Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1975

HONG KONG 1976

22-10

22-30

22-20-

113°-50'

Lung Kwu

Chau

HONG KONG, KOWLOON AND THE NEW TERRITORIES

KWANGTUNG

1140-00'

PROVINCE

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C

H

119-10 N

A

Sham

Chun

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River

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YUEN LONG DISTRICT

San Tin San Wai

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CASTLE

PEAK 583

Ping Shan

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YUENTONG.

Tau

TUEN MUN DISTORIC

CASTLE PEAK

BAY

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The Brothers

в

Keng

TUNG CHUN

Chek Lap Kok

Island

300

TA

100

ÔNG PING

JUNG CHURC

FAN LAU

SERIES HM 200(R) L

EDITION 3

113°-50'

Shek Rik Reservoir

100

100

NDS

Cheung Sha

Tong Fuk

Soko Islands

Crown Lands & Survey Office. 1976

Làm Khung

servõis

ITAI

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KAI

100

PAT HEUNG

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Tsing Lung Tau

100

114°-20'

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Ken

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det

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300

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TSUEN

TIDE COVE

SHA

TIN DISTRICT

100

SHA TIN.

Tsang

Tai Uk

Siu Lek

⚫Yuen

KWAI/

WAN CHUNG

Ma

Wan

TSING YI

NOW

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ROCK

Howloon Reservoirs

Stonecutters Island

sai chỉ

Chong

Sham Chong

LONG HARBOUR

WU KA

SHA

SAI

KUNG

100

NG

Tal Mon Tsai

'100

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Chung

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Pak Sha HEBE) WanGHAVEN

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Long

Highsland

(underl

100

Ping Chan

Reservoir construction)

New Territories

Administration Districts

-22-30

HIGH

ELEVATION TINTS

KAU SAI CHAU

ISLAND

METRES

FEET

(approximate

conversions)

700 +

2300 +

PORT SHELTER

ROCKY HARBOUR

300 700

1000

-

2300

Shelter

22-20

Island

100

-

300

325

1000

Bluff/

Hau

Island

Basalt

Island

0

100

0

-

325

Green

Kau Yi

Island

Chau

VICTUA

HARBOUR

Rennie's MUI

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SILVER MINE BAY

Sunshine Island

Hei Ling

Chau

DISTRICT

VICTORIA

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Chau

WEST LAM

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LAMMA ISLAND

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Chau

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REPULSE BAY

LEI YUR

TATHONG CHANNEL

100

CLEAR WATER

BAY

о

Main Road

Minor Roads

Railway

Ferry Route

Joss *HOUSE

BAY

Tung Lung Island

Ninepin Group

4

J

Scale of Kilometres ?

6

8

10

KOREA

JAPAN

Nanking CHINA

Chung King

TAI TAM

BAY STANLEY

INDIA

YANGTZE

Shanghai

EAST

CHINA

Foochow

SEA

Canton

TAIWAN

BURMA

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HONG KONG

PACIFIC OCEAN

20°

THAI-

LAND

SOUTH CHINA SEA

/PHILIPPINES

GUAM

KHMER

Po Toi

Waglan

HONG

Group

Island

114°-00'

香港中央

圖書館

CENTRAL LIBRARY_

KONG

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3 3288 00031054 2

100

11-10'

MALAYSIA

MALAYA

SUMATRA

SINGA PORE

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CELEBES

120

ARAWAK

SABAH

0

1000

2000

Scale of kilometres

NEW GUINEA

IRIANT

PAPUA

140°

Hong Kong Government

Shek Kwu Chau

++

HONG

KONGE

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

T

HONG KONG 1976

REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1975

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PRESS 1976

RADO

E

Hong Kong 1976

Editor: Joyce Savidge, Government Information Services

Designer: Arthur Hacker, Government Information Services Photography: Staff photographers, Government Information Services

Printer and Publisher: J. R. Lee, Government Printer

Statistical Sources: Census and Statistics Department

Editor acknowledges all contributors and sources

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

Ace. No.

1299332

Class 951.25

Author

HON

HKCA

Frontispiece: Queen Elizabeth 2 in Victoria Harbour on her maiden round-the-world cruise.

Contents

Chapter

Page

1

A PERSONAL VIEW

1

2

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

10

3

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

27

4

EMPLOYMENT

35

5

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

43

6

EDUCATION

51

7

HEALTH

69

8

LAND AND HOUSING

81

9

SOCIAL WELFARE

96

10

PUBLIC ORDER

102

11

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

116

12

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES,

120

SECREST

13

COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

127

14

THE MEDIA

144

15

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

150

16

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

155

17

RECREATION

160

18

THE ENVIRONMENT

168

180

19 POPULATION

20

NATURAL HISTORY

184

21

HISTORY

189

223

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

197

iv

Illustrations

CONTENTS

Page

Frontispiece

Royal Visit

Night Scenes

Industry

Fashion

between vi-1

between 4-5

between 12-13

between 28-9

Youth

between 60-1

Oi Man

between

92-3

Shipbuilding

between 124-5

Television

Festival

Music

between 140-1

between 156-7

between 188-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Hong Kong, Kowloon and adjacent New Territories showing district names

CONTENTS

Appendices

Appendix

Page

1

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

212

2

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

213

3-4

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

214

5-12

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

218

13-16

EMPLOYMENT

226

17-19

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

230

20-23

EDUCATION

232

24-27

HEALTH

234

28-29

LAND AND HOUSING

236

30-33

PUBLIC ORDER

238

34

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

241

35-37

COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

242

38

RECREATION

244

39

THE ENVIRONMENT

245

40-41

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

246

42

URBAN COUNCIL

248

43

SOCIAL WELFARE

249

INDEX

251

When dollars are quoted in this report, they are,

unless otherwise stated, Hong Kong dollars. The Hong Kong dollar has been allowed to float since November 1974, its exchange rate fluctuating ac- cording to market conditions. At the end of 1975 the middle market rate was about HK$5.035=US$1.

*

*

Metrication is gradually being introduced through- out government departments, and metric figures are given in the text of this report wherever they are now in general use.

ROYAL VISIT

The visit of Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal Highness the Duke of Edin- burgh made 1975 a year to remember. It was a historic occasion-the first time that a reigning British monarch had visited Hong Kong and it was made memorable by the warmth of the welcome and the gaiety of the celebrations. From May 4-7 the Royal couple carried out some two dozen engagements, making the most of every moment in order to see as much as possible of Hong Kong's achievements and problems, to meet the people in their daily life and to enjoy with them the colour and exuberance of Chinese traditional festiv- ities. All of it was summed up with the Queen's comment: 'I felt the warmth and vigour of Hong Kong's life..

Hong Kongk

Royal Visit Gold Coins

from the Royal Mint

A limited edition

Royal Visit

1975

HProgre

ong

Hong

Progress

ӘЛБОД

HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN

AND

HIS ROYAL HIG' THE DUKE OF EJ

BERANZAREKI

gkong Standard

efugee'

ND

iF

A PROCESSION TO HONOUR THE

QUEEN

Thousands turn out to

Queen a Royal welcome

-

- the

South China Morning Post

Royal Visit Souvenir Queen's charm captured

Colony's h

ang dudul Seg

- S

英女皇伉儷訪性

一九七五年"

First moments on Hong Kong Island, with Her Majesty inspecting a guard of honour of the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles.

30

A Monday morning splash and a chat with the Queen at the Morse Park public swimming pool complex.

Creatures and characters of history and folklore in a mile-long procession before the Royal visitors.

The dragon boats in the centre were part of a waterborne procession

at the fishing port of Aberdeen.

The Queen and the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, watching a dragon dance at Tsuen Wan sports ground.

And the truly majestic dragon-the Queen herself having dotted its eyes to make it spring into life.

HO

The Queen pauses to talk to some of the thousands of people who

greeted her at a Kowloon housing estate.

1

Hong Kong: A Personal View

By Richard Hughes

It happened a century ago, a well-read historian shareholder pointed out at the 1975 annual general meeting of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. He recalled: "The year 1874 was a year of dire trade recessions, peppered by many leading Hong Kong business houses finding themselves in monetary difficulties. But in spite of all these losses, the Bank was not in as much danger as appeared and from the latter half of 1875 began to recover'.

       The shareholders cheered. They had reason. It looks as though history is repeating itself as it is normally supposed to do. Most Hong Kong experts--both the natural optimists and the natural pessimists-tend to agree that the worst is over, and that Hong Kong has escaped from the world recession-with closed ranks, tightened belts and quiet confidence.

       'By the end of 1975', said the Director of Commerce and Industry, David Jordan, 'we shall have had virtually no growth for two years, and a return to the growth that we had been used to is dependent on a sustained maintenance of our competitive position'.

       Hong Kong's reaction to the world depression has been characteristically Chinese. There were no strikes or even serious industrial disputes when the shadows of the world recession darkened the territory. Groups of workers organised their own internal system of shared labour and part-time rotation. This was a typical Chinese reaction: share the one bowl of rice which has temporarily replaced the normal two bowls; don't break the empty one.

        In any event, there is no real instinct for normal organised union membership in Hong Kong. To quote a Commerce and Industry official: 'Our workers want to be allowed to work and to attain an increasing standard of living. They do not see the trade union system as being of any assistance to them. In fact, it is the government of Hong Kong that is trying to encourage the development of healthy unionism'.

Trade Expansion

        The drive for new markets and new investment is to be expanded on all fronts to counter the difficulty of textile quotas by the European Economic Community. An Industrial Investment Promotion Committee has been established to co-ordinate the operations of the Commerce and Industry Department, the Trade Development Council and the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce.

Trade investment safaris are to be widened, with special attention to the United States, Britain, the Eastern European bloc and the Arab states. Visiting missions have

2

A PERSONAL VIEW

been organised from Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, Britain, France and Spain- making it a two-way drive.

      A representative of the Egyptian Government, incidentally, visited Hong Kong during the year to consult authorities on the projected creation of a Hong Kong- style, low-tax, duty-free industrial port-city on the Suez Canal.

      The new Chairman of the Trade Development Council, T. K. Ann, pointed out that, at the end of 1974, Hong Kong was trading with 158 states and territories. But he stressed the need for Hong Kong to diversify industry. 'Our lop-sided reliance on textiles and garment exports to a handful of important markets is precisely the reason why we need sophisticated and diversified development of new products and new markets', he said. 'After we have traded up in textile and garment fields, we must look farther afield'.

Overseas Investment

       United States firms have the largest single bloc of foreign investment in Hong Kong, which, all told, is believed to account for 12 per cent of industrial employment and 14 per cent of Hong Kong's exports. But in addition to industrial development, the United States Consulate-General has pointed out: "There has been a large influx of other United States firms conducting other forms of economic activity. These include services, trading and wholesaling-although the largest single group of American firms are regional headquarters, which were attracted to Hong Kong by a favourable business environment and excellent communications with all countries in the area'.

The American Fortnight, when the United States made a peaceful 'occupation' of Hong Kong, with 87 trade exhibitors and more than 100 general participants, as well as art shows, marching, long-legged 'majorettes', singers and even an American football match, set the seal on United States trade for the coming year. Sales estimates of American goods totalled HK$100 million on the spot, with pledged additional three-month sales worth $250 million.

The United States buys 30 per cent of Hong Kong's total exports and Hong Kong ranks among the top 25 countries in the world as a market for American goods. In 1973, Hong Kong's total trade with the United States had grown to over two billion US dollars; compared with the hard days of the early fifties, humble precursor for the mid-seventies, an annual average increase of 19 per cent, or roughly double that of world trade in general during the same period.

The Financial Secretary, Philip Haddon-Cave, resisted pressure for an increase in the existing standard salary tax of only 15 per cent when he presented his budget, which was generally approved and the results of which have so far amply justified his cautious optimism. He has boldly predicted that Hong Kong productivity will grow by at least 6.7 per cent a year over the next decade, bringing an improvement of more than 50 per cent in living standards. This compares with the average of 7.7 per cent for the eight years to 1973.

A PERSONAL VIEW

3

       Unless Hong Kong manages to curb its birth rate, the population, mounting by two per cent a year, will be around 5.3 million in 10 years time, and the ratio of the 'economically active population' (15-60 years age group) will have risen from 64 to 69 per cent.

        Ironically, if sadly, the 1974 recession increased Hong Kong's attraction for out- side investment. More than 50,000 unemployed young technical workers, alas, awaited restored full-time work in mid-1975. They are swollen by approximately 60,000 young workers each year.

        Said James McGregor, Director of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Com- merce: 'We have highly productive labour available. Our wage rates are competitive; we have several million square feet of new factory floor space and more is being built; we have joint-venture partners who are ready and willing to join with foreign manu- facturers in new ventures; and we have bank finance to support sound projects. We have also recently modified our industrial land policies to provide for direct sales of industrial land for major projects, and we are working on plans for new industrial estates which will be particularly suitable for engineering and support industries'.

        Despite the recession, the government is now spending about eight times more on social welfare than it did eight years ago-some $300 million, compared with $35 million in 1967-8.

       There is controversy over education, but Hong Kong still expects to provide by 1979 nine years' subsidised education for every Hong Kong child, comprising six years in a primary school, followed by three years of secondary education for children of 12-14 years. In 1956, there were 195,000 children in primary and 54,000 in secondary schools; now there are approximately 700,000 and 390,000 respectively.

The Royal Visit

       For the first time in history, a reigning British monarch visited Hong Kong. Her Majesty the Queen and Prince Philip arrived for a warm and spontaneous Chinese welcome, on a four-day visit in May. They had hectic and crowded but informal tours of busy resettlement areas as well as the beauty spots of Hong Kong.

       Even sceptical reporters accompanying the party agreed that Her Majesty won the hearts of Hong Kong people. All public places and streets were jammed with cheering sightseers and the language problem did not prevent the Queen from halting and happily exchanging remarks with many of the curious and excited Chinese packed against the railings along the streets wherever she walked.

        Local soothsayers pointed out that she arrived on the birthday of Tin Hau, the Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers, and was therefore assured of a hearty and happy welcome. Also, there was unaccountable heavy rain on the two days pre- ceding the Royal arrival, which, as all soothsayers know, signifies a blessing from the gods on the eve of any dignitary's arrival.

       The Royal couple thoroughly enjoyed processions of Chinese lions, dragons and street acrobatic displays, and a unique combination of the drums of the Grenadier

4

A PERSONAL VIEW

Guards, the band of the Royal Hampshire Regiment, and the bagpipes of the Gurkhas, interwoven with Chinese melodies played by Hong Kong's leading Chinese orchestra at a colourful farewell night parade in Nathan Road, when the applauding crowds defied a slight non-Tin Hau drizzle of rain.

A Last and First Over

       By less happy chance--in the opinion of Old Hands-the Queen's launch arrived at the island pier just after stumps were drawn following the last club match on the historic, 124-year-old cricket ground, which has now been shifted to a new picturesque location near Wong Nai Chung Gap.

The transfer of the hallowed turf naturally stirred nostalgic regret among many old members, but the move was inevitable as the ever-mounting cement skyscrapers and bloated population closed in on the green oasis, almost all of which will now become a park except for a small area which will contain one of the entrances to the underground mass transit railway.

The new, if more remote, ground has a swimming-pool, a bowling green, tennis and squash courts, and a larger restaurant-and bar.

Some famous old Test cricketers-Harold Larwood, Bert Oldfield and Clarrie Grimmett (once bitter enemies, now close friends)-were invited to the opening of the new ground. (Unhappily, Sir Donald Bradman couldn't come; otherwise, a ceremonial over or two would have been played, with him at the crease, Larwood bowling non- bodyline with Bert Oldfield behind the wicket and Clarrie Grimmett crouched in the slips).

       The shifting of the cricket-ground, one repeats, was inevitable and desirable, but it represented the passing of yet another of Hong Kong's venerable landmarks. 'It's like moving the MCC to The Wash', as one elderly expatriate member snorted.

Vietnamese Refugees

Hong Kong provided sanctuary in emergency for nearly 4,000 stranded refugees from Vietnam after the end of the war. They were housed in three specially prepared camps and given personal medical care and attention. Army personnel and government construction workers, with the voluntary co-operation of local residents, handled the influx, which coincided with the start of the unprecedented visit of a reigning monarch.

       Almost all of the refugees were rescued at sea as their crowded escape ship was sinking 100 miles from Saigon; they were then admitted to Hong Kong. The Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, personally visited the camps and supervised the salvation operation.

For a while it looked as though overcrowded Hong Kong would have the prob- lem of absorbing half of the refugees. But, over the next six-months, the United States quietly admitted the bulk of the unhappy, unwanted homeless victims of the war. Canada, France and Australia were joined by Denmark, Austria, Britain, Italy

NIGHT SCENES

www.

The lights of Hong Kong were given an added sparkle by a fireworks display (previous page) during the Royal visit.

And the brilliance of the cities of Victoria and Kowloon as seen from Victoria Peak, 1,817 feet above sea level.

  From Causeway Bay to Central-with the typhoon shelter, cross- harbour tunnel, Wan Chai reclamations and the skyscrapers beneath The Peak.

A PERSONAL VIEW

5

and West Germany in offering homes to others. Already, Hong Kong had approved applications by more than 110 to remain here.

International authorities praised Hong Kong's skilful and sympathetic handling of the tragic problem which added another burden to the territory's already strained financial situation in 1975.

During the six months that the refugees were in Hong Kong, while arrangements were being made for them to be accepted by other countries, their stay cost the Hong Kong Government more than $3.5 million. The affair was an effective counter to the opinion, so often held abroad, that Hong Kong is essentially a selfish, money-grubbing, brutally self-centred society.

Mass Transit Railway

Undoubtedly the most important venture in Hong Kong in 1975 was the begin- ning of work on the long-delayed mass transit underground railway, which was first mentioned in a government paper 11 years ago.

       The project has its critics-and plausible but short-sighted their arguments can be. The initial MTR will be 15 kilometres long with 12 underground and three over- head stations. It will run through another harbour tunnel, linking Hong Kong Island with Kowloon mainland, and pass beneath one of the world's most densely populated

areas.

It will be the most heavily used underground railway in the world, to quote Norman Thompson, Chairman of the MTR Corporation, and it will carry up to 60,000 people in each direction in an hour, or one million passengers a day. Compara- tive figures for London are 20,000 passengers per hour. Trains during the busier periods will run every two minutes and there will, therefore, be virtually no waiting. The $5,000 million venture is the largest ever undertaken in Hong Kong.

The railway is being financed by a combination of export credit facilities and loans from local and international banks which demonstrates their confidence in its future. The government is convinced that the crowded tube will not be a burden on the economy, which is committed only to the expenditure of $800 million of equity, voted by the Legislative Council. The loans, the authorities are satisfied, will be repaid by the fares and other revenue which the railway will generate.

        Critics are assured that no comparison exists between the Hong Kong project and money-losing counterparts like the San Francisco BART system or the Washing- ton system-begun in 1968 but not yet completed because of strikes and material shortages.

       The Hong Kong MTR will be completed in the spring of 1980. German, French, Swedish and Japanese builders are co-operating with local contractors in its construc- tion. The MTR Corporation will also develop commercially all surface space that is available above main terminals in teeming business areas. One of these subsidiary undertakings is a $500 million satellite town, with 5,000 medium-size flats for approximately 25,000 people, and with shops, restaurants and department stores, which will be built on a 25-acre podium above one of the Kowloon Bay terminals.

6

A PERSONAL VIEW

       A Taoist priest reverently blessed the project, when Mr Thompson thrust the first spade into the ground to begin the rushed programme of excavation in November. A symbolic sketch of a tree carrying the Chinese characters 'Growing For You' is the adopted symbol of the MTR. Mr Thompson explained to onlookers: 'A Chinese proverb runs: "It takes 10 years to grow a tree but you can enjoy it for eternity". We will take four years rather than 10 years, and no doubt will pull up a few trees in the process. But the mass transit railway is wholly owned by the government. It will be your railway for your use. During the first four years it will be growing for you'.

        It was, somehow, a curious but characteristic co-operative contradiction between governmental enterprise and modernised communal support for mutual benefit, involving foreign investment and local labour, that seems to happen only in Hong Kong.

The Workers

       The time-worn complaints of Hong Kong 'sweated labour' and the enslavement of little children in big factories were trotted out again in England this year, and Hong Kong's London-based Commissioner, Teddy Kidd, was compelled wearily to repeat the familiar denials.

By standards of the wealthiest countries, of course, the Hong Kong worker is over-worked and under-paid. But by Asian standards, his pay and conditions are not bad and are, indeed, second only to Japan's. Workers in the garment industry are paid an average of $23 a day; the second largest group is in textiles, with an average daily wage for cotton-spinners of $21; and the largest wage-earners in the industrial sector are the utility and dockyard groups, with an average wage of $27. Construction workers are still the highest paid at around $60-$80 a day-and now they are getting more work.

       Most men employed in industry work up to nine hours a day, six days a week. Women work a 48-hour week. There are customarily six annual holidays a year. The permissible annual overtime for women and young persons (16-17 years) was reduced at the beginning of 1975 from 300 hours to a maximum of 250; from the beginning of 1976, it was further reduced to 200 hours.

Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, meal allow- ances, good attendance bonuses and paid rest days, as well as the Chinese New Year bonus of one month's extra pay. To repeat, these wages must be considered in terms of Asian living standards. On that basis, the average Hong Kong worker is far better off than other Asian workers, except those in Japan. Wage costs in Hong Kong industry are also helped by the operation of round-the-clock shifts, although night- work cuts back the proportion of women workers, who must keep day-time hours.

The government trains some union leaders in the methods, ideals and practice of Western unionism, but, as previously stated, there is as little local interest in these obscure alien tricks as there is in Western democratic processes.

A typical salaried, white-collar worker, who must rely on his own efforts in seeking a professional career, studies as hard in his spare time as only, it seems, an

A PERSONAL VIEW

7

ambitious Chinese-or Japanese or Korean-can and will. Having had secondary education, he will take perhaps two courses at night school after his work has finished-English, say, and a special subject. If he is good enough and lucky enough, and also takes on additional part-time work, he may be earning, after this teenage cramming, up to $2,000 a month before he is 30. If he wished to save and continue his studies, he could not afford to marry until he was in his thirties. He would probably be contributing also to the support of a father or mother.

New Towns

       One of the under-played stories of current Hong Kong development is the expanding programme for the creation of new industrial towns, with modern accommodation, in the New Territories.

        At least three are in hand-Tuen Mun, Sha Tin (with the territory's second racecourse) and Tsuen Wan-and extensions are also in progress at Tai Po, in the heart of the New Territories. The Governor informed the Legislative Council that 55 million square feet of private agricultural land and four million square feet of building land will have to be resumed for the development of these new towns. "The disturbance to existing rights is great', he said, 'and it is most important that fair and reasonable compensation be offered when lands are acquired'.

        It is already expected that, when the resumed villages are absorbed in the new towns and new residents are attracted by the modern facilities, the present population of the New Territories, which has an area of 370 square miles, will increase from 700,000 to one million by 1980 and two million by 1985.

       There are difficulties in resumption of old farmhouses and primitive villages- even when the alternative is modern, low-rent apartments, with schools, hospitals, supermarkets, sewage disposal, fire stations and recreation facilities. Many rural Chinese are reluctant to quit family huts, however crowded, uncomfortable and ill- equipped. But the trend has set in and foreign industrial concerns are manifesting strong interest in the possibility of establishing factory plants in the new towns. At Tai Po alone, industrial companies in the United States, Australia and Japan have already prepared to build 15 factories covering 30 acres for heavy engineering, forging and foundry work, and hand-tool, aluminium and chemical treatment plants. It is also hoped that British light industry will be attracted and that Hong Kong industries will install factories in the area.

       Young villagers will soon realise that higher wages and better accommodation are available in a shift to the new towns. Rural committees who are co-operating with government officials are pointing out to villagers that they can move into one-room modern apartments with kitchen and bathroom for rents as low as $40 a month. Also villagers in the resumed areas, after receiving compensation for their huts, livestock and small crops, will be able to live together as continuing neighbours in the new town.

        A visitor to the new town of Tsuen Wan is astonished at the existing handsome, high-rise apartment blocks, and the wall-maps of well-planned expansion, with special provision for a swimming pool, parks, educational and shopping centres-all set amid

A PERSONAL VIEW

rolling hills, green woods and the surviving thatched huts and crumbling colonial houses. The New Territories will become truly 'new' once more. There is excellent road connection with Kowloon and the wharves on the bay are being improved for fishermen, who can move into comfortable waterfront units and moor their junks in safer surroundings.

Michael Sandberg, Deputy Chairman of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, has been appointed chairman of the working group on industrial estates, which is progressively enlisting the active co-operation of local village leaders. When the Old Bank is interested, progress is assured in Hong Kong.

Breaking the Back of Corruption

      'Corruption' was the word which embarrassed Hong Kong most on the world front last year. One does not need to be a counsel for the defence to argue that it was somewhat overplayed. Corruption has always been a way of life in Asia, and Old Hands who have lived in Tokyo, Manila, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Rangoon and Jakarta know how the old 'tea-money' tradition seeps into normal business and police operations-sometimes discreet and gentlemanly but always sought, offered and

accepted.

      True, the depth and extent of police corruption initially uncovered in Hong Kong surprised even the cynics, but the situation is now in hand. The Independent Commis- sion Against Corruption has a dedicated leader, Jack Cater; and the operations branch, under John Prendergast's experienced command, had a strength of 450 by the end of 1975. There has been some "liberal' criticism of the unprecedented powers of investigation accorded the ICAC, but most people support tough methods and the commission is steadily expanding its probes. Certainly the guilty sleep less easily now at night.

      In the first annual report, Mr Cater, the Commissioner Against Corruption, predicts that 'the back of corruption will have been broken in two or three years'. A significant fact is that, while the commission had a ratio of only one prosecution for every 10 cases under investigation in 1974, the ratio in 1975 was one for every five. Also, the proportion of 'non-anonymous' complaints was only 15 per cent of the total in 1974, but 40 per cent by the middle of 1975. Eventually, the ICAC will have eight sub-offices, thereby encouraging prompt local complaints. The commission has been reinforced by the appointment of 50 British police officers.

Violent Crime

Violent crime in Hong Kong, as in most cities in the world, has risen in the past two years and there have been strong but vain popular demands for restoration of hanging for murder. In future when a death sentence is commuted for homicide 'without mitigating circumstances', the prisoner will be detained for as long as he lives-though this will be unsatisfactory because overwhelming Chinese tradition still demands a life for a life.

      A Fight Violent Crime Campaign was launched in June 1973. At that time the strength of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force was 12,780; since then it has increased

A PERSONAL VIEW

9

to 15,065. Violent crime has, in official parlance, begun to 'level off", but this does not mean that it has been reduced; the police force is very much aware of the seriousness of the problem and is geared to deal with it.

       Hong Kong, without doubt, is no longer a centre to which bulk opium is imported for conversion into heroin. The Hong Kong police and Preventive Service have severely disrupted the vital role which the eclipsed 'Mr Bigs' once played, forcing them to suspend their operations. The main challenge to them now is to make sure that the past pattern of importing bulk narcotics is not resumed or, if it is, to see that it is similarly disrupted.

Anglo-Chinese Relations

       An essential condition for Hong Kong's recovery-and indeed survival-is relationship with China, which has never been more cordial and mutually rewarding. The Governor made special reference to this influence in his 1975 address to the Legislative Council: 'I am sure that the excellent state of Anglo-Chinese relations and the friendly and practical way in which it has been possible to deal with any matters affecting Hong Kong have contributed to stability and confidence here during the year'.

To look back, there were once two ancient cliche references to Hong Kong: 'laissez-faire' and 'resilience'. They have now been reduced to one. 'Laissez-faire' has been skilfully and pragmatically changed to 'discreet guidance'; it remains to be seen whether 'resilience' will endure. The odds are in favour.

2

Industry and Trade

THE Hong Kong economy continued to be influenced by the world economic depres- sion for much of 1975. Soft market conditions, particularly in Europe and North America, seriously affected industrial production and exports. For some months unemployment and under-employment were apparent throughout the manufacturing industry and wages as well as profit margins declined.

However, there were indications by the middle of 1975 that business had started to improve and in the last quarter there was a strong growth. The value of domestic exports in December was 32 per cent higher than in December 1974, bringing the overall figure for 1975 to within 0.2 per cent of total exports for the previous year.

The major factors which have given Hong Kong its international reputation as a leading manufacturing and commercial centre in Asia are still at work. Among them are the economic policies of free enterprise and free trade, an industrious workforce, sophisticated commercial infrastructure, a modern and efficient seaport, a strate- gically located airport, and excellent world-wide communications. There are no import tariffs and revenue duties are levied only in respect of tobacco, alcoholic liquors and some hydrocarbon oils. Duty is also payable on first registration of motor vehicles.

       Apart from providing the infrastructure-either through direct services or by co-operation with public utility companies and autonomous bodies the government's role in the economy is to ensure a stable framework within which commerce and industry can function efficiently and effectively with a minimum of interference. The government intervenes only in response to the pressure of over-riding economic or social needs and it provides no protection or subsidisation of manufactures.

The Commerce and Industry Department continues to maintain a close watch over oil stocks, sales and supplies, but it has disbanded the oil supplies unit which was set up in November 1973 following the Arab oil producing countries' decision to cut their output.

Industrial Development

       The majority of Hong Kong's manufacturing industries produce light consumer goods. The textiles and clothing, electronics, plastic products, and toys industries account for about 70 per cent of the total industrial workforce and more than 70 per cent of total domestic exports. These industries are likely to continue to predominate, even though significant developments have been achieved in heavier industries during recent years and more can be expected.

In response to increasing competition from other developing Asian countries, local industrialists are continuing to modernise their operations and to move into

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

11

      more sophisticated product lines. Within existing lines, more component parts are being produced locally and the quality of finished products continues to improve.

In the earlier months of 1975 the world-wide recession resulted in the textiles (except clothing), electronics and plastics industries being particularly hard hit by the fall in consumer demand in some of their most important export markets, and this led to a reduction in employment. But by mid-year the demand was seen to be picking up and by the third quarter most factories were able to re-engage labour and resume full time working. Factories in the clothing and watches and clocks industries managed to withstand the effects of the recession particularly well and certain sectors of these industries produced substantially more than in the previous year.

About 8.7 per cent of Hong Kong's 678,857 workers in the manufacturing industries are employed in factories owned or partly owned by overseas interests, and several new subsidiaries of overseas companies were in the course of being established at the end of the year. In order to broaden Hong Kong's industrial base, the government increased its efforts to promote industrial investment and sent missions to Australia, Britain and the United States during 1975. In a further move to encourage the development of a wider range of industries, the government decided to construct Hong Kong's first industrial estate for land-intensive industries near Tai Po in the New Territories. Work on site formation began in November and the possibility of establishing further estates is under investigation.

Textiles

Despite the drop in overseas orders in the early part of the year, the textiles in- dustry remained the mainstay of Hong Kong's economy, employing approximately 50 per cent of the total manufacturing workforce and accounting for about 54 per cent of domestic exports. The world economic recession affected the spinning, weaving and finishing sectors of the industry, with most factories operating below capacity for several months. Employment was relatively low, although by the end of the year there was a substantial improvement compared with the first quarter. The new multi- fibre restraint agreement concluded with the European Economic Community in July under the GATT Multi-Fibre Textiles Arrangement caused some disruption to production.

The spinning sector, operating about 895,300 spindles, contains some of the most modern factories in the world. Although many mills operated below capacity for much of the year, the production of cotton yarn in 1975 was 357 million pounds, compared with 328 million pounds the previous year; man-made fibre yarn and cotton and man-made fibre blended yarn dropped by 18 per cent to 60 million pounds; and woollen and worsted yarn was 13 million pounds compared with 14 million pounds in 1974. Most of the yarn produced was used by local weavers.

In 1975 the 26,575 looms in the weaving sector produced 847 million square yards of fabrics of various fibres and blends, compared with 805 million square yards in 1974. As in previous years the bulk of the production-87 per cent-was of cotton. The knitting sector exported 15 million pounds of fabrics-of which 62 per cent was of man-made fibres and 38 per cent of cotton. A large part of the production of knitted fabrics of all fibres was used by local clothing manufacturers.

12

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       The finishing sector provides sophisticated supporting facilities to the spinning, weaving and knitting sectors. It handles a large amount of textile fabrics for bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing. Output in early 1975 was considerably affected by the difficulties experienced during the year in the spinning and weaving sectors of the textiles industry.

Clothing continued to be the largest sector of the industry, employing about 34 per cent of Hong Kong's total manufacturing workforce and accounting for 45 per cent of all domestic exports. During the year the clothing industry manufactured an increasing variety of high quality items and kept up-to-date with the latest trends in fashion. In the textiles industry it was the sector least affected by the world economic recession. Hong Kong's domestic exports of clothing in 1975 were valued at $10,202 million-17 per cent more than in 1974.

Other Light Industries

       Although the electronics industry maintained its position in 1975 as the second largest export earner, it was one of the industries most affected by the international recession. Many electronics factories operated below capacity for much of the year and some were forced to suspend operation. But there was an improvement during the second half of the year due to increased overseas demand for certain electronic products-particularly pocket calculators. The industry comprises 460 factories employing 51,570 workers, and its products include computer memory systems, transistors, integrated circuits and semiconductors, tape recorders, transistor radios, desk and pocket calculators, television aerials, and television sets. Hong Kong's domestic exports of electronic products in 1975 were valued at $2,683 million, which was 11 per cent less than in 1974.

The plastics industry had another difficult year. Although there was an adequate supply of plastic raw materials available at stable prices, there was a decrease in consumer demand in overseas markets for most plastic products. The industry com- prises 3,437 firms with a workforce of 63,706. It produces a wide range of items, the most important being: toys and dolls; plastic household articles; artificial flowers, foliage and fruit; and footwear. In 1975, domestic exports of plastic products were valued at $1,979 million-16 per cent less than in 1974.

Other significant light industries produce watches, clocks and accessories; travel goods; metal products; and electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances. Most of the factories in the watches, clocks and accessories industry maintained or increased their production and an increasing number of watch factories now manu- facture electronic digital quartz watches.

Heavy and Service Industries

In the shipbuilding industry, Hong Kong's major dockyard established an international reputation for the efficiency with which it converted a freighter into a sophisticated oil drill ship. The yard, together with other local shipyards, continued to provide a competitive repair service to shipowners. The expansion of the container

INDUSTRY

The economy of Hong Kong is dependent. on the export earnings of its industries, with the biggest money-spinner being textiles. About 70 per cent of the industrial workforce is employed in producing tex- tiles and clothing, electronics, plastics and toys and these industries account for more than 70 per cent of total domestic exports. Hong Kong is the world's largest exporter of garments, toys, plastic flowers, and battery torches. Although 1975 saw a decline in trade figures on account of the international recession, many manufac- turers were reporting during the last quarter that their order books were look- ing healthy again, with some of them full. And with standards of quality now established and recognised, manufacturers today confidently stamp their products 'Made in Hong Kong'.

Q

U-8

67

EC

The 180-foot steel bars produced at this steel rolling mill go to build Hong Kong's skyscrapers-for commerce, industry, and homes.

イレ

     The spinning sector of the textiles industry has some of the most modern factories in the world, producing a variety of yarns.

五常

Craftsmen make carpets of wool or fine animal hair for world-wide export, with the United States as the biggest customer.

#

Not a machine with arms--just a means of preventing oxidization and keeping everything dust-free in the final stage of making transistors.

:

-

About 50,000 electronic digital watches a month are made completely in this air-conditioned factory, which also produces calculators.

ONG PUBLI

10

One of Hong Kong's 5,900 garment factories which export an ever

widening range of high quality clothes in the latest fashions.

Instant noodles go all over the world from this food factory, which is also developing its exports of frozen Chinese food snacks.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

13

      terminals at Kwai Chung has kept pace with the rapid development of containerisa- tion in world shipping and has further enhanced Hong Kong's position as one of the leading shipping centres in Asia.

The aircraft engineering industry continued to maintain its high international reputation and provide maintenance, overhaul and repair facilities for most of the airlines operating in Asia. The steel rolling industry, which supplies the local building industry, was affected by the continued lower demand in the private sector of the building industry. The steel rolling mills operated below capacity for much of the year. The manufacture of machinery, machine tools and parts continued to provide useful support to other local industries as well as contributing to Hong Kong's export earnings. Particularly important are: blow moulding, injection moulding and extrusion machines of up to 80 ounces capacity for the plastics industry; power presses; lathes; shapers; drill presses; polishing machines; printing presses; and textile knitting and warping machines.

Proposals put forward by two consortia for the construction of an oil refinery and petro-chemical complex were put into abeyance in view of present over capacity in the industry and the uncertain world economic situation.

Industrial Land

Although there were signs of increased industrial activity during the latter half of the year, demand for industrial land continued to be relatively weak and only a limited number of sites were sold for industrial purposes during the year. But industrial development continued at Tuen Mun, where a three-acre site was sold to an overseas company for the construction of an aluminium extrusion plant, and development of sites sold in previous years took place.

The first result of the modified industrial land policy introduced in 1973 was realised towards the end of 1975 with the completion of an outboard marine engine plant on Tsing Yi Island by a United States-based manufacturer. Another plant for the production of polystyrene, also on Tsing Yi, was under construction and expected to be in operation in 1976. A number of possible grants of land under the modified policy were under consideration at the end of the year, the projects including a steel- making plant with a modern foundry, a chemical plant, and several shipbuilding and ship-repairing/engineering projects.

In June the government announced its decision to construct the first of several industrial estates to provide specifically for heavier industries. Work has begun on the first estate near Tai Po. It will provide 187 acres of land entirely reclaimed from the sea and complete with all necessary services, including a sewage treatment plant. It will be possible to extend the area to cover 360 acres. The first stage of the estate is scheduled to be completed by 1978-9. It will provide about 60 acres with the necessary roads, water supplies and full sewage treatment. The first sites will be sold or leased in 1976 for occupation early in 1977. The estate's construction and manage- ment are the responsibility of a steering group at present, but consideration will be given to establishing a statutory corporation to own and manage this and other similar estates at a later date.

14

Industrial Investment Promotion

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       The overseas promotion of industrial investment in Hong Kong was intensified in 1975, with three separate missions going to Australia, Britain and the United States. The first two were joint promotions by the Commerce and Industry Depart- ment and the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, while the mission to the United States was conducted by the department in co-operation with the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the American Chamber of Commerce and several leading banks. All the missions concentrated their efforts on seeking direct discussions with the top management of pre-selected companies, with a view to acquainting them with the attractions of Hong Kong as an off-shore manufacturing base. Interest generated by the missions was actively followed up and a number of companies have already established, or are seriously considering establishing, manufacturing opera- tions in Hong Kong.

       At the end of 1975 there were at least 271 factories in Hong Kong either fully or partly owned by overseas interests-9.7 per cent more than in 1974. They employed a total labour force of about 59,607, or 8.7 per cent of all workers in Hong Kong's manufacturing industries. The total direct investment involved was about $1,730 million. The main sources of investment continued to be the United States, Japan, Britain, Thailand, Australia and Singapore. The principal industries involved are textiles and electronics although new investment is generally in other fields such as light to medium engineering and chemicals.

Loans for Small Industries

      The Loans for Small Industries Scheme was implemented in 1972 by the Com- merce and Industry Department in conjunction with the banks and with the co- operation of the Hong Kong Productivity Centre. There was little response from small industrialists in 1975 and, because of this lack of interest, it is proposed that the future of the scheme be reviewed in a year's time. Loans approved since the inception of the scheme total $1.4 million-all authorised before 1975. The scheme was designed to provide medium-term financing at reasonable rates to small factories for modernis- ing their equipment and machines, so as to improve efficiency and output. The little use made of the scheme has cast doubt on the need of small industry for an additional source of medium-term finance for these purposes.

External Trade

      Hong Kong's total trade reached $63,304 million in 1975 compared with $64,156 million the previous year. Imports were valued at $33,472 million, compared with $34,120 million; domestic exports $22,859 million, compared with $22,911 million; and re-exports $6,973 million, compared with $7,124 million. Summary foreign trade statistics, including a breakdown by countries and commodities and comparisons with the previous years, are contained in Appendices 3 and 4.

      Hong Kong is almost entirely dependent on imported resources to meet the needs of its 4.4 million people and the extensive requirements of its diverse industries. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, imported

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

15

      foodstuffs amounting to $6,283 million, or 19 per cent of total imports, constituted the major part of food consumption in 1975. The principal items were fruit and vegetables, live animals, rice and other cereals, fish and fish preparations, meat and meat preparations, dairy products, and eggs. Imports of raw materials and semi- manufactures valued at $13,581 million, or 41 per cent of total imports, included textile fibres, yarn and fabrics, base metals, paper and paperboard, and plastic mould- ing materials. Imported capital goods totalling $4,340 million, or 13 per cent of total imports, were mainly machinery and transport equipment. Retained imports of consumer goods consisted largely of precious stones, consumer durables and textile made-ups. Fuel imports valued at $2,033 million represented six per cent by value of total imports.

        Japan continued to be the principal supplier of imports in 1975, providing 21 per cent of the total. China came second, supplying 20 per cent of total imports and 52 per cent of all imported foodstuffs. The United States supplied a further 12 per cent of the total. Other important sources of imports were Taiwan, Singapore, Britain, West Germany, Switzerland and South Korea.

        Domestic exports consisted almost entirely of manufactured goods, emphasising the importance of the manufacturing sector in Hong Kong. Textile and clothing exports accounted for 54 per cent of the total, while sales of miscellaneous manufac- tured articles-mainly toys and dolls, jewellery and goldsmiths' and silversmiths' wares, plastic flowers, umbrellas and metal watch bands-made up an additional 15 per cent. Exports of electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances-mainly tran- sistorised radios, electronic components and parts for computers, transistors, semi- conductor integrated circuits and diodes-accounted for a further 12 per cent. Other light manufactured products such as metal products, watches and clocks, travel goods, electronic calculators, and footwear were also important exports.

       The direction and level of Hong Kong's export trade is influenced principally by economic conditions and commercial policies in its main overseas markets. Although there has been some market and product diversification, Hong Kong's exports are still highly concentrated in a few markets as well as in a few products. During the year, 62 per cent of all domestic exports went to the United States and the enlarged European Economic Community. The United States alone absorbed 32 per cent (the same as in 1974); West Germany took 13 per cent (11 per cent); and Britain 12 per cent (the same as 1974). Other important markets were Australia, Japan, Canada, Singapore, the Netherlands and Sweden. Because of their newly acquired purchasing power, exports to some OPEC countries (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries) like Nigeria and Saudi Arabia have shown remarkable in-

creases.

       Hong Kong's traditional entrepôt trade was about 23 per cent by value of total exports in 1975. Japan was still the largest re-export market, followed by Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia and the United States. The principal commodities re-exported were machinery and transport equipment; textiles and clothing; diamonds; watches and clocks; crude animal and vegetable materials; medicinal and pharmaceutical products; and dyeing, tanning and colouring materials. The principal countries of origin of these re-exports were China, Japan and the United States.

HONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARIES

16

International Economic Relations

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       Hong Kong's external commercial relations are conducted by the Commerce and Industry Department within the framework of a basically free trade policy. Hong Kong practises to the full the rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and virtually the only restrictions maintained on trade are those required by international obligations. Most prominent among these are restraints on textile exports to most major trading partners. These arrangements come under the umbrella of the Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles, com- monly known as the Multi-Fibre Arrangement. Britain acceded to the MFA on behalf of Hong Kong in 1974. One of the features of the MFA is the establishment of a Textiles Surveillance Body (TSB) to supervise the implementation of the arrange- ment. At the invitation of GATT, a Hong Kong representative sat as a full member of the Textiles Surveillance Body during 1975.

      As a result of negotiations under the MFA, a bilateral agreement was concluded during the year with the European Economic Community whereby exports of certain textiles from Hong Kong to the EEC were placed under restraint. The agreement came into effect on July 18, 1975 and will expire on December 31, 1977. Bilateral agreements were also concluded with Australia, Austria, Canada and Sweden.

      Consultations were held in Oslo in June with the Norwegian Government regarding a new bilateral textiles agreement under the MFA. No agreement was reached and, pending the resumption of consultations, Hong Kong unilaterally in- troduced export restraints to Norway on six garment items for one year as from July 1.

      Progress in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) remained slow. The negotiations were launched in September 1973 in Tokyo, with the object of further liberalising world trade by the removal or reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers. These negotiations are now expected to continue in 1976 and possibly beyond.

      Another issue of considerable importance to Hong Kong concerns the various generalised preference schemes. Operated by most of the developed countries, these schemes are designed to assist the export of goods manufactured by the developing countries and they include provisions allowing duty-free or low tariff entry for prod- ucts from beneficiary developing countries.

The form, coverage and other provisions of the schemes differ from country to country and so the advantages vary. Hong Kong has been included as a beneficiary by most of the developed countries operating such schemes. It has consistently made it clear that it seeks no special advantages under these schemes, but objects to being discriminated against while countries which are in a similar state of development and are close trade competitors are given beneficiary status. Such discrimination was practised in respect of certain Hong Kong manufactured products by the EEC, Japan, Switzerland, Australia and Austria. This discrimination was the subject of continuing official exchanges, including visits to the countries concerned by officers of the Commerce and Industry Department.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

17

       The exclusion of Hong Kong textiles and footwear from the enlarged EEC's Generalised Preference Scheme continued to be a matter of particular concern. As a result of representations by Hong Kong, the European Economic Community decided to include imports of non-leather footwear from Hong Kong in its 1975 scheme. Efforts are continuing to have Hong Kong's textiles and leather footwear included in the EEC's future schemes.

       In January 1975 the United States President signed the Trade Act of 1974- which provided the legal basis for a generalised scheme of preferences to come into effect on January 1, 1976. Hong Kong was not included in the list of beneficiaries of the scheme but was included in a list of potential beneficiaries. Representations were made by the British and Hong Kong Governments regarding Hong Kong's inclusion in the scheme and Hong Kong gave an undertaking to the United States Government to eliminate by January 1976 Hong Kong's Commonwealth preference in respect of liquor, manufactured tobacco and motor vehicles in favour of developed Common- wealth countries. On November 24, the United States Government announced that Hong Kong would be included as a beneficiary of the scheme.

Documentation of Imports and Exports

       Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations. The most complex formalities are those resulting from Hong Kong's obligations to restrain certain exports of textile products. As from April 1, 1975, a fee of $15 was introduced for each application for an export licence covering textiles. With this exception, all import and export licences are issued free of charge.

       Acetic acid was made subject to import licensing on August 14, while other acetylating substances-acetic anhydride, acetyl chloride and acetyl bromide--were brought under import and export licensing control in accordance with the Acetylating Substances (Control) Ordinance 1975 as from September 1. A simplified export licensing arrangement was introduced on October 17 to facilitate the movement of textiles, electrical products (powered by mains supply) and processed and manu- factured foodstuffs trans-shipped at Hong Kong for on-carriage to other places. The number of import licences issued during 1975 totalled 34,470 and export licences 700,049.

       With Hong Kong's economic dependence on the export of manufactured goods, mostly made from imported materials, and on the substantial re-export trade, a certification of origin system to meet the requirements of overseas customs authorities is vitally important. The Commerce and Industry Department issues certificates of origin and accepts the responsibility for safeguarding the integrity of the entire Hong Kong certification system. To this end, close liaison is maintained with overseas authorities and with the authorised non-government certificate-issuing bodies-the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong, and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce. The

18

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

value of domestic exports covered by certificates of origin issued by the six organisa- tions during 1975 was estimated at $10,386 million. Of this, $6,781 million represented the value of exports supported by departmental certificates of origin.

Britain and a number of other Commonwealth countries grant preferential rates of duty to Hong Kong products. To support claims to preference, the Commerce and Industry Department issues Commonwealth preference certificates against detailed cost statements or legal undertakings given by manufacturers to use only Common- wealth raw materials. During the year, the department continued its efforts to pursuade Commonwealth countries to accept certificates of origin issued by the department with an endorsement to show the requisite Commonwealth content in the manufacture of the products, instead of Commonwealth preference certifi- cates prepared by accountants. As a result, 23 Commonwealth countries have accepted the simplified certification of preference arrangement. At the end of the year, Antigua, Guernsey, Malaysia and Malta were the only remaining Common- wealth territories that were still considering acceptance of the simplified arrangement. The value of goods exported under Commonwealth preference certificates and endorsed certificates of origin during the year was $156 million.

A number of countries grant tariff preference to developing countries under generalised preference schemes. Hong Kong is a beneficiary under the schemes. operated by Austria, Canada, the European Economic Community, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland. Form 'A' certificates are issued for exports under claim to generalised preferential entry into these countries. Steps have been taken to authorise the approved non-government certification bodies to certify such exports to Austria, Canada, Japan and Switzerland. The value of exports in 1975 covered by Form 'A' certificates amounted to $2,336 million. It is not known what proportion of these exports was actually granted preferential entry.

An estimated 62.6 per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports were covered by certificates of origin of one type or another-46.8 per cent of them by the depart ment's certificates.

A series of international trade facilitation meetings were attended by representa- tives of the Trade Facilitation Committee-an advisory body to the Director of Commerce and Industry and to industrial and other organisations in Hong Kong in the field of standardisation and simplification of trade documents and trade pro- cedures. The meetings were organised by the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the Simplification of International Trade Procedures Board of the United Kingdom (SITPRO) and were held in Europe in February and September. They enabled Hong Kong to learn from and exchange views with both national and international trade facilitation bodies that are in the forefront in research and development of modern methods and tech- niques in the handling of trade documentation and trade procedural matters.

Administration

The responsibilities of the Commerce and Industry Department include the conduct of overseas commercial relations, industrial development and investment

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

19

promotion, certification of origin, trade controls, and the collection and protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. Its work is complemented by several auton- omous institutions either wholly or partly financed by public funds.

       On matters of policy affecting trade and industry other than textiles, the Director of Commerce and Industry takes advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board of which he is chairman. It comprises senior unofficial representatives of various sectors including commerce, industry, banking and insurance. The board is nominated by the Governor and usually meets once a month. The Textiles Advisory Board is a more specialised body which is also chaired by the Director and is consulted on matters affecting the textiles industry. It met on 42 occasions during 1975. Both these boards are served by specialist committees as the need arises.

        The Director of Commerce and Industry is also Commissioner of the Preventive Service. He is assisted in Hong Kong by two deputy directors, one of whom is also the Deputy Commissioner of the Preventive Service. There are seven assistant directors, one of whom is the Assistant Commissioner of the Preventive Service. These assistant directors head the seven divisions of the department: commercial relations (two divisions), industry, trade, textile controls, administration, and the Preventive Service. The department has three overseas offices in Brussels, Geneva and Washington-and it is also represented in the Hong Kong Government Office in London.

         The commercial relations divisions collect and disseminate information on trade policy measures taken by other countries which may affect Hong Kong, and also keep abreast of the activities of international organisations. These divisions conduct Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other governments. The textile controls division is responsible for implementing agreements reached. This involves the calculation and allocation of quotas, and associated control procedures. The overseas offices are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work and provide current information on international matters which may affect Hong Kong.

       The industry division provides liaison between industry and other government departments, promotes overseas investment in local industry, and deals with specific industrial problems. It undertakes factory visits and advises on industrial infrastruc- ture, special industrial projects and matters concerning industrial land.

        The trade division is responsible for certification and documentation procedures, including an import and export licensing system for commodities other than textiles. It operates a trade investigation service which undertakes the regular inspection of factories and goods in connection with certification and licensing controls, and pros- ecutes those suspected of contravening the relevant regulations. The division is also responsible for handling trade complaints and the control of reserved commodities, of which rice is the most important.

        A rice control scheme has been in operation since 1955. The object of the scheme is to ensure regular and adequate supplies of rice to consumers at reasonable prices. A reserve stock is maintained to safeguard supplies to the public.

20

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       Following advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board and the Rice Advisory Committee that a limited increase in the number of rice importers should have advantageous effect on rice sales and distribution, seven new importers were selected by public ballot in August. These seven new importers entered the trade on January 1, 1976, bringing the total number of registered importers to 45.

The administration division is responsible for the organisation and management of the department and for administrative liaison with the overseas officers. The work of the Preventive Service is described in detail in Chapter 10.

Trade Development Council

The Hong Kong Trade Development Council, established by statute in 1966, is a quasi-government organisation responsible for promoting and developing Hong Kong's overseas trade and for making recommendations to the government which it considers would achieve an increase in Hong Kong's trade. The TDC also works closely with the industry division of the Commerce and Industry Department to promote and encourage foreign investment in and joint ventures with local industry.

       The council's chairman is appointed by the Governor. Its members comprise representatives of principal commercial and industrial organisations, two senior government officials, and four nominated members. The council is financed by an annual grant from public funds, together with minor income from advertising fees and sale of publications.

The TDC's headquarters are in Hong Kong and the council maintains overseas offices in 15 key cities-London, Manchester, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Stockholm, Zurich, Amsterdam, Vienna, Milan, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Toronto, Tokyo and Sydney. The new office in Zurich and the European Logistics Office in Vienna became fully operational during the year. The first Hong Kong trade develop- ment delegation to France was in Paris in September, when it was announced that the TDC would be giving consideration to opening an office there.

While the main emphasis of the council's work is on promoting the exports of products bearing the Made-in-Hong Kong label, attention continues to be given to improving imports-since Hong Kong relies heavily on overseas sources for the purchase of capital goods, raw materials and semi-processed manufactures.

Despite rising costs due to world inflation, the council carried out an extensive overseas promotional programme in 1975, mounting some 43 major international promotions. They included Hong Kong's participation in the Brno International Consumer Goods Fair; the 23rd Comis Euro-Tricot International Knitwear Fair, Milan; the New York Jewellery Show; Leipzig International Spring and Autumn Trade Fairs; Budapest International Consumer Goods Fair; Spoga Sports Goods Fair, Cologne; Poznan International Consumer Goods Fair, Poland; Milan Inter- national Toy Fair; Nuremberg International Toy Fair; New York International Toy Fair; Frankfurt International Spring Trade Fair; and Utrecht Spring Fair (combined with Brussels solo presentation).

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

21

       In addition, the council mounted promotions at the Paris International Trade Fair or 'Foire-de-Paris'; New York Premium Show; the Chicago Consumer Elec- tronics Show; and Cologne International Housewares Fair. Hong Kong also staged Ready-to-Wear fashion presentations in Paris and London.

Although emphasis continued to be placed on maintaining promotional efforts in all Hong Kong's major markets, the process of market diversification was furthered by promotional projects which were initiated in a number of areas. In this respect the TDC continued to work towards developing the markets of the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe. In all, 11 major projects were mounted in the Comecon countries and solo exhibitions were held in Belgrade, Budapest and Warsaw. Other areas where the council sought to develop markets included the Middle East. Three business groups visited the region and met with considerable success. Other business groups promoted Hong Kong products in Africa, the United States, Canada and Japan.

        The council's eighth annual Ready-to-Wear Festival took place in the first week of March, attracting 1,000 overseas buyers representing 663 companies from 31 different countries. The festival is now an internationally recognised fashion trade

event.

To coincide with the Royal visit in May, a public exhibition of local products was mounted at the new Hung Hom railway terminus. The exhibition was visited by the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh.

The council's trade publications continued to register increased world-wide circulation. A combined circulation of 760,000 was reached by the TDC's three prestige 'glossy' magazines-Hong Kong Enterprise (monthly), Apparel (bi-annually) and Hong Kong Toys (annually). German and French inserts were introduced in both Apparel and Toys '75, providing more effective multi-lingual information on two of the industries in which Hong Kong leads the world-garments and toys.

        The documentary film on the 1975 Ready-to-Wear Festival was completed and released, and a new documentary film was also produced to promote Hong Kong's export trade and industrial investment opportunities.

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

        The corporation operates within the framework of the Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation Ordinance. Its capital of $20 million is provided by the government, which also guarantees its liabilities. In the conduct of its business, the corporation operates as a commercial undertaking and is charged to pay its way.

The primary function of the corporation is to encourage and expand Hong Kong's exports by insuring exporters against the risks of non-payment-such as bankruptcy, default, transfer blockage and war-when they sell on credit terms to overseas buyers. These risks are not normally covered by commercial insurers. The security provided by the corporation helps its policyholders to obtain finance for their export operations.

       In 1974-5 the corporation covered exports worth $1,468 million to more than 150 countries, mainly on credit terms of up to 180 days but some on three years'

22

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

credit. With the introduction of guarantees for longer terms the statutory limit of $1,250 million set in 1973 proved insufficient and in November 1974 the government's statutory guarantee of the corporation's liabilities was increased to $1,750 million. In July 1975, the Legislative Council resolved to increase the maximum percentage of indemnity granted by the corporation from 85 per cent to 90 per cent. This higher percentage of indemnity is being gradually introduced to all policyholders in the hope that it will aid them in their export endeavours.

The corporation is assisted in its business by an advisory board consisting of 12 members occupying leading positions in the government and in the banking, manufacturing and exporting communities of Hong Kong. As a member of the international association of export credit insurers, known as the Berne Union, the corporation has regular access to specialised economic and marketing information on all countries in the world. It maintains close links with fellow credit insurers of other major trading countries.

The corporation works in close consultation with Hong Kong's banks, the Trade Development Council, the Commerce and Industry Department, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Trade Facilitation Committee, the Hong Kong Exporters' Association, and other commercial organisations involved in promoting Hong Kong's exports.

Hong Kong Productivity Council

     The Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in 1967 to promote increased productivity in industry and to encourage the more efficient use of resources. The council comprises a chairman and 20 members, all appointed by the Governor. Fourteen members represent management, labour, academic and professional interests, while the other six members represent government departments closely associated with productivity matters.

The Hong Kong Productivity Centre, formally established in 1967, is the execu- tive arm of the council. The centre conducts industrial training courses in productivity techniques; provides consultancy services and technical assistance to industry; organises overseas study missions; provides fellowships for more advanced training of individuals; publishes a monthly bulletin and technical reports; undertakes economic research projects in industry; and collects and disseminates information relating to productivity.

The centre operates in three premises in Central District, Kwun Tong and Mong Kok. Facilities include eight lecture rooms, a low-cost automation unit, an industrial chemical laboratory, an audio-visual unit, a technical reference library, and electronic processing facilities.

In recognition of the need for Hong Kong to diversify into more sophisticated product lines and the technically advanced industries, considerable emphasis has been placed on industrial technology in the field of technical assistance and in training. During 1975 the centre conducted 220 training courses, undertook more than 100 industrial and technology projects, and organised two study missions to Japan. The centre intensified its efforts for the promotion of improved mechanisation.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

23

Parallel with the training and technical assistance project undertaken by the low-cost automation unit, the centre organised five industrial exhibitions of specialised equip- ment and materials. More than 25,000 people from various industries attended the exhibitions.

Under the auspices of the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO), a number of overseas technical experts provided training and consultancy in the fields of fuel efficiency, sheet metal dies, methods times measurement (mtm), foundry technology and industrial engineering. At the request of the Hong Kong Government, the United Nations deputed an information expert to advise on the establishment of a technical information centre. With the expert's report still under consideration, the centre is continuing its pioneering role in this field through its own technical informa- tion service.

        As a member of the APO, Hong Kong was represented at its 15th workshop meeting of national productivity centres held in Bangkok in January, and at the 17th governing body meeting in Seoul in May.

The centre is a full member of the International Federation of Documentation (FID) and is represented on FID's Information for Industry Committee and its Education and Training Committee. The centre is also a participating organisation of the Asian Network for Industrial Technology Information and Extension. (TECHNONET ASIA), established under the auspices of the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC).

Other Trade and Industrial Organisations

Founded in 1861, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the earliest established trade association in Hong Kong. Its membership stood at more than 1,800 at the end of 1975. It represents all branches of commerce and industry and is represented on a number of government boards and committees. It is also a member of the International Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce. The association is actively involved in attracting new industry to Hong Kong in conjunction with the government.

The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by statute in 1960, devotes much of its efforts to helping create an infrastructure which will assist the growth of Hong Kong industry. Its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. The organisation provides testing services for chemical, electrical, electronic and textile products, and for footwear, toys, watches, foodstuffs and packaging materials. To encourage the development of better industrial design, the federation's Industrial Design Council has instituted two awards for Hong Kong designed products--the Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries Award for Good Design. Competitions are held annually. The federation has also set up a Packaging Council and Packaging Centre to promote creativity and innovation in the fields of product design and packaging. These efforts were recognised at international level by the decision of the World Packaging Organi- sation to transfer its secretariat from London to Hong Kong for three years from 1973 to 1975.

24

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

The Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of more than 2,000 representing factories and companies of all sizes and business activities. The association is a member of the International Chamber of Commerce and has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong. It helps promote new product manufacture and takes an interest in industrial training, having provided funds for the construction of a prevocational training school. It has held an annual Hong Kong New Products Award Competition since 1970.

Trade Marks and Patents

Trade marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained free of charge from the Trade Marks Registry, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in Britain or any other country, must satisfy all the require- ments of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 2,968 applications were received and 1,701 (including many applications made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,530 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

United States ... Hong Kong

Japan

Britain

West Germany

363

Switzerland

348

France

212

Australia

181

Italy

90

Netherlands

81

44

32

32

18

...

The total number of marks on the register at December 31, 1975, was 31,339.

      There is no original grant of patents in Hong Kong, but the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance provides that any person being the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have his patent registered in Hong Kong. Registration of a United Kingdom patent in Hong Kong confers on the grantee of the patent the same privileges and rights as though the patent had been issued in Britain with an extension to Hong Kong. The privileges and rights run from the date of the patent in Britain, and continue as long as the patent remains in force there. A total of 605 patents were registered during the year, compared with 700 in 1974.

Companies

The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in Hong Kong. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is still based largely on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. However, following the two reports of the Companies Law Revision Com- mittee in June 1971 and April 1973, the Companies Ordinance is being amended by stages so as to bring its provisions more into line with those of the Companies Act

1948.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

25

       One amending ordinance is the Companies (Amendment) (No. 4) Ordinance 1974, which was enacted in December 1974 and came into force on October 1, 1975. This ordinance was based on recommendations in the second report of the committee relating to company accounts and directors' reports. It brings the accounts provisions broadly into line with those now in force in Britain and requires directors' reports to give much fuller information about their companies' affairs. Other items of legisla- tion based on recommendations in the committee's reports remain to be dealt with.

       During the year the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 1975 and the Companies (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1975 were enacted, both of which increased the various fees payable in the Companies Registry. On incorporation a company now pays a registration fee of $300 plus $4 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1975 there were 4,170 new companies incorporated-398 less than the total incorporated in 1974. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1975 totalled $1,824 million-27 per cent less than the previous year. Of the new companies, 63 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. During the year 1,110 companies in- creased their nominal capital by amounts totalling $3,942 million, on which fees were paid at the old rate of $2 per $1,000 up to February 26 and $4 per $1,000 from then on. At the end of 1975 there were 38,985 local companies on the register compared with 35,416 the previous year.

       Companies incorporated overseas are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in Hong Kong. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year, 57 such companies were registered and 35 ceased to operate. At the end of 1975 there were 892 companies registered from 46 countries, including 228 from the United States, 112 from Britain and 99 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local companies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

       All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of either the Life Insurance Com- panies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption. This is dependent on obtaining a certificate from the insurance division of the Depart- ment of Trade in London, stating that the company is authorised under the Insurance Companies Act 1974 to carry on insurance business in Britain or in the case of fire and marine insurance by maintaining similar deposits elsewhere in the Common- wealth. There are altogether 272 insurance companies, including 104 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Registrar General must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

       The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustee Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships and money-lenders.

26

Bankruptcies and Liquidations

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     In Hong Kong the number of business failures leading to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always comparatively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. The number of insolvencies coming before the court in 1975 was the largest in any year since the war. There were 71 petitions in bankruptcy and 95 petitions for the compulsory winding-up of companies, and the court made 44 receiving orders and 68 winding-up orders. As in past years, the Official Receiver was appointed trustee or liquidator in almost every case. Assets realised by the Official Receiver during 1975 amounted to about $23 million. In addition to these compulsory windings-up, 351 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year 339 by members' voluntary winding-up and 12 by creditors' voluntary winding-up.

3

Financial Structure

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WITH the ultimate authority resting with the Legislative Council, Hong Kong has almost complete autonomy in financial affairs; but approval by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is required before decisions are made on certain major matters such as currency and banking.

       Hong Kong is financially self-supporting. It also makes a substantial contribution to the cost of the garrison stationed in Hong Kong. Under an agreement covering the five years from April 1971 to March 1976, Hong Kong has been making a contribution in kind and in cash amounting to about £40 million. About £28 million of this contri- bution is being spent in Hong Kong on capital works and on the maintenance of buildings which will revert to Hong Kong if no longer required by the British Government. The Public Works Department undertakes the work on behalf of the British Department of the Environment. A new Defence Costs Agreement is to come into effect on April 1, 1976.

       The Urban Council, operating through the Urban Services Department, is free to draw up its own budget and to determine its own priorities of expenditure within its various spheres of activity. These are financed mainly from the yield from the Urban Council rate and partly from other sources of revenue related-largely through fees and charges-to the services and facilities the council provides.

       The Housing Authority, which is responsible for the development and manage- ment of all public housing, is financed mainly from loans from the government's Development Loan Fund and income from rents. It is also allocated land at substan- tially less than its market value. Its executive arm is the Housing Department. The authority is responsible for squatter control, clearing squatters from sites required for development, and developing licensed areas. The cost of these activities and the deficit arising from the management of former resettlement estates are financed from general revenue.

        A small deficit in the government's accounts was returned in the first financial year after World War II. Subsequently-with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively--a series of surpluses, some of them substantial, were accumulated in the years up to and including 1973-4. The accumulation of these surpluses is a considerable achivement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrow- ing. These annual capital outlays have been increasing in recent years and in 1974-5 they totalled $1,800 million.

28

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

      The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, was that during the earlier years exceptionally rapid increases in population generated economic activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreciable increases in the rates of tax. Revenue expanded more than 19 times from $309 million in 1951-2 to $5,875 million in 1974-5. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been strong and continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before the government could develop community and social services necessary for an increasing population and made possible by economic growth itself. But as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue narrowed.

       The pace of economic growth gave rise to surpluses in the years from 1969-70 up to 1973-4, with the highest surplus of $640 million being achieved in 1971-2. In 1974-5 however, although revenue reached a new record of $5,875 million, exceeding the original estimate by $30 million, actual expenditure of $6,255 million exceeded the original estimate by $508 million. This large expenditure excess was due partly to increased spending on public works, social welfare and University and Polytechnic grants, all of which accounted for $242 million of the excess. The increased cost of civil service salaries was largely responsible for the balance. As a result of the increase in expenditure over the original estimate, there was a net deficit of $380 million in 1974-5 as compared with an estimated surplus for that year of $98 million. Revenue and expenditure for the years 1973-4 and 1974-5 together with the estimates for 1975-6 are detailed and compared in Appendices 7 and 8.

For 1975-6 the estimated revenue is $6,184 million and expenditure $6,615 million, so that a deficit of $431 million is estimated for the year.

At March 31, 1975 net available public financial assets were $2,522 million, while the public debt was equivalent to some $135.8 million-about $31 per head of popula tion. Indebtedness increased by $81.4 million during 1974-5. Additional borrowings under the Asian Development Bank Loan towards the construction of seawater desalting works near Castle Peak in the New Territories totalled $83.9 million during the year. The interest rate for this loan is 7 per cent per annum, and the capital sum is repayable over 10 years from January 1976. Britain's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Hong Kong International Airport was extinguished when the final repayment was made in October 1975. The loan was repaid by 15 annual instalments, beginning in 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, of which $50 million was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable not later than 1978. Its sinking fund stood at $36.6 million on March 31, 1975.

       In addition to these assets and liabilities, there is a Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund which exist for special purposes. The Development Loan Fund, which is financed mainly by transfers from general revenue, interest payments and capital repayments, totalled $835.2 million at March 31, 1975. It is used to finance social and economic developments of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes, but during the year 3,930 university students

FASHION

As the world's major garment exporter, Hong Kong draws about 1,000 overseas fashion buyers to its annual Ready-to- Wear Festival. In 1975 the week-long festival was extended by taking the gala presentation to Paris-as Hong Kong's first-ever solo show in the traditional mecca of fashion. It then went on to London. The Governor travelled to Europe with Lady Maclehose to help promote the events and to take part in trade talks. Sir Murray said the shows were 'designed to demonstrate the quality, workmanship and high fashion content of Hong Kong-made garments.' The Ready-to-Wear Festival is organised by the Trade Development Council and is listed as one of the more important gar- ment shows of the world.

