Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1974

HONG KONG 1975

22-30

113°-50'

100

HONG KONG, KOWLOON AND THE

NEW TERRITORIES

KWANGTUNG

114-00

PROVINCE

C

H

/ 114-10 N

A

Sham Chun

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

Man Kam To

lang

SHa Tau Kob

100

STARLING

INLET

114°-20'

Crooked Island

CROOKED

HARBOUR

MIRS

BAY

Chun

Shor

Lok Ma

DEEP BAY

Chau •

SHEUNG QSAVI

SAN TIN

HUI

Mai Po

Mong

LAU FAU

SHAN

YUEN LONG DISTRICT

San Tin San Wai

FANLING

ΤΑΙ

LUEN WO

MARKET

100

DISTRICT

Tail Mel

Keng

WU KAU ~TANG.

1901

300

100

HA TSUEN

PingShan

PAT, HEUNG

AI SO YAN

TAI PO

YUENTIONG Tau

KẨM TINK

Hung

Yim Tin

Trai

TOLO HARBOUR

TUEN/MUN

LUNG

ATTLE

EAU 783

KWU TAN

Lung Kwu

Chau

Tor Lam Chung,

Reservoir

300

TUEN MUN DISTRICT

CASTLE PEAK

BAY

?Sha Chau

22-20-

22-10-

TAI

FAN LAU

SERIES HM 200(R) L

EDITION 3

113°-50'

TRUNG CHUNG

BAY

The Brothers

Keng

Chek Lap Kok

Island

300

SHEK KONG

Ma L

Shyl

PASHA

TSUEN WAN DISTRICT

Ship Mun Refervoirs

TIDE COVE

TIN DISTRICT

100 SHA

TIN.

Tsang

Tai Uk

Słu Lek Yuen

CHUNG TSing

SHAM

TSE

Lung Tau

TSUÈD

100

KAP SHUI MUN

KWAV CHUNG

Ma Wan

TSING YI

Kowloon Reservoirs

Yi

•Spene Kau chau

Green

Island

FUNG VEHUNG

FAU ISLAND

Reservoir

50

MUI

SILVER MINE BAY

Sunshine Island

Hei Ling

Chau

ANDS DISTRICT

Cheung Sha Tong Fuk

Ma

(Cheung

Chau

WEST LAMMA CHANNEL

-100-

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›o Soko Islands

Crown Lands & Survey Office. 1975

Shek Kwu Chau

114°-00'

Stonecutters

•Island

Yung Shue

Wan

QN

HARBOUR

VICTORIA

XIGTOBILD 854 PEAK

ApLei Chiu

IDEEP WATER BAY

REPULSE

EAST LAMMA CHANNEL

(PICNIC BAY

Sok Kwu Wan LAMMA ISLAND,

HONG

ONG

香港中央)

圖書館

*

LIBRARY

CENTRAL

114"-10'

Double Island

TOLO CHANNEL

100

Lại Chi Chong Sham Chung

WU KA

SHA

100

300

ONG HARBOUR

Port Island

Tap

Mun

100:

-REAK

468

100

Long

Ping Chan

1

SAI

KUNG

NG

ak Tam

Chung

TRIETY

Proposed

rypi New Territories

Administration Districts

SA

Pak Sha/ HEBE Wan HAVEN

Rennie's Mill

JUNK BAY

-22-30

KAU SAI CHAU

PORT SHELTER

HIGH

ISLAND

ISLAND

ROCKY HARBOUR

ELEVATION TINTS

METRES

FEET

(approximate conversions)

700 +

2300 +

300

- 700

1000

- 2300

Shelter

sland

100

300

22-20

325

-

1000

ang Hau

Bluff Island

Basalt

Nsland

0

-

1.00

0 - 325

100-

CLEAR WATER

BAY

Main Road

Minor Roads

Railway

Ferry Route

Joss

HOUSE

BAY

Ninepin epin Group

LEI YUE MUN

TATHONG CHANNEL

TAI TAM

BAY

STANLEY

Tung Lung Island

o Toi

Waglan

island

22°-10-

Scale of Kilometres

4

6

8

10

1

KORÉ A

JAPAN

CHINA Nanking

·

Shanghai

Chungki

ANGTZE

EAST

CHINA

IND

Canton -MACAU

Foochow

SEA

TAIWAN

BURMA

LAOS

HONG KONG

PACIFIC OCEAN

20

THAI-

SOUTH

PHILIPPINES

LAND) CHINA SEA

IKHMER

GUAN.

SUMATRA

MALAYSIA

MALAYA

UPORE

ASINGA-

SARAWAK

SABAH

BORNEO

0

2000

1000

Scale of kilometres

BES

NEW GUINEA

ST IRIAN

INDONESIA

PAPUA

JAVA

100"

120

140°

Hong Kong Government

香港

V

HON

1

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

IDEE FEL·

Mar

14

HONG KONG 1975

REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1974

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PRESS 1975

市政局公共圖書館UCPL

3 3288 02641864 2

Hong Kong 1975

Editor: Anthony Tobin, Government Information Services

Designer: Arthur Hacker, Government Information Services

Photography: Staff photographers, Government Information Services

Printer and Publisher: J. R. Lee, Government Printer

Statistical Sources: Census and Statistics Department

Editor acknowledges all contributors and sources

URBAN COUNCIL PU LIC LERARIES

Acc. No.

217975

Class.

951.25

Author

HON

HKCr

Chapter

1

A SOCIAL COMMITMENT

Contents

Page

1

2

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

7

3 FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

25

4

EMPLOYMENT

33

5

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

42

6

EDUCATION

51

7

HEALTH

70

8

LAND AND HOUSING

86

88 28

9

SOCIAL WELFARE

101

10

PUBLIC ORDER

108

11

TOURISM AND IMMIGRATION

122

12

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

126

13 COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

135

14 THE MEDIA

152

15

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

159

16

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

164

17

RECREATION

169

18

THE ENVIRONMENT

176

19

POPULATION

188

20

NATURAL HISTORY

192

21

HISTORY

197

222

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

205

iv

Illustrations

CONTENTS

Page

Frontispiece

From the Air

Entertainers

facing

i

between vi-1

between

4-5

Temples

between 12-13

Markets

between 44-5

Universities

between 60-1

Police

between 108-9

Airport

between 124-5

Printing

between 156-7

Modern Art

between 172-3

Butterflies

between 188-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Hong Kong, Kowloon and adjacent New Territories showing district names

CONTENTS

Appendices

V

Appendix

Page

1

2

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

219

220

3-4

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

221

5-11

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

225

12-14

EMPLOYMENT

232

15

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX

234

16-18

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

236

19-22

EDUCATION

238

23-26

HEALTH

240

27-28

LAND AND HOUSING

242

29-32

PUBLIC ORDER

244

33

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

247

34-36

COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

248

37

RECREATION

250

38

888

WEATHER

251

39-40

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

252

41

URBAN COUNCIL

254

42

SOCIAL WELFARE

255

INDEX

257

When dollars are quoted in this report, they are, unless otherwise stated, Hong Kong dollars. Up to November 25, 1974, when the Hong Kong dollar was allowed to float, the official rate for conversion to US dollars was HK$5.085=US$1. Subsequently the exchange rate fluctuated according to market con- ditions at the end of the year the middle market rate was about HK$4.92-US$1.

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5. Any

1

A Social Commitment

     DESPITE world economic uncertainties, the government is determined to push ahead with ambitious plans to improve the general standard of life in Hong Kong during the next 10 years.

These plans-costing several thousand million dollars-include new housing for a third of the population, a substantial expansion of secondary education, of which three years will be subsidised for all, and new hospitals and clinics. Hong Kong's social welfare services and labour legislation, already among the most advanced in Asia, will be further developed.

Inevitably, the speed at which these plans can be carried out must be governed by the unique financial and economic factors which influence the prosperity of Hong Kong. Because Hong Kong depends almost entirely on the export of its manufactures, there are severe limits to the amount of revenue which can be raised, since the tax system must not adversely affect the competitiveness of Hong Kong's exports or discourage investment from abroad. The low rate of tax has attracted heavy invest- ment from abroad in the development of Hong Kong industry during the past 20 years. This investment has been a major factor in the dramatic industrial growth which has provided so many jobs that Hong Kong has enjoyed one of the lowest rates of unemployment in the world during this period.

These factors have obliged the government to introduce social services slowly and selectively, charging the public small fees for them wherever possible, but waiving the charges for those who cannot afford them.

Until the mid-1960s, the government had to concentrate on dealing with the immediate problems of housing, health, education and welfare presented by the continual influx of immigrants. Only recently has it been possible to devise an overall policy for social services. The scale of services proposed manifests the government's determination to assume responsibility for many needs which have, in the past, been satisfied by private agencies.

The Pressure of People

Hong Kong's population was little more than half a million at the close of World War II in 1945. Within two years it had risen to 1.8 million. Even though conditions in China settled, after the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949, the early post-war immigrants stayed and more flooded in. By 1961 Hong Kong's population exceeded three million. It is now estimated to be almost 4.3 million, crammed into an area of only 404 square miles.

2

A SOCIAL COMMITMENT

       In the early post-war days, as immigrants poured in, tenement accommodation was partitioned to make room for extra tenants, makeshift structures appeared on rooftops and hundreds of temporary dwellings clung to hillsides. In 1954, after serious fires had decimated several of these scattered settlements, the government embarked on its first low-rent resettlement estates. So began a government housing programme, which today accommodates one and a half million people and is expected to house double this number by the middle 1980s.

Whereas the housing programme became a government responsibility 20 years ago, other social services developed more slowly, because Hong Kong at that time could not afford to embark upon an extensive social welfare programme. Its entrepôt role collapsed overnight when the United Nations put an embargo on trade with China during the Korean War, and Hong Kong had not yet developed into an industrial centre.

Role of the Voluntary Agencies

Fortunately, the voluntary agencies, many of which had, in a long association with Hong Kong, earned the confidence and trust of the community, stepped in to fill the gap.

       Charitable bodies have operated in Hong Kong since 1841. Among the first arrivals in the newly founded British territory were Christian missionaries, who set up schools and organised aid for the poor. By the 1870s, the Catholic prefecture in Hong Kong had become the missionary base for all South China.

It is more than 100 years since the local Chinese community established the first of its own charitable organisations. Traditional Chinese teachings stressed the im- portance of helping the sick and needy. At one time, this was seen to be an obligation on the wealthy to give food, clothing and herbal medicines to the poor or sick. Gradually charity became a family or village responsibility. As Hong Kong grew into a bustling trading port in the late 19th century, there developed a need for a similar collective system of charity. This need was met by local community leaders, who set up charitable organisations.

