54 23.02 4.03 59

3.07 39.76 29.58

72,391 .

.79 25.69 ,60

4.79 2.53 35.08 31.19






| Daily Aver Persons P'e

1 bs FRO Total. age Number convicted con Numb In

of Prisoners of Serious of

RAT Offences. Off ion . Govt

in Gaol.

. Schoo


1871 ?

DO 15 , 1,319 446 3 1,29

1872 6,05 1



19, 1,332





( $ 85


1873 4,67


27 1,230 533 1,83


1874 4,3

25 1,151 447 1,93



1875 5,2CS. AVER

In Go

07 37 1,328 567 in



1876 1,11


06 42 1,239 584 1,19

1877 5,70


1878 6,1 :


1879 5,50

10ʻ8H6 876'690ʻI LIOʻIG 77 & ʻol

(Loʻ978 1. Duis




. nese









Number of convicted convicted


Mission Total.


Prisoners of Serious of Minor

Schools .

in Gaol . Offences . Offences.

121 263 260

2 755 2,047 496 863 3,707 r 1971


132 182 294

0 619 518 994 1872

2,099 5,616


110 171 328

808 2,646 367 948 1873

8 4,401


107 189 340

348 786 3,495 1874

1,067 2,998


1711,136 3,063 )

AGE ATTENDANCE . 110 173 340

In Grant . 373 949 1875

510 in -Aid Total.


Schools . 623

3. 460 1,578 102 174 338

427 1876

517 1,709 974 4,510


102 174 338

625 re 1877


38, 1,866 ...



102 172 341



700 | 1,830 1,554 3,839


103 173 341

939 “ 9 572 1879

1,381 1 3,350


1 J3.08 31.10








Daily Average Persons Persons


Number of convicted convicted





Prisoners of Serious of Minor


in Gaol. Offences. Offences.

) 104 171 311


os 657 1,390 1,459


104 171 314

09 613 1,405 3,602 1882


102 171 314

91 543 1883

1,178 4,014


101 171 314


95 552 1,297 4,743 ve


101 177 312

530 3,707 1885

41 1,298



103 200 304


10 674 1,389 6,457



114 9:20 347

04 584 -r 1887

1,234 6,310


ip 100 siva asayi n sy.10 m and top uroj to win tipuədx ] *


ZETTSIZ 1988 C9 291'720'F OF OU1 0061











In Grant Daily Aver Persons l'ersons


jovt . i in -Aid


age Number convicted convicted




Jols . Schools, of Prisoners of serious of Minor

in Gael. Offences. Offences.

127 227 350

126 3,529 5,155 507 1,687 9,320 1891


128 226 342

793 3,968 5,761 515 1,725 8,245 1892


118 226 357 1

576 4,234 5,810 158 7,095 1893



117 225 343

248 3,211 | 4,459 155 1,224 6.155 1894


112 225 290

122 ' 3,737 5,159 172 1,478 8,147 1895


112 226 293

181 3,134 4,315 514 1,378 7,320 1896


U2 226 292


659 3,732 | 5,391 102 1,497 6,999 1897


112 226 292


153 3,551 5,03 4 511 1,051 8,869 1898

630 im

129 350 348

0 : ‫וי‬ 1,833 432 1,589 5,690 1899 47






in In Grant Total AC

P Grant . Number.

Govt. in - Aid TOT Tonnage. SIAT

VI in - Aid . schools . Schools .

1911 19,644 20,490,520 6,

78 1,557 3,197 4,7

1912 21,010 21,614,995 6,

67 1,664 3,107 | 4,7

1913 21,867 22,939,134 6,

90 1,618 3,312 4,9

1914 23,740 22,169,879 6.

69 1,665 3,305 4,9

1913 23,051 19,561,318 6

70 1,797 3,556 5,3


1916 23,303 19,106,690 5

67 1,932 3,564 5,4

1917 21,959 17,329.841



1 1918 19,997: 13,982,966

popol ! ION *


1919 21,275 18,474,996

iZI : 692 +66-687PL











Govt. Daily Average Persons Persons



Number of convicted


sols . convicted



Sotal. Prisoners of Serious of Minor

in Gaol Offences Offences.

131 405 563

26 3303 701 1,302 7.377 1911


158 444 528

333 701 1.911 11,717 - 1912

793 3



175 472 576

368 702 1,508 13.769 1913

576 4


175 487 621


3,206 600 1,194 7,585 1914


176 482 631

129 ' 33,023 594 1.328 7,485 1915


165 463 587

, 933 638 1,508 8,495 1916

181 3


160 481 588


3,204 600 1.501 6.644 -r -



159 481 588

153 3, ;127 601 1,527 5,901 1918


166 473 660

9 8


37,8 756 2,280 7,492 1919