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  The festival presented about 1,500 outfits, with mix-and-match casuals adding to Hong Kong's world-wide reputation for leisure wear.

YAL

Knitwear was marked out as another winner-attracting special

attention in Paris and London as well as in Hong Kong.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

S

Informal clothes were all shown in relaxed style-especially when a group of children took over.

The gala presentation had everything from furs to denim, with traditional oriental patterns being introduced even on T-shirts.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

  Hong Kong models in Paris-where the show immediately attracted 300 trade enquires and helped to further relations with France.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

29

      received interest-free loans totalling $13.5 million. At March 31, 1975, liquid assets amounted to $58.6 million and outstanding commitments $198.4 million.

The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is mainly for financing by grants and loans the development of social welfare services. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $60.3 million was credited between 1965 and 1975 through the net proceeds of the Government Lotteries and of the auction of special vehicle registration numbers. At March 31, 1975, grants and loans amounting to $57.9 million had been approved. A further sum of $1.4 million, being unclaimed prize money, was held on deposit.

The audit of all government accounts and those of more than 80 special funds of a public or quasi-public nature is carried out by the Director of Audit. His appoint- ment, tenure of office, duties and powers are prescribed in the Audit Ordinance. To ensure the director's complete independence in the exercise of his functions, the ordin- ance provides that he shall not be subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority. It also prescribes certain safeguards against his dismissal or premature retirement.

The annual report and certificate of the Director of Audit on the accounts of the Hong Kong Government, which he submits to the Governor, is presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

Duties

There is no general tariff on goods entering Hong Kong but excise duties are charged on three groups of commodities-alcoholic liquors, tobacco and certain hydrocarbon oils-whether they are imported or manufactured locally. The pref- erential rates of duty which have applied to imports from Commonwealth countries are now being removed.

On liquors, the basic duty rates range from $2.40 per gallon on Hong Kong brewed beer to $103 per gallon on non-Commonwealth brandy. On tobacco, rates range from $3.20 per pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $17.25 per pound on non-Commonwealth cigars. Rates on hydrocarbon oils are $1.30 per gallon on diesel oil for road vehicles and $1.80 per gallon on motor and aircraft spirits.

All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture or sale of dutiable com- modities must be licensed.

Rates

Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value (rateable value) of land or a building, or part of it, held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. Valuation lists, which are frequently revised to bring them up-to-date, are prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and cover Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and parts of the New Territories. The valuation lists contain more then 400,000 separate assessments, having a total value of some $4,500 million.

        Rates are payable by quarterly instalments and are charged, with few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum on assessed rateable values. In the urban areas this percentage

30

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

charge is apportioned to general rates (11 per cent) and Urban Council rates (six per cent), the latter being paid to the council to finance many of its activities. In the New Territories, for areas brought into rating for the first time, the percentage charge is reduced for the four years following the coming into force of a valuation list for that area. In 1975, seven new rating areas were specified in the New Territories and rates will be charged in these areas from April 1, 1976.

There are few exemptions from rates. Premises used for educational, charitable and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments are reimbursed in the form of either direct subventions or contributions towards rates. No reliefs are available for vacant domestic premises, but a refund of half the rates paid may be granted in the case of non-domestic premises.

The estimated revenue from rates for 1975-6 is $777 million, of which $252 million will go to the Urban Council.

Internal Revenue

       Earnings and profits are taxed under the Inland Revenue Ordinance according to the form of the income arising in or derived from Hong Kong. The current standard rate of tax of 15 per cent has been in force since April 1, 1966. The various forms of income which are subject to separate taxes are property, business profits, interest and salaries.

        Property Tax is charged at the standard rate on the owner, but there are exemp- tions including property occupied by the owner for his residential purposes, vacant property and property in unrated parts of the New Territories. Following a proclama- tion made by the Governor on July 14, 1975, a number of previously exempted areas of the New Territories will become subject to the tax as from April 1, 1976. Properties owned by corporations carrying on business in Hong Kong are exempted, although profits from their ownership are subject to Profits Tax.

Interest Tax is charged at the standard rate on interest arising in or derived from Hong Kong. It is withheld at source unless it forms part of the profits of a corporation carrying on a trade or business in Hong Kong, in which case it is subject to Profits Tax. There is exemption for interest payable by the government and licensed banks of up to 24 per cent per annum, and by public utilities 3-4 per cent-these rates being effective from March 12 and March 1, 1975, respectively.

Profits Tax is charged at the standard rate on profits arising in or derived from Hong Kong from a trade or business operated in Hong Kong. In addition, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1976 only, corporations are subject to a surcharge of 11 percentage point on profits. Expenses incurred in the production of profits subject to tax are deductible, as are charitable donations up to a maximum of 10 per cent of net assessable profits.

Salaries Tax is charged on emoluments arising in or derived from Hong Kong. Tax is calculated on a sliding scale which varies from five per cent to 30 per cent on net chargeable income-income after deduction of personal allowances. However,

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

31

the overall effective rate of tax is limited to 15 per cent of the income before deducting personal allowances. These allowances are: for the taxpayer $10,000; his wife $10,000; the first child $3,000; the second child $2,500; the third child $1,500. The allowance for the fourth to sixth child is $1,000 each, and for the seventh to ninth child $500 each. Apart from the deduction of expenses necessarily incurred in production of the in- come, and charitable donations up to 10 per cent of assessable income, there are no other allowances.

        A further feature of the Inland Revenue Ordinance is the right of a taxpayer to elect for what is known as Personal Assessment. This aggregates his income from the four sources mentioned earlier and gives him the benefit of the same personal allow- ances and sliding scale of tax as would be allowed for Salaries Tax purposes. Tax paid on the individual sources of income is allowed to be set-off.

        It is estimated that the taxes on earnings and profits will yield $2,247 million in the financial year 1975-6.

Estate Duty is imposed on that part of a deceased person's estate which is situated in Hong Kong. As from April 1, 1974, the estate value exemption limit was raised from $200,000 to $300,000. The rate of duty varies from six per cent on estates valued between $300,000 and $400,000 to 15 per cent on those in excess of $1 million. The yield for the year ended March 31, 1976 is estimated at $40 million.

       Stamp Duty imposes fixed duties on certain classes of documents and ad valorem duties on others. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty for the year ended March 31, 1976 is $298 million. This is a considerable drop from earlier years, reflecting the fall in values and turnover on the stock and property markets.

        Entertainments Tax was re-introduced on admission charges to cinemas on April 1, 1975, after two years of the tax being levied only on the price of admission to race meetings. The tax is charged at varying rates depending on price of admission but the average is about 10 per cent in the case of cinemas and 22 per cent in the case of race meetings. The estimated yield for 1975-6 is $24.9 million.

       Betting Duty is imposed on bets made on an authorised totalisator or pari-mutuels and on contributions towards authorised cash-sweeps. The duty on bets is charged at either 71 per cent or 11 per cent depending on the type of bet placed, and at 25 per cent on cash-sweep contributions. The duty is recovered from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club which holds the monopoly for conducting such operations, including a limited form of off-course betting. The estimated yield for the year ending March 31, 1976 is $119.5 million. As from August 1, 1975 the Betting Duty was further extended to lotteries conducted by a newly established Lotteries Board. Duty is charged at 25 per cent on the proceeds of such lotteries.

        Hotel Accommodation Tax is imposed on hotel and guest house accommodation and is levied at the rate of three per cent on the accommodation charges. It will be increased to four per cent on April 1, 1976. For the financial year 1975-6 this tax is estimated to yield $9.5 million.

32

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

Business Registration is compulsory for every business operating in Hong Kong, except those carried on by charitable institutions. The annual registration fee is $150 but exemption from payment of the fee is granted where the business is small. The total income from these fees, service fees for copy documents and other fees for the fiscal year 1975-6 is expected to be $29.9 million.

Currency

        Hong Kong has no central bank. Bank notes are issued by three commercial banks the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank and the Mercantile Bank. Currency notes of one cent denomination are issued by the government, as are coins of two dollars, one dollar, 50 cents, 20 cents, 10 cents and five cents. A $1,000 gold coin was issued in 1975 to commemorate the Queen's visit in May. The total currency in nominal circulation at the end of 1975, and details of its constitution, are shown in Appendix 11.

        The value of currency issued by the note-issuing banks is regulated by an Exchange Fund, which was set up in 1935 when the Hong Kong dollar ceased to be based on silver. The fund receives payment from these banks in exchange for certificates of indebtedness denominated in Hong Kong dollars. These certificates are non-interest bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary. They provide the legal backing for the notes issued by the banks-apart from their small 'fiduciary' issues which are limited to a total of $95 million and are issued against securities, of a kind approved by the Secretary of State, which are held by the banks and deposited with the Crown Agents in London. The Exchange Fund's resources are employed in a variety of investments, both long and short-term, denominated in several currencies. Out of the income derived, the fund bears the cost of the note issue except for a small proportion, equivalent to the proportion of the 'fiduciary' issues to the total note issue, which is met by the note-issuing banks.

The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at about 1s 3d sterling ($16 to £1). On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. The relationship with sterling was, however, not a statutory one, and was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in conjunc- tion with the note-issuing banks. It weakened after the devaluation of the pound in November 1967, and it ended after the pound was allowed to float downwards in June 1972. Early in the following month the Hong Kong Government decided to fix the exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar in terms of US dollars instead of sterling.

       Appendix 5 sets out changes in the exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar from 1946 to November 1974, when the currency was allowed to float. It strengthened markedly against the US dollar, with some fluctuations, up to mid-February 1975. Later in the year, however, as the US dollar strengthened in world markets, it returned near to its previous central rate of HK$5.085=US$1. As measured by a trade-weighted index, the overall value of the Hong Kong dollar against the currencies of Hong Kong's major trading partners was some two per cent higher at the end of 1975 than in the period immediately before the currency floated.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

33

        Until the late 1960s, Hong Kong kept its official external reserves in the form of sterling. Holdings were then progressively diversified and, by late 1975, only about 40 per cent was held in sterling, and the balance in several other currencies.

Since the beginning of 1973, transactions between Hong Kong and overseas countries have been free of all exchange control restrictions.

Banking

        Bank deposits increased during 1975 to $36,343 million at December 31, which represents a net increase of 17 per cent over the previous year. Loans and advances increased by 19 per cent to reach $35,075 million at December 31. Monthly bank clearings averaged $32,793 million. Banking statistics for the past three years are shown in Appendix 12.

        At the end of 1975 there were 74 licensed banks in Hong Kong with a total of 703 banking offices-an increase of 72 offices during the year. In addition, there were 80 representative offices of foreign banks. Banks in Hong Kong have branches and correspondents throughout the world and offer a comprehensive service of the highest order.

Securities

        Under the Securities Ordinance and the Securities (Dealers, Investment Advisers and Representatives) Regulations 1974, anyone wishing to carry on a business of dealing in securities is required to register first with the Commissioner for Securities. At the end of 1975 there were registered: 79 corporate dealers; 1,019 individual dealers including 951 stockbrokers on the four stock exchanges; 38 corporate investment advisers; 66 individual investment advisers; 977 dealers' representatives; and 60 investment representatives. During the year 14 corporations were declared exempt dealers and three corporations were declared exempt investment advisers.

       The combined Stock Exchanges Compensation Fund-established for the pur- pose of compensating those who suffer pecuniary loss as a result of default by stockbrokers-amounted to $24.5 million at the end of the year. No calls have yet been made on the fund. As regards dealers other than stockbrokers, the Commissioner for Securities has received a sum of $4.5 million by way of deposit. Like the Compensation Fund, the deposits aim at protecting the investor against any default by dealers. But unlike the Compensation Fund, the deposits are not pooled.

       The turnovers for 1975 reported on the four exchanges were: Hong Kong Stock Exchange $2,503.53 million; Far East Exchange $4,724.90 million; Kam Ngan Stock Exchange $2,807.73 million; and Kowloon Stock Exchange $299.02 million. The total of $10,335.18 million is a decrease of 8.1 per cent as compared with the previous year.

       One company came to the market by way of introduction. There were no public offers or private placements. At the end of the year the shares of 307 companies, in- cluding 23 overseas companies, were listed on the four stock exchanges.

        Early in 1975 the issue of additional shares by companies which had not sought the authority of their shareholders was becoming increasingly prevalent and was

34

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

causing concern. The Securities Commission, after consultation with the Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges, approved the making of a statutory rule prohibiting directors of a listed company incorporated in Hong Kong from issuing shares-other than on a pro-rata basis to existing shareholders-without the approval of share- holders. The proposed rule is generally consistent with the recommendations contained in the Second Report of the Companies Law Revision Committee. In the meantime the Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges has included this restriction in the listing rules of the stock exchanges. By the end of the year, three public companies had passed ordinary resolutions at their general meetings to give the directors a general mandate to issue and dispose of additional shares not exceeding 10 per cent of the existing share capital of the companies.

On August 14, 1975, the Securities Commission approved a Code on Takeovers and Mergers for Hong Kong which had been drawn up after discussions with under- writers, merchant banks, the Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges and others professionally interested. The code is administered by a committee consisting of one official and two unofficial members of the Securities Commission, one representative from the Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges and two representatives from financial institutions. The committee has power to co-opt members to assist in specific cases. Members will hold office for one year but may be re-elected.

The purpose of the code is to provide guidelines for companies and their advisers who contemplate or become involved in takeovers and mergers. The code does not cover those aspects of takeovers which might have broader social repercussions in the community but which fall outside the scope of good business practice and the need to protect investors. The code itself does not have the force of law, but it has received the full support of all those professionally concerned. It is operated on a voluntary basis because the conditions in which takeovers occur and the details of the proposals vary so much that legislation would have to be complex if it were to be comprehensive. A non-statutory code is also easier to amend or extend in the light of experience.

The present code for Hong Kong incorporates much of the London City Code, but with substantial amendments to suit local conditions. It also includes some of Britain's statutory provisions regarding information to be provided.

Commodity Exchange

On August 13, 1975 the Legislative Council passed a resolution approving in principle the establishment of a Commodity Exchange in Hong Kong. A proviso was that legislative measures should be introduced effectively to minimise social hazards to the people of Hong Kong. It has been accepted in principle that the administration of the proposed legislation dealing with the control of a Commodity Exchange and the registration of commodity dealers should be vested in the Commissioner for Securities and the Securities Commission. The draft Commodity Exchange Bill is to go before the Executive Council in 1976.

4

KKO

Employment

      FURTHER advances were made in 1975 in legislation to improve the safety, health, welfare and training of workers, and labour relations generally. They bring to 106 the number of items of legislation concerning the Labour and Mines Department passed since 1967.

The new items included safety measures in cargo handling (on the landward side) and the use and mounting of abrasive wheels. Two sets of regulations were made under the Clean Air Ordinance to permit the authority to approve plans for chimneys to be delegated to the air pollution control officer of the Labour Department.

Workers' wages were further protected by an amendment to the Employment Ordinance which confers an unequivocal right to liquidated damages in respect of wages in lieu of notice.

The Labour Relations Ordinance, which aims at improving labour-management relations, was enacted. It gives the government the right to intervene in trade disputes so that efforts can be made to defuse potentially damaging situations arising out of such disputes.

       Two ordinances enabling the establishment of training authorities for the clothing industry and the construction industry were enacted. The training authorities are empowered to collect training levies and to provide for facilities for the training of people employed in their respective industries.

       Both the cost of living index and the index of nominal average daily wages (excluding fringe benefits) have risen by seven per cent since the base period, July 1973 to June 1974. The index of real average daily wages therefore remained at 100, the same as the base index.

In December 1975 a total of 678,857 workers were employed in 31,034 establish- ments in the manufacturing sector. Some 351,880-the largest section of the labour force-were engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting, and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods. The plastics industry and the electrical industry were the next two largest employers. Details of the distribution of manufacturing establish- ments and of people employed in them are given in Appendices 13 and 14.

The bulk of the industrial population is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and New Kowloon, but there is increasing industrial develop- ment in the New Territories, particularly in the new towns of Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung. In December 1975 a total of 149,687 workers were recorded in 5,244 manu- facturing establishments in the New Territories. Although most workers are engaged in modern manufacturing processes, and to a small extent in mining and quarrying, traditional village industries still provide employment.

36

EMPLOYMENT

        The 1971 population census recorded a total working population of 1,582,849 in Hong Kong-1,049,989 male and 532,860 female. The main distribution of the workforce was: manufacturing 677,498; services 312,173; commerce 208,604; con- struction and engineering 168,773; transport and communications 114,722; agricul- ture, forestry and fishing 62,975; public utilities 8,870; mining and quarrying 4,518; and other industries 24,716.

Wages and Conditions of Work

        Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industries are piece-rated, although daily rates of pay are common. Men and women receive the same rates for piece-work, but women are generally paid less when working on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis, or on piece rates-when they are customarily paid every 10 or 15 days.

       Daily wages for the manufacturing industries at the end of 1975 ranged from $18.50 to $65.30 for skilled workers; $14.00 to $40.00 for semi-skilled workers; and $13.00 to $28.50 for unskilled workers. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, subsidised meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, paid rest days, and a Lunar New Year bonus of one month's pay.

       A consumer price index (A), based on a household expenditure survey conducted during the period July 1973 to June 1974, is compiled as an indicator of the effect of price changes on the expenditure of households spending $400-$1,499 a month. In December 1975, this index stood at 108 (see Appendix 16). A consumer price index (B) is also compiled to show the effect of price changes on the expenditure of households spending $1,500-$2,999 a month.

        The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its regulations control the hours and conditions of work in industry. Since December 1971, the permitted maximum hours of work for women and young people aged 16 and 17 employed in industry have been eight hours a day and 48 hours a week. The regulations also limit overtime and provide for weekly rest days, and rest breaks for women and young people. The maximum overtime allowed was reduced to 250 hours a year as from January 1975 and was further reduced to 200 hours as from January 1976.

       Young people aged 14 and 15 may work eight hours a day in industry with a one-hour break after five hours of continuous work, and no overtime is allowed. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground. The regulations also provide for a pre-employment medical examination of men employed underground or in tunnelling operations, and for the periodical medical examination of men under 21 years of age employed underground.

        A few large factories, mostly engaged in cotton spinning, were authorised in 1970 to employ women at night. This special permission was granted only to factories able to comply with stringent conditions. The concession is reviewed annually.

        There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work between eight and nine hours a day. Government employees, and those working for the better employers in the private sector, may have shorter working

EMPLOYMENT

37

hours, but usually not less than seven hours a day. Restrictions on the hours of work for women and young persons in industry have resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men employed alongside women and young people in the same

concern.

       The Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1975, which came into effect on February 7, restores the original intention that an employer or employee should have the right to claim liquidated damages of up to a month's wages for termination of employment in breach of the Employment Ordinance.

Trade Unions

       With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, most employees' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which are registered as societies and bear allegiance to opposing political groups. Due to political differences, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs, and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organisations.

       The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions is a left-wing organisation. Most of the members of its 67 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills and public utilities. A further 29 unions, nominally independent, are friendly towards the federation and participate in its activities. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council has right-wing sympathies. Most of the members of its 84 affiliated unions, and of the nine nominally independent unions which generally support the Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

There are 111 independent unions, some of which continue to make improve- ments in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members. The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are specified in the Trade Unions Ordinance which is administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions.

       Of the 356 unions on the register at the end of the year, 300 were employees' unions with a total declared membership of 317,743; a further 44 were organisations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 4,879; and 12 were mixed organisations with a total declared membership of 6,007.

Labour Administration and Services

        The Labour Department now has an establishment of 740 to provide services which continued to expand during the year. The branch offices in the urban areas and the New Territories, all within easy access to the public, continued to play a significant role in dealing promptly with labour matters.

        The Commissioner for Labour is the principal adviser to the government on labour matters. He is also the Commissioner of Mines.

        Labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which also ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under international labour conventions are observed. The

38

EMPLOYMENT

department is organised into seven divisions--administration, development, employ- ment, industrial health, industrial training, industry, and labour relations.

The introduction on August 1 of the Labour Relations Ordinance was a milestone in the annals of labour relations in Hong Kong. The ordinance aims at improving labour-management relations and facilitating the settlement of trade disputes by providing for, where necessary, special conciliation, voluntary arbitration, investiga- tion by a board of inquiry, and a maximum cooling-off period of 60 days. This cooling- off measure is confined to situations where industrial action has begun or is likely to begin; where the local economy, the livelihood, safety or health of a substantial number of Hong Kong's people or its internal security might be seriously jeopardised; and where the taking of this measure is conducive to settlement by peaceful means. The section of the ordinance covering the cooling-off period will only come into operation by order of the Governor in Council.

        During the year, the labour relations service dealt with 6,585 labour problems, most of which were of a grievance nature involving individuals in claims for wages in arrears, severance payment, wages in lieu of notice, and holiday pay. There were 17 work stoppages and the number of working days lost in these disputes was 17,600, compared with 10,708 in 19 work stoppages in 1974.

        The Labour Tribunal, which is part of the Judiciary, has functioned with success since its inception in March 1973. The tribunal complements the labour relations service and in no way supersedes the existing conciliation services of the Labour Department.

During 1975 the tribunal dealt with 1,987 cases involving employees as claimants and a further 40 cases in which the claims were initiated by employers. More than $3 million was awarded by presiding officers. Of the cases dealt with by the tribunal, 88.6 per cent were referred from the labour relations service of the Labour Department after unsuccessful conciliation attempts.

By the end of the year, the Labour Department had record of 54 formal joint consultative committees set up in 24 establishments, compared with 86 committees in 41 establishments in the previous year. The drop in numbers was due mainly to a re-calculation based on stricter criteria than those originally used. In addition, 62 firms are recorded as having some form of informal consultation. Most are working smoothly and achieving the object of bringing management and employees together to improve relationships and to allow each to benefit from the experience of the other.

Similar committees established in certain government departments have discussed a wide range of administrative, welfare and organisational problems. A total of 85 special visits were made during the year to employers who have shown positive interest in introducing joint consultation.

Safety

The factory inspectorate of the department's industry division is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its subsidiary legisla- tion, for the safety and health of workers in factories, building and engineering

EMPLOYMENT

39

construction sites, and other industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance is given to management on the guarding of dangerous parts of machinery, the adoption of safe working practices, and the general layout of factories to achieve safer working conditions.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Cargo Handling) Regulations came into operation on April 1. They are designed to provide for the safety of people employed in the loading, unloading or handling of cargo or goods at docks, quays or wharves.

        The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations, which amended regulation 17, also came into operation on April 1. The amended regulation provides a uniform and more effective procedure for submission of accident reports under both the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Regulations and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance.

        The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Abrasive Wheels) Regulations, which provide for certain safety measures for the operation of abrasive wheels, were approved by the Legislative Council on April 23. These regulations came into operation on January 1, 1976.

        During the year, the Industrial Safety Training Centre continued to provide a variety of safety training courses for workers and supervisory staff from industry and government departments, and for students from technical schools and vocational training centres. They ranged from the one-day course on the safe use of abrasive wheels to the six-week course for safety officers in industry. Staff of the centre assisted in the forming, in July, of the Central Container Handling Safety Committee, consisting of representatives of container handling firms.

        The centre maintains a permanent display which includes personal protective items, machinery fitted with a variety of safety guards, and models of construction sites depicting safe working conditions. During the year the centre also made use of the department's mobile exhibition unit to stage industrial safety exhibitions in various industrial districts.

The Labour Department, in co-operation with the Building Contractors Asso- ciation, staged Hong Kong's first Construction Safety Exhibition at the construction site of the World Trade Centre in Causeway Bay, in January. It lasted five days and attracted some 9,000 visitors, most of whom came from the construction industry.

Finding Employment

The local employment service operates a free placement service from five offices. In 1975 the service helped 4,816 workers find employment.

        In December 1973, a special register was established along the lines of the 'Professional and Executive Register' maintained by employment exchanges in Britain. It offers employment assistance to graduates of local universities as well as Hong Kong graduates from overseas universities and post-secondary colleges seeking

40

EMPLOYMENT

     to return to Hong Kong for employment. During the year, 25 graduates found employment through the assistance of the service.

       The youth employment advisory service continued to provide careers information to students and young people through the preparation and regular revision of careers pamphlets and occupations leaflets. It has so far produced 35 pamphlets and 50 occupations leaflets, and additional ones are under preparation. In 1975 the service also produced a monthly 'Careers Newsletter' and 13,000 copies were distributed to secondary schools, youth centres and other interested organisations.

       Throughout the year, officers of the service gave 408 careers talks in 113 schools and 17 youth centres to some 28,000 students and youngsters. The service also organised nine seminars and participated in three others which provided careers information to students, teachers, parents and interested individuals.

        Since September, the service has started to make use of a mobile exhibition vehicle which was donated by the Rotary Club of Kowloon to the Labour Department. It is being used to stage a series of mini careers exhibitions at various housing estates, parks, community centres and schools. The purpose is to bring careers information in a visual form to young people throughout Hong Kong.

        The fourth careers exhibition was held at the City Hall from December 17-28. Some 15 exhibitors from commerce, industry and government took part in the exhibition, which attracted nearly 100,000 visitors.

       The Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance controls contracts of em- ployment entered into in Hong Kong between overseas employers and manual workers -including domestic servants (with the exception of certain specific categories)- proceeding overseas for employment. During the year 602 contracts were attested, compared with 719 the previous year.

        Permission to work in Britain is given by the United Kingdom Department of Employment. Work permits are issued to applicants through the Immigration Department.

        Under the Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1973, which came into force on January 1, 1974, all profit-making employment agencies, unless in an excluded class, are required to obtain a licence from the Commissioner for Labour before starting operation. During the year, 35 licences were issued to employment agencies catering for employment of people within Hong Kong and 12 to those catering for employment overseas.

Industrial Health

        The industrial health unit of the Labour Department offers an advisory service to the government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. The unit is primarily concerned with preventing occupational diseases and protecting workers against hazards in their working environment. These hazards are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate, or by officers of the unit. Control is achieved by environmental and biological

EMPLOYMENT

41

      monitoring and health education. The unit's laboratory, staffed by technicians trained in industrial hygiene, has been designated as a collaborating laboratory on air pollution by the World Health Organisation.

        The measurement of concentrations in the air-such as chromium, lead, man- ganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust, and sulphur dioxide-and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise and lighting, also form a major part of the duties of the unit. Medical examinations, including X-rays and pathological investigations, are also arranged for workers exposed to risks of lead, radiation, fluoride toxicity, or silica dust, and for divers and workers operating in a compressed air environment.

Responsibility for the clinical examination, case-work, and medical assessment of injured workers lies with the industrial health unit. Visits to the homes and places of work of injured workers are made by health visitors of the unit.

The workmen's compensation unit administers the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance and is responsible for ensuring that injured workers or their dependants receive the compensation to which they are legally entitled.

The air pollution control unit has a team of 12 smoke inspectors who operate under the air pollution control officer. The unit is responsible for the administration of the Clean Air Ordinance, Clean Air (Furnaces, Ovens and Chimneys) (Installation and Alteration) Regulations 1972, and the Clean Air (Restriction and Measurement of Smoke Emission) Regulations 1973. It offers free constructive advice on the efficient use of fuel and the reduction of smoke emissions and other atmospheric pollutants.

Industrial Training

        In 1973 the Governor appointed the Hong Kong Training Council to advise him on measures necessary to ensure a comprehensive system of manpower training geared to meet the developing needs of Hong Kong's economy. On the council's recommendation, the Governor appointed 10 industry training boards and five com- mittees to assist the council. The 10 training boards deal with the training needs and problems of 10 major industries: automobile repair and servicing; building and civil engineering; clothing; electrical; electronics; machine shop and metal working; plastics; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairs; and textiles. The committees on the other hand examine problems common to more than one industry-such as apprenticeship, instructor training, technical training in institutions, translation of technical terms, and vocational training. The Training Council also has two ad hoc committees one on training in the commercial and service sectors, and the other on technologist training. The industrial training division of the Labour Department is the secretariat of the Training Council.

In 1975, manpower surveys were conducted by the five training boards covering the electrical, building and civil engineering, plastics, textiles, and clothing industries. Postal surveys were also carried out by the committees on instructor training and technical training in institutions, and the ad hoc committee on training of technologists.

42

EMPLOYMENT

A draft Apprenticeship Bill, seeking to promote apprentice training and to regulate the employment and training of apprentices in designated trades, was con- sidered and accepted by the Training Council and its committee on apprenticeship in April.

       In July, two industrial training bills were passed into law for the purpose of setting up training centres to provide practical training in the clothing and construc- tion industries. The Industrial Training (Clothing Industry) Ordinance imposes a training levy on the total export value of clothing items manufactured in and exported from Hong Kong. The Industrial Training (Construction Industry) Ordinance im- poses a training levy on the contract value of construction works in Hong Kong.

       In the field of prevocational and vocational training, a number of centres provid- ing training in technical, commercial and catering trades are run by voluntary welfare organisations and the government.

The industrial training division of the Labour Department encourages and assists employers to set up proper apprenticeship schemes for training craftsmen and tech- nicians. In 1975, about 200 firms in the major industries had proper apprentice training, and some 3,500 technician and craft apprentices were being trained under modern apprenticeship schemes recommended by the Labour Department. The apprentices attend part-time day-release courses at the Hong Kong Polytechnic and the three technical institutes run by the Education Department in Wan Chai, Kwun Tong and Kwai Chung. To cope with the demand for such educational facilities, a fourth technical institute, at Cheung Sha Wan, is now under construction.

5

:

Primary Production

HONG KONG aims to become as self-sufficient as possible in the production of fresh foods such as vegetables, fish, pigs and poultry. A large proportion of the people's requirements are already being met-even though only 12 per cent of the total land area is used for farming, and less than two per cent of the working population is involved in fishing.

        The 1971 census showed that farmers comprised only 2.09 per cent of the total economically active population of Hong Kong, while fisherfolk made up another 1.88 per cent. Hong Kong's fishing fleet catches about 92 per cent of all fresh marine fish eaten in the territory, and local pond fish farmers produce some 12 per cent of the freshwater fish consumed. Agricultural production is limited by the availability of suitable land rather than by numbers of people in the industry. Farmers in the New Territories produce about 43 per cent of the vegetables consumed, some 52 per cent of the total live chicken requirements, and about 12 per cent of all pigs slaughtered.

The sudden increase in Hong Kong's population during the 1950s, due to large scale immigration from China, gave considerable stimulus to agricultural production -both because of the increased demand and because many arrivals were skilled farmers. As a result, there was a rapid growth of intensively cultivated vegetable farming, and livestock production increased greatly.

Progressive developments also took place simultaneously in the local fishing industry. A large fleet of wind-driven junks-which had previously migrated up and down the coast, dependent upon the seasonal winds-was encouraged to become based at Hong Kong and concentrate on supplying the marine food demands of the territory's expanded population. That ready market stimulated fleet modernisation and, with government assistance, the mechanisation of the existing fleet was quickly initiated. Further impressive advances have since been made in the transition of the fleet from junks to modern boats using increasingly sophisticated gear and equipment.

A continued increase in marine fish production is needed to meet expanding demand. The present slow growth rate of supply in terms of total catch, although with fewer vessels, indicates that the demersal or bottom fisheries of the grounds now worked are already being fully exploited to provide maximum sustainable yield. Attention has accordingly been turned towards the potential of the unexploited- or under exploited-pelagic or midwater fisheries resources of the South China Sea.

Traditional rice cultivation has continued to decrease as vegetable growing has expanded. The profit margin on rice cultivation has dropped in recent years, and much former paddy land around the more remote villages has fallen into disuse and now

44

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

lies fallow. The able-bodied members of these rural communities have moved to the city or overseas for better paid work. However, during the year there has been a reverse trend in that some ex-farm workers have taken up farming again, due to the recession in the manufacturing industries. Meanwhile, acreage for vegetable produc- tion has continued to increase. The skilled cultivator can maintain a good standard of living from a one-acre farm, and now uses many modern horticultural techniques such as sprinkler irrigation, mechanised cultivation and better pest control measures to maintain a continuous succession of crops throughout the year.

Pig and poultry production is more susceptible to changes in the quantity level of imported swine and poultry and to fluctuations in the prices of feeding stuffs, which are almost entirely imported. Despite a slight decrease in the overall average feed prices in 1975, production of pig and poultry did not completely recover from the setback of 1974 when world feed prices were high. There was also a significant in- crease in the importation of pigs and poultry in 1975.

Administration and Services

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department provides a development information service to the primary industries. The details of new projects put forward are carefully considered, and those expected to prove both viable and in the interests of Hong Kong are actively encouraged.

Consumer demand and local primary production, within the context of world food production and supply, are investigated so that development planning can be undertaken. All available statistical data on production factors and food supplies, including imports, are collected and analysed to assist in the formulation of local production and marketing policies. Business efficiency of differing sectors and units within primary industries are studied to establish and update productivity standards, and to facilitate advice on their improvement. Forward projection studies of the anticipated market demands for foods are prepared. The projections are then related to the local primary production capacity, both actual and potential. New food supply sources are also examined. Detailed surveys and studies are carried out on the distribution systems, and on the dynamics of the wholesale marketing of foodstuffs, so that long term development decisions can be planned.

The department encourages optimum land utilisation. It provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It manages large areas of open country- side, being responsible for soil and water conservation, fire fighting, woodland manage- ment, landscape repair, and the development of recreational services for the public. The department also deals with the economic, social and technological development of the Hong Kong fishing industry. It handles the administrative organisation and supervision of co-operative societies of all types and supervises credit unions.

Research programmes of the department extend to and include crop and animal husbandry as well as fisheries. On government farms, experiments continue into im- proving the quality and yield per acre of vegetables, flowers and fruits. The department advises livestock farmers on modern methods of animal production and assists them

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

45

by the supply of improved and exotic breeds of pigs and poultry, and also provides an artificial insemination service for pigs.

         Fisheries research is carried out from a main station in Aberdeen and sub- stations at Kat O and Au Tau. The Aberdeen station is concerned with research into marine resources and associated hydrographical work in both local waters and the northern part of the South China Sea. At the Kat O sub-station investigations are continuing into mariculture, and at the Au Tau sub-station the relationship between stocking density and growth of mullet and Chinese carp has been studied. The feasibility of rearing catfish, carp and other species in treated sewage effluents is being tested at the Shek Wu Hui pilot plant for the treatment of domestic sewage.

Development and Extension

       Development and extension services are provided for the agricultural and fishing industries. Due primarily to rising labour costs, the main development in the agricul- tural industry is the increasing interest which farmers have shown in the use of small farm machines and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of 1975, there were 1,560 rotary cultivators and 720 sprinkler units in use on vegetable farms. In the construction of irrigation development schemes $2.4 million was spent during the year, including ex- penditure on irrigation works associated with the High Island Water Scheme. Most of these works are gravity systems with concrete lined channels, pipelines and fixed level concrete weirs for water level control.

Fisheries development work involves the modernisation of fishing craft and the introduction of more efficient fishing gear and navigational aids. An advisory service on hull design and deck arrangement is provided for fishermen, while experiments and demonstrations are conducted to test the suitability for local conditions of new fishing gear. Fishermen training classes in navigation, steering and engine operation. are organised in the main fishing ports. Education is available to fishermen's children. through 13 schools run by the Fish Marketing Organisation. At the end of 1975, there were 4,132 children attending the 13 schools, and 33 were attending other schools on scholarships provided by the organisation.

        Hong Kong is divided into three districts for agricultural extension. Each district is administered by a district extension staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with problems in farming and agricultural pollution and with co-operative societies. Close contact with the farming community and liaison with local co- operative societies and rural associations is maintained by farm advisers. Both credit facilities and technical advice are available through the extension service.

        In the rural extension programme in 1975, more than 1,320 farmers attended farm discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. The officers also made more than 142,400 visits to farmers and co-operative societies. In addition, farmers visited government experimental farms and farming projects.

        Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through a liaison service with producer associations and fishermen's co-operative societies. Nine liaison offices operate in the main fishing centres to provide a link with the fishermen.

46

Loans

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Loans are available to the agricultural industry through four separate loan funds -the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organisation Loan Fund. They are all administered through the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. At December 31, 1975, the total loans issued since the inception of these four funds was nearly $87 million. The total recovered was nearly $82 million.

The Fisheries Development Loan Fund, with a capital of $5 million, is administer- ed by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries specifically for the development of the fishing fleet. Finance from the World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies, donated by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1962, is also available to members of fishermen's co-operative societies. The Fish Marketing Organisation Loan Fund is another important source of loan finance for fishermen. This fund, with a ceiling of $7 million, was established in 1946. The organisation also administers a revolving loan fund financed by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), specifically for shrimp fishermen. At December 31, 1975, the total loans issued since the inception of the four loan funds was $68.16 million, of which $59.56 million had been repaid.

Co-operative societies operate under a Co-operative Societies Ordinance, which provides for the appointment of a Registrar (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). His powers and duties relate to the registration of co-operative societies and their by-laws, the examination of accounts, general supervision and such matters as media- tion of disputes when necessary. On December 31, 1975, some 11,600 farmers and more than 2,234 fishermen were members of co-operative societies formed to serve their various needs. There were 81 societies and two federations among the farming community and 73 societies and four federations supported by fisherfolk. A further 252 societies with about 8,315 members operate in the urban area, the bulk of these being co-operative building societies formed by local civil servants with financial aid from the government. The movement includes primary societies with such diverse objects and activities as vegetable marketing, pig raising, agriculture and fisheries credit, better living, thrift and loan, housing, and the supply of consumer goods.

        Credit unions operate under a Credit Unions Ordinance, which also provides for the appointment of a Registrar (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) with powers and duties in regard to the registration of credit unions and their by-laws, the examination of accounts and general supervision. At the end of the year, 51 credit unions with 9,264 members were registered. There were 27 credit unions comprising groups of people having a common bond of association; 18 unions of people having common bonds of employment; and six unions formed by groups each with a common bond of residence.

Land Utilisation

        Hong Kong's land area totals 404 square miles. Only 11.8 per cent is used for farming, 76.1 per cent is marginal land with different degrees of sub-grade character, and built-up areas comprise the remaining 12.1 per cent. The need to establish new

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

47

towns and residential areas on plans that provide for adequate open space, wider roads and public facilities of all kinds, inevitably means encroachment upon agricul- tural land. The losses, however, are partially offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

Approximate

area

Percentage of whole

Remarks

Class

(square miles)

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

49.0

12.1

Includes roads and railways.

(ii) Woodlands

49.3

12.2

...

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

237.3

58.6

(iv) Badlands

16.8

4.1

(v) Swamp and mangrove lands...

4.8

1.2

(vi) Arable ...

42.0

10.4

Natural and established woodlands. Natural grass and scrub, including

Plover Cove Reservoir.

Stripped of cover. Granite country.

Capable of regeneration.

Capable of reclamation.

Includes orchards and market

gardens.

(vii) Fish ponds

5.6

1.4

Fresh and brackish water fish

farming.

Agricultural Industry

       The government's policy is to foster the growth of the agricultural industry in Hong Kong to make the territory as self-sufficient in foodstuffs as possible, bearing in mind priorities in land utilisation and the economics of food production in the region.

       Common crops are vegetables, flowers, rice, fruit and other field crops. The value of crop production has increased considerably-from $89 million in 1963 to $283 million in 1975, a rise of 218 per cent. Vegetable production accounts for more than 87 per cent of the total value, having increased from $58 million in 1963 to $245 million in 1975.

Rice is the staple food of the southern Chinese. Two crops of rice a year can be grown on land where water is adequate. The normal yield from an acre of two-crop rice land is about two tons, or up to five tons with high fertiliser use and high yielding strains. The acreage of rice land has dropped from 23,353 acres in 1954 to 2,750 in 1975. Rice production continues to give way to intensive vegetable production, which gives a far higher return where there is adequate water and good road access.

       The main vegetable crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish, watercress, leaf mustard, spring onion and chive. They grow all the year round, with the peak production period in the cooler months. Considerable quantities of water spinach, string bean, Chinese spinach, green cucumber and many other species of Chinese gourds are produced in summer, and a wide range of exotic temperate vegetables including tomato, sweet pepper, cabbage, celery, head lettuce, cauliflower and carrot are grown in winter. Straw mushroom is also produced, using industrial cotton waste as the growing medium. Among the common types of flowers, gladiolus and chrysanthemum grow all the year round; dahlia, rose, aster, snapdragon and carnation are grown in winter; and ginger lily and lotus flower in summer. A wide range of ornamental plants-including philodendron, dieffenbachia, bamboo palm

48

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

and poinsettia are produced in commercial nurseries. Peach blossom and ornamental citrus are grown especially for the Lunar New Year. The area of land under vegetables and flowers has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 12,290 in 1975.

       Various types of fruit are grown on the lower hill slopes. The principal crops are longan, lychee, wampei, tangerine, local lemon, banana, guava and pineapple. Land under orchards in 1954 was 952 acres. By 1975 it was 1,600 acres.

       Other field crops such as sweet potato, taro, yam and sugarcane are cultivated in the remote and drier areas where water and transport facilities are inadequate for growing vegetables or rice. Some 930 acres were under rainfed crops in 1975, com- pared with 3,450 acres in 1954.

       As there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared for food. Pigs in Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming difficult to find. Although locally produced pigs represented only 12 per cent of total pigs killed in 1975, their value was $74 million.

       With an annual production value of $160 million, the poultry industry-including ducks, pigeons and quail-is continuing to develop on a more sophisticated basis. Farmers are adopting advanced methods of management and successfully adapting them to local conditions, taking the process through from locally bred chicks to table birds with both local breeds and imported hybrids.

       While local cattle and buffaloes are used mainly for work, imported Friesians are kept by dairies-of which the largest is on Hong Kong Island and the others in the New Territories. Regular tuberculin testing is carried out on all dairy animals.

       Sporadic outbreaks of a mild type of foot-and-mouth disease (type O) and swine fever still occur, but these have been kept under control by vaccination. Newcastle disease in poultry has been controlled by the use of the Ranikhet and intranasal-drop vaccines. Although rinderpest was eradicated in 1950, vaccination continues using a tissue culture vaccine providing a prolonged immunity as safeguard against the re- introduction of the disease. Investigations to establish the incidence of intercurrent disease in both pigs and poultry are undertaken at the government's veterinary laboratory.

       Legislation requires all imported dogs and cats to be quarantined for six months, except those from scheduled countries (Britain, Australia and New Zealand), to prevent the introduction of rabies which was eradicated in 1955. Stray dogs are caught and detained for observation and, if unclaimed, are destroyed under the rabies control policy.

       All cattle and pigs imported for food are also quarantined on arrival in Hong Kong, and any imported for breeding purposes are subject to strict health certification and isolation procedures.

Fishing Industry

Marine fish form one of Hong Kong's most important primary products. More than 150 fish species of commercial importance are present in the areas fished by the

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

49

local fleet. The total quantity of fish and fishery products has increased from 121 500 metric tons (valued at $316 million) in 1970 to 150 400 metric tons (valued at $523 million) in 1975. This is an increase of 24 per cent by quantity and 65 per cent by value. Marine fish landings amounted to 95 000 metric tons at a wholesale value of $316 million. This represented 92 per cent of the local consumer demand.

The fishing fleet consists of 5,600 vessels, of which 92 per cent are mechanised. An estimated 47,000 fishermen work the fleet, with a large proportion of vessels being owner-operated.

Fish ponds totalling 1444 hectares are located in the New Territories, principally in the Yuen Long district. The main species raised is grey mullet, but other important species are carp and big-head. Total pond fish production for 1975 was 4472 metric tons valued at $30 million, which met 12 per cent of local demand. Fish fry for pond stocking are mainly imported from China and Taiwan. Grey mullet fry are caught locally.

The culture of marine fish continues to develop. It involves the growing of marine fish from fry or fingerling stages to marketable size in cages suspended in the sea in various bays throughout the New Territories. It is estimated that 830 families were engaged in this business in 1975, and the total value of fish produced was $11 million.

Marketing

Much of the wholesale marketing of primary products-particularly fresh foods -is a responsibility of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, and of the fish and vegetable marketing organisations administered by that department. Retail fresh food marketing is a matter for the Urban Council and for the Urban Services Department.

The local agriculture and fishing industries are served by the vegetable and fish marketing organisations. During the year 31 per cent of the total quantity of locally produced vegetables, and 79 per cent of the total landings of marine fish, were whole- saled through these two organisations.

The Vegetable Marketing Organisation operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, which provides for a board to advise the Director of Market- ing (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). Its main concerns are the transporta- tion of locally produced vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, the provision of marketing facilities, and the supervision of sales and financial transactions in the market. Revenue is obtained from a 10 per cent com- mission on sales of vegetables. The organisation is a non-profit-making concern and seeks to obtain maximum returns for growers by minimising their marketing costs. During the year, 64 865 metric tons of vegetables valued at nearly $89 million were sold through the organisation.

The Fish Marketing Organisation operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance, which also provides for an advisory board. The ordinance provides for the control of the landing, wholesale marketing, importation and exportation of marine fish. The Fish Marketing Organisation operates seven wholesale fish markets strategically sited at points to provide convenient services to the public, the trade and

50

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

the industry. Revenue is obtained from a six per cent commission on proceeds of sales of fish, and surplus earnings are ploughed back into the industry in the form of various services. These include low-interest rate loans to fishermen for productive purposes, market and marketing improvements, and support for the 13 schools managed for the benefit of fishermen's children. In 1975 the wholesale fish markets handled 88 990 metric tons which were sold for some $232 million. This included 925 metric tons of imported marine fish sold through these markets.

       Facilities are inadequate in the existing wholesale markets for handling the ever increasing quantities of imported fresh vegetables, fruit, poultry, freshwater fish and crustacea. There is widespread obstruction, traffic congestion and low marketing efficiency at high costs. With the obvious need for improvement in these markets, comprehensive surveys have been conducted to obtain the data necessary for the long-term planning and establishment of new markets in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island. They will be under the direct aegis of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department.

Because of the need for early action, it has proved necessary for the government to construct a number of temporary wholesale markets for use until permanent markets are built. Two are located at Hing Wah Street in the Cheung Sha Wan district, adjacent to the site for the permanent market project in Kowloon.

Mining

        Iron ore is mined from one underground mine in the New Territories and the concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan. Kaolin, feldspar and quartz are taken by opencast methods. Most kaolin is exported to Japan and most feldspar to Taiwan. All quartz, some feldspar and about 62 per cent of kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

        Under the Mining Ordinance, the ownership and control of minerals is vested in the Crown. The Land Officer is empowered to grant mining leases and the Commis- sioner of Mines to grant mining and prospecting licences. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of the year, there were three mining leases, seven mining licences, and three prospecting licences valid for different areas.

The Mines Department deals with applications for prospecting and mining licences, the issue of mine blasting certificates, and delivery of explosives from govern- ment depots to blasting sites. It is responsible for inspecting mining and prospecting areas, stone quarries, blasting sites and explosives stores, to enforce mining and explo- sives legislation and safety regulations. It is also responsible for the control and management of government depots which provide bulk storage facilities for all explosives imported into Hong Kong.

In September 1975, Headquarters British Forces agreed to make available certain facilities in their ammunition storage depot on Stonecutters Island to accommodate the bulk storage of explosives which could not be kept at the government's Green Island depot. This will substantially relieve the storage burden at the government depot.

6

Education

DEVELOPMENT in 1975 continued to centre on secondary and technical education and on the expansion programme for the Polytechnic. The interim target to provide three years of aided secondary education for 50 per cent of children in the 12-14 age group by 1976 was achieved in September 1975-one year ahead of schedule. Three technical institutes are now providing training facilities for craftsmen and technicians to meet the needs of industry. Two of these institutes-one in Kwun Tong and another in Kwai Chung-started courses in September. The Kwun Tong Technical Institute was officially opened by the Governor on October 24. A fourth technical institute, in Cheung Sha Wan, is under construction.

       The White Paper on Education, published in October 1974, spelled out policy on the expansion of secondary education during the next decade. It stated that the government's main objective is to make available, by 1979, subsidised education for every child for nine years-six years in a primary school followed by three years in a secondary school. It also recommended that all children should follow a common course of instruction, with 25 to 30 per cent of it allocated to practical and technical subjects.

       In accordance with the White Paper, the Education Department went ahead on a trial basis with introducing a new curriculum for junior forms in secondary schools. This curriculum has a more practical content and is designed to suit the needs both of pupils intending to leave school after completing Form III and of pupils intending to enter Form IV and complete the five-year Certificate of Education course. First steps have also been taken to implement other policy decisions in the White Paper.

       Following a decision by the Governor in Council, the Education Department is planning to set up, in two stages, a statutory authority to manage public examinations.

        Under the Education Ordinance, the Director of Education is responsible for all matters relating to education in Hong Kong. He directly controls all government schools, while virtually all other schools are required to be registered under the ordinance, so providing the Director with the necessary powers to ensure that accept- able standards are maintained. The Director is also vice-chairman of the Board of Education which advises the Governor on educational matters.

Pre-primary Education

        There are 811 kindergartens in Hong Kong providing education for 146,961 children in the three to six age group. These institutions are not maintained by the government but are registered with the Education Department and supervised by the

52

EDUCATION

inspectorate. The government gives assistance in the form of grants of Crown land to reliable bodies; exemption from payment of rates for non-profit-making kinder- gartens; the allocation of premises in public housing estates; and the provision of teacher training and further education facilities. It also makes freely available pro- fessional advice to school managers, teachers, parents and members of the public.

Primary Education

The great majority of primary schools use Chinese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Ten primary schools, including five operated by the government, cater for children whose first language is English.

       The target of providing a government or government-aided primary place for every child of primary school age was achieved in 1971. In recent years there has been a downward trend in the enrolment in primary schools as a result of a general decline in birth rate. The total primary day school enrolment in September 1975 was 644,192, compared with 678,563 the previous year. In addition, 16,730 pupils attended primary night schools. During the year 16,910 new primary places were provided in new and developing schools, compared with 5,474 the previous year. Further pro- vision of school places will be geared mainly to the needs of developing areas.

       Since June 1968, the administration of primary schools has been decentralised and there are now seven administration areas- -two in Hong Kong, three in Kowloon and two in the New Territories. More than 20 primary schools have volunteered to adopt a more informal approach to learning during the current year, following a pilot project which was launched in six government, aided and private schools in 1972.

       Since September 1971, education has been free in all government Chinese primary schools and in the great majority of aided primary schools. In the few aided primary schools where fees continue to be charged, fee remission of up to 20 per cent of the total enrolment may be awarded to meet cases of genuine hardship. To further help needy parents, a textbook and stationery grant of $30 per pupil each year is available to 20 per cent of pupils enrolled in government and aided primary schools.

The Education Ordinance gives the Director of Education powers to order parents to send their children to school where it appears to him that they are with- holding their children from primary school without reasonable excuse. These powers will be exercised by the Director only after careful investigation of the family's circumstances and the need of the child. When an attendance order is made, parents have the right of appeal to a specially constituted board of review.

Special Education

       Continuous progress has been made in the second five-year development pro- gramme for special education in Hong Kong. The number of special places for handicapped children increased during the year 1974-5 from 6,722 to more than 8,500. The department is continuing to expand preventive measures by providing, through the special education section, more diagnostic and remedial services. The

EDUCATION

53

programme of overseas training for the nucleus of specialist staff in the special educa- tion section has also been expanded, as have the local in-service courses for teachers in special schools and special classes, and the courses on the needs of handicapped children for teachers in ordinary schools and for trainee-teachers at colleges of education.

        There are 33 special schools for blind, deaf, physically handicapped, slow learning, and maladjusted children. In addition, there are 91 special classes for the slow learning, 19 special classes for the partially hearing, four special classes for the partially sighted, and 10 special classes for the maladjusted in ordinary government schools. There are also 77 special classes for the slow learning in ordinary aided schools. More than 500 less severely physically handicapped children have been placed in ordinary classes in government schools and government aided schools. These children are supervised regularly by officers of the special education section.

       The section provides diagnostic services which include audiological testing, psychological testing, speech testing and educational assessment, as well as remedial services in auditory training and speech therapy. It also runs audiometric screening, speech screening and vision screening programmes at two special education services centres-one in Hong Kong and one in Kowloon. The Kowloon centre, at Perth Street Government Primary School, commenced operation in February. During the year the two centres dealt with more than 39,000 children.

        Teachers in ordinary schools were in 1975 offered short courses on the education of handicapped children, a seminar on speech therapy in the classroom and a seminar on the teacher's role in guidance for primary school children.

The special education section has a braille printing press operated by the Government Printer. This press produces primary Chinese textbooks and supplemen- tary readers in braille, which are supplied to schools for the blind under government subsidy at one tenth of the actual cost.

Secondary Education

       There are five types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools, secondary modern schools, and prevocational schools. The 263 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have an enrol- ment of 273,418 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. Instruction is in English, with Chinese taught as a second language. Successful Certificate of Education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare for entrance to the Uni- versity of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, or the Polytechnic. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition, there are 54,900 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction is offered in secondary level subjects. The most popular subject is English.

       The 102 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 64,119 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects also leading to the Hong Kong Certifi- cate of Education examination. Instruction is in Chinese, and English is taught as a

54

EDUCATION

     second language. A number of Chinese middle schools also offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to the Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who obtain satisfactory results in the Certificate of Educa tion examination, higher education is available at the colleges of education, the technical institutes, the Polytechnic and other post-secondary-type colleges.

        There are 16 secondary technical schools, 15 of which offer a five-year course with instruction in English and with Chinese taught as a second language. Nine of the schools are government, five subsidised and two private. Their total enrolment is 11,385. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, they prepare their pupils for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination and suitable candidates can continue their studies in Form VI or at the technical institutes, the Polytechnic or the Technical Teachers' College. Five subsidised secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,774 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also nine private and eight subsidised secondary schools with a total enrolment of 6,500 which offer some form of technical and trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education examination.

        There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of day-time secondary schools. In September there were 359,196 such students, compared with 336,980 the previous year. During the school year 14,465 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings. A total of 90,574 pupils entered the first year of secondary school. This represents the promotion of 80.1 per cent of the pupils completing primary schools. Of these pupils, 42.9 per cent were awarded government, government-aided, or assisted places.

       Under the terms of the 1974 White Paper on secondary education, the govern- ment's aim is to provide, by 1979, at least three years of aided secondary education for all children in the 12-14 age group. The interim target of providing places for 50 per cent of the age group by 1976 was achieved in September 1975 by providing the extra school places either directly in government or aided schools, or in private non- profit-making assisted schools, or by giving fee supplementation to pupils in suitable private independent schools. For the 1975-6 school year, 28,535 pupils have been awarded three-year assisted places on the results of the secondary school entrance examination. These places are being taken up in various private non-profit-making and private independent schools.

       It is also the government's aim to provide, by 1979, aided secondary places for 40 per cent of the 15-16 age group. The interim target, set for 1976, is to enable 18 per cent of the 12-16 age group to be awarded places for aided secondary courses leading to the Certificate of Education. In September, 99,064 such places, representing provision for 18.1 per cent of the 12-16 age group, were available.

Prevocational Schools

        Prevocational schools, which are all fully subsidised by the government, provide a three-year post-primary course consisting of about 50 per cent general education and 50 per cent technical and practical education. The syllabus usually covers three major fields of industrial or commercial activity to ensure that students are introduced

EDUCATION

55

to as wide a spectrum of employment as possible. The technical areas covered include mechanical and electrical engineering, printing, textiles and clothing, commerce retail- ing and merchandising, and home economics. Excessive specialisation is not encouraged at this level, the aim being to introduce basic knowledge and skills and to help students choose a suitable career.

        Prevocational schools also provide an introduction to craft apprenticeship. Considerable efforts are made to ensure that prevocational school leavers have the opportunity to enrol in recognised apprenticeship training schemes, and also to continue their studies in technical institutes. This form of technical training is fully supported by the Hong Kong Training Council and is being more and more accepted by industry.

A new 25-class prevocational school, situated in Kwai Chung and sponsored by the Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association, was opened in September 1975. An- other 28-class school sponsored by the Chinese Manufacturers' Association and located in the densely populated Shek Kip Mei area is at an advanced stage of planning and is expected to go into operation in September 1976. By then the number of pre- vocational schools will have increased to eight, with a total student capacity of 5,840.

Post-secondary Education

There are a number of day and evening schools offering courses of varying standards at post-secondary levels. These schools do not receive aid from the gov- ernment and their courses are mainly conducted in Chinese.

        The Hong Kong Baptist College, standing on a site granted by the government, was registered under the Post-secondary Colleges Ordinance in March 1970, thereby acquiring a status below that of a university institution, but above that of a secondary school. It has four faculties-arts, business, social sciences, and natural sciences and engineering-with an enrolment of about 3,300. There are altogether 15 departments offering 18 major fields and three course programmes. The college has some financial support from the government in the form of an interest-bearing loan, while students of the college may apply for government financed interest-free loans to assist with payment of tuition fees.

A college can be registered under the Post-secondary Colleges Ordinance only when the Director of Education is satisfied with its academic standards, governing body, constitution, finances, educational facilities, the number and qualifications of staff, and the number and conditions of admission of students. The Hong Kong Baptist College is the only institution at present registered under this ordinance. There are a number of other post-secondary-type institutions providing a wide range of courses-many of a business or commercial nature.

Technical Institutes

        The Morrison Hill Technical Institute, which was established in 1969, consists of five departments--commercial studies, construction, electrical engineering, me- chanical engineering, and preliminary and general studies.

56

EDUCATION

        The institute offers craft and technician level courses on a full-time, block release, part-time day-release, and part-time evening basis. Short courses in specialised technical and commercial subjects are also provided. The evening class courses of preliminary and general studies enable students to qualify for technician courses either at Morrison Hill Technical Institute, the new technical institutes at Kwai Chung and Kwun Tong, or at the Polytechnic.

       During the 1974-5 session, 77 courses were provided and about 14,000 students enrolled. Of these, approximately 800 were on full-time and block release courses, 1,600 on part-time day-release courses, and more than 11,000 on evening courses. Because of the large number of evening classes, the institute makes use of 20 external evening centres situated in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories.

        In order to provide courses directly related to the changing needs of Hong Kong, the institute maintains close links with industry, commerce and the industrial training division of the Labour Department. As a result of the effort and co-operation of this division, and the encouraging response from industry, the institute has been able to provide part-time day-release training for both craft and technician apprentices in local industries. During 1974-5 the institute enrolled about 1,640 registered appren- tices sponsored by industry-some 20 per cent more than the previous year.

       The buildings of the Kwai Chung and Kwun Tong technical institutes were officially handed over to the Education Department in mid-1975 and the institutes started their first academic year in September. Both these new technical institutes are offering courses in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, textiles and clothing manufacture. In addition, commercial courses are offered at Kwai Chung and courses in printing technology are offered at Kwun Tong. Courses are full-time, block release, part-time day-release or part-time evening.

       The capacity of each of these two new technical institutes is about 1,350 full-time places, but since many of the students attend on a part-time day or evening basis, the actual number of students at each institute is much greater.

        Construction has started on a fourth technical institute, at Cheung Sha Wan, and it is expected to be completed in mid-1977. This institute will offer courses in engineering, construction work, hotel work and catering.

Higher Education

        Public funds are made available for grants and interest-free loans to needy students at the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong under a scheme introduced by the government in 1969-70. The administration of grants totalling $5.07 million and loans totalling $17.27 million for 1975-6 is in the hands of a joint universities' committee. The scheme has resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of public funds available for student financing and it aims to ensure that students offered places in either of the two universities shall not be pre- vented, through lack of means, from taking the places offered.

Both the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong have some financial resources of their own, but are largely financed by the government.

EDUCATION

57

Because of the importance of university development and the sums of public money involved, the government needs impartial and expert advice both on the assess- ment of the amount of grant required to sustain any level of university activity, and on developments necessary to the community's requirements for graduates. The government also needs advice on the allocation of funds between the universities. To carry out these functions there is a University and Polytechnic Grants Committee appointed by the Governor. It also advises the government on the allocation of funds for the Polytechnic, which came into formal existence in August 1972.

The University of Hong Kong

        The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the government and endowments which have since been increased. Substantial gov- ernment grants are also made towards the university's annual recurrent and non- recurrent expenditure.

        Numbers of undergraduate places in the various faculties in 1975-6 were: arts 786; science 486; medicine 788; engineering and architecture 810; and social sciences and law 708. Of these, a total of 1,130 places were available for first-year students. There were also 634 places for postgraduate students-398 reading for higher degrees and 236 for diplomas and certificates. The Chinese Language School had 29 students, 13 external students and four students reading for the Diplomas in Chinese Language. The number of full-time teaching posts-including demonstratorships at the begin- ning of the academic year was 538. All the degrees and other professional qualifica- tions conferred by the university are equivalent to those of universities in Britain.

        The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level. Entry to the university is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination-3,198 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry in 1975.

        The university's department of education offers graduates a one-year full-time curriculum or a two-year part-time curriculum leading to the Certificate in Education. It also offers the Master of Philosophy in Education, either as a six-term part-time period of study spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time candida- ture. As in other departments, the Doctor of Philosophy is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

       In 1974-5 the department of extra-mural studies provided more than 300 evening and day-time courses for adult students, a number of seminars, two public lectures, and one study tour. There were 9,017 students attending regular courses during this period, and 362 attended the public lectures, seminars and study tour. In addition, 870 students enrolled in the course 'Mandarin for Cantonese speakers' which the department offered in conjunction with Radio Hong Kong. Subjects in the depart- ment's regular courses include oriental studies, a wide range of liberal arts subjects, economics, law and commerce, languages, and vocational and professional courses leading to various qualifications. Some of these courses are conducted in Mandarin or Cantonese, but the majority are in English.

58

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

EDUCATION

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It comprises three foundation colleges-Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. The university campus covers 331 acres of land on Tai Po Road over-looking Tolo Harbour near Sha Tin. The site has been contoured into four plateaus with the headquarters and central activities near the centre of the campus, surrounded by the three foundation colleges.

Undergraduate teaching is conducted by the foundation colleges with the cur- ricula determined by boards of studies in individual subjects. The undergraduate enrolment in September 1975 was 3,534-made up of arts 892, science 996, social science 1,033, and business administration 613. A total of 9,393 candidates sat for the matriculation examination in the summer of 1975, and 2,785 passed-of whom 1,021 were admitted for the academic year 1975-6.

At the graduate level, two types of programme in 15 divisions are offered: a two-year programme of course-work and research thesis leading to a degree of Master of Philosophy in Humanities, Science or Social Science, Master of Business Administration, or Master of Divinity; and a one-year programme of course-work leading to a degree of Master of Arts or Master of Science. The school of education, inaugurated in 1965, offers a one-year full-time or two-year part-time postgraduate course of professional training leading to a Diploma in Education. In September 1975, there were 327 students enrolled in the university's graduate programme.

In 1975 there were 676 students who graduated from the Chinese University of Hong Kong-46 Masters of Philosophy, 24 Masters of Business Administration, four Masters of Divinity, four Masters of Arts, five Masters of Arts (Education), 159 Bachelors of Arts, 159 Bachelors of Science, 84 Bachelors of Business Administration, and 191 Bachelors of Social Science.

The department of extra-mural studies at the university offers more than 500 general courses in a wide range of subjects, some of which can be taken by corre- spondence. The department also offers a number of intensive courses leading to the award of certificates. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin. Recently the department started running television and radio courses in collaboration with Commercial Television and Radio Hong Kong.

It is planned to establish a medical school at the university, in association with the new teaching hospital proposed for Sha Tin.

The university library contains some 167,250 books and journals specialising in resources for advanced studies and research. In addition, the three college libraries have more than 319,500 volumes of books and journals for undergraduate studies and general reading.

University Research

The Chinese University of Hong Kong provides faculty members with research facilities. Three research institutes-the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities,

EDUCATION

59

the Institute of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Chinese Studies-enable staff members to keep up with the latest developments in their own fields and to contribute to them. Various research centres have been set up within the three insti- tutes to concentrate on specific fields of studies.

       In the University of Hong Kong, the Centre of Asian Studies in 1975 updated the directory of current research on Asian topics in Hong Kong, which it publishes regularly to help liaison among researchers in all disciplines. The directory covers research being conducted in a wide range of institutions. The centre's own research work during the year included completion of the Hong Kong ecology project, carried out in association with the Australian National University; completion of the cata- logue of Cantonese paintings in the Luis de Camoes Museum, Macau; completion of a film on the Western district of Hong Kong; the sound recording of traditional street cries of Hong Kong; video-taping of traditional puppet performances as an initial step towards the making of a film; projects relating to rent control, labour tribunals, and comparative industrial relations; and further progress on the project studying the effect of culture on management in Southeast Asia.

       During the year, 34 members of the university were appointed Fellows of the centre in recognition of their involvement in research on Asian topics. The centre also continued to provide services to visiting researchers and to foster the study of the People's Republic of China, particularly Kwangtung and its culture.

        In the arts faculty at the University of Hong Kong, research is being undertaken in various aspects of English and Chinese language and literature, and in comparative literature. A history workshop, particularly concerned with Hong Kong history, is being set up. Studies on China and Southeast Asia-both at graduate and under- graduate levels--are a well-established feature of the work of the history and geog- raphy departments. In 1975, for the first time, the faculty began to offer an MA degree in language studies, in either Chinese or English.

       In the social sciences and law faculty, research projects relating to various fields are being undertaken. In social work, students in the Master's degree course are beginning to contribute to a number of empirical studies of social problems in Hong Kong. In 1975 a study was undertaken of young people's leisure activities and employ- ment expectations in Shek Pai Wan public housing estate. In statistics, studies on price movements in Hong Kong and on local measures of quality control are being carried out. Research is continuing in various fields of psychology. Those of particular local interest are related to cross-cultural studies, psycholinguistics, the psychology of Cantonese food habits, and the growth and development of the cognitive world of Cantonese children.

       In the department of law, research ranges from Chinese customary law and legal history to international commercial transactions and taxation-both Hong Kong and overseas. The courses leading to the Postgraduate Certificate in Laws have attracted wide interest in professional legal education circles, particularly in Britain and Australia.

       In the science faculty, continuing projects include the ecology of marine and freshwater organisms, investigations of agricultural pests, and studies of local

60

EDUCATION

ionospheric, geomagnetic and cosmic ray phenomena. Investigations are also being carried out on problems of fouling in fresh-water pipelines and sea-water intakes. The department of chemistry is monitoring Hong Kong's atmosphere for sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxide, and for solid particulates. The isolation of naturally occurring substances from Hong Kong plants is continuing.

       In the faculty of engineering and architecture, new and continuing projects include inter-disciplinary studies of the safety and quality of high-rise buildings in respect of construction, economics, external and internal user-comfort, and soil stability. Other research covers electrical installations and electronics; heat transfer; fluids; and industrial engineering management, organisation and techniques.

The medical faculty is engaged on many research projects of special significance to Hong Kong. They include studies on the role of current infant nutrition practices in the growth of Hong Kong children; correction of and investigations related to spinal deformities and disorders and unequal leg lengths in the Chinese due to poliomyelitis; secretion of virus inhibitors in the colostrum of Chinese women; causes and metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis and cancer, epidemiology of infectious hepatitis and common hereditary anaemias in the Chinese; the inter-relationship between physical and psychological characteristics and psychiatric illness among Chinese women; normal growth and development of Chinese children in Hong Kong; a study of Chinese medicinal herbs; prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and ischaemic heart disease among Chinese; and changes of pulmonary and endocrine functions in narcotic addicts.

The Polytechnic

        The Polytechnic was formally established in 1972, taking over the work of the former Hong Kong Technical College. The bulk of the Polytechnic's finances comes from the government through the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee.