The most important of these was the Tung Wah (meaning 'Eastern China') which opened its first hospital in 1870 with funds raised locally, helped by a government grant of cash and of 12 acres of Crown land. The hospital was a valuable contribution to the health of Hong Kong's 110,000 population. So began 105 years of partnership between the Hong Kong Government and the Tung Wah Group, which opened a school in 1880 to provide free education, and built two more hospitals in crowded urban areas. Today, it runs modern hospitals, schools, homes for the elderly, day nurseries and youth centres. It is largely subsidised by the government, which provides more than 90 per cent of the cost of its medical services and educational facilities. Like many other voluntary organisations, it offers free services to the poor but levies fees on those who can afford them.

The Po Leung Kuk is another traditional charity with a distinguished history of service to the community. It was founded in 1878 to provide temporary shelter for

A SOCIAL COMMITMENT

3

women and children who were victims of abduction. It gradually evolved into a residential institution for children in need of care and protection. It has now extended its activities into other fields of social service such as non-profit-making schools, nurseries and creches in public housing estates.

The post-war years brought many international relief agencies to Hong Kong. Their first tasks were to help in rehabilitation after the Japanese occupation and in caring for the flood of immigrants arriving from China. Many of these agencies continue to make a significant contribution to social services in Hong Kong and they have been joined by many voluntary agencies, most of which receive financial support both locally and from overseas. The Community Chest which is a locally sponsored voluntary organisation raised $12 million in 1974 from the community for distribution among its 65 member agencies.

Voluntary agencies have provided many important services including child care, rehabilitation of the disabled, recreation, training, family services, community de- velopment, care of the blind and the treatment of drug addicts. As voluntary services grew in scope, so did the importance of closer liaison between the bodies which provided them. This need is met by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service which now co-ordinates the work of 93 agencies.

The council serves as a central point of contact both between the agencies themselves and between agencies and the government. The council played a valuable part in the preparation of the White Paper 'Social Welfare-The Way Ahead' and the complementary five year plan tabled in the Legislative Council in 1973. It co- operates closely with the Social Welfare Department in viewing this plan to ensure that it meets the changing needs of the community.

Other voluntary agencies representing both religious and lay organisations make a large contribution to education. Many of the best primary and secondary schools, as well as special schools for the handicapped, are operated by them. They receive capital assistance from the government toward the construction of new schools and annual subventions to meet operating costs. They also make contributions to hospital and clinic services, about 48 per cent of hospital beds being provided by hospitals administered by such agencies. The majority of these aided services in the education and medical fields operate independently of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and the Community Chest.

A Government Commitment to Social Services

In the early 1950s the government began to assume a greater share of the re- sponsibility for social services.

In education, the government embarked in 1954 on a seven year plan to expand primary schooling. By 1961 it had provided an additional 313,000 primary school places, surpassing the original target by a third. By 1966, a further 200,000 primary school places had been created.

       A milestone was reached in 1971, when free primary education was introduced in all government Chinese schools and in most aided primary schools. With universal

4

A SOCIAL COMMITMENT

primary education a reality, the government published in 1974 a White Paper which contained its plans for expanding secondary education for the following 10 years. The objective is to provide for every child, by 1979, nine years' subsidised education, comprising six years in a primary school followed by three years of secondary educa- tion for children aged 12 to 14.

       The government also hopes to provide sufficient subsidised places in senior secondary forms for almost half of the 15 to 16 age group. Until enough new schools are built, existing government and aided schools will be encouraged to increase enrolments in Forms I to III by half. This will require the government to pay for thousands of places in private schools, to raise the enrolment of pupils in secondary schools from 137,000 in 1976 to 205,000 by 1979. Although the government is should- ering the full cost of the programme ($2,250 million in five years), these targets can only be attained if there is the fullest co-operation from private schools and agencies.

Improving Medical and Health Services

       After the war, priority in the development of health services was first given to the prevention and control of disease, particularly epidemic disease. Then, the govern- ment embarked on longer-term plans for medical and health services, the first programme, lasting five years, being launched in 1960.

       To cater for the expanding population, a 10-year development programme was launched in 1963. Its main target was to increase the ratio of hospital beds from 2.9 to 4.25 per 1,000 population. It also provided for one clinic, containing outpatient, maternal and child health facilities, for every 100,000 in the urban areas and for every 50,000 in the New Territories, as well as for new hospitals, specialist clinics and polyclinics.

In July 1974, the government issued the White Paper 'Further Development of Medical and Health Services in Hong Kong'. This sets a long-term objective of 5.5 beds per 1,000 population. To achieve this it is proposed to build three new general hospitals and one psychiatric hospital in the next decade, and to develop regional services to ensure a fuller and more balanced use of hospital beds in government and voluntary agency hospitals. The White Paper also provides for the training of more doctors and nurses to meet the requirements of this expansion, for the introduction of a dental school and a school dental care service, a health education unit, further expansion of the medical treatment of drug addicts, and the opening by the govern- ment of many family planning clinics.

       The effectiveness of the preventive medical services is shown by the dramatic improvements in the rate of mortality and the incidence of infectious diseases. Partic- ularly notable has been the success in controlling tuberculosis, which in 1956 claimed 2,600 deaths, a figure reduced to 1,150 in 1973 with a much larger population. The leading causes of death are accidents and degenerative diseases.

       Hong Kong's birth rate fell from 35 per thousand in 1961 to 19.7 in 1973. The government, in conjunction with the Family Planning Association, provides sub- sidised family planning facilities in many clinics spread throughout the urban areas.

ENTERTAINERS

  Live performances of the world's top popular entertainers are a regular feature on the local pop scene. Visiting 'stars' in 1974 included American artists The Supremes, David Cassidy, Albert Ham- mond, The Lettermen, top British stars Rod Steward and Faces, and Cliff Ri- chard. The recently regrouped Australian performers the Bee Gees also played to capacity crowds at the City Hall, and Sergio Mendes + Brazil '77 filled the Lee Theatre. Other world renowned artists to thrill audiences in Hong Kong in recent years have included The Carpenters, Nancy Wilson, José Feliciano, Don McLean, Santana, and black soul singer Diana Ross.

N

The Australian group the Bee Gees, thrilled their many fans in Hong Kong at the City Hall.

Albert Hammond, of 'It Never Rains in Southern California' fame, gave two polished performances for Capital Artists at the Lee Theatre.

公共圖

 Local girl Francis Yip, now based in London, rests on The Peak before an evening performance at the Lee Theatre.

A SOCIAL COMMITMENT

5

     These services will be gradually extended and are expected to play a significant part in reducing the growth of Hong Kong's population.

        Any member of the public can obtain treatment at a clinic at a nominal fee of $1 for each visit. This charge covers medicine and all other services such as X-rays and laboratory tests, though no charge is made for maternal and child health care or in TB, social hygiene and some other clinics. In government hospitals there is a com- prehensive fee of $2 a day, which covers medicine, food and all medical care and surgery. For those who cannot afford to pay, even these nominal charges are waived.

       The Hong Kong system of social welfare calls for small payments for services by those who can afford them. These facilities provided by many voluntary agencies, effectively ensure that the less fortunate in the community are well cared for.

Code of Employment

        An extensive programme of labour legislation has done much to secure a steady improvement in working conditions and terms of employment. Since 1968, about 78 items of labour legislation have been introduced; the most important of these was the Employment Ordinance, which was so framed that further parts could be pro- gressively added to build it into a comprehensive 'code of employment'. In the past two years, holidays with pay and sickness allowance have been extended to all em- ployees covered by the ordinance. Entitlement to sick leave has been increased and the qualifications for it simplified.

       Controls have been placed on employment agencies to ensure that workers, whether to be employed locally or overseas, are not exploited. An employee has been afforded statutory protection against any discriminatory action being taken against him by his employer because of his membership of a trade union. Redundant workers were, in 1974, given a statutory right to severance payments on losing their jobs.

        The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance controls the hours and conditions of work for women and young people in industry and prohibits industrial concerns from employing children under 14 years. Since December 1971, the standard working hours for women and young people aged 16 and 17 has been limited to a maximum of eight a day and 48 a week. Furthermore, the maximum annual overtime which may be worked by them has been cut from 300 to 250 hours from the beginning of 1975, and to 200 hours in 1976. Most workers now enjoy four rest days a month and female employees are given maternity protection.

        A Labour Tribunal was introduced in March 1973 to provide a quick, informal and inexpensive way of settling individual claims for money due under a contract of employment. Workers appear in person, there are no costs involved and no lawyers are permitted. The Labour Tribunal has succeeded in gaining the confidence of most employers and workers and is extensively used. It is not concerned with group disputes or collective bargaining with management.

        During the past decade, the Labour Department has made determined efforts to promote industrial safety. Some progress has been made in enacting better safety regulations, but much remains to be done to convince manufacturers of the need to

6

A SOCIAL COMMITMENT

provide effective protection for workers, such as the guarding of machinery. The government plans to launch a 'five year programme of action' to encourage a greater awareness of the benefits of safety training.

       When accidents occur at work, injured workers are guaranteed reasonable finan- cial assistance by the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. The maximum amount of compensation payable has been steadily increased over the past five years, being raised in 1973 by a further one third. Another recent amendment has made an em- ployer responsible for the cost of artificial limbs and surgical appliances for his injured workers. In the near future the government intends to extend the ordinance to cover compensation for workers suffering from silicosis, which is one of the most serious occupational diseases in Hong Kong.

The Government's Social Welfare Plan

        Before the Social Welfare Department was formed in 1958, the only government welfare facilities available were a probation service and provision for the protection of women and juveniles which had previously been the responsibility of the Social Welfare Office of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. At that time, there was little effective co-ordination of the work of the voluntary agencies.

       In its early days the Social Welfare Department was restricted to helping the destitute or those affected by natural disasters. However, it soon began to involve itself in community development and youth welfare. A turning point, which did much to improve the quality of both government and voluntary services, was the introduc- tion in the early 1960s of proper training for social workers.

       Since then, the government's social welfare services have developed rapidly. In 1973, a five year plan was adopted. To ensure that it remains appropriate to changing conditions, the plan is reviewed annually by representatives from the government and private bodies.

Since the introduction of the Community and Youth Officer scheme in December 1973, officers have been appointed to all urban districts, and others are to be appointed in the New Territories, to develop community and youth work and to advise and help voluntary organisations and youth groups, thus improving the quality of community programmes.

       The disability and infirmity allowance scheme, now in its second year, provides regular allowances for 50,000 elderly or severely disabled people. To keep pace with the rising cost of living, the rates of benefit were increased in 1974 by 62 per cent as compared with those in force in April 1972.

       In 1974, the public assistance scheme was revised, with increased rates and sim- plified claim procedures. The public assistance scheme introduced in 1971 has replaced the former system of distributing cash and food.

        Hong Kong is not, in the full sense, a welfare state. People are expected to stand on their own feet, a principle which accords with their proud and independent spirit. The government has, however, steadily expanded its commitment to those social welfare services which will relieve hardship and protect the sick, aged and infirm.

2

Industry and Trade

BEING heavily dependent on international trade, Hong Kong could not insulate itself from the effects of world-wide inflation and financial disorder prevalent during 1974. Traders and industrialists experienced a difficult time during most of the year in a situation of unstable supply prices for many essential raw materials, soft market con- ditions, increasing competition, tighter financial liquidity and falling profit margins. However, in spite of these problems Hong Kong's global domestic exports fared well, achieving a moderate growth in quantity terms.

A number of factors contributed to this relatively encouraging situation. They included an enlightened investment and re-equipment programme during the better trading conditions of the previous year; greater competitiveness arising from a mini- mum level of internally generated inflation (as opposed to imported inflation in the form of higher prices for raw materials and equipment); greater concentration on selling techniques in the traditional major markets of North America and Western Europe, and the exploitation of new markets in Asia and Eastern Europe.

The major factors which have given Hong Kong its international reputation as a leading manufacturing and commercial centre in Asia are still at work. Among them are the economic policy of free enterprise and free trade, an industrious work force, a sophisticated commercial infrastructure, a modern and efficient seaport, a strate- gically located airport, and excellent world-wide communications.

Hong Kong is one of few territories still faithful to liberal economic policies of free enterprise and free trade. There are no import tariffs, and revenue duties are levied only in respect of tobacco, alcoholic liquors and some hydrocarbon oils. Duty is also payable on first registration of non-Commonwealth motor vehicles.

Apart from the provision of the infrastructure, either through direct services or by co-operation with public utility companies and autonomous bodies, the govern- ment's role in the economy remains one of providing a stable framework within which commerce and industry can function efficiently and effectively with a minimum of interference. The government intervenes only in response to the pressure of over-riding economic or social needs and provides no protection or subsidisation of manufactures.

The Oil Supplies Unit, the Oil Policy Committee and the Oil Distribution Com- mittee which were established in November 1973 following the Arab oil-producing countries' decision to cut their output, continued their functions until the middle of the year, when the various measures introduced under the Emergency Regulations came to an end. In devising and implementing controls over fuel consumption strenu- ous efforts had been made by these organisations to ensure that minimum disruption

8

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      was caused to industrial activities. Similar efforts were maintained to preserve normal industrial production when Hong Kong faced a temporary shortage of water in October.

        In the wake of intensified world-wide shortages of plastic raw materials the Com- merce and Industry Department took an unprecedented step in introducing at the beginning of the year licensing arrangements to monitor the re-export of all plastic materials.

Subsequently an export quota system was also instituted with a view to retaining for local consumption the major items which had been imported. When the supply situation improved around the middle of the year, the quota system was discontinued. This was followed by the removal of the licensing arrangements four months later. Throughout the period when the re-export of plastic materials was controlled, the Commerce and Industry Department was at pains to preserve the traditional re-export trade and the role of Hong Kong as a distribution centre.

Industrial Development

Light industry continues to predominate in Hong Kong and consumer goods remain the major lines of production. It is likely that this theme will continue in the foreseeable future although an expanded growth rate is likely to be experienced in sophisticated and heavier industries.

The quality and diversity of Hong Kong's consumer products continued to im- prove in response to further growth in manufacturing skills, the demands of the markets and competition from newly industrialising countries. Increased consumer protection activities in many developed countries also stimulated further improvements in the quality of some products.

        In general, industry was able to weather well the unfavourable conditions which were imposed on it by disruption in supplies and increases in cost of raw materials and the general depression in economic activities in the world's major trading nations. Labour costs, which had been rising in recent years, levelled off in 1974 and total industrial employment fell. Although the situation was by no means uniform through- out all industrial sectors and among all factories within each sector, there were signs of an improvement in orders, and consequently production levels, by the end of the

year.

Many institutional organisations, with assistance and financial aid from the government, support industry in its efforts to upgrade production, management and marketing techniques, standards and industrial design. These efforts are supported by the Commerce and Industry Department, which is also responsible for the promotion of overseas investment in Hong Kong industry.

About 11 per cent of Hong Kong's 600,000 workers in the manufacturing industry are employed in factories owned or partly owned by overseas interests. Several plants in the process of establishment under a modified industrial land policy began con- struction during 1974 and further ventures, including an oil refinery-petrochemical complex, were under consideration. Within the framework of the modification of indus- trial land policy promulgated in 1973, the government also set up an official working

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

9

party to consider the practicality and desirability of industrial estates specifically for land-intensive industries. By the end of the year the working party had drawn up detailed plans and cost estimates and had completed its consideration of most of its terms of reference, including the legal aspects of the proposal.

Textiles

       The textiles industry maintained its predominant position in Hong Kong's economy, accounting for 46 per cent of its industrial labour force and 50 per cent of its domestic exports. Raw materials shortages and fluctuating prices, competition from newly industrialising countries and the running down of inventories by buyers, restrained the growth of the industry in 1974.

       The spinning sector, operating some 922,340 spindles, replaced a considerable, amount of equipment in 1973 and is among the most modern in the world. In 1974 production of cotton yarn was 328 million pounds, compared with 286 million pounds in 1973. Having overcome difficulties in securing supplies of raw cotton and man-made fibres in early 1974 the sector was beset with problems of poor markets and strong competition from neighbouring countries. Most mills were consequently obliged to operate below full capacity during the second half of the year. The production of man-made fibre and cotton/man-made fibre blended yarns reached only 73 million pounds, representing a decrease of 15 per cent over 1973. The production of woollen and worsted yarn stood at 14 million pounds compared to 22 million pounds in 1973. Most of the locally produced yarns of all fibres were consumed by Hong Kong's

weavers.

The weaving sector, operating 23,821 looms, produced 805 million square yards of fabrics of various fibres and blends in 1974 compared with 853 million square yards in 1973. The bulk of the production, 65 per cent, was of cotton.

       In the knitting sector exports of fabrics registered a decrease of 3.7 per cent to 15.7 million pounds, of which 62 per cent was of man-made fibres, 37.9 per cent of cotton and 0.1 per cent of wool. A substantial part of the production of knitted fabrics of all fibres was used by local clothing manufacturers.

       The problems of the spinning and weaving sectors were reflected in the finishing sector, which in addition suffered disproportionately from the greatly increased cost of oil. This sector, which comprises 344 factories, nevertheless continued to handle an increasing range of textile materials for bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing.

        The manufacture of clothing continues to be the largest sector of the textiles industry, with 4,348 firms, employing 171,279 workers producing a wide variety of quality items including fashion woven and knitted dresses and ready-to-wear suits. Total domestic exports of clothing in 1974 amounted to $8,752 million, an increase of 17 per cent over 1973.

Other Light Industries

       The continued growth of competition from Asian countries remains a factor in motivating local industrialists to modernise their operations and to move into more

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

sophisticated product lines. The electronics industry, which overtook plastics as the second largest export earner in 1973, maintained a sustained growth despite the soft conditions in some overseas markets. While some factories were forced to reduce production or to cease operation altogether, others needed to increase their produc- tion, factory space and workforce. The industry, comprising 317 factories employing 52,098 workers, produced a wide range of hardware, including custom-made computer memory systems, transistors, integrated circuits and high grade semi-conductors, as well as consumer items such as desk and pocket calculators, transistor radios, tape recorders, tuners, television sets and television antennae. The industry contributed $2,989 million to Hong Kong's domestic exports, or a 26 per cent increase over 1973 in export value.

       The plastics industry experienced a difficult year; it was confronted with escalating prices and uncertainty in obtaining raw materials in the earlier months and falling orders in the middle of the year. In March the Commerce and Industry Department assisted the industry by implementing a quota scheme under which importers of plastic materials made available directly a substantial quantity of the materials to 900 small factories. Despite the adverse situation the industry managed to achieve a 2.7 per cent growth in exports, which were valued at $2,088 million in 1974. However, the size of the industry contracted slightly from 3,256 firms with a workforce of 70,666 in 1973, to 2,985 firms employing 55,699 workers. Toys and dolls remained the most important export items of the industry. Other major items produced include artificial flowers and foliage, plastic household articles and fibre-glass reinforced plastic furniture.

       Other light industries of significance are travel goods, metal products and food manufactures. The watch and clock industry and other precision-engineering indus- tries (including optical instruments) have continued to make remarkable improvement in terms of both quality and output.

Heavy and Service Industries

       Hong Kong's heavy industry has continued to play an important role in the economy and has kept up with the changing industrial infrastructure and port facilities. In step with the rapid development in containerisation in world shipping, Hong Kong has not only, with the container terminal at Kwai Chung, reaffirmed its position as one of the leading shipping centres in Asia, but has also founded a new industry in the manufacture of aluminium and steel containers for export.

       The merging of the two major dockyards in 1972 resulted in the better utilisation of equipment and manpower and improved services to customers, helping to ensure that Hong Kong will remain a significant ship-repair centre in Asia. In addition, several companies have plans to establish new shipbuilding and repair yards.

       The aircraft engineering industry, maintaining its international reputation for skilled workmanship, provided maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines operating in Asia. Many types of aircraft can be completely overhauled locally-this applies to air frames as well as to engines.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

11

Steel rolling, which has always been a strong support industry of the building industry, continued to consolidate its position in the local market. It modernised its equipment even though it suffered some setback because of the decline in the private sector of the building construction industry during the year.

Development in the manufacture of machinery, machine tools and parts continued to contribute to Hong Kong's export earnings. Major items produced include blow moulding, injection moulding and extrusion machines of up to 80 oz capacity for the plastics industry, power presses, lathes, shapers, drill presses, polishing machines, printing presses and textile knitting and warping machines.

By the end of the year the construction of a large polystyrene plant and out- board marine engine plant were in progress and both were expected to be in production in 1975. In addition the government was considering firm proposals put forward by two competing consortia for the construction of an oil refinery and petrochemical complex and was in discussion with a number of other companies contemplating the establishment of large plants in capital intensive and relatively heavy industries.

Industrial Land

Demand for industrial land slackened off compared with previous years and this was reflected in reduced prices for land sold during the year. There were several reasons for this, chiefly the slowing down of industrial activity generally and the tight financial liquidity position which prevailed in Hong Kong for most of the year. Probably for the same reasons, the development of some industrial sites which had been sold at Tuen Mun over the past two years did not proceed with the customary speed. Means of increasing the pace of industrial development at Tuen Mun were being examined.

Consideration continued to be given to the granting of some 645 acres of land for the establishment of a large oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Considerable investigation was carried out of potential sites and a final decision on the project was expected within a few months.