The Polytechnic at present operates in accommodation taken over from the Technical College, a rented office building in the former Taikoo Dockyard premises at Quarry Bay and a group of one-storey temporary buildings. To cope with the rapidly increasing numbers of students and activities, the planning of a major pro- gramme of campus development on a site of nearly 26 acres at Hung Hom is in progress. The first phase of this plan is expected to be completed by the beginning of the academic year 1976-7.

        Enrolments at the beginning of the academic year 1975-6 were 4,170 full-time, 2,463 part-time day-release and sandwich, and 14,299 part-time evening students. These compare with the corresponding student numbers of 3,175, 1,559 and 12,629 in 1974-5. In September 1975, more than 10,662 candidates competed for 2,131 places available for new students in full-time courses. The enrolment target for 1978 is 8,000 full-time equivalent and 20,000 evening students.

       There are 14 teaching departments: accountancy; building and surveying; business and management studies; civil and structural engineering; computing science; design; electrical engineering; electronic engineering; languages; mathematics

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YOUTH

More than 43 per cent of the people in Hong Kong are below the age of 20. This amounts to nearly two million youngsters. The proportion was even higher 10 years ago and, because of this situation, youth movements have a special place in the com- munity. They provide recreation and train- ing facilities for nearly half the population -and serve the other half by putting the energies and abilities of their members to good use. Youngsters in Hong Kong not only enjoy a wide variety of youth activi- ties; they also participate in a range of community services, raise money for chari- ties, and help care for the aged, the sick and disabled. The uniformed youth groups are particularly active and have a total of more than 60,000 members.

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EDUCATION

61

and science; mechanical and marine engineering; production and industrial engineer- ing; nautical studies; and textile industries.

The Polytechnic offers two-year full-time courses leading to the technician or ordinary diploma; three-year full-time courses leading to the higher diploma; and one-year full-time post-higher diploma courses leading to the award of Associateship of the Hong Kong Polytechnic, AP (HK). Also offered are part-time day-release and sandwich courses of various durations, and many part-time evening courses leading to the higher, ordinary or technician certificates or other qualifications in a wide range of technical and commercial subjects at professional and technician levels.

To satisfy the minimum entrance requirements to full-time courses, candidates are expected to have gained the Hong Kong Certificate of Education or an equivalent qualification. They must also satisfy any additional requirements for admission into the particular courses for which they apply.

A number of British professional institutions have granted exemptions from certain parts of their examinations to holders of Polytechnic higher diplomas. Six associateship courses were offered in 1975-6: electrical, electronic, mechanical, pro- duction, structural engineering, and textile technology.

Short full-time and part-time courses preparing candidates for professional examinations are organised throughout the year. These include qualifications approv- ed by the British Department of Trade and Industry for marine engineers, mates and masters. Whenever there is a need for instruction in specific subjects of current interest to local commerce and industry, or to a sufficient number of individuals, the Polytechnic tries to offer short courses to meet the demand. Those in the fields of accountancy, building technology, radar operation, and textile studies have proved particularly popular during the year.

Teachers and Teacher Education

In March 1975 there were 36,964 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools-including 8,529 university graduates and 18,398 non-graduates qualified for teaching. Other teachers were engaged in tutorial evening classes and 253 were in special schools. At the end of the 1974-5 school year, the ratio of pupils to teachers was 32.2 in primary day schools and 30.4 in secondary day schools.

Except for technical teacher training, teacher education is provided at the Educa- tion Department's three colleges of education-Grantham, Northcote and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges offer full-time two-year courses designed to produce non- graduate teachers qualified for primary schools and lower forms of secondary schools. Part-time courses are also provided to train practising teachers.

        The third-year courses in the three colleges have been expanded to cover several new subjects and enrolments have been enlarged. This is aimed at raising the standards of such teachers and preparing them to teach the new curriculum in junior secondary forms. In addition to the various specialist courses already available, these general

62

EDUCATION

third-year courses now cover the whole range of academic subjects. In September 1975 there were 1,357 students in the two-year courses, 114 students in the third- year courses, and 1,838 trainees in the in-service training courses.

       Technical teacher training is provided at the Hong Kong Technical Teachers' College which is also administered by the Education Department. The college is tem- porarily housed in government primary school premises, but it makes use of facilities at the Morrison Hill Technical Institute.

       The college trains technical teachers for the technical institutes, secondary schools and prevocational schools. Several types of courses are offered. The one-year full-time course is intended for mature people who are well qualified and experienced in a technical field and decide to take up technical teaching as a career. The two-year full-time course accepts secondary technical school leavers who have a genuine in- terest in and a desire to serve technical education.

       The college also provides in-service courses of teacher training. The two-year in-service technical teachers evening course improves the techniques of those teachers who have not received any formal teacher training. The part-time day-release in- service course in design and technology gives refresher training to serving teachers of technical or related subjects. The industrial trade instructors courses, offered both in part-time day-release and in the evening, aim to improve the instructional technique of supervisors and instructors employed by industry.

Adult Education

Adult education is provided by the adult education section of the Education Department through the Evening Institute, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and 14 adult education and recreation centres.

        The Evening Institute offers seven types of courses which constitute the whole educational ladder for adults from literacy level to secondary studies. Rural fun- damental classes and general background education classes are organised to provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical background education classes teach woodwork and housecrafts- including cookery, sewing and knitting. A three-year young people's course provides additional training with a practical bias for primary school leavers who do not anticipate further education at senior secondary level. There are two types of academic courses at secondary level: a five-year middle school course for adults; and a six-year secondary school course-in both English and Chinese-for adolescents who have obtained satisfactory results in the secondary school entrance examination but failed to gain admission to day secondary schools. These courses lead to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. There is also the teachers' course providing additional in-service training in art, music, handwork, woodwork, teaching of English in primary schools, teaching of modern mathematics in lower secondary schools, gymnastics, rebound tumbling, folk dance, oriental dance and modern educational dance. Most popular are the English courses at various levels, and during the past year 189 classes were conducted for more than 5,000 students.

EDUCATION

63

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers a three-year general arts course leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. The curriculum includes post-secondary level studies in Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology, and English language and literature. Classes are conducted at two centres, one on each side of the harbour.

       The adult education section of the Education Department promotes informal education through 14 adult education and recreation centres in densely populated urban and rural areas. Cultural, social and recreational activities are arranged to stimulate creative ability and develop individual talents with the aim of fostering a community spirit.

The section joins with the Prisons Department to organise classes in general and practical subjects for inmates at various prisons and addiction treatment centres. Special classes are held at the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

Advisory Inspectorate

The Assistant Director of Education (Chief Inspector of Schools), with the assist- ance of the Deputy Chief Inspector, is responsible for the work of the Advisory Inspectorate. The inspectorate's main function is the promotion of quality in the classroom. This work involves frequent visits to schools by specialist advisory inspec- tors, the development of advisory services and facilities, and the provision of courses, seminars and workshops for practising teachers. It also involves the evaluation of text- books and other instructional materials, educational research and guidance, and curriculum development. Close liaison with other bodies, such as the various local examination authorities, is maintained by the Advisory Inspectorate.

        In 1975 the main concern of the inspectorate was the formulation and develop- ment of a new common-core curriculum for junior secondary forms, as envisaged in the White Paper on secondary education. Provisional syllabuses were compiled by the Curriculum Development Committee for each of the subjects of the new curriculum and distributed to schools, educational publishers and other in- terested organisations. A voluntary scheme for implementing the syllabuses on a trial basis in a limited number of schools-for which special seminars and in-service training were provided-was introduced in September, after which a period of evalua- tion began. This is an on-going process involving the development of a close working relationship between the inspectors responsible for monitoring the curriculum and the schools concerned. Particular attention is being given to the development of cultural, practical and technical subjects.

An encouraging development in primary education was the wider acceptance among school authorities of the activity approach scheme introduced experimentally in 1972 by the Curriculum Development Committee. The aims of this scheme include the development of a less formal approach to learning, in which children proceed at their own pace according to their own abilities. 'Learning by doing' is the keynote of the scheme, the teacher's role being more to guide than to instruct.

64

Examinations

EDUCATION

In 1975 there were four local examinations for schools--one conducted by the Education Department, one by the Board of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, one by the Chinese University of Hong Kong Matriculation Board, and one by the Advanced Level Examination Board of the University of Hong Kong.

The secondary school entrance examination selects pupils for places in govern- ment and aided secondary schools, and for assisted places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to give advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to take part and are encouraged to enter all their Primary Six pupils for the examination. Just over half of the candidates who sat for the 1975 examination were allocated a secondary school place.

The Hong Kong Certificate of Education is primarily intended for children who have completed a five-year course of secondary education. There were formerly two examinations-the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) and the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese). These were combined into one examination con- ducted by the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Board, which comprises members representing participating secondary schools, the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Education Department.

The Certificate of Education examination and the secondary school entrance examination are processed with the help of the government computer, which also marks such papers in these examinations as are set in the multiple-choice format. The computer also allocates secondary school places to pupils who have taken the secondary school entrance examination in accordance with their results and their stated preferences.

The Education Department provides a local secretariat for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations, academic and professional, at standards comparable to those in Britain. These examinations include the General Certificate of Educa- tion, which is open to both school and private candidates who hold a Certificate of Education of the required standard. If they have reached the age of 23, no entry qualification is required. Appendix 21 shows the more important overseas examina- tions held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

       In 1975 a decision in principle was made to establish an independent Central Examinations Authority to be responsible for all major public examinations up to and including advanced levels. At the end of the year, planning was in progress to set up a Provisional Authority.

Educational Television

The Educational Television Service (ETV) covers the third, fourth, fifth and sixth years of primary education in the four basic subjects of Chinese language, English language, mathematics and social studies. The total audience is about 400,000 children

EDUCATION

65

and 10,000 teachers. Since the opening of the ETV service in 1971, more than 3,000 television receivers have been installed in primary schools at a total cost of about $5 million.

        ETV programmes are produced in the ETV Centre at Broadcast Drive, Kowloon, and transmitted by the three commercial television stations between 8 am and 6 pm Monday to Friday. They are based on syllabuses in use in primary schools and are designed to complement and supplement classroom teaching. Notes for teachers and pupils accompany each programme and demand careful preparation and follow-up. Evaluation is supplied by teachers, questionnaires, visits to schools by ETV producers, and reports for inspectors of schools.

Visual Education Centre

        The Visual Education Centre of the Education Department provides a variety of audio-visual media services for schools. The film library includes 16mm films, 35mm filmstrips, slides, recorded tapes, photographs, 8mm loop films, and overhead projector transparencies.

The product design unit works closely with the Advisory Inspectorate in the preparation of colour slide sets, black and white photographs, transparencies, and 8mm loop films for use on curriculum development projects and for general class- room use. The centre also maintains a selection, evaluation and ordering programme for audio-visual media to be on loan to schools and recommends media equipment to be purchased by schools.

        Visits to the centre are held each year for student teachers from the three govern- ment colleges of education and the two universities. In-service training programmes on the use of audio-visual media are conducted for teachers and training officers.

The media production services unit in Kowloon provides space, apparatus and staff to help teachers to design and produce simple resource materials which are not otherwise available to suit specific classroom needs. More than 1,000 teachers used or visited the unit during the year.

Music

The 27th Hong Kong Schools Music Festival attracted 28,925 competitors. There were 222 classes. Five prize-winner concerts were given before capacity audiences at the City Hall.

Some 350 children took part in the one-week summer orchestral course run by the music section of the Education Department. The course was open to all young players of elementary and intermediate standards. The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra held a two-week intensive training course in July, culminating in a public performance at the City Hall.

        The annual practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music attracted 6,757 candidates, and 1,594 candidates sat for the theory examina- tions. There were 58 candidates for the examinations of the Trinity College of Music and 868 ballet students took part in the Royal Academy of Dancing Examinations.

66

Art

EDUCATION

       A major feature of the work of the Cultural Crafts Centre during the year was the development of new courses in art, design and home economics for junior secondary forms-in preparation for the implementation of the policy on cultural and practical subjects embodied in the White Paper on secondary education. New syllabuses in these subjects were introduced on a trial basis in September.

The postcard design competition-one of a group of art competitions organised for school children-was of particular interest. It encouraged children to create paint- ings of their own environment, producing an entirely original set of postcards of Hong Kong and its surroundings.

An art and needlework exhibition, held during the Chinese New Year holidays, attracted more than 2,000 teachers and students. It included drawings, paintings, calligraphy, and embroidery. As in recent years, there was a further increase in the numbers of candidates entering the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination in these subjects.

Physical Education and Recreation

The physical education section of the Education Department continued to run outdoor education camps which involved 845 primary and 8,419 secondary students. In the 1975 Summer Youth Activities Programme-which is a community effort- camping was again the most popular activity among both primary and secondary schools. About 12,000 pupils went camping, including some physically handicapped children. Some 6,000 children from 192 primary schools took part in the Education Department's learn-to-swim scheme in the summer.

       The physical education section also worked in close co-operation with the Hong Kong Schools Sports Association, the New Territories Schools Sports Association and the Hong Kong Schools Sports Council in organising various activities such as the dance festival, gymnastic displays and swimming competitions. Other projects in- cluded the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme and road safety education.

Refresher courses for teachers, with emphasis on modern trends in physical educa- tion and new techniques in sports and games, were conducted during the summer vacation. A new syllabus for physical education was also introduced in secondary schools.

In the first 14 months of the Recreation and Sport Service, 130,000 people took part in 900 events promoted by the service. About 90 per cent of the participants were below 27 years old and 75 per cent were in the 12-24 age group. Co-operation from the national sports associations has been very encouraging, and 60 courses for coaches, instructors, referees or leaders have produced 3,000 trained people to service the wide variety of programmes.

       The Recreation and Sport Service has launched a massive and long-term project to bring recreation and sports to residents of Hong Kong's densely populated housing

EDUCATION

67

estates. The project aims at making maximum use of existing facilities for sports activities specially organised for people on the estates. Kennedy Town's Kwun Lung Lau estate, with more than 2,000 family units and some 12,000 residents, was selected for the launching of this pilot scheme.

Hong Kong Students in Britain

The student section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London is respon- sible for keeping records of all Hong Kong students in Britain who registered with the Education Department before leaving Hong Kong. The section helps these students to find places in universities, polytechnics, technical colleges, and colleges of further education in Britain. The section is responsible for exercising broad supervision over their progress and general welfare during their studies or training, and also advises on courses which will help students find employment either in Hong Kong or else- where on completion of their studies. Nurses under training are regarded as students and receive the same services as their academic counterparts.

The student section maintains close relations with the Education Department in Hong Kong, the Overseas Development Administration and other British govern- ment departments, the British Council, and educational establishments and hospitals where Hong Kong students are receiving training.

        In 1975 the records listed some 7,523 students, including apprentices on sandwich courses and nurse trainees. New arrivals during the academic year totalled 1,348, compared with 1,249 the previous year. The newcomers included 555 students for General Certificate of Education courses and 162 for basic or post-registration qualifications in nursing.

Student visitors to the section totalled 984 compared with 906 the previous year. Enquiries about financial assistance figured high because inflation in Britain had upset students' budgets.

During the year, 1,674 applications on behalf of 558 students were made to polytechnics and colleges. Applications for places in universities were sponsored and forwarded to the Universities Central Council on Admissions (UCCA) on behalf of 72 Hong Kong students resident in Britain. A total of 497 students made direct applications to universities through UCCA under the guidance and sponsorship of the Education Department in Hong Kong. The student section again liaised with the Education Department when results of the UCCA applications were known.

The government-run Hong Kong Students Centre, formerly known as Hong Kong House, is a residential and social centre in London for Hong Kong students in Britain. It accommodates some 75 students and serves as a focal point and meeting place for many more. The Hong Kong Commissioner in London is responsible for the administration of the centre and is assisted by an advisory board which includes two student representatives. The student adviser is a member of the board and, on behalf of the Commissioner, is responsible for day-to-day liaison with the warden.

68

Hong Kong Students in Other Countries

EDUCATION

English-speaking countries other than Britain continued to attract Hong Kong students. Of the 3,909 students who went to Canada in 1975, the majority entered secondary schools in preparation for college or university. Most of the 2,601 students issued with visas for study in the United States entered post-secondary establish- ments. The number of students who went to Australia in 1975 was only 139, mostly for post-secondary courses.

       The overseas students and scholarships section of the Education Department advises students wishing to go overseas for study and supplies information on educa- tional institutions in Britain and elsewhere.

7

Health

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MEDICAL and health services were further expanded in 1975 with the opening of Princess Margaret Hospital in northwest Kowloon. The first patients were accepted in October, and the hospital is gradually working up to full operation.

The 1,340-bed hospital cost $55 million-excluding equipment and furniture- and it has taken nearly five years to build. In addition to providing general facilities, the hospital offers a full range of specialist services for people living in northwest Kowloon and the west New Territories.

Other projects completed during the year include the specialist clinic for the eastern area of Hong Kong Island and stage two of the South Kwai Chung Polyclinic. Work is nearing completion on the construction of the East Kowloon Polyclinic, alterations and extensions at the casualty department of Queen Elizabeth Hospital, and additions and improvements to Castle Peak Hospital.

The rapid development of medical and health services has resulted in a generally favourable state of health among the people. Although Hong Kong's geographical location and environment make it vulnerable to communicable diseases, it has remain- ed free from any epidemic and quarantinable diseases in recent years. The major cause of general mortality-at one time dominated by infectious diseases-is now cancer. Other important causes are heart and cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, accidents, and tuberculosis. The infant mortality rate is now at a lower level than many developed countries.

Administration

The Medical and Health Department is responsible for medical and health care services for the community of Hong Kong. It operates hospitals and clinics through- out the urban and rural areas; maintains services covering family health, school health, industrial health and port health; and undertakes measures for the control of epidemic and endemic diseases. The estimated expenditure of the department for the financial year 1975-6 is $379.7 million. To this should be added subventions to many non-government medical institutions and organisations totalling an estimated $188.4 million. The estimated capital expenditure on hospitals and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $22.9 million.

Communicable Diseases

        Notifications of communicable diseases totalled 12,355 in 1975. Cholera has not been reported in Hong Kong since 1969. Routine night-soil sampling for cholera

70

HEALTH

vibrios has continued on a year-round basis as part of the surveillance programme, with no positive isolations reported. Emphasis is placed on the importance of personal, environmental, and food hygiene.

Tuberculosis is no longer a major community health problem. Both the notifica- tion and death rates have decreased significantly in recent years. This is the result of much dedicated work involving a control programme which is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service and voluntary medical groups. The Chest Service maintains an extensive Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination pro- gramme and during the year 98 per cent of babies born in Hong Kong received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. The widespread use of this prophylactic measure has led to the rapid fall in tuberculosis in young people in Hong Kong.

The corner-stone of treatment is ambulatory chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. The patient is initially given an intensive three-month period of daily streptomycin, PAS and Isoniazid, followed by a regimen of twice weekly streptomycin injections and high dosage Isoniazid tablets. This has the advantage of being a completely supervised regimen.

Large scale co-operation with the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom is being continued. The results of many investigations are of international interest and it is hoped that they will within the next few years revolutionise the approach to the treatment of tuberculosis. As the problems of tuberculosis are slowly but steadily being overcome, increasing attention is being paid to the in- vestigation of non-tuberculous diseases of the respiratory system, such as asthma and bronchiectasis.

Venereal diseases are treated free at social hygiene clinics. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis remained low in 1975-differing from experience in other parts of the world. Energetic control measures such as contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters, and routine ante-natal blood tests are aimed at interrupting the chain of infection.

Leprosy has been brought under control in Hong Kong. In view of the decreas- ing incidence, the Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium maintained by the Leprosy Mission- Hong Kong Auxiliary was closed in 1975. The remaining patients are accommodated in the Lai Chi Kok Hospital, since the complete isolation of leprosy patients is no longer necessary from the community health point of view. Outpatients are seen and treated at special skin clinics.

Malaria transmission has ceased in Hong Kong, and all cases notified during the year were imported. The vector does not exist in the urban areas or the greater part of the New Territories. However, anti-larval operations such as draining and clearing streams, ditching, and oiling are still carried out. In parts of the New Terri- tories, screening of buildings and use of mosquito nets constitute the main preventive

measures.

Diphtheria control illustrates again the success of public health measures in disease prevention. Fifteen years ago, more than 2,000 cases were reported in a single

HEALTH

71

year. Mass inoculation against the disease has brought about a rapid decline in the number of cases, and they are now rare. However, immunisation will have to be continued to maintain a high level of immunity among children to safeguard against the re-introduction of the disease.

        Poliomyelitis has also been brought under control with no cases reported in 1974 or 1975. Oral vaccine is offered at family health service centres and a general im- munisation campaign is carried out in January and March each year. About 95 per cent of infants receive one dose of polio-vaccine soon after birth and 81 per cent of the infants receive two or three doses of the trivalent vaccine later. Epidemiological surveillance of the disease is being maintained.

        Measles is most prevalent among children under five years and the pattern of infection is characteristically biennial. Measles vaccine has been made available free to the public since 1967 and is included in the immunisation programme. Campaigns were conducted three times in 1975 to combat the return of the biennial pattern.

        Viral hepatitis shows a cyclic peak recurrence every third year and 1975 saw an upsurge of cases reported. Most cases are among adolescents and adults, and a higher proportion is found among men. Steps were taken to promote more complete reporting and investigation of the disease.

Family Health

The Family Health Service offers a comprehensive health programme which in- cludes family planning, ante-natal, post-natal, and maternity services; health education for mothers; special infant and toddlers welfare sessions; and preventive immunisation schedules for children. The service operates 39 centres-22 of which are full-time and the others on a sessional basis-and also 23 maternity homes. Home visits are made by health visitors and nurses to advise mothers or to follow-up defaulters of the health programmes.

In 1975 more than 96 per cent of babies born attended the centres for child health service, and there was an increase in the number of attendances at family planning clinics. The Family Health Service plays an important role in maintaining and promot- ing the health of women of child-bearing age and children from birth to five years.

School Health

The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Participation is voluntary and for $5 a year school-children receive medical treatment. The government contributes $20 a year per enrolled pupil and covers the board's administrative expenses.

        The School Health Service is a government responsibility and is concerned with the environmental health and sanitary condition of school premises and the control of communicable diseases in schools. Routine inspection of schools is undertaken by school health inspectors, while immunisation of schoolchildren against the major in- fectious diseases is arranged by health officers.

72

Mental Health

HEALTH

       The Mental Health Service provides full-time care at the Castle Peak Hospital for all types of psychiatric patients, who are mostly admitted voluntarily. The psychiatric unit in Kowloon Hospital and the university psychiatric unit in Queen Mary Hospital provide a comprehensive psychiatric service in a general hospital setting. Outpatient treatment is available in the urban areas and in the New Territories, and day-patients are treated at the Hong Kong Psychiatric Centre, the psychiatric unit in Kowloon Hospital, and the Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre. The latter also provides special facilities for the observation and treatment of disturbed children. Occupational, social and recreational therapies are provided in all centres and units. The severely sub-normal are cared for at the Siu Lam Hospital. Voluntary agencies are working closely with the Mental Health Service to assist in the rehabilitation of patients before their return to full activities in the community.

Port Health

       The Port Health Service is concerned with preventing the introduction of quaran- tinable diseases into Hong Kong, the sanitary control of port and airport areas, and the provision of facilities as required by the International Health Regulations.

It provides facilities for vaccination and the issue of International Vaccination Certificates; and for inspection and deratting and the issue of International Deratting Certificates or Deratting Exemption Certificates to ships or international voyages. The service also renders medical assistance to ships in the harbour and transmits free medical advice to ships at sea. It maintains a 24-hour quarantine service covering sea and air and the granting of radio pratique to ships from clean ports on request.

Industrial Health

The Industrial Health Service provides an advisory service on all matters affecting the health and welfare of workers. The main objective is to prevent occupational diseases and to promote health at work. The professional and technical officers from this service carry out routine and special biological and environmental monitoring. The industrial health laboratory has been designated as a collaborating laboratory in air pollution by the World Health Organisation.

Hospitals

There are three types of hospitals in Hong Kong-government, government- assisted, and private, with a total of 17,580 beds representing four beds per thousand population. Institutions operated by the Armed Forces are excluded. The occupancy of some hospitals is actually higher than the normal bed capacities as temporary beds are used whenever the need arises.

       Queen Mary Hospital with a capacity of 1,150 beds is the main general hospital for Hong Kong Island. Although it is maintained by the government, it is also the teaching hospital for the medical school of the University of Hong Kong.

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73

       Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as a main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the east New Territories with all necessary ancillary services. It has a capacity of 1,596 beds but the pressure for admission necessitates the extensive use of temporary beds, bringing the total number of hospital beds to 1,898.

       The newly-opened Princess Margaret Hospital, with its 1,340 beds, serves as a regional hospital for the west New Territories. It also houses an infectious diseases unit, to replace the beds at Lai Chi Kok Hospital, and a geriatric unit.

        Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. In addition, Kowloon Hospital contains an acute psychiatric unit of 67 beds, a spinal injuries unit of 50 beds, a thoracic unit of 101 beds, and a tuberculosis unit. Castle Peak Hospital is the only psychiatric hospital for the mentally ill. The Siu Lam Hospital has 200 beds for the severe grade of mentally sub-normal patient. The Tsan Yuk Hospital has 300 ma- ternity beds and is a teaching hospital for medical students and midwives. Many government clinics and health centres provide maternity beds for normal maternity cases. The Tang Shiu Kin Hospital provides an additional casualty service on Hong Kong Island. Fanling Hospital in the north New Territories has 54 beds. There is a small general hospital on Cheung Chau Island and another on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also established in prisons.

        The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is a long established charitable organisation. It operates three general hospitals-the Tung Wah, Tung Wah Eastern, and the Kwong Wah hospitals with a total of 2,274 beds-and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. The group also provides subsidiary beds for long-term patients and tuberculosis patients at the Wong Tai Sin Infirmary. The Pok Oi Hospital at Yuen Long in the New Territories is another long established charitable organisation, as are the Yan Chai Hospital at Tsuen Wan with 100 beds, and the United Christian Hospital at Kwun Tong with 555 beds. A number of other hospitals are maintained by missionary and charitable organisations-such as the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nether- sole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre, Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital, the Duchess of Kent Children's Orthopaedic Hospital, and the Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital. All of these receive substantial government subventions.

Clinics

        To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services provided mainly by the government and subsidised organisations and private agencies are developing steadily. The government now operates 51 clinics for general outpatients, with specialist facilities available in the polyclinics of the urban areas. Similar specialist facilities are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from the major hospitals. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take the medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, while other in- accessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

       In accordance with the Medical Clinics Ordinance, all clinics are required to renew their registration annually. On December 31, 1975 there were 76 registered

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static clinics and two mobile clinics under the control of registered medical practi- tioners, and 334 clinics registered with exemption, making a total of 412. The low-cost medical care scheme, in which clinics are set up in public housing estates by registered medical practitioners, continues to operate.

Special Services

The Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health labora- tory services for the government and a consultant service for the government- assisted sector. It also undertakes studies in various fields. The production of vaccine is carried out at the Institute of Immunology.

The Institute of Radiology and Oncology provides both diagnostic and thera- peutic services at hospitals and clinics. The staff also give advice on radiation safety in the commercial and industrial fields. Research is being continued on the epidemio- logy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

The Government Laboratory provides specialist practical and consulting services in chemistry and related sciences for government departments and other agencies. Work ranges from the examination of samples of food, liquor, pharmaceutical preparations, and types of materials, to forensic science work and toxicology.

Drug Dependence

       Drug abuse, mainly in the form of opium and heroin, continues to be a serious problem in Hong Kong. It affects an estimated 100,000 people, mostly males, or about two per cent of the population. A central register of drug addicts, started in 1972, has now received some 80,000 returns from reporting agencies. Returns are continuing to come in at an average of 2,000 a month.

It is the policy of the government to interdict the illicit trafficking of dangerous drugs into and through Hong Kong and to eradicate drug abuse from the community. The Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN) advises the government on nar- cotic matters in respect of both policy and allocation of resources. It is serviced by a Narcotics Secretariat, headed by the Commissioner for Narcotics.

In the programmes of drug treatment and rehabilitation, considerable expansion of facilities is being planned in order to provide treatment en masse at a reasonable cost. It is the responsibility of the narcotics and drugs administration division in the Medical and Health Department to develop treatment plans, conduct research, and implement and supervise programmes.

       The Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts remains the largest agency to treat addicts on a voluntary basis. It has accommodation for 500 male addicts at its centre on Shek Kwu Chau Island. Residence there is entirely voluntary and aftercare services are provided.

       The Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society operates a small residential drug treatment and rehabilitation centre at Yuen Long in the New Territories for those who have taken to or relapsed into drug abuse upon release from prison.

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        Two methadone maintenance pilot projects are in operation to try to determine whether this form of therapy has a place among Hong Kong's drug treatment pro- grammes. Preliminary assessments indicate that the programmes are effective. As an emergency measure in December 1974, the Medical and Health Department opened three new outpatient methadone treatment centres to cope with the increase in demand for treatment. In January 1975 a fourth centre was added.

Dental Services

        The Government Dental Service undertakes dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families, and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners, and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 33 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

        Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. Clinical observation shows that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will become more marked in the future.

        Voluntary bodies and welfare organisations-notably the Hong Kong Dental Association and the St John Ambulance Brigade-operate free or low-cost dental clinics. The Church World Services, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped static and mobile dental clinics.

Medical Fees

        At all government general outpatient and specialist outpatient clinics there is a nominal charge of $1 a visit, which includes all diagnostic investigations, treatment and medicine. There are no charges for patients attending tuberculosis, social hygiene or leprosy clinics, or for patients suffering from quarantinable diseases. No charges are made at certain remote institutions located in outlying areas or on the floating clinics. The infant welfare and ante-natal and post-natal clinics are also free. For patients admitted to the general wards of government hospitals, the daily maintenance and treatment fee was raised from $2 to $3 on November 1, 1975. But for patients who are unable to pay the medical fee, provision has been made for the charge to be either waived or reduced at the discretion of the Director of Medical and Health Services. A limited number of private and semi-private rooms are provided at major hospitals. The charges for these are much higher than general class wards and in addition all treatment is chargeable.

Training

       There is a Faculty of Medicine in the Hong Kong University. Graduates receive the degrees of MB, BS, which have been recognised for registration by the General Medical Council of Great Britain since 1911. In recent years the medical school has expanded to an annual intake of 150 students to meet Hong Kong's increasing need

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for doctors. Both the government and the University of Hong Kong maintain a programme of post-graduate training. Suitable candidates, after four years of resident training under the supervision of consultants, may be granted paid study leave to attend courses outside Hong Kong. Opportunities are also available for doctors to sit higher professional examinations in Hong Kong by arrangements with overseas bodies such as the Royal Colleges of the United Kingdom and Australia.

Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry but a dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from Hong Kong to go overseas each year to study dentistry. A total of 101 scholarships have been awarded since the scheme started in 1954.

The school of physiotherapy run by the Medical and Health Department trains physiotherapists for the service as well as for government-assisted hospitals. For other para-medical grades of staff, in-service training is provided to enable them to qualify as radiographers, laboratory technicians, dispensers, prosthetists, mould laboratory and dental technicians. A number of suitable and promising staff of these para-medical services are sent abroad for further training and experience.

There are three government hospital schools of nursing. Two of them provide a three-year course in general nursing and the other offers a three-year course in psychiatric nursing. Other approved nurse training schools are attached to the government-assisted or private hospitals. Final registration examinations are con- ducted by the Hong Kong Nursing Board.

       Queen Elizabeth Hospital and some government-assisted and private hospitals run one-year courses in obstetric nursing for registered nurses. The Tsan Yuk Hospital offers a two-year midwifery course in Chinese for students who are not registered nurses. On completion of training they are eligible to sit for the Registration Examina- tion conducted by the Hong Kong Midwives Board.

The Kowloon Hospital and various government-assisted and private hospital schools of nursing also offer two-year courses in general nurse training or psychiatric nurse training. Pupil nurses who have passed the examinations conducted by the Hong Kong Nursing Board become enrolled nurses.

A nine-month course for health visitors prepares candidates for the examination of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Health auxiliaries, who supplement the health visitors service, continue to have a two-year training course in health education and basic public health nursing.

The government conducts a continuous post-graduate overseas training pro- gramme for graduate nurses to specialise in such areas as nursing administration, nursing education, dietetics, orthopaedic nursing, intensive care, operating theatre services, and ophthalmic nursing.

       The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for diplomas and certificates in connection with public health, tropical hygiene, health visitors and school nurses, air pollution control, and the inspection of meat and other foods.

HEALTH

Environmental Hygiene

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1

       The Urban Services Department acts as the executive arm of the Urban Council in the urban area, and in the New Territories it operates under the Director of Urban Services. Its responsibilities include street cleansing, the collection of refuse, the collection and disposal of night-soil, the management of public conveniences and bathhouses, and the disposal of the dead. About 8,600 people are employed by the department in this work, and there are some 400 specialist cleansing vehicles.

       An average of 3,300 tons of refuse and junk is collected daily. About 1,800 tons a day is burnt in the incinerators at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island and Lai Chi Kok in Kowloon. The rest goes to refuse dumps in the New Territories. Night-soil is collected free of charge. As old buildings are demolished and replaced by modern buildings with proper sewerage, the amount of night-soil collected con- tinues to decline. In 1975, 4.7 million gallons of night-soil were collected and dumped at sea in the West Lamma Channel. Alternative arrangements for the disposal of night-soil were being explored at the end of the year.

       Control of pests of public health or medical importance-including rodents, mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, fleas, ticks and bed-bugs-is carried out by specially trained pest control staff. Their work includes clearing, draining, and regular weekly larvicidal oiling of streams to prevent the breeding of malarial mosquitoes on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon, and at Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill Village, and Cheung Chau Island in the New Territories. This work is based on technical advice issued by the pest control advisory unit of the Urban Services Department headquarters.

       The Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign started the year with a five week clean-up operation throughout the territory. The emphasis was on education and community involvement, and particularly active were the Clean Your City groups which were formed in 1974 among schools and youth organisations. The main function of the CYC groups was to report accumulation of litter in public areas for follow-up action by USD staff.

       A Clean Beach drive was held in the main swimming season from May to September. Refuse was collected from the sea near beaches and special publicity and entertainment focussed attention on the drive. Live performances and a multi-screen slide show called the "Tomorrow Show' were presented in densely populated areas, and beach shows were given at selected beaches to encourage the public to keep the beaches clean. As a result of these efforts, and the active participation of Clean Your City members, all the gazetted beaches in Hong Kong and the New Territories were kept noticeably cleaner than in previous years.

        Other activities covered reminders to the public about anti-litter legislation, operations to clean up canopies and ledges, and tidiness in parks and playgrounds.

Controls

       Various methods are used to maintain and improve environmental health, which includes the hygienic control of all premises licensed under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance. The work is carried out by the district hygiene staff, which consists mainly of health inspectors.

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Regular inspections are made of domestic and licensed premises, followed by law enforcement action wherever necessary. Special inspections are made in connec- tion with complaints of sanitary nuisances, vermin infestations, and other matters within the framework of environmental health.

       The district hygiene staff also maintain close liaison with the Medical and Health Department in the control and investigation of infectious diseases.

       Businesses and trades which require hygienic control are licensed only after the standard health requirements have been met. Except for hawker licences, all applica- tions for licences issued under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance are dealt with by a central licensing unit.

       The educational approach to improve environmental health is done by the health education section, which organises publicity campaigns through the mass media and gives talks and training courses to specified groups of the population.

       The section works closely with its counterpart in the Education Department, the Government Information Services Department, and various voluntary agencies in the public health field. Contests and competitions are also held in schools every year to promote health education among schoolchildren.

The food (import/export) section of the Urban Services Department provides services for the control of imported meat, poultry, milk and milk products. A new set of imported food regulations has been proposed with a view to tightening up control over other imported food items.

Export of food is dealt with by the health certification section. This section also provides services for inspection and certification of animal products for export under veterinary certificate.

For general overall control of food quality, regular surveys and scheduled sampl- ings are carried out by chemical and bacteriological analysis to check the composition of food and beverages and to ensure their continuing purity.

Staff Training

A training school under the direction of the departmental Health Inspectors Training Board is primarily concerned with the training of student health inspectors, but it also holds departmental training courses on technical subjects for other grades of officers. Student health inspectors are trained for two years to the standards required for the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appoint- ments, issued by the Royal Society of Health, London. In January 1975, a local training course in the inspection of meat and other foods was established. It leads to the Royal Society of Health Diploma examination, so that health inspectors need no longer be sent overseas to obtain this qualification. To improve public cleansing techniques and management, a two year part-time training course is being run by Hong Kong Polytechnic to prepare health inspector candidates for the Testamur examination held by the Institute of Solid Wastes Management, London.

With a view to keeping pace with modern technology in food, environmental hygiene control, technical training, general administration, and health education,

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seven health inspectors were sent to Britain in September for specialised training not available in Hong Kong.

Markets

A major development in market operation was the decision to install an escalator in the Mong Kok market which is now under construction, in an attempt to make the upper storey commercially viable. Most of the older markets have little business on the upper floors-due, it is believed, to consumer resistance against walking upstairs to shop.

A decision was also made during the year to develop temporary markets on sites which have been earmarked for future development as multi-purpose buildings, including markets. This will increase marketing facilities more quickly. In most cases the temporary markets will have a life of approximately 10 years before the sites are developed for permanent buildings containing other additional facilities.

Hawkers

The number of hawkers tends to vary with the state of the economy, and the tighter financial situation in 1975 resulted in many more people moving into street trading to supplement the family income. As an experiment, 20 areas in Kowloon were designated as hawker permitted areas where both licensed or unlicensed hawkers could operate with a minimum of official interference. The experiment received wide- spread publicity and considerable criticism in some areas where the hawkers almost completely strangled the commercial life of the retail and wholesale shops, and made it nearly impossible to move vehicles through the streets. Towards the end of the year plans were put in hand to bring the situation under control.

Abattoirs

        The Kennedy Town abattoir on Hong Kong Island and the Cheung Sha Wan abattoir in Kowloon continue to provide the bulk of the population's fresh meat. They operate to high standards of hygiene. During the year 2,455,170 pigs, 141,192 cattle and 15,776 goats were slaughtered at both abattoirs. The daily average was 2,610 pigs, 171 cattle and 21 goats at Kennedy Town; and 4,116 pigs, 216 cattle and 23 goats at Cheung Sha Wan.

A third pig dressing line was installed at the Cheung Sha Wan abattoir and came into operation in August. The installation of a third pig dressing line at the Kennedy Town abattoir has begun, and is due to be completed in 1976. Improvements to the by-products plant and the cattle dressing lines are also planned. There are two private slaughterhouses in the New Territories--one in Yuen Long and the other in Tai Po. Animals slaughtered in the government abattoirs and the private slaughterhouses are inspected by health inspectors of the Urban Services Department.

Services in the New Territories

        The New Territories division of the Urban Services Department looks after environmental hygiene, cleansing, hawkers and markets, slaughterhouses, recreation

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     and amenities, pest control, and cemeteries and crematoria in the New Territories. The division is part of the normal government machinery and-unlike services in the urban area of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon-it is not within the purview of the Urban Council. It works closely with other government departments operating in the New Territories, especially with the New Territories Administration and the Public Works Department. The division has planning responsibility for ensuring a balanced provision of Urban Services Department facilities, particularly in the new towns and other development areas.

      In 1975 a system was set up for detecting the presence of pesticides in poultry, and samples from both local sources and China are taken for examination. Samples tested so far have yielded results that are within the limits set by the World Health Organisation.

Following the success of an experiment in late 1974, aimed at clearing obstruc- tions caused by the accumulation of refuse and heavy undergrowth along a seven-mile stretch of the Kam Tin River in Yuen Long, further similar operations were carried out in rivers and streams in Yuen Long and Tai Po districts.

Hawker management has been complicated by the general recession, but contain- ing action is constantly undertaken. Major resiting exercises, involving some 1,750 hawkers, were mounted at two noted hawker black spots in the New Territories- in the precincts of the Yeung Uk Road market in Tsuen Wan and in San Hui, Tuen Mun. A major resite operation involving the market and bazaars at Sham Tseng village in Tsuen Wan was also necessary in order to make a work-site available in connection with the construction of a viaduct for the Castle Peak Road project.

The Tsuen Wan swimming pool complex, comprising eight pools of varying sizes and a small adjoining park, was completed in February 1975. This is the first of three major public swimming pool complexes planned for the new town of Tsuen Wan. Despite initial difficulties caused by the polluting effects on the pool water of dust and grit from nearby construction sites and heavy road traffic, the pool was opened to the public in July.

Cemeteries and Crematoria

Disposal of the dead is the responsibility of the Urban Services Department in the New Territories and of the Urban Council in the urban areas.

The Urban Services Department controls five public cemeteries and one public crematorium, and supervises eight private cemeteries in the New Territories. A columbarium at Wo Hop Shek cemetery near Fanling was opened during the year. It is the first columbarium in the New Territories and will provide 1,962 niches for the cremated remains of the deceased.

Six public cemeteries and two public crematoria in the urban areas are directly controlled by the Urban Council, which also supervises 19 private cemeteries. Apart from the two funeral depots operated by the Urban Council, there are four commercial funeral parlours and 38 undertakers licensed to arrange funeral services. The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals also operates a non-profit-making funeral parlour on either side of the harbour.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown and, with much of the 404 square miles being mountainous and unsuitable for development, building land is of con- siderable value. Substantial government revenue is obtained from land transactions, either through sales of Crown land or in stamp duty on conveyancing.

Land administration of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and that part of the New Territories known as New Kowloon is the responsibility of the Director of Public Works. He is also the Building Authority and chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Secretary for the New Territories is responsible for land administration in the New Territories apart from New Kowloon.

        In the early days of Hong Kong, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99, or 999 years. Except in the New Territories, they are now granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a reassessed Crown rent under the provisions of the Crown Leases Ordinance. Crown leases for New Territories land (including New Kowloon) are now normally granted for a term of 99 years less three days as from July 1, 1898, and so terminate three days before the expiry of the lease from China.

        The government's basic policy is to sell land to the highest bidder at public auctions, and the majority of land available to the general public for commercial, industrial or residential development is sold in this way. Regular land auctions are held by the government and a six-monthly provisional sales forecast is published, listing the Crown land available during the following six months. Leases for certain special purposes are offered for sale by public tender.

        In recent years, the government has adopted a policy of encouraging private development of large sites-such as the 285-acre site at Tai Shang Wai, Yuen Long, in the New Territories, which it is proposed to develop over an eight-year period as a garden housing estate for 25,000 people. It will be the biggest housing estate developed so far by the private sector in the New Territories. At a seven-acre site on Lantau Island, developers propose to provide a holiday resort within five years, combining residential accommodation with recreational facilities. In September, the government announced its intention to offer for sale by tender, in 1976, an area of 28 acres of land on Ap Lei Chau Island for residential development. The land will be in exchange for a premium coupled with the construction and handing over to the government of a bridge and associated roads linking the island with Aberdeen. It is expected that a population of 28,000 could be accommodated by development of this area. A tender, by way of premium payable to the government, was also accepted for a transaction which requires the tenderer to reclaim 145 acres of fore- shore and sea bed at Sha Tin tide cove in the New Territories. In return, the tenderer

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will be permitted to retain 40 acres for private development, including areas for community facilities and recreational use, while returning the remainder of the re- claimed land to the government. It is expected that when the development is completed in about 10 years' time it will provide accommodation for some 30,000 people.

Realised premium is usually payable within a short period after the date of sale. However, 90 per cent of the premia from the sales of valuable commercial sites may be paid by instalments if the realised premium exceeds $20 million. Payment is by 10 equal annual instalments bearing interest at 10 per cent per annum. In the case of industrial sites, irrespective of the size of the premium realised, 90 per cent of it may be paid by 10 equal annual instalments bearing interest at five per cent. Where the realised premium for a residential commercial site exceeds $10 million, it may be paid by 10 equal annual instalments bearing interest at 10 per cent. The government also accepts instalment payments of premia for the modification of Crown leases in certain cases.

       The demand for both industrial and non-industrial land has continued, and the revenue from land transactions for the financial year 1974-5 was $157.7 million, compared with $164.5 million in 1973-4.

Where it is not possible to dispose of Crown land for permanent development- either because public utilities and other services are not yet available, or the site has been set aside for some future purpose-the land may be let on short-term tenancy. The previous practice of issuing temporary annual licences, which is considered to be less satisfactory in terms of management and revenue, is now avoided as far as possible. The current policy is to convert existing annual licences to short-term tenancies wherever feasible. The 1974-5 revenue from this type of short-term land holding was $9.3 million in the urban areas and $15.8 million in the New Territories. With licences being cancelled to make land available for permanent development, and licences being converted to short-term tenancies wherever practicable, the number of annual licences decreases each year. The number of short-term tenancies, however, is steadily increasing.

       Another source of revenue is the rental of buildings owned wholly or partly by the government. In the financial year 1974-5 this provided $7.8 million.

The government is continuing its policy of fencing vacant sites which have been cleared and installing security guards. This has reduced problems of site clearance and interference with the regular Crown land sales programme. The Director of Public Works and the Secretary for the New Territories also have powers to combat unlawful occupation of Crown land and to enable clearance to be effected more quickly, usually without litigation.

In accordance with an agreement that any military land which is surplus to the requirements of the Army will be handed back to the government for its own use or disposal, a 16-acre site at Shouson Hill on Hong Kong Island has been handed back. The site was previously used as an ammunition depot. Long-term development for this area is being planned by the Public Works Department. Arrangements were made during the year for the similar return of about 128 acres of land at Lyemun Barracks and eight acres at Chatham Road in Tsim Sha Tsui.

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Renewal of Crown Leases

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The enactment of the Crown Leases Ordinance in 1973 provided for the statutory renewal of all renewable Crown leases, other than New Territories Crown leases, at a reassessed annual rent equal to three per cent of the rateable value of the property. The renewal of the Crown leases of 5,000 lots and sections of lots in New Kowloon and of 200 lots and sections of lots in Kowloon has now been completed. There is also provision in the ordinance for the new Crown rent to be revised upon redevelop- ment to reflect any increase in value. New Territories Crown leases are automatically renewed at the same rent as for the expired term. The total revenue from the collec- tion of Crown rent during the financial year 1974-5 was $9.9 million.

Re-grant of Non-Renewable Crown Leases

        When a non-renewable 75-year Crown lease falls due to expire and the land is not required for a public purpose, it is government policy that a new Crown lease for a similar term and on modern conditions should be negotiated with the lessee. The re-grant premium payable represents the full market value of the vacant land. Subject to certain provisions, re-grantees may elect to pay the premium by up to 21 annual instalments with interest at 10 per cent per annum.

Where a property is held on a non-renewable Crown lease in multiple ownership and it is not possible to issue a new Crown lease to the individual lessees for various reasons such as their failure to agree among themselves to take up the lease-the property is granted to the Colonial Treasurer Incorporated on expiry of the lease. The new premium is payable by 21 annual instalments with interest at 10 per cent per annum. The premium amount is then apportioned among the various interests held by the former Crown lessees, and the Colonial Treasurer Incorporated offers to all former lessees an assignment of undivided shares, together with the right to ex- clusive enjoyment and occupation of their respective units within the building. This procedure is particularly useful when some of the lessees do not wish to participate in an application for, or are not capable of taking up, a new Crown lease of the property.

        The re-grant of non-renewable Crown leases of lots on which post-war buildings stand has been complicated by circumstances arising since 1972. These include a sharp rise in land prices in 1972-3 and the introduction of the statutory control of rents of domestic premises. Rent control has effectively prevented domestic rental incomes from increasing sufficiently to cover the annual instalments of re-grant premia assessed on land values prevailing at the time of expiry of the original lease. In September 1975, the government agreed that, for a temporary concessionary period, the actual annual amount payable would be related to the net annual income arising from the property or interest concerned. The full amount of the normal re-grant premium instalment will become payable upon the expiration of the concessionary period- the duration of which is to be reviewed in three years' time.

Land Office

        The issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases is dealt with by the Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department. Records

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     of transactions relating to land on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon, in New Kowloon (with a few exceptions) and in the more urban parts of the New Territories are kept in the Land Office. Records relating to transactions affecting the other parts of the New Territories and the few exceptional New Kowloon cases are kept at District Land Offices forming part of the New Territories Administration.

The Land Office has responsibility for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; and the granting of mining leases. It gives legal and other advice to the government generally on matters relating to land.

The Land Office has recently assumed responsibilities in connection with the enforcement of covenants contained in Crown leases. A team of assistant registrars inspect certain classes of buildings from time to time, and if breaches are discovered steps are taken to ensure that they are rectified or the lease is modified, usually on payment of a premium.

The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration. It also provides that unregistered instruments, other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years, shall be null and void as against any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable consideration. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it. The ordinance is under review and changes in the system have been recommended.

The number of instruments registered in the Land Office rose during the year by 8.2 per cent, bringing the total to 92,138 as compared with 85,182 last year. More detailed statistics and comparisons with previous years are contained in Appendix 29. At the end of the year, the card index of property owners contained the names of 279,065 people, an increase of 27,792 over the previous year. Some own several properties, but most are owners or part owners of small individual flats.

Several ordinances affecting the work of the Land Office came into force during the year. These were the Crown Lands Resumption (Amendment) Ordinance 1974, which provides for disputes concerning compensation to be referred to the Lands Tribunal for determination of the amount of the compensation to be paid; the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) (No. 3) Ordinance 1975, which affords further protection to intending purchasers of flats in uncompleted buildings; and the Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1975, which confers upon a corporation of owners the power to hold an undivided share in its building together with the right to the exclusive possession of any part of the building other than the common parts.

Urban Renewal and Environment Improvement

Progress on the Urban Renewal Pilot Scheme continued during the year. Negotia- tions are being held with those owners wishing to dispose of their property to the government, although the resumption programme has been suspended to conserve funds. There are at present only 49 properties within the pilot scheme area remaining

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to be acquired. Some 30 properties, mostly pre-war, were demolished during the year and the domestic tenants requiring alternative accommodation were rehoused. Com- pensation of more than $10 million for 67 properties was paid during the financial year 1974-5. A new road planned to link Hollywood Road to Queen's Road in Central will permit the development of several attractive commercial/residential sites which it is hoped to offer for sale by auction early in 1976.

        Further progress has been made in acquiring properties for the provision of open spaces as well as government, institutional and community facilities in the densely populated areas of Western District, Wan Chai and Yau Ma Tei. Some 60 properties were acquired by negotiation at a cost of a little more than $35 million during the financial year 1974-5. Although financial considerations have precluded a resumption programme to ensure the orderly provision of project sites, negotiations are continuing with those owners who wish to dispose of their properties which are affected by the outline zoning plans concerned.

Acquisition for Public Purposes

In order that public works projects may go ahead, it is often necessary to acquire privately held land, sometimes compulsorily. During the financial year 1974-5, compensation boards awarded more than $24 million in compensation. Where prop- erties front established roads which are subject to road widening lines, these are implemented as and when the individual properties are redeveloped, often by nego- tiated surrenders. During 1974-5, compensation paid for such acquisitions exceeded $11 million although in many cases a free surrender was obtained.

        In December 1974 the Lands Tribunal Ordinance came into operation, providing for the establishment of a permanent tribunal to adjudicate on all statutory claims for compensation in respect of land. Other ordinances have been amended to adapt procedures to the new tribunal. The Mass Transit (Land Resumption and Related Provisions) Ordinance was also enacted at the end of 1974 to meet the special land acquisition needs of the mass transit railway. Claims under this ordinance will also be adjudicated by the new Lands Tribunal.

Survey

        The survey branch of the Crown Lands and Survey Office in the Public Works Department is responsible for the mapping of Hong Kong and the delineation and physical marking of boundaries of lots, and for providing a network of trigonometrical stations and bench marks upon which all land and engineering surveys are based.

        Of the two aerial survey contracts awarded in 1974, one was terminated in July 1975 while the other was renewed for a further six months-so retaining an air survey capability until the new photogrammetric unit of the Public Works Department is in operation. During 1974-5, the two contractors completed 60 projects covering some 5000 hectares of large scale mapping. Installation of the equipment for the photogrammetric unit is expected to be completed early in 1976.

       A system of permanent urban survey marks covering the entire urban area of Hong Kong and Kowloon was implemented in 1975. The resurvey of the special

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LAND AND HOUSING

roof-top traverse for the mass transit railway was also calculated and adjusted. In contrast to 1974, there was no marked change in the demand for boundary surveys during the year. Conversion to the metric system for survey proceeded smoothly, although imperial units were still shown on title plans.

Revision of large scale maps (the Basic Map Series) continued throughout the year in the urban areas and in the New Territories. Conversion of maps in this series to 1:1 000 metric scale was completed in respect of the Kowloon area and continued on the urban area of Hong Kong Island, while the initial work on the New Territories sheets began.

On the map production side, good progress was made in converting topographic series to metric specifications. The deluxe (layered and hill shaded) version of a 1:50 000 scale map covering the whole of the territory was published and well received. Six sheets of the 1:20 000 scale series are now available and completion of the series is expected to be ahead of the original schedule since the British Military Survey has agreed to adopt this series and to assist in the production of three sheets. The third sheet of the 'Countryside' series was published during the year, satisfying a long-felt public demand for a tourist map of Lantau. The street map series was completed, together with the new 1:50 000 scale town planning series. Design work commenced on a new bilingual guide book to Hong Kong, to be published in two volumes-one for Hong Kong and Islands and one for Kowloon and the New Territories.

Town Planning

The two bodies mainly responsible for town planning in Hong Kong are the Town Planning Board, chaired by the Director of Public Works and comprising nine official and five unofficial members, and the Land Development Policy Committee, chaired by the Secretary for the Environment and comprising seven official members. The functions of the Town Planning Office include the servicing of these two bodies and, together with the New Territories Development Department, servicing the New Territories Development Progress Committee. There are three main levels of planning which proceed from general concepts to development projects. They are the Hong Kong Outline Plan, Town Planning Board outline zoning plans, and departmental plans in the form of planning guides, outline development plans, planning layouts and 10-year development programmes.

The Hong Kong Outline Plan is based on a data bank of land-use and demogra- phic information and the findings of six inter-departmental working committees. It is being updated under the guidance of the Land Development Policy Committee. The plan provides a framework for all other planning activities and sets out general planning concepts for future population distribution and development. It defines standards and locational factors for the provision of community facilities, suggests the general locations of major facilities, and defines the functions of areas in broad terms. The plan also provides a framework for the preparation of statutory outline zoning plans, planning guides and other plans, and is a basis for the formulation of land development programmes and the reappraisal of transportation proposals. The data bank is continually updated within a system of planning units and planning

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87

periods. The plan is being revised, taking into account the 1971 census and recent developments in planning policies and techniques.

        Background studies are prepared for all areas before detailed planning proceeds. They identify deficiencies or over-provision of community facilities and land required for various uses in relation to the existing and future populations of planning areas.

       Outline zoning plans are prepared by the Town Planning Board when instructed by the Governor, who is advised of the need by the Land Development Policy Com- mittee. These plans show land for public and private development, housing, industry, commercial development, roads, open spaces and other uses, and have statutory status.

        Draft outline zoning plans prepared by the Town Planning Board are exhibited for public inspection. Any objections are then considered by the board. The draft plans are amended where appropriate, and submitted together with any outstanding objections to the Governor in Council for final approval. The plans make provision for applications to the Town Planning Board for permission to use land for purposes provided for in the notes of the plans. The zoning proposals are implemented through lease conditions where possible, and through the Buildings Ordinance. During the year, five draft outline zoning plans were exhibited for public inspection by the Town Planning Board. The future of town planning legislation in Hong Kong is being examined by an inter-departmental study group.

       Departmental planning guides for developing rural areas and outline development and layout plans for developing urban areas are prepared within the framework of the Hong Kong Outline Plan and statutory outline zoning plans where these exist. Outline development and layout plans are drawn to larger scales and show detailed road patterns and the layout of sites for various uses-including reserves for govern- ment and community uses, open spaces, utility companies and other specific require- ments. After consultation with other departments and amendments where appropriate, these plans are submitted to the layout plans sub-committee of the Land Development Policy Committee or to the New Territories Development Progress Committee for approval. In 1975, five outline development plans were approved. These plans have no statutory effect but are used as a guide for the formulation of leases, the sale of Crown land, and for public and private development of land.

        Most of Hong Kong's developing areas are now covered by some form of plan. Many of the present departmental and statutory plans are due for revision and replacement by plans which take account of more sophisticated forms of development and increasing social requirements.

       The main object of the outline zoning plans and departmental plans for the existing densely populated urban areas is to improve the environment by providing for open spaces, schools and other facilities, where at present there is little or no such provision. Certain areas such as Wan Chai and Yau Ma Tei, where a large amount of urban renewal is taking place, are designated as environmental improvement districts.

        Because of redevelopment, a rising standard of living, and the growth of popula- tion, major development outside the existing urban areas is essential and is taking

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LAND AND HOUSING

place in the new towns. Their development is controlled by the New Territories Development Department.

New Towns

For many years, flat land for development in Hong Kong has been formed by cutting platforms into hill slopes, and using the excavated material to fill nearby low- lying land and shallow seabed to form further flat land. This method is being applied in the development of new towns.

At Kwun Tong, to the east of the Kowloon peninsula, development which has been taking place since 1955 is now almost completed, covering an area of 394 hectares. It will accommodate about half a million people on full development. While land formation and the provision of water, roads and drainage has been a government responsibility, building development has been shared with private enterprise. Public housing now accommodates about 340,000 people and private buildings about 80,000. Local industry in Kwun Tong employs about 105,000 workers.

The long-term housing programme to be carried out by the Housing Authority provides for about half of the new public housing in the New Territories to be built in the three new towns of Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun (Castle Peak) and Sha Tin, and in old townships such as Tai Po and Yuen Long. The new towns will gradually be developed as balanced communities with public and private housing, employment and community facilities to minimise traffic within and between the towns.

       Tsuen Wan new town, northwest of Kowloon, has been developed for residential and industrial uses since the early fifties and has now grown to more than half of its ultimate planned size with a population of almost 500,000 in a formed area of 951 hectares. The full population capacity of the new town is 860,000. One major area to the north of the existing development is planned to provide housing for 120,000 people in a 182-hectare area, together with 17 hectares for industrial development. Another area being developed is Tsing Yi Island, which is connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population of Tsing Yi is expected to grow from 9,000 to 165,000, and the island will form an integral part of the new town. It will, however, have all the facilities required to make it a self-contained community, while also providing a number of sites suitable for heavy industry needing sea access.

        At Tuen Mun new town, on the west side of the New Territories, the bulk of the engineering work for Stage IA development has been completed, providing a total land area of 93 hectares and a population capacity of 55,000. The first public housing estate, San Fat estate, has also been completed, providing homes for 11,000 people. Construction of the second estate-Tai Hing estate Phase I, to provide homes for another 29,000-is well advanced. Most of the 21 hectares of industrial land produced in Stage IA has already been sold and is at various stages of development by private industrialists. Engineering work on Stage IB has commenced, including the construction of a road connecting Tuen Mun Road Stage I, now under construc- tion, with the new town. The development area of the new town covers 1100 hectares with a population capacity of 486,000 people.

LAND AND HOUSING

89

Sha Tin new town is being developed within the Shing Mun River valley im- mediately to the north of Kowloon. The initial intake of residents into Lek Yuen San Tsuen, the first public housing estate in Sha Tin, began in mid-1975. This estate will be completed in 1976, providing homes for 23,000 people. Work has started on the adjoining Wo Che estate which, like Lek Yuen, is to be built on land reclaimed from the seabed and foreshore at Sha Tin. This estate will provide accommodation for a further 34,000 people by 1979. Other areas of bulk excavation and reclamation are being planned by public and private developers to accommodate 239,000 people. The development area of the new town covers 1740 hectares with a population capacity of 524,000 people.

Concurrently with the development of the three major new towns, plans for the market towns of Tai Po, Fanling, Shek Wu Hui, and Yuen Long are being formulated for their development with an ultimate population of 264,000. In the rural parts of the New Territories, developments of smaller communities related to public housing estates are planned for the islands of Cheung Chau and Peng Chau, at Tai O and Mui Wo on Lantau Island, and at Sham Tseng, Lau Fau Shan, Tan Kwai Tsuen and Sai Kung. It is estimated that up to 300,000 people in the rural New Territories will require some form of housing assistance within the long-term housing programme.

Private Building

The year saw a small but significant overall return of the customary momentum in the private building industry, helped by a lowering of interest rates, increased productivity, steadying of labour costs and lower prices for most materials.

There was a resurgence in private overseas investment-often in partnership with local interests-in a number of industrial, commercial and recreational schemes throughout the territory. A good deal of forward planning was undertaken to ensure that schemes, some of them large scale, will be able to proceed as and when the financial and economic climate permits.

In connection with the government's policy of encouraging financially viable private development schemes that are in the public interest, a Priorities Committee was set up in the Buildings Ordinance Office. By the end of the year 70 building proposals had been granted priority in the processing of plans submitted for approval under the Buildings Ordinance.

There were 658 new building proposals submitted for approval in 1975, compared with 718 in 1974. The total cost of new buildings completed during the year was $1,891 million, an increase of one per cent over the figure of $1,869 million for 1974.

Several major buildings were completed during the year, including the 42-storey World Trade Centre, facing the harbour at Causeway Bay. It is one of the few such centres in the world to be built without any government financial assistance.

Work has proceeded rapidly on the impressive oceanarium project at Brick Hill, on the south side of Hong Kong Island. When completed in 1976, it will provide opportunities comparable to any in the world for the study and enjoyment of marine life.

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LAND AND HOUSING

The ever changing skyline of Central District saw the completion of the 34-storey Gammon House and the 25-storey Hutchison House, and most of the structural frame- work of the 37-storey new Alexandra House and the 42-storey AIA building. Many other projects were completed throughout the main urban areas and new townships.

New Building (Construction) Regulations came into full force in August, providing Hong Kong with its own structural design standards suited to its unique circumstances. Another development was the introduction of regular inspections by the Buildings Ordinance Office of all new private buildings completed after July 31, 1975. The object is to discourage illegal alterations by immediately requiring their removal. If the requirements are not met by a specified date, a contractor may be employed to carry out the work, at the subsequent expense of the owner. By the end of the year 1,072 notices had been served and it had been necessary to employ a contractor on 15 occasions. The Buildings Ordinance Office continued to take en- forcement action in other private buildings against reported illegal alterations giving rise to a serious structural, health or fire escape hazard.

The dangerous buildings division of the Buildings Ordinance Office continued to deal with the demolition or repair of dangerous buildings, the planned survey of potentially dangerous buildings, routine re-inspection of suspect buildings, and the repair of defective drainage systems. During the year some 149 buildings were closed and demolished, compared with 113 buildings in 1974; there were 453 repair notices served, compared with 519 the previous year; and 125 defective drainage notices were served.

       Five appeals were lodged with the Appeals Tribunal against decisions made by the Building Authority under the Buildings Ordinance. Two of the cases were con- ceded by the authority, one decision by the authority was reversed, and one case was not within the jurisdiction of the tribunal. The fifth case had not been heard at the end of 1975. In addition, four disciplinary proceedings were initiated against one authorised person and three registered contractors.

Housing

Improved housing for an additional 1.5 million people living in sub-standard homes is the declared aim of the 10-year housing programme. It was announced in 1972, and a new Housing Authority was formed to implement and guide the new impetus. Since then the authority, with its executive arm the Housing Department, has been planning, building and managing new and existing housing estates. However, most of the current building work continues to be carried out by the architectural office of the Public Works Department.

About 23,000 flats have been completed and taken over by the Housing Authority since 1973, providing accommodation for 132,000 people. The programme is growing continually, and homes for more than 100,000 people are expected to be completed in 1976-7, rising to 200,000 a year in the 1980s.

At the end of 1975 there were 56 public housing estates under the management of the authority. These estates provide low-rent homes for more than 1.8 million people -43 per cent of the population.

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91

The Housing Authority is responsible for housing all categories of people eligible for public housing. The majority are families displaced from Crown land needed for development or from dangerous tenement buildings; families which become home- less due to natural disaster; and families unsatisfactorily housed and registered on the authority's waiting list. During the year, 85,972 people were given public housing, bringing the total number of estate tenants to more than 1.8 million.

In view of the general increase in workers' earnings, the authority has raised the income limits for applicants on the waiting list for public housing. These applicants must have a family of at least three people, and the income ceiling is now $1,500 for families of three to six, rising to $2,200 for families of 10 or more.

The Housing Department has been increasing its professional staff in the construction branch and using more economical semi-mechanical and rationalised traditional building methods to reach the goal of the 10-year housing programme.

At the end of the year, 17 public housing estates were in various stages of con- struction. Six estates-Hing Wah, Lek Yuen, Lei Muk Shue, Lai King, Kwai Shing and Ha Kwai Chung-were in an advanced stage of construction or nearing comple- tion.

        In the design of new estates and housing blocks careful consideration is given to ensure, as far as the cost limits allow, that residents are provided with full amenities such as open spaces and welfare facilities. Fittings include communal television antennae and piped gas fittings in current designs. Comprehensive commercial com- plexes are provided in estates where the population within the estate and surrounding areas justifies the construction.

        The year 1975 marked the completion of the Oi Man housing estate in the Ho Man Tin area. This estate is built on a choice site in the heart of Kowloon and it is the first to include a fully air-conditioned commercial complex with shopping arcades, supermarket, department store, banks, restaurants, and modern covered cooked-food stalls. Oi Man was officially opened by the Acting Governor, Sir Denys Roberts, on November 20, and by the end of the year the estate housed about 43,000 people.

        Besides building new estates, the older housing blocks will gradually be phased out through conversion or redevelopment to bring about major improvements in the living conditions of the 500,000 people who were rehoused between 1954 and 1962. The first conversion project is progressing well at Lower Shek Kip Mei estate and initial steps were taken during the year to redevelop Chai Wan and Tai Hang Tung

estates.

Housing Authority Factory Estates

        These enable small scale operators of squatter factories, workshops and other industrial undertakings to continue making a living when their structures are demolish- ed in clearance operations. There are altogether 26 flatted factory blocks of five or seven storeys providing a total of about 9,400 standard-sized units of 256 square feet each. Two more factory blocks containing 800 units have been completed at Kowloon Bay. More than 100 different types of manufacture are undertaken in these factory blocks, which make a useful contribution to the Hong Kong economy.

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Squatter Control

LAND AND HOUSING

       Despite Hong Kong's huge housing programme, the problem of squatters remains. Much undeveloped Crown land in the urban areas on which it is possible to build is occupied by squatters. They erect not only temporary homes but also small factories, shops, workshops, schools and other structures.

       There were many more new squatters in 1975 than in the previous year, due to a variety of inter-related factors-such as the recession in industry, the continuing flow of immigrants from China, the clearance of roof-top squatters from tenements under redevelopment, and difficulties facing young couples with children trying to find ac- commodation. The position was made worse by the activities of racketeers offering to sell flimsy huts to hard-pressed families with the promise of eventual public housing.

Several large-scale exercises were carried out to clear squatter blackspots, moving the occupants from these unsanitary conditions to the better environment of licensed areas until they can be offered permanent public housing.

Clearance and Licensed Areas

When a squatter area is needed for development, a clearance operation has to be carried out. Domestic squatters living in surveyed huts are given accommodation in public housing estates, while operators of squatter shops, workshops and industrial undertakings are paid ex-gratia compensation on clearance. Small or medium-sized industrial operators may opt for reprovisioning in a Housing Department flatted factory, if units are available and their trade is suitable for factory operation.

However, in any clearance operation there are some who do not meet the criteria laid down for rehousing. Domestic squatters who are genuinely homeless are offered a site in a Housing Department licensed area where they may build a temporary struc- ture. Sites are also offered to victims of natural disasters who are ineligible for direct rehousing. Licensed areas are provided with basic facilities-a simple water supply, surface drains, latrines and communal bathhouses.

      In 1974 the government accepted a recommendation by the Housing Authority that these basic facilities should be improved to include an electricity supply and individual water taps. A later improvement in many of the new licensed areas is the provision of part-built structures with wall supports and a roof. New tenants construct their own walls and kitchens, so preserving the original self-help principle. At the end of the year there were 30 licensed areas providing accommodation for 39,462 people. In view of the continuing squatter problem, more areas are being planned and efforts made to introduce community services such as family planning, counselling and youth activities.