Further use was made of the modified policy introduced last year whereby the sale of land is permitted on special terms to accommodate land and capital intensive industries which provide new and higher technology. Under this policy, an extension was granted to the Tsing Yi Island site of the US based manufacturer of outboard marine engines, the first company to obtain a site under the modified policy last year. Another site, of 10 acres, also on Tsing Yi, was granted for the establishment of a polystyrene plant by a large American chemicals manufacturer. A number of possible grants of land under the modified policy were under consideration at the end of the year. Among the projects concerned were shipbuilding and ship-repairing, shipping container manufacture and repair, the construction of large fibre-glass fishing vessels, the manufacture of polyester fibre and filament and several medium heavy engineering plants. It was anticipated that most applications under the modified policy would be met by allocating land on Tsing Yi, which was becoming increasingly attractive as a site for the establishment of land intensive industries following the opening of a bridge linking the island with the mainland in March.

12

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

However, given the number of enquiries received by the Commerce and Industry Department from industrial companies-both local and overseas-whose manufactur- ing operations require large areas of land, Tsing Yi will not be able to satisfy the full potential demand for large industrial sites in the longer term. To provide the necessary additional facilities it is possible that industrial estates will be established in Hong Kong. The suitability of potential sites for such estates at Tai Po, Yuen Long and Junk Bay is now under active examination by an official working party. If it is decided to establish industrial estates in these areas, it is likely that an autonomous industrial estates corporation will be formed to manage them. Draft legislation has been prepared to cover this possibility.

Industrial Investment Promotion

The most common method by which developing countries endeavour to broaden their industrial base and raise the level of their technology, is by seeking to attract foreign industrialists to their shores. Hong Kong is no exception to this general rule. The Commerce and Industry Department has advisory and executive roles where the government's industrial promotion policy is concerned, and works closely with the Hong Kong Trade Development Council to bring Hong Kong's attractions to the notice of foreign industrialists who may be contemplating the establishment of over- seas manufacturing operations. Enquiries generated by this joint effort are followed up intensively by the department, which is able to provide assistance and advice to companies conducting feasibility studies or establishing new plants.

Fewer enquiries were received this year than in recent years. However, this was to be expected, given the generally depressed business conditions in most countries. Nevertheless, a number of worthwhile enquiries were received and appropriate advice and assistance was offered to the enquirers.

Hong Kong's promotional efforts for most of the year were also conducted in a lower key than usual. This arose because the industry division of the Commerce and Industry Department had to divert many of its staff to deal with problems created by the cut-back in crude oil production by the Arab oil producing countries in late 1973/ early 1974. However, by the end of the year promotional activities were again in full swing and an intensified scale of overseas promotion planned for 1975.

        At the end of 1974, there were at least 252 factories in Hong Kong either fully or partly owned by overseas interests-an increase of 31 over 1973. These establish- ments employed a total labour force of about 70,264 or 13.2 per cent of total employ- ment in Hong Kong's manufacturing industry. The total direct investment involved was about $1,474.6 million. The main sources of overseas investment continued to be the United States, Japan, Britain, Thailand, Singapore and Australia. The principal industries involved are textiles and electronics although new investment is generally in other fields, such as light to medium engineering and chemicals.

Loans for Small Industry

The loans scheme, which was implemented in July 1972 by the Commerce and Industry Department in conjunction with the banks and with the co-operation of the

There are more than 1,000 temples scat tered around the different areas of Hong Kong Some are found in the centre of the busiest urban areas, while many are situat- ed in the more remote parts of the New Territories or outlying islands. Usually the worship of deities or communication with spirits or fortune-telling is practised in. accordance with Buddhist, Taoist or other Chinese religious principles. Among the more popular deities worshipped are 'Tin Hau', 'Kwun Yum', 'Pak Tai', 'Kwan Tai' and 'Hung Shing'. Many of the more an- cient temples were built during the Ching' Dynasty, and are still in good condition.❤

蓬記

類專家

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This Hung Shing Temple in Wan Chai district was built in 1847.

Hung Shing' is one of the patron deities of the boat people

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玄真子

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of the T

Cattan Maple at Chai

The statue of Bucktha Shakamuni pnside the Temple 10.000 Buddhas at Shat

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A student band of a Buddhist

reopeningd

君备聖道

1-13

The Kwan Tai Temple on a Cheung Chau Island hill-top:

The recently renovated Tin Hau Temple on Po Toi Island

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

13

Hong Kong Productivity Centre received no greater response from small industrialists in 1974 than in the previous year, despite two series of modifications of its terms and conditions being introduced in November 1973 and October 1974. Loans approved since the inception of the scheme total $1,441,000, of which $549,500 was authorised in 1974. The scheme, which is on trial for three years, was designed to provide medium- term financing at reasonable rates to small factories for modernising their equipment and machines to improve efficiency and output. The lack of enthusiastic support cast serious doubts on the need of small industry for an additional source of medium-term finance for machine replacement purposes.

External Trade

Hong Kong's total trade reached $64,156 million in 1974 compared with $55,004 million in the previous year. Imports were valued at $34,120 million, compared with $29,005 million; domestic exports $22,911 million, compared with $19,474 million; and re-exports $7,124 million, compared with $6,525 million. Summary foreign trade statistics, including a breakdown by countries and commodities and comparisons with the previous years, are contained in Appendices 3 and 4.

Hong Kong is almost entirely dependent on imported resources to meet the needs of its 4.2 million people and the extensive requirements of its diverse industries. Al- though domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, imports of foodstuffs amounting to $6,272 million, or 18 per cent of total imports, constituted the major part of our food consumption. The principal items were rice and other cereals, live animals, fruit and vegetables, fish and fish preparations, meat and meat preparations and dairy products and eggs. Imports of raw materials and semi- manufactures valued at $13,950 million, or 41 per cent of total imports, included textile fibres, yarn and fabrics, base metals, plastic moulding materials and paper and paperboard. Imported capital goods totalling $4,293 million, or 13 per cent of total imports, were mainly machinery and transport equipment, while retained imports of consumer goods were composed largely of consumer durables and textile made-ups. As the world began to experience the full effects of the oil crisis with its escalating prices, the cost of Hong Kong's fuel imports increased phenomenally. Nevertheless, fuel imports still represented only six per cent by value of total imports in 1974.

Japan continued to be the principal supplier of imports in 1974, providing 21 per cent of the total. China came second, supplying 18 per cent of total imports and 49 per cent of all imported foodstuffs. The United States supplied a further 14 per cent. Other important sources of imports were Britain, Singapore, Taiwan, West Germany, Switzerland, South Korea and Thailand.

Domestic exports consisted almost entirely of manufactured goods, emphasising the importance of the manufacturing sector in Hong Kong. Textile and clothing exports accounted for 50 per cent of the total, while sales of miscellaneous manu- factured articles, mainly toys and dolls, artificial flowers, jewellery and goldsmiths' and silversmiths' wares, umbrellas and metal watch bands, made up an additional 16 per cent. Exports of electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, mainly tran- sistorised radios, electronic components and parts for computers, transistors, diodes, and semi-conductor integrated circuits, accounted for a further 14 per cent. Other

14

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

light manufactured products such as fabricated metal goods, travel goods, watches and clocks and footwear were also important exports. However, as the world price level of primary products rose relative to that of manufactures, Hong Kong's terms of trade became less favourable.

The direction and level of Hong Kong's export trade is influenced principally by economic conditions and commercial policies in its main markets. During the year, 61 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to the United States and the enlarged European Economic Community. The United States alone absorbed 32 per cent (35 per cent in 1973), while Britain took 12 per cent (14 per cent in 1973) and West Germany 11 per cent (10 per cent in 1973). Other important markets were Australia, Japan, Singapore, Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden and Taiwan.

       Hong Kong's traditional entrepôt trade continued to be about 24 per cent by value of total exports in 1974. Japan was still the largest re-export market, followed by Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia and the United States. The principal commodities re-exported were textiles and clothing, diamonds, watches and clocks, electrical ma- chinery, apparatus and appliances, crude vegetable materials, medicinal and pharma- ceutical products, dyeing, tanning and colouring materials and plastic moulding materials. The principal sources of re-exports were China, Japan and the United States.

International Economic Relations

       Hong Kong's external commercial relations are conducted by the Commerce and Industry Department within the framework of a basically free trade policy. Hong Kong practises to the full the rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and virtually the only restrictions maintained on trade are those required by international obligations. Most prominent among these are restraints on textile ex- ports to most major trading partners. These arrangements come under the umbrella of the Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles (MTA) which replaced the Cotton Textiles Arrangement (CTA). Britain acceded to the MTA on behalf of Hong Kong on February 25, 1974. One of the new features of the MTA was the establishment of a Textiles Surveillance Body (TSB) to supervise the implementation of the arrangement.

During the year, as a result of negotiations under the MTA, bilateral agreements were concluded with a number of countries whereby exports of certain textiles from Hong Kong to these countries were placed under restraint. These include a Hong Kong-United States textiles agreement which became effective on October 1, for three years and covering all exports of cotton, wool and man-made fibre textiles to the United States. Bilateral agreements with Sweden and Australia became effective on July 1, for one year. These cover exports of certain garment items.

Consultations were held in Oslo in June with the Norwegian Government regarding a new bilateral textiles agreement under the MTA. Pending finalisation of the new agreement, Hong Kong unilaterally introduced export restraints on four garment items for one year from July 1.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

15

       Restraint arrangements governing the export of various textiles and garments to the European Economic Community (EEC) expired on December 31, 1973, but were unilaterally extended for a further year.

       Little progress was made in the GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN), which were launched in September 1973 in Tokyo with the object of further liberalising world trade by the removal or reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers. A trade negotiations committee has been commissioned to prepare the ground work.

       Another issue of considerable importance to Hong Kong concerns the various generalised preference schemes. These schemes, operated by most of the developed countries to assist the exports of manufactures by the developing countries, include provisions allowing duty-free or low tariff entry for products from beneficiary develop- ing countries.

       The form, coverage and other provisions of the schemes differ from country to country and consequently the particular advantages offered vary. Hong Kong has been included as a beneficiary by all the developed countries operating such schemes, except Norway and Finland. Hong Kong has consistently made it clear that it seeks no special advantages under these schemes but objects to being discriminated against in favour of countries which are in a similar stage of development and are close trade competitors. Regrettably such discrimination was practised in respect of certain Hong Kong manufactured products by the EEC, Japan, Switzerland, Australia and Austria. This discrimination was the subject of continuing official exchanges, including visits to the countries concerned by officers of the Commerce and Industry Department.

       The exclusion of Hong Kong from the enlarged EEC's generalised preference scheme covering textiles and footwear continued to be a matter of particular concern. In accordance with the terms of the Treaties of Accession, Britain, Denmark and Ireland aligned their schemes with that of the EEC from January 1, 1974. Consequently, Hong Kong, which previously enjoyed full Commonwealth preferences in Britain, was excluded from generalised preferences on textiles and footwear by these countries as well as by the other EEC members while important competitors of Hong Kong (South Korea and Singapore) qualified for the full benefits of the enlarged EEC's scheme.

       In April a meeting was held in London between representatives of the British Government and the Hong Kong Government to discuss this problem. Following this, Mr Callaghan, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, when speaking in the Council of Ministers of the EEC, on June 4, said that Britain would seek 'substantial improvement' in the position of Hong Kong 'where at present the United Kingdom has to discriminate against one of its territories'. On June 14, Hong Kong formally addressed a memorandum to the European Commission pressing for the removal of discrimination against Hong Kong's textiles and footwear in the Community's scheme. Hong Kong officials supported by British Embassy officials, then toured EEC capitals, making the same case separately to individual member states. Similar representations were made by the Director of Commerce and Industry to the consuls general of the member states in Hong Kong.

URBAN CODICE POWER LIBRARIES

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

        When the EEC Council of Ministers met in November to finalise the arrangements for the 1975 scheme the council agreed that the discrimination against Hong Kong's footwear should be removed except in respect of leather footwear. However, it was unable to come to any agreement on the removal of discrimination against Hong Kong's textiles. Instead, the whole scheme would be subject to a general review in 1975 and 'the case of Hong Kong will be reviewed when the Community's scheme for 1976 is drawn up'.

       While Hong Kong reconciled itself to the fact that the major part of the dis- crimination would continue into 1975, it was clear that the small measure of success would not have been achieved without the strong efforts that had been made on Hong Kong's behalf by the British Government.

       The United States remained the only major market yet to introduce its generalised scheme of preferences. The legal authority to grant preference is contained in the Trade Bill which was under consideration in the Congress during the year.

Documentation of Imports and Exports

        Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations. The most complex formalities are those re- sulting from Hong Kong's obligations to restrain certain exports of textile products.

On January 1, 1974, gold, diamonds, currency notes and coins were removed from the schedules of articles under import and export licensing control. Export licensing was introduced at the beginning of the year to monitor the export and re- export of plastic raw materials in view of the potential threat to overseas supplies to the local industry caused by the world oil crisis. In addition, export quota controls were imposed at various times on five major items of plastic raw materials to retain the traditional pattern of supplies for use in the local industry. The quota restrictions were lifted on July 1, when the supply situation improved, and export licensing was subsequently discontinued. During the year import licensing was also introduced for methyl alcohol to replace the permit system of control exercised under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. The number of import licences issued during 1974 totalled 31,128 and export licences 640,806.

        With Hong Kong's economic dependence on the export of manufactured goods, mostly made from imported materials, and the substantial re-export trade, a certifica- tion of origin system to meet the requirements of overseas customs authorities, is vitally important. The Commerce and Industry Department issues certificates of origin and accepts the responsibility for safeguarding the integrity of the entire Hong Kong certification system. To this end, close liaison is maintained with overseas authorities and with the authorised non-government certificate-issuing bodies the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce. The value of domestic exports covered by certificates of origin issued by the six organisations during 1974 was estimated at $10,185 million. Of this, $6,323 million represented the value of exports supported by departmental certificates of origin.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

17

Britain and a number of other Commonwealth countries grant preferential rates of duty to Hong Kong products. To support claims to preference, the Commerce and Industry Department issues Commonwealth preference certificates against legal under- takings given by manufacturers to use only Commonwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements. During the year, the department obtained the agreement of certain countries to simplify the procedures and documentation requirements for claim to Commonwealth preference. Effective from September 1, cost statements and under- takings which previously had to be prepared by authorised accountants, could now be prepared by the manufacturers. New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Solomon Islands and St Lucia have also agreed to accept certificates of origin issued by the department with an endorsement to show the requisite Commonwealth content in the manufacture of the products instead of Commonwealth preference certificates prepared by author- ised accountants. The value of goods exported under these certificates during the year was $1,635 million.

       A number of countries grant tariff preferences to developing countries under generalised preference schemes. Hong Kong is a beneficiary under the schemes operated by Austria, Canada, Japan, the European Economic Community, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland. The value of exports in 1974 covered by generalised pref- erence certificates, which in Hong Kong are issued only by the Commerce and Indus- try Department, amounted to $1,867 million. It is not known what proportion of these exports was actually granted preferential entry.

       An estimated 59.8 per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports were covered by certificates of origin of one type or another-42.9 per cent of them by the department's certificates.

       The Trade Facilitation Committee, an advisory body to the Director of Commerce and Industry and to industrial and other organisations in Hong Kong in the field of standardisation and simplification of trade documents and trade procedures, organised the Hong Kong Far East Trade Facilitation Seminar from November 13-14. The seminar reviewed the progress being made, the problems that were pending, pro- grammes for the future and the consolidation of joint work and corrective patterns in trade facilitation. Participants included delegations from the United States, Britain, France, Japan, Canada, Australia, the Philippines and representatives from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the International Chamber of Com- merce, the Customs Co-operation Council, the International Maritime Committee, and the International Air Transport Association.

Administration

       The responsibilities of the Commerce and Industry Department include the con- duct of overseas commercial relations, industrial development and investment promo- tion, certification of origin, trade controls and the collection and protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. Its work is complemented by several autonomous institu- tions either wholly or partly financed by public funds.

       On matters of policy affecting trade and industry other than textiles, the Director of Commerce and Industry takes advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

of which he is chairman. This body of senior unofficial representatives of sectors including commerce, industry, banking and insurance, is nominated by the Governor, and usually meets once a month. The Textiles Advisory Board, a more specialised body, also chaired by the Director, is consulted on matters affecting the textile in- dustry. It met on 24 occasions during 1974. Both these boards are served by specialist committees as the need arises.

The Director of Commerce and Industry is also Commissioner of the Preventive Service. He is assisted in Hong Kong by two deputy directors, one of whom is also the Deputy Commissioner of the Preventive Service. There are seven assistant directors, one of whom is the Assistant Commissioner of the Preventive Service. These assistant directors head the seven divisions of the department: Commercial relations (divided into two sections), industry, trade, textile controls, administration and the Preventive Service. The department has three overseas offices in Brussels, Geneva and Washington, and it is also represented in the Hong Kong Government Office in London.

The commercial relations division collects and disseminates information on trade policy measures taken by other countries which may affect Hong Kong, and keep abreast of the activities of international organisations. This division also conducts Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other governments. The textile controls division is responsible for implementing agreements reached. This involves the calculation and allocation of quotas, and associated control procedures. The overseas offices are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work and provide current information on international matters which may affect Hong Kong.

       The industry division provides liaison between industry and other government departments, promotes overseas investment in local industry, and deals with specific industrial problems. It undertakes factory visits, advises on industrial infrastructure, special industrial projects and matters concerning industrial land.

The trade division is responsible for certification and documentation procedures, including an import and export licensing system for commodities other than textiles. It also operates a trade investigation service which undertakes the regular inspection of factories and goods in connection with certification and licensing controls, and prosecutes those suspected of contravening the relevant regulations. The division is also responsible for handling trade complaints and the control of reserved com- modities, of which rice is the most important.

A rice control scheme has been in operation since 1955. The object of the scheme is to ensure regular and adequate supplies of rice to consumers, at reasonable prices. A reserve stock is maintained to safeguard supplies to the public.

The administration division is responsible for the organisation and management of the department and for administrative liaison with the overseas offices.

The work of the Preventive Service is described in detail in Chapter 10.

Trade Development Council

       The Hong Kong Trade Development Council, established by statute in 1966, is charged with the responsibility of promoting, assisting and developing Hong Kong's

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

19

     overseas trade, with particular reference to exports. The council's chairman is appoint- ed by the Governor. Its members consist of representatives of principal commercial and industrial organisations, two senior government officials and four nominated members. The work of the council's executive is financed by subvention from general

revenue.

The TDC, with headquarters in Hong Kong, operates a network of 15 overseas offices which provide extensive trade services for Hong Kong and foreign businessmen. These offices are located in London, Manchester, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Milan, Vienna, Stockholm, Zurich, Amsterdam, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Toronto, Tokyo and Sydney.

The council carried out extensive promotional activities overseas during 1974, covering more than 50 separate projects, with the object of expanding Hong Kong's export markets, attracting joint industrial ventures into Hong Kong and acquiring new sources of supply for industries.

The council organised Hong Kong's participation in a large number of general and specialised trade fairs. These included the Comis Eurotricot International Knit- wear Fair in Milan, Nuremberg International Toy Fair, the International Toy Fair in New York, Cologne International Houseware Fair, Frankfurt International Trade Fair, Brno International Consumer Goods Fair in Czechoslovakia, Paris International Trade Fair, International Chemical and Plastics Exhibition, New York Jewellery Show, Leipzig International Trade Fair, Macef Householdware Fair in Milan, Gothenburg International Consumer Goods Fair, Spoga Sports Goods Fair in West Germany, Poznan International Consumer Goods Fair in Poland, and the Hong Kong Products Exhibition in Prague.

The TDC conducted an exploratory visit to Central and South America and a pilot project at the Munich Fashion Week. In addition, business groups comprising Hong Kong manufacturers, exporters and importers visited the United States, Canada, West Europe, East Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand.

In Hong Kong, the council was host to visiting trade missions from Sweden, the Netherlands, Britain, Belgium, France and South Africa. The council organised the week-long seventh annual Ready-to-Wear Festival in March which attracted 1,000 buyers from 30 countries, plus 450 local buyers.

The council's trade publications enjoy wide circulation overseas. The monthly magazine, 'Hong Kong Enterprise', has a circulation of 55,000 covering 110 countries. The magazine, 'Apparel', published twice a year, and the annual magazine, "Toys', are circulated to department store chains, mail order houses and importers all over the world. Other publications distributed overseas include 'Hong Kong for the Business- man' and 'Industrial Investment Hong Kong', which are produced in collaboration with the Commerce and Industry Department.

During the year, the council produced three films. They were 'Venture Hong Kong', designed to promote overseas industrial investment in Hong Kong; a docu- mentary on the 1974 Hong Kong Ready-to-Wear Festival; and a film on Hong Kong

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

as a business centre, designed for Scandinavian businessmen and produced jointly with the Scandinavian Airlines System.