Rent Control of Pre-War Premises

Legislation controlling rents of pre-war premises and providing security of tenure was instituted by proclamation immediately after the war and was later embodied in 1947 in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance-since re-enacted as Part I of the Land- lord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. This legislation applies to both domestic

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LAND AND HOUSING

93

      and business premises and restricts rents by reference to pre-war levels, while excluding from control any new or substantially reconstructed buildings. Following an amend- ment in 1953, permitted increases in standard rents were raised to 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises, at which level they have remained ever since. Increased rates charges imposed after March 31, 1975 may be passed on to tenants and sub-tenants.

There is provision in the legislation for exclusion of pre-war premises where redevelopment is intended. Exclusions are made on the recommendation of a Tenancy Tribunal, by order of the Governor, and the payment of compensation to tenants dispossessed is almost invariably a condition of the grant of such an order. A tenant may also agree to accept compensation from his landlord in return for delivering up vacant possession of his premises, and in this event the premises are excluded from further control. Such agreements must be endorsed by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and must be in a form approved by him.

There is also provision for a landlord and tenant, or a prospective landlord and tenant, to agree a rent in excess of the permitted rent for a period not exceeding five years, but agreements must be approved by a Tenancy Tribunal. Premises which, since November 1973, have become the subject of such agreements approved by the Tenancy Tribunal are automatically excluded from further control.

The rent control division of the Rating and Valuation Department provides factual information to enable Tenancy Tribunals to determine the amount of compen- sation to be awarded to tenants displaced from buildings subject to exclusion order proceedings or from buildings declared dangerous by the Building Authority. The division also gives assistance to other government departments where pre-war premises are being acquired for public purposes. A general advisory service on tenancy matters is provided and the division often acts as mediator between parties involved in tenancy disputes.

Post-War Premises

       In respect of post-war premises, legislation dates back to 1952 with the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance, since re-enacted as Part IV of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. This legislation gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants who had entered into oral tenancy agreements involving the payment of key money or premia. In 1963 the three year security provided by this ordinance was extended to five years. However, the payment of key money in such circumstances is no longer so prevalent in Hong Kong.

Increases in rent in 1961 and the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance, now Part V of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance, which generally requires landlords seeking posses- sion to give six months' notice of termination.

The first comprehensive legislation affecting post-war domestic premises was the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1963, which was enacted primarily to control increases in rents and provided a measure of security of tenure.

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LAND AND HOUSING

With an increase in the supply of newly completed buildings from 1963 to 1966, the housing position eased and rents stabilised. As a result, this ordinance was allowed to expire in June 1966. For the next three years the situation remained fairly quiet but, with a return of confidence following the disturbances in 1967 and a continuing demand for accommodation, rents by the end of 1969 had taken a sharp upward turn.

While the situation was being considered, a temporary measure was enacted in January 1970 to 'freeze' rents. This was closely followed in June by the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1970, since re-enacted as Part II of the Land- lord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. This ordinance, which followed closely the provisions of the 1963 ordinance, contained a number of exclusions. In particular, larger flats and houses, fresh lettings, and lettings in newly constructed buildings were not controlled. The ordinance was due to expire at the end of May 1974 but because of the continuing upward trend in rents for uncontrolled accommodation it became necessary, in June 1973, to enact further temporary legislation to extend controls to unprotected tenancies. In December 1973, the 1970 legislation and the temporary ordinance were repealed and replaced by a revised Part II to the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. It provided security of tenure and controlled increases in rent for the vast majority of tenants and sub-tenants in post-war domestic premises. It does not, however, apply to tenancies in buildings certified for occupation on or after the date of its coming into operation-December 15, 1973. This new legislation is due to expire on December 14, 1976, but may in certain circumstances, where rents have been increased, provide security of tenure beyond that date.

In respect of existing tenancies, landlords and tenants are free to agree an increase in rent but such agreements must be endorsed by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. Where an increase is not agreed, the landlord may apply to the Commis- sioner for his certificate of what increase may be made to the current rent. The amount of this increase is arrived at by taking the difference between the fair market rent, as determined by the Commissioner, and the current rent and dividing by five. This is subject to a maximum increase of 21 per cent of the current rent if the rateable value of the premises is $30,000 or less. However, the factor is variable and can be altered by resolution of the Legislative Council to suit a changing rental situation. Increased rates charges may be passed on to tenants and sub-tenants.

Where premises become vacant and the landlord wishes to let to a new tenant, the parties are free to agree the rent payable but have to inform the Commissioner. Any such tenancy becomes subject to the provisions of the legislation. The Commis- sioner has wide powers under the ordinance and also issues certificates to assist in disputes as to the primary user of premises. Where landlords or tenants are dissatisfied with the increase of rent certified, there is a right of review by an independent Rent Tribunal and also of appeal to the District Court.

In July 1975 the Secretary for Housing announced in the Legislative Council that all new housing completed between December 15, 1973 and December 31, 1977 will enjoy five years of freedom from any new or extended rent controls from the date of the occupation permit. This important concession is aimed at encouraging

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new housing development in the private sector to meet the current shortage of domestic accommodation.

Management of Buildings in Multiple Ownership

In 1975, there were 97 owners corporations formed under the 1970 legislation which enables the owners of buildings in multiple ownership to incorporate for the better management and control of their buildings. This brought the total number of corporations to 791. There are also buildings in Hong Kong under non-statutory forms of management, such as landlord and tenants' associations and mutual aid committees. The city district offices and New Territories district offices have con- tinued to give advice and assistance to owners either on incorporation or on the creation of mutual aid committees.

9

Social Welfare

SOCIAL welfare services continued to improve during the year, based on the five year plan for social welfare development in Hong Kong.

       A broad range of new projects came into operation in 1975. They included play leadership schemes, the establishment of a community hall at Lei Muk Shue Housing Estate, and more and better facilities for the elderly and in the fields of rehabilitation, youth and child care. A new emergency kitchen to cater for disaster victims was opened in North Kowloon, and the 13-storey building for the Hong Kong Council of Social Service was completed. This building will also provide accommodation for a number of voluntary agencies.

        The worldwide recession was not without effect however, and there was some slowing down in the pace of development. Towards the end of the year it was clear that a number of projects would have to be deferred or only partially realised until resources could be provided.

        On all matters of social welfare policy, including that of subvention to the volun- tary agencies and grants from the Lotteries Fund, the government is advised by the Social Welfare Advisory Committee. This committee is appointed by the Governor and consists mainly of members of the public who are active in community affairs. The Director of Social Welfare is the chairman.

        Responsibility for implementing government policy rests with the Social Welfare Department, which operates basically through five divisions. These are the group and community work division, which aims at the development of social responsibility and coherent community groups; the family services division, which is responsible for a wide range of services designed to help individuals and families; the rehabilitation division, which is concerned with the provision of services for the disabled; the proba- tion and corrections division, which provides social services for the courts and operates correctional institutions for young offenders; and the social security division, which is responsible for the administration of public assistance and other social security schemes. These divisions are further supported by a number of sub-divisions and units which deal with training, planning and development, research and evaluation, and public relations.

In the provision of social welfare services a significant role is played by voluntary agencies. The majority of these are affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service (Appendix 43A), and many receive financial assistance from the government in the form of recurrent annual subventions. With the diminished flow of overseas aid, the voluntary sector in 1975 increasingly looked to this assistance and to help from charitable funds and donations within Hong Kong. The Community Chest of Hong

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97

      Kong, comprising some 70 welfare bodies (Appendix 43B), represents an endeavour by the member agencies to centralise and co-ordinate their local fund-raising activities.

In the financial year 1974-5, overall government expenditure on social welfare- including departmental costs, direct welfare services and subventions-amounted to $212.5 million. This was an increase of some 65 per cent on the previous year. A further $7.5 million was provided from the Lotteries Fund in capital grants.

Group and Community Work

The aim of group and community work is to foster a sense of individual and collective responsibility in the community. It encourages the formation of common interest and other groups and the promotion of community self-help betterment schemes. Social and recreational facilities are also provided for young people.

The group and community work division of the Social Welfare Department works through a network of community centres, estate welfare buildings and community halls. These bring neighbourhood welfare services conveniently together under one roof and provide such facilities as libraries, day nurseries, clubs for all age groups, family counselling and other services. In addition, programmes are organised for young people and children in parks and playgrounds. The division is represented in the field by community and youth officers whose responsibilities are to stimulate and co-ordinate the development of community and youth services within their districts. The division also has a rural mobile service which provides library and other facilities for people in remote and isolated villages.

A substantial contribution towards the provision of recreational and social services for young people is made by voluntary agencies such as the Lutheran World Service, Caritas, YMCA, YWCA, the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association and many others. These agencies are particularly active in the organisation of youth and children's centres and also play an important role in play leadership programmes, in arranging detached work for young people, and in providing counselling services for youth.

Family Welfare Services

The family services division works through a regionalised network of 17 field offices and has responsibility primarily for the welfare of families, with particular reference to women and children. By means of office interviews, home and other visits, the division provides counselling on problems of family and inter-personal relationships, abuse and ill-treatment of children, and on difficulties arising from mental and physical disability, unemployment, illnesses, and sudden loss of the family breadwinner. The division's activities also cover the care and protection of young girls exposed to moral or other danger; arrangement of referrals for schooling, em- ployment, housing, financial assistance and medical attention; and the placement of children, the aged and the disabled in appropriate institutions. The number of families and individuals to whom such help was extended in 1975 totalled 23,478.

        The division exercises certain of the Social Welfare Department's statutory responsibilities in terms of the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance and the

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Adoption Ordinance. These responsibilities include the assumption of guardianship of children found abandoned or found to be in moral or physical danger, and the conducting of social and other enquiries in relation to applications for adoption prior to their consideration by the Supreme Court. In the case of applications from overseas families for the adoption of local children, the enquiries are conducted with the aid of two voluntary agencies-Caritas and the International Social Service. In 1975, 371 local adoptions and eight overseas adoptions were completed.

        For abandoned and lost children, or those found wandering or in need of protec- tion, the division maintains a special centre in which they may be provided with immediate temporary care and attention. Admissions to this centre during the year totalled 170.

        The maintenance and improvement of standards in nurseries, children's homes and creches is another responsibility of the family services division. The Child Care Centres Ordinance was passed during the year and, when implemented, it will set acceptable standards and provide for registration and inspection on a statutory basis. By the end of 1975, work on regulations and a code of practice associated with the ordinance was well advanced. In the meantime, the division is continuing to arrange for regular visits to be paid and advice given to such establishments, with the aim of encouraging the maintenance of reasonable and proper standards. At the end of the year, there were 9,525 places provided in non-profit-making children's centres which are subsidised by the government and reserved mainly for low income families.

        An equally wide range of services is provided by voluntary agencies. These include family and marriage counselling, the operation of child care centres, social work in schools, the provision of a home-help service, and the maintenance of institutions for children and young people with special behavioural or other similar problems.

Rehabilitation

        Rehabilitation services designed to help the disabled to become independent and contributing members of the community are provided at 18 centres and institutions, and are supplemented by the work of many voluntary agencies. These centres and institutions are serviced by the rehabilitation division of the Social Welfare Depart- ment. Attendance during the year averaged more than 1,400 disabled people a day. Social adjustment, vocational and prevocational training is given to such people, who are also offered placement assistance and sheltered work. Residential care facilities are available for the more severely handicapped.

During the year the division participated with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service in 10 joint working groups established to examine problem areas in the various fields of rehabilitation.

        In the voluntary sector, projects completed included the Po Leung Kuk and St James' Settlement sheltered workshops for the mentally retarded; the New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association hostel for the mentally ill at Tuen Mun; the Rotary hostel for the mentally retarded; and the Wah Fu Training Centre for mentally handicapped children and young people. Six additional homes for the elderly were under construction or active planning by the end of the year.

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        The probation and corrections division of the department has social workers deployed throughout Hong Kong and is responsible for the supervision of offenders placed on probation, the operation of correctional institutions, and for undertaking such social enquiries as may be directed by the courts for the purpose of determining and reviewing sentences or for the consideration of petitions for clemency.

         There are five correctional institutions catering for boys and girls of different age groups. These are the O Pui Shan and Castle Peak Homes, which are reformatory schools for boys; the Begonia Road Boys' Home, which is a combination of a remand home, probation home and place of refuge; the Ma Tau Wei Home, which provides similar facilities for girls; and the Kwun Tong Hostel, which is for youths between the ages of 16 and 21 who are on probation and who, as a special condition imposed by the courts, are required to reside under supervision for a period not exceeding one year. The total capacity of these institutions is 584. For offenders released on licence, the division provides an aftercare service to bridge the gap between life in a reforma- tory school and in the community.

        Voluntary agencies which assist in the prevention of delinquency and with the rehabilitation of juvenile offenders are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre, the Society of Boys' Centres, the Rennies Mill Student Aid Project Hostels, and the Norway Home for Boys operated by the Salvation Army.

Social Security

        Social security is provided on the basis of three schemes-the public assistance scheme, the disability and infirmity allowance scheme, and the criminal and law enforcement injuries scheme. All three are administered by the Social Welfare Department.

        The public assistance scheme, which is means tested but non-contributory, is designed to provide a guaranteed level of income to needy families and individuals whose resources fall below a prescribed level. The allowances are regularly re- viewed and adjusted as necessary in relation to the cost of living. They currently stand at $180 a month for a lone person or first eligible member of a family, $130 each for the next three members, $105 for the succeeding three, and $80 for each eligible member thereafter. A rent allowance is paid separately. Special additions to the basic allowance are made in appropriate cases to cover the cost of school fees, special diets and other essential expenses.

        At the end of 1975, the number of people drawing public assistance totalled 55,620 as compared with 40,267 at the end of the previous year. This increase is due partly to a larger population and a growing awareness of the scheme, but it also reflected the adverse economic conditions which Hong Kong, in common with other parts of the world, experienced in 1975. Public assistance payments in the financial year 1974-5 amounted to $102.9 million as compared with $45 million in the previous

year.

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        The disability and infirmity allowance scheme provides cash in hand-on top of any entitlement to public assistance-for two vulnerable groups in the community. They are the severely disabled and the elderly infirm (those aged 75 and over) resident in Hong Kong and not cared for in residential institutions. The scheme provides a non-means-tested and non-contributory allowance. The current level is $180 a month for the disabled and $90 for the elderly infirm. These allowances are regularly reviewed in line with public assistance. The number of people in receipt of disability and infirmity allowance at the end of the year was 64,599 as compared with 53,862 the previous year. Expenditure on payments in the financial year 1974-5 was $61.2 million as compared with $26.2 million the previous year.

       The criminal and law enforcement injuries compensation scheme assists those who are injured or disabled as a result of criminal violence or, in the event of death, their dependants. It also assists people and their dependants who may accidentally suffer similar misfortune as a result of action by law enforcement officers in the execu- tion of their duties. The scheme provides compensation on a non-means-tested non- contributory basis. In 1975 a total of 528 such awards were made. Compensation payments in the financial year 1974-5 amounted to $1.1 million.

Emergency Relief Scheme

       The emergency relief scheme gives immediate assistance to the victims of natural disasters by providing hot meals, milk powder for infants and other basic essentials such as blankets, ground mats, eating utensils and soap. Shelter on a temporary basis is also provided in liaison with the Housing Department. Cash grants are available to cover burial expenses of disaster victims and there is a range of grants to compensate for the loss of family support. There are also cash grants to cover damage to crops and the repair and replacement of vessels.

In 1975, although no major large scale disasters were experienced, assistance was extended to 7,759 people who were rendered homeless or sustained other serious loss- normally as the result of fire, an ever prevalent risk in Hong Kong.

       A significant test of the emergency relief arrangements occurred however in the early part of the year, with the arrival of nearly 4,000 refugees from Vietnam. The newly reprovisioned emergency kitchen came fully into operation and emergency teams worked throughout the night of arrival to provide food and clothing. In the months that followed, up to 10,000 meals a day plus infant feeds were being prepared, and by the end of the year some 1,176 meals a day were still being supplied.

Training of Social Workers

        Professional social work training is available in Hong Kong at the two univer- sities, while a diploma course in social work is offered by the Baptist College. In addition, a two-year course leading to a certificate in social welfare is provided by the Institute of Social Work Training. This institute caters for students who do not plan to enrol at university but wish to make a career in social work, and also for untrained workers already serving in the government or other welfare agencies.

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       The in-service training of social workers and the provision of refresher courses is undertaken on behalf of both the government and the voluntary sector by the train- ing division of the Social Welfare Department. The division also operates a demon- stration nursery, providing day care for about 100 children between the ages of two and five, which serves as a training ground for nursery workers.

To assist young people to obtain university training, a number of bursaries and scholarships are offered by the Social Work Training Fund, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the government through the Social Welfare Department.

Planning

The social welfare five year development plan is reviewed annually in order to ensure that it remains attuned to the needs of the community and within the capacity of available financial and other resources. The review is carried out in conjunction with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. It enables progress to be properly monitored and priorities to be re-evaluated and, where necessary, re-assigned in the light of changing circumstances. In 1975 the review team considered in detail the projects scheduled for 1976. It also examined in general terms the development proposed for 1977-9 and maintained the rolling concept of the plan by indicating possible areas of further development in 1980.

Research and Evaluation

A pilot study of six welfare agencies, each active in a different area of service, was undertaken during the year by a joint team drawn from the Social Welfare Department and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. The objective was to establish and set out realistic criteria and procedures for the future evaluation of wel- fare services, both in terms of quality and in relation to community needs. A further joint study which was also completed dealt with problem girls in need of residential

care.

       The research and evaluation unit completed or initiated a number of internal studies within the Social Welfare Department. These included a study of the pro- cessing, review and other procedures observed in the handling of applications for public assistance; and a study on the functions of district youth and recreation co-ordinating committees. They have enabled problem areas to be clearly identified and have provided much other useful information.

       In the voluntary sector, considerably more use has been made by agencies of the research department of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Among its other activities, the department conducted for member agencies and other interested organisations a seminar on social programme evaluation.

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Public Order

PUBLIC order is dependent mainly on the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, but equally important parts are played by the fire and ambulance services, the Prisons Department, the officers who deal with smuggling and illicit drug trafficking, and the Independent Commission Against Corruption. All contribute towards maintaining a standard of order which is essential when more than four million people are living together in such a relatively small space.

Police

There was a levelling off in overall crime in 1975 and a slight but factual decrease in key crimes. However the overall crime figure continued to be unacceptably high. A disturbing feature was the increasing sophistication shown in certain crimes and the growing use of firearms and 'pistol-like objects', particularly in robberies.

Measures to counteract violent crime continued to be through recruiting, training and effectively deploying more policemen; improving police techniques, procedures and organisation; and mobilising people in neighbourhoods to help each other and the police in resisting and deterring crime.

The strength of the force was increased by 1,200, including 100 civilians. Civil staff now amount to 16 per cent of the combined force establishment. There was a high intake of cadets from the Police Cadet School. In August, 150 cadets graduated and 133 of them elected to join the force. It is planned to expand the school facilities in order to provide the force with a steady stream of first-rate recruits.

       Throughout the visit of the Queen and Prince Philip in May, the force was heavily committed in security duties and in crowd and traffic control. Prince Philip visited the Police Cadet School and saw various aspects of the work of the force as a whole.

          A review of the establishment of the force has been set in motion with the aim of ensuring the availability of manpower to meet all anticipated problems. Increasing emphasis is being placed on an active police presence in the community. One of the most effective methods of providing this has been the establishment in public housing estates of neighbourhood police units. There are now 11 of these and the number is to be increased. The public are also being reached through strategically placed and easily accessible police reporting centres and the expansion of the police com- munity relations officer scheme.

        The highly successful Junior Police Call organised by the Police Public Relations Bureau provides contact with young people. In its 17 months of existence, membership has grown to 130,000. An inter-related young people's 'Help the Police' competition

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attracted the attention of more than 100,000 schoolchildren and the four winners went on a fortnight's visit to Britain.

Crime

During 1975 a total of 56,520 crimes were reported to the police-609 more than the previous year. Largely contributing to the overall increase were: serious assaults, 4,676 (3,738 in 1974); blackmail and extortion, 2,489 (1,612); criminal intimidation, 545 (239); frauds, 2,098 (1,885); criminal damage to property, 1,116 (850); pickpockets, 1,082 (833); and burglaries, 6,368 (6,328).

        Crimes which decreased were: theft from vehicles, 1,812 (2,478 in 1974); taking a conveyance without authority, 2,001 (2,861); robberies, 11,120 (12,787); and miscel- laneous theft, 9,653 (10,308).

        Of the 56,520 cases reported, 27,921 were detected-giving an overall detection rate of 49.4 per cent as compared with 46 per cent the previous year.

A total of 21,258 people were arrested in 1975 compared with 20,572 in 1974. There were 19,825 adults prosecuted and 1,433 juveniles (under 16 years old). Com- pared with 1974 these figures show a 5.3 per cent increase in adult prosecutions and a 17.9 per cent decrease in juvenile prosecutions.

During the year the General Investigation Office was incorporated into the Triad Society Bureau to form one unit in CID Headquarters. The strength of the combined unit was increased and the unit reorganised to place greater emphasis on the intelligence aspects of triad and organised crime activities. The bureau now consists of two divisions-the intelligence division and the operations division.

The first part of a survey into the present scope and scale of triad society activities was issued to every police officer of or above the rank of inspector. It was also made available to senior staff of other government departments who are affected by the triad problem. Work on the second part of the survey is now under way.

During the year 3,220 people were arrested for offences connected with triad activities. In addition, 43,626 people were arrested for illegal gambling and $1.5 million in cash was seized. There were 2,345 people charged in connection with prostitution and allied offences.

        In January 1975, the trial began at Victoria District Court of 43 people charged with conspiracy to traffic in narcotics into and within the maximum security prison at Stanley. The trial finished in September, making it the longest criminal trial in the history of Hong Kong.

       More than 486 reports requiring investigation were received from other govern- ment departments. The majority concerned complaints in respect of unregistered doctors, dentists and clinics, and breaches of the Registration of Persons Ordinance. The complaints resulted in 91 premises being entered under warrant and the arrest of 114 people for offences ranging from operating unlicensed clinics to contravention of the Antibiotics Ordinance and the Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance. There were 399 people prosecuted for offences under the Registration of Persons Ordinance.

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The Special Crimes Squad continued to maintain pressure against criminal elements, and was responsible for bringing 12 people before the courts for various offences. The most notable success was in connection with the $7.3 million Hang Seng Bank cash-in-transit robbery outside the northern entrance to the cross-harbour tunnel in August. Following more than a month of intensive investigation, the squad arrested eight people, recovered $3.3 million in cash, and seized two firearms. During the year the squad was responsible for the recovery of stolen property valued at more than $3.2 million and the seizure of three firearms and 205 imitation firearms.

The highlight of work by the Commercial Crime Office was the start of investiga- tion into large-scale frauds involving public companies, which came to light in the aftermath of the 1972-3 stock market boom.

       In October 1974 the Financial Secretary appointed inspectors to investigate the affairs of a leading engineering company in Hong Kong. Following the submission of their reports, the matter was referred to the Commercial Crime Office for investigation.

During 1974 the government enacted legislation in an attempt to control the excesses experienced in local financial circles during 1972-3. To cope with the new laws and the amount of work which has been thrown up by company frauds already reported, the Commercial Crime Office has been reorganised and a company fraud section established.

        As a financial centre in Southeast Asia, Hong Kong is a target for international criminals cashing such things as forged or stolen travellers cheques, bank drafts, and letters of credit. Close contact is kept with Interpol, local banks and travel agencies so as to detect these offences as soon as possible.

In the Ballistics Office the year was marked by the relatively large number of converted toy guns used in robberies. Starting pistols, cap guns and, in one case, a cap rifle, were modified to the extent where they could not only be classified technically as arms, but had been loaded with home-made ammunition capable of being dis- charged and causing serious injury or death. Although the trend is disturbing, it indicates that the criminal element is experiencing difficulty in obtaining conventional firearms. The Ballistics Office now handles more than 300 cases a year. This is almost 100 per cent more than in 1973.

Narcotics

In the most significant breakthrough for many years in the battle against nar- cotics, two drug syndicate heads were arrested late in 1974 together with many of their associates. The two principals subsequently received prison sentences of 25 and 30 years respectively, and five of their associates had sentences varying from five to 15 years. Pressure against other syndicates was intensified, and in the succeeding months many leading figures in this sphere fled from Hong Kong. A third syndicate head was detained in Taiwan where he is now serving a 12 year sentence. There were 46 members of major drug syndicates arrested in 1975.

With three of the five major syndicates having been totally dismembered, the others have ceased their narcotics activities for fear of similar action against them.

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For the time being, the multifarious all-powerful syndicate has ceased to exist and in its place has sprung up a number of lesser import/manufacture/distribution organisa- tions-with the control of each uncertain, and each apparently operating independently.

In 1975 the Narcotics Bureau seized 309.2 kilos of raw opium, 67 kilos of mor- phine, 48.4 kilos of heroin, 1.2 kilos of cannabis, and 3.9 kilos of barbitone. Officers neutralised seven heroin refineries and seized 844 litres of acetic anhydride together with other chemicals and equipment used in the manufacture of heroin.

Criminal Records

The major reorganisation of the Criminal Records Office system was completed in 1975, together with the introduction of computerised indices. One computer project seeks to maintain the details of criminal recidivists' methods of committing crime so that if a crime is repeated, the offender might be identified by analysing aspects of the crime. This project, code-named Mosaic (Modus Operandi Search and Identification by Computer), places the Royal Hong Kong Police Force well ahead of many others.

The microfilming programme was also completed during the year. The Criminal Records Office now maintains details of 288,582 convicted persons on microfilm and a further 30,000 in hard jacket form. In addition, details of 310,000 case paper files are maintained on microfilm, with a further 90,000 in hard jacket form.

        The Identification Bureau completed extensive modifications to the Henry system of classification in the main fingerprint collection section. During the year 44,227 fingerprint forms were processed, 25,313 people identified as having previous con- victions, and 18,670 security searches made. The number of fingerprints on file is now 328,464. In 1975 the Scenes of Crime Section attended 9,974 crime scenes and found fingerprint and palm-print impressions at 5,954 of them. As a result, 214 people were identified for 341 cases.

Communications and Transport Branch

The Communications and Transport Branch plans, installs and maintains for the force a sophisticated infrastructure consisting of radio installations, a comprehen- sive computer-controlled teleprinter system, a telephone network, radar installations and a variety of specialised electronic equipment. It also manages a transport fleet of 1,119 vehicles, a driver establishment of 1,249, and a driving school where all police drivers are trained and tested.

       During the year 1,723 radios and 25 radar installations were in operation. There are 34 main radio networks-six territory-wide and 28 district networks. The complex beat radio scheme, which is designed to provide all policemen on urban beats with portable radios, will become operational in 1976.

Traffic

        There were 15.4 miles of road laid in 1975, bringing the total to 667.1 miles. With 188,018 vehicles registered at the end of the year, traffic density on the roads was 281.8 vehicles per mile.

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        The Standing Conference on Road Safety continued to co-ordinate road safety activities throughout Hong Kong, which included a campaign publicising the 'crossing code'.

       In carrying out the fixed penalty system, officers followed the Commissioner of Police's encouragement to exercise discretion and deal with minor traffic offences by verbal warning. The total number of tickets issued was 5.3 per cent less than in the previous year. There were 482,214 parking tickets issued, of which 2.9 per cent were either withdrawn or cancelled on technical grounds. Where it was decided to proceed, 393,189 penalties were paid without appearance in court and a further 33,460 after a court hearing. Of the 82,495 cases heard in court, 734 were contested and 11 dismissed. Where court orders were made because fixed penalty debts incurred by the registered owners had not been paid, recourse under law to obtain court orders to seize the defaulters' vehicles continued. Seizure orders were issued in respect of 611 motor vehicles and 26 were seized.

        The traffic wardens corps-formed in 1974 has been expanded by an extra 50 posts to 143. Traffic wardens are engaged primarily on the enforcement of the Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) Ordinance by issuing fixed penalty tickets in respect of parking offences, but they also perform traffic control duty in areas where there are many pedestrians. During the year the wardens issued 168,675 fixed penalty tickets-35 per cent of the total. Revenue derived from the fixed penalty system amounted to about $12.8 million.

Administration

There were three projects completed in the police building programme in 1975. They included the Eastern Divisional Police Headquarters and North Point Sub- Divisional Station, the reprovisioning of Auxiliary Police Headquarters, and addi- tional accommodation at the Police Training School. In preparation for the personal radio scheme, work on a new command and control centre was started at Hong Kong Island District Headquarters. By the end of the year, construction of Kwai Chung Divisional Station and Phase II of Kowloon District Headquarters was well advanced. There were 46 projects in the building programme at the end of the year, excluding three police stations planned in connection with new towns development. High priority has been given to the Police Cadet School, the provision of police stations in new towns and the provision of married quarters.

The planning and research division of Police Headquarters completed a number of major projects-including an assessment of neighbourhood policing, a study of crime in public housing estates, the development of a tactical information system for more effective deployment of resources, and assessments of a wide range of equip- ment. Progress was made in the development of electronic data processing facilities within the force, and a system for police use of the computerised transport records system was also developed.

Police Tactical Unit

The primary role of the Police Tactical Unit at Fanling is to provide all members of the police force with a thorough grouding in anti-riot and crowd control tactics.

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The unit also provides a trained tactical reserve capable of being deployed to any incident at short notice.

Training comprises a 27-week course, following which each company has a period of 12 weeks' reserve. Each year nine companies undergo training at the PTU, and periodically platoons of women police are formed for a one week attachment, during which they are given advanced training in crowd control.

Also based at Fanling is the Police Personnel Carrier Unit, which is equipped with 14 Saracen armoured personnel carriers.

Police Training School

The Police Training School at Aberdeen operated at maximum capacity through- out the year, conducting not only basic training courses but in-service advanced training, language tuition, and Duke of Edinburgh award instructional courses.

All police inspectors and constables on first appointment undergo basic training courses of 27 and 26 weeks respectively. Instruction includes criminal law, police procedures, court procedures, physical training, first-aid, weapon training and drill. Overseas recruit inspectors also attend a two-month Cantonese course at the school's language laboratory.

Greater emphasis is being placed on functional leadership, practical work, self-reliance field camps and attachments to operational units of the force. Since 1974 the force has gradually reduced academic instruction with a view to producing a more reliant, confident and practical police officer.

In-service advanced courses provide in-depth legal studies combined with manage- ment practice and the latest advances in police techniques. The system aims to ensure that officers are professionally competent and are trained to advance to higher rank if selected for promotion.

Police Cadet School

At the Police Cadet School at Fanling, cadets undergo a balanced syllabus of academic, physical and vocational training over a two year period. The school offers free education, including books and stationery, free accommodation and food, free uniform, free medical care and other fringe benefits. Cadets each receive $60 a month as pocket money. Recruiting is within the 15-17 age bracket and there are also height, weight, education and residential qualifications for applicants.

Since its inception in 1973, the school has been fully subscribed. There were 150 graduates in 1975, and 133 of them elected to join the force as constables. It is planned that the strength of the school will be 1,200 when it moves to proposed permanent accommodation near Plover Cove. The school will then be graduating 600 cadets a year-about half of the annual recruitment needs of the force. As an intermediate measure, expansion during the summer of 1976 is being considered.

Recruitment

During the year 153 inspectors, including 90 from overseas, were taken on strength compared with 168 in 1974, 111 in 1973 and 71 in 1972. Constable strength

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was increased by 1,454 compared with 2,222 in 1974 and 1,320 in 1973. The new constables included 251 women. In 1975 the Police Training School trained 136 inspectors and 1,511 constables (including 736 taken on strength during the previous year) compared with 94 and 1,428 respectively in 1974.

        The educational standards of recruits continued to improve, with 1,169 of the 1,321 new recruits having some form of secondary education. There were 172 with recruit inspector qualifications and a further 197 had more than three passes in the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination.

        A total of 170 local applicants and rank and file attended interviews for appoint- ment or promotion to the inspectorate grade. Of these, 34 local applicants and 15 rank and file were taken on strength as recruit inspectors. Some 28 per cent of the local inspectorate strength has been promoted from the rank and file of the force.

Women Police

        Increasing numbers of women police are serving in the uniformed branch, Criminal Investigation Department and specialist units, with senior officers holding key-posts in both administrative and operational spheres in the uniformed branch. Based on the current force establishment, the approved strength for women of all ranks is 1,519, of which 1,326 are serving.

During the year two members of the rank and file became the first to be promoted to the inspectorate; two officers attended training courses in Britain; one attended a seminar in Australia; and an officer accompanied the winners of the young people's 'Help the Police' competition on their two-week prize holiday visit to Britain.

Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police

        The increase in strength of the regular force allowed for a proportionate decrease and streamlining in the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police. At the end of 1975 the auxiliary strength was 5,329-some 1,546 less than the previous year. The auxiliaries provided on average 1,300 officers a day throughout the year to support the regular police in their beat and anti-crime patrol duties. Auxiliary police officers made many good arrests, and 10 officers were commended by regular district police commanders and 46 officers received the Commandant's commendations.

        Members are required to undergo 14 days and 96 hours training a year. Seven of the training days are spent at an annual camp. Duties in support of regular police are purely voluntary and additional to periods of training. Selected auxiliary police officers during the year attended additional weapon training courses, internal security training courses, adventure courses and command courses run by the regular force.

Marine Police

        The Marine Police are responsible for maintaining law and order within the 700 square miles of Hong Kong waters and for policing the outlying islands. The Marine District has an establishment of 1,349 police officers and 47 vessels. Besides normal police duties, in 1975 the launches carried 367 sick and injured people from the outlying islands to hospitals in the urban area.

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        Crime is not such a problem as in the urban districts, but there has been a notice- able increase in recent years with more people taking outings to the islands from urban areas. There were 245 cases reported in 1975, of which 126 were solved. During the year 120 illegal immigrants were arrested by Marine Police, compared with 7,072 in 1974. The decrease was mainly due to the re-introduction on November 30, 1974 of repatriation to China.

        The Marine Police Training School continued its in-service training throughout the year, with 281 officers of all ranks and 22 auxiliaries being trained in seamanship, engineering, wireless telegraphy and navigation. In addition, 10 officers attended courses at the Hong Kong Polytechnic.

Prisons Department

A study on the feasibility of setting up a psychological service within the depart- ment was begun in March by a United Nations expert on forensic psychology, Dr Robert Andry. He was attached to the department for six months and his report is now being considered by the government. Another new project for the department was the introduction in May of a drug addiction treatment centre for young addicts aged between 16 and 21.

        The Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the overall administration of 16 institutions.

Prisons

Stanley Prison, Hong Kong's largest maximum security institution, was built in 1937 to accommodate 1,600 prisoners. Almost from the start it has housed inmates well in excess of this figure, and in 1975 the daily average population was more than 2,600. Stanley provides a comprehensive industrial centre within its walls and has large and well equipped workshops. Prison industries include tailoring, carpentry, shoemaking, silk-screening, fibreglass moulding and laundry work. An outside annexe accommodates 80 prisoners who carry out general maintenance work outside the prison. These prisoners are classified as suitable for minimum security conditions and are serving sentences of under 18 months.

        Victoria Reception Centre in Central district receives all male prisoners on remand and after sentencing. There is a segregated section for young offenders aged between 14 and 21. On admission, all prisoners undergo a thorough medical examina- tion including an X-ray. Those who have been convicted attend a classification board to determine the type of institution to which they will be best suited, taking into consideration physical fitness, category of security, type of offence and past history. The average daily population in 1975 was 857 compared with the approved accom- modation of 442. The completion of a new reception centre at Lai Chi Kok in Kowloon should alleviate overcrowding in this institution.

        Chi Ma Wan Prison on Lantau Island is a minimum security institution catering mainly for first offenders serving sentences of under three years. The prisoners are employed on constructive projects such as afforestation, reclamation, draining, build- ing and road works. Two other similar institutions-Pik Uk in the New Territories

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and Ma Hang near Stanley Prison on Hong Kong Island-can collectively accommo- date 940 prisoners. Pik Uk opened in January 1975 and its population consists mainly of recidivists serving sentences of under 18 months. Ma Hang has a geriatric wing for the more elderly prisoners serving terms of under three years. It also caters for prisoners who have less than 18 months to serve.

        Ma Po Ping Prison, on Lantau Island, was built in 1967 and was originally named Tong Fuk Prison. In 1972 its role was changed to that of a drug addiction treatment centre. It reverted back to a prison under its present name in May 1975. The majority of the 600 inmates are employed inside the prison on carpentry, laundry work, tailoring, fibreglass moulding and rattan furniture making. Outside working parties are largely engaged on projects designed to benefit the local communities.

        Siu Lam Psychiatric Centre, in the New Territories, has accommodation for 120 inmates who require psychiatric treatment under conditions of special security on account of their dangerous, violent and criminal propensities. The centre is equipped to modern standards and is manned by trained staff with a consultant psychiatrist.

         All female offenders are accommodated at the Tai Lam Centre for Women, near Castle Peak. It serves as a conventional prison for remand and convicted prisoners, and also has a training centre for young offenders under 21 years of age and a treatment centre for female drug dependants.

        Chatham Road Centre in Kowloon accommodates young offenders who have been remanded by the courts for a report as to their suitability for a training or deten- tion centre. This institution also serves as a minimum security centre for youngsters who have been sentenced to less than two years.

Training Centres

        At the end of 1975, building work was completed on a maximum security cor- rectional institution which is to have the dual role of a training centre and a prison. The Pik Uk Maximum Security Correctional Centre became operational early in 1976, catering for young offenders who require close supervision.

Besides the Pik Uk Centre, there are two medium security centres on Hong Kong Island. Cape Collinson Training Centre caters for the 18 to 21 age group while Tai Tam Gap Training Centre accommodates those between 14 and 17. These centres are run on highly disciplined lines and operate on a half-day school and half-day work basis. Inmates are taught a wide range of crafts-from tailoring and carpentry to building maintenance and automobile repair. Those committed to training centres have to serve a minimum of six months to a maximum of three years. No inmate is released until he has a job to go to or arrangements have been made to further his education. Release is followed by a compulsory period of three years' supervision under an aftercare officer.

Detention Centre

        The Sha Tsui Detention Centre on Lantau Island provides another alternative to imprisonment for delinquents aged between 14 and 21. This centre is intended for the first offender, with the emphasis on strict discipline, hard work and few privileges.

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Sha Tsui has been in operation for three years and the results continue to be very encouraging. A sentence in Sha Tsui runs from a minimum of one month to a maximum of six months depending on progress. Release is followed by a compulsory period of six months' supervision under an aftercare officer.

Addiction Treatment Centres

Crime linked to narcotics is a perennial problem and drug addicts account for a high proportion of the prison population. As an alternative to imprisonment the Prisons Department runs special treatment centres to cope with this problem. There are three such centres for males and the first, at Tai Lam in the New Territories, was started as far back as 1958. It was so successful that another was established on Hei Ling Chau and then, more recently, the Tong Fuk Centre was set up on Lantau Island. Tong Fuk caters for young addicts under 21 years old. All female drug dependants are treated at the Tai Lam Centre for women. The treatment and rehabili- tation programme in these centres is unique. Medical care is followed by an active life with plenty of constructive work in an outdoor environment. Results show that drug dependants can be restored to health quickly in this way. A half-way house. named New Life House helps to span the gap between the centres and society.

Aftercare

Aftercare, specifically provided under the Training, Detention and Treatment Centres Ordinance, is carried out by officers of the Prisons Department and plays an important role in the rehabilitation of former inmates. Aftercare work starts soon after an inmate is admitted to a centre, when mutual trust and respect is fostered between the case worker and his client. The aftercare officer provides advice and assistance to former inmates and their families, and if necessary makes recommenda- tions for the inmates' recall for further training or treatment.

Staff

The Staff Training Institute at Stanley had one of its busiest years on record with the tremendous response to the department's recruitment drives. All newly recruited staff have to undergo a 12-month training programme at the institute and in the field. The training is comprehensive in theory and practice, and intermediate and advanced examinations are held.

Preventive Service

The Hong Kong Preventive Service is a disciplined force of 1,085 officers under the control of the Director of Commerce and Industry in his capacity as Commis- sioner.

The service is responsible for the collection and protection of revenue derived from the three categories of commodities which are dutiable-alocholic liquors, tobacco and hydrocarbon oils used for fuel for motor vehicles and aircraft. Controls over the import, export, manufacture, sale and storage of these commodities through- out Hong Kong are imposed by the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance, which is admin- istered by the service. The success of revenue protection operations is reflected in

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the increased revenue collected from dutiable commodities and the number of seizures made during the year. Some $473 million was collected in 1974-5 compared with $441 million in 1973-4. Seizures and confiscations involved 18 illicit stills, 1948 litres of fermenting materials, 1484 kilos of tobacco, 2353 litres of liquor and 1255 litres of diesel oil. A total of 1,177 people were arrested or summoned and fines of $302,265 were imposed by the courts.

The service also has responsibilities for the prevention and suppression of illicit trafficking in narcotics and other dangerous drug abuse under the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance and the Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance. More than half of the service is committed to anti-narcotics activities. Apart from the interception of illegal imports by sea and air, action is taken against premises used for the manufacture, storage, sale and smoking of drugs. During the year, anti-narcotics operations led to the seizure of 306 kilos of dangerous drugs-including 35 kilos of heroin and 48 kilos of morphine. There were 2,184 people arrested in connection with narcotics offences, of whom six were charged with manufacturing and 297 with trafficking in dangerous drugs. The remainder were arrested for simple possession of narcotics or for smoking dangerous drugs in a divan. The total market value of narcotics seized was more than $7.7 million. Closely associated with anti-narcotics operations were the seizures of 3494 kilos of acetic anhydride-essential in the manufacture of heroin-which were made on land and on board an ocean-going vessel. The chemical would have had an estimated value of more than $1.5 million if sold illegally.

        The Preventive Service is the sole agency for the enforcement of the Copyright Ordinance. During the year, a special copyright unit handled 81 cases connected with copyright infringement. This resulted in the seizure of 444 tape recorders, 10,103 records, 267,337 pirated tapes, and 7,189 pirated books. A total of 101 people were convicted of various copyright offences and fines amounting to $162,177 were imposed by the courts.

Independent Commission Against Corruption

The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) was established on February 15, 1974, with full responsibility for the detection and investigation of corruption. Staff of the commission are not subject to the Public Services Ordinance and the Commissioner Against Corruption is responsible directly to the Governor. The commission engages its own staff and is financed from general revenue. The Advisory Committee on Corruption, which is composed mainly of leading citizens, advises the Governor and the Commissioner on major aspects of the commission's work, including policy and finance.

        There are three functional branches of the commission-for operations, corrup tion prevention and community relations. The establishment is 905 posts, of which 652 have been filled. Owing to financial stringency, activities in the community rela- tions and corruption prevention branches have had to be slowed down in order to give priority, in funds and resources, to the operations branch. By the end of 1975 the operations branch had filled 429 posts, representing 81.9 per cent of its full establishment, but the two other branches were operating at roughly half strength.

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        The operations branch is the investigating arm of the commission and is manned by civilians. It is responsible for the investigation of any alleged or suspected offences under the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance or the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Ordinance. A senior representative of the Attorney General's Chambers is attached to the branch and, on behalf of the Attorney General, he and his staff direct the prosecution of corruption cases which are put before the courts.

        During 1975 the courts dealt with 218 prosecutions concerning offences in respect of the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance and related offences. These resulted in the conviction of 136 people, with 43 cases still outstanding. At the end of the year the operations branch was actively investigating 394 allegations of corruption. An Operations Target Committee of private citizens and public servants advises the commission on operations branch activities. There is also a sub-committee which considers all anonymous complaints made to the commission.

The corruption prevention branch is responsible for examining the procedures and practices of government departments and public bodies with the aim of eradicat- ing, whenever practicable, or substantially reducing the opportunities for corruption. During the year 35 examinations were completed and put to relevant government departments for consideration. At the end of the year 30 assignments were under active examination. On the whole, government departments and public bodies wel- come such examinations and give invaluable assistance to the commission's officers. A Corruption Prevention Advisory Committee advises the Commissioner on what areas should be examined and the degree of priority to be accorded to each. It also advises on further action to be taken as a result of examination recommendations.

        The community relations branch aims to rally public support in the fight against corruption. The commission has sub-offices in high density population areas where personal contact can be established and maintained, and where corruption allegations can be lodged at times and locations convenient to the public. Four sub-offices were opened during the year-two in Kowloon, one in the New Territories and one on Hong Kong Island. These sub-offices are open 14 hours a day, from 8 am to 10 pm, every day of the year. A further four sub-offices will be opened when money is avail- able. During the year liaison officers from the community relations branch took part in 1,702 talks and discussions with a wide variety of organisations and groups.

A publicity and public education effort is made through the local mass media to explain the work of the commission. A television drama series and other public education aids are under preparation. A Citizens Advisory Committee on Community Relations, widely representative of community interests and age groups, was appointed by the Governor during the year to guide the commission in its community relations effort.

Fire and Ambulance Services

       The Fire Services Department answered 137,559 calls during the year-7,370 fire, 126,538 ambulance and 3,651 special service calls. This compares with a total of 119,676 calls in 1974. Direct monetary loss from fire amounted to an estimated

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$40 million, of which $29 million was incurred by industry, notably textiles and plastics. As in past years, most fires (2,293) were caused by careless disposal of lighted cigarette ends and matches, with fires caused by electrical faults (1,087) coming next.

       There were 38 deaths in fires and 412 people were injured the injured including 25 firemen. The number of people rescued from fire was 513. Deaths and injuries in special service calls numbered 279 and 1,470 respectively.

        A fire prevention campaign was held during October and November. It included a five-day exhibition of fire fighting equipment, with the main theme being the preven- tion of fires in industry. In an average year these account for about 80 per cent of total monetary losses, although only six per cent of fires are industrial.

       A new fire station was opened during the year at Lek Yuen housing estate in Sha Tin, replacing the existing fire station in the town. There are now 36 fire stations in Hong Kong, with plans to increase this number substantially by 1980.

Appliances

       There were 14 new appliances brought into use during the year, including nine 50-foot snorkels (elevated hydraulic platforms) and three 85-foot snorkels. A pump and a light rescue unit were also purchased. Orders were placed for three 170-foot ladders, due to arrive in 1976, and one 91-foot snorkel. At the end of the year, some 500 vehicles and appliances, including ambulances, were in service.

Fire Prevention Bureau

       In 1975 the Fire Prevention Bureau carried out 160,210 inspections, of which 64,472 related to complaints about obstructions to means of escape from buildings. The bureau has a staff of 210 and runs offices in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island. It plays an important role in reducing the risk of fire by giving advice to industrialists, householders, school staff and government employees. Where fire hazards are found to exist, abatement notices are issued which, if not complied with, can lead to court action. During 1975 prosecutions totalled 935, with fines amounting to $400,000. In May, the government announced the introduction of stiffer penalties for failure to comply with fire hazard abatement notices.

        All new building plans are submitted to the bureau, which lays down require- ments for the installation of fire protection equipment and advises on means of escape. During the year, 5,889 plans were received for processing.

       To improve safety on vehicles used for conveying flammable liquids and com- pressed gases, annual licensing of such vehicles was introduced as from April 1. By the end of the year, 546 vehicles had been inspected as part of the licensing pro- cedure.

Ambulance Command

       The Ambulance Command dealt with an average of 347 calls a day during 1975. This was 16 per cent up on the previous year. Of the total 126,538 calls, 107,560 were emergencies.

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         The ambulance fleet was expanded to 99 with the addition of 13 new vehicles. The number of depots and stations remained at nine, but included a new nine-storey depot opened in Western district on Hong Kong Island in July to replace the existing one. The ambulance fleet is to be further expanded to cope with the increasing number of calls and there are plans for several new depots and stations by 1980. Facilities on ambulances have been greatly improved in recent years, including the introduction of piped oxygen and an incubator carrying capability.

Recruitment

        Applications to join with the rank of assistant station officer totalled 172, of which two were successful. In addition, 28 firemen (operational and marine) and three ambulance officers were recruited.

Training School

         Intake at the training school was 19 officers and 190 other ranks. A total of 137 men passed out, of whom 19 were officers. Refresher training courses, including physical fitness assessment, were organised for all personnel with the rank of station officer and below, and they were attended by 2,283 men. The school continued its courses in simple fire fighting and fire prevention for employees of other government departments and of private companies in Hong Kong. There were 122 courses varying from one to 10 days which were attended by 2,479 people.

Establishment

         The establishment of the Fire Services Department at the end of 1975 was 3,618 all ranks, a decrease of 99 compared with the previous year. Strength was 3,310, giving a deficiency of 308. The non-uniformed establishment was 331, a decrease of 13 com- pared with 1974.

11

+

Immigration and Tourism

NEARLY 10 million people passed through immigration control as they entered or left Hong Kong during 1975. About 60 per cent of the traffic comprised local residents, with most of the remainder being tourists. Hong Kong is one of the few places in the world where the number of people coming and going is more than double the population.

       For this large volume of traffic, travel formalities are handled by the Immigra- tion Department with a staff of 1,130, including 700 uniformed officers. In 1975 the department also bore the main responsibility for nearly 4,000 refugees from Vietnam.

Immigration

       The Immigration Department's work falls into four divisions: the control of people moving in and out of Hong Kong; the issue of travel documents to local residents; the issue of visas and entry certificates on behalf of Britain and Common- wealth countries without their own visa offices in Hong Kong; and naturalisation and registration under the British Nationality Acts.

       The 9,264,429 people who passed through immigration control points in 1975 were recorded at: Kai Tak airport, 3,596,387; the Sino-British border, 1,556,411; the Macau ferry terminal, 4,084,257; and harbour control, 27,374.

Hong Kong residents are becoming increasingly travel-minded, and about three in every four adults hold valid travel documents-a high proportion by any standards. They number about 2,120,000, comprising: 270,000 Hong Kong British passports; 310,000 Hong Kong certificates of identity; 40,000 seaman's travel documents; and 1,500,000 re-entry permits for residents travelling to China and Macau. The issue of travel documents on this scale brings almost every family into contact with the Immigration Department and strenuous efforts have been made to improve the qual- ity of the service offered to local residents.

       Hong Kong's growth as a commercial and industrial centre, and its relatively high standard of living, has led to many people from other countries wanting to live in Hong Kong. War and instability elsewhere in the region have reinforced this trend. Apart from United Kingdom belongers, who are covered by special arrangements, everyone wishing to live in Hong Kong requires the prior permission of the Director of Immigration, who administers a comprehensive system of visas for study, residence or employment. In 1975 there were 34,166 applications for visas or visa extensions. Visas to study or take up residence in Hong Kong are strictly controlled in order not to add to the already great pressures on housing, education and other community services. Special consideration is given, however, to families having links with Hong

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      Kong. In the case of employment visas, the test is whether approval would contribute to Hong Kong's economic and social development.

        For many years Hong Kong has been a prime target for illegal immigration- mainly from China, Taiwan, Macau and Indo-China. In 1975 some 11,588 of the people registering for identity cards claimed to have entered Hong Kong illegally at some time in the past. During the year 2,443 illegal immigrants were removed from Hong Kong, including 1,133 who were returned to China under the arrangements introduced in November 1974.

Vietnamese Refugees

In May 1975, Hong Kong gave temporary asylum to 3,900 Vietnamese refugees who had escaped from the fighting in and around Saigon on a small ocean going vessel, the Truong Xuam. After suffering from extreme overcrowding and shortage of food and water, they were taken aboard by a Danish vessel, the MV Clara Maersk, which arrived in Hong Kong on May 4.

Emergency arrangements for the reception of the refugees were put in hand, involving officers of many government departments as well as members of the Civil Aid Services, the Auxiliary Medical Service and many units of the British Armed Forces. The refugees received medical examination, were given food and clothing, and were documented by immigration officers. Army transport took them to four refugee centres which were set up and administered during the early days of the operation by the Army. The Civil Aid Services and specially appointed camp ad- ministrators subsequently assumed responsibility for the administration of the refugee camps, with food and clothing being supplied by the Social Welfare Depart- ment. Assistance in providing for the needs and comfort of the refugees was received from many voluntary agencies and religious organisations.

Approaches were made to the representatives of foreign governments in Hong Kong to arrange for the resettlement of the refugees, and representatives of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees came to Hong Kong specially to help. The High Commission also provided a substantial grant towards the cost of caring for the refugees in Hong Kong. The Immigration Department set up a special unit to deal with documentation of the refugees and to make arrangements for their departure. This unit was also responsible for liaison with the authorities of receiving countries, with international agencies, and with the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) which undertook to arrange the onward movement of most of the refugees leaving Hong Kong.

From May to the end of the year there was a continuous movement of refugees to new homes, the flow accelerating in September and October. The majority of the refugees wished to find homes in the United States and by the end of the year more than 2,500 refugees had left for that country. Other countries which accepted substantial numbers of refugees were Britain, Canada, France, Australia, Denmark, Austria and Belgium. More than 100 were settled in Hong Kong. By the end of the year, less than 100 refugees remained to be resettled.

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The tourist industry is one of Hong Kong's largest money spinners and in 1975 its gross earnings were estimated at $2,976 million. This was 5.8 per cent more than the previous year. There were some 1.3 million visitors---an increase of 0.4 per cent.

Japan continued to provide the largest number of tourists, but their proportion dropped to 29 per cent. There was a steady increase in visitors from the Southeast Asia region, which now accounts for nearly 25 per cent of all tourists. Economic uncertainty in the United States reduced the proportion of American visitors to 14 per cent, but the ever increasing numbers of Australians and New Zealanders now amount to nearly 11 per cent of the total. Europe remained stable in providing 12 per cent of the tourists, but the figures for individual European countries showed some marked fluctuations.

Hong Kong Tourist Association promotions in 1975 concentrated on the short- haul markets in Southeast Asia, Australasia and Japan. In May, various sections of the tourist industry combined in a two-week mission to Japan, which was directed at the travel trade as well as the potential tourist. In Australia, promotions were held in a chain of Sydney department stores followed by travel trade presentations in conjunction with the Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA) conference. Rep- resentatives of the Australian travel industry also paid several visits to Hong Kong to prepare for the Australian Federation of Travel Agents (AFTA) conference which is to be held in Hong Kong in August 1976.

In the long-haul markets, Hong Kong's tourist industry took part in various exhibitions and seminars-including the International Tourism Exchange (ITB) Fair in Berlin, which is a major event in the European travel trade calendar.

The Hong Kong Tourist Association continued to initiate and lend support to improvements in local tourist attractions and to foster the introduction of new facilities. The association has developed a series of arts and crafts tours which provide a unique introduction to the many types of handicrafts and skills found in Hong Kong. It is also actively engaged in upgrading the standards of service in the tourist industry. In conjunction with the Committee of Tourist Retail Shops, which was formed during the year, the association has held a series of training courses for sales staff. Refresher training courses in English and Japanese have also been held for tourist guides. The association is constantly working towards greater co-ordination within the tourist industry in order to eliminate malpractices in certain spheres.

        Under the sponsorship of local hotels and the Hong Kong Tourist Association, representatives of the overseas media and travel trade make frequent visits to Hong Kong. The results of these visits are seen in the favourable coverage of the territory's tourist attractions and in the tour packages which feature longer stays in Hong Kong. The annual Hong Kong Arts Festival draws many visitors, but there is a year- round flow of travel writers, journalists, and television and film teams.

        In 1975 the Hong Kong Tourist Association produced a tour planning guide to help tour operators in overseas countries to promote Hong Kong, and to encourage longer visits. The guide gives details of the various attractions and facilities, and

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different editions are produced to meet the requirements of each country. Updated and improved editions are being produced for 1976. Association representatives overseas also give much assistance to tour operators.

        A major development in 1975 was the opening of the Hong Kong Convention Centre, with sophisticated facilities adding to the conference accommodation already available in many of Hong Kong's hotels. Throughout the year, the Hong Kong Tourist Association promoted all these conference facilities in overseas markets and also assisted delegates who visited Hong Kong for such events as the Financial Times conference and the Seatrade shipping conference.

12

Public Works and Utilities

Ht

ABOUT a quarter of government expenditure goes on public works-including the construction of all types of public buildings, the formation and reclamation of land, and the provision of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs. It is the government's greatest single financial commitment.

       Public works expenditure of $1,601 million was approved for 1975-6. This was $136 million more than the previous year, despite the financial stringencies of 1975. Some $255 million is being spent on public housing, $360 million on roads, and $354 million on water supplies.

Buildings

As part of the 10-year housing programme, 15 housing blocks providing accom- modation for 55,350 people were completed during the year. Also completed were one estate welfare building, six 24-classroom primary schools, five kindergartens, two welfare halls, and one large commercial complex.

        By the end of the year, work was in progress on 31 housing blocks which will accommodate about 128,400 people. Also under construction were seven 24-classroom primary schools, 11 kindergartens, five estate welfare halls, and four large commercial complexes. Site formation work, planning, or preparatory work was in hand or con- struction work was about to start on several housing estates-including the conversion and redevelopment of resettlement blocks at Shek Kip Mei Estate. These estates will provide homes for a further 62,065 people.

Expenditure on public housing and associated building work in 1975 amounted to $198 million, and on all other building projects to $215 million. Many varied projects were completed. Those on Hong Kong Island included an ambulance depot at Mount Davis, a secondary surveillance radar installation at Mount Parker, a new kitchen at Stanley Prison, the Chai Wan park, a specialist clinic to serve the eastern area of Hong Kong Island, accommodation for the Police Tactical Unit companies at Aberdeen, and a new divisional police headquarters and police station at North Point.

Among the many projects completed in Kowloon were the Kwun Tong Technical Institute, a new Kowloon District Police Headquarters building, a pathology labora- tory extension at the British Military Hospital, alterations to the casualty department at Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the conversion of a ward into a midwifery training school, indoor games halls at Boundary Street sports ground and Cheung Sha Wan playground, and improvements at Morse Park. The railway terminus building, multi- storey car park and railway staff quarters at the new Hung Hom terminus of the

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Kowloon-Canton Railway were also completed. The terminus was inspected by the Queen during her visit in May.

Work completed in the New Territories included a new prison and a maximum security training centre at Pik Uk, a technical institute at Kwai Chung, a broadcasting studio to serve the Gurkhas in Hong Kong, a physical and recreation centre at Gallipoli Barracks, and the second stage of the Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung Polyclinic.

Projects under construction at the end of the year included the new General Post Office, modifications of the airport terminal building at Kai Tak, a swimming pool complex at Aberdeen, a refractory block at Stanley Prison, the first stage of the Kowloon East Polyclinic, and the China mail section of the international mail centre at Hung Hom. Also under construction were a technical institute at Cheung Sha Wan, two additional blocks for the rehousing of villagers at Sai Kung in connection with the High Island Water Scheme, reprovisioning work associated with the Sham Tseng viaduct including 18 village-type houses and a new block for the Emmanuel School, a communications block forming the second stage of the new Kowloon District Police Headquarters, a divisional headquarters and police station at Kwai Chung, a market at Mong Kok, alterations and additions at Castle Peak Hospital, and the site formation for the second mental hospital at Lai Chi Kok. Several playgrounds, amenity areas, hawker bazaars, floodlighting schemes and other works were also in hand.

At the end of the year, working drawings, design or contract documents were in preparation for more than 200 projects. They included the cultural complex, with a planetarium, concert hall, theatre, museum, art gallery, restaurants, and garden areas. The complex is to be located at Tsim Sha Tsui on the site of the old railway station and tracks, the Kowloon-Canton Railway terminus having moved to Hung Hom. Also among new projects were further building modifications at the airport, secondary technical schools at Ha Kwai Chung and Kwai Shing, a technical institute at San Po Kong, a diving and a teaching pool at Victoria Park, a crematorium and columbarium at Tsuen Wan, and four major recreation grounds in the Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung area. Other projects in the planning or pre-contract stages were fire stations on Tsing Yi Island and at Lei Muk Shue, an ambulance depot at Kwai Chung, and divisional or sub-divisional police stations at Cheung Sha Wan, Sha Tin and Sheung Kwai Chung. Design work was also in hand for the superstructure of the indoor stadium which will form part of the new railway terminus complex at Hung Hom. This stadium will be capable of seating 15,000 spectators.

        Maintenance work on buildings continued to expand throughout the year and construction of buildings for the Property Services Agency of the Department of the Environment progressed satisfactorily. Private architects, quantity surveyors and consultant engineers continued to assist in the public building programme.

Land Development

In Kowloon, development of land for residential, commercial, and community. uses and for road construction included about 1.3 hectares of terraced sites at Pak Tin; 1.8 hectares at the Tai Wo Ping area of Lung Cheung Road; and 16 hectares at the Clear Water Bay Road development. At this last development, road construction

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is well advanced-including a new 3-kilometre section of Clear Water Bay Road. Off Nam Cheong Street, 3.2 hectares of park area were formed. In Kwun Tong, reclama- tion continued at Kowloon Bay, where 9.0 hectares were formed for public roads and industrial development. At Kai Tak 2.8 hectares were formed for the extension of airport facilities, and at Sham Shui Po 7.4 hectares were reclaimed for a ferry con- course and community uses.

        On Hong Kong Island, reclamation continued with the formation of 0.3 hectares of land at Kennedy Town, 1.6 hectares in Central for roads and community uses, and 3.3 hectares at Chai Wan for housing, industrial and cargo-handling uses. Reclama- tion began in Aldrich Bay, where 0.7 hectares were formed for roads, boatyards and a ferry concourse.

        In the first stage of the new town at Tuen Mun, the construction of Pillar Point Road from Pak Kok to Pillar Point was completed.

Water Supplies

        There was a continuous water supply throughout the year-the three weeks of restrictions in late 1974 involving the only break in supplies in more than seven years.

        At the beginning of 1975 there were 54,507 million gallons in storage, compared with 51,941 million gallons at the start of the previous year. Rainfall during 1975 was substantially more than the average of 85.41 inches, a total of 119.24 inches being recorded for the year. Overflow occurred in all reservoirs by mid-June and the begin- ning of the dry season in October saw reservoirs more than 95 per cent full. There were 64,104 million gallons in storage on October 1, compared with 34,438 million gallons the previous year.

        At Plover Cove, there were 39,942 million gallons of water stored at the begin- ning of 1975, compared with 40,665 million gallons the previous year. The inflow during the summer months reduced the salinity of the impounded water from 94 ppm. to 79 ppm. by the end of the year. Thermal and chemical stratification was not marked and the quality of the abstracted water remained satisfactory throughout the

year.

       By a supplementary agreement with the People's Council of Kwangtung Pro- vince, an extra 2,500 million gallons of water were piped to Hong Kong in addition to the agreed annual supply of 18,500 million gallons. To enable this, the supply period was extended to September 10.

        Demand for water varied only slightly from the previous year, due mainly to a reduction in the trade sector because of the worldwide recession. Average consumption throughout the year was 217.4 million gallons a day, compared with 210.5 million gallons a day in 1974. A total of 79,341 million gallons of potable water was consumed, compared with 76,841 million gallons in 1974. In addition, 14,834 million gallons of salt water for flushing were supplied 4.9 per cent more than in 1974.

        All outstanding work was completed on the installation of pumping plant at Tai Po Tau and Tai Mei Tuk pumping stations and an order was placed for an additional

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      extension pump at Tai Po Tau. The construction and commissioning of the extension filter beds at Sha Tin Treatment Works to provide a total output of 175 million gallons was completed.

        Although hampered by the particularly wet summer, good progress was main- tained on the west main dam of High Island Reservoir. Leakage at the east sea cofferdam proved difficult to control and a programme of remedial works was under- taken to seal the permeable zones. This has delayed the project by some 12 months. Work on tunnels, intakes and the majority of access roads was completed and the construction of the main and lowland pumping stations progressed satisfactorily. The additional clarifiers at Sha Tin were substantially complete by the end of the year and the uprating of the filters to increase the capacity of the treatment works from 175 to 240 million gallons a day was well advanced. The structure of the second Lion Rock tunnel was completed and handed over to the Highways Office for com- pletion of the roadway and internal finishes. A contract was let for the construction of a 21-million-gallon service reservoir at Lion Rock.

        Work on the 40-million-gallons a day desalter continued, but teething troubles on the first unit delayed its testing until June, when desalted water was first produced on a continuous basis. During the year a total of 1,569 million gallons were produced and delivered into the supply system. By the end of 1975 the plant was in an advanced state of completion.

       In addition to the major water schemes, work continued on other projects to meet increasing demands in existing and new areas of development. A further scheme to extend supplies to New Territories villages in the Tai Po and Yuen Long districts was approved and work began towards the end of the year. Planning was completed for additional water supplies to the new towns at Tuen Mun, Tsuen Wan and Sha Tin and the proposed industrial and residential development in the Tai Po and Yuen Long areas. Items for the implementation of these plans were introduced into the public works programme. In Kowloon, the first stage of the scheme to extend supplies eastwards to serve new development was well in hand, as was the provision of supplies to new development at Lai Chi Kok and Tsing Yi. On Hong Kong Island, the scheme to improve supplies to Shau Kei Wan and Chai Wan was virtually completed and the scheme to provide for growing development in Pok Fu Lam was in hand.

       The Waterworks Ordinance and Regulations 1974 came into operation on January 1, 1975, replacing the previous outdated version and introducing revised statutory fees and charges. On April 1, 1975, the Waterworks (Amendment) Regulations 1975 came into effect, introducing a two-tiered pricing system of charges for water com- sumption for domestic purposes. Owing to shortage of staff, no progress was made on the computerisation of the meter installation and water billing systems, and the implementation of improvements in consumer services continued to be hampered. The final report was received on the monitoring and control facilities required in the waterworks system, and recommendations for implementation were considered. Detailed studies and monitoring continued on a programmed basis in connection with examination of the safety of reservoirs and reports were received containing specific recommendations for safety measures on further reservoirs.

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Drainage and Anti-pollution Projects

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        Sewage from buildings is generally conveyed by a separate system of sewers and, in most cases, is discharged into the sea via submarine outfalls after screening to remove offensive solids. During the year new sewers were laid in Aberdeen, Chai Wan and Sham Shui Po. The construction of a submarine outfall at Aberdeen was started.

       Concern over environmental pollution continued to be reflected in the emphasis placed on sewage treatment and wastes disposal, and the abatement of water pollu- tion. There was good progress in the experimental work at Shek Wu Hui pilot sewage treatment plant to assess the suitability of various sewage treatment methods. The design of new sewage treatment works at Tai Po, Yuen Long and Aberdeen was in hand. The construction of a temporary sewage treatment plant at Sha Tin new town was completed and part of the plant went into operation. Consulting engineers were engaged to proceed with the design of Stage I of a permanent sewage treatment plant to serve the new town.

        Monitoring of water quality in local waters was continued to obtain long term data for the design of new facilities for sewage treatment and disposal, and to establish pollution levels and trends. A data report summarising all monitoring results to the end of 1974 was prepared. A preliminary investigation on various methods to improve the quality of water in Kowloon Bay typhoon shelter was completed and recommenda- tions made.

        An arterial drain at Kwai Chung and drainage improvement works at On Lok Tsuen, Fanling, were completed, as well as the laying of stormwater drains in Wong Tai Sin. The design of new stormwater drains in Au Tau, Yuen Long, was in hand, and works in progress included the construction of the last section of the Shing Mun River training works at Sha Tin and an arterial drain at Chai Wan; the extension of a nullah at Staunton Creek, Aberdeen; and the laying and extension of stormwater drains in the Central and Kennedy Town reclamations.

Port Works

       On Hong Kong Island, the seawall was completed for the fifth and final stage of the Central reclamation scheme, incorporating seven salt water pumphouses. A further pumphouse was constructed at Edinburgh Place to provide cooling water for the air-conditioning system of Murray Road car park and the future Murray Building II. At Aberdeen, work started on 125 metres of seawall which will retain a reclamation for a future sewage screening plant.

        A contract was let for dredging the central fairway in the harbour to a depth of 11 metres below chart datum. When completed in 1976, this will enable large vessels to reach the central part of the harbour from the western approaches. This access is needed because the eastern fairway will be closed for the most part to ocean-going vessels while the mass transit railway tunnel is being constructed.