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

The corporation's insurance policies protect Hong Kong's exporters against losses arising from overseas buyers being unable to pay for goods shipped and services provided. Risks such as bankruptcy, default, transfer blockage or war, resulting in non-payment are not normally covered by commercial insurers, hence in 1966 the corporation was established under an ordinance of the Hong Kong Government which at that time provided an initial $300 million guarantee of the corporation's liabilities and a paid up capital of $10 million. During the past eight years the level of this guarantee was regularly increased and in late 1974 stood at $1,750 million. In March 1974, an additional $10 million capital was granted by the government, reflecting the growing liabilities undertaken by the corporation.

The provision of this protection forms the basis of ECIC's primary function-to encourage and expand Hong Kong's exports, not only to traditional and major mar- kets like the United States, Britain and other EEC member countries but to small markets of more recent sales potential for Hong Kong made goods, such as the develop- ing countries in Africa, Asia and South America.

        The corporation is assisted in its business by an advisory board consisting of 12 members occupying leading positions in the government and in the banking, manu- facturing and exporting communities of Hong Kong. As a member of the international association of export credit insurers, known as the Berne Union, ECIC has regular access to specialised economic and marketing information on all countries of the world. It maintains close links with fellow credit insurers of other major trading coun- tries.

ECIC works in close consultation with Hong Kong's banks, the Trade Develop- ment Council, Commerce and Industry Department, the Hong Kong General Cham- ber of Commerce, the Trade Facilitation Committee, the Hong Kong Exporters' Association and other commercial organisations involved in encouraging Hong Kong's exports.

        The growth of the corporation's liabilities conforms with the increasing trend of giving and taking credit in international trade, and illustrates the awareness of the need for Hong Kong's consumer goods to be made available to overseas customers on similar credit terms as granted by their own local suppliers. In the year ended March 31, 1974, credit-insured exports of $1,510 million went to 155 overseas markets mainly on credit terms of up to 180 days, some on three years' credit. During 1974, the corporation introduced cover against an additional risk-repudiation of contract after shipment is made.

Legislation was approved during the year for the corporation to issue uncon- ditional guarantees of payment to banks and other lending institutions to facilitate the provision of finance to exporters of capital goods and production equipment on terms of payment to overseas buyers longer than 180 days.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Hong Kong Productivity Council

21

        The Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in January 1967 to promote the increased productivity of industry in Hong Kong. The council in 1974 comprised a chairman and 20 members all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 members represented management, labour, academic and professional interest; while the other 10 members represented government departments closely associated with productivity matters.

        The executive arm of the council is the Hong Kong Productivity Centre which was formally established in April 1967. To achieve its objectives, the centre co-ordinates the activities of persons and organisations engaged in the study and development of productivity techniques in industry, conducts training courses in productivity tech- niques, provides consultancy services and technical assistance, undertakes economic research projects in industry and collects and disseminates information relating to productivity.

        The centre operates in three premises, one in the business district of Hong Kong and two in industrial Kwun Tong which comprise five lecture rooms, electronic data processing facilities, a low cost automation unit, an industrial chemical laboratory, an audio-visual unit, a technical reference library and an exhibition hall.

        In recognition of the need for Hong Kong to diversity into more sophisticated product lines and technically advanced industries, considerable emphasis has been placed on industrial technology both in the field of technical assistance and training. During 1974 the centre conducted more than 180 training courses, undertook 60 industrial and technology projects, and organised three overseas study missions to observe technological trends in advanced countries.

        The centre continued to provide a technical information service to keep manage- ment and technical personnel in commerce and industry informed of the latest develop- ments in management and manufacturing techniques. In November 1974 the service of a United Nations expert, was obtained to advise on a technical information centre to meet industry's demand for technical information.

        To keep manufacturers abreast of the latest developments in production ma- chinery, equipment and materials, and to facilitate contact between manufacturers and suppliers, the centre organised a series of exhibitions in its Kwun Tong office on metal finishing; textile dyeing, finishing and printing materials and equipment; and printing equipment and accessories.

        A fuel efficiency expert was brought in from the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO) in February to study the consultancy needs of Hong Kong's industry. Arising from this, two Japanese experts visited Hong Kong during September to conduct seminars and consultancy services in the field of fuel management.

       The present chairman of the Productivity Council was appointed by the Governor as Hong Kong's director on the governing body of the APO and the executive director of the Productivity Centre as alternate director.

223

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

        As a member of the APO, Hong Kong was represented at the 14th workshop meeting of national productivity centres of the APO in Manila in January 1974 and at the 16th governing body meeting in Singapore in April.

       In September 1972 the centre was admitted as a full member of the International Federation of Documentation (FID) and is represented in FID's Information for Industry Committee and Education and Training Committee. The centre is also a participating organisation of the Asian Network for Industrial Technology Informa- tion and Extension (Technonet: Asia), established under the auspices of the Inter- national Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC).

Other Trade and Industrial Organisations

       Founded in 1861, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the earliest established trade association in Hong Kong. Its membership stood at more than 1,800 at the end of 1974. It is an association representing all branches of commerce and industry, and is represented on a number of government boards and committees. It is also a member of the International Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce.

        The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by statute in 1960, devotes much of its efforts helping to create an infrastructure to assist Hong Kong industry in its growth. Its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. Among the services which it offers are its Standards Centre and its testing laboratories for chemical, electrical, electronic and textile products, footwear, toys, watches, foodstuffs and packaging materials. To encourage the development of better industrial design in Hong Kong, the Industrial Design Council of the federa- tion has instituted two awards for Hong Kong designed products-the Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries Award for Good Design. Competitions are held annually. The federation has also set up a Packaging Council and Packaging Centre to promote creativity and innovation in the fields of product design and packaging. These efforts have been recognised at the inter- national level by the decision of the World Packaging Organisation to transfer its secretariat from London to Hong Kong for three years from 1973 to 1975.

        Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of more than 2,000, representing factories of all sizes and industries. The association, a member of the International Chamber of Commerce, has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong. It has been active in recent years promoting an expanded technical training programme and providing funds for the construction of a prevocational training school. It has held an annual Hong Kong New Products Competition since 1970 to promote the quality of Hong Kong products.

Trade Marks and Patents

        Trade marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

23

the Trade Marks Registry, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in Britain or any other country, must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 2,892 applications were received and 1,700 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,540 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

Hong Kong

United States

Britain

Japan

West Germany

Switzerland France

340

362

156

Australia

304

87

Italy Denmark

77

42

23

22

14

The total number of marks on the register at December 31, 1974, was 30,288.

There is no original grant of patents in Hong Kong, but the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance provides that any person being the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have his patent registered in Hong Kong. Registration of a British patent in Hong Kong confers on the grantee of the patent the same privileges and rights as though the patent had been issued in Britain with an extension to Hong Kong. The privileges and rights run from the date of the patent in Britain, and continue as long as the patent remains in force there. A total of 700 patents were registered during the year, compared with 873 in 1973.

Companies

The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in Hong Kong. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is still based largely on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. However, following the first report of the Companies Law Revision Com- mittee in June 1971 the Companies Ordinance was amended from March 1973 to introduce more detailed requirements for prospectuses and bring the relevant provi- sions of the Companies Ordinance into line with those of the Companies Act 1948. In April 1973 the committee submitted its second report dealing with aspects of general company law which were not covered in the first report, and included recom- mendations on the subject of insider dealings.

During the year two important ordinances based on the recommendations in the first report were enacted-the Securities Ordinance 1974 and the Protection of Investors Ordinance 1974. A brief account of the provisions of these two ordinances will be found in Chapter 3 under 'Legislation relating to Securities and Investments'.

During the year drafting proceeded on the Companies (Amendment) Bill 1974, which was based upon recommendations of the second report of the committee relat- ing to company accounts and directors' reports. The effect of this legislation, which was enacted in December, is to bring the accounts provisions broadly into line with those now in force in Britain, and to require directors' reports to give much fuller information about the company's affairs. Several other items of legislation based on the recommendations in the committee's reports were under consideration at the end of the year.

24

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. During the year 4,568 new companies were incorporated, 950 less than in 1973. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1974 totalled about $2,488 million, 67 per cent less than the corresponding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 107 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. During the year 1,131 companies increased their nominal capital by amounts totalling about $4,299 million, on which fees were paid at the same rate of $2 per $1,000. At the end of the year there were 35,416 local companies on the register compared with 31,292 on December 31, 1973.

Companies incorporated overseas are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in Hong Kong. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year, 81 such companies were registered and 64 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 870 companies registered from 46 countries, including 226 from the United States, 115 from Britain and 98 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local companies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance, respec- tively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Acts 1958-67 in Great Britain, or in the case of fire and marine insurance by maintaining similar deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. There are altogether 268 insurance companies, including 88 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Registrar General must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

       The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships and money-lenders.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations

        In Hong Kong the number of business failures in which recourse leads to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always comparatively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. The number of insolvencies coming before the court in 1974 was nevertheless the largest in any year since the war. During the year, 42 petitions in bankruptcy and 75 petitions for the compulsory winding-up of com- panies were presented to the court, and the court made 27 receiving orders and 62 winding-up orders. As in past years the Official Receiver was appointed trustee or liquidator in almost every case. Assets realised by the Official Receiver during 1974 amounted to about $14,266,630. In addition to these compulsory windings-up, 301 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year, 289 by members' voluntary winding-up and 12 by creditors' voluntary winding-up.

3

Financial Structure

WITH the ultimate authority resting with the Legislative Council, Hong Kong has almost complete autonomy in financial affairs. However, approval by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is required before decisions are made on certain major matters such as currency and banking.

       Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence, to which it makes a substantial contribution. Under an agreement covering the five years from April 1971 to March 1976, Hong Kong is making a contribution in kind and in cash amounting to £40 million. About £28 million of this contribution will be spent in Hong Kong on capital works and on the maintenance of buildings which will revert to Hong Kong if no longer required by the Armed Forces. The work is undertaken by the Public Works Department on behalf of the British Department of the Environment.

       The Urban Council, operating through the Urban Services Department, is free to draw up its own budget and to determine its own priorities of expenditure within its various spheres of activity. These are mainly financed from the yield from Urban Council rates and partly from other sources of revenue related, largely through fees and charges, to the service and facilities the council provides.

       The Housing Authority, which is responsible for the development and manage- ment of all public housing, is financed mainly from loans from the Development Loan Fund and income from rents. It is also allocated land at substantially less than its market value. Its executive arm is the Housing Department. The authority is responsible for squatter control, clearing squatters from sites required for develop- ment, and developing licensed areas. The cost of these activities and the deficit arising from the management of former resettlement estates are financed from general

revenue.

        A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after World War II. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively, a series of surpluses, some of them substantial, have been accumulated. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which Hong Kong has had to face is a considerable achievement, partic- ularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. These annual capital spendings have been increasing in recent years and in 1973-4 they totalled $1,700 million.

       The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, was that during the earlier years exceptionally rapid increases in population generated economic

26

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreciable increases in the rates of tax. Revenue expanded nearly 17 times from $309 million in 1951-2 to $5,241 million in 1973-4. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been strong and continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before the government could develop community and social services neces- sary for an increasing population and made possible by economic growth itself. But as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow.

       The pace of economic growth gave surpluses rising from $448 million in 1969-70 to $637 million in 1972-3. But in 1973-4 the surplus dropped sharply to $72 million compared with an estimated surplus for that year of $513 million. Although revenue for 1973-4 reached a new record of $5,241 million, exceeding the estimate by some $319 million, this excess was overshadowed when expenditure exceeded the estimate by some $760 million. This large expenditure excess was partly due to the payment of a second contribution, of $300 million, to a fund established to finance the proposed underground railway (bringing the total of that fund to $800 million). Increased spending on public works, social welfare and educational subventions accounted for a further $316 million of the excess and the increased cost of Civil Service salaries was largely responsible for the balance. Revenue and expenditure for the years 1972-3 and 1973-4 together with the estimates for 1974-5 are detailed and compared in Appendices 6 and 7.

        For 1974-5 the estimated revenue is $5,845 million and expenditure $5,747 million. In current economic conditions it is unrealistic to expect that actual revenue will exceed the estimate to any significant degree whereas rising costs, in particular pay increases, are expected to cause the expenditure estimate to be exceeded to the extent that the estimated surplus of $98 million for 1974-5 will become an actual deficit.

        At March 31, 1974 net available public financial assets were $2,809 million, while the public debt was equivalent to some $54.4 million, less than $14 per head of population. Indebtedness increased by $1 million during the year. A new item of public debt, the Asian Development Bank Loan towards the construction of seawater desalting works near Castle Peak in the New Territories, has been included. The total borrowings during 1973-4 were equivalent to $3.7 million out of the total of about $109.3 million available under the loan. The interest rate for this loan is 74 per cent per annum repayable over 10 years from January 1976. Britain's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Hong Kong International Airport is repayable by 15 annual instalments from October 1961; the repayment of £200,000 in 1973-4 reduced this item of public debt to £400,000. The Rehabilitation Loan, of which $50 million was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable not later than 1978; its sinking fund stood at $30.5 million on March 31, 1974.

        In addition to the assets and liabilities referred to, there exist for special purposes the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund. The Development Loan Fund,

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

27

now totalling $763.2 million, is used to finance social and economic development projects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes, but during the year 3,300 university students received interest-free loans totalling $10.5 million. At March 31, 1974, liquid assets amounted to $68.9 million and outstanding commitments $180.2 million.

The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is mainly for financing by grants and loans the expenditure involved in the development of social welfare services. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $50.3 million was credited during the period June 1965 to March 31, 1974 by which date grants and loans amounting to $48.3 million had been approved. A further sum of $2.6 million, being unclaimed prize money as at March 31, 1974, is held in deposit.

The audit of all government accounts and those of more than 70 special funds of a public or quasi-public nature, is carried out by the Director of Audit. This appoint- ment, tenure of office, duties and powers are prescribed in the Audit Ordinance. To ensure the director's complete independence in the exercise of his functions, the ordinance provides that he shall not be subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority, and also prescribes certain safe-guards against his dismissal or premature retirement.

       The annual report and certificate of the Director of Audit on the accounts of the Hong Kong Government, which he submits to the Governor, is presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

Duties

There is no general tariff on goods in Hong Kong but three groups of com- modities-alcoholic liquors, tobacco and hydrocarbon oils are subject to excise duties whether they are imported or locally manufactured. In general, preferential rates are charged on local manufactures and imports from Commonwealth countries.

On liquors, the basic duty rates range from $1.80 per gallon on Hong Kong brewed beer to $97 per gallon on non-Commonwealth brandy. On tobacco, rates range from $2.50 per pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $14.05 per pound on non-Commonwealth cigars. Rates on hydrocarbon oils range from $1.30 per gallon on diesel oil for road vehicles to $1.80 per gallon on motor and aircraft spirits.

All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture or sale of dutiable com- modities must be licensed.

Rates

Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building, or part thereof, held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation lists, prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation, cover Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and parts of the New Territories. The lists are frequently revised to bring them up-to-date. Rates are charged, with few exceptions, at 15 per cent per annum on the assessed rateable values. In the urban areas this percentage charge is apportioned to general rates (nine per cent) and Urban Council rates (six

28

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

per cent). In the New Territories for new areas brought into rating for the first time the percentage charge for general rates is reduced to 11 per cent for the four years following the coming into force of the valuation list for that area. One additional area of the New Territories was assessed for rates with effect from April 1, 1974 and it is proposed further to extend rating in the New Territories over the next few years.

There are few exemptions from rates. Premises used for educational, charitable and welfare purposes are rated but most of the bodies running these establishments are reimbursed in the form of either direct subventions or contributions towards rates. No reliefs are available for vacant domestic premises, but a refund of half the rates paid may be granted in the case of non-domestic premises.

The estimated revenue from rates for 1974-5 is $664 million, of which $246 million will go to the Urban Council.

Internal Revenue

        Earnings and profits are taxed under the Inland Revenue Ordinance according to the form of the income arising in or derived from Hong Kong. The current standard rate of tax of 15 per cent has been in force since April 1, 1966. The various forms of income which are subject to separate taxes are property, profits, interest and salaries.

       Property Tax is charged at the standard rate on the owner, but there are exemp- tions including property occupied by the owner for his residential purposes, vacant property, and property in unrated parts of the New Territories. The half charge on unoccupied property was cancelled. Properties owned by corporations carrying on business in Hong Kong are exempted; profits from their ownership are chargeable to Profits Tax.

        Interest Tax is charged at the standard rate on interest arising in or derived from Hong Kong and is withheld at source unless it forms part of the profits of a corpora- tion carrying on a trade or business in Hong Kong, in which case it will be subjected to Profits Tax. Interest payable by the government, banks and public utilities of five per cent per annum (four per cent up to August 1, 1974) and under is exempt.

        Profits Tax is charged at the standard rate on profits arising in or derived from Hong Kong from a trade or business carried on in Hong Kong. Expenses incurred in the production of those profits, and charitable donations up to 10 per cent of net assessable profit, are deductible.

        Salaries Tax is charged on emoluments arising in or derived from Hong Kong. Tax is calculated on a sliding scale which varies from five per cent to 30 per cent on net chargeable income-income after deduction of personal allowances. However, the overall effective rate of tax is limited to 15 per cent of the income before deducting personal allowances. These allowances are, for the taxpayer $10,000; his wife $10,000; his first child $3,000; his second child $2,500; his third child $1,500. The allowance for fourth to sixth child is $1,000 each, and those from the seventh to ninth child $500 each. Apart from the deduction of expenses necessarily incurred in production of the income, and charitable donations up to 10 per cent of assessable income, there are no other allowances.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

29

       A further feature of the Inland Revenue Ordinance is the right of a taxpayer to elect for what is known as Personal Assessment. This aggregates his income from the four sources mentioned earlier and gives him the benefit of the same personal allow- ances and sliding scale of tax as would be allowed for Salaries Tax purposes. A set-off of tax paid on the individual sources of income is allowed.

       There is no tax on dividends received, as they are regarded as having been paid out of taxed profits.

       It is estimated that the revenue from these taxes on earnings and profits during the financial year 1974-5 will be $1,715 million.

Estate Duty is imposed on that part of a deceased person's estate which is situated in Hong Kong. The estate value exemption limit has been raised from $200,000 to $300,000 for estates of persons dying on or after April 1, 1974. The rate of duty now varies from six per cent on estates valued between $300,000 and $400,000 to 15 per cent on those in excess of $1 million. The yield for the year ended March 31, 1975 is estimated at $34 million.

Stamp Duty imposes fixed duties on certain classes of documents and ad valorem duties on others. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty for the year ended March 31, 1975 is $465 million.

Entertainments Tax is now imposed only on the price of admission to race meetings at rates which vary with the amount charged and which averages approxi- mately 22 per cent. The estimated yield from this source for 1974-5 is $3.8 million.

Betting Duty is imposed on bets made on an authorised totalisator or pari- mutuels and on contributions or subscriptions towards authorised cash-sweeps. The duty is 71 per cent on bets and 25 per cent on cash-sweep contributions and is assessed from the returns of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club which holds the monopoly for conducting such operations, including a limited form of off-course betting. The estimated yield for the year ending March 31, 1975 is $70 million.

Hotel Accommodation Tax is imposed on hotel and guest house accommodation and is levied at the rate of two per cent on the accommodation charges. For the financial year 1974-5 this levy is estimated to yield $6.3 million.

       Business Registration is compulsory for every business operating in Hong Kong, except those carried on by charitable institutions. With effect from April 1, 1974 the annual registration fee is $50 instead of the previous $25, but exemption from payment of the fee is granted where the business is small. The total income from these fees, service fees for copy documents and other fees for the fiscal year 1974-5 is expected to be $10.4 million.

Currency

        Hong Kong has no central bank, and currency notes are issued largely by three commercial banks-the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank and the Mercantile Bank. Notes of one cent denomination are issued by the government, as are coins of one dollar, 50 cents, 10 cents and five cents. The total

30

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

currency in nominal circulation at the end of 1974, and details of its constitution, are shown in Appendix 10.

        The value of currency issued by the note-issuing banks is regulated by an Ex- change Fund, which was set up in 1935 when the Hong Kong dollar ceased to be based on silver. The fund receives payment from these banks in exchange for certi- ficates of indebtedness denominated in Hong Kong dollars. These certificates are non-interest bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary. They provide the legal backing for the notes issued by the banks (apart from their small 'fiduciary' issues-these are limited to a total of $95 million and are issued against securities, of a kind approved by the Secretary of State, which are held by the banks and deposited with the Crown Agents in London). The fund's resources are employed in a variety of investments, both long and short-term, denominated in sterling and other currencies. Out of the income derived, the fund bears the cost of the note issue except for a small proportion, equivalent to the proportion borne by the 'fiduciary' issues to the total note issue, which is met by the note-issuing banks. In practice, from 1937 to 1968, the Exchange Fund operated in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards.

        The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at about 1s 3d sterling ($16 to £1). On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. The relationship with sterling was, however, not a statutory one, and was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in conjunc- tion with the note-issuing banks. Nevertheless, it came to be generally regarded as a fixed relationship. Hong Kong, as both a dependent territory and a member of the sterling area, was required in practice to keep its official reserves, and the greater part of the reserves of the banking system, in the form of sterling.