        In Kowloon, work was completed on the first phase of the Sham Shui Po reclama- tion scheme. The land will provide an area for a new ferry concourse and a section of

SHIPBUILDING

Modern ships have been built and repaired in Hong Kong for nearly 90 years-and boats and junks for centuries. There are. four major graving docks and nearly 200 slipways at shipyards which can handle anything from tankers and liners down to sailing dinghies. The ship and boat builders are now adapting to present day needs and making new world-wide rep- utations by carrying out large-scale ship conversions, building specialised small ships and boats, and producing a wide range of pleasure craft in fibreglass, wood and other materials. Vessels of all kinds. are still brought thousands of miles for repair or overhaul in Hong Kong-partly because of competitive prices but also because of the speed and efficiency with which work is carried out.

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Tainaron, the largest self-propelled oil drill ship in the world, which

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Another conversion-the 'Al-Khaleeja former cargo boat which can now carry livestock on the hoof to Middle East countries.

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A welder at work-some 8,700 men were employed in the shipbuilding and ship-repairing industry during the year.

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  Fibreglass boats are exported to many parts of the world and these 33-foot luxury yachts are for American customers.

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The hull of a junk-one of 400 built by hand in 1975, exactly as they were hundreds of years ago,

ONG KONG

BLIC LIBRAR

I

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

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the West Kowloon corridor road. In the New Territories, a contract was let for the construction at Tai Po Hoi of a rubble mound which will protect the first stage of the proposed industrial estate reclamation. Nearby, at Shuen Wan, another rubble mound was completed to contain the controlled tip there which will eventually provide land. for a recreational area. Minor works carried out at various sites included the installa- tion of new navigational beacons, the repair of existing facilities, and normal main- tenance work to piers and seawalls.

Quarrying

The private quarry industry suffered from the general recession, with a consider- able drop in demand. The prices of crushed rock aggregates supplied by the six quarries run under government contracts fell slightly, while prices of bituminous materials remained fairly steady.

        The two government quarries were further developed and modernised. The new asphalt mixing plant at the Diamond Hill quarry in Kowloon was commissioned in April, and dust collection units were added to the existing asphalt plants at Diamond Hill and at the Mount Butler quarry on Hong Kong Island. A contract for the installation of new crushing and screening plant at Mount Butler was started in August. This will increase production capacity and quality while reducing operating costs. Towards the end of the year, the design of a similar scheme for Diamond Hill was being finalised. Tenders were invited for the construction of a haulage road at Mount Butler. This road will give improved access to the quarry working faces and allow safer and more economical blasting techniques to be employed as well as the use of larger and more efficient loading plant.

        The materials testing laboratories operated by the quarries section of the civil engineering office of the Public Works Department carried out 83,419 tests on build- ing materials, of which 6,364 were for private firms. Sales of sand through the sand monopoly, which is also operated by the quarries section, dropped by 13 per cent compared with the previous year. Tenders for the supply of manufactured sand, as opposed to marine sand, were invited.

Public Utilities

Electricity

        Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma are supplied with electricity by the Hongkong Electric Company while Kowloon and the New Territories-including Lantau and a number of outlying islands-receive their supply from the China Light and Power Company. The island of Cheung Chau is served by the Cheung Chau Electric Company. In addition, minor enterprises such as some village co-operatives produce current for certain remote localities.

The three companies are investor-owned, and do not operate under franchise. However, the government does exercise a measure of financial control over the two main undertakings.

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Generation of electricity for Kowloon, the New Territories and several outlying islands is carried out partly by the China Light and Power Company and partly by Peninsula Electric Power Company-an enterprise financed 60 per cent by Esso and 40 per cent by China Light. It owns power stations on Tsing Yi Island (1,162 MW) and at Hok Un (240 MW). The operation of these plants is in the hands of China Light, which also has its own stations at Hok Un (410 MW) and a number of diesel sets (6 MW). Additional capacity of 400 MW is due to be installed on Tsing Yi by 1977.

Hongkong Electric has generating stations at North Point (271 MW) and Ap Lei Chau (506 MW). Therefore, including Cheung Chau's 5 MW, there is a combined capacity of 2,600 MW.

        Transmission is carried out at 132 kV and 66 kV, while distribution is effected mainly at 33 kV, 11 kV and 346 volts. The supply is 50 hertz alternating current, normally at 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 33 kV and 11 kV. Safety aspects are covered by an Electricity Supply Ordinance.

        Main electricity statistics for 1975, as well as electricity sales figures for the years 1972-5, are shown in Appendix 34.

Gas

The Hong Kong and China Gas Company supplies towngas to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. The supply is available throughout the urban areas, including Aberdeen, Repulse Bay and Stanley on Hong Kong Island, and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong, Kwai Chung and Tsuen Wan. Work is now in hand to provide Sha Tin with a towngas supply in 1976-7. Towngas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok in Kowloon, and Hong Kong Island is supplied by two sub- marine gas mains across the harbour. The total installed production capacity of the station is about 28 million cubic feet a day.

Gas is sold on a thermal basis (one therm=100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of towngas is 455 BTUs per cubic foot. The total quantity of gas sold in 1975 was 15.25 million therms, compared with 14 million in 1974.

13

Communications and Transport

A NEW $150 million railway terminus came into operation towards the end of 1975, underlining the importance of freight and passenger traffic with China and at the same time adding to Hong Kong's reputation as a communications and transport centre in Southeast Asia. Work also began on the underground mass transit railway, which will cost $5,000 million.

The people of Hong Kong have a particularly wide choice of public transport- bus, tram, cable-car, train, taxi, minibus, ferry and hoverferry. Services are constantly being improved wherever possible, and this also applies on a larger scale to facilities for international shipping and air travel and transport. In the field of telecommunica- tions, the territory has long made use of satellite earth stations, computers, and highly complex electronic equipment.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

The new terminus for the Kowloon-Canton Railway began operating on Novem- ber 30, when the 8.26 am train left for the Lo Wu border with China. Apart from serving local transport needs, the railway is used extensively by passengers to and from China, who change trains at Lo Wu station. The railway is owned by the Hong Kong Government.

Four years of work and $150 million went into the new terminus, which is called Kowloon Station. It covers 32 acres in Hung Hom-about two miles from the old station which has stood on the waterfront at Tsim Sha Tsui for 60 years.

Kowloon Station has the capacity to cope with the departure of 30 trains an hour. Facilities include a restaurant, bar, book store, travel services, a mini-bank and escalators to each of the three platforms. Closed circuit television cameras con- tribute to the smooth-running of the station. The terminus includes a site for an indoor stadium capable of seating 15,000 people, which should be completed in about two years' time.

The freight terminal can accommodate nearly 400 wagons, and it is expected that more than 5,000 tons of goods will be off-loaded onto as many as 600 road vehicles a day. Goods will also be unloaded directly from the railway wagons across the seawall and into floating tankers or junks.

The railway handles a substantial proportion of all goods and livestock imported from the People's Republic of China to Hong Kong. Since August 1974 it has been operating trains bringing oil from that country with a potential of more than 2,000 tons a day. A new goods yard is being built at Fo Tan to help deal with this traffic.

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Following the passenger fare increase in November 1974 the first since 1947- freight rates went up on April 1, 1975 for the first time in 15 years. Charges in both cases were raised by about 35 per cent to meet increasing operating costs.

        With the greater volume of traffic, the single line railway has reached the limit of its capacity and work is under way to double track and resignal the section from Hung Hom to Sha Tin. Further plans include double-tracking all the way to Lo Wu, electrification of the whole line, the re-modelling and commercial development of stations, extensions to other parts of the New Territories, acquisition of additional rolling stock, the construction of a marshalling yard at Lo Wu, and enlargement of the tunnel between Kowloon and Sha Tin. In order to enable passengers to travel in comfort during the summer months, four coaches are being air-conditioned. The daily passenger service of 17 trains each way has been increased to 20.

Mass Transit Railway

        Following the Japanese consortium's decision to cease negotiations for a formal contract for building the mass transit railway's initial system, action was taken by the Mass Transit Railway Provisional Authority to develop an alternative system. On January 14, 1975, the Executive Council agreed in principle to the modified initial system. This comprises a 9.7 mile S-shaped route linking the Central District of Hong Kong Island with Kwun Tong in Kowloon. The agreement was subject to the council's subsequent approval of the recommended tenders for the first represen- tative major civil engineering contracts. Construction costs were not to exceed $5,000 million while government equity was not to exceed $800 million.

        The Provisional Authority screened a large number of international and local companies and groups, and selected prospective tenderers for the 25 civil engineering and 10 electrical and mechanical contracts that make up the modified initial system. At the same time, the Provisional Authority negotiated with bankers and financial institutions to raise the capital required for construction. Funds covering 40 per cent of the construction cost were obtained through export credits, the remainder coming from the open market. Through the authority's executive arm in the Public Works Department, the clearance and acquisition of land and the planning of utility diversions continued, along with the development of strategic traffic plans designed to minimise the effect of the construction on the travelling public.

        In May, the Mass Transit Railway Corporation Ordinance was passed by the Legislative Council, paving the way for the corporation to take over from the Provi- sional Authority. The ordinance gave the future corporation the right to develop land held by it. One prime site for such development is the Kowloon Bay depot-the main- tenance and administration centre of the railway-over which it is planned to con- struct a housing and commercial development including 5,000 flats.

        Tenders for the first four civil engineering contracts had been called by May, and examination of the tenders confirmed that the modified initial system could be constructed within the set budget. In September the Executive Council gave the project its approval, following which the Governor brought the Mass Transit Railway Corporation Ordinance into effect.

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In October the Legislative Council agreed to the government guaranteeing the corporation's indebtedness, and by the end of the year tenders had been called for all contracts except one and work had started at four sites in North Kowloon.

Civil Aviation

Hong Kong International Airport at Kai Tak is one of the busiest and most efficient in Asia. It is also one of the smallest international airports in the world, covering only 550 acres. Because of the mountainous terrain, much of the land has had to be reclaimed from the sea-including the 800-foot-wide promontory on which the 11,130-foot-long runway is built.

The airport is less than three miles from the commercial, hotel and shopping centres of Tsim Sha Tsui in Kowloon and Central on Hong Kong Island-both about 20 minutes away by road. Taxis, hotel buses and a limousine service are available. Two public coach services also operate between the airport and Tsim Sha Tsui, and the airport and the Island. They are routed to pass the major tourist hotels in both districts. Representatives of the Hong Kong Tourist Association and Hotel Associa- tion meet all arriving flights to help visitors.

The strategic position of Hong Kong at the hub of the air traffic route network of Southeast Asia makes the airport of considerable economic significance to the territory. It provides swift air links with all the world's major centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Its economic importance is illustrated by the fact that the value of goods exported by air in 1974-5 was $4,540 million. This represents more than 20 per cent by value of all goods exported from Hong Kong. Revenue from the airport during the year amounted to $168 million.

More than 900 scheduled services are operated each week by 32 international airlines and more than 20 per cent of these services are flown by wide-bodied aircraft. In addition, a significant number of non-scheduled passenger and freight charter flights are operated.

Cathay Pacific Airways, a British-owned airline registered in Hong Kong, operates a comprehensive network of services throughout Southeast Asia and also to and from Australia. Currently the airline operates a fleet of 12 Boeing 707s and two Lockheed L-1011 Super TriStars. Hong Kong Air International operates local helicop- ter flights for various purposes-ranging from the lifting of heavy industrial and building equipment to passenger sightseeing tours.

Responsibility for the management and development of Hong Kong International Airport rests with the Civil Aviation Department. Airport terminal facilities include bars, restaurants, shopping arcades, banking and money changing services, and duty- free shops. These facilities are provided by private concerns operating under franchise. Income derived from them contributes substantially to the economic viability of the airport.

Passenger-handling facilities at the terminal building are currently overstretched during busy periods, coping with more than 3,000 passengers an hour while the design capacity allows for the effective processing of only 2,200. The first three floors of a

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new extension to the building are expected to be completed in January 1977, and this will enable 4,800 passengers an hour to be processed. Less congestion is also expected in cargo handling as a result of a new air cargo complex which recently came into operation. It is one of the largest in the world and the only one of its kind in Asia.

        The Civil Aviation Department is responsible for the provision of air traffic control and search and rescue facilities for all aircraft operating in the Hong Kong Flight Information Region-an area recently increased to 167,000 square miles over the South China Sea. An extensive telecommunications network provides links with the major aviation centres in Asia. An aeronautical information service ensures distribution of essential information to the aviation world, and aviation meteorological services are provided in conjunction with the Royal Observatory.

        Radio and navigational aids meet the most stringent international standards and are supplemented or updated as necessary. These aids currently include three sur- veillance radars, a precision approach radar (PAR), distance measuring equipment (DME), VHF omni-directional ranges (VOR), and non-directional beacons (NDB). In addition an instrument landing system (ILS) and a visual approach slope indicator system (VASIS) are provided for runway 31, while a unique instrument guidance system (IGS) and a visual approach slope guidance system (VASGS) are now available for runway 13. A computer-controlled secondary surveillance radar has been installed and is expected to become fully operational in 1976.

        Despite commercial air transport's heavy use of the necessarily restricted air space, the private aviator is not forgotten. Two privately-managed flying clubs operate from the airport, providing flying training and social amenities. An active sporting parachute club operates at Sek Kong in the New Territories.

       Hong Kong International Airport is constantly being developed and improved to meet the demands of the civil aviation industry. But because there is little or no space available for further expansion, and it appears inevitable that industry demand will outstrip capability, the government is considering the feasibility of building a new airport at some future date.

Shipping

       Hong Kong has one of the most perfect natural harbours in the world. It varies. in width from one to six miles and encompasses an area of 23 square miles. The port caters for all the requirements of modern shipping and it is prominent as a pivotal port in Southeast Asia. It is administered by the Director of Marine, who is advised by a Port Executive Committee on the shipping, commercial and other changing needs of the port. There is a Port Committee which similarly advises the Governor.

       As in most state-owned ports, the Marine Department neither controls nor operates any of the major wharves or warehouses. With the exception of the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal, all wharves and terminals are provided and operated by private enterprise. The Marine Department does, however, operate and maintain 71 mooring buoys for ocean-going vessels within the harbour. Of these, 43 are suitable for vessels up to 600 feet in length and the rest are for ships up to 450 feet in length. The moorings include 64 special typhoon buoys which are strategically located for

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ships remaining in port during tropical storms. Additionally, safe anchorages are available for large, deep draught vessels. Commercial wharves are capable of accom- modating vessels of up to 1,000 feet in length with draughts up to 40 feet.

Quarantine and immigration facilities are available on a 24-hour basis at the Western Quarantine Anchorage and from 6.30 am to 6 pm at the Eastern Quarantine Anchorage. The extended service at the Western Anchorage reflects the greater use of the western approaches. Ships are normally cleared inwards on arrival and large passenger vessels are processed en route to their allocated berths. Advance immigra- tion clearance and radio pratique may be obtained by certain vessels on application.

Navigational aids in the harbour and approaches are constantly being improved to ensure safe access to and from the port. All fairway buoys are lighted and many beacons are fitted with radar reflectors. A network of signal stations at Waglan Island, Green Island, North Point, and the Marine Department Port Communications Centre are all inter-connected by telephone, radio-telephone and teleprinter circuits. A modified Hague Plan VHF (radio-telephone) Port Operations Service is also operated by the Marine Department, ensuring comprehensive marine communication through- out the harbour and its approaches. Although pilotage in the waters of Hong Kong is not compulsory, it is considered advisable in view of the density of marine traffic and the scale of harbour works continuously being undertaken.

Surveillance of fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo working areas is effectively undertaken by Marine Department launch patrols. The launches are in continuous radio contact with the Port Communications Centre, enabling the centre to initiate and co-ordinate any action required by unusual circumstances. A fleet of modern fire-fighting vessels, operated by the Fire Services Department, is kept in a state of readiness and units are stationed on both sides of the harbour. These and other government vessels are equipped with oil pollution control equipment. The pollution control unit of the Marine Department is responsible for the detection and control of oil pollution within the waters of Hong Kong. The harbour cleansing unit removes floating refuse from the main harbour and typhoon shelters. A refuse collection service for ocean-going ships is in operation.

Although the tonnage of cargo carried in containers continues to increase, a large percentage of the dry cargo handled in Hong Kong is still at some stage tran- sported by lighters. About 2,000 lighters and junks are used for this purpose and nearly half of these are mechanised. Shipboard cargo gear is normally used for loading and discharging cargo alongside wharves or in the stream but floating heavy lift cranes are available when required. Wharf and godown companies are fully aware of the advantages and increased productivity which result from mechanisation, and modern equipment is being increasingly used to facilitate the rapid turnround of ships.

        Four terminals at Kwai Chung cater for container ships of up to 60,000 gross tons calling at the port on scheduled services. The fourth terminal came into operation in 1975 and the development of two more new berths is under way. The existing terminals together occupy 150 acres of reclaimed land and have complete back-up services which include marshalling yards, cranes, ancillary equipment and large container freight stations. Berths 1, 2, 3 and 4 are operated respectively by Modern

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Terminals, Kowloon Container Warehouse Company, Sea-Land Orient, and the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company. The approach channel to Kwai Chung is dredged to give a depth of 40 feet at chart datum over a width of 1,100 feet. Interim container berths within Victoria Harbour are located at Tsim Sha Tsui, North Point and Hung Hom. They are operated respectively by the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company, North Point Wharves, and Whampoa Terminals.

        Good bunkering facilities are provided in the port and vessels may be supplied with fuel oil either from the wharves at the oil terminals or from a fleet of harbour oilers. Fresh water is obtainable at commercial wharves or from water boats which service vessels at anchor or at government mooring buoys.

       Hong Kong United Dockyards has extensive facilities for the repair, maintenance, and drydocking or slipping of all types and classes of vessels. Its yards can handle tankers up to 35,000 tons deadweight and passenger liners up to 750 feet in length and 88 feet beam. Additionally, the Island Navigation Corporation operates a float- ing drydock with a lifting capacity of 100,000 deadweight tons. Minor shipyards in Hong Kong continue to flourish with more than 170 slipways equipped to undertake repairs to small vessels. These shipyards have also developed a capacity for building specialised craft, particularly sophisticated pleasure craft and yachts.

       Hong Kong continues to be a prominent centre for recruiting seamen and more than 28,700 Hong Kong seamen are serving on board some 1,500 foreign-going vessels. The Seamen's Recruiting Office and the Mercantile Marine Office continue to register and supervise the employment of seamen on board vessels of all flags. The Mariners' Clubs in Kowloon provide recreational and welfare facilities of a high standard for visiting seamen of all nationalities.

        There is considerable tourist and other sea passenger traffic between Hong Kong and Macau, and facilities at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island are being improved. More than four million passengers were recorded on this route in 1975.

       During the year the port was free of any major incidents. Work continued on the removal of underwater sections of the burnt out 'Seawise University', with about 20,000 tons of steelwork being removed by the end of the year. In March, work began on the reorganisation of the harbour moorings, which will take three years. to complete. The reorganisation was made necessary by the development of new reclamations, the need to cater for the larger conventional vessels now calling at the port, and the requirement for fairways to be widened.

       New and amended legislation effecting the work of the Marine Department amounted to 20 items. In addition, the departmental legislative programme comprised a further seven items at present under consideration.

Roads

       Despite heavy summer rainfall, highways construction proceeded satisfactorily. During the year $236.3 million was spent on construction of major highway projects

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      and $44.2 million on improvements and maintenance. The total length of roads. maintained by the government now stands at 1073.61 kilometres, of which 341.32 kilo- metres are on Hong Kong Island, 316.54 kilometres in Kowloon and 415.75 kilometres in the New Territories.

On Hong Kong Island, major road projects at Queensway, Pok Fu Lam Village and A Kung Ngam were completed and traffic congestion in these areas was con- sequently relieved. The widening of Shek Pai Wan Road to improve road communica- tion between Central, Pok Fu Lam and Aberdeen continued satisfactorily. Detailed design for extending the Canal Road flyover to provide the connection between the proposed Aberdeen tunnel and the cross-harbour tunnel was completed. Reports on the feasibility of constructing a bridge across Lei Yue Mun and a high capacity coastal route from Causeway Bay to Shau Kei Wan were submitted by consulting engineers.

In Kowloon, several projects were completed to cater for major traffic move- ments in the area and for traffic diversions to enable construction of the mass transit railway. The projects included the Kowloon Park Drive joining Salisbury Road and Canton Road; the 700-metre-long Prince Edward Road-Lai Chi Kok Road flyover; and two major interchanges at Waterloo Road/Argyle Street junction and Waterloo Road/Prince Edward Road/Boundary Street junction. There was good progress on the construction of a primary distributor route along the Kowloon foothills linking Kwun Tong and Kwai Chung, with interchanges at Choi Hung, Fung Mo, Tai Wo Ping and Pipers' Hill being brought into commission. An underpass at Nam Cheong interchange and an extension of Ching Cheung Road to Kwai Chung Road were well advanced. Works were started on the extension of Wai Yip Street to provide a second route parallel to the congested Kwun Tong Road and on the construction of a 1000- metre-long extension of Salisbury Road. Two major traffic routes on the east and west sides of Kowloon peninsula were under active planning and design.

In the New Territories, there was satisfactory progress on the construction of Stage I of the 15.3 kilometre dual three-lane carriageway between Tsuen Wan and Tuen Mun, to serve development at Tuen Mun new town. A new interchange provid- ing direct access to Princess Margaret Hospital over the busy Kwai Chung Road was opened to traffic during the year. The construction of a 1830-metre-long footpath from Sok Kwu Wan to Mau Tat Village on Lamma Island and the reconstruction of Hang Hau Road were also completed. Works were well under way on the construction of a railway bridge and the realignment of Tai Po Road under the Kowloon-Canton Railway at milestone 17, and satisfactory progress was maintained on roads and drainage works for seven housing estates in the new towns at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan. Detailed designs were begun for the second carriageway from the Sha Tin end of Lion Rock tunnel to Siu Lek Yuen Road and for the duplication of the road bridge across Shing Mun River.

       Traffic management techniques included the introduction of 'zig-zag' markings on all existing and new zebra crossings for the promotion of pedestrian safety. Pedestrian precincts were established in Hanoi Road and Cornwall Avenue in Tsim Sha Tsui for a trial period of six months. All cable networks and the installation of on-street equipment for a computerised area traffic control system for western

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Kowloon were completed. Progress was maintained on the installation of traffic light signals at road intersections and pedestrian crossings, and 293 sets were in operation at the end of the year. The street lighting system was again expanded, with 1,499 new lamps installed during the year.

        In the field of transport planning and surveys, work continued on the Com- prehensive Transport Study which is being carried out by consulting engineers in co-operation with the Public Works Department. To cope with the approved develop- ment programmes for the new towns of Sha Tin, Tuen Mun and Tsuen Wan, and other general development in the New Territories, a special team was set up to consider the economic, practical and environmental implications of transport re- quirements up to 1983. Studies were also carried out on the Kowloon-Canton Railway operations between Sha Tin and Kowloon; the effect of traffic management schemes in Central District; bus and tramway operations; and the feasibility of a cable car system between Central District and Aberdeen.

        A multi-disciplined traffic management group continued to plan, co-ordinate and implement the traffic management schemes necessary to facilitate the construction of the mass transit railway. With work begun on the railway, the first of the traffic management schemes is now in operation in North Kowloon and is being monitored so that any problems can be dealt with quickly and effectively.

Road Tunnels

       Hong Kong has two road tunnels in operation and work on the construction of two more is expected to be completed in 1977. Plans for a fifth tunnel are well under way.

        Tunnelling work on the second Lion Rock tunnel was finished during 1975 and construction of the road slab within the tunnel began, together with ancillary works. The tunnel will have two traffic lanes and, when used alongside the existing tunnel, it will provide increased capacity for the fast route between Kowloon and Sha Tin.

        The tunnel being constructed under the International Airport will link Ma Tau Kok with Ngau Tau Kok and Kwun Tong, and will relieve traffic congestion in the Kowloon City area.

       The Aberdeen tunnel project is now under active investigation following com- pletion of the drilling of a pilot tunnel. The proposed tunnel will provide a direct link between the road systems in the northern and southern parts of Hong Kong Island. Once approval is given, work on the tunnel is expected to take about two years.

        Hong Kong's two much-used tunnels are the cross-harbour tunnel and the first Lion Rock tunnel. The Lion Rock tunnel was opened in 1967 and it is managed by the Transport Department. In 1975 it was used by some 4.4 million vehicles, with revenue totalling nearly $4.3 million. On April 1, toll charges were revised to bring them in line with rising operating costs. The new fees are $1 for private cars, public cars, taxis and motorcycles; $1.50 for public and private light buses, public and private

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single-deck omnibuses, and goods vehicles of unladen weight not exceeding 40 cwt; and $2 for double-deck omnibuses and goods vehicles of unladen weight exceeding 40 cwt. The cross-harbour tunnel, opened in 1972, is a $320 million project operated by the Cross Harbour Tunnel Company in which the government has a 25 per cent interest. In 1975 nearly 15.3 million vehicles used the tunnel, and revenue from toll fees-which vary from $2 to $20-amounted to $94.2 million.

Traffic Congestion

        Although road traffic remains heavy at some locations, there has been a general improvement in traffic flows. This has been brought about by the continued decrease in the number of vehicles registered, increased parking charges introduced in October 1974, and the introduction of more traffic management schemes featuring a ban on kerbside stopping during specified hours. A noticeable improvement has resulted from the scheme introduced in January in Central District, where all vehicles except franchised buses and trams are prohibited from stopping along a busy section of Des Voeux Road Central during peak hours. This has led to a general reduction in journey times in the area.

        Construction of the mass transit railway will cause road traffic in some areas to be affected by extensive diversions, particularly in the Nathan Road area in Kowloon. Every effort is being made to minimise inconvenience to motorists and people who use public transport.

Parking

Although Hong Kong still has one of the highest traffic densities in the world, the decrease in registered vehicles and more effective parking controls have brought signs of an improvement in the parking problem.

The government provides off-street parking facilities in eight multi-storey car parks including a new one opened in November at the Hung Hom railway terminus complex-and in three temporary open-air car parks. The multi-storey car parks have a total capacity of 5,568 vehicles, while there are 927 spaces in the temporary car parks. There are plans to build more government car parks. In April, the Transport Department took over management of all government car parks from the Urban Council. With spaces becoming more readily available for short-term parkers follow- ing the increased charges introduced in October 1974, a review was undertaken in 1975 with a view to introducing a differential rates system according to the demand at each car park location. As a result, on November 30, charges were reduced at certain multi-storey car parks which were being under-used.

        There are also off-street parking facilities for 6,000 vehicles in 11 multi-storey car parks operated by private enterprise, and more are either being built or planned.

       On-street parking spaces are provided where they do not cause traffic obstruc- tion. Where there are limited available spaces and a high demand, spaces are metered to deter long-term parking. There are about 11,000 metered spaces operating from 8 am till midnight and plans are in hand to extend the days of operation to include Sundays and public holidays.

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COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

       There is public transport by road, tram, train, and ferry. Scheduled passenger services are provided by seven private companies and the government-operated Kowloon-Canton Railway. Hong Kong Island is served by the China Motor Bus Company (CMB), Hongkong Tramways, and the Peak Tramways Company. Kowloon and the mainland part of the New Territories are served by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (KMB). The New Lantau Bus Company operates services on Lantau Island. Both CMB and KMB also operate joint cross-harbour services using the cross-harbour tunnel. Regular and comprehensive cross-harbour and outlying island ferry services are run by the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company, while the Star Ferry Company operates a service between Central and Tsim Sha Tsui as well as a resumed service between Central and Hung Hom. Additional passenger transport services are provided by public light buses, taxis and public hire cars. Passenger traffic carried by each of the undertakings during the past three years is listed in Appendix 36.

Buses

        Public omnibus services are operated under franchises granted in accordance with the provisions of the Public Omnibus Services Ordinance which came into operation on September 1, 1975. Three private companies provide facilities on specified routes with schedules of service laid down by the Transport Department covering route, timetable, faretable, journey distance, journey time, vehicle alloca- tion, and vehicle carrying capacity.

The Kowloon Motor Bus Company continued to expand its fleet and to in- troduce new routes in Kowloon and the mainland area of the New Territories. In 1975 daily passenger traffic increased by 12 per cent to 1.7 million. The licensed fleet increased from 1,371 to 1,560 vehicles of which 1,112 were double-deck buses, 362 single-deck buses and 86 coaches--boosting the total carrying capacity by 12.6 per cent to 140,412. At the end of the year, the company had on order or under construction 219 double-deck buses, 45 single-deck buses and 16 single-deck coaches. Some 78 per cent of the fleet's vehicles are now one-man operated using an exact fare system. In 1975 the company operated 63 million miles, introducing 33 new routes which brought the total to 137 routes. The new additions included 13 express coach routes, two of which operate to and from the airport. These coach services have guaranteed seating and they carried an average of 15,200 passengers daily. Fares remained unchanged during the year.

On Hong Kong Island, the China Motor Bus Company recorded substantial increases in fleet, passenger traffic, carrying capacity and mileage operated during the year. The fleet increased by 6 per cent, with 579 double-deck and 50 single-deck vehicles carrying 591,129 passengers daily, compared with 496,358 a day in 1974. The company operated 22.8 million miles during the year and introduced 10 additional routes. Progress continued with converting single-deck buses to double-deckers and the total carrying capacity increased by 9.9 per cent to 55,210. Some 99 per cent of the vehicles are now one-man operated. At the end of the year, the company had on

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       order or under construction 142 double-deck buses. The bus priority scheme in- troduced in the Mid-Levels in 1974 continued to prove effective in improving the efficiency and reliability of bus services in that area. In July 1975, the northern section. of Pottinger Street in Central was also made a bus-only lane to provide extra terminal facilities for expanded bus services running to and from Central and to ease condi- tions along Des Voeux Road Central. Traffic management schemes were introduced in Shau Kei Wan and Chai Wan to improve bus operating speeds.

Cross-harbour bus routes are operated jointly by KMB and CMB. The two companies carried an average 235,914 passengers daily in 1975, an increase of 28 per cent over 1974. Six additional routes were introduced, making a total of 12. The annual mileage operated increased by 20 per cent to 10.3 million miles.

With the introduction of the new Public Omnibus Services Ordinance, both CMB and KMB began operating under new franchises on September 1. The fran- chises give the companies exclusive rights to operate bus services on specified routes as opposed to the previous franchises which were granted on a geographical basis. A feature of the new franchises is the fixing for the first time of a permitted rate of return for the companies. In the case of KMB, the return rate is 16 per cent based on the valuation of its fixed assets in July 1959-when the company's assets were last valued. For CMB, the return rate is 15 per cent based on a valuation carried out in 1962 when the company first issued its shares to the public. Another feature is the establishment of a profit control scheme under which each company is required to maintain a Development Fund, with any profits earned in excess of the permitted rate of return being credited to the fund. In a year when either company earns less than the permitted rate of return, it will be allowed to draw from the fund the amount needed to bring it up to the permitted return rate. The main purpose of the fund is to assist with capital expansion of bus operations by ensuring retention of profits in the company for this purpose, and also to serve as a profit equalisation fund. The new franchises will last for 10 years in the first instance, up to August 31, 1985. But the concept of a rolling franchise has been accepted, with the possibility of extensions every two years following comprehensive reviews of the companies' operations and their performance under the franchises. An additional provision of the Public Omnibus Services Ordinance is that the Governor may appoint up to two directors to each company's Board of Directors, and these directors would be empowered to represent the public interest rather than that of the shareholders.

        On Lantau Island, bus services are operated by the New Lantau Bus Company (1973) along the 18 miles of road-much of which is single track with passing bays. Following the introduction in November 1974 of more frequent services and better connecting facilities with ferry services, the company was authorised to introduce a revised fare structure which features concessionary fares for island residents and increased fares at weekends. Passengers on Sundays and public holidays amounted to 37 per cent of the average daily passenger traffic of 3,760. During the year, 730,000 miles were operated on five routes using 42 single-deck buses.

The 14-seater public light buses (PLBs or minibuses) carried an estimated 1.4 million passengers a day in 1975, compared with the 2.3 million passengers carried daily by the franchised bus services. There were 4,307 minibuses registered at the

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end of the year. They may ply for hire anywhere except on roads or in areas where prohibitions or kerbside stopping restrictions apply. As minibus drivers obstruct traffic flow in stopping for their passengers, more restricted and prohibited zones have been introduced. During the year, an increasing number of minibus operators showed interest in providing more feeder routes over roads generally unsuitable for more conventional buses. In July, three new feeder routes were introduced linking Causeway Bay and Central with Aberdeen via Shouson Hill. They brought to six the total number of feeder routes in operation, the other three linking The Peak and upper Mid-Levels areas with Central.

        Coaches for sightseeing tours and school and factory buses are operated by a number of companies, while some schools and factories provide their own private omnibus and light bus services. At the end of 1975 the number of vehicles licensed for these purposes totalled 2,926.

Trams

        On Hong Kong Island, Hongkong Tramways Company operates four routes totalling 19 miles, most of which is double-tracked along the north shore corridor between Kennedy Town and Shau Kei Wan. During the year the company's fleet of 162 double-deck tramcars and 22 single-deck trailers carried 144 million passengers and covered 6.3 million miles. This represented the highest utilisation of any road passenger transport service in Hong Kong, with each car carrying an average of 2,436 passengers a day. To improve operating speeds and reduce conflicting traffic, tram tracks were segregated from traffic lanes along the realigned Queensway leading to and from Central District, through which the maximum frequency is one tramcar every 32 seconds in each direction. Reserved track will be extended to other suitable locations in line with highway development.

        In November, the Legislative Council approved an increase in tram fares and the flat rate went up from 20 cents to 30 cents on December 1. Children's fares re- mained at 10 cents and the unlimited travel monthly tickets went up from $18 to $27. At the same time, the Hongkong Tramways Company was absolved from making any further royalty payments to the government.

       The Peak Tramways Company operates a funicular tram service stopping at five intermediate stations between Garden Road and Victoria Peak-1,305 feet above sea level. It is considered to be the steepest funicular railway in the world, using steel wire ropes as its sole means of haulage, with the steepest gradient being 1 in 2. Some 2.03 million passengers were carried in 1975, each of the three tramcars having a capacity of 72 people. Approval was given for fares to be increased on December 1, the new full fare for adults being $1.50 (previously $1), with a $1 fare for certain intermediate stations. Children's fares remained at 50 cents for any journey. Monthly tickets for adults were re-introduced and the charge for students' monthly tickets was increased.

Ferries

       The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company operates passenger and vehicular ferry services on 14 cross-harbour routes and 23 routes to the New Territories and

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outlying islands. It has a fleet of 88 vessels-12 vehicular ferries, eight triple-deck passenger ferries, 40 double-deck ferries, 24 water buses and water taxis, and four hoverferries. Their total carrying capacity is 48,416 people and 570 vehicles. The fleet was expanded during the year with six additional vessels. There were eight new services. introduced, including seven to the New Territories and outlying islands mainly for re- creational traffic. The experimental hoverferry service between Central and Tsuen Wan has proved popular with commuters since its introduction in December 1974. On certain routes, passengers now have a choice between hoverferry or conventional ferry services at different fares reflecting the value of time saving. In 1975 the cross- harbour services carried 128.3 million passengers, 7.9 per cent less than the previous year. The New Territories and outlying islands services carried 15.4 million passengers, an increase of 9.2 per cent. The two vehicular ferry routes carried 3.5 million vehicles and 6.6 million passengers during the year.

       The Star Ferry Company provides a passenger ferry service across the harbour between Edinburgh Place and Tsim Sha Tsui. In 1975 the company's fleet of 10 vessels carried 53.2 million passengers, compared with 50.4 million the previous year. Approval was given for fares to be increased on December 1, the new rates being: first class, adults 30 cents (previously 25 cents) and children 20 cents (10 cents); second class, adults and children 15 cents (10 cents); and monthly tickets, adults $12 ($10) and children $6 ($4).

During the year the company completed its plans for resuming a second ferry service between Edinburgh Place and Hung Hom, to serve the new terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, and the service began on November 30.

Taxis and Public Hire Cars

There are 4,754 licensed taxis which operate at a standard fare of $2 for the first mile and 20 cents for each subsequent fifth of a mile. They carry an estimated 563,000 passengers a day. Taxi operators were provided with more overnight off-street parking facilities as from January when the government allowed them to make use of its multi-storey and temporary open-air car parks between 10 pm and 8 am. By the end of the year, arrangements for introducing taxis specifically for the rural areas of the New Territories were well advanced.

       Public hire cars are available for hire only on a pre-arranged basis, with the charges being negotiated between the hirer and the operator. On December 31 there were 1,283 licensed public hire cars, many of which were owned by hotels for the exclusive use of their guests.

Transport Administration

       A government-appointed Transport Advisory Committee advises the Governor in Council on broad issues of transport policy, with a view to improving the movement of people and freight. The Transport Department is the statutory authority responsible for planning and regulating public transport services. Its wide range of duties also covers vehicle licensing, driving tests, vehicle inspections, and statutory functions

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under the Road Traffic Ordinance or legislation relating to the public transport companies.

       During the year, road traffic regulations were amended to allow goods vehicles exceeding two tons and omnibuses to travel up to 40 mph. The old speed limit of 30 mph for these vehicles dated back to 1912. Towards the end of 1975, amending legislation was being considered to provide more effective control against overcrowd- ing in public service vehicles, to ensure greater safety for passengers. To combat diesel fumes pollution, a month-long campaign was launched in September by the govern- ment and the Advisory Committee on Environmental Pollution. The campaign featured leaflets, posters and films aimed at making owners and drivers aware of the nuisance and health hazards of diesel fume pollution and the need for proper main- tenance of their vehicles.

Licensing

        The number of registered vehicles dropped by 5,421 during the year, the figure standing at 188,018 on December 31. Vehicle statistics are given in Appendix 36. Driving licences remained in steady demand with the number at the end of the year reaching 498,274, compared with 474,531 the previous year. Towards the end of 1975, preparations were well under way for a computer system to handle registration and licensing of vehicles and drivers over the counter, replacing the manual opera- tion. This will enable motorists to have their licence documents processed within minutes on the spot. The system is the second phase of what is known as the VALID (Vehicle And Licensing Data) System which is designed to speed up services to motorists. It is also related to a system of fixed penalties for certain driving offences, to be introduced in 1976.

        Courses remained popular at the Indoor Driving Instruction Centre which opened in June 1974 to improve the general standard of driving. Basic driving techniques are taught with the aid of 16 driving simulators, films, and a computer controlled panel in preparation for instruction on the road. By the end of December, 5,110 people had attended such courses.

Postal Services

        An estimated 273 million letters, registered articles and parcels were handled during the year-some 4.5 per cent more than in 1974. Local mail accounted largely for the increase, but air mail also increased-air parcel traffic in particular showing a marked advance on the previous year. On average more than five tons of air mail was despatched from Hong Kong every day throughout 1975. Most surface mail despatched to other countries is now containerised. A full container load was made up every day of the year, on average, and more often than not this was a standard 40- foot container.

        The speedpost service continued to expand, catering for the rapid and reliable transmission of business documents and commercial papers. It now operates to Britain, the United States, Brazil and Japan. The Post Office collects items from customers' premises on a contractual basis and immediately despatches them to the

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TELEVISION

Hong Kong has three enfranchised com- mercial television stations which operate five channels-three Chinese and two English. Altogether they broadcast about 59 hours of programmes a day, with the highest viewer ratings going to the locally- produced variety and drama series. The stations also present frequent news bulle- tins, documentaries, light features, pro- grammes on current affairs, and imported films and programmes which are shown either in the original language or dubbed into Cantonese. The television production unit of the government radio station, Radio Hong Kong, produces many of the public affairs programmes transmitted by the three commercial stations-which also transmit schools programmes produced by ETY, the educational television division

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    RHK TV shooting a scene for 'Below the Lion Rock'-the award- winning drama series about people living on a housing estate.

A break for direction in the historical epic 'The Rise of the T'ang Dynasty', produced in 45-minute episodes by Commercial Television.

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International television comes to Hong Kong via satellite through Cable and Wireless, which also transmits to overseas countries.

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    A scene from the Christmas show of TVB's 'Enjoy Yourself Tonight' the Cantonese variety series which has about two million viewers.

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Visiting TV teams in 1975 included Yorkshire Television-to film a Hong Kong episode of 'Hadleigh' with Gerald Harper and Nancy Kwan.

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      country of destination, where they are specially handled to ensure quick delivery. Provided there is no substantial delay to aircraft, the service offers delivery to any part of the United States within 48 hours from the time of collection in Hong Kong, and this time is considerably shortened for items despatched to the West Coast. A reciprocal 'on demand' speedpost service-which is non-contractual-was inaugurated with the United States and Britain during the year. This has met the needs of business people who do not have a regular, pre-determined requirement for the ultra-fast transmission of documents.

        The express mail service which began in 1974 now operates on a reciprocal basis with nearly 100 countries. During the year, some 335,000 items were despatched from Hong Kong in this service.

On April 1, 1975, changes were introduced in postage rates for local letters, for the registration service, and for surface letters to China, Macau and Taiwan. The most significant change was the increase in the one-ounce internal letter rate from 10 cents to 20 cents. This rate had remained unaltered for 26 years and, even at 20 cents, it is one of the cheapest internal postage rates in the world. The rate to China, Macau and Taiwan was increased from 20 cents to 30 cents for a one-ounce letter, with corresponding increases for heavier letters. The registration fee for internal and overseas items was increased from $1 to $2.

In most areas of Hong Kong there are two mail deliveries a day, Monday to Saturday inclusive. The Post Office aims to deliver mail not later than one working day after the date of posting. This target is estimated to be achieved for about 98 per cent of all mail posted, the shortfall occurring mostly in the rural areas and some residential areas where the volume of mail does not justify more than one delivery a day.

A new post office was opened during the year at Wong Chuk Hang, bringing to 70 the number of post offices in operation throughout Hong Kong. This includes a mobile post office which provides postal services to remote parts of the New Terri- tories. Agency services carried out on behalf of other government departments in 1975 included the payment of social welfare benefits to more than 93,000 people a month. The number was about 37 per cent higher than in 1974, which was itself 70 per cent up on 1973. The upsurge in this work has put a severe strain on post office counter services, resulting in some deterioration in the quality of counter service at some offices.

        There was steady progress on the construction of the new General Post Office building, which is scheduled for commissioning in the middle of 1976. Construction of the proposed international mail centre was deferred in the re-phasing of major government projects. However, Phase I of this project-consisting of the loading bay, railway platform and store--was started, because of the urgent need to provide facilities for the handling of mail to and from China at the new railway terminus in Hung Hom.

        There were three issues of commemorative postage stamps in 1975. Two stamps were issued in February to mark the Lunar New Year the Year of the Rabbit. This

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was the ninth in the series of Lunar New Year stamps. Three stamps representing Hong Kong festivals were issued in July and three depicting Hong Kong birds were issued in October. The specially designed First Day Covers for each of these stamp issues proved more popular than ever.

Telecommunications Services

The Postmaster General, as the Telecommunications Authority, administers the Telecommunications Ordinance governing the establishment and operation of all telecommunications services in Hong Kong. The Postmaster General acts as adviser to the government on general technical matters concerning the provision of all types of telecommunications services, including the operation of the public telephone network, the provision of television services, and the provision of telecommunications services to and from places outside Hong Kong.

       The Post Office issues licences required under the Telecommunications Ordinance, investigates cases of infringement of the ordinance, and instigates legal proceedings where necessary. Post Office staff conduct examinations for the General Certificate in Maritime Communications, the Ministry of Transport Radar Maintenance Certifi- cate, and the Radio Telephony Certificate. The Post Office is also responsible for the control of radio frequencies in Hong Kong; the investigation of complaints of radio interference; and the regular checking of the parameters of civil aviation beacons and ground/air circuits. On behalf of the Director of Marine, Post Office staff carry out the inspection and survey of ship radio stations to ensure compliance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and to advise on the installation of equipment on new vessels. The Post Office plans and makes arrangements for the provision of telephone services for all government departments and provides advisory, installation and maintenance services for a large number of telecommunications and electronic systems and equipment used by government departments.

       Telecommunications services within Hong Kong are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company. The telephone system is fully automatic, with a flat rate rental allowing unlimited calls within Hong Kong. There are 53 exchanges serving more than one million telephone stations. This represents 23 stations per hundred population-the second highest ratio in Asia, with Japan the highest. Exchange equipment ranges from step-by-step electro-mechanical to common control semi- electronic. The network between exchanges consists largely of pressurised cables. Increasing use is being made of pulse code modulation, of which there are now 360 working systems providing more than 120,000 channel cable miles. The Hong Kong Island exchanges are linked to the New Territories and outlying islands by microwave routes using pulse code modulation. The world's largest capacity telephone cable, containing 6,000 pairs, was installed during 1975.

       A variety of systems required by the commercial sector are provided, among them a ships service which enables vessels entering the harbour to be connected to the public telephone network. New facilities being investigated include mobile telephones and a centralised automatic subscribers answering service.

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       During the year the telephone waiting list was virtually eliminated, the majority of customers being given service within one week of applying. Attention is being focused on serving remote areas and outlying districts, and connection by means of radio links has been established with Po Toi and So Ko Islands. A new cordless international manual board has been introduced to cope with the 'ever increasing growth in international calls, and direct dialling of international calls will be available to subscribers in 1976. The Hong Kong Telephone Company employs a staff of more than 7,500 in maintaining and expanding its services. It has a training school in Kwun Tong which can accommodate some 300 employees a day.

        Early in 1975 the government approved an increase of about 30 per cent in telephone rental charges and varying increases in certain other charges as from March 1-the increases being provisional pending the outcome of a commission of inquiry into the affairs of the Hong Kong Telephone Company. A six-member commission, with Sir Alastair Blair-Kerr as chairman, was appointed by the Governor to examine the company's management and organisation; its debt liabilities and its profitability; the causes of its cash flow problems; the financial implications of its expansion plans; and the adequacy, efficiency and quality of its services. The com- mission was required to recommend what steps should be taken to make the company financially viable and to advise the government on measures necessary to ensure adequate public control over the operations of the company-having regard to its character as a private company providing, on a monopoly basis, a public utility service. After six months' work, the commission submitted its report to the Governor, and the government accepted almost all the recommendations which came within its province.

Overseas telecommunication facilities are provided by Cable and Wireless with 400 telephone and 1,124 telegraph circuits to all parts of the world. A submarine coaxial cable with a capacity of 80 telephone channels extends southwestwards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam where it joins other cable systems to Japan, the United States, the Philippines and Australia. Two satellite earth stations provide direct links to the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean satellites. Facilities are provided to give Hong Kong international transmission and reception of television programmes in either 625/50 PAL or 525/60 NTSC standards in colour or monochrome. Com- munication facilities are also provided for ship-to-shore services and to nearby countries by VHF, tropospheric scatter and HF radio systems.

        Facilities for the public telegram service, airline operations and other commercial organisations are provided from the company's message switching centre. The centre has six computer processors and it currently handles 3.8 million messages or about 1,500 million characters each month. To cope with the increasing international telex traffic, two telex exchanges are in operation serving more than 3,800 subscribers. International telephone services to most overseas countries are provided in conjunc- tion with the Hong Kong Telephone Company. The international telephone exchange is equipped for 675 circuits.

14

The Media

K

     HONG KONG has a free press comprising 333 publications, and newspaper readership figures put the population among the world's most avid readers.

         There are three commercial television stations which reach an estimated three million viewers a day, and two radio stations which broadcast on seven channels in both English and Chinese. The price of a radio or television in Hong Kong is believed to be the lowest in the world and no licence is required for either. In most cases, the price of newspapers remains a mere 30 cents.

Press

       Newspapers account for 107 of the 333 publications now registered with the Registrar of Newspapers. Some 350 copies of newspapers are printed for every 1,000 people in Hong Kong. In Asia, only Japan exceeds this figure, with 490 copies to every 1,000 people. The world average is 102 per thousand people.

       Hong Kong's newspapers include three English dailies and 98 Chinese language papers. The combined daily circulation of the English language papers is estimated at 110,000, while the Chinese newspapers have an estimated circulation of 1.35 million. Four of the Chinese dailies sell more than 100,000 copies each.

       Periodicals represent a main sector of the press. There are 226 periodicals-157 Chinese, 47 English, 20 bilingual, and two Japanese. These magazines cover a wide range of subjects, from specialist technical journals to local entertainment guides.

        The Hong Kong Journalists Association has more than 600 members. In 1975, as part of its efforts to raise professional standards, the association introduced a six- point code of ethics for members. It also stepped-up its industrial activities by supporting a number of members' claims before the Labour Tribunal.

       The Hong Kong Press Club in Wan Chai provides social and working facilities for journalists and photographers. The Governor-who opened the club in 1974- returned to present the 1975 Journalist of the Year awards, made by the Hong Kong Journalists Association. Other distinguished visitors during the year included Lord Thomson of Fleet. The Foreign Correspondents Club in Central is also popular with local and visiting journalists, as well as people in advertising, public relations and business.

       Chinese and English language newspapers are also represented by the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, which has 15 members and 13 associate members. It is em- powered to act in matters affecting the interests of local newspapers, the society or its members.

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        The first-year activities of the local branch of the Press Foundation of Asia (PFA) included consultations with other organisations to protect the freedom of the press in Asia, and to protest against infringements. The PFA is an association of Asian publishers and editors representing 300 publications. It co-ordinates the func- tions of seven national press institutes.

Hong Kong is the base of Southeast Asian operations for many international radio and television networks, newspapers and magazines. International news agencies represented include Reuters, Associated Press of America, United Press International, Agence France Presse and Kyodo.

Printing and Publishing

Exports of printed matter have more than doubled in value over the past five years. They amounted to some $186 million in 1975, as compared with $80 million in 1970. Australia has replaced Britain as Hong Kong's biggest overseas customer. Aus- tralians are said to read more books per head than any other nation, and about half of all the books published in Australia are now printed in Hong Kong.

        There are some 1,200 printing firms. About 75 per cent of them use the letter- press method, producing mainly small-scale printing such as letterheads, posters, wrappers and textbooks. The others mostly use offset-usually with German or Japanese equipment-and they are responsible for the bulk of production. Many specialise in printing books, textbooks, periodicals, calendars and diaries, while others concentrate on wrappings and industrial packaging.

        The standard of offset printing is high, with printing and illustrative production techniques comparing favourably with those of the world's leading printing nations. Electronic colour-engraving machines are widely used and colour separation technique is good. Two and four-colour printing machines are widely used and leading printers introduced eight-colour rotary and web-offset machines as early as 1962.

During the past 10 years many overseas publishers have established offices or regional headquarters in Hong Kong where printing represents a substantial saving over other areas, and excellent distribution and communication facilities are readily available.

       Many educational book publishers have also established their regional head- quarters in Hong Kong. These include Heinemann Educational Books, the Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill Far Eastern Publishers, and IPC of London which has set up its regional headquarters in Hong Kong to handle the interests of its sub- sidiaries. The Asian editions of Time, Newsweek, and more than half a million copies a month of Reader's Digest are printed in Hong Kong.

Television

        Hong Kong has three enfranchised commercial wireless television stations- Television Broadcasts, Rediffusion (Hong Kong), and Commercial Television; com- monly referred to as TVB, RTV and CTV. The first two operate both Chinese and

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English channels, while CTV-which opened in September 1975-operates a single Chinese channel.

        All three stations maintain large and well equipped studio and office complexes, using the latest production and transmission techniques. The UHF 625-line PAL colour system is standard and the majority of the transmissions are in colour.

Between them the stations broadcast about 59 hours of programmes each day, reaching an estimated three million viewers. Present estimates are that 805,000 house- holds now have one or more television sets. This represents 89 per cent of all house- holds. An estimated 184,000 colour sets are now in use.

The most popular programmes are the locally-produced variety and drama series and these often have audiences of more than two million viewers. High viewer ratings are also achieved by the stations' news programmes, which provide comprehensive coverage of both local and international events. Imported programmes from many parts of the world are shown, either in the original language or dubbed into Cantonese.

Good use is also made of television in the field of education. In addition to documentaries shown as part of their normal programmes, the stations provide transmission facilities for the schools programmes produced by the educational televi- sion division (ETV) of the Education Department. This important section of the local educational system-which is now in its fifth year-produces programmes on a wide range of educational subjects which are transmitted to schools five days a week between 8 am and 6 pm.

CTV under the terms of its licence also provides two hours of special instructional programmes each weekday. Commercial advertising is excluded from this segment of its programming. Subjects taught so far include English language, interior design, automobile mechanics and bookkeeping. The lessons are supported by a system of external tutorials and examinations.

        The provisions of the Television Ordinance are administered by the Television Authority. The Commissioner for Television and Films is responsible for the regula- tion of the stations' licences and the issue and enforcement of the programme, advertising and technical standards required of the licencees.

The Television Ordinance also requires all stations to provide air-time for govern- ment-produced programmes. These include topical features and public service informa- tion messages supplied by the Government Information Services, but the majority of government programmes come from the television production unit of the government radio station, Radio Hong Kong.

        In 1975 the television output of RHK TV increased to more than three hours a week, taking up a total of around eight hours a week on the five channels. Many of the programmes feature current affairs, with studio audiences taking part in dis- cussions. A new series in Cantonese was introduced during the year. The programme features panels chosen from among leading members of the community-including members of the Executive and Legislative Councils-who answer questions from the studio audience and from viewers who telephone during the show. The programme, 'A Matter of Concern', goes out live on RTV's Chinese channel. Another discussion

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programme, 'Needlepoint', is transmitted live on TVB's Chinese channel while a simultaneous English translation is broadcast on an FM sound radio channel of Radio Hong Kong. The weekly 'Junior Police Call' programme continues to be popular and has a following of more than 100,000.

        RHK TV's biggest success is the programme 'Below the Lion Rock'-a story of people living on a housing estate. It is seen by 2.7 million people weekly on the three Chinese channels-the largest viewer rating of any programme in Hong Kong. One episode of the show-on good neighbourliness-won a special award in the Asian Broadcasting Union's Shiraz Film Festival for young film makers.

Sound Broadcasting

        Hong Kong's two sound broadcasting stations are Radio Hong Kong and Com- mercial Radio. Radio Hong Kong, which has two English and two Chinese channels, is financed from general revenue and carries no advertising. As the government radio station, it is charged with producing radio as well as television programmes which inform, educate and entertain. The station operates under its own management.

        Although financial economies caused RHK to reduce its number of broadcast hours in 1975, there was increased in-depth coverage of news and public affairs on international and local levels. The Chinese service broadcasts 24 hours of news a day and the English service two hours-including BBC world services relays. English and Chinese services each give an average half an hour a day to public affairs programmes. Some outstanding outside broadcasts were made during the full coverage given to the Queen's visit in May. Other notable outside broadcasts covered the Hong Kong Arts Festival, the Cheung Chau Bun Festival and the Dragon Boat Festival. Throughout the year, Chinese and English services organised quiz programmes and debating competitions in schools, and the Chinese service held its first Footballer of the Year competition-which was so successful that it is now to be a permanent feature. RHK's drama and opera groups were featured in many open-air shows, which were seen by thousands and heard by many more listening at home.

        The station's four channels continued to build up their individual identities, catering for minority interests in addition to the masses. Phone-in programmes attracted such attention that special equipment had to be installed in Broadcasting House to cope with the number of callers.

         Commercial Radio broadcasts on three sound channels-two Chinese and one English. In 1975 the station adopted a more personalised form of presentation, with the emphasis on news and sport. The English channel offers news every 30 minutes throughout the 19 hours of its broadcast day, with three main 10-minute bulletins a day. During the year, broadcasts were made from Kuala Lumpur and Manila on the two world heavyweight boxing championship fights. In the studios, the accent was on audience participation-through the open-line programme, interviews, and daily competitions on general knowledge, with prizes for listeners.

The Chinese programme department maintained its high rate of involvement in public affairs by contributing to the Urban Council's entertainment programmes and by organising and presenting shows to raise money for charities. Following its

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successful textbook donation campaign, the department raised more than $230,000 in 1975 to buy new textbooks for distribution free of charge to some 2,000 needy students.

Government Information Services

        The Government Information Services is a major link between the government, the people of Hong Kong and the rest of the world. The department is organised in three main divisions-news, publicity and public relations-with certain services common to all three.

       The news division is responsible for issuing to the media all government an- nouncements, varying from information on matters of government policy to routine notices and weather reports. It channels information to newspapers, news agencies, radio and television stations; produces a daily information bulletin in both Chinese and English; deals with press enquiries 24 hours a day; and, in times of emergency, becomes the nerve centre of all communications.

       Through its teleprinter and facsimile networks, the division is able to relay information speedily to the media for public dissemination. The system provides for all information and announcements to reach the English and the Chinese media simultaneously.

       The daily information bulletin supplements the teleprinter and facsimile services and gives factual information on government projects as well as routine notices and statistics. It is distributed to more than 120 newspapers, news agencies, and television and radio stations.

       The division's press enquiry service operates 24 hours a day and during the year answered an average of 200 queries a day. The news division also maintains a comprehensive press and reference library which is used daily by local and overseas journalists as well as by students and members of the public.

       During typhoons, severe rainstorms or any other emergency, the division is quickly transformed into a communications control centre and manned round-the- clock by teams of officers working in shifts. Liaison officers are also deployed to key departments directly involved to ensure that up-to-the-minute information on the situation reaches the news division for dissemination to the media and the public.

       The GIS publicity division consists of three sub-divisions-publicity and market- ing, creative, and editorial. The creative sub-division is responsible for all government films and photographic work, and also all design and display services. Editorial division produces the Hong Kong yearbook and a wide variety of government publications. It is responsible for the sale of all government publications and is the Hong Kong agent for the publications of many overseas governments and inter- national agencies. The division also has a section looking after overseas publicity with particular reference to film and TV teams visiting Hong Kong. Publicity and marketing division handles the promotion of campaigns and the distribution of all publicity materials.

The main objective of the public relations division is to foster better under- standing between the people and the government. The division achieves this largely

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by assessing public opinion as reflected by the mass media and by advising govern- ment departments on matters which are of particular concern or interest to the public. Publication of the Hong Kong News Digest has been continued for Hong Kong people overseas, though postage costs in other countries have made it necessary for the paper to be distributed fortnightly instead of weekly.

        The information section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London works in collaboration with the Government Information Services. The section keeps the British media informed of all newsworthy developments in Hong Kong which come within the sphere of the government. It does this through a private national tele- printer network direct to newspapers, magazines and radio editors; through in-depth news releases sent by mail; and through personal contact with journalists. The London Office depends heavily on news and other information supplied by GIS- which sends a daily news round-up by telex and fuller details by airmail. Enquiries from the media are usually answered by the London Office reference library, but if necessary queries are referred to Hong Kong by the direct telex link with GIS.

        In 1975 the information section was closely concerned with the design and con- struction of a new and larger Hong Kong Exhibition at the Commonwealth Institute in London. The exhibition was opened in September by Dame Margot Fonteyn, with entertainment provided by the Luk Chi Fu lion dancers and the Tung Wah College dance team who travelled from Hong Kong specially for the occasion.

Film Industry

Film making is a large industry in Hong Kong, which ranks among the world's main film producing countries in terms of the number of major productions filmed each year. In recent years, local film makers have established significant overseas markets for the distribution of Hong Kong films.

        While the studios of the major producers-Shaw Brothers and Golden Harvest- continued to turn out a considerable number of films in 1975, productions by in- dependent companies showed a marked decrease. This situation is said to result from tighter finance, reduced support at local box offices, and a need for the local film industry to find a new line to follow the phenomenal success of the kung-fu and other martial art films-which are no longer in such demand. Some film makers, however, have been quick to make the most of Hong Kong's scenic attractions and lower film production costs by engaging in joint venture agreements with major Western film makers. A number of such joint productions made in local studios have already enjoyed good business internationally.

       The people of Hong Kong are among the world's keenest cinemagoers, but attendances in 1975 were generally lower. The economic situation and television have been blamed. The re-imposition of entertainment tax on cinema tickets during the year is not considered to be a significant factor. The year's most popular films were 'The Towering Inferno', 'The Last Message', and 'Earthquake', which grossed $5.7 million, $4.6 million, and $2.7 million respectively. At the end of the year there were 87 cinemas with a total seating capacity of 105,689.

15

The Armed Services and

Auxiliary Services

THE British Army, Navy and Air Force are all represented in Hong Kong and are under the command of the Commander British Forces, Lieutenant-General Sir Edwin Bramall.

The Commander British Forces advises the Governor on matters affecting the security of Hong Kong and is responsible to the Chief of Defence Staff in London. The Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong primarily to assist the government in maintaining security and stability.

       Army units predominate and are under the direct command of the Commander British Forces, who has the additional appointment of Commander Land Forces. Royal Navy ships are under the direct operational control of the Captain-in-Charge, Hong Kong, who also commands the naval base HMS Tamar. The Commander Royal Air Force commands the Royal Air Force station at Kai Tak and associated units, including No. 28 Squadron which is equipped with Wessex helicopters.

       The major part of the naval force is the permanently assigned Hong Kong Squadron at present consisting of HMS Chichester and some patrol craft. The Hong Kong Squadron acts in support of the government within the territory's coastal waters.

        Royal Navy divers have assisted the Hong Kong Government in recovering several million dollars worth of drugs, and the patrol craft of the squadron work in conjunction with the marine division of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force in patrolling territorial waters.

       The Royal Navy in Hong Kong employs 550 locally recruited Chinese naval ratings in various fields, including cooks, stewards, technicians and seamen. Some 200 of the cooks and stewards are serving in HM Ships throughout the world. A further 150 locally recruited seamen and storehousemen serve worldwide in the Royal Fleet Auxiliaries which provide logistic support for Her Majesty's Fleet. Laundering, tailoring, shoemaking and hairdressing facilities are provided for the fleet by 300 Hong Kong Chinese seagoing civilians. Within HMS Tamar, some 150 Hong Kong Chinese civilians are employed mainly on clerical, storekeeping, transport and labour tasks for the naval base and ships of the Hong Kong Squadron.

        In a neighbourly spirit, the Royal Navy provides much help to villagers in the rural areas of the Sai Kung and Tolo peninsulas. Recent projects have included the installation of generators and the provision of electricity for schools, villages and street lighting; the construction of children's playgrounds; and the provision of dental treatment for children from orphanages and charitable organisations such as the Hong Kong Sea School.

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        Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island and has under its command 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, stationed at Sek Kong in the New Territories, and 51 Infantry Brigade with its headquarters in Kowloon.

        Units stationed in Hong Kong for some or all of 1975 were the 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery, 20 Light Regiment Royal Artillery, C Squadron 1st Royal Tank Regiment, the 2nd Battalion the Grenadier Guards, the 1st Battalion the King's Regiment, the 1st Battalion the Royal Hampshire Regiment, the 1st and 2nd Bat- talions of the 2nd King Edward VII Own Gurkha Rifles, the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles, and the 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles. In addition to these, there was a wide range of supporting units providing assistance to all three services.

       Throughout 1975 units of the Army manned positions in the border area, and in conjunction with the Royal Hong Kong Police Force provided joint police-military patrols in that area and in the more remote parts of the New Territories. It is here that the Army contributes to the control of illegal immigrants who cross the land border of Hong Kong.

        With the arrival of nearly 4,000 Vietnamese refugees on the MV Clara Maersk, all three Services supported the government in helping with the refugees' reception and accommodation. The Armed Forces also extended help of all kinds to the local community during the year, including a major contribution to the Summer Youth Programme which is run as a community effort. Some 120 young men and women attended a three week intensive course at RAF Kai Tak to train leaders in order that they might be better equipped to help Hong Kong's youth organisations. In- structors were provided by all three Services under the sponsorship of 1st Battalion the Royal Hampshire Regiment.

        The coveted Wilkinson 'Sword of Peace' was awarded to 50 Command Workshop Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, stationed in Sham Shui Po, for its assistance to the civilian population. This sword is awarded annually to the British unit which, throughout the world, achieves most in the field of community relations. During 1975 the unit undertook 50 major projects helping young people, the under- privileged, and the physically handicapped.

       The Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak is a separate enclave adjacent to the civil airport and uses the airport's runway and control services. Radar facilities are shared with the Civil Aviation Department to ensure the safety of all aircraft, whether civil or military, operating within the Hong Kong Flight Information Region.

       No. 28 Squadron, based permanently at Kai Tak, is equipped with eight Wessex helicopters, primarily for the rapid movement of troops and supplies. It provides a standby aircraft for search and rescue in Hong Kong and nearby waters. The squadron also carries out-together with the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force-a medical evacuation service for both military and civilian personnel from outlying areas to the main hospitals in Kowloon.

       In the same way as the Royal Navy and the Army keep in touch with isolated areas, the Royal Air Force Regiment assists the government with patrols to the

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islands of Po Toi and Lamma. As a result of contacts with the local people, Royal Air Force personnel have been able to assist these island communities by undertaking projects to improve facilities in schools and villages. Sports facilities at the Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak are frequently used by local children.

Throughout the year the Services have maintained a high standard of training and alertness and, jointly with the New Territories Administration and the police, they have steadily improved arrangements for the security of the border and other critical areas of Hong Kong and its waters.

        In Britain, the Defence White Paper which was laid before Parliament on March 19, 1975 reaffirmed the United Kingdom's obligation to ensure the security of its dependent territories. It also said: 'In Hong Kong there will be some reductions in British servicemen and locally enlisted personnel; and we are seeking from the Hong Kong Government a larger share of the cost of our forces when the present cost- sharing agreement, which expires in 1976, is re-negotiated.'

        In December, following protracted negotiations, the Hong Kong Government and the United Kingdom Government concluded a new Defence Costs Agreement which comes into effect on April 1, 1976. Under this agreement the garrison will comprise four infantry battalions (three of them Gurkha), a Gurkha engineering squadron, five naval patrol craft and an RAF helicopter squadron. The garrison will be reinforced should circumstances require it.

        The agreement will run for seven years initially and will be reviewed for further periods of five years on the same terms unless either government wishes to vary them. The garrison is estimated to cost $450 million and the Hong Kong Government will meet 50 per cent of the cost in 1976-7, then 62 per cent in 1977-8, and 75 per cent in the third and succeeding years. These contributions will be adjusted for changes. in price levels in Hong Kong and Britain. The agreement also provides for the release of about 250 acres of land occupied by the Services over the next four years. This land will revert to the Hong Kong Government.

Local Auxiliary Services

        In addition to the regular forces, Hong Kong has two auxiliary service units- the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Royal Hong Kong Aux- iliary Air Force. These are administered by the Hong Kong Government but would come under the Commander British Forces and the appropriate Service commanders if called out.

        The Royal Hong Kong Regiment numbers more than 700 volunteers and 51 permanent staff. It is a light reconnaissance regiment and, following a review of its role, is now made up of three reconnaissance squadrons, one infantry squadron, a headquarters squadron and a home guard squadron. There is also a junior leaders squadron of 135 boys between the ages of 14 and 17.

        The regiment operates in support of the British Armed Forces in Hong Kong, in both internal security and reconnaissance roles.

       The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force is the only remaining operational auxiliary air force squadron in the Commonwealth. It is based at RAF Kai Tak

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alongside the Hong Kong International Airport and it has an establishment of 111 volunteers and more than 50 permanent staff. It has five aircraft-a twin-engined Britten-Norman Islander, a Beechcraft Musketeer and three Alouette Mark III helicopters.

        The unit can operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and it is able to under- take full-time duties in an emergency. Its main role is internal security but it also operates as a communication squadron. Volunteers are trained at week-ends and in the evenings.

        More than 130 casualty evacuation flights were carried out during the year. The unit also carries out search and rescue, aerial survey, the flying doctor service, surveil- lance flights to hinder drug running activities, training of air traffic controllers of the Civil Aviation Department to private pilot's standard, and the conveyance of govern- ment officers to outlying areas.

        The unit celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1974 and a commemorative First Day Cover was produced on February 1, 1975 jointly with the RAF Museum at Hendon. Some of the covers were carried in the squadron's Islander aircraft to Clark Air Base in the Philippines, and some locally in one of the Alouette helicopters.

Essential Services Corps

        The Essential Services Corps comprises four autonomous services-units of the Essential Services Corps, the Civil Aid Services, the Auxiliary Medical Service and the Auxiliary Fire Services.

        The 70 units in the Essential Services Corps can be mobilised at times of severe disorder to help maintain public utilities and other essential services if the security of Hong Kong or the welfare of the population is in danger. The future of the ESC and, in particular, the need to maintain the corps as a standing body, was under review at the end of the year.

Civil Aid Services

        The volunteer Civil Aid Services consist of disciplined and uniformed members of the public who assist other regular emergency services in combatting natural disasters and civil unrest. The role of the Civil Aid Services has recently been reviewed and duties have been expanded and diversified. Volunteers are now trained to handle casualties, to conduct both light and heavy search and rescue operations in the case of victims trapped in landslips or collapsed buildings, and to give assistance to people lost or injured in the mountains. Duties also include motor cycle reconnaissance of damaged roads and the reporting of accidents, manning of typhoon shelters, and assisting in the registration and feeding of the homeless, forest fire-fighting, and anti-oil pollution duties.

         The adult establishment of the Civil Aid Services was reduced from 3,800 to 2,300 at the beginning of the year. Volunteers are recruited from almost every walk of life, and are always ready to perform arduous and often hazardous tasks at any time and in any weather conditions.

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        The main operational duty performed by the Civil Aid Services in 1975 was the staffing of camps for the Vietnamese refugees who arrived in Hong Kong. Several camps were established in co-operation with the Armed Services and government departments. During the first few months the Civil Aid Services deployed up to 300 volunteers a day on a shift basis. This placed a heavy burden on employers, but they co-operated wholeheartedly in releasing volunteers.

        The organisation has a junior wing, the Cadet Corps, which comprises 2,000 youths aged between 14 and 18. The aim of the Cadet Corps is to help boys to develop, to make them aware of civic responsibilities, and to provide organised camps, sports and expeditions. Recruits are mostly from resettlement and other heavily congested urban areas and they are posted to a cadet unit in the area in which they live. A restruc- turing of the Cadet Corps is in process to make it an independent body within the Civil Aid Services.

Cadets are taught the basic skills as practised in the adult service as well as camping, trekking, forest conservation, life-saving and mountaineering techniques. For the 17 to 18 age group, more advanced courses are held in mechanical engineer- ing, fibreglass canoe making and allied subjects. Development continued during the year of a 50-acre campsite on a plateau 750 feet above Tsing Lung Tau on the Castle Peak Road. Plans to make safe and renovate the old village-type houses were in hand. The work is being financed by a donation of $250,000 from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities. The camp, when completed, will be able to accommodate more than 300 youths under canvas.

Auxiliary Medical Service

        The Auxiliary Medical Service-which augments the regular medical, health, and ambulance services-celebrated its 25th anniversary in December 1975. A new zone headquarters was opened at Tung Chung, Lantau. The organisation is now fully up to strength with a membership of more than 6,000-including doctors, nurses, phar- macists, and other professionally-qualified volunteers. Non-professional members receive training in first aid, casualty handling, ambulance duties and hospital ward services. Throughout the year, on Sundays and public holidays, members were deploy- ed on ambulance duty and they also assisted at methadone maintenance centres and other medical institutions. Volunteers also manned the Auxiliary Medical Service's own two ambulances.

Members helped to receive the Vietnamese refugees when they arrived in Hong Kong, and afterwards manned medical posts and sick bays at the refugee camps on a round-the-clock basis. Auxiliary nurses also staffed and ran the milk kitchens in each camp.

The Auxiliary Fire Service

        The Auxiliary Fire Service was disbanded on March 31, 1975 after several decades of valuable service. Its numbers had decreased sharply since the introduction of new training, fitness and age requirements in 1972, and membership was less than 200 at the time of disbandment.

16

#F

Religion and Custom

      EXCEPT at festivals, the people of Hong Kong do not make much show of religion. At least six religions are practised, but even the two most popular-Buddhism and Taoism could pass unnoticed by a visitor whose stay did not coincide with some special celebration. Hong Kong has its share of old and new temples-some of them magnificent buildings-but they are not so evident as in other parts of the East.

Apart from 600 Buddhist and Taoist temples, the territory has nearly 600 Christian churches and chapels, three Muslim mosques, a Hindu temple and a Jewish synagogue.

Buddhism and Taoism

Among the Taoist and Buddhist believers, almost every household has its ances- tral shrine and countless shops have a God Shelf, with images of usually two or three of the hundreds of divinities. Traditional rites associated with birth, marriage and death are still widely observed.

Religious studies are conducted in monasteries, nunneries and hermitages, with those at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan being popular because of their easy accessibility. But the best known monasteries are situated in the more remote and unspoilt parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery on Lantau Island is renowned for its view of the sunrise, and many visitors go there at weekends and holidays. Sightseers and devotees are also attracted to Ching Shan Tsz and Tsing Chung Koon at Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor and Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen near Tsuen Wan, and Sai Lam at Sha Tin. At Tao Fung Shan, near Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture, where the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried out for many years. In the urban areas, various Buddhist institutions hold gatherings where the sutras are expounded.

        Virtually all monasteries are open to the public, as are the temples-which are crowded at festivals and on certain days of the month. Although each temple is general- ly dedicated to one major deity occasionally two-it is usual to find the images of many deities in most temples. Since Hong Kong has always depended on the sea- originally for fishing and then for trade the most popular deities are those connected with the sea and the weather. Tin Hau, the Queen of Heaven and protectress of sea- farers, is said to be worshipped by 250,000 people.

        There are at least 24 Tin Hau temples in Hong Kong, the first and most famous. being the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Because of land reclamation, many of the Tin Hau temples which were originally established by the sea are now some distance inland.

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       Other leading deities include Kwun Yum, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy; Kwan Tai, God of War and the source of righteousness; Pak Tai, Lord of the North and local patron of Cheung Chau Island; Hung Shing, God of the South Seas and a weather prophet; and Wong Tai Sin, after whom an area of New Kowloon is named. The temple there in his honour-in the middle of a public housing estate-is built in the style of Chinese traditional architecture, like several other new temples. Steps are being taken to provide facilities for the fast growing population in public housing estates to worship and celebrate religious festivals.

Taoist and Buddhist organisations help to meet welfare, educational and medical needs in Hong Kong-either directly or by contributing to charitable organisations. Many temples have donation boxes to collect money for schools, hospitals or charities.

       In the New Territories, traditional clan organisations have been preserved. Many villages have an ancestral hall where ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and ven- erated. The hall is the centre of both religious and secular activities among villagers of the same clan. Animism is found in the form of shrines or simply joss sticks at the foot of certain rocks and trees within which spirits are believed to dwell. It is especially common among Hakka villagers.

There are five major festivals in the Chinese calandar, with the Lunar New Year being first and foremost. Gifts and visits are exchanged among friends and relatives, and children receive 'lucky money'. During the Ching Ming Festival in spring, an- cestral graves are visited. In early summer, the Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated with dragon boat races and by eating cooked rice in lotus leaves. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon. Gifts of mooncakes, wines and fruits are exchanged, and adults and children go into the parks and countryside at night with colourful lanterns. Chung Yeung is on the ninth day of the ninth moon, when large crowds climb various hills in remembrance of an ancient Chinese family's escape from death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. Family graves are also visited on this day.

Christianity

       Organised Christianity dates back almost to the foundation of Hong Kong, the first churches being established in 1842. Today there are nearly 600 churches and chapels. The most recent Hong Kong Church Directory lists about 50 denominations and sect groups.

There is no formal religious census, but the estimated number of Christians is 440,000-about 10 per cent of the total population. Of these, slightly more than half are Roman Catholic and the rest Protestant.

       Protestant churches are responsible for more than 250 primary schools and 130 middle schools and colleges. The Christian concern for post secondary education is shown by the existence of Chung Chi College at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Baptist College.

       The Christian churches also sponsor a variety of service programmes including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, homes for the aged, family service centres, vocational

FESTIVAL

At least a dozen Chinese festivals are cele- brated in Hong Kong, with five of them being public holidays. Most important is the Lunar New Year, followed by festivals involving gods and goddesses, dragon boats, pink buns and mooncakes. But most intriguing is Yue Lan, the Hungry Ghosts Festival, which is in August. For most of that month all the souls in the underworld are said to be allowed to return to earth for a holiday. Yue Lan is held on the 14th day of the seventh moon to make them feel welcome. Believers join in religious cere- monies and celebrations, with people lay- ing out food for family ghosts and burning imitation clothing and money as offerings. Special offerings are made for ghosts with- out families, so that they will not feel neglected and cause trouble.

小心煙大

Joss sticks are burned before a paper image of the general who distributes food and clothing in the underworld.

施普

Taoism and Buddhism intermingle as Taoist lay-priests take part in a

ceremony before priests representing the Three Precious Buddhas.

A priest recites the Buddhist sutras-belief in the underworld and reincarnation being fundamental to Buddhism.

社保

וג

Homage to the dead in one of the many bamboo and matting shrines which are built throughout Hong Kong for the festival.

  Young stick-dancers blow their conch shells to summon the ghosts to the dance.

Music for the celebration is played on the Chinese bamboo flute-as it has been for centuries.

  Brightly-coloured decorations are an essential part of any Chinese festival, and the Hungry Ghosts are welcomed back with gaiety.

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training centres, and aid for the handicapped. With decreasing overseas assistance, the local congregations are providing a greater share of the support.

        The mainline denominations-together with active Christian organisations such as the YMCA, YWCA, and the Bible Society-have associated themselves for co- operative work in the Hong Kong Christian Council. Established in 1954, the council promotes ecumenical projects and concerns in Christian service, industrial mission, Christian education and communication. The council's Christian Centre facilities include a conference room, recording studios, film libraries and a reference library. The Christian Council's 23 members represent the majority of the Protestant Church membership in Hong Kong.

In the same building with the council is the long-established Hong Kong Chinese Christian Churches Union. The union is an association based on congregations rather than denominations. In the past year, the number of member-congregations has increased from 174 to 185.

Another organisation with a long history is the Chinese Christian Literature Council-publishers of Christian literature for the Chinese communities of Southeast Asia. This council carries on the activities of the former Christian Literature Society of Shanghai, founded in 1887.

The Christian Study Centre at Sha Tin is an ecumenical study and research centre which promotes seminars and studies of Christian concerns and Christian understand- ing of Asian culture and religions.

In May 1975 the new care centre for severely mentally retarded children was opened at Sunnyside Precentorium, Junk Bay. In the pilot stage, it provides for 10 children. This centre, like the existing two hostels for the elderly, is a co-operative project of Protestant churches and service agencies. It is administered by the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council.

November was highlighted by the Billy Graham Crusade. This was sponsored by a committee representing the total Protestant community of Hong Kong.

The end of the Vietnam war brought an unexpected responsibility to the Chris- tians of Hong Kong. Thousands of refugees arrived from Vietnam, and for nearly six months the Hong Kong Christian Council co-ordinated the work of Protestant groups among the refugees.

Roman Catholic Church

        It was in April 1841 that Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong. The first Prefect, Monsignor Theodore Joset, built a matshed church at what is now the intersection of Wellington and Pottinger Streets. He established a seminary for the training of Chinese priests and persuaded religious sisters to come to Hong Kong to start schools, hospitals, creches and other welfare work.

        In 1867 the Pontifical Institute of the Foreign Missions of Milan took charge of the Prefecture, with Monsignor T. Raimondi as Prefect (later Bishop). This institute

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     remained responsible for the Church in Hong Kong for 102 years. In 1969 responsi- bility was transferred to the diocesan clergy, with Bishop Francis Chen-pin Hsu as the first Chinese Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong.

Bishop Hsu died suddenly in 1973 at the age of 52. He was succeeded by Bishop Peter Wang-kei Lei, but he also died suddenly in the following year, aged 51. The third Chinese Bishop of Hong Kong, Bishop John Baptist Cheng-chung Wu, was consecrated and installed by Cardinal Rossi in the Hong Kong Roman Catholic Cathedral on July 25, 1975.

In addition to its pastoral and apostolic work, the Church engages in a wide vari- ety of work in education, health care and social welfare. There are now 308 Catholic schools, with more than 260,000 students. Vocational education is being developed.

Catholic social and health services include seven social centres which emphasise vocational and adult education, six hospitals, 12 hostels for students and workers, a maternity home, 20 general clinics, five dental clinics, two mobile clinics, 15 day nurseries, two homes for the aged, two homes for the blind and a large variety of self-help clubs and associations.

Co-operation with other Christian bodies has been growing steadily at both personal and institutional levels. Contact with other religions is increasingly frequent and friendly.

Roman Catholics in Hong Kong number about 265,000. They are served by 337 priests (183 Chinese and the rest of 14 nationalities), 94 Brothers (44 Chinese and 50 of 12 other nationalities) and 793 Sisters (463 Chinese and the rest of 23 other nation- alities). There are 53 parishes and 16 rural districts. The services in nearly all churches and chapels are in Chinese. A few city churches provide some services in English and in one church on Hong Kong Island all services are in English.

Other Religious Communities

The Muslim community numbers about 23,000 followers of Islam. The majority are Chinese, with the rest mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Iran and neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street and Wong Nei Chong Road Mosques on Hong Kong Island and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

The Shelley Street Mosque, the first to be built in Hong Kong, dates back to the early days of the introduction of the Islamic faith in the 1880s. It was rebuilt in 1915. The Kowloon Mosque was built towards the end of the last century for use originally by Muslim soldiers of the former Indian Army. It was subsequently handed over to the local Muslim community. Two places have been set aside by the government as burial grounds for Muslims. One is at Happy Valley and the other at Cape Collinson, Chai Wan.

The co-ordinating body for all religious affairs is the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community Fund of Hong Kong. A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is responsible for

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the management and maintenance of all mosques and cemeteries. The trustees are also responsible for organising the celebration of Muslim festivals and other religious events. Charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial aid to the needy, hospitalisation and assisted education, is conducted through a welfare com- mittee working under the direction of the board of trustees.

       The 8,000-strong Hindu community can trace its ties with Hong Kong back to early settlement. Religious and social activities are centred around the Hindu temple at Happy Valley. It is frequently visited by swamis and learned men from overseas who give spiritual lectures to the community. A number of festivals are also observed, the more important being the Holi Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Diwali.

       The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, yoga classes and teaching Hindi to the Indian community. During 1975, the association sponsored several seminars on an- cient Hindu teachings which were conducted by Hindu scholars invited from India. The seminars were held in English and were open to all nationalities. Religious music recitals are also held periodically at the temple.

       Hong Kong's Jewish community worships at a synagogue in Robinson Road. Built in 1901 on land given by Sir Jacob Sassoon and his family, the synagogue is in memory of Sir Jacob's mother Leah. It is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 500 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from Britain, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States, South Africa and Israel.

17

Recreation

     THE promotion of physical recreation and sport in Hong Kong took on fresh dimen- sions in 1975 through the activities of the new Recreation and Sport Service.

       The service was set up in late 1974 on the recommendation of the Council for Recreation and Sport-which advises on the provision of facilities and services to meet the leisure time needs of young people.

The Recreation and Sport Service caters for all ages and all abilities, but there is particular emphasis on young people. The service is operated by the Education Department, and it is planning and organising physical recreation and sport activities on a district basis. During its first year, it established officers in six districts, and plans are now underway for other districts. The officers help the community to make full use of all sports facilities in their district. They work closely with relevant govern- ment departments, voluntary agencies, sports associations and youth groups.

The service has already made a great impact with a wide range of programmes including sports competitions, training athletic meets, excursions, camping, keep-fit programmes, and special activities for the handicapped and the aged.

Response from the public has been overwhelming. Some 130,000 people have taken part in 900 events promoted by the service. The majority of participants were aged between 12 and 24. It is estimated that 200,000 people will take part in pro- grammes organised or promoted by the service in 1976.

To ensure a ready supply of trained manpower to operate programmes, the service organised 60 courses for coaches, instructors, referees or leaders in its first 14 months. There are now 3,000 trained people available.

Swimming

With the majority of people in Hong Kong, swimming continues to be the most popular form of recreation-there being 37 beaches and eight swimming pool com- plexes. The first public complex in the New Territories was opened at Tsuen Wan in July. The pool complex, and the 25 beaches in the New Territories, are controlled by the Urban Services Department.

The Urban Council controls the beaches and seven pool complexes in the urban area, and these pools have become so popular that the number of swimmers admitted at any one time has had to be limited in the interests of hygiene and safety. Swimming classes have been expanded-more than 5,000 beginners attended the Urban Council's 'learn to swim' classes in 1975. The water safety campaign was again held to remind swimmers of the need to be careful.

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Substantial progress was made during the year on expanding swimming facilities. Changing rooms, showers and toilet facilities were provided at Middle Bay, South Bay, Shek O, Big Wave Bay and Stanley Main beaches. A pilot resanding scheme has been launched at Repulse Bay, following complaints about stones and barnacles causing minor cuts to bathers. The scheme involves the dumping and spreading of 600 cubic yards of quarry spalls over two sections of the beach to ascertain whether the material will remain after months of tidal movement.

Two major swimming pool complexes are being constructed at Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island and at Tai Wan in Kowloon. Also planned are pool complexes at: Chai Wan on Hong Kong Island; Hammer Hill and Kowloon Park in Kowloon; and Yuen Long, Kwai Chung, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun in the New Territories.

Summer Youth Programme

More than two million young people took part in the seventh annual Summer Youth Programme during July and August. Some 30,000 volunteers helped to plan and run the programme, which is a community effort by voluntary agencies, the Armed Forces, district groups and those in government departments who are directly con- cerned with youth. Expenditure on the 1975 programme amounted to more than $3 million, of which a little more than half was donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club.

The programme covered a wide range of activities-from giving a child a memor- able moment of pleasure right through to providing the opportunity for a mature youth to develop his own leadership potential. The programme included camping, launch picnics, sports, study courses, canoeing, swimming, funfairs, competitions and projects aimed at community service. Camping was again the most popular activity.

The overall planning was once more undertaken by the Central Co-ordinating Committee for Youth Recreation. For the first time, programme activities were adver- tised on television-with the aim of reaching those young people who do not belong to any youth organisation. The 1975 programme laid special emphasis on attracting more young workers and youngsters between school and work.

The objective of the Summer Youth Programme is to meet the need for healthy activities during the summer holidays when a break in studies leads many young people to seek some completely new project to occupy their time. The content of the programme is carefully re-examined each year to ensure that the changing needs of youth are met wherever possible.

The Countryside

       During the past 10 years, informal outdoor recreation has become so popular that it is now a major factor in the management of the countryside. Its social signifi- cance is demonstrated by steadily increasing numbers of visitors from many sectors of the community. Small groups are most common, but large group outings from schools and voluntary organisations are also increasing.

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In localities managed by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, the number of visitors in 1975 was roughly two million-an increase of some 70 per cent over the previous year. In the most popular picnic areas of Shing Mun, Bride's Pool and Pat Heung the numbers increased by 28 per cent, 44 per cent and 52 per cent respectively, compared with the same period last year. Where adequate management services are lacking, deterioration of the amenities through fire, trampling and the accumulation of litter clearly demonstrates the need for additional management services and facilities for visitors. These are being provided in stages as part of a recreational development programme, started in 1972, which is administered through the conservation and forests division of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department.

       It is now accepted that extensive tracts of countryside-such as the Tai Mo Shan massif and the Sai Kung peninsula need to be conserved and managed as a whole, with recreation facilities to be developed at focal points within these larger areas. New legislation to provide a better legal framework for these developments is being drafted.

       Meanwhile, work on the ground is continuing within the limits of available staff and funds. So far the main provision for visitors has been picnic sites, of which there are now 183. Some have magnificient views of mountains and water, while others are in more sheltered woodland settings. Amenities include tables and benches, litter bins and wherever it is safe-fireplaces for the universally popular barbecue. Foot- paths are being improved and there are nature trail guides, maps and information boards, and occasional simple shelters against rain and sun. A start has been made to install public toilets, but many technical problems have to be overcome at the majority of sites, particularly those within reservoir catchment areas.

Tent camping presents special problems which will only be resolved satisfactorily through the provision of formal sites. A small experimental site which has been established by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department at Pui O, on Lantau Island, is yielding valuable information on local campers' needs and preferences.

Urban Recreation

       In 1975 the Urban Council spent $1.7 million on its free entertainment and recreation programmes in the urban area, while the Urban Services Department expanded its own programme in the New Territories. Some 1,100 functions were organised for more than a million people. Regular entertainment included variety shows, Chinese band concerts and operas, film shows, and Fukienese and Cantonese puppet shows.

During the swimming season, 16 swimming parties and 'swim-ins' were held at various beaches and swimming pools, and 20 launch picnics were organised for children and young people from the 10 urban districts. There were some 20,000 participants. Sports competitions were jointly organised with various sports associa- tions throughout the year. They covered football, mini-soccer, basketball, volleyball, cycling, table tennis, track and field events, bowling and judo. The number of indi- vidual events exceeded 600, and thousands of young people were involved.

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       To bring more colour and greenery to urban life, 176,041 trees, shrubs and flowers were planted during the year. The Urban Council and Urban Services Department now manage a total of 1,630 acres of public open space-1,062 acres in the urban areas and the rest in the New Territories.

        The annual Urban Council flower show, held in late March, attracted 123,000 visitors to the City Hall.

Entertainment and the Arts

        The importance of Hong Kong as a major cultural centre in Asia is illustrated by the many overseas artists and performing groups presented at the City Hall by the Urban Council. In 1975 there were 50 such performances. Some were presented with the assistance of various consulates and national cultural organisations such as the Alliance Francaise, the Goethe Institute and the Dante Alighieri.

Cultural life in Hong Kong has centred around the City Hall since it was opened in 1962. It is administered by the Urban Council and facilities include: a 1,500-seat concert hall which can quickly be converted for theatrical productions; an intimate 470-seat theatre which may also be used as a cinema; two exhibition areas; rooms for lectures and conferences; and two restaurants with bars. The buildings also house the Hong Kong Museum of Art and the City Hall Library.

        Local performers as well as visiting artists appear regularly in the two auditoria, and the demand for use of facilities is heavy. Local artists presented by the Urban Council in 1975 gave performances which included 38 concerts of Chinese and Western music, and 15 productions of opera, drama and dance. The Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra performed 21 different programmes in 61 concerts in its second professional

season.

Apart from Urban Council presentations, local music groups and soloists gave 85 concerts at the City Hall during the year. In drama, many Chinese groups-amateur as well as professional and three English amateur groups presented 21 productions, with 115 performances at the City Hall.

The major event of the year was the 1975 Hong Kong Arts Festival, presented in February by the Hong Kong Arts Festival Society in association with the Urban Council. There were concerts by the English Chamber Orchestra, the Orchestre National Francais, the Australian Youth Orchestra and the Spanish National Or- chestra. Opera and drama was presented by the Royal Swedish Opera and the Yvonne Arnaud Theatre, and flamenco dancing by the Lucero Tena Spanish Dance Ensemble. World-renowned soloists who performed at the festival included Isaac Stern, Alicia de Larrocha, Narciso Yepes and Yi-Kwei Sze. Hong Kong had a full month of music, dance and drama.

       Because the success of the City Hall indicates that there is a demand for even greater cultural facilities, the Urban Council has made plans for a cultural complex at Tsim Sha Tsui, on the site of the old railway terminus. There will be a double auditorium block with halls seating 2,500 and 1,000, a restaurant block, a museum

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     of 70,000 square feet, an arts library, and a planetarium. The planetarium will be the first phase to be completed. When opened in 1977-8, it will include a sky theatre for 350, lecture rooms and exhibition areas. During 1975, the Urban Council ordered a 75-foot diameter dome for the sky theatre, making it one of the world's largest planetaria.

Arts Centre

Although the Hong Kong Arts Centre does not yet have a permanent home, the organisation has made a big contribution to the territory's cultural life over the past four years. It is specially interested in promoting local artists and Eastern culture --such as Chinese opera and instrumental music, folksinging, storytelling, puppetry and other folk-arts.

       The centre organises many of the local presentations in connection with the Hong Kong Arts Festival, and it promotes both local and overseas artists throughout the year. In 1975 these presentations included: weekly lunch-time recitals in St John's Cathedral; nine workshops to generate interest in folk-art; six organ recitals; and 20 City Hall performances covering Chinese music and opera, Western music by over- seas orchestras, Spanish guitar music, storytelling, puppetry, Filipino dances and Japanese Kabuki dances.

       As a result of efforts by the Arts Centre, there is now a Society for the Promotion of Chinese Opera and a Hong Kong Society for Puppet-art. During 1975 the centre also organised at least two art exhibitions a month, again with the emphasis on local work. Lectures, demonstrations and meetings are held frequently to help and encourage anyone concerned with the arts. Work on the Arts Centre building in Wan Chai is now well under way, and it is scheduled to be completed by the end of 1976.

City Museum and Art Gallery

       In 1975 the Urban Council took a major step forward in the development of museum services. The City Museum and Art Gallery was divided into two new sections-the Hong Kong Museum of Art and the Hong Kong Museum of History. Art is still on the top three floors of the high block at City Hall, but history is now on the fourth floor of Star House in Kowloon.

The new history museum covers about 8,000 square feet. It contains sections on local history, archaeology, ethnography and natural history. The museum was opened on July 18 by the Governor. It immediately attracted many visitors, the record number being more than 14,000 in one day. Most popular are the displays on local currency, models of fishing junks, and a series of feature exhibitions on local history. Attendance from opening day to the end of 1975 was 319,363, representing an average of 2,265 visitors a day.

In addition to the display areas in Star House, there is a workshop in Kowloon Park to support the activities of the history museum. The museum's collections have increased steadily-particularly the archaeology collection, through the efforts of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society.

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At the City Hall, the Hong Kong Museum of Art is continuing to collect and exhibit works of art of all kinds-paintings, sculpture and prints, as well as decorative art and crafts. These are both contemporary and from the past, and reflect the art of China, Kwangtung and Hong Kong as well as East-West relations since the 18th century.

Of the contemporary and historical art pieces acquired in 1975, the 43 water- colour pictures by the 19th century artist Tingqua are considered outstanding. These will enlarge the museum's existing collection of historical pictures-consisting mainly of the Chater, Hotung, Law and Sayer collections.

The Chinese art section has been reorganised with a complete change in the display. On permanent exhibition is the museum's collection of Han pottery, T'ang, Sung and Ming ceramics, and Ch'ing porcelain. Displayed in rotation are bronze, jade, lacquerware, cloisonné and embroidery pieces.

During the year the Hong Kong Museum of Art organised 12 exhibitions, three of which were from overseas. Total attendance at the museum for 1975 was 210,011, representing an average of 762 people a day.

At the Lei Cheng Uk Museum, the Han tomb was re-opened to the public in August after being closed for a year for conservation work to be carried out. The tomb and various finds were discovered in 1955. Attendance from August until the end of 1975 was 11,646, averaging 109 a day.

Libraries

Another new library-at Kwun Tong-was opened in 1975. This brings the number of Urban Council public libraries to seven-four on the Kowloon peninsula and three on Hong Kong Island. There is also a separate study room at Kowloon Park.

The facilities of these libraries and the study room are freely available to all residents of Hong Kong. The branch libraries at Waterloo Road, Ping Shek Estate, and Kwun Tong in Kowloon, and at Wah Fu Estate and Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island, all concentrate primarily on lending facilities for adult and junior readers. But they also have newspaper/periodical sections.

The City Hall and Yau Ma Tei libraries-the main libraries for each side of the harbour-provide similar facilities on a larger scale and also have comprehensive reference sections. That of the City Hall concentrates on the humanities and social sciences, while the Yau Ma Tei library is strong on science and technology.

The Tsuen Wan public library-the first to be set up in the New Territories by the Urban Services Department-has continued to be popular, and proposals for establishing more libraries in the New Territories are now under consideration.

        The libraries have a total book stock of 629,373 in both Chinese and English, and 3,120 reels of microfilm. They subscribe to 505 current newspapers and periodicals,

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    mainly in English and Chinese, from all over the world. In the 13 years since the first library was opened at the City Hall, 664,907 people have registered as borrowers. In 1975, books borrowed from the lending sections totalled 3,064,039, while 371,675 books were consulted in the reference sections. A Hong Kong Bibliography was compiled by the library staff during the year.

       The libraries organise regular book exhibitions, children's story hours, talks, film shows, essay and Christmas card competitions, and library visits. A mobile library service for Sham Shui Po and North Kowloon and a gramophone record library service are expected to come into operation in 1976.

The British Council

      The British Council amalgamated its two libraries in 1975, closing the one at Gloucester Building in Central and transferring the books to the council's centre at Star House in Kowloon. The move took place in May. It caused no reduction in the titles available for borrowing and throughout the year more than 70,000 books were loaned to 7,500 members.

       The readers mainly students-also made full use of the reading room, which provides more than 200 British newspapers and magazines on a wide range of subjects.

      In March the council presented a book exhibition on social sciences, which was also displayed at the New Asia College of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The exhibition was seen by about 2,300 people.

       In the academic field, assistance was given to government departments and the two universities to enable staff members to visit British universities and other institu- tions and to attend specialist courses. Six British Council scholarships were awarded during 1975 for training in the teaching of English overseas. Acting for the Sino- British Fellowship Trust, the council arranged six scholarships for post-graduate studies in Britain. The council also completed placing and travel arrangements for eight British Commonwealth Fellows and Scholars from Hong Kong going to Britain.

       The council continued to give advice and information to any student leaving for higher studies in Britain. Close co-operation was maintained with the Education Department, and a large number of students were assisted and met by the British Council on arrival in London.

       The council also made arrangements for specialists from Britain to visit Hong Kong for consultations with government departments, the universities, and with local experts in their fields. Subjects covered included medicine, applied linguistics, drama and music, thoracic medicine, economics and education. Among the visiting specialists were Professor A. Duncan, Executive Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Edinburgh; Professor J. G. Scadding, formerly Professor of Thoracic Medicine, Brompton Hospital, London; Dr Alan Davies, Deputy Head of the Department of Applied Linguistics, University of Edinburgh; and Mr D. Grattan, Controller, Educational Broadcasting, BBC.

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On the arts side, the Tuckwell Wind Quintet gave a performance at the City Hall in June under the auspices of the British Council and the Hong Kong Conser- vatory of Music. The council's centre at Star House was again the venue for the English section of the Hong Kong Schools Music Festival. Feature films of artistic and literary interest and also specialist medical films were obtained from London and shown to schools, university departments and hospital staff. Educational films from a library of locally held prints were lent to a large number of schools and other institutions.

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The Environment

HONG KONG lies just within the tropics-less than 100 miles south of the Tropic of Cancer. It comprises a small part of the Chinese mainland and a series of offshore islands. The capital and centre of commerce, Victoria, is on Hong Kong Island, with the twin city of Kowloon on the mainland. Between them lies the magnificent natural harbour which is one of the busiest in the world.

       The territory is on or near the southeast coast of China, 90 miles southeast of Canton and 40 miles east of the Portuguese province of Macau. Geographically it lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E, adjoining the province of Kwangtung.

The total land area is 404 square miles, including recent reclamations. Hong Kong Island, together with a number of small adjacent islands, covers 29.2 square miles, with Kowloon and Stonecutters Island accounting for another 4.3 square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 370.5 square miles.

Topography and Geology

Hong Kong's hilly topography has ensured survival of a relatively large expanse of countryside, often favourably compared to some of the most famous scenic areas in the world. Its steep and rugged slopes, rising from sea-level to two and three thousand feet, feature rocky crags, wooded ravines with rushing streams, and open grassy slopes. Some 20 freshwater reservoirs of various sizes nestle among these hills giving additional charm to the scenery.

The territory lies on the edge of an eroded mountain chain which extends along the south coast of China, and is largely composed of folded and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks with younger intrusions of granitic rocks mostly of the Jurassic period. The oldest sedimentary rocks found in Hong Kong are those of the Tolo Harbour Formation. This formation is exposed at Ma Shi Chau and contains fossils dated as most probably Permian in age.

However, its stratigraphic relationships are somewhat uncertain. The formation of minerals associated with the intrusion of the granitic rocks has been of limited economic benefit to Hong Kong. Lead, zinc, tungsten, beryl and graphite have been mined intermittently, but only in small quantities. Iron ore mining has been of greater importance and there is currently an active mine at Ma On Shan, which exports concentrated ore to Japan.

Due to the hilly terrain, agricultural land is restricted. The most important area is the flat alluvium around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area. Outside the alluvial

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areas soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acidic and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. However, given intensive labour input, water supply rather than soil condition tends to be the controlling factor in farming. The predominantly crystalline character of the rock formations unfortunately makes them unsuitable for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface run-off for all water supplies. The highly variable rainfall of the area has led to periodic water shortages. Most of Hong Kong's surface water supply has now been captured through the construction of catchments and reservoirs. After completion of the High Island reservoir scheme, desalination processes on a large scale will become necessary.

        Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia, but more profitable vegetable crops have increasingly displaced rice during the past 25 years and it is now grown on only 31 per cent of the area being used for agriculture. Fish ponds are also an important form of rural land use. The upland areas are mostly grass-covered and in several places, as in the Castle Peak area, severely eroded. Afforestation has been developed since 1945 but the area covered is still relatively small. The most important economic function of the uplands is for water catchment areas, which must be reconciled with needs of the crowded urban areas for recrea- tional space.

Climate

Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it experiences seasonal weather con- ditions, unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the northeast quarter and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid- March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when it is generally dry and sunny. After New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight, it is often persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south- easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool northeasterlies.

The summer monsoon blows from the south or southwest and can occur from mid-April until September, but it is not as persistent as the northeast monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm in 1963 and 3,100.4 mm in 1973, the wettest year since 1889, but the mean value is 2,168.8 mm.

        Mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever recorded at the Royal Observatory are 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. After- noon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night.

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      Mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in a January. The daily average of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to more than seven hours in mid-July and late October.

      Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected from May to November but are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force, endangering life and property.

The Year's Weather

      Unlike the drought-ridden early sixties, Hong Kong has experienced exceptionally heavy rainfall in recent years. In particular 1973, 1975 and 1972 are respectively the wettest, the third wettest and the sixth wettest years since records began in 1884. Active troughs of low pressure in April, May and June, together with three tropical cyclones in October, brought the 1975 annual rainfall up to 3,028.7 mm-nearly 40 per cent above normal.

      Out of a total of 22 tropical cyclones reported in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during the year, seven affected Hong Kong and necessitated the hoisting of tropical cyclone warning signals. Typhoon Elsie passed about 27 miles to the south of the Royal Observatory on October 14 causing the No. 10 hurricane signal to be hoisted for the first time since 1971, when it went up for typhoon Rose. But although Elsie brought storm to hurricane force winds, little damage to property was reported and there was no loss of life.

       As a result of a weak winter monsoon, the first three months of the year were mild and cloudy and the temperature never dropped below 10°C. There was some fog in February and March, and an exceptionally large number of days with cloud and drizzle in both January and March.

April was also abnormally warm. The mean temperature of 24.2°C and the mean maximum temperature of 27.3°C were both the highest on record for April, while the mean minimum temperature of 21.8°C ranked third highest on record for the same month. Heavy rain associated with two active troughs of low pressure brought a total of 345.0 mm of rain, making the month the fourth wettest April on record. The rainfall of 92.4 mm recorded between noon and 1 pm on April 30 was also a new record for April. According to reports by residents in Kwun Tong and North Point, the thunderstorms during the morning of April 28 were accompanied by hailstones. Heavy showers and thunderstorms on the last day of the month caused flooding in low-lying areas and some minor landslips.

       May was warmer but much wetter and less sunny than usual. The total rainfall for the month amounted to 571.5 mm, which is nearly double the normal. The weather was mainly influenced by active troughs of low pressure near the south China coast and

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      in the northern part of the South China Sea. Thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings were issued on 19 days.

        June was an extremely wet month with 579.6 mm of rain. The southwest mon- soon was very active, resulting in thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings being issued on 14 days. There were landslips and flooding in low-lying areas. July was sunnier and drier than usual. It was the first month since February with below average rainfall. More than 80 per cent of the month's total rainfall of 292.4 mm fell between July 12-6 when there was some flooding in the New Territories. Two tropical cyclones were reported over the western North Pacific but they did not affect Hong Kong.

        There were more heavy showers and thunderstorms in August and the month's total rainfall of 458.9 mm exceeded the average figure for August by 24 per cent. Although there were five tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during August, only one necessitated the hoisting of warning signals in Hong Kong. The tropical depression developed about 220 miles to the south of Hong Kong during the night of August 9 and moved towards Hainan Island. But when it reached the southwestern tip of Hainan Island, it turned round and moved back towards the Pearl River Estuary. The eye of the depression covered an area of about 40 miles in diameter and its eastern part passed over Hong Kong on August 14. It finally degenerated into an area of low pressure near Canton.

        September was warmer and much drier than usual with a total recorded rainfall of only 96.0 mm. Four tropical cyclones were reported and warning signals were hoisted for two of them- -severe tropical storm Alice and typhoon Betty. The fine and sunny weather ahead of Betty caused the air temperature on September 22 to rise to a maximum 33.9°C, which was the highest temperature recorded in 1975.

In October there were five tropical cyclones reported, and three necessitated the hoisting of tropical cyclone warning signals. Temperatures were near normal but humidity was unseasonably high. The month's total rainfall of 465.6 mm was about 34 times more than usual and ranked as the fourth highest on record.

        November was much drier than usual with only 17.4 mm of rainfall. Although three tropical cyclones were reported during the month, none came close enough to threaten Hong Kong. Dry conditions prevailed for the last 14 days of the month and fire danger warnings were in force for the entire period. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted once, from November 22-4, to give warning of strong to gale force northerly winds due to an intense surge of the winter monsoon. As a result, air temperatures fell steadily and the minimum temperature of 8.5°C recorded at the Royal Observatory on November 24 was the lowest for any November since 1922 and ranked fourth lowest on record.

Severe outbreaks of the winter monsoon associated with an exceptionally intense continental anticyclone centred over Siberia resulted in very cold weather in Decem- ber. The mean temperature for the month was only 14.5°C, the lowest on record for December. On the morning of December 14, the Royal Observatory recorded a minimum temperature of 4.3°C, which was the lowest temperature recorded in the year and was also a new record for December. The minimum temperatures recorded

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the same morning at Tai Mo Shan and Tate's Cairn were -4.0°C and -2.0°C respectively. Snow was reported at Tai Mo Shan while ice and frost were frequently observed on high ground between December 13 and 17. During this cold spell, 12 people were reported to have died of cold, but damage to crops in the New Territories was not serious.

The Royal Observatory

The Royal Observatory is directly concerned with all matters relating to mete- orology, geophysics and environmental sciences. It provides a diversity of services on a broad spectrum of environmental problems.

Hong Kong is a focal point of world communications-with one of the busiest ports in the world and an airport that now handles a considerable part of all domestic exports. The territory's prosperity depends largely on the safe and efficient operation of ships and aircraft under all weather conditions, and Hong Kong experiences a variety of weather unusual in the tropics. During the summer months, it is affected in varying degrees by about five times as many tropical cyclones as the most exposed parts of Florida. Consequently the Royal Observatory plays an important role in the life of the community and the million tourists that visit Hong Kong each year.

The observatory operates weather forecasting, tropical cyclone warning and various other services to meet the needs of shipping, aviation and the general public. Within the observatory establishment, a wide variety of meteorological observations are made and recorded. Surface observations of pressure, wind, air temperature, humidity, weather, visibility, rainfall and cloud are made around the clock at the Royal Observatory, King's Park, Tate's Cairn, Hong Kong International Airport and Cheung Chau. Regular upper air soundings of wind, temperature, pressure and humidity are made at King's Park, using balloon-borne instruments. Sunshine, solar radiation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, earth temperatures at various depths, sea waves and sea temperatures are also recorded.

       Close liaison is maintained with all ships visiting Hong Kong and about 35 selected ships are provided with instruments by the observatory to encourage them to transmit weather reports which are used in the preparation of forecasts and for locating tropical cyclones. About 45 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two coastal radio stations in Hong Kong. All reports are disseminated to other centres through the World Weather Watch telecommunication network.

       About 8,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received from other countries each day, together with aircraft reports and other data. They are decoded, plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and fishermen. All aircraft leaving Hong Kong are given briefings, written forecasts and weather charts.

Providing the tropical cyclone warning service is one of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory. Whenever a tropical cyclone is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30°N and longitudes 105°-125°E, warnings for shipping are generally issued every three hours. These provide information on the

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strength of the circulation, the position and movement of the centre and the 24-hour forecast position. Reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft are received at the Royal Observatory, as well as cloud pictures obtained direct from meteorological satellites. These reports are used to locate the centre and evaluate the intensity of the tropical cyclone.

When tropical cyclones approach Hong Kong, warnings are widely distributed by visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Information, advice and recom- mended precautions are broadcast at frequent intervals. If the centre of a tropical cyclone comes within 240 nautical miles of Hong Kong, it can be located and moni- tored by the observatory's radars mounted on the top of Tate's Cairn. An isoecho device has been fitted to the radar to facilitate the real-time estimation of the intensity of rainfall associated with tropical cyclones. This equipment also provides valuable information for heavy rain and thunderstorm forecasting, as well as hydrological applications.

        The observatory is responsible for Hong Kong's Time Service. Six pip signals from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 of a second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95 MHz and are relayed by radio and television stations. With effect from January 1972, the time kept by the Hong Kong Time Standard was changed to Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC). This new time system has been adopted by international agreement and is based on an atomic time standard which provides a more uniform time scale than that based upon astronomical standards.

Instruments and Measurements

The seismological section of the observatory operates 12 seismographs in a specially constructed cellar. These sensitive instruments can record vibrations of both long and short periods transmitted through the ground. On average, tremors from about 800 earthquakes occurring all over the world-are detected and analysed each year. Other tremors resulting from underground nuclear explosions, storm micro- seisms, local blasting or pile driving are also registered by the seismographs. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum-Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However, an average of two to three tremors may be felt each year by residents in certain locations such as on balconies of high buildings, but none were reported in 1975.

The observatory prepares bulletins on all earthquake tremors recorded and participates in the Tsunami Warning System for the Pacific area. Tsunamis are seismic sea waves and are caused by earthquakes. Whenever an intense earthquake is recorded, with its epicentre anywhere in the Pacific Ocean or the South China Sea, a special message is sent to Honolulu and Tokyo where Tsunami warnings can be issued.

Geomagnetic measurements, which ceased in 1941 and resumed in 1971, are now made regularly at the geomagnetic station near Tate's Cairn, where magnetic variation is also recorded. This is a joint project by the University of Hong Kong and the Royal Observatory, made possible by a donation from the Nuffield Foundation.

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The Royal Observatory's meteorological instruments section installs, calibrates and maintains more than 100 meteorological instruments at various locations through- out Hong Kong. Various types of anemometers are installed at different places to obtain wind information. This information is of importance during the approach of tropical cyclones and is also required by various government departments in connec- tion with projects such as the siting of incinerators, desalters, power stations and the planning of new towns. A sea wave recorder has been installed off Waglan Island to facilitate the study of such matters as the effects of sea waves on the High Island Water Scheme dam at Kwan Mun.

      During the year, instruments were installed at the Tai O Royal Naval Coast Station to assist Royal Navy staff to make regular weather observations for trans- mission to the observatory's Central Forecasting Office. These observations will also be useful in connection with the long term planning investigation of Hong Kong's air transport system.

The observatory has a reference library with more than 10,000 periodicals and textbooks. Besides being necessary for staff, the library was increasingly used during the year by students, teachers and research workers from local universities and schools. The library also keeps microfilmed copies of historical weather charts and records, and a comprehensive collection of satellite photographs, radar photographs and time lapse radar films of various meteorological phenomena.

A booklet of astronomical tables and star charts for Hong Kong is published by the Royal Observatory annually. This booklet lists the times of sunrise and sunset, duration of twilight, times of moonrise, moonset and different phases of the moon and other astronomical information. It includes 12 star charts depicting the aspects of the night sky each month. Various astronomical queries are answered by the observatory and an article on the appearance of the sky is prepared for the newspapers each month.

      The observatory answers requests for climatological and meteorological infor- mation from various government departments, firms and the general public, and issues certificates for litigation purposes and for insurance claims. It also acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of many projects in Hong Kong that may be affected by meteorological conditions. Technical papers are published on various aspects of local weather and on a wide variety of geophysical subjects.

The Royal Observatory computer system is programmed to decode, process, and archive all incoming meteorological messages, and to prepare charts and various objective forecasts for use at the Central Forecasting Office. The capacity of the system has been increased to cope with increasing data influx from international telecommunication circuits, and the implementation of data checking procedure. From May 1975, the computer produced 250 mbar weather charts, and these are used for flight documentation at the airport meteorological office. Since July, objective fore- casts of tropical cyclone tracks have been disseminated to countries in Southeast Asia for their operational use.

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Research

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Investigations and basic research in applied meteorology and geophysics were carried out and meteorological analyses were undertaken for several major engineering projects such as the design and planning for construction of large oil tanks and piers at Tsing Yi Island and the laying of major submarine cables. Consultative services were rendered to other government departments and to local and overseas institutes and organisations in relation to various weather-sensitive activities. These included advice on expected weather conditions during the Queen's visit in May and the analysis of waves in the Malacca Straits in relation to beach erosion problems.

During the year, a statistical study was made of the mean rainfall distribution associated with tropical cyclones within 300 nautical miles of Hong Kong, and the results were used to estimate the amount of rainfall in Hong Kong from tropical cyclones over the South China Sea. Intensive research was also undertaken to deter- mine the relationship between large-scale Asian weather features in winter and their effect on the summer rainfall in Hong Kong.

Long-range rainfall forecasts have been issued annually to the general public since 1973. The seasonal forecast issued in February 1975 was for a wet summer, with rainfall for the whole year to be about 15 per cent above average. Weather patterns associated with the dry and wet spells during summer in Hong Kong were examined and a case study of the heavy rainfall caused by two typhoons moving on a similar track was made. The effect of solar activity on local weather was also evaluated. An objective method for predicting the mean temperatures for the winter months in Hong Kong was developed using stratospheric data.

Pollution Monitoring and Control

The Advisory Committee on Environmental Pollution (EPCOM) and its three sub-committees dealing with water and land pollution, air pollution, and noise pollution-were active throughout the year. The terms of reference of EPCOM are to keep under constant review the state of the environment and pollution and to advise the Secretary for the Environment. EPCOM comprises a chairman, 15 non- government members representing many walks of life, and 12 senior government officers from various departments interested in pollution control. They have made a number of recommendations which have been accepted by the Secretary for the Environment.

The Environment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat, which is the policy making body for the control of pollution, has been concerned with many pollution problems. They include conservation of the countryside, hawkers, noise from air conditioners and construction equipment, sewage treatment and disposal, and excessive smoke from vehicle exhausts. Particular attention has been given to the potential pollution problems which can be expected if sophisticated modern industries involving the use or manufacture of chemicals on a large scale establish themselves in Hong Kong. The disposal of wastes likely to arise from proposed industrial estates, especially those containing heavy industry, has also been under scrutiny. It is considered that- both for the present situation and future development-the existing legislation for

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     the control of pollution is fragmented, limited in scope and generally unsatisfactory. To remedy this, consultants started work at the beginning of the year to advise on the principles to be incorporated in a general environmental protection ordinance cover- ing all aspects of pollution. They have submitted their first technical report and it is anticipated that, arising from this, at least part of the comprehensive environmental legislation necessary to tackle Hong Kong's pollution problems effectively will be enacted in 1976.

        Meantime, in February 1975, amendments to regulations under the Clean Air Ordinance came into operation. They related to furnaces, ovens and chimneys, and the restriction and measurement of smoke emission.

        Results of aerial monitoring carried out by the air pollution control unit of the Labour Department continued to show a significant reduction in sulphur dioxide con- centration during the year. At Hung Hom, the level of sulphur dioxide was only about one thirteenth of the maximum permitted level of 50 parts per hundred million set by the former Advisory Committee on Air Pollution. Readings at the station at Queen Elizabeth Hospital were about two parts per hundred million, while readings in Sham Shui Po and at the Central Market were about one part per hundred million.

        Although the unit relies more on constructive advice than stringent enforcement, it is still sometimes necessary to initiate prosecutions under the Clean Air Ordinance and its subsidiary regulations against persistent offenders. In 1975 it was necessary to prosecute 59 cases, with fines ranging from $50 to $3,000.

Farming Wastes

       The Agriculture and Fisheries Department continued to advise farmers on how to dispose of their wastes in order to cause the minimum amount of pollution of watercourses. During the year there was some reduction in the problem, but this was due largely to a fall in the number of pigs and poultry rather than the adoption of pollution control measures by farmers. However, considerably more use is now being made of poultry manure as a fertiliser due to the increase in the cost of artificial fertilisers.

        In February, another visit to Hong Kong was made by Professor P. C. G. Isaac, the World Health Organisation consultant advising the government on the control of pollution from agricultural wastes. His purpose was to review progress made in tackling this problem since his first visit. Progress was not up to expectations, and the major factor influencing this was the difficulty in recruiting suitably qualified staff for the agricultural waste treatment unit which is still well under strength.

        The poultry manure drier set up at Pat Heung was, by the latter part of the year, processing a regular quantity of manure. Trials are being undertaken by the Agricul- ture and Fisheries Department to look into the use of the product as an animal feedstuff and fertiliser. A large amount has been distributed among interested farmers for them to assess its value. So far reactions to the use of the dried manure have been cautious but promotion work by the department is continuing.

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The first stage of the treatment system for pig manure at Ta Kwu Ling govern- ment farm is now in operation, and work on the second stage is underway. This system is being used to demonstrate to local farmers the types of more advanced waste treatment. Every effort is being made to show farmers that the removal of solids from pig buildings before hosing down will greatly reduce current pollution problems in watercourses.

Marine Pollution

        A marine pollution unit has been set up within the Agriculture and Fisheries Department in order to establish base-lines for the evaluation of the level of pollution and its effects on the biota. This unit is responsible for investigations into pollution problems affecting fishery resources and for the well-being of the marine environment of Hong Kong. On-going investigations include productivity studies and surveys of benthic organisms, the results of which should be applicable to various decisions concerned with the dumping of sewage and preservation of fishery resources. The unit collaborates with the two universities and the Public Works Department.

Fish culture trials in the sewage effluents of the Shek Wu Hui pilot sewage treat- ment plant are being carried out by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. Apart from ascertaining the feasibility of using the nutrients in the effluents for the produc- tion of animal proteins, tests are also being carried out to ascertain the edibility of the cultured fish-particularly in connection with the possible contamination by pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals.

        The Marine Department's pollution control unit deals with the three main aspects of harbour pollution-oil pollution, harbour scavenging and refuse collection from ocean-going vessels.

Under the overall guidance of a marine officer, the unit maintains surveillance on all aspects of oil transfer to and from ships. A patrol launch is used for this purpose and regular and frequent checks are made on ships and oil installations throughout Hong Kong waters. Since the inception of the unit in 1971, many pollution offenders have been successfully prosecuted. The maximum penalty for polluting the waters of Hong Kong is $20,000 and six months imprisonment, plus the cost of clearing or dispersing the pollution. An additional fine of $4,000 can be imposed for failure to report oil pollution. The unit is equipped with stocks of oil dispersants, spray booms, sea-surface agitators and oil containment booms, and launches are always in a state of readiness to deal with oil pollution. A purpose-built launch equipped with modern pollution control facilities was commissioned in October 1975. There are VHF radio facilities to enable the on-scene commander to communicate and co-ordinate with the Port Communication Centre in the event of oil spillages.

The pollution control unit also operates scavenging services in the main harbour and the typhoon shelters at Aberdeen, Causeway Bay and Yau Ma Tei. To cover these operations, 23 craft are currently under contract to the government. Refuse is disposed of by land transport also under contract, and during the year an average of 11.7 tons of refuse was removed daily. Of this, 57 per cent was fragmented timber, with the remaining 43 per cent consisting of domestic and sundry refuse. The refuse collection

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service is operated by three craft for the benefit of ocean-going vessels. Each morning a list is compiled of ships which have remained in port for 48 hours or more. These ships are then visited by the pollution control unit and accumulated domestic refuse is removed. Vessels wishing to make use of this service before they have been in port 48 hours may do so by direct contact with the pollution control unit. This service effectively precludes clandestine dumping during the hours of darkness.

The Royal Observatory is responsible for providing basic information on radio- active fallout from nuclear explosions, so that warnings can be issued on possible health hazards. Regular measurements of beta and gamma activity in the atmosphere and in rainfall have been made since 1961. The radioactivity of filtered water samples from several reservoirs around Hong Kong is also regularly determined for the Water Authority. The general level of atmospheric radioactivity in 1975 was low.

The Radiation Board, set up within the Medical and Health Department, exercises control over the issue of licences for irradiating apparatus and radioactive substances. The board operates under the Radiation Ordinance and two sets of regulations-the Radiation (Control of Radioactive Substances) Regulations and the Radiation (Control of Irradiating Apparatus) Regulations.

Conservation and Countryside Management

       Steep hills cover about three-quarters of the land area and dominate the landscape. The vegetation on these hills-which includes grass, scrub and some 10,000 acres of woodland-plays an important role in the management of water catchments and in the enhancement of scenic amenities.

       The two principal factors adversely affecting the vegetation and wildlife are grass and forest fires and the large numbers of people from the urban areas who visit the countryside for recreation. During the year 618 fires were reported. The total extent of damage is not known, but in areas managed by the Agriculture and Fisheries Depart- ment 80 fires covered about 450 hectares, damaging some 200,000 trees. Similar damage occurred in other areas. The number of visitors continued to increase significantly, as it has done for several years. They brought with them problems of fire, litter and the destruction of vegetation.

The long-established conservation and forestry work of the Agriculture and Fish- eries Department provides a basis for more intensive management of the countryside on Hong Kong Island, Lantau and parts of the mainland-such as Tai Lam Chung, Shing Mun and Tai Po Kau. This work is now being expanded to serve additional areas such as the Sha Tau Kok peninsula and, in the near future, the Sai Kung peninsula.

       The principal tasks involved in this countryside management include fire protec- tion, afforestation and woodland management, landscape repair and the protection of flora and fauna. Also government development plans are scrutinised for features which might diminish the natural assets of the countryside. Additional services are being provided specifically for visitors as part of a programme, started in 1972, for the development of the recreational potential of the countryside. This programme

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includes the improvement of footpaths, provision of picnic places and toilets, informa- tion and education services, and improved road access for management personnel.

New legislation is being drafted to make possible the designation of the most important areas as country parks. A major objective is to protect these areas from deterioration through developments which are incompatible with recreation.

In the development and operation of countryside management services, the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries is assisted by an advisory committee on recrea- tional development and nature conservation together with a sub-committee specifically dealing with nature conservation. The membership of these committees consist of officials of various government departments and also leading members of the com- munity and staff of the two universities. During the year the parent committee met four times and the sub-committee four times.

The greater part of the countryside is subject to some form of prohibition regard- ing bird and wild mammal hunting, and carrying firearms. During the year an area of the Mai Po marshes was given further protection under the Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance to allow for control of entry to the area and protec- tion of the ecology. Overall enforcement of the Ordinance is carried out by four full- time game wardens supported by 224 other government officials, who have powers of game wardens in addition to their normal duties, and by 27 honorary game wardens. Also, all Justices of the Peace and police officers have the statutory powers of game wardens.

19

Population

THE people of Hong Kong are now living longer and having smaller families, and a population bulge is beginning to develop in the right place. Hong Kong still has a very young population, but the number of potential wage earners-those in the 15-64 age group is increasing. There are more people to support the young and the old, and the growing number of the aged is being more than offset by a drop in the birth rate.

The total estimated population at the end of 1975 was 4,379,900, with 2,262,700 males and 2,117,200 females. Compared with the estimated population of 3,625,400 in 1965, there has been an increase of 21 per cent over the last 10 years.

The average annual rate of increase over the 10 year period was two per cent. The rate year by year fluctuated owing to changes in migration flow. But the rate of natural increase dropped steadily over the period from 23.1 to 13.3 per thousand. This was the result of a decline in the birth rate from 28.1 per thousand in 1965 to 18.3 per thousand in 1975, with the death rate remaining stable at about five per thousand.

The population of Hong Kong is still a very young one-more than 43 per cent of the population in 1975 was below the age of 20. But the median age of the popula- tion-which 10 years ago was 20.8-is now 23.3 years. The proportions between the different sections of the population have also changed considerably. In 1965, 40.8 per cent of the population was under 15; now it is 31.4 per cent. The relative figure for those aged 65 and over has risen from 3.6 per cent to 5.5 per cent. This indicates that there is a greater potentially productive population (aged 15-64) avail- able to support the infants, those who are being educated, or those who have retired. The dependency ratio-the ratio of the young and the retired to all those in the 15-64 age group-dropped from 800 per thousand in 1965 to 584 per thousand in

1975.

The lower proportion of the population in the under 15 age group is the result of a decline in the birth rate-which is low even compared with some developed countries. The absolute number of births also dropped, from 101,110 in 1965 to 79,790 in 1975. This decline in the birth rate is partly the result of women having fewer children, as well as a decrease within the prime child bearing age groups in both the number of women and the proportion of currently married women. In recent years, later marriages have also contributed, while improvements in education and job opportunities for women have almost certainly played their part.

       There was a general decline in mortality after 1951. The death rate dropped to the level of about five per thousand in 1964, since when it has remained much the

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      same. The average life-span of both males and females has increased by seven per cent over the past 15 years, but male and female expectations of life at birth are still very different. Females born in 1975 should live, on average, 7.56 years longer than males; their expectation of life at birth was 75.5 years and 67.94 years respectively.

       Hong Kong has a land area of only 1046 square kilometres (404 square miles) and it is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Its population is comparable to that of Norway (4 million in 1973), Niger (4.3 million), Guinea (4.2 million) or Zambia (4.6 million). The overall density of population per square kilo- metre at the end of 1975 was 4,187. But this figure includes a wide variety of densities by individual areas. For example, according to the 1971 census, the most densely populated district was Mong Kok with 154,677 people per square kilometre. The figure for the metropolitan areas (Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and Tsuen Wan) was 17,098; and for the New Territories 468. These area densities will of course change in the future with the development of more new towns in the New Territories-notably at Sha Tin and Tuen Mun. They are being developed to alleviate high densities in existing urban areas and to cope with the prospect of an increasing population.

        More than 98 per cent of the population can be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin. At the end of 1975, the number of non-Hong Kong Commonwealth citizens residing in Hong Kong totalled 42,960. These comprised: British 18,994 (excluding members of Armed Forces); Indian 7,436; Australian 4,400; Singaporean 2,585; Canadian 2,117; and other Commonwealth countries 7,428. The number of non-Commonwealth alien residents was 26,316, of which the largest groups were: American 6,679; Portuguese 3,731; Pakistani 3,549; Filipino 3,070; Japanese 2,155; Indonesian 1,560; German 1,094; Korean 731; French 689; and Dutch 583.

About 58 per cent of the population is of Hong Kong birth. Most of these people, and the greater part of the immigrant population, originated from Kwangtung Province. The Cantonese group forms the biggest community; the second biggest group is Sze Yap followed by the Chiu Chow group. The remaining Chinese popula- tion have their Heung Ha or origins in other places of Kwangtung, Shanghai and the coastal provinces of China.

Marriages

All marriages in Hong Kong are governed by the Marriage Ordinance and the Marriage Reform Ordinance. Under the Marriage Ordinance, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days in advance. The Regis- trar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the cele- bration of marriages or at any of the 12 full-time marriage registries and 13 part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 33,788 marriages were performed in the registries and 2,413 at licensed places of

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worship. The total of 36,201 was 1,433 less than in 1974. All records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

The Marriage Reform Ordinance provides that all marriages entered into in Hong Kong on or after October 7, 1971, shall imply the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others and may be contracted only in accordance with the Marriage Ordinance. It declares valid certain customary marriages and validates certain other marriages known as modern marriages, provided in each case they were entered into before October 7, 1971. The ordinance also makes provision for post-registration of these customary and modern marriages and for dissolution of such marriages by mutual consent. During the year, 52 customary and 19 modern marriages were post-registered, including 16 in the New Territories.

       On November 1, 1975, some fees payable in respect of marriage registration were revised. The two principal fees--for the filing and exhibition of notice of marriage and for a marriage at the office of the Registrar-were increased from $10 to $20 and from $50 to $80 respectively.

Births and Deaths

       The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout Hong Kong. The General Register Office in Central keeps all records of births and deaths, and there are sub-registries in all main urban and rural districts. In the outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural com- mittee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

       The statutory period during which a birth should be registered is 42 days from the date of birth. For this there is no registration fee. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth a fee of $5 is charged for registration. During the year 78,200 live births and 21,191 deaths were registered, compared with 81,879 and 22,050 respectively in 1974. These figures, when adjusted for under-registration, give a natural increase in population for 1975 of about 58,230. Illegitimate births registered during the year totalled 6,543 compared with 5,795 in 1974.

       A birth which has not been registered within one year may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a $30 fee. During the year 1,638 births were post-registered, including 349 in the New Territories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there con- tinues to be a number of applications for post-registration in respect of adults because facilities for registration were not available until 1932. Also some cases relate to births during the war years when there was no registration. However, in most cases last year applications for post-registration were in respect of minors. New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub-registries or by mobile registration teams. All applica- tions for the post-registration of anyone who is more than six years old or who was not born in a hospital are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Depart- ment for final approval.

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The General Register Office is responsible for the collection of vital statistics throughout Hong Kong. The information is recorded on various statistical forms and coding sheets for card punching and data processing by the government computer.

On August 1, 1975, the fee for a certified copy of an entry in a register was increased from $3 to $5 and, where the copy is required to be sent by mail to an addressee outside Hong Kong, from $6 to $10. The fee for a shortened form of birth certificate was also revised at the same time from $1 to $3.

20

Natural History

14

ASIDE from skyscrapers and factories, Hong Kong has some 300 square miles of coun- tryside. Hills and cultivated valleys stretch across the New Territories and outlying islands, and even the densely populated Hong Kong Island has miles of wooded slopes.

       More than half the countryside is now under one or another protection order so as to conserve wildlife, trees and plants. Most of the big game-like tigers- vanished before conservation began 20 years ago. Urban development also caused a decline in the numbers of other mammals. There is, however, still a variety of wild animals and also many species of birds.

Wild Life

        Concern that a housing development scheme on privately-owned land at Tai Shang Wai might affect migratory birds in the neighbouring Mai Po marshes was followed in mid-1975 by increased protection of the marshes. Under the Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance, access is now restricted to permit-holders. This area of mudflats, mangrove and shrimp ponds is Hong Kong's richest habitat for birds. More than 250 species have been recorded there, and at least 110 of these are rarely-if ever-seen elsewhere in the territory.

        The area is best known for its many ducks and shorebirds. Two shorebirds which have been recorded on the marshes-the Asiatic Dowitcher and Nordmann's Greenshank-were recently added to the international list of birds in danger of extinction.

        At the Yim Tso Ha egretry-which is a strict nature reserve---Chinese Pond Herons, Cattle and Little Egrets continue to nest, as do the one or two pairs of the rare Swinhoe's Egret which have nested there for more than 10 years. A small number of Night Herons have also nested there since 1972.

        In the urban areas, the Chinese Bulbul and Crested Mynah can be seen and the Black-eared Kite is a familiar sight over the harbour. The Agriculture and Fisheries Department is continuing its full-scale ecological study of the Black-eared Kite in relation to the birdstrike hazard at Hong Kong International Airport.

        The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society's latest checklist covers 343 species of birds which have been recorded in an apparently wild state during the past 50 years. Species recently recorded for the first time include the Ancient Auk, Brown-headed Gull, Great Black-headed Gull, Sooty Flycatcher and Reed Bunting. The society holds about 12 field outings a year.

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185

        Of the larger indigenous mammals, the Chinese Pangolin (Scaly Anteater) is seen occasionally. It grows to a length of 34 feet and is protected by horny scales. Areas around the Kowloon reservoirs are inhabited by monkeys, which emerge from the trees to be fed by visitors. Although the monkeys originated from specimens either released or escaped from captivity, there are now small breeding groups of both Longtailed Macaques and Rhesus monkeys.

Smaller mammals are common, with the Grey Shrew and the House Shrew being numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in parts of the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island.

Over the past decade wild pigs were sufficiently scarce to warrant their being protected under the law. But the numbers increased to such an extent that crop damage caused by them provoked bitter complaints from farmers. The legal protection was accordingly withdrawn in 1974, but an annual closed season from February 1 to September 30 was introduced. With a view to culling the wild pig population, strictly controlled shooting by licensed hunters is now permitted during the winter-when most of the damage to crops takes place.

Indigenous mammals which can no longer be found are the Large Indian Civet, the Crab-eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, tigers and leopards. The last recorded sighting of a leopard was in 1957. Chinese Leopard Cats have occasionally been seen, but the South China Red Fox and the Eastern Chinese Otter have not been reported for many years.

The Barking Deer, once plentiful, is now rare in the New Territories and those remaining on Hong Kong Island are confined to densely wooded areas.

Snakes, lizards and frogs are plentiful in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapins and turtles, although none are common. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged snakes-the local species of which are not dangerous to man-the venomous land snakes are: the Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait, with black and white bands; Macclelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black transverse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the rare Mountain Pit Viper; and the White-lipped Pit Viper or Bamboo Snake. The Bamboo Snake is bright green and, although less ven- omous than others, is not easily seen and strikes readily if closely approached. The Hamadryad, Kraits and Corals prey almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snakes, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but have never been known to attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Hong Kong Newt, which has not been recorded anywhere else in the region.

Of the 214 recorded species and forms of colourful butterflies, several in their larval forms cause considerable damage to farmers' crops. These include the two commonly found species of Cabbage Whites, the Swallowtails, and the beautiful but less commonly found Small Blue. Among the many local moths are the giant silkworm moths. These include the Cynthia, the Fawn and Golden Emperor, and the

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Atlas and Moon moths. The Atlas species has an average wing span of nine inches and the Moon seven inches. Two of the local plant bugs are noted for their colour and shape. They are the rare and beautifully spotted Tea Bug which has only been recorded on hill-tops, and the Lantern Fly which has delicately coloured wings and a remarkably long forehead. Dragon and damsel flies are commonly found, as are wasps and metallic-coloured beetles. Of particular interest is the Large Spotted Batocera Long-horn Beetle, which feeds on mountain tallow trees.

The African Giant Snail is the largest of the land molluscs, with a record length of six inches. This species was introduced in 1938 and has become a crop and garden pest. The large black slug, Veronicella, is sufficiently different from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

Aquatic Life

Marine life forms in Hong Kong are diverse and mainly tropical in character, comprising a relatively large number of commercially important species of fish, crustacea and molluscs. The discharge of the largest fresh water system in South China to the west, and the prevailing influence of offshore water masses in the north-east, have created a situation where the westerly sector of Hong Kong has a predominantly brackish water fauna, while the eastern sector has a genuine marine fauna.

Pomfrets (Parastromateus niger and Stromateoides spp), croakers (Argyrosomus spp), hairtails (Trichiurus spp), and ponyfish (Leiognathus spp) occur commonly, especially in autumn. A variety of isospondylous fish, such as sardines (Sardinella spp), shads (Clupanodon spp) and long-jaw herrings (Thrissa spp) may also occur in large schools seasonally. However, the yellowtail (Seriola quinquilineata), mackerels (Scom- beromorous spp) and yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), which were abundant, have now diminished in stock size. The natural bays and inlets of Hong Kong also serve as nursery grounds for a number of species, notably the Sparidae, Lutjanidae, Carangidae, Engraulidae and many others.

From time to time dolphins are sighted in Hong Kong waters and identifications have included the Common or Saddle-back Dolphin (Delphinus delphis), the Black Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and the Chinese White Dolphin (Sotalia chinensis).

Since its introduction more than 100 years ago, the Japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has been successfully established in Deep Bay, where it is now commercially cultivated.

The freshwater fauna of Hong Kong is relatively poor in variety compared with that of South China. This probably results from the absence of a perpetual system of rivers and lakes. Although there are large quantities of water stored in man-made reservoirs, only a few varieties of fish life have been introduced primarily for water quality control purposes. The indigenous fauna comprises only limited species of cyprinid, loach and goby. The African Tilapia has established itself in local waters but its initial introduction cannot be traced. Hong Kong now has some 3,500 acres of commercial fish ponds, where the Grey Mullet and seven species of Chinese carp are being produced at a rate of 1.2 tons per acre a year.

NATURAL HISTORY

Flora

187

For so small an area, Hong Kong has a large and diverse flora of vascular plants. It is estimated that there are about 2,500 species, native and introduced. Generally Hong Kong offers the northern limit of tropical Asia flora.

There are few tall trees, except in the fine fung shui groves around many villages in the New Territories. Before conservation, countless hillsides were left barren by centuries of cutting, burning and exposure. Now however, many hill slopes-partic- ularly those in the water catchment areas have been replanted with tree seeds or seedlings. The ravines were saved from man and fire by their rugged character and more moist winters, and they contain a dense vegetation particularly rich in low trees, flowering shrubs and ferns.

        It is to conservation of wooded areas by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department that Hong Kong owes much of its mixed woodland. In a few large ravines, particularly Tai Po Kau and Pok Fu Lam Valley, autumn and spring colours are particularly noticeable. There are several trees, shrubs and climbers whose leaves change to brilliant colours in autumn. Plants which show richest autumn colours continue their display into February, before the start of spring. Many trees, shrubs and vines help to produce this effect-Liquidambar formosana, Rhus spp, Michilus thunbergii, Raphiolepis indica, Rourea microphylla, and Vitis cantoniensis.

Many plants in Hong Kong are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. The Bauhinia blakeana (Hong Kong Orchid Tree) was discovered in 1908 at Pok Fu Lam and was named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake. It is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. It is now widely planted.

Fruit bearing plants include the common tree the Sterculia. Its remarkable starlike fruit turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. The seeds are eaten by a number of birds including the Chinese Blue Magpie.

A great variety of wild plants have medicinal and economic values. Parts of a common tree, Schefflera octophylla, are used in herbal medicines for the preparation of 'leung cha', a drink used chiefly for relieving indigestion. Shrubs like Psychotria rubra, Ardisia crispa and Strophanthus divaricatus are considered useful for bruises and certain injuries.

Botanical explorations carried out by the Hong Kong Herbarium, the two universities, and amateur botanists have been fruitful. The Checklist of Hong Kong Plants was revised and published in early 1975. It includes 50 new additions to the Hong Kong flora since the first edition in 1966.

More than 90 species of nature orchids are recorded. Some ground orchids are beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun Orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. A new species with greenish cream-white flowers was dis- covered in 1969 by Dr S. Y. Hu and was named Cymbidium maclehoseae in honour of Lady MacLehose, who is a keen naturalist. Other species include the White Susanna

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Orchid, the Yellow Buttercup Orchid, the Pink Bamboo Orchid and the Purple Lady's Slipper Orchid.

       Under the Forests and Countryside Ordinance, special protection is given to certain plants including camellias, magnolias, orchids, azaleas and the Chinese New Year Flower.

       The Zoological and Botanical Gardens under the management of the Urban. Council were established, as the Botanic Gardens, in about 1871. At the main entrance is the granite memorial gate erected by the Imperial War Graves Commission to commemorate all Chinese who died through enemy action during the years 1914-8 and 1939-45 in the services of the British Government.

       Several Aleurites moluccana trees grown on both sides along the steps give excellent shade in summer months. Along the path which leads up from the memorial gate, rows of flamboyant Delonix regia trees provide masses of brilliant red flowers in early summer.

        The layout of the 17-acre gardens is strictly formal, with wide paths, pavilions flower beds and a central fountain. Not far from the main entrance there is a plant house where tropical, shade-loving plants are cultivated, and on the lawns and grass slopes many trees and flowering shrubs are planted.

       The zoological exhibits in the gardens include both mammals and birds. Replace- ment of the 20-year-old mammal cages was completed early in 1975 with the construc- tion of 10 new exhibition units-all technically well designed and of adequate size for both display and breeding purposes. Mammals exhibited include apes, monkeys, lemurs, bears, squirrels and porcupines. The bird collection is among the best in the Far East, having some 800 specimens representing more than 300 species from most parts of the world. Of particular interest is the rare Palawan Peacock Pheasant, which is in danger of becoming extinct. More than 125 have been bred in these gardens during the past 10 years.

       The Hong Kong Herbarium, established in 1878, contains an important collection of about 32,200 plant specimens. It includes all the known 1,900 indigenous species and varieties, some 600 exotic species and varieties, and some 2,500 related species from adjacent regions of East and Southeast Asia. The herbarium is situated at the headquarters of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department in the Canton Road Government Offices in Kowloon, and it is open to the public.

MUSIC

Hong Kong offers a unique opportunity for people of East and West to learn about and to enjoy each others' music. Both kinds are heard constantly on radio and television-and in hundreds of live per- formances which range from Chinese opera to Bach oratorios, from pop groups to pipa recitals, from sitars to symphony orchestras or to Filipino music in the night-spots. At the City Hall in 1975 there were some 300 concerts of Chinese and Western music, while each February the Hong Kong Arts Festival presents four full weeks of music as well as other produc- tions. Leading orchestras, singers, actors and other artistes from overseas join with local performers in this international fes- tival, at which audiences total around 50,000 and include visitors from many parts of the world.

A

鬚先

x 賀

x九

西柱主演

Chinese operas are performed in temporary matshed theatres or in the open-air to celebrate most of the Chinese festivals.

{

Members of the Royal Swedish Opera in Mozart's 'Die Entführung aus dem Serail' at the 1975 Hong Kong Arts Festival.

  Feng Te-ming, the Hong Kong pipa soloist with an international reputation, at a concert presented by the Hong Kong Arts Centre.

Rehearsal for a concert by combined players of the visiting Mainż Chamber Orchestra and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra.

A section of the Eastern Folk Music Orchestra. The Urban Council's Museum of History has a collection of Chinese musical instruments.

     Members of the Hong Kong Children's Choir and a young xylophonist who took part in the 1975 Arts Festival.

Pop and folk music was featured in some 35 beach shows presented during the summer of 1975 as part of the Clean Beach Campaign.

21

History

THE visit of Her Majesty the Queen made 1975 a landmark in the history of Hong Kong. It was the first time that a reigning British monarch had set foot on the soil of Hong Kong. Other members of the Royal family have paid visits on 17 occasions and Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, who accompanied the Queen, was making a return visit. It was an earlier Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Alfred, who in 1869 made the first Royal visit to Hong Kong. He called while on a world tour.

        For the Queen and Prince Philip, their four-day stay was crowded with meeting people, celebrating with them, and seeing how they live, work and play. Her Majesty told 600 guests at a luncheon: 'We have come to see the remarkable phenomenon which is modern Hong Kong . . . . I am aware of the conditions which history has forced on Hong Kong and my predominant feeling is pride that so much has been achieved. You benefit from the confluence of the two great cultural streams of

East and West.'

        The modern Hong Kong which the Royal couple came to see began to take shape only 30 years ago. It was not until after the Second World War that Hong Kong began the spectacular spiral in industrial, trade and social development which produced the phenomenon referred to by the Queen. It was an unprecedented joining together of people from East and West which began it all.

Post-War Years

         During the war, many Chinese civilians had moved from Hong Kong into China. They returned in 1945 along with many other Chinese and, between August 1945 and the end of 1947, the population rose from 600,000 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, Hong Kong received an influx of people unparalleled in its history.

        About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. The 1971 census put the population at 4,064,400.

        After a period of economic stagnation, caused by American trade barriers against China, which applied temporarily to Hong Kong, and further sanctions against China following the Korean War (1950-3), Hong Kong entered an era of industrialisation. As an entrepôt, the territory had earned a livelihood by a service which it alone could perform; now it found itself directly competing with other manufacturing centres.

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HISTORY

The immigrants formed a huge reservoir of labour-industrious, trainable for the necessary skills, and all looking for jobs.

       From the start, the industrial revolution was based on cotton textiles, gradually adding woollens and, in the late 1960s, man-made fibres and made-up garments. In 1959, some 53 per cent of Hong Kong's total domestic exports were textiles and clothing. In 1975 the figure was 54 per cent, showing the continued dominance of textiles in Hong Kong's economy.

       Domestic exports were valued at $2,282.13 million in 1959-the first year they were separated from re-exports. In 1975, despite the world trade recession, the value of domestic exports was 10 times the 1959 figure. Re-exports declined in relative importance but remained significant, comprising 30 per cent of total exports in 1959 and 23 per cent in 1975.

        With economic expansion, the government has been able to increase its social services to match Hong Kong's all-round growth. When Hong Kong was liberated from the Japanese in 1945, enrolment in schools was only 4,000. By 1948 the total enrolment in all types of schools and educational centres was 120,000. In 1975 it was 1,300,243. A government or subsidised primary school place is now available for every child of primary school age. Free primary education was introduced in September 1971 for the vernacular schools and at the same time a form of compulsory education for all primary schools came into force. The 1974 White Paper on Secondary Education stated that, by 1979, all children will have at least nine years' subsidised education, with aid for almost half the children who want to further their secondary education.

        The University of Hong Kong re-opened in 1946 with a total of 109 students and by 1975 had expanded to 3,528 undergraduates, 227 higher degree students and 236 students reading for post-graduate diplomas or certificates. The Chinese Univer- sity of Hong Kong opened in October 1963 comprising three student colleges, and enrolment had risen to 3,944 by September 1975. A polytechnic, run by its own board with its first principal appointed in 1971, assumed responsibility for the work of the Hong Kong Technical College in August 1972. Its enrolment by 1975 was 4,170 full-time, 2,463 part-time day release, and 14,299 part-time evening students.

        The Social Welfare Office, set up in 1946, became an independent government department in 1958 and has since been expanding its functions. Social security is now a government responsibility which is currently met under three schemes. More than 100 voluntary agencies--the majority of which are members of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, founded in 1946-offer a variety of services supplementing the work of the government.

The rapid industrialisation of Hong Kong has demanded special attention to labour legislation. Hours of work for women and young people in industry were regulated in 1959 and by the end of 1971 were reduced to eight a day and 48 a week. The employment of children under 14 in industry is forbidden. The Employment Ordinance provides for the protection of wages of manual workers and non-manual workers earning not more than $2,000 a month. It also regulates conditions of

1

HISTORY

191

employment and contracts, provides for six days paid holidays each year and 24 days sick leave on half pay, and gives an entitlement to four rest days a month. In the past six years, 43 items of legislation have been enacted to improve conditions of employment. A dozen more are on the way.

The first public housing estate was built in 1953, after 50,000 squatters lost their homes in a Christmas Day fire at Shek Kip Mei. These housing blocks had only basic facilities with the intention of providing quickly a large number of homes for victims and other squatters at rents they could afford. Housing blocks have now been im- proved and standards of accommodation have been progressively raised.

A new unified Housing Authority was formed in 1973 with the responsibility of planning, building and managing all public housing estates in Hong Kong. It is served by the Housing Department--the result of amalgamating the former Resettle- ment Department and the housing division of the Urban Services Department. In the past 20 years, the government has provided homes for 1.8 million people in its 56 public housing estates, representing more than 41 per cent of Hong Kong's population. Apart from public housing, another 141,500 people enjoy subsidised housing provided by the Hong Kong Housing Society, the largest of government- aided voluntary housing societies.

Road development, including flyovers, has been remarkable. In 1967 the Lion Rock tunnel opened to provide a high-speed road link between the New Territories and urban Kowloon; a twin tunnel is now under construction. A new era in Hong Kong's internal communications came with the opening of the cross-harbour tunnel in August 1972. Built by private enterprise with government participation, it is one of the longest underwater road tunnels in Asia.

In September 1975 the government finally approved the construction of the modified initial system of the proposed mass transit underground railway. This system is estimated to cost $5,800 million and it will run for 15.6 kilometres beneath areas that are amongst the most densely populated in the world. Tunnelling has already started and the railway is expected to be fully operative by 1980.

Early History

Investigation has shown that people have lived in Hong Kong from primitive times, but population was sparse up to the 19th century. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a

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HISTORY

continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

       In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south. Some of his followers found refuge on Lantau, where their descendants are still to be found.

A place to trade from

Hong Kong's development into a commercial and industrial centre began with its founding as a British colony in 1842. At the end of the 18th century the British dominated the foreign trade at Canton but found conditions unsatisfactory, mainly because of the conflicting viewpoints of two quite dissimilar civilisations.

The Chinese regarded themselves as the only civilised people and treated all others as barbarians. Foreigners trading at Canton were subject to humiliating per- sonal restrictions. Confined to the factory area, they were allowed to reside only for the trading season, during which they had to leave their families at Macau. They were forbidden to enter the city and to learn the Chinese language. Shipping dues were arbitrarily varied and generally much bickering resulted between British and Chinese. Yet there was mutual trust and the spoken word alone was sufficient for even the largest transactions.

Trade had been in China's favour, and silver flowed in until the growth of the opium trade from 1800 onwards reversed this trend. The outflow of silver became more marked after 1834, when the East India Company lost its monopoly of the China trade and the foreign free traders. The company, hoping to get rich quickly, joined the lucrative opium trade, which the Chinese had made illegal in 1799.

This led to the appointment of Lin Tse-hsu in March 1839 as special Commis- sioner in Canton, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. A week later he surround- ed the foreign factories with troops, stopped food supplies and refused to allow anyone to leave until all stocks of opium had been surrendered and dealers and ships' masters had signed a bond not to import opium on pain of execution. Captain Charles Elliot, RN, the British Government's representative as Superintendent of Trade, was shut up with the rest and authorised the surrender of 20,283 chests of opium after a siege of six weeks.

But he would not allow normal trade to resume until he had reported fully to the British Government and received instructions. The British community retired to Macau and, when warned by the Portuguese Governor that he could not be respon- sible for their safety, took refuge on board ship in Hong Kong harbour in the summer of 1839.

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193

Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, decided that the time had come for a settlement of Sino-British commercial relations. Arguing that, in surrendering the opium, the British in Canton had been forced to ransom their lives--though in fact their lives had never been in danger-he demanded either a commercial treaty which would put trade relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British could live free from threats under their own flag.

An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 to back these demands and thus began the so-called First Opium War, 1840-2. Hostilities alternated with negotiations until agreement was reached between Elliot and Keshen, the Manchu Commissioner. Lin had been replaced by Keshen after his exile in disgrace over the preliminaries of a treaty.

Under the Convention of Chuenpi, January 20, 1841, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain. A naval landing party hoisted the flag at Possession Point on January 26, 1841 and Elliot proclaimed Hong Kong a British colony-in June he sold plots of land and settlement began.

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of a part of China aroused shame and anger among the Chinese, and the unfortunate Keshen was ordered to Peking in chains. Palmerston was equally dissatisfied with Hong Kong which he contemptuously described as 'a barren island with hardly a house upon it' and refused to accept it as the island station which had been demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty.

'You have treated my instructions as if they were waste paper,' he told Elliot in a magisterial rebuke, and replaced him by Sir Henry Pottinger who arrived in August 1841. The latter conducted hostilities with determination. Twelve months later, August 1842, after pushing up the Yangtze River and threatening to assault Nanking, he brought the hostilities to an end by the Treaty of Nanking, August 29, 1842.

        In the meantime, the Whig Government in England had fallen and in 1841 the new Tory Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen, issued revised instructions to Pottinger, dropping the demand for an island.

Pottinger, who had returned to Hong Kong during the winter lull in the cam- paign, was pleased with the progress of the new settlement and, in the Treaty of Nanking, deviated from his instructions by successfully demanding both a treaty and an island, thus securing Hong Kong. In addition five Chinese ports, including Canton, were opened for trade. The commercial treaty was embodied in the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, October 1843, by which the Chinese were allowed free access to Hong Kong Island for trading purposes.

Lease of New Territories

        The Second Anglo-Chinese War, 1856-8, arose out of disputes over the inter- pretation of the earlier treaties and over the boarding of a British lorcha, the 'Arrow', by Chinese in search of suspected pirates. The Treaty of Tientsin, 1858, which ended the war, gave the British the privilege of diplomatic representation in China. The first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had been the first Colonial Secretary in Hong

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HISTORY

      Kong, was fired on at Taku Bar on his way to Peking to present his credentials, and hostilities were renewed from 1859-60.

        The troops serving on this second expedition camped on Kowloon peninsula, as the earliest colony photographs show. Finding it healthy, they wished to retain it as a military cantonment, with the result that Sir Harry Parkes, Consul at Canton, secured from the Viceroy the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking, 1860, which ended the hostilities, provided for its outright cession.

        Other European countries and Japan were now demanding concessions from China, particularly after Germany, France and Russia had rescued China from the worst consequences of its defeat by Japan in 1895. In the ensuing tension Britain felt that efficient defence of Hong Kong harbour demanded control of the land around it.

By the Convention of Peking on June 9, 1898, the New Territories, comprising the area north of Kowloon up to the Shum Chun River, and 235 islands, were leased for 99 years. The move was directed against France and Russia, not against China, whose warships were allowed to use the wharf at Kowloon City, where Chinese authority was permitted to continue 'except in so far as may be inconsistent with the military requirements for the defence of Hong Kong'. An Order in Council of December 27, 1898 invoked this clause and the British thus unilaterally took over Kowloon City. Some desultory opposition, when the British took over the New Territories in March 1899, soon disappeared. The area was declared part of the colony but was administered separately from the urban area.

Growth of Hong Kong 1841-1941

The new colony was a great disappointment at first. It attracted unruly elements; fever and typhoons threatened life and property and crime was rife. The Chinese influx was unexpected as it was not anticipated they would choose to live under a foreign flag. The population rose from 32,983 (31,463 Chinese) in 1851 to 878,947 (859,425 Chinese) in 1931.

        The Chinese asked only to be left alone, and thrived under a liberal British colonial rule. Hong Kong became a centre of Chinese emigration and of trade with Chinese communities abroad. Ocean-going shipping using the port increased from 2,889 ships in 1860 to 23,881 in 1939. The dominance of the China trade forced Hong Kong to conform to Chinese usage and to adopt the silver dollar in 1862 as the cur- rency unit. In 1935, when China went off silver, Hong Kong had to follow suit with an equivalent 'managed' dollar.

Hong Kong's administration followed the normal Crown Colony pattern, with a governor nominated by Whitehall and nominated Executive and Legislative Coun- cils with official majorities. The first unofficial members of the Legislative Council were nominated in 1850, and the first Chinese in 1880; the first unofficial members of the Executive Council appeared in 1896, and the first Chinese in 1926. Two electoral bodies, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Unofficial Justices of the Peace, were each allowed from 1885 onwards to nominate a member of the Legislative Council.

HISTORY

195

       The British residents on a number of occasions strongly pressed for self-govern- ment, but the home government steadily refused to allow the Chinese majority to be subject to the control of a small European minority.

       A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883, became partly elected in 1887, and developed into an Urban Council in 1936. The intention at first was to govern the Chinese through Chinese magistrates seconded from the mainland, but this system of two parallel administrations was only half-heartedly applied and broke down mainly because of the weight of crime. It was completely abandoned in 1865 in favour of the principle of equality of all races before the law. In that year the Governor's instruc- tions were significantly amended to forbid him to assent to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected'. Government policy was laissez-faire, treating Hong Kong as a market place where all were free to come and go and where government held the scales impartially.

       Public and utility services developed the Hong Kong and China Gas Company in 1861, the Peak Tram in 1885, the Hong Kong Electric Company 1889, China Light and Power 1903, the electric Tramways in 1904 and the government-owned Kowloon- Canton Railway, completed in 1910. There were successive reclamations dating from 1851-notably one completed in 1904 in Central District, which produced Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road, and another in Wan Chai between 1921-9.

        A system of public education began in 1847 with grants to the Chinese vernacular schools, and the voluntary schools-mainly run by missionaries were brought in by a grant scheme in 1873. The College of Medicine for the Chinese, founded in 1887, developed into the University of Hong Kong in 1911 with arts, engineering and medical faculties.

       The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in World War I was followed by strong nationalist and anti-foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappoint- ment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German con- cessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang.

        The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before causing considerable disruption to life in Hong Kong. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

Japanese Attack and Occupation 1941-5

       Japanese plans for political aggrandisement in the Far East became apparent when Japan seized the opportunity of World War I to present its 'twenty-one demands'

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HISTORY

to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and the attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of World War II to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

        The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend its ambitions over the whole of East and Southeast Asia, and the position of Hong Kong became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and sub- sequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island.

        The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December 18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, including the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and Hong Kong surrendered on Christ- mas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

        British civilians were interned at Stanley under harsh conditions, while prisoners of war fared even worse. The Chinese population and neutrals also suffered under steadily deteriorating conditions. Trade virtually disappeared, currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many residents moved to Macau, the Portuguese province hospitably open- ing its doors to them. Towards the latter part of the occupation, the Japanese sought to ease the food problems by organising mass deportations.

In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Territories and escaping allied personnel were assisted by the rural population.

        Soon after news of the Japanese surrender was received on August 14, 1945, a provisional government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) Frank Gimson. Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived on August 30 with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

22

1

Constitution and Administration

HONG KONG, as a British Crown Colony, is administered by the Hong Kong Govern- ment, of which the office of Governor is the central feature. The British Government's policy towards Hong Kong is that there shall be no major constitutional change-nor is there much popular pressure for it.

The Governor

The Governor is the representative of the Queen and, as head of the government, presides at meetings of the Executive Council. He is also the President of the Legisla- tive Council, where he possesses both an original and a casting vote. All bills passed by the Legislative Council must have his assent before they become law. With strictly defined exceptions, he is responsible for every executive act of the government.

After appointment by the Queen, the Governor derives his authority from the Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom. These Letters Patent create the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Hong Kong, and require him to observe its laws and such instructions as may be given him by the Queen or Secretary of State. Among the more important of these are the Royal Instructions and Colonial Regulations.

Executive Council

The composition of the Executive Council is determined by the Royal Instruc- tions, which provide that it shall consist of five ex-officio members (the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs and the Financial Secretary) together with such other persons as are appointed by the Queen, or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State. At the present time, one official member and eight unofficial members have been appointed in addition to the five ex-officio members.

The Executive Council usually meets once a week throughout the year but addi- tional meetings are held if necessary. The Governor presides at meetings, although he is not a member of the council. Its function is to advise the Governor, who is required by the Royal Instructions to consult it on all important matters of policy subject to certain exceptions such as matters of extreme urgency or the appointment, disciplinary control or dismissal of public officers.

Meetings of the Executive Council are called by the Governor, who alone decides in accordance with the Royal Instructions which matters to submit for its advice. However, should the Governor not submit a matter for the council's advice when

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      requested by a member to do so, a record of the request and refusal must be entered in the minutes of the council if the requesting member so requires.

        The decision on any question which comes before the council is that of the Gover- nor. If he decides to act in opposition to the advice given by the majority of members, he is required to report his reasons to the Secretary of State.

       The Governor in Council (the Governor acting after receiving the advice of the Executive Council) is also the statutory authority for making regulations, rules and orders under a number of ordinances. The Governor in Council also considers appeals, petitions, and objections under ordinances which confer such a statutory right of appeal.

Legislative Council

       This council comprises the Governor, who is both a member and president, four ex-officio members (the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Financial Secretary), 10 official members and 15 unofficial members. With the exception of the ex-officio members, all members are appointed by the Queen or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State.

       The primary functions of the Legislative Council are to enact legislation and to control the expenditure of public funds. The Queen has the power to disallow laws passed by the council and assented to by the Governor. In addition, laws having effect within Hong Kong may also be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and by the Queen by Order in Council in exercise either of prerogative powers or of powers conferred by an English Act of Parliament.

       The procedure in the Legislative Council has provision for public debates and questions. There is a debate on financial and economic affairs in February-March of each year during the second reading of the Appropriation Bill. A wider-ranging debate on social progress, and government policy in general, takes place at the opening of the new session of the council in October each year. The council meets in public once every two weeks throughout the year except for approximately a two-month recess which takes place during August-October.

The Finance Committee of the council, which consists of the Colonial Secretary (chairman), the Financial Secretary, the Director of Public Works and all the un- official members of the Legislative Council, considers requests for public expenditure and the supplementary provision of funds, and meets in private.

Judiciary

        Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Supreme Court Ordinance, the Chief Justice and the puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent issued under the Public Seal by the Governor on instructions from the Queen given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State. District judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by instrument under the Public Seal or by warrant. The qualifications of puisne judges are prescribed in the Supreme Court Ordinance and those of district judges in the District Court Ordinance.

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199

The function of the Judiciary is to try all prosecutions and to determine civil disputes, whether between individuals or between individuals and the government. The principle of English constitutional law that, in the performance of their judicial acts, members of the Judiciary are completely independent of the executive and legis- lative organs of the government, is fundamental in Hong Kong. The English common law and the rules of equity are in force in Hong Kong, so far as they may be applicable to local circumstances. English Acts of Parliament are in force in Hong Kong only if applied by the Legislative Council or by their own terms or by an Order in Council. Locally enacted laws of Hong Kong are consolidated and revised periodically.

The courts of justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Coroners Court, the Tenancy Tribunal, the Labour Tribunal and the Lands Tribunal. In 1975, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, 10 puisne judges, 13 district judges, 43 magistrates, two presidents of the Tenancy Tribunal, three presiding officers of the Labour Tribunal and a pre- sident of the Lands Tribunal.

        Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. However, in indictable offences, their powers of punish- ment are restricted to a maximum of two years imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may impose some higher penalty. Cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by magistrates when trying two or more offences together may not exceed three years. Magistrates also hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial to the Supreme Court. They also transfer criminal cases to the District Court for trial, on the application of the Attorney General. There is a coroner's court in Kowloon for the whole territory.

The District Court, established in 1953, provides a simple method of trial of civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter is under $20,000, or $15,000 in the case of land, and also tries criminal cases transferred to it by the magistrates. It exercises appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals and in Tenancy Tribunal matters, and ordinary jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by a judge sitting alone; he may not award more than seven years imprisonment.

        The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1973-5 will be found in Appendix 32.

        The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court, which sits when required and is composed of two or three judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jursidiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal in England. Appeals may be brought from the Full Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

200

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

A review of matters concerning the Judiciary continued during 1975. The Supreme Court Bill 1975, which was published in October, provides for a reconstituted Supreme Court consisting of a High Court of Justice and a permanent Court of Appeal.

The Small Claims Tribunal Bill 1975 established a tribunal with jurisdiction to deal with monetary claims involving amounts not exceeding $3,000. The procedure in the tribunal will be simple and informal, on the lines of that in the Labour Tribunal. · Legal representation will not be allowed.

Legal Aid

The fairly comprehensive legal aid schemes that operate in Hong Kong are administered by the Legal Aid Department. Legal aid is available for criminal cases in certain courts and for most kinds of civil cases.

In general, legal aid is granted for criminal cases if an applicant passes the reason- ably generous means test prescribed by the Legal Aid in Criminal Cases Rules, and if the Director of Legal Aid is satisfied that it is in the interests of justice that legal aid should be given. Such cases comprise any criminal trial in the Supreme Court (any trial on indictment by a judge and jury); any criminal case tried in the District Court where the offence charged is punishable by imprisonment for not less than 14 years (this means that aid is available for about 75 per cent of all the criminal cases tried in the District Court); and criminal appeals from magistrates to the Supreme Court, and from the District and Supreme Courts to the Full Court if it appears that there are arguable grounds of appeal.

Legal aid for a civil case is normally granted if an applicant satisfies the Director of Legal Aid that he has reasonable grounds for bringing or defending the proceedings or appeal to which the application for legal aid relates, and if the applicant passes a means test. The upper limits of this are that the applicant should have a monthly disposable income not exceeding $700 and a disposable capital of not more than $4,000. In describing disposable income and disposable capital in relation to legal aid cases, it should be borne in mind that by reason of the Legal Aid (Assessment of Contri- butions) Regulations, people with real incomes far in excess of $700 a month and with real capital of very much more than $4,000 qualify for legal aid-many of them for free legal aid.

The most common civil cases for which legal aid is given are claims for workmen's compensation, damages for personal injuries or death as a result of traffic accidents, bankruptcy proceedings, company winding-up cases, divorce and other matrimonial proceedings.

Legal aid consists of professional legal representation either free of charge to the applicant or on payment to the Legal Aid Department of a relatively small contribu- tion towards legal costs. The representation is by professional lawyers employed in the litigation unit of the Legal Aid Department, or by solicitors and barristers in private practice whose legal fees are paid by the department. In the event of a legally aided person losing a civil case, the Legal Aid Department will normally pay not only the costs of the aided person but also the legal costs that the aided person might otherwise have to pay the successful party.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

201

In criminal cases, although the Legal Aid Department's professional officers frequently act as instructing solicitor for an accused person or appellant, the advocacy work in court is done by legal practitioners in private practice. For civil cases, bar- risters are instructed and briefed wherever and whenever it is the normal legal practice to do so.

Since the beginning of the legal aid schemes in 1967, more than $22 million in compensation and damages have been received on behalf of legally aided persons. Many others have obtained divorces, maintenance provision and child custody orders. In addition, thousands of workers who had not been paid their wages, severance pay or wages in lieu of notice have benefited as a result of bankruptcy and company winding-up proceedings brought on their behalf.

The proper functioning of the legal aid schemes depends on the closest co-opera- tion between the Legal Aid Department, the Bar Association and the Law Society of Hong Kong. A large number of solicitors in private practice have now joined the various legal aid panels and virtually all members of the Hong Kong Bar (including Queen's Counsel) are prepared to take on both civil and criminal legal aid cases.

At present, about two-thirds of the population of Hong Kong is covered by the existing scheme in respect of civil cases. It is the government's intention eventually to extend the legal aid scheme to embrace a larger section of the community.

Urban Council

The Urban Council is a body corporate with its own ordinance and it is respon- sible for managing its own finances. It is the only body participating in the business of government in Hong Kong to consist solely of members of the public, and with an elected element. Its chairman and vice-chairman are elected from among 24 members -12 appointed by the Governor and 12 elected. The term of office of both appointed and elected members is four years, but a member may be re-appointed or re-elected for further terms.

The council meets in public once a month, but most of its business is decided by the standing committee of the whole council and 13 select committees which meet on average once a month. In addition, there are 17 sub-committees, boards and panels. These, and the select committees, co-opt such officials as are necessary, but each com- mittee is chaired by an urban councillor.

The Urban Council's responsibilities are restricted to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, which have a population of about 3.4 million. The council's main duties are: public sanitation and cleansing; the licensing and hygienic control of all food premises, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries; and manage- ment and control of markets, abattoirs, hawkers, cemeteries, crematoria and funeral parlours. Other duties include: control and management of the City Hall, museums and football stadia; provision and management of public libraries and places of public recreation such as bathing beaches, swimming pools, tennis and squash courts, games halls, sports grounds, playgrounds and parks; provision and patronage of cultural services and outdoor entertainment; the licensing of places of public enter- tainment; and liquor licensing. In all these fields the council's policies and decisions

202

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

are carried out by the Urban Services Department, the director of which is the principal executive officer of the council under the Urban Council Ordinance.

         Most of the cost of this work is met from income from the Urban Council's share (35.3 per cent) of the yield from rates in the urban area. Fees and charges provide other sources of income. In the financial year 1975-6, the council worked to an overall budget of about $334 million.

Foreign Relations

The foreign relations of the Hong Kong Government are the responsibility of the British Government, but with external trade a considerable degree of latitude is permitted to Hong Kong. The territory's dependence on trade makes it necessary for the Hong Kong Government to operate offices in London, Washington, Geneva and Brussels to maintain and improve commercial relations with other countries.

Colonial Secretariat

The Colonial Secretary is the Governor's principal adviser on policy, the chief executive of the government, the head of the civil service and the chief government spokesman. His office, the Colonial Secretariat, co-ordinates and supervises the work of all government departments.

The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and for the overall supervision, through his Deputy Financial Secretary and the Secretary for Economic Services, of departments primarily involved in this field.

The Colonial Secretariat is organised into six policy and two resource branches, and a branch dealing with New Territories affairs, each headed by a Secretary. The policy branches are based on programme areas, as indicated by their titles: environ- ment, economic services, home affairs and information, housing, security, and social services. The two resource branches (civil service and finance) deal with the govern- ment's personnel and finances.

A Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office, advises on the external political aspects of government policies.

London Office

The London Office, at 6 Grafton Street, W1, is a projection in Britain of the Hong Kong Government. It is part of the Colonial Secretariat and the Commissioner there is directly responsible to the Colonial Secretary. The Commissioner provides a point of direct contact in London between Hong Kong and various ministries and departments of the British Government, and other organisations with an interest in Hong Kong.

The London Office keeps under review British commercial, economic and indus- trial developments and official thinking on worldwide trade policies, and advises the Hong Kong Government of the likely repercussions of these developments on Hong

:

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

203

Kong. It is concerned with the welfare of Hong Kong residents in Britain, maintains contact with them, and assists them over problems arising from their residence in Britain or relating to their families and interests in Hong Kong. It operates well- developed publicity services aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image to the British public and the Chinese community in Britain. It also has special sections to look after the interests of Hong Kong students, including nurses and government trainees resident in Britain.

Following the assumption in 1974 of responsibility for recruitment in Britain of inspectors for the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, the appointments division of the London Office became responsible in July 1975 for all government recruitment in Britain that was formerly handled by the Crown Agents. The division also recruits people of Hong Kong origin in the United Kingdom to the public service, and main- tains close liaison with various official bodies in Britain concerned with recruiting expatriate staff.

The London Office has responsibility for an experimental training course in Oxford, designed for young Chinese administrative officers on probation. Under a Director of Studies seconded from Hong Kong, they study management, economics and government for an academic year.

Government Departments

The administrative functions of the government are discharged by more than 40 departments, most of which are organised on a functional basis and have responsibil- ities covering all Hong Kong. This form of organisation, rather than one based on authorities with responsibilities in a limited geographical area, is suitable for this small, compact territory and has enabled the government to provide services without regard to the capacity of residents of various districts to pay taxes.

Home Affairs Department and New Territories Administration

The two government departments most closely concerned with the reactions of the people to government policies and plans are the Home Affairs Department and the New Territories Administration.

The Home Affairs Department controls the 10 city district officers in the urban areas while the New Territories Administration is in charge of the seven district officers stationed in the New Territories. A primary function of both departments is to assess the impact of contemplated new policies on the population and, when they are adopted, to explain these policies to the public. They also report on trends of public opinion in the districts. In this general connection it has long been the practice of these two departments to foster links with a variety of private organisations including, in the urban areas, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, Po Leung Kuk, kaifong associations, district and clansmen's associations, mutual aid committees, multi-storey building associations, religious organisations, and youth groups.

The city district office scheme, modelled on the long-established district officer system, was introduced during 1968. The 10 city district officers (six in Kowloon and four on Hong Kong Island) are charged with the three-fold duty of rendering services

204

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      on behalf of the government, services for the community and services for the individual. They exercise a local co-ordinating function, test public opinion, watch for sources of grievance and tension and, in general, try to interpret to the man in the street the measures adopted by a specialised and sophisticated administration. They also deal with individual complaints, answer enquiries, provide information and mediate in a variety of disputes.

       Consolidation and expansion of the mutual aid committee scheme took place in 1975. The city district officers continued to service these committees working to bring about improvements in management, security and cleanliness in multi-storey buildings in both the private and public sectors. The scheme has proved its value as an effective way of mobilising the community to participate in the Fight Violent Crime Campaign and the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign. The formation of new mutual aid com- mittees was also accelerated. By the end of 1975, there was a total of 1,907 mutual aid committees, compared with 1,575 in 1974.

        Almost all of the city district offices and sub-offices are located in shop-type premises. In these offices, which are easily accessible to the public, enquiry service counters are combined with the reception facilities. The primary objects of the enquiry services are to give the man in the street information and guidance on the services provided and functions performed by government departments, to explain rules and procedures, and to supplement broadcast information during tropical storms and other emergencies. During the year, the Home Affairs Department handled a total of about 1.6 million enquiries of all kinds.

        In the New Territories, the Secretary for the New Territories and his seven district officers exercise co-ordinating responsibilities, and in addition perform certain execu- tive functions, principally in relation to land administration. The arrangements for consultation with the public are more formalised to the extent that there is a village representative system. More than 900 village representatives are chosen from some 600 villages. Villages are grouped under 27 rural committees, each of which has an executive committee. With one exception, all the executive committees of the rural committees are selected by secret ballot every two years by village representatives. The rural committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the government, receiving a small monthly subvention to cover part of their expenses. Within its own area the rural committee acts as spokesman for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the government and the people.

         The chairmen and vice-chairmen of the 27 rural committees, with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 special councillors elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk. The title may be trans- lated into English as 'rural consultative council'. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, the Kuk has an executive committee which meets monthly. It consists of the chairmen of rural committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close contact is maintained with the Secretary for the New Territories.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Use of the Chinese Language

205

During 1975, the Home Affairs Department continued to promote the widest possible use of Chinese in government departments and to intensify the training of Chinese language officers to improve the quality of translation in government depart- ments. Two induction seminars were held for new recruits. In addition, two sessions of in-service training programmes were organised for serving Chinese language officers.

A handbook was published on official Chinese documentary forms and styles for the guidance of government departments in the conduct of official business in Chinese. A Chinese version of the book 'Parliamentary Procedure at a Glance' is also under preparation by the Home Affairs Department. It will provide guidance, in Chinese, for the conduct of meetings of councils, committees and boards.

The English-Chinese Glossary of Applied Legal Terms, produced by a special translation project team from the Chinese University of Hong Kong under the sponsorship of the government, was published in September. This glossary, which contains about 16,000 entries, provides a major work of reference for translators, the courts, the legal profession and members of the public.

The Chinese language division of the Home Affairs Department continued to provide high quality translation of a complex nature. Major projects undertaken during the year included official publications in connection with the Royal visit, the Budget debate, and the Governor's speech at the opening of the Legislative Council, as well as the Hong Kong Annual Report (Hong Kong 1976), the Report of the Working Party on Unregistrable Doctors, and the Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Hong Kong Telephone Company.

With a view to promoting public interest in the study of the Chinese language and raising the standard of Chinese among the younger members of the community, the Chinese language division sponsored a Chinese arts and culture competition- including contests in Chinese writing, speech, translation, calligraphy and painting.

Advisory Committees

An important feature of the administration system in Hong Kong is the com- prehensive network of more than 100 advisory bodies on which government officers and members of the public sit together to formulate advice to the government on matters of major importance. Examples are such bodies as the Board of Education, Medical Development Advisory Committee, Social Welfare Advisory Committee, Labour Advisory Board, Trade and Industry Advisory Board, Transport Advisory Committee, and the Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN).

Grievances

        In Hong Kong there are several well-developed channels for the examination of complaints from members of the public and for helping people who have difficulty in their dealings with government departments. Probably the most commonly used channel is an appeal or complaint to the department concerned, which will ensure a

206

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

review at a higher level. Another method is a letter to the Governor or the Colonial Secretary, which will also ensure that the matter is reconsidered. Complaints and representations are also dealt with by the office run by unofficial members of the Executive Council and Legislative Council-commonly referred to as the UMELCO office. City district officers and district officers in the New Territories also receive and investigate complaints. The absence of any statutory powers of investigation is offset by a lack of restriction on the type of complaint which UMELCO and the district and city district officers can receive and investigate. Both systems deal effectively with many grievances.

       In addition, members of the Urban Council operate a ward system through which they receive complaints from members of the public and bring them to the attention of the appropriate government department or raise them formally in the Urban Council.

Civil Service

       The civil service provides the staff for all government departments, sub-depart- ments and other units of the administration. As at April 1, 1975 the total number of posts in the civil service (or its establishment as it is generally called) was 113,842. The strength in April 1975 was 104,291 officers, of whom 101,731 were local officers and 2,560 were overseas officers.

This indicates that about one person in every 40 in Hong Kong is employed by the government. There is a large proportion of labouring staff, and 39,678 of the total establishment of the civil service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Hong Kong civil service is unusual in that it does some jobs which in other territories and administrations are done by people who do not belong to the civil service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central government. In Hong Kong, the establishments of the Medical and Health Department (14,121), the Public Works Department (15,810), the Urban Services Department (19,071) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (19,185) account for a total of 68,187 posts, or about 60 per cent, of the total establishment of the service.

        The service has grown from 17,500 in 1949 to about 60,000 in 1965 and now to more than 104,000. This reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population.

        The cost of the civil service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1975-6, the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, excluding pensions, is about $1,740 million. This represents about 38 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure included in the Budget.

       The establishment of each post in the civil service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of the Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its establish- ment sub-committee. The Finance Committee examines all requests for additional

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

207

posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilised and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

Recruitment and promotions in the civil service are, with a few exceptions, subject to the advice of the Public Services Commission, which was set up in 1950 and is independent of the government. The commission also advises the government on discipline cases. Sir Ronald Holmes is the full-time chairman of the commission, and leading citizens are appointed as members on a part-time voluntary basis.

Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, conditions of service, accom- modation, pay, training, discipline and structure of the civil service lies with the Civil Service Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

APPENDICES

Appendices

Appendix

1

Units of Measurement

2

Overseas Representation

Page

213

3

Hong Kong's External Trade by Major Trading Partners

4

Hong Kong's External Trade by S I T C Commodity Section/

Division

5

Exchange Value of the Hong Kong Dollar

6

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Current Market

Prices

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Constant Market

Prices of 1966

7

Government Revenue by Source

8

Government Expenditure by Function

9

Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and

Expenditure

10

Revenue from Duties

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

11 Money Supply

=23

12 Banking: Liabilities and Assets

13 Number of Establishments and Employment in Manufacturing

Industry Analysed by Main Industrial Groups

14

Number of Establishments and Employment in Selected Manu-

facturing Industries

15 Reported Occupational Accidents

56

16 General Consumer Price Index

Modified Consumer Price Index

2222 222 222 2222222 22222

214

215

218

219

219

New Consumer Price Index (A)

New Consumer Price Index (B)

Hang Seng Consumer Price Index

229

17

Estimated Local Production of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

230

18

Local Production and Imports of Ores and Minerals

230

020

19

Imports of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

231

20

Categories of Schools

232

School Enrolment

232

21

223

Overseas Examinations

232

22

Hong Kong Students in Britain

233

Students Leaving Hong Kong for Overseas Studies

233

Appendix

211

Page

23

Expenditure on Education

233

24

Vital Statistics

234

25

Causes of Death

234

26

Hospital Beds

235

27

Professional Medical Personnel

235

28

Domestic Units and Estimated Persons Accommodated as at

236

March 31, 1975

22

29

Land Office

237

Considerations in Instruments Registered in Land Office

237

30

30 Traffic Accidents

238

Traffic Casualties

238

31

Crime

238

Narcotic Offences

239

32

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court, Tenancy Tribunal and

240

Labour Tribunal

Work in the Magistracies

240

33

Prisons

241

34

Electricity Consumption, 1975

241

Electricity Distribution

241

Gas Production and Distribution

241

Water Consumption

241

35

International Movements of Aircraft and Vessels

242

International Movements of Passengers

242

International Movements of Commercial Cargo by Different

242

Means of Transport

36

Registered Motor Vehicles

243

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Undertaking

243

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Area

243

Public Transport: Daily Average Number of Passengers Carried by

Different Modes of Transport

243

33 33

37

Communications

244

38

Recreational Facilities Provided by the Urban Council and Urban

244

Services Department

39

Climatological Summary, 1975

245

Climatological Normals

245

40

The Executive Council

246

41

The Legislative Council

247

42

Urban Council

248

43

The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

249

The Community Chest of Hong Kong

250

212

Appendix I

Units of Measurement

         Chinese, metric and British Imperial units are all in common use in Hong Kong. The Chinese units in the table below are those which have statutory equivalents in Hong Kong.

         In China the standard size of the chek (Chinese foot) increased through the three millennia from the Chou period, and in practice the size also varied according to locality and the trade in which the unit was used. In Hong Kong the variation with usage still persists but the tabulated values are based on the statutory equivalent for the chek of 14 inches.

        In the past, the values used in China for the units of mass have varied according to locality. The tabulated values are those in general use in Hong Kong and are in accord with the present statutory equivalent for the leung (tael) of 13 ounce.

Length

Chinese Units

Equivalents

Metric (SI)

British (Imperial)

10 fan

1 tsün (Chinese inch)

37.147 5 mm

1.462 5 in

10 tsün

1 chek (Chinese foot)

0.371 475 m

1.218 75 ft

Mass

10 fan (candareen)

1 tsin (mace)

3.779 94 g

58.333 3 gr

10 tsin

1 leung (tael)

37.799 4

g

1.333 33 oz

16 leung

1 kan (catty)

0.604 790 kg

1.333 33 lb

100 kan

1 tam (picul)

60.479 0

kg

1.190 48 cwt

        The conversion factors are printed in bold type when they are expressed exactly. Not more than six significant figures are used.

Australia

Britain

Canada

India

Malaysia

Mauritius

Nauru

Countries

New Zealand

Nigeria

Papua New Guinea

Singapore

Argentina

Austria

Belgium

Bolivia

Brazil

Burma

Colombia

Countries

Appendix 2

Overseas Representation

1. Commonwealth Countries

Represented by

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

II. Foreign Countries

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Commissioner

Commissioner Honorary Consul Commissioner

Represented by

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Costa Rica

Cuba

Denmark

Dominican Republic Ecuador

Egypt, Arab Republic of

El Salvador.

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Indonesia

Iran

Irish Republic

Israel

Italy

Japan

Jordan

Korea

Lebanon

Liberia

Mexico

Monaco

Netherlands

Nicaragua

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul-General Consul-General Consul-General

Honorary Consul-General Honorary Consul Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Norway

Pakistan

Panama

Peru

Philippines

Portugal

Republic of South Africa

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Thailand

United States of America

Uruguay

Venezuela

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

213

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland and Turkey are resident in London and have jurisdiction extending

to Hong Kong. Finland also has an Honorary Consul-General resident in Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, Denmark, France and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

214

Appendix 3

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Hong Kong's External Trade by Major Trading Partners

Imports

1973

1974

1975

Per

Per

Per

1975/74 Change

Source/Destination

$ million

$ million

$ million

in

cent

cent

cent

per cent

Japan China

5,853

20.2

7,142

20.9

6,991

20.9

2.1

5,634

19.4

5,991

17.6

6,805

20.3

+13.6

United States

3,702

12.8

4,621

13.5

3,961

11.8

-14.3

Taiwan

1,686

5.8

1,765

5.2

1,943

5.8

+10.1

Singapore

958

3.3

1,889

5.5

1,921

5.7

+ 1.7

Britain

1,716

5.9

1,942

5.7

1,715

5.1

- 11.7

Germany, Federal Republic

1,114

3.8

1,193

3.5

1,034

3.1

- 13.4

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

910

3.1

1,121

3.3

943

2.8

-15.9

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

602

2.1

864

2.5

935

2.8

+ 8.2

Australia

697

2.4

760

2.2

742

2.2

2.3

Others

6,133

21.2

6,832

20.0

6,481

19.4

5.1

Merchandise total

:

29,005

100.0

34,120

100.0

33,472

100.0

1,9

Domestic Exports

United States

6,825

35.0

7,422

32.4

7,334

32.1

1.2

Germany, Federal Republic

1,902

9.8

2,444

10.7

2,860

12.5

+17.0

Britain

2,814

14.5

2,768

12.1

2,778

12.2

+ 0.3

Australia

771

4.0

1,298

5.7

1,034

4.5

-20.4

Japan

1,065

5.5

1,061

4.6

956

4.2

9.9

Canada

512

2.6

619

2.7

775

3.4

+25.2

Singapore

Netherlands

Sweden

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Others

Merchandise total

536

2.7

626

2.7

624

2.7

0.2

411

2.1

504

2.2

496

2.2

1.5

324

1.7

389

1.7

471

2.1

+21.1

266

1.6

357

1.9

410

1.8

+14.7

:

:

:

4,048

20.5

5,423

23.3

5,123

22.4

5.5

19,474

100.0

22,911

100.0

22,859

100.0

0.2

Re-exports

Japan

1,429

21.9

1,023

14.4

964

13.8

-

5.7

Singapore

737

11.3

862

12.1

928

13.3

7.7

Taiwan

673

10.3

692

9.7

600

8.6

-13.3

Indonesia

528

8.1

615

8.6

589

8.5

- 4.1

United States

461

7.1

514

7.2

555

8.0

+ 7.9

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

278

4.3

278

3.9

286

4.1

+ 2.8

Thailand

129

2.0

161

2.3

247

3.5 +53.7

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

158

2.4

201

2.8

231

3.3

+15.0

Philippines

Macau

Others

Merchandise total

124

1.9

193

2.7

231

3.3

+19.5

214

3.3

231

3.2

211

3.0

8.6

1,793

27.5

2,356

33.1

2,132

30.6

9.5

:

6,525

100.0

7,124

100.0

6,973

100.0

2.1

Appendix 4

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Hong Kong's External Trade by SITC Commodity

Section/Division

215

Imports

Section/Division

1973

$ Million 1974

1975

Food

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations Fruit and vegetables

Others

***

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, excluding fuels

Wood, lumber and cork

Textile fibres and their waste

Crude animal and vegetable materials, nes Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Petroleum and petroleum products..

Others

Sub-total

***

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

Others

Sub-total

832

1,118

1,149

521

618

675

632

628

662

1,101

1,326

1,087

961

1,198

1,267

867

1,225

1,273

:

4,914

6,111

6,113

354

283

318

225

257

265

579

540

583

130

171

123

1,223

1,290

1,523

533

602

616

216

296

239

2,101

2,360

2,500

757

2,066

2,048

34

67

77

791

2,133

2,126

132

213

210

3

3

3

134

216

213

Chemicals

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

372

470

477

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

377

437

412

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Others

751

983

702

704

1,002

905

Sub-total

2,204

2,892

2,496

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

720

898

710

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products

4,856

4,576

4,792

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, nes...

2,298

2,248

2,186

Iron and steel

682

974

713

Others

1,223

1,478

1,427

Sub-total

9,779

10,174

9,828

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

1,455

1,738

2,015

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances

2,737

3,316

2,885

Others

734

570

743

Sub-total

4,925

5,624

5,643

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Clothing

617

532

518

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

1,443

1,946

1,828

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, ne s

1,086

1,148

1,168

Others

377

377

379

...

Sub-total

3,523

4,004

3,892

...

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold and

coin

481

Total

29,433

454 34,509

626

34,020

216

Food

Appendix 4

4- Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Domestic Exports

Section/Division

Fish and fish preparations

Fruit and vegetables.

Miscellaneous food preparations

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures Others

Sub-total

::

$ Million

1973

1974

1975

150

140

32

72

48

தஜயச்

183

39

84

45

301

299

351

26

41

5

5

32

47

:

:

** | * |

51

80

38

146

241

117

42

38

34

29

38

27

267

397

215

10

10

5

*

30

34

48

52

71

78

22

38

4288

44

47

69

32

171

201

192

Crude materials, inedible, excluding fuels

Pulp and waste paper

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

Crude animal and vegetable materials, nes Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Chemicals

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

:

T

:

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet, polishing and cleansing preparations Others

Sub-total

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products Non-metallic mineral manufactures, nes...

Iron and steel

Manufactures of metal, nes

Others

Sub-total

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances Others

Sub-total

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

2,352

2,737

2,145

170

161

174

51

88

17

521

641

605

119

153

139

3,213

3,781

3,079

:

214 2,622

317

3,296

487 2,787

61

624

58

2,898

3,674

3,332

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures and fittings

257

302

251

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

405

437

455

Clothing

7,454

8,752

10,202

Footwear

266

311

256

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

483

789

893

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, ne s

3,524

3,699

3,357

Others

151

161

151

***

Sub-total

12,540

14,452

15,565

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold and

coin

47

56

68

Total

19,474

22,911

22,859

* Less than HK$0.5 million.

:

Food

Appendix 4-Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Re-exports

Section/Division

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, excluding fuels

Wood, lumber and cork

Textile fibres and their waste

Crude animal and vegetable materials, n es Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Petroleum and petroleum products Others ...

Sub-total

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

:

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Others

Sub-total

:

:

E

217

$ Million

1973

1974

1975

80

104

145

109

69

23

146

160

188

104

104

77

54

75

125

493

513

559

27

23

21

23

31

31

50

54

52

35

46

34

74

107

95

358

421

360

59

54

49

527

628

538

52

98

89

4

3

3

57

102

93

15

20

29

15

93

164

143

189

204

252

235

280

258

96

123

86

133

156

163

746

927

902

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

72

72

62

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products

1,081

930

790

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n es... Manufactures of metal, nes

1,382

1,162

1,132

67

98

101

Others

151

252

173

Sub-total

2,752

2,514

2,259

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

312

358

480

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and appliances

382

485

451

Others

81

107

104

Sub-total

776

950

1,035

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Clothing

187

213

216

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

517

723

841

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, ne s

326

369

341

Others ...

53

66

88

Sub-total

1,084

1,370

1,485

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold and

coin

231

278

1,658

...

Total

6,730

7,365

8,596

218

Appendix 5

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Exchange Value of the Hong Kong Dollar

December 18, 1946

IMF parity established

September 18, 1949

Hong Kong dollar devalued by 30.5%

pari passu with the pound sterling...

November 20, 1967

Hong Kong dollar devalued by 14.3%

pari passu with the pound sterling

November 23, 1967

Hong Kong dollar revalued by 10% against the pound sterling reducing the previous change in the gold parity of the Hong Kong dollar from 14.3% to 5.7%

December 18, 1971

Following the currency realignment in December, 1971, the Hong Kong dollar appreciated by 8.57% against the US dollar while the par value in terms of gold and the existing parity for sterling were maintained

July 6, 1972

Following the floating of the pound sterling in June, 1972, the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to the US dollar...

February 14, 1973

Par value

HK$I=

£1=

US$1 =

SDRI=

of the

HK$ in

grammes

of fine gold, as

£

US$

SDR

HK$

HK$

HK$

reported

to the

IMF

0.223834 0.0625 0.2519

16.00

3.97022

0.155517

0.0625 0.175

16.00

5.71429

0.133300

0.0625 0.15

16.00

6.66667

0.146631

0.06875 0.165

14.5455 6.06061

0.146631

0.06875 0.17914 0.165

14.5455 5.58213 6.06061

0.146631*

0.17699 0.163018

5.65

6.13429

Following the US dollar devaluation,

the US$/HK$ central rate adjusted

November 26, 1974

was

0.146631*

0.196657 0.163018

5.085

6.13429

Hong Kong dollar allowed to float, i e the Government no longer undertook to maintain the rate against the US dollar within 24% either side of the central rate of US$1-HK$5.085

0.146631*

* While effective exchange rates for the Hong Kong dollar have changed since 1971, the formal par value in terms of

gold, as recorded by the IMF, remains unaltered.

Appendix 6

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product

at Current Market Prices

G D P Component

Private consumption expenditure

Government consumption expenditure

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Exports less imports of goods and services

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Gross domestic product at current market prices

Less indirect taxes less subsidies

Gross domestic product at current factor cost

219

$ Million

1972

1973

1974*

17,308

22,844

26,529

1,581

1,952

2,501

5,339

6,637

7,221

-72

-810

-1,797

24,156

30,623

34,454

1,587

2,114

1,749

22,569

28,509

32,705

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Constant Market Prices of 1966

Private consumption expenditure

Government consumption expenditure

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Exports less imports of goods and services

:

:

:

:

Gross domestic product at constant market prices..

* Preliminary figures.

14,204

16,346

16,481

1,101

1,254

1,390

3,653

4,195

3,953

-2,132

-2,664

-2,545

16,826

19,131

19,279

220

Appendix 7

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Government Revenue by Source

Actual

Actual

1973-4

1974-5

$ Million

Estimate 1975-6

Item

Recur-

Recur-

Capital Total

Capital

Total

rent

rent

Recur-

rent

Capital

Total

Direct taxes

Earnings and profits tax

1,679.8

1,679.8

2,143.8

Estate duty

50.1 50.1

www

2,143.8 42.4 42.4

2,247.0

2,247.0

40.0 40.0

Sub-total

1,679.8

50.1 1,729.9

2,143.8

42.4 2,186.2

2,247.0

40.0 2,287.0

Indirect taxes

General rate ...

368.9

368.9

407.9

407.9

536.9

536.9

Excise duties...

441.7

441.7

473.2

473.2

555.1

555.1

Royalties and concessions

79.5

84.8

164.3

82.1

82.1

105.1

105.1

Stamp duties

462.6

462.6

303.0

303.0

298.0

298.0

Other taxes (note 2)

118.4

118.4

137.8

137.8

181.9

181.9

Sub-total

1,471.1

84.8 1,555.9

1,404.0

1,404.0

1,677.0

1,677.0

Other revenue

Fines, forfeitures and penalties

54.4

54.4

45.6

45.6

51.7

51.7

Licences

116.3

116.3

168.6

168,6

223.8

223.8

Provision of goods and services

693.4

693.4

713.9

713.9

949.2

949.2

Income from properties and investments...

440.2

318.6 758.8

524.1

287.4 811.5

479.0

356.6 835.6

Sub-total

1,304.3

318.6 1,622.9

1,452.2

287.4 1,739.6

1,703.7

356.6 2,060.3

Reimbursements, contributions and loan

repayments

Reimbursements (note 3)

Contributions (note 3)

Loan repayments

Sub-total

Total

Development loan fund receipts

295.4

23.8

10.3 2.6

295.4 34.1 2,6

407.9 30.0

93.9 501.8 11.7 41.7 2.0 2.0

96.4

30.0 126,4

30.5

30.5

2.8

2.8

319.2

4,774.4

12,9 332.1

466.4 5,240.8

437.9

5,437.9

107.6 $45.5

437.4 5,875.3

126.9

32.8 159.7

5,754.6

429.4 6,184.0

Land sale premia, Kwun Tong reclamation

Loan repayments

1.0 18.7 18.7

1.0

1.9

1.9

5.1

5.1

17.0

17.0

17.1

17.1

Interest on investments and loans...

36.2

36.2

38.5

38.5

46.4

46.4

Transfer from Revenue Reward Fund

10.0 10.0

0.1

0.1

Transfer from General Account

20.0 20.0

25.2

25.2

Sub-total

36.2

19.7

55.9

38.5 48.9 87.4

46.4

47.5

93.9

-

Lotteries fund receipts

Net proceeds from Government lotteries...

4.8

4.8

6.7

6.7

5.7

5.7

Loan repayments

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.8

0.8

Interest

1.6

1.6

2.4

2.4

1.6

1.6

Other ...

2.4

2.4

0.9

0.9

0.6

0.6

Sub-total

Grand total

8.8

0.3

9.1

10.0

0.4 10.4

7.9

0.8

8.7

4,819.4

486.4 5,305.8

5,486.4

486.7 5,973.1

5,808.9

477.7 6,286.6

Note:

1.

2.

3.

From April 1, 1973, Government revenue excludes a portion transferred to the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Urban Council.

Other taxes comprises taxes on bets and sweeps taxes, entertainment, hotel accommodation and motor vehicles.

Following the introduction of a 'below-the-line' account, no contributions will be paid into General Revenue during 1975-6.

Appendix 8

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Government Expenditure by Function

$ Million

Estimate 1975-6

221

Actual 1973-4

Actual 1974-5

Item

Recur-

Capital Total

rent

Recur-

rent

Capital Total

Recur-

Capital Total

rent

General services

Administration

92.2

Law and order

408.9

Defence

72.7

10.7 102.9 43.4 452.3 41.3 114.0

105.1 14.5 547.7 53.7

77.1

119.6 601.4 41.4 118.5

110.3 10.6

120.9

617.9 54.9 672.8

69.8

62.2

132.0

Public relations

21.6

8.6 30.2

24.5

1.1 25.6

23.5

0.2 23.7

Revenue collection and financial control...

68.2

4.7 72.9

82.7

1.9 84.6

88.8

0.6 89.4

Sub-total

663.6 108.7 772.3

837.1

112.6

949.7

910.3

128.5 1,038.8

Economic services

Primary products

Airport and harbour

Commerce and industry

Communications

Other

Sub-total

25.9

2.2 36.4 98.7 16.1 0.1 16.2 133.1 28.0 161.1 87.6 12.7 100.3

299.1 141.7 440.8

28.1

31.8

7.5

39.3

31.6

4.4

36.0

135.1

56.9

56.7

113.6

60.7

121,2

181.9

18.8

0.2 19.0

21.5

0.4

21.9

149.8

91.5 241.3

168.5 82.4

250.9

106.3

13.8

363.6 169.7

120.1

107.5 33.8

141.3

533.3

389.8 242.2

632.0

Community services

Transport, roads and civil engineering

(note 2)

...

Water

Fire services

Amenities and related services

Sub-total

Social services

Education

Medical and health

Housing

Social welfare (note 3)

175.6 719.2 894.8 112.8 371.9 484.7 56.4 4.4 60.8 183.3 59.3 242.6

191.2

525.2

716.4

187.3

626.6

813.9

145.5

483.9 629.4

221.1

381.2

602.3

78.1 236.7

8.4 86.5

82.9

7.5 90.4

38.3

275.0

54.6 52.4 107.0

528.1 1,154.8 1,682.9

651.5 1,055.8 1,707.3

545.9 1,067.7 1,613.6

893.5 96.5 990.0 412.1 44.6 456.7 128.3

1,031.8

113.0 1,144.8

1,150.9

168.8 1,319,7

513.0

47.4 560.4

557.4

25.8

583.2

87.0 215.3

222.3

224.6

446.9

107.2

288.9

396.1

142.9

1.2 144.1

258.1

4.5

262.6

321.4

0.6

322.0

Labour

12.5

0.1 12.6

15.8

15.8

17.2

17.2

Sub-total

...

1,589.3

229.4 1,818.7

2,041.0

389.5 2,430.5

2,154.1

484.1 2,638.2

Common supporting services

Government launches and dockyard

25.2

3.4

28.6

17.1

3.2 20.3

18.9

4.8 23.7

Government printing

20.1

2.0

22.1

22.1

1.4 23.5

22.5

1.1 23.6

Government supplies

15.1

10.2 25.3

58.8

3.2 62.0

18.7

0.3

19.0

Architectural and electrical and mechanical

engineering offices

138.8

Sub-total

199.2

23.2 162.0

38.8 238.0

173.1

271.1

38.8 211.9

46.6 317.7

168.1 50.4 218.5

228.2 56.6 284.8

Unallocable expenditure

Government quarters

28.7

16.5 45.2

Passages, telephones, telegrams, etc

30.0

22.3 52.3

27.1 22.6 49.7 113.3 1.5 114.8

28.3 17.6 45.9 185.7

185.7

Extraordinary expenditure ...

0.7

0.7

Sub-total

58.7

39.5

98.2

140.4

24.1 164.5

214.0

17.6 231.6

Other financial obligations

Public debt

1.6

1.6

1.6

Pensions and gratuities

116.7

116.7

150.6

1.6 150.6

1.6 174.3

0.5

2.1 174.3

Sub-total

118.3

118.3

152.2

152.2

Total

3,456.3 1,712.9 5,169.2

4,456.9 1,798.3 6,255.2

175.9 4,618.2 1,997.2 6,615.4

0.5 176.4

Economic services

Social services

Development loan fund expenditure

Community services...

11.1

11.1

1.2

1.2

1.8

1.8

40.9

40.9

95.0

95.0

103.8

103.8

1.5

1.5

Sub-total

Lotteries fund expenditure

Social welfare grants and loans

52.0

52.0

97.7

97.7

105.6

105.6

9.1

9.1

12.9

12.9

4.7

4.7

Grand total

3,456.3 1,774.0 5,230.3

4,456.9 1,908.9 6,365.8

4,618.2 2,107.5 6,725.7

From April 1, 1973, Government expenditure excludes a portion transferred to the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Urban Council.

Note: 1.

2.

Excluding civil engineering works directly allocable to other services.

3. Including expenditure on disability and infirmity allowance from 1974-5.

222

Appendix 9

223

(Chapter 3: Financial

Structure)

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

and Capital Income and Expenditure

$ Million

Actual 1973-4

Actual 1974-5

Estimate 1975-6

Actual

Actual

Estimate

1973-4

1974-5

1975-6

Franchises

Recurrent Account

Direct taxes

Earnings and profits tax

Indirect taxes

Duties

Rates

Internal revenue (note 2)

Motor vehicles taxes

Airport concessions

Other revenue

Recurrent Account

Personal emoluments

1,561.4

1,956.2

1,739.7

T:

:

:

1,679.8

2,143.8 2,247.0

Departmental recurrent expenditure (excluding unallocated

stores)

498.1

739.3

799.2

441.7

473.2

555.1

Public Works Recurrent

224.1

263.5

323.7

368.9

407.9

536.9

Subventions ...

742.2

880.5

1,014.1

534.6

409.0

451.9

46.4

31.8

28.0

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee ...

159.1

187.4

208.4

34.3

39.7

49.1

Defence

56.3

59.6

53.3

45.2

42.4

56.0

Pensions

116.7

150.6

174.3

Fines, forfeitures and penalties

Miscellaneous

98.4

219.8

305.5

54.4

45.6

51.7

Licences (note 3)

115.4

167.9

223.0

Transfer to Capital Account

Fees and receipts

250.4

249.4

353.0

Surplus

1,246.5

71.6

1,360.9

1,567.8

Revenue from properties and investments

403.2

484.7

436.2

Water

171.9

168.1

208.4

Postal services

173.6

183.7

218.5

Airport and air services

109.8

125.8

179.9

Kowloon-Canton Railway

24.5

25.7

31.3

Reimbursements

Deficit

320.3

439.2

128.6

379,9

431.4

4,774.4

5,817.8

6,186.0

4,774.4

5,817.8

6,186.0

:

Capital Account

Direct taxes

Estate duty

Indirect taxes

Taxi concessions

Other revenue

Land sales

Contributions towards projects

Loan repayments

Mass Transit Railway Provisional Authority Deficit on Capital Account met by transfer from Revenue

Account

Capital Account

Public Works Programme (other than New Towns and

50.1

42.4

40.0

Housing)

:

:

:

:

:

:

Buildings

251.0

405.5

218.1

84.8

Engineering

391.9

523.1

412.9

Waterworks

371.3

483.1

354.1

Public Works Non-recurrent

318.6

287.4

356.6

Headquarters

133.9

106.4

85.1

...

10.3

11.7

2.6

2.0

2.8

Public Works Programme (New Towns and Housing)

530.7

93.9

30.0

Transfer to Development Loan Fund for Housing Authority Other capital expenditure

20.0

25.2

1,246.5

1,360.9

1,567.8

Subventions

73.7

68.0

78.2

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee

25.6

37.0

81.7

Departmental special expenditure

50.1

79.3

94.0

Special works for the Armed Services

32.2

37.9

58.3

Contribution to Mass Transit Fund

300.0

Miscellaneous (including public debt) .

83.2

38.0

58.9

1,712.9

1,798.3

1,997.2

1,712.9

1,798.3

1,997.2

Note:

123

From April 1, 1973 revenue and expenditure exclude those transferred to the Hong Kong Housing Authority Internal revenue comprising taxes on bets and sweeps, entertainment, hotel accommodation and stamp duties. Licences including business registration fees.

ad the Urban Council.

224

Appendix 10

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Item

Import duty on

Hydrocarbon oils

Revenue from Duties*

:

Intoxicating liquor

Liquor other than intoxicating liquor

Tobacco

Duty on

Locally manufactured liquor

Table waters

Total

:

:

:

Actual

Actual

Estimate

1973-4

1974-5

1975-6

$

$

$

139,031,577

134,899,519 140,800,000

138,963,754

131,271,581

150,000,000

2,692,526

2,725,693

2,800,000

142,163,435

184,272,317

237,000,000

18,591,329

19,976,951

24,500,000

255,078

441,697,699

473,146,061

555,100,000

* These figures represent net revenue collected, i e after deducting refunds and drawbacks of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

Hydrocarbon oils

Liquor ...

Tobacco

Miscellaneous

Total

:

:

:

:

201,020

202,912

200,000

:

:

:

:

4,417,912

4,432,074

5,600,000

823,188

810,962

900,000

:

:

:

:

3,040

3,190

3,000

5,445,160

5,449,138

6,703,000

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

Denaturing

Bonded warehouse supervision

Total

:

313,853

247,031

180,000

1,218,533

1,408,579

1,600,000

1,532,386

1,655,610

1,780,000

Appendix II

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure) Money Supply

225

$ Million

As at end of year

1973

1974

1975

Legal tender coins and notes in circulation

Commercial bank issues (A)

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

2,924.00

3,009.00

3,316.00

The Chartered Bank

494.86

535.54

723.76

Mercantile Bank

29.45

29.32

28.64

Government issues (B)

One-thousand-dollar gold coins

-

19.97

Two-dollar coins

30.50

One-dollar coins

153.42

173.92

170.89

Subsidiary coins

One-cent notes

110.04

118.37

136.54

0.64

0.67

0.71

Demand deposits with licensed banks (C)

8,622.62

8,161.35

9,911.00

Time deposits with licensed banks (D)

9,958.13

14,200.27

13,629.00

Savings deposits with licensed banks (E)

7,610.24

8,636.59

12,803.00

Licensed banks' holdings of legal tender (F)

574.32

658.10

775.00

Money supply:

Definition 1 (A+B+C−F)

11,760.71

11,370.07

13,563.01

Definition 2 (A+B+C+D+E-F)

29,329.08

34,206.93

39,995.01

Appendix 12

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure) Banking: Liabilities and Assets

Number of licensed banks

Liabilities

Deposits:

Demand

Time

:

Savings

Amount due to banks abroad

Other liabilities

Total liabilities

Assets

Cash (legal tender notes and coins) Amount due from banks abroad: Demand and short term claims Time deposits

...

Loans and advances:

Hong Kong

Abroad

:

::

Investments:

Hong Kong

Abroad

Other assets:

      Hong Kong Abroad

Total assets

:.

$ Million

As at end of year

1973

1974

74

74

1975

74

8,623

8,161

9,911

9,958

14,200

13,629

7,610

8,637

12,803

8,911

15,460

21,243

5,150

6,803

8,011

40,252

53,261

65,597

574

658

775

10,201

14,726

19,044

623

1,835

2,001

21,578

23,594

24,998

1,685

5,955

10,077

1,923

2,363

2,891

62

48

50

1,786

2,719

3,525

1,820

1,363

2,236

40,252

53,261

65,597

:

::

::

::

226

Appendix 13

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Number of Establishments and Employment in Manufacturing Industry Analysed by Main Industrial Groups

Establishments

Industry

Food products

Persons engaged

Dec 1974

Dec 1975 Dec 1974

Dec 1975

1,139

1,114

14,225

14,347

Beverages

Tobacco

28

27

:

2,891

2,682

4

3

817

795

Textiles

3,405

3,411

98,222

112,922

Wearing apparel, except footwear

6,848

7,073

188,458

238,958

Leather and leather products, except footwear and wearing apparel

165

168

2,076

2,462

Footwear except rubber, plastic and wooden footwear

487

450

4,218

4,335

Wood and cork products, except furniture

1,217

1,159

6,998

7,595

Furniture and fixtures, except primarily of metal

1,217

1,178

7,436

7,534

Paper and paper products

Printing, publishing and allied industries

940

915

7,236

7,442

:

1,542

1,578

19,297

19,812

Chemicals and chemical products

459

420

5,731

5,197

Products of petroleum and coal

1

3

8

15

Rubber products

358

336

6,897

6,101

Plastic products

3,809

3,437

59,074

63,706

Non-metallic mineral products, except products of petroleum and

coal

304

274

3,243

3,347

Basic metal industries

245

251

3,098

3,106

Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

4,799

4,974

52,446

57,322

Machinery except electrical

1,330

1,228

10,900

11,926

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and supplies

856

891

64,669

66,353

Transport equipment

239

217

14,064

11,133

Professional and scientific, measuring and controlling equipment,

and photographic and optical goods

282

318

11,221

13,177

Other manufacturing industries

1,644

1,609

16,903

18,590

Total

31,318

31,034

600,128

678,857

Note: Figures refer to manufacturing establishments registered with or recorded by the Labour Department as well as other manufacturing establishments. As from December 1974, the coverage of the survey of manufacturing employment was enlarged by incorporating establishments recorded by the Business Registration Office.

Appendix 14

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Number of Establishments and Employment in Selected

Manufacturing Industries

227

Establishments

Industry

Dec 1974

Dec 1975

Dec 1974

Persons engaged

Dec 1975

Textiles

Bleaching, dyeing and finishing

439

520

14,620

16,123

Cotton knitting

215

258

4,933

6,225

Cotton spinning

37

39

19,160

21,040

Cotton weaving

309

340

25,830

29,967

Made-up textile goods except wearing apparel

370

360

4,208

4,722

Wool spinning

16

11

1,893

1,522

Woollen knitting

1,165

1,049

14,757

18,388

Garments

Wearing apparel, except footwear

Gloves ...

Footwear except rubber, plastic and wooden footwear

Shoes

Furniture and fixtures, except primarily of metal

Wooden furniture

Paper and paper products

Paper boxes

Printing, publishing and allied industries

Job printing

Newspaper printing ...

5,132

5,370

147,159

189,661

318

291

10,483

10,029

447

415

3,800

3,840

890

878

5,453

:

:

:

::

5,837

649

646

5,418

5,632

1,202

1,212

13,214

13,441

31

24

3,080

3,036

Rubber products

Rubber footwear

179

167

5,622

4,783

Plastic products

Plastic flowers and foliage

517

390

5,747

5,656

Plastic toys

1,361

1,214

31,968

33,591

Plastic products (miscellaneous)

1,910

1,797

21,182

24,098

Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

Aluminium ware

81

82

2,387

2,755

Electroplating.

352

364

2,776

3,219

Metal toys

91

93

1,902

2,337

Padlocks and bolts

117

108

2,086

2,037

Pressure stoves and lanterns.

34

32

1,594

1,625

Tools and dies...

457

565

2,340

3,151

Torch cases

45

37

2,026

1,826

Wrist watch bands

231

234

7,012

6,390

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and supplies

Dry batteries

9

10

1,705

2,208

Electric bulbs

105

88

4,514

3,839

Electronics

414

460

50,179

51,570

Transport equipment

Aircraft repairing

Ship building and repairing ...

59

30

3

2,481

2,598

57

8,758

7,005

Professional and scientific, measuring and controlling equipment, and

photographic and optical goods

Cameras

18

17

2,707

2,863

Watches and clocks ...

197

237

7,630

9,393

Other manufacturing industries

Jewellery and related articles

Wigs

490 93

500

5,065

6,052

59

1,518

1,398

Note: Figures refer to manufacturing establishments registered with or recorded by the Labour Department as well as other manufacturing establishments. As from December 1974, the coverage of the survey of manufacturing employment was enlarged by incorporating establishments recorded by the Business Registration Office.

228

Appendix 15

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Reported Occupational Accidents

1973

1974

1975

Cause

Non-

Non-

Fatal

fatal

Total Fatal

Non-

Total Fatal

Total

fatal

fatal

Machinery: power driven

13

5,994

6,007

8

6,322

6,330

9

7,116

7,125

Machinery: other

Transport

Explosions or fires

Hot or corrosive substances...

Gassing, poisoning and other

toxic substances

Electricity

Falls of persons

Stepping on or striking

against objects

Falling objects

Falls of grounds

Handling without machinery

Hand tools

Miscellaneous

85

Sunata aos 1500 wi

511

514

431

431

425

425

80

1,138

1,218

49

1,083

1,132

39

1,156

1,195

300

318

13

303

316

8

282

290

1,542

1,542

1,464

1,464

1,556

1,556

14

18

3

10

13

50

50

100

109

4

116

120

4

85

89

65

2,965

3,030

62

3,639

3,701

51

3,788

3,839

3,795

3,801

4

4,584

4,588

7

6,394

6,401

11

2,129

2,140

13

2,283

2,296

9

1,990

1,999

10

15

5

8

13

2

8

10

5,303

5,305

1

4,511

4,512

1

3,892

3,893

3,250

3,253

1

3,067

3,068

3,321

3,321

3,163

3,248

71

2,959

3,030

64

1,743

1,807

Causes not yet ascertained

18

2,387 2,405

Total ...

304 30,214 30,518

234

30,780

31,014

212

34,193 34,405

Note: Figures for 1975 are subject to amendments.

Appendix 16

(Chapter 4: Employment)

General Consumer Price Index

(September 1963-August 1964-100)

Item

Weight

Monthly average

Index for December

1973

1974

1975

1973

1974

1975

All items Foodstuffs

100.0

164.0

187.6

189.8

170

187

189

48.3

200.1

232.3

227.4

207

227

221

Housing

15.2

124.3

134.0

145.8

126

138

149

Fuel and light

3.0

111.4

159.8

166.8

124

165

172

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

3.3

120.5

133.8

154.3

123

140

165

Clothing and footwear

6.2

119.4

130.1

127.5

127

130

129

Durable goods

2.1

147.8

171.3

170,9

164

173

169

Miscellaneous goods

4.2

139.9

171.1

178.3

150

177

178

Transport and vehicles

3.2

133.5

140.7

148.0

135

146

156

Services

14.5

141.7

154.7

165.0

149

160

170

-

***

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $100 to $1,999 in 1963-4.

Modified Consumer Price Index

(September 1963-August 1964-100)

Item

Weight

Monthly average

Index for December

1973

1974

1975

1973

1974

1975

All items Foodstuffs

100.0

170.1

195.3

196.5

176

194

195

55.6

203.2

235.8

230,4

210

231

223

Housing

12.9

124.3

133.6

145.3

126

137

149

Fuel and light

3.0

114.8

164.6

171.4

129

170

178

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

4.2

119.6

133.0

154.5

122

139

166

Clothing and footwear

4.9

120.4

131.7

129.3

128

132

131

Durable goods

1.5

154.6

182.2

180.6

173

184

178

Miscellaneous goods

4.1

138.9

169.3

176.3

149

175

177

Transport and vehicles

2.8

138.0

140.7

145.4

138

144

155

Services

11.0

135.3

148.6

160.2

142

156

165

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $100 to $599 in 1963-4.

Appendix 16-Contd

(Chapter 4: Employment)

New Consumer Price Index (A)

(July 1973-June 1974-100)

229

Item

All items Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

Clothing and footwear

Durable goods

Miscellaneous goods

Transport and vehicles

Services

Index for December

1974 1975

Monthly average

Weight

1974*

1975

100.00

107.0

107.5

106

108

56.60

105.8

103.2

103

14.08

105.5

110.7

108

102

113

3.39

126.8

129.3

128

134

2.65

108.7

120.5

110

128

3.82

101.3

98.0

101

98

1.41

106.0

105.8

106

105

4.58

113.5

115.3

114

117

4.36

106.3

107.6

107

109

9.11

108.2

116.8

111

120

100

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $400 and $1,499 in 1973-4, * Monthly average of July-December.

New Consumer Price Index

All items Foodstuffs

Housing

Item

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

Clothing and footwear

Durable goods

Miscellaneous goods

Transport and vehicles

Services

...

Note:

(B)

(July 1973-June 1974-100)

Weight

Monthly average

Index for December

1974*

1975

1974

1975

100.00

107.0

107.5

107

108

47.82

106.0

103.6

104

103

16.79

105.7

110.2

108

112

2.71

125,8

128.6

127

133

2.04

108.0

117.7

109

124

5.92

101.0

97.7

101

98

2.97

105.8

104.3

106

104

5.17

112.3

113.9

113

115

5.11

109.5

111.7

111

113

11.47

107.8

115.1

111

119

The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $1,500 and $2,999 in 1973-4. * Monthly average of July-December.

Hang Seng Consumer Price Index

(July 1973-June 1974-100)

Item

Weight

Monthly average

Index for December

1974*

1975

1974

1975

All items Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

Clothing and footwear

100.00

104.3

105.3

104

107

26.27

104.0

102.4

102

103

28.14

101.0

103.2

101

104

2.53

126.7

128.3

127

130

0.73

107.3

113.9

108

119

6.11

95.8

95.4

96

99

Durable goods

3.88

102.5

102.1

102

101

Miscellaneous goods

4.36

110.2

110.8

110

111

Transport and vehicles

7.47

113.7

117.7

115

119

Services

20.51

104.0

106.3

104

109

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $3,000 and $9,999 in 1973-4.

* Monthly average of July-December.

230

Appendix 17

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Estimated Local Production of Crops, Livestock,

Poultry and Fish

Crops

Rice (unhusked)

Item

Other field crops

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or simply preserved)

Fresh fruits and nuts

Flowers

Livestock and poultry

Cattle

Sheep, lambs and goats

Pigs

Chicken

Other poultry

Dairy products and eggs

Milk (fresh)

Eggs (fresh)

Fish and fish preparations

Fish (fresh, chilled or frozen)

Marine water fish

***

::

Unit

1973

1974

1975

metric ton

7,000

3,100

3,500

metric ton

12,100

8,000

7,700

metric ton

169,000

178,000

180,000

metric ton

2,500

3,400

2,100

$ thousand

23,769

27,780

21,559

head

2,900

1,900

1,500

head

30

30

thousand head

352

349

307

metric ton

16,400

14,500

13,800

metric ton

5,400

4,600

4,500

metric ton

6,100

5,300

4,600

thousand gross

838

779

1,048

metric ton

91,800

108,900

111,300

Fresh water fish ...

metric ton

3,100

3,400

4,500

Fish (dried, salted or smoked)

Marine water fish

metric ton

5,000

5,500

4,400

Crustaceans and molluscs (fresh, frozen, dried, salted, etc)

metric ton

15,500

18,400

22,300

Fish products and preparations ...

metric ton

430

1,100

2,900

...

Crustacean and mollusc products and preparations

metric ton

310

380

300

Meals (animal feeding-stuffs)

metric ton

4,700

3,700

4,600

Note: Other field crops include yam, millet, peanut, soybean, sugar cane, sweet potato and water chestnut.

Appendix 18

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Local Production and Imports of Ores and Minerals

Item

Iron ore

Quartz

Feldspar

Graphite

Clay and kaolin

:

:

Metric tons

1973

150,713

Production 1974

Imports

1975

1973

1974

1975

159,737

167,200

1,015

351

761

1,031

2,474

1,387

1,340

5,566

2,059

1,355

1,127

1,911

-

1,650

2,359

2,891

6,759

3,320

1,490

7,648

12,175

13,121

Crops

Appendix 19

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Imports of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

Item

Rice (unhusked)

Wheat

Other cereals and cereal preparations

Other field crops

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or simply preserved)

Vegetables (preserved or prepared)

Fresh fruits and nuts

Dried fruits and fruit preparations

Flowers

Sugar and honey

Coffee

Cocoa

Tea and mate

Livestock and poultry

Cattle

Sheep, lambs and goats

Pigs

Chicken

Other poultry

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

Dairy products and eggs

Milk (fresh)

Cream (fresh)

...

::

:

Milk and cream (evaporated, condensed, powdered, etc)

Butter, cheese and curd

Eggs (fresh)

Eggs (preserved)

Fish and fish preparations

Fish (fresh, chilled or frozen)

Marine water fish

Fresh water fish

...

Fish (dried, salted or smoked)

231

Unit

1973

1974

1975

metric ton

425,915

314,711 343,782

metric ton

113,803

130,520 103,872

metric ton

284,325

256,292 258,215

metric ton

44

metric ton

metric ton

metric ton

41,194 42,473 42,234

251,848 279,148 299,239

67,135 64,392 67,476

327,907

metric ton

318,978 350,988

32,434 32,899 30,195

$ thousand

2,866

2,867

3,916

metric ton

89,236

...

91,894

91,098

metric ton

25,687

14,222

17,301

metric ton

54

60

272

metric ton

7,788

6,883

7,034

head

head

204,615

20,584

199,952

208,674

15,565 19,340

thousand head

2,548

2,471

2,644

metric ton

15,623

13,542

12,832

metric ton

13,861

11,748

14,970

metric ton

metric ton

408

97,058

697

858

95,891

104,424

metric ton

3,555

4,270

3,425

metric ton

334

419

423

metric ton

30,194

34,378

30,319

metric ton

5,267

4,247

4,409

thousand gross

6,356

5,833

6,653

thousand gross

532

562

550

metric ton metric ton

11,490

9,787

9,810

33,412

30,894

33,235

Marine water fish

...

Fresh water fish...

metric ton metric ton

7,249

6,992

7,296

32

124

99

Crustaceans and molluscs (fresh, frozen, dried, salted, etc)

metric ton

20,972

22,611

22,194

...

Fish products and preparations

metric ton

2,311

3,717

3,861

Crustacean and mollusc products and preparations

metric ton

...

1,733

1,747

2,006

Oil and fats (crude or refined)

metric ton

265

219

119

Meals (animal feeding-stuffs)

metric ton

3,994

2,978

4,782

232

Government Grant

          Subsidised Private

Special education

Total

Kindergarten

Private ...

Primary

Government and aided

Private...

Sub-total

Secondary

Government and aided

Assisted private

Other private

Sub-total

Post-secondary

         Government Private ...

Sub-total

Adult education

Government

Private ...

Sub-total

Special education

Government and aided

Private ...

Appendix 20

(Chapter 6: Education) Categories of Schools

:

As at September 30

1973

1974

1975

131

122

114

22

22

22

737

734

738

1,941

1,901

1,897

35

37

34

2,866

2,816

2,805

School Enrolment

:

132,335

137,117

146,965

576,890

567,713

548,215

146,689

129,274

112,707

723,579

696,987

660,922

99,314

109,046

114,908

48,526

50,151

49,400

197,123

230,101

251,383

344,963

389,298

415,691

5,410

3,523*

3,613*

8,197

8,248

7,971

13,607

11,771

11,584

41,723

27,042*

29,730*

33,938

35,586

35,351

75,661

62,628

65,081

3,696

4,950

5,654

212

87

3,908

1,294,053

5,037 1,302,838

21 5,675 1,305,918

Sub-total

Total

Note: The schools and enrolments refer to both the day and night sections. * Excluding students enrolled in Hong Kong Polytechnic.

Appendix 21

(Chapter 6: Education)

Overseas Examinations

Entries

Examination

1973

1974

1975

Conducted by Education Department:

London Chamber of Commerce

University of London, General Certificate of Education

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)

Association of International Accountants ...

26,217

31,342

33,226

18,583

19,608

21,341

10,522

12,950

13,177

2,618

2,820

2,718

Pitman Examinations Institute, shorthand

1,962

1,816

3,173

Association of Certified Accountants

1,679

2,304

2,939

Chartered Institute of Secretaries and Administrators

1,299

1,660

1,735

Pitman Examinations Institute, typewriting

1,061

1,959

3,705

Associated Examining Board, General Certificate of Education

536

1,025

1,396

Pitman Examinations Institute, other subjects

575

1,643

Institute of Cost and Management Accountants

298

403

574

University of London, external degree

251

316

408

Canadian English Language Achievement Test

247

125

Canadian Scholastic Aptitude Test

247

125

Cambridge University Certificate of Proficiency in English

220

193

218

Cambridge University Lower Certificate in English

151

213

168

Royal Society of Arts

130

Others

730

700

834

Conducted by Hong Kong Polytechnic:

City and Guilds of London Institute Technological Examinations

1,857

1,890

2,100

Total

68,478

80,024

89,485

Appendix 22

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students in Britain

Course attending

Professional courses

Nursing

Engineering

Secretarial

Science

Management and business studies

Medical science

Law

Accountancy

Textiles

Arts

Education

English language Music

Architecture

Art and design

        Computer science Pharmacy

Social science

Hotel and catering

Dentistry

Economics

Others

Sub-total

General Certificate of Education

School children

Total

:

233

As at December

1973

1974

1975

726

642

839

319

374

797

181

196

272

100

888727

69

159

80

95

227

75

68

137

60

61

122

54

61

111

42

55

91

37

32

17

28

22

47

27

74

156

25

25

22

23

27

13

8

68

12

81

10

18

66

5

41

5

8

21

2

LA

27

10

106

272

254

76

2,098

2,104

3,510

1,755

2,234

2,960

480

60

1,053

4,333

4,398

7,523*

Students Leaving Hong Kong for Overseas Studies

Britain

United States

Canada

Australia

Country

1972-3

1973-4

1974-5

1,310

1,352

1,348

2,420

2,812

2,601

2,536

3,761

3,909

113

91

139

*This total figure has resulted from both an increase in the number of students arriving in Britain and from an increase in the number recorded due to a change in the recording procedure in the Students Section, Hong Kong Government Office, London.

Appendix 23

(Chapter 6: Education)

Expenditure on Education

$ Thousand

School year Aug-July

1973-4

1972-3

1974-5

Recurrent expenditure Capital expenditure

152,313

169,073

202,525

12,266

19,679

8,922

Grants and subsidies

529,618

591,334

713,781

Grants to Universities and Polytechnic (including rates)

147,186*

184,159

240,694

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee (including university student grants)

4,509

3,664

4,868

Total

845,892

967,909

1,170,790

Education expenditure by other departments

6,513

10,168

12,371

* Grants to the universities only.

234

Estimated mid-year population

Births:

Known live births

...

Appendix 24

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics

Crude birth rate (per 1,000 population)

Deaths:

Known deaths

Crude death rate (per 1,000 population) Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Neo-natal mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality rate (per 1,000 total births)

::

:

::

Appendix 25

(Chapter 7: Health)

1973

4,159,600

1974

4,248,700

1975 4,366,600

82,252

83,581

79,790

19.8

19.7

18.3

21,251

21,879

21,560

5.1

5.1

4.9

16.8

17.4

15.0

11.0

11.0

10.3

0.10

0.16

0.03

Causes of Death

1972

1973

1974

Infective and parasitic ...

1,469

1,393

1,281

Tuberculosis, all forms

1,312

1,154

974

Neoplasms

4,388

4,562

4,710

Malignant, including neoplasms of lymphatic and

haematopoietic tissues

***

4,375

4,539

4,683

Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic and blood ...

276

295

264

Diabetes mellitus

179

201

183

Nervous system, sense organs and mental disorders

143

156

202

Circulatory system

5,157

5,358

5,604

Heart diseases, including hypertensive diseases

3,035

3,111

3,270

Cerebrovascular diseases

1,892

1,978

2,105

Respiratory system

3,645

3,373

3,795

Pneumonia, all forms

2,359

2,238

2,563

Bronchitis, emphysema and asthma

1,012

888

937

Digestive system

1,043

1,135

1,115

Peptic ulcer ...

165

169

183

Cirrhosis of liver

309

335

372

Genito-urinary system

454

443

373

Complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium ...

16

8

13

Skin, subcutaneous tissues, musculoskeletal system and

connective tissues

50

71

67

Congenital anomalies

Certain causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality... Symptoms and ill-defined conditions...

Accidents, poisonings and violence

All accidents

Suicide and self-inflicted injuries

Total deaths

350

336

398

576

550

552

1,813

1,779

1,928

1,765

1,901

1,748

1,192

1,244

1,127

463

505

481

:

21,145

21,360

22,050

Appendix 26

(Chapter 7: Health)

Hospital Beds

235

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Category of hospitals

Government hospitals

Government dispensaries

Government-assisted hospitals

Private hospitals

Private maternity homes

Private nursing/maternity homes

:

:

Total

As at end of year

1973

1974

1975

6,507

6,311

7,127

420

432

425

7,868

8,165

7,849

1,849

1,938

2,023

162

143

113

42

45

43

16,848

17,034

17,580

Appendix 27

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

As at end of year

In Government service

1973

1974

1975

1973

Total registered 1974

1975

Medical doctors

715*

743*

:

767* 2,533

2,723 2,880

Provisionally registered medical doctors

(house officers)

115

123

116

163

171

199

Dentists

63

65

62

496

513

541

Pharmacists

25

25

27

209

220

234

Midwives (without nursing qualifications) ...

277

293

312

862

893

931

Nurses (general, male and female, excluding

student nurses)

2,269

2,374

2,436 6,366 6,906

7,581

with midwifery qualifications

1,582

1,561

1,523

4,169 4,391

4,691

without midwifery qualifications

687

813

913

2,197 2,515 2,890

Nurses (psychiatric, male and female,

excluding student nurses)

222

232

238

204

228

265

* Including unregistrable assistant medical officers.

236

Appendix 28

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Domestic Units and Estimated Persons Accommodated

as at March 31, 1975

Domestic Units

Category

:

Government quarters ...

Public housing

Housing Authority estates...

     Housing Authority cottage areas Housing Society estates

Sub-total

Private housing

...

Total permanent

:

Rest of

Urban

Tsuen

New

Total

areas

Wan

Territories

11,090

410

2,320

13,820

275,110

59,010

5,620

339,740

5,690

130

2,200

8,020

18,660

2,060

20,720

299,460

61,200

7,820

368,480

322,760

15,410

48,900

387,070

633,310

77,020

59,040

769,370

:

:

:

Estimated Persons Accommodated

Hong

Kowloon

Rest of

Tsuen

Category

Kong

and New

New

Total

Wan

Island

Kowloon

Territories

Government quarters ...

23,000

27,800

2,100

10,500

63,400

Public housing

Housing Authority estates .....

181,000

1,099,000

280,000

18,600

1,578,600

Housing Authority cottage

areas

13,700

21,600

600

8,000

43,900

Housing Society estates

48,100

60,400

12,200

120,700

Sub-total

Private housing

Total permanent

Temporary

242,800

1,181,000

292,800

26,600

1,743,200

782,000 1,174,000

55,400

207,000

2,218,400

Marine ...

:

:

1,047,800 2,382,800

350,300

244,100

4,025,000

247,000

65,000

Total population

4,337,000

Note: A domestic unit means a house, flat, tenement floor or other living accommodation intended for occupation

by one household.

Housing Authority estates refer to the former government low-cost housing, the former Housing Authority

estates and the former resettlement estates.

The statistics for government quarters are based on returns from various government departments. The population figures include persons living in barrack type accommodation, but this type of accommodation is not included in the domestic unit figures. Non-departmental government quarters are included in the figures for private housing.

Appendix 29

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

237

Land Office

Item

1973

1974

1975

Instruments registered

Assignments of whole buildings or sites ...

1,715

659

814

Assignments of flats or other units

32,685

28,333

29,657

Agreements for sale and purchase of flats or other units

6,251

6,058

7,329

Building mortgages

96

115

109

Other mortgages

Reassignments and certificates of satisfaction

:

:

31,712

23,954

26,278

14,310

16,460

18,926

Exclusion orders

138

164

58

Re-development orders

:

:

105

53

27

Miscellaneous

9,354

9,386

8,940

:

:

96,366

85,182

92,138

Total ...

Conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc registered

204

183

127

Consents granted to entering into agreements for sale and

purchase

83

120

155

Modifications and variations of lease conditions

42

55

62

Crown leases issued

168

62

22

Determinations of Crown rent and premium

141

261

128

Multi-storey building owners corporations registered

153

112

97

Public searches in Land Office records

106,743

154,523

174,413

Considerations in Instruments Registered in Land Office

$ Thousand

:

Assignments of whole buildings or sites Assignments of flats or other units...

Building mortgages

Other mortgages

Reassignments...

Miscellaneous instruments

Total

:

:

:

3,793,849 1,574,356 1,725,143

3,865,829 3,538,910

4,199,840

343,843

345,522

315,282

4,978,584 3,977,045

3,983,529

1,670,438

1,791,010

2,404,690

33,241

15,661

64,456

14,685,784

11,242,504

12,693,940

:

:

:

:

238

Hong Kong Island Kowloon

New Territories Marine

Total

Appendix 30

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic Accidents

1973

1974

1975

3,954

3,644

3,518

6,004

4,935

5,534

2,835

2,403

2,381

21

14

15

12,814

10,996

11,448

Hong Kong Island

Fatal

Serious

Traffic Casualties

Slight

Kowloon

Fatal

Serious Slight

New Territories

       Fatal Serious Slight

Marine

       Fatal Serious

Slight

Total

:

123 1,493

94

1,335

3,160

3,025

74 1,305 2,861

185

152

152

2,706

2.237

4,473

3,690

2,496 3,990

157

117

145

1,318

1,331

2,669

1,970

1,523 1,757

17

30

24

704

1

4

6

10

13

16,355

13,965

14,323

Appendix 31

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime

Number of cases

reported

Number of persons prosecuted

1973

1974

1975

1973

1974

1975

Against lawful authority

Against public order

647

1,073

1,236

845

1,384

1,670

Perjury

86

60

119

66

43

112

Escape and rescue

162

137

92

102

69

41

Unlawful society

1,319

3,070

4,233

1,146

2,612

3,220

Other offences

231

307

291

138

126

155

Sub-total

2,445

4,647

5,971

2,297

4,234

5,198

Against public morality

Rape and indecent assault

549

657

747

211

228

307

Other sexual offences

780

982

842

306

348

298

Sub-total

1,329

1,639

1,589

517

576

605

Against the person

Murder and manslaughter

110

102

105

118

82

75

Attempted murder

10

8

5

2

12

4

Serious assaults

2,237

3,738

4,676

1,456

1,807

2,485

Abortion

9

11

21

8

10

16

...

Kidnapping

2

7

9

4

16

14

Criminal intimidation

53

239

545

36

142

342

Other offences

112

170

121

54

66

84

Sub-total

2,533

4,275

5,482

1,678

2,135

3,020

Appendix 31-Contd

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime

Number of cases

239

reported

1973

1974

1975

1973

Number of persons

prosecuted 1974

1975

Against property

Robbery with firearms

21

33

66

11

13

65

Other robberies

8,696

12,754

11,054

1,833

2,198

1,758

All burglaries

4,740

6,328

6,368

487

712

548

Going equipped for stealing, etc

573

747

710

208

355

274

Blackmail

515

1,612

2,489

246

468

685

Theft from persons

1,183

1,511

1,720

278

358

384

Other thefts

12,104

15,741

13,540

3,299

5,011

3,935

All frauds

1,001

1,885

2,098

262

667

561

Handling stolen goods

91

165

167

57

146

112

Malicious damage to property

Unlawful possession

Possession of an unlawful instrument

Loitering and trespass

Sub-total

Other crimes

Forgery and coinage

Bribery and corruption

Possession of arms and ammunition

Conspiracy

Breach of deportation

Other crimes

Sub-total

Serious narcotic offences

Total

Crime detection rate

552

850

1,116

201

236

365

424

565

474

351

515

413

420

163

120

228

99

70

739

637

846

693

587

831

:

:

31,059

42,991

40,768

8,154

11,365

10,001

599

384

463

62

68

96

45

29

44

33

23

33

45

82

193

21

50

94

22

233

226

25

246

334

13

8

5

12

8

4

215

162

158

112

82

72

939

898

1,089

265

477

633

1,473

1,461

1,621

1,569

1,785

1,801

:

39,778

55,911

56,520

14,480

20,572

21,258

:

:

1973-46.9 per cent

1974-46.0 per cent

1975-49.4 per cent

Narcotic Offences

Serious offences

Manufacturing

8

13

10

13

32

Trafficking (importing)

3

35

9

Other trafficking

1

8

108

1

49

96

Possession for purpose of trafficking

1,464

1,441

1,465

1,558

1,714

1,673

Sub-total

1,473

1,461

1,621

1,569

1,785

1,801

Possession of opium

Keeping a divan

Smoking opium

Opium

Possession of equipment

Other opium offences

Sub-total

Heroin

Possession of heroin

Possession of equipment Keeping a divan

Smoking heroin

Other heroin offences

Sub-total

Other dangerous drugs

Possession

Smoking

Other offences

Sub-total

2,253

1,932

787

1,998

1,745

526

170

233

280

88

88

97

370

265

258

374

259

244

9,530

7,725

3,135

9,500

7,619

3,164

20

22

9

2

1

12,343

10,177

4,469

11,962

9,712

4,031

5,102

6,084

6,440

4,793

5,397

6,131

314

424

565

171

228

343

5

5

4

2

1,420

1,386

1,353

1,250

1,235

1,225

18

40

67

11

14

:

6,859

7,934

8,430

6,220

6,871

7,715

159

98

91

149

66

72

32

15

5

28

8

5

20

14

13

11

11

211

127

109

188

85

85

Total

20,886

19,699

14,629

19,939

18,453

13,632

240

Appendix 32

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court, Tenancy Tribunal and Labour Tribunal

Supreme Court

Civil appeals

Criminal appeals

Original jurisdiction

Miscellaneous proceedings

Adoptions

...

Divorce

:

1973

1974

1975

53

57

62

964

1,154

1,151

4,023

3,154

3,165

458

488

552

364

411

450

45

50

45

124

142

123

181

139

156

1,585

1,880

2,113

26

57

96

42

75

95

7,865

7,607

8,008

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Criminal sessions

Admiralty jurisdiction

Probate grants Bankruptcy

Company winding-up

Total ...

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction Civil jurisdiction

    Workmen's compensation Distress for rent

    Rent increase application Divorce jurisdiction

Total ...

Tenancy Tribunal

    Ordinary cases Exemption cases

Demolished building cases

Total ...

Labour Tribunal

Claims dealt with

:

:

...

527

668

490

17,503

20,821

24,356

341

296

259

1,829

2,136

2,562

1,302

92

793

789

893

22,295

24,802

28,560

:

:

735

708

559

383

146

141

149

114

63

1,267

968

763

805

1,908

2,027

Work in the Magistracies

Summary matters (charges, summonses and applications,

etc)

Adult defendants

Adult defendants convicted

Juvenile defendants

Juvenile defendants convicted

Charge sheets issued

Summonses issued

Miscellaneous proceedings issued

615,228

537,258

558,497

667,246

773,923

581,917

608,482

508,826

536,310

3,060

3,787

3,540

2,900

3,615

3,252

221,912

189,726

174,527

365,203

342,691

377,967

27,962

4,841

:

6,003

Population of

Prisons

Training centres Detention centres

Treatment centres

Discharges under aftercare

Appendix 33

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Prisons

As at end of year

241

1973

1974

1975

4,064

5,775

6,237

826

610

581

206

255

183

1,383

1,581

1,496

2,374

3,006

3,159

Appendix 34

(Chapter 12: Public Works and Utilities)

Electricity Consumption, 1975

Maximum demand

Sales

Consumers

Sales per head of population

MW

GW h

hundreds

kW h

China Light and Power Company

1,086

4,627

7,086

1,441

(1,005)

(4,279)

(6,744)

(1,372)

The Hong Kong Electric Company ...

460

1,790

2,406

1,721

(442)

(1,632)

(2,307)

(1,583)

Cheung Chau Electric Company

7

46

340

(6)

(43)

(308)

6,424 (5,917)

9,538

1,471

(9,094)

(1,393)

Note: Figures in brackets refer to 1974.

1 GW h=1,000,000 kW h.

          Domestic Industrial

Commercial

Street lighting

Total

Electricity Distribution

GW h

1973

1974

1975

1,322.29

1,393.72

1,529.75

2,419.89

2,319.10

2,456.47

2,243.96

2,178.71

2,408.74

24.45

25.60

29.02

6,010.59

5,917.13

6,423.98

Gas Production and Distribution

Therms

1973

1974

1975

          Domestic Industrial

Commercial

6,572,427

7,485,945

8,060,994

982,652

984,960

1,136,552

4,554,073

5,516,096

6,053,062

Total

12,109,152

13,987,001

15,250,608

Water Consumption

Million gallons

1973

1974

1975

Fresh water

78,780

76,841

79,341

Salt water (flushing purposes)

13,916

14,139

14,834

Note: The total fresh water supply hours for 1974 were only 8,540.

Full supply was maintained throughout 1975.

242

Appendix 35

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

International Movements of Aircraft and Vessels

1973

1974

1975

Aircraft

Arrivals

26,915

26,469

25,545

Departures

26,907

26,460

25,549

Total

53,822

52,929

51,094

Ocean-going vessels

Arrivals

:

7,358

7,321

7,406

Departures

7,437

7,370

7,448

Total

14,795

14,691

14,854

River steamers, hydrofoil vessels, junks and launches

Arrivals

31,174

33,853

34,711

Departures

31,111

33,782

34,698

Total

62,285

67,635

69,409

Arrivals

Air

International Movements of Passengers

(Immigration figures)

Sea

Rail

Total

Departures

Air

Sea

Rail

Total

Note:

All figures quoted here exclude:-

i.

Passengers in transit.

ii.

Passengers refused permission to land.

:

Thousands

1,662

1,711

1,770

2,245

2,218

2,067

937

926

796

4,844

4,855

4,633

1,700

1,763

1,826

2,213

2,191

2,045

895

855

760

4,808

4,809

4,631

iii. Military passengers.

International Movements of Commercial Cargo

by Different Means of Transport

Air

Imports Exports

Total

Sea

Imports

Exports

Total

Rail

Imports

Exports

Total

:

Metric tons

37,179

35,485

40,789

59,163

66,773

100,831

96,342

102,258

141,620

13,341,873

13,708,505

13,517,632

4,465,228

4,919,890

5,083,199

17,807,101

18,628,395

18,600,831

1,233,541 3,351

1,236,892

1,162,244

767

1,480,993 721

1,163,011

1,481,714

Appendix 36

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

Registered Motor Vehicles

As at end of year

1974

243

Public service vehicles

Public buses

1973

1975

China Motor Bus Company Kowloon Motor Bus Company

565

595

629

1,324

1,371

1,560

Others

New Lantao Bus Company

Public light buses

43

42

42

1,179

1,194

1,186

3,943

4,277

4,307

Taxis

Public hire cars

4,754

4,754

4,754

1,106

1,264

1,283

Private vehicles

Motor cycles Motor tricycles

23,283

23,254

22,290

58

38

26

Private cars

129,309

119,273

114,260

Private buses

340

Private light buses

1,743

Goods vehicles

31,534

308 1,648 31,596

293

1,447 32,034

Crown vehicles (excluding vehicles of HM Forces)

Motor cycles

843

Other motor vehicles

2,751

Total

202,775

902 2,923 193,439

913 2,994 188,018

Tramcars

Tramcars

Hongkong Tramways Company

Tramcars

Trailers

Peak Tramways Company

Total

162

162

22

22

162 22

3

3

3

187

187

187

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Undertaking

Thousand journeys

1973

1974

1975

Kowloon Motor Bus Company

493,691

564,488

634,562

China Motor Bus Company

150,586

181,172

215,761

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company

155,532

153,397+

143,467

Hongkong Tramways Company

145,672

147,588

144,011

'Star' Ferry Company

52,566

50,465

53,197

Kowloon-Canton Railway

13,286

13,778

13,474

Peak Tramways Company

1,964

2,051

2,034

New Lantao Bus Company

1,753

1,225

1,373

Total

1,015,050

1,114,164

1,207,879

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Area

Thousand journeys

Hong Kong Island

276,874

299,819

320,648

Kowloon

387,039

420,114

458,692

Cross Harbour

Ferry

Tunnel

New Territories

Urban

196,349

189,717†

181,485

46,641

67,519

86,107

49,461

67,690

82,676

Rural

46,937

55,160

63,092

Total

Ferry

Public Transport: Daily Average Number of Passengers Carried by Different Modes of Transport

11,749

14,145

15,179

1,015,050

1,114,164

1,207,879

Bus

Public light bus*.

Ferry

Taxi*

Tram

Public hire car*

Railway

Total

* Estimate.

† Revised figure which includes an estimate of passengers in vehicles.

Revised figure which includes passengers travelling to and from Lo Wu.

§ Revised estimate.

Thousand journeys

1,770

2,046

2,333

1,2318

1,3328

1,434

570

559†

539

7178

563

563

404

410

400

608

45

46

36+

38‡

37

4,788

4,993

5,352

244

Appendix 37

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

Communications

Postal traffic:

Letter mails (million articles)

posted to destinations abroad

posted for local delivery

received from abroad for local delivery

in transit

Parcels (thousands)

...

posted to destinations abroad

posted for local delivery

1973

1974

1975

Estimated

80.7

76.9

77.0

118.8

121.1

131.7

55.4

57.5

58.5

2.4

2.6

2.6

2,489

2,533

2,680

61

76

110

564

553

533

40

41

52

received from abroad for local delivery...

in transit

Telecommunication traffic:

Telegrams (thousands)

accepted for transmission

1,361

1,101

1,238

received

in transit

1,764

1,821

1,598

1,376

1,432

1,513

Telex calls (thousand minutes)

outward

5,415

7,841

7,404

inward

4,817

5,974

5,838

International telephone calls (thousand minutes)

outward

9,389

9,436

10,579

inward

10,797

11,704

13,715

Radio pictures

transmitted

9.172

10,412

7,639

received

8,163

9,214

6,641

press

meteorological

International telegraph circuits

Broadcast and reception services (thousand hours)

International telephone circuits

20

26

13

140

138

146

285

330

371

32

35

37

Telex trunks

International leased circuits

voice grade

telegraph

Telephone exchanges

Exchange capacity (thousand lines)

219

283

412

7

9

17

293

434

528

48

52

53

902

1,029

1,109

Subscribers (thousands)

Telephones (thousands)

Telephones per 100 population

Telecommunications licences (all types)

747

803

835

913

988

1,028

21.7 11,505

23.1

23.4

13,308

15,171

Appendix 38

(Chapter 17: Recreation)

Recreational Facilities Provided by the Urban Council

and Urban Services Department

Facilities

1973

1974

1975

Children's playgrounds

298

305

317

Parks and gardens

454

458

570

Grass games pitches

51

51

62

Hardsurface mini soccer pitches

Tennis courts

99

99

98

Basketball/volleyball/badminton courts

411

412

436

36

36

36

Running tracks

9

9

12

Beaches

37

37

36

Swimming pools

6

7

Indoor games halls (multi-purpose)

1

1

4

Obstacle golf course, squash courts, practice tennis courts, bowling and putting greens, soil surfaced mini soccer pitches, roller skating rinks and table tennis

57

57

64

Aviaries and mammal exhibits, concrete chess tables, model boat pools,

television sets and open air theatre

111

112

128

Bandstand, barbecue pits, composite beach buildings, car parks, changing rooms, fountains, dog's gardens, refreshment kiosks, public lavatories, public libraries, pavilions/shelters and spectators stands

481

481

583

Total acreage of public open space administered

1,568

1,570

1,628

Appendix 39

(Chapter 18: The Environment)

Climatological Summary, 1975

245

Month

Mean pressure at mean sea level

Maxi-

Mini-

mum air tempera- ture

Mean air tempera- ture

mum Mean Mean Mean Total air dew relative amount bright tempera- point humidity of cloud sunshine

ture

Prevail- Mean

Total rainfall

ing wind wind speed

millibars °C

°C

°C

°C

per cent per cent hours mm direction knots

January

1,020.3

24.4

16.0

10.5

11.8

77

77

88.9

35.8

E

6.3

February

1,018.0

25.3

17.5

12.4

12.8

76

68

117.3

35.7

E

6.1

March

1,015.0

26.3

18.5

11.5

15.5

83

91

43.6

81.5

E

9.1

April

1,012.1

30.8

24.2

16.4

20.6

81

75

138.7

345.0

E

5.4

May

1,009.2

31.7

26.6

22.0

24.0

86

81

123.3

571.5

E

4.4

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Mean

Total

...

1,006.1

32.6

27.4

23.4

24.5

85

81

111.3

579.6 E

[1]

4.5

...

1,007.3

32.7

28.3

23.5

24.7

81

64

229.6 292.4 WSW 3.6

1,003.0

32.8

27.7

23.0

25.0

85

74

169.4

458.9

E

5.8

1,009.7

33.9 27.8

22.9

24.1

81

59

193.8

96.0 E

3.5

***

1,010.7

32.7

25.2

16.9

21.3

80

80

70

141.1

465.6

E

7.5

..

1,018.3

27.3

20.3

8.5

14.3

70

50

183.0

17.4

E

4.5

1,021.1 25.8

14.5

4.3

6.9

64

56

173.4 49.3

N

6.2

1,012.6

22.8

18.8

79

71

Ε

5.6

|

1,713.4 3,028.7

Climatological Normals

(1884-1939; 1947-60)

Month

millibars °C*

°C °C*

°C

per cent per cent

hours

mm direction knots

January

1,019.9 26.9 15.4

0.0

11.1

75

64

145.4

31.7

E

7.7

February

1,018.4 27.8 15.2

2.4

11.7

79

75

100.2

46.9

E

8.9

March

1,016.1 30.1 17.5

6.2

14.8

83

82

94.7

72.2

E

9.4

April

1,012.7 33.4

21.3

9.9

18.8

85

80

114.6

135.8

E

8.7

May

1,009.2

35.5 25.2

15.4

22.4

85

76

156.1

292.7

E

8.3

June

1,005.9

35.6 27.3

19.2

24.2

84

78

159.9

401.2

E

7.6

July

August

1,004.9

35.7 27.9

22.2

24.7

83

1,004.9 36.1 27.7

21.6

24.6

84

98

69

213.7 371.7

E

6.8

67

200.9 370.8

E

6.5

September

October

November

December

Mean

1,008.4 35.2 27.1

18.4

23.1

79

61

197.5

278.8

E

7.8

:

...

1,013.8 34.3 24.6 14.1

19.3

72

1,017.5 31.8

20.9

6.5

15.1

1,019.7

28.7

17.3

4.3

11.9

...

1,012.6

22.3

18.5

280

220

69

555

51

218.9

99.2

E

8.5

53

187.9

43.1

E

7.8

70

55

172.6

24.9

E

7.2

79

68

તુ

E

7.9

Total

I

1,963.1 2,168.8

* 1884-1939; 1947-75.

246

Type of appointment

Ex-officio

"

*

Nominated

Appendix 40

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

The Executive Council

Names of Members on January 2, 1976

Presided over by His Excellency the Governor,

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, KCVO, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander British Forces

Lieutenant General Sir Edwin Noel Westby BRAMALL, KCB, OBE, MC

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Sir Denys ROBERTS, KBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, CMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr John William Dixon HOBLEY, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Affairs

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, CVO, JP

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA, CBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated

The Honourable Sir Yuet-keung KAN, CBE, JP

"

The Honourable Sir Sidney GORDON, CBE, JP

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, CBE, JP

"

The Honourable SZETO Wai, CBE, JP

*

"

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen, CBE, JP

The Honourable ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP

The Honourable G. M. SAYER, JP

The Honourable Oswald Victor CHEUNG, OBẸ, QC, JP

Type of appointment

Appendix 41

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

The Legislative Council

Names of Members on January 2, 1976

Ex-officio

His Excellency the Governor,

PRESIDENT:

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, KCVO, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

"

"

""

Nominated

*

35

:

17

..

*

""

Nominated

..

31

99

"

"

""

""

""

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Sir Denys ROBERTS, KBE, QC, JP The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, CMG, JP The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr John William Dixon HOBLEY, QC, JP The Honourable the Secretary for Home Affairs

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, CVO, JP

The Honourable James Jeavons ROBSON, CBE, JP

(Secretary for the Environment)

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA, CBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

The Honourable Ian MacDonald LIGHTBODY, CMG, JP

(Secretary for Housing)

The Honourable David Harold JORDAN, CMG, MBE, JP

(Director of Commerce and Industry)

The Honourable Li Fook-kow, CMG, JP

(Secretary for Social Services)

The Honourable David AKERS-JONES, JP

(Secretary for the New Territories)

The Honourable Lewis Mervyn DAVIES, CMG, OBE, JP

(Secretary for Security)

The Honourable David Wylie McDONALD, JP

(Director of Public Works)

The Honourable Kenneth Wallis Joseph TOPLEY, CMG, JP

(Director of Education)

The Honourable Ian Robert PRICE, TD, JP

(Commissioner for Labour)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen, CBE, JP The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, OBE, JP

The Honourable Oswald Victor CHEUNG, OBE, QC, JP The Honourable Rogerio Hyndman LOBO OBE, JP The Honourable Mrs Catherine Joyce SYMONS, OBE, JP The Honourable Peter Gordon WILLIAMS, OBE, JP The Honourable James Wu Man-hon, OBE, JP The Honourable Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, OBE, JP The Honourable Li Fook-wo, OBE, JP

The Honourable John Henry BREMRIDGE, OBE, JP Dr the Honourable Harry FANG Sin-yang, OBE, JP The Honourable Miss Ko Siu-wah, MBE, JP

**

19

""

The Honourable Lo Tak-shing, OBE, JP The Honourable Francis Yuan-hao TIEN, OBE, JP The Honourable Alex Wu Shu-chih, OBE, JP

""

247

248

Type of appointment

Appendix 42

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Names of Members on January 2, 1976

CHAIRMAN:

Elected by Urban Council

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira SALES, CBE(H), JP (A)

VICE-CHAIRMAN:

Dr Henry Hu Hung-lick, OBE(H), (E)

MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE, QC, JP (E)

The Honourable Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, OBE, JP (E)

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT (E)

The Honourable Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, OBE, JP (A)

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE, OBE, JP (A)

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, OBE, JP (A)

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP (A)

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa (E)

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun, JP (A)

Mr Peter CHAN Chi-kwan (E)

Mr John MACKENZIE (A)

Miss Cecilia YEUNG Lai-yin (E)

Mr TSIN Sai-nin (E)

Mr Edmund CHOW Wai-hung (E)

Mr Ambrose CHOI Kwok-ching (E)

Dr WONG Pun-cheuk (E)

Mr Hu Fa-kuang (A)

The Honourable Alex Wu Shu-chih, OBE (A)

Mr WONG Shiu-cheuck, MBE, JP (A)

Mr SHUM Choi-sang, MBE, JP (A)

Mrs Grace Ho, JP (A)

Mr Henry LUK Hoi-on (E)

Note: (E)-Elected.

(A)=Appointed.

Appendix 43

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(A) The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

American Women's Association of Hong Kong

Member Agencies

Asbury Village Community Centre of the Methodist

Church

Association of Volunteers for Service

Baptist Assembly

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services)

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Catholic Relief Services-USCC

Catholic Women's League

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

Chai Wan Area Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association (Hong Kong)

Child Care Centre-Walled City

Chinese Young Men's Christian Association Christian Children's Fund

Christian Family Service Centre

Church of Christ in China, Hong Kong Council,

Social Welfare Department

Community Service Committee, The Church of

the Good Shepherd

Conference Board of Christian Social Concerns of

the Methodist Church

Convent of Good Shepherd

Department of Social Work, University of Hong Kong

Diocesan Welfare Council of the Diocese of Hong Kong

and Macau

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ecumenical Community Development Project

Ecumenical Institute of Hong Kong

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

Epworth Village Community Centre (The Chinese

Methodist Church)

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

Finnish Missionary Society

Five District Business Welfare Association

Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club

Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel and Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-TB and Thoracic Disease

Association

Hong Kong Association for Mentally Handicapped

Children and Young Persons

Hong Kong Baptist College

Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council

Hong Kong Cheshire Home

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of Boys' Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Women

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Housing Society Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Marriage Guidance Council

Hong Kong PHAB Association

Hong Kong Playground Association

Hong Kong Recreation & Sports Association

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong Red Swastika

Hong Kong Samaritans

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Shue Yan College

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association

Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Deaf

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

The Leprosy Mission Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters

Marycove

Mennonite Ministries

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association Norwegian Missionary Society

Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

Salvation Army

Scout Association

SKH Lady MacLehose Centre

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese Methodist

Church

Society for Community Organisation

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Sports Association for the Physically Handicapped

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

United Christian Hospital

World Council of Churches

World Vision

Young Men's Christian Association

Young Women's Christian Association

Yang Social Service Centre

Zion Youth Service Centre

249

250

Appendix 43-Contd

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(B) The Community Chest of Hong Kong

Buddhist Po Ching Home for the Aged Women

Calvary Social Service Centre

Canossian Mission Welfare Services

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council

Catholic Women's League

Child Care Centre-Kowloon Walled City

Children's Meals Society

Chinese Young Men's Christian Association

Christian Family Service Centre

Diocesan Welfare Council

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

Epworth Village Community Centre

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association

Good Shepherd Community Service Centre

Hans Andersen Club

Happy Home for the Aged

Heep Hong Club for Handicapped Children

Holy Carpenter Youth Centre

Holy Nativity Social Service Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Council of the Boys' Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Member Agencies

Hong Kong Society for the Deaf

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

Kei Oi Youth Centre

Lutheran World Federation

Maryknoll Sisters Community Nursing Service

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

North Point Estate Residents Association

Practical Training Centre of the Churches

Project Concern--Hong Kong

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

St Christopher's Home

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

St Thomas' Day Nursery

Salvation Army-Hong Kong Command

Shaukiwan Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

Sisters of the Good Shepherd (Pelletier Hall)

Sheng Kung Hui Lady MacLehose Centre

Society for Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Sports Association for the Physically Handicapped

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

World Council of Churches Service to Refugees

Workers Tours and Travel Service

Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

Young Women's Christian Association

Youth Centre of St Barnabas

Abattoirs, 79

Action Committee Against Narcotics, 74 Administration, Government, 197-209 Adoption, 98

Advisory committees, 205 Agriculture---

and Fisheries Department, 44-6, 49-50,

      162, 176-7, 178-9, 184, 187, 188 industry, 43-8, 49-50, 176

Airport, 28, 121, 122, 129-30, 134, 172, 184,

192

Alliance Francaise, 163

Ambulance service, 113-15, 120, 121 Aquatic life, 186

Armed Services, 27, 117, 150-4

Arrangement Regarding International Trade

in Textiles (MFA), 16

Arts, 163-5

Centre, 164

Festival, 118, 147, 163, 164 Asian Development Bank, 28

Asian Productivity Organisation, 23 Auxiliary Fire Service, 154

Auxiliary Medical Service, 117, 154

Auxiliary Services, 150-4

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 26 Banks, 33

Betting Duty, 31

Birth and death registration, 182-3

Botanical Gardens, 188

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, 97

British Council, 67, 166-7

Buddhism, 155-6

Building(s)-

Authority, 81, 90, 93

development, 120-1

management, 95

private, 89-90

regulations, 90

Bus services, 136-8

Business registration, 32

Cable and Wireless, 143

Campaigns-

Fight Violent Crime, 8, 204

Keep Hong Kong Clean, 77, 204 road safety, 106

Index

Caritas, 73, 75, 97, 98

Cathay Pacific Airways, 129 Cemeteries and Crematoria, 80 Child Care Centres, 98

China, 9, 15, 59, 122, 127, 128, 141, 168, 189,

191, 192-4, 195-6

Chinese Christian Literature Council, 157 Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, 17 Chinese language, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 64,

144, 145-7, 148, 205

Chinese Manufacturers' Association, 17, 24, 55 Christian Study Centre, 155, 157 Christianity, 155, 156-8

Church World Services, 75

City District Offices, 203-4, 206 City Hall, 163-6

Civil-

Aid Services, 117, 153-4 Aviation, 129-30

Service, 206-7

Climate, 169-72

Colonial Secretariat, 202

Commerce and Industry Department, 1, 10, 14,

16-20, 22

Commodity Exchange, 34

Communications, 127-43 Community-

Chest, 96

relations, 113

work, 97, 150, 151, 157, 158

Companies Registry, 24-5

Conservation of countryside, 162, 178-9, 184, 187

Constitution, 197-207

Consumer price index, 35, 36

Container terminals, 131-2

Convention Centre, 119

Convention of Chuenpi, 193

Convention of Peking, 194

Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, 46

Co-operative societies, 46

Copyright, 112

Council for Recreation and Sport, 160

Courts of law, 199-200

Credit unions, 46

Cricket, 4

Crime, 8-9, 102-5

commercial, 104

252

Cultural Complex, 121, 163-4 Currency, 32-3, 194

Dante Alighieri, 163

Deaths, 182-3

Defence, 27, 152

Desalting works, 28, 123

Development Loan Fund, 27, 28

Discharged Prisoners Aid Society, 74 District Offices, 203-4, 206 Drainage, 124

Drug addiction, 74-5, 111 Drug seizures, 112, 150

Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, 66

Dutiable commodities, 10, 29

Economy, 10, 27-34

Education, 3, 51-68, 190, 195

adult, 62-3

Advisory Inspectorate, 63, 65 art, 66

Department, 51-6, 61-8, 160

educational television, 64-5, 146

examinations, 51, 64, 65

higher, 56

music, 65

overseas, 67-8, 166, 203

physical, 66-7

Polytechnic, 42, 51, 53, 54, 56, 60-1, 190

post-secondary, 55

pre-primary, 51-2

prevocational, 54-5

primary, 51, 52, 63

research, 58-60

secondary, 51, 53-4, 63 special, 52-3

teachers, 61

technical, 42, 51, 54-5, 55-6, 60-1 Visual Education Centre, 65 White Paper, 51, 54, 63, 66, 190

Electricity, 125-6, 195 Electronics industry, 12

Emergency relief, 100

Employment, 3, 6-7, 35-42

Entertainment, 163-4

Entertainments Tax, 31

Environment, 84-5, 161-2, 168-79

hygiene, 77-80

Essential Services Corps, 153 Estate Duty, 31

European Economic Community, 1, 11 Exchange Fund, 32

Executive Council, 146, 194, 197-8, 206

Factories and industrial undertakings, 10-14,

35-7, 38-9, 91, 92

Ordinance, 36-7, 38-9

Family planning, 71, 180

Family welfare services, 97-8

Farming, 43-8, 49-50, 176

Federation of Hong Kong Industries, 17, 23 Ferry services, 138-9 Festivals, 147, 156

Film industry, 149 Finance, 27-34, 206

Fire Services, 113-15, 121, 131

Fish Marketing Organisation, 46, 49-50 Fisheries Development Loan Fund, 46 Fishing industry, 43-6, 48-50, 177, 186, 191 Flora, 163, 187-8

Foreign Correspondents Club, 144 Foreign Relations, 202

Gas, 126, 195

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

(GATT), 11, 16-17

Geography, 168

Geology, 168-9

Goethe Institute, 163

Government Chest Service, 70

Government Information Services, 146, 148-9

Governor, office of, 197

Grievances, 205-6

Harbour, 124, 130-2, 168, 177

Hawkers, 79, 80

Health, 69-80

administration, 69

clinics, 69, 73-4, 120, 121

communicable diseases, 69-71

dental services, 75

environmental, 77-80

family, 71

hospitals, 69, 72-3, 120, 121

industrial, 35, 38, 40-1, 72

mental, 72

regulations, 77-8

schools, 71

special services, 74, 120

training, 75-6, 78-9

Heavy industries, 13 Herbarium, 187, 188

High Island Water Scheme, 123, 169, 174 Hindu community, 159 History, 189-96

Home Affairs Department, 203-4 HK Air International, 129

       HK Archaeological Society, 164 HK Baptist College, 55, 100, 156 HK Bird Watching Society, 184

HK Chinese Christian Churches Union, 157 HK Christian Council, 157

HK Cotton Spinners Association, 55

HK Council of Social Service, 96, 98, 101,

190

HK Dental Association, 75

HK Exhibition, London, 149 HK Exporters' Association, 22

HK Export Credit Insurance Corp, 21-2 HK Federation of Stock Exchanges, 34 HK Federation of Trade Unions, 37 HK Federation of Youth Groups, 97

HK General Chamber of Commerce, 1, 17,

22, 23, 194

HK Journalists Association, 144

HK and Kowloon Trades Union Council, 37

HK Midwives Board, 76

HK News Digest, 149

HK Nursing Board, 76

HK Philharmonic Orchestra, 163 HK Society for Puppet-art, 164

HK Tourist Association, 118-19, 129 HK Training Council, 41-2, 55

HK Youth Orchestra, 65

Hotel Accommodation Tax, 31 Housing, 81-95, 120-1, 191

Authority, 27, 90-1, 92, 191 Department, 27, 90-2, 191

estates, 81-2, 88-9, 90-1, 120, 133, 191 private, 92-5

Society, 191

Immigration, 116-19, 131, 189-90, 194, 196

Independent Commission Against Corruption,

8, 102, 112-13

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 17 Industrial-

design, 23

     development, 10-11, 13, 35, 88, 123, 190 estates, 7, 8, 11, 13, 125

land, 3, 13, 81-2

loans, 14

legislation, 35-42

overseas investment, 1, 2, 7, 11, 13, 14 safety, 35, 38-9

training, 22-3, 35, 41-2, 56

Industry and trade, 10-26

Information Services Department, 146, 148-9.

Internal revenue, 30

International economic relations, 16-17

International Monetary Fund, 32

Japanese occupation, 196 Jewish community, 159 Joseph Trust Fund, 46 Judiciary, 194, 198-200

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, 46 Kowloon-Canton Railway, 120-1, 127-8, 133,

134, 139, 195

Labour, 35-42

Department, 35, 37-42, 176 legislation, 35-42, 190 relations, 35, 38

Tribunal, 38, 199, 200

Land(s), 81-95, 120, 168

compensation, 85

development, 81-2, 86-91, 121-2 leases, 81-4 military, 82

Office, 83-4

Outline Plan, 86-8

reclamation, 124-5, 195

Survey, 85-6

Tribunal, 85, 199

utilisation, 46-7

Legal Aid, 200-1

253

Legislative Council, 27, 146, 194, 197, 198, 199,

205, 206

Lei Cheng Uk Museum, 165

Libraries, 165-6

Light industries, 12

London Office, Hong Kong Government, 67,

149, 202-3

Lotteries-

Board, 31

Fund, 28-9, 97

Lutheran World Service, 75, 97

MacLehose, Sir Murray, 4 Marine Department, 130-2, 177 Markets, 79, 121

Marriages, 181-2

Mass transit railway, 5-6, 85, 124, 127, 128-9,

133, 134, 135, 191

Media, 144-9

Medical-

and Health Department, 69-80, 178, 206 fees, 75

Mining, 50

Museum of Art, 163, 164, 165

Museum of History, 164

Music, 65, 163-4, 167

Muslim Community, 158-9

Mutual Aid Committees, 203-4

254

Narcotics, 104-5

Natural history, 184-8

New Territories-

Administration, 81, 152, 203-4

Heung Yee Kuk, 204

land development, 35, 81-2, 86-9, 122,

123,

134

New towns, 7-8, 88-9, 122, 123, 133, 134 News agencies, 145

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, 144 Newspapers, 144

Oceanarium, 89

Oil refinery, 13

Oil supplies, 10

Overseas offices, 20, 202

Parking, 135

Peak Trams, 138, 195

Petrochemical complex, 13

Plastics, 12

Plover Cove, 122

Po Leung Kuk, 203

Police, 102-9, 151, 152, 203, 206

Auxiliary, 108

buildings, 106, 120, 121

Cadet School, 102, 107

Junior Police Call, 102, 147

Marine, 108

recruitment, 107-8, 203

Training School, 107

Women, 108

Pollution, 35, 41, 124, 131, 140, 175-8 Polytechnic, 42, 51, 53, 54, 56, 60-1, 190 Population, 3, 180-3, 196 Port, 130-2

Communications Centre, 131, 177

health, 72

works, 124-5

Postal services, 140-2

Press, 144-5

Club, 144

Foundation of Asia, 145

     Preventive Service, 9, 19, 20, 111-12 Primary Production, 43-50 Printing and publishing, 145 Prisons, 109-11, 120, 121 Probation, 99

Productivity Council, 22-3 Public-

cars, 139

order, 102-15 service, 206-7

Services Commission, 207

Public (Contd)

transport, 136-9

utilities, 125-6, 195

Works Department, 27, 81, 82, 85-6, 90,

120-5, 128, 177, 206

Quarantine, 72, 131

animal, 48

Quarrying, 125

Queen's Visit, 3-4, 21, 102, 147, 175, 189, 205

Radio, 121, 147-8

Radio Hong Kong, 146-7

Rates, 29-30

Recreation, 160-7

and Sport Service, 66-7, 160

Registrar General, 83-4 Rehabilitation-

Loan, 28

services, 98

Religion and Custom, 155-9 Rent control, 92-5

Rent Tribunal, 94

Research-

agricultural, 44-5 fisheries, 45 meteorology, 175 social, 58-60, 101 universities, 58-60 Reservoirs, 120, 122-3, 178 Revenue and expenditure, 27-9 Rice Advisory Committee, 20 Roads, 105-6, 120, 121-2, 132-4

RHK Auxiliary Air Force, 151, 152-3 RHK Jockey Club, 161

RHK Regiment, 152

Royal Observatory, 130, 172-5, 178 Royal Visit, 3-4, 21, 102, 147, 175, 189, 205 Rural committees, 204

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade,

75

Sanitation, 77, 195, 201

Scholarships, 166

Shipbuilding and repairing, 12-13, 132

Shipping, 119, 130-2, 172, 177, 194

Small Claims Tribunal, 200 Social-

amenities, 120-1, 160-7

security, 99-100

welfare, 3, 96-101, 190

Welfare Advisory Committee, 96

Welfare Department, 96-101, 117 workers training, 100-101

255

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of

Drug Addicts, 74

Society for the Promotion of Chinese Opera,

164

Squatters, 27, 92, 191

Stamp Duty, 31

Stock exchanges, 33-4

Summer Youth Programme, 66, 151, 161 Swimming, 160, 162

Sword of Peace Award, 151

Taoism, 155-6

Taxes, 2, 30-2 Taxis, 139

Teachers' Colleges, 54, 61-2, 65 Technical Institutes-

Kwai Chung, 51, 56

Kwun Tong, 51, 56, 120 Morrison Hill, 55-6 Telecommunications, 142-3 Telephones, 142-3

Television, 113, 142, 144, 145-7

Tenancy Tribunal, 93, 199 Textiles, 1, 11-12, 16-17, 190

Advisory Board, 19

Textiles Serveillance Body (TSB), 16

Time, 173

Topography, 168-9

Tourism, 116-19

Town planning 86-8

Trade-

and Industry Advisory Board, 19-20 Development Council, 1, 2, 20-1, 22 documentation, 17-18

external, 14-15, 190

     Facilitation Committee, 18, 22 history, 189-95

marks and patents, 24

negotiations, 16-17

overseas promotion, 1-2, 14, 20-1

preference schemes, 16-17, 18

Trade unions, 1, 6, 37

Traffic, 105, 133, 135

Trains, 120-1, 127-8, 133, 134, 139, 195 Trams, 138, 195 Transport, 127-43 licensing, 140

public, 136-9

Advisory Committee, 139

Treaty of Nanking, 193

Treaty of Tientsin, 193

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 73, 80, 203 Tunnels, 123, 133, 134-5, 191

Typhoons, tropical storms and rainstorms, 148,

169-75

UMELCO, 206

Universities, 56, 100, 166, 177, 187

Chinese University of Hong Kong, 53, 54,

56, 58-9, 156, 190

University of Hong Kong, 53, 56, 57,

59-60, 72, 75-6, 173, 190, 195

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee,

57, 60

Urban-

Council, 27, 49, 77-80, 160, 162-6, 188,

195, 201-2, 206

renewal, 84-5

Services Department, 27, 49, 77-80, 160,

162-3, 191, 202, 206

Vegetable Marketing Organisation, 46, 49 Vietnamese Refugees, 4-5, 100, 116, 117, 151,

154, 157

Wages, 35, 36-7

Water supplies, 122-3 Weather, 169-72

Wild life, 179, 184-6

Workmen's compensation, 41, 199

World Refugee Year Loan Fund, 46 World Trade Centre, 39, 89

YMCA, YWCA, 97, 157

Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 188

Printed and Published by J. R. Lee, Government Printer, at the Government Press

Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1976

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE

Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong

Leading bookshops throughout Hong Kong

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

1A, Garden Road, Central, Hong Kong (bulk sales and editorial enquiries)

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE

6, Grafton Street, London, W1X, 3LB

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

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from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1976

Printed and Published by

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DISTRICT

RAMBLER

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New Territories District Boundary

City District Office Boundary THE PEAK Locality

GREEN

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SAI YING SHEUNG

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GAP ROAD

MT NICHOLSON

MT

MT BUTLER

Totem Reservoir

PARKER

EASTERN

FOR PUBLIC

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EAST LAMMA CHANNEL

SHEK PAI

WAN

ABERDEEN

RD

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Aberdeen Reservoirs

CHUK

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WONG CHUK

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REPULSE BAY

MIDDLE ISLAND

REPULSE BAY

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Scale in Kilometres

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2

3

4

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COLLINSON ROAD

CAPE (COLLINSON

BIG WAVE BAY

SHER

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