        The link with sterling weakened after the devaluation of the pound by 14.3 per cent in November 1967, when the value of the Hong Kong dollar was adjusted to leave it with a devaluation of only 5.7 per cent to a rate of $14.55 to £1. And the link weakened further after the pound was allowed to float downwards in June 1972 -early in the following month the Hong Kong Government decided to fix the ex- change value of the Hong Kong dollar in terms of US dollars instead of sterling. The new exchange rate, of HK$5.65 to US$1, made good nearly all of the sharp depreciation suffered, along with the pound, immediately after the floating. When the US dollar itself was devalued by 10 per cent in February 1973, the Hong Kong dollar's gold parity was not changed and a new rate of HK$5.085 to US$1 became operative. The Hong Kong dollar was allowed to float upwards on November 26, 1974. Heavy selling of US dollars had brought the exchange rate under pressure at the Hong Kong dollar's upper margin of HK$4.9706, despite intervention by the government in the market. The government decided that further resources should not be committed to maintaining this margin. The Hong Kong dollar quickly ap- preciated further, to a middle market rate of about HK$4.60 to US$1, but by the end of the year the rate had returned to about HK$4.92 to US$1.

        Various arrangements between 1968 and the end of 1974 provided a guarantee by Britain of the external value of other countries' sterling holdings, as an inducement

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

31

to those countries not to diversify their reserves. Hong Kong participated in these arrangements until late in 1974. They allowed a gradual reduction of the proportion of sterling held within Hong Kong's official external reserves from 99 per cent in September 1968 to 70 per cent in April 1974, and the proportion was further reduced by the end of 1974. The guarantee provisions had to be implemented twice, and Hong Kong received compensation. Official reserves are now held in several other countries as well as Britain.

When sterling was allowed to float in June 1972, the sterling area was largely disbanded and Hong Kong ceased to be a member. From January 1973, all exchange control regulations in Hong Kong were rescinded. Furthermore, after September 1973, when the banks' sterling assets ceased to be covered by Britain's guarantee arrangement, banks became free to employ their external funds in any currency.

Banking

Bank deposits increased during 1974 to $30,998 million at December 31, which represents a net increase of 18 per cent over the previous year. Loans and advances increased during 1974 by 27 per cent to reach $29,549 million at December 31.

At the end of 1974 there were 74 licensed banks in Hong Kong with a total of 631 banking offices, an increase of 88 during the year. In addition, there were 66 representative offices of foreign banks.

Banks in Hong Kong have branches and correspondents throughout the world and offer a comprehensive service. Monthly bank clearings averaged $29,390 million. Banking statistics for the past three years are shown in Appendix 11.

Stock Exchanges

On February 13, 1974 two ordinances-the Securities Ordinance and the Pro- tection of Investors Ordinance-were enacted by the Legislative Council and were brought into operation on March 1.

Both ordinances were based on recommendations contained in the first report of the companies law revision committee. The first piece of legislation arising from the report had been the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 1972 which established a better legal framework for the presentation of company prospectuses when shares are offered for sale to the public or are placed privately on a stock exchange.

The comparatively short Protection of Investors Ordinance aims at protecting investors against fraudulent or reckless misrepresentation by inducing them to enter into agreements, or to take part in arrangements, involving the investment of money in securities or other property. It also bans advertisements which invite the public to invest in any form of property, unless they have been authorised by the Securities Commission.

The Securities Ordinance provides for the regulation of dealing in securities, whether they take place on stock exchanges or elsewhere in Hong Kong, and the registration of dealers in securities, investment advisers, and their representatives.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

32

The existing four stock exchanges became members of the newly constituted Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges. The ordinance established a Securities Com- mission and provided for the appointment of a Commissioner for Securities who has a wide range of responsibilities in connection with dealings in securities and, in particular, is responsible for the registration of dealers and their representatives, as well as investment advisers and their representatives. The ordinance made detailed provisions with respect to dealers' accounts and records, and established a stock exchanges compensation fund to compensate persons who suffer pecuniary loss as a result of default by stock brokers. The Commissioner for Securities has the power to inspect dealers' books and provision is also made for investigations by inspectors appointed by the commission.

       The Council of the Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges held its first meeting in July 1974. The stock exchanges compensation fund was formally establish- ed in August and nearly $24 million was received from the four stock exchanges and was invested.

        Part VI of the ordinance and the Securities (Dealers, Investment Advisers and Representatives) Regulations 1974 requiring all dealers (whether or not they are members of the stock exchange), investment advisers and their representatives to register with the Commissioner for Securities were brought into force on October 1. At the end of the year more than 2,300 applications had been received and were being processed, including about 1,200 for registration as dealers, 60 as investment advisers, 1,000 as dealers' representatives and 70 as investment representatives.

       During the year the total turnover reported in the exchanges was-Hong Kong Stock Exchange $2,445.63 million; Far East Exchange $5,049.35 million; Kam Ngan Stock Exchange $3,136.86 million; Kowloon Stock Exchange $701.37 million-a total of $11,333.21 million, a decrease of 77 per cent over the previous year's figure.

       There was one public offer and three placements of shares, and at the end of the year the shares of 306 companies were listed on the four stock exchanges.

        A feature during the year was the increased attention focussed on takeovers and mergers of companies, and the Securities Commission drew up a code of conduct for companies involved in takeovers. At the end of the year the commission also appointed a committee with representatives of the Hong Kong Federation of Stock Exchanges, the Exchange Banks Association, underwriters and others, to supervise all takeovers and mergers.

4

KKO

Employment

     FURTHER advances in labour legislation to improve the safety, health and welfare of workers were introduced in 1974, bringing to 70 the number of labour legislation items passed since 1970.

       These items included the provision of four rest-days a month for most employees, more effective control of employment agencies, and safety regulations in respect of construction sites, lifting gear and lifting appliances. During the year, the Employment Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance were amended by raising the wage ceiling from $1,500 to $2,000 for non-manual workers covered under these laws. Further amendments were made to the Employment Ordinance to give workers the right to severance pay on redundancy, and to protect workers against acts of anti-union discrimination.

The Labour Tribunal which began operations on a trial basis in March 1973 has been made a part of the permanent judicial machinery by the Labour Tribunal (Amendment) Ordinance 1974. A second presiding officer started work on February 1, 1974 and a second tribunal was established on March 1, 1974. Initially it operated on Hong Kong Island. On July 2 it moved to Kowloon for the convenience of em- ployees and employers.

       While the cost of living indices have risen by 95 per cent since 1964, the average industrial wage has increased by 163 per cent. Therefore, measured by real wages, standards of living have risen by about 35 per cent.

In December 1974 a total of 555,919 workers were employed in 25,250 establish- ments in the manufacturing sector. The largest section of the labour force-some 263,809-were engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting, and the manufacture of gar- ments and made-up textile goods. The electrical industry was the second largest employer and the plastics industry was the third. Details of the distribution of manu- facturing establishments and of people employed in them are given in Appendices 12 and 13.

       The bulk of the industrial population is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon but there is increasing industrial develop- ment in the New Territories, particularly in the new townships of Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung. In December 1974 a total of 113,107 workers were recorded in 3,787 manufacturing establishments in the New Territories. Although most workers are engaged in modern manufacturing processes and to a small extent in mining and quarrying, traditional village industries still provide employment.

34

EMPLOYMENT

        The 1971 population census revealed a total working population of 1,582,849 in Hong Kong-1,049,989 male and 532,860 female. The main distribution of the work force was-manufacturing 677,498; services 312,173; commerce 208,604; construction and engineering 168,773; transport and communication 114,722; agriculture, forestry and fishing 62,975; public utilities 8,870; mining and quarrying 4,518; and other industries 24,716.

        The number of workers who went overseas under contracts attested by the Commissioner for Labour during 1974 was 719, compared with 701 in the previous year and 737 in 1972. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants.

Wages and Conditions of Work

        Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industries are piece-rated, although daily rates of pay are common. Men and women receive the same rates for piece-work, but women are generally paid less when working on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis or on piece rates, and are customarily paid weekly or every two weeks.

       Daily wages for the manufacturing industries at the end of 1974 ranged from $18 to $60.90 for skilled workers; $13.20 to $39 for semi-skilled workers; and $12.28 to $26.89 for unskilled workers. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, subsidised meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, paid rest-days, and a Lunar New Year bonus of one month's pay.

        A consumer price index, designed as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, continued to be published throughout the year. It varied from 179 to 196 (base of 100-period of September 1963 to August 1964). In December 1974, this index stood at 187 (see Appendix 15). A special index based on the expen- diture of households spending less than $600 a month and known as the modified consumer price index is also published and used as the basis for adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. A proportion of the wages of all minor staff (Scale 1) in the public service is adjusted quarterly by reference to this index.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its regulations control the hours and conditions of work in industry. Since December 1971, the maximum hours of work for women and young people, aged 16 and 17, employed in industry have been eight hours a day and 48 hours a week. In addition to establishing maximum daily working hours, the regulations limit overtime and provide for weekly rest-days, and rest-breaks for women and young people.

       Young people aged 14 and 15 may work eight hours a day in industry with a break of one hour after five hours continuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground. The regulations also provide for a pre-employment medical examination of men employed underground or in tunnelling operations and for the periodical medical examination of men under 21 years of age employed underground.

EMPLOYMENT

35

A number of large factories, mostly engaged in cotton spinning, were authorised in 1970 to employ women at night. This permission was granted only to factories able to comply with stringent conditions. The concession is reviewed annually.

There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work between eight and 10 hours a day. Government employees, and those working for the better employers in the private sector, may have shorter working hours, but usually not less than seven hours a day. Restrictions on the hours of work for women, first introduced in January 1959, have resulted in a decrease in the num- ber of hours worked by men employed alongside women in the same concern.

       By December 31, 1974, a total of 35 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts. Cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 41,955 men and 45,966 women were working eight hours a day. A mid-day rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry.

The Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1974 which came into operation on April 4, raised the wage ceiling for non-manual workers from $1,500 to $2,000. This means that all manual workers irrespective of earnings and non-manual workers earning not more than $2,000 a month are now covered under the Employment Ordinance.

       The Employment (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1974 which came into opera- tion on August 2, protects an employee against any act of anti-union discrimination by his employer. It gives statutory rights to an employee to belong to a union registered under the Trade Unions Ordinance, to take part in union activities at an appropriate time, and to associate with other persons in forming and seeking regis- tration of a union.

The Employment (Amendment) (No. 3) Ordinance 1974, which became operative on August 23, requires an employer to make severance payment to an employee who is dismissed by reason of redundancy or lay-off, if he has been in continuous employment with the same employer for two years or more, immediately prior to the dismissal or lay-off. The amendment applies to a manual employee irrespective of his earning or a non-manual employee earning not more than $2,000 a month. Severance pay is calculated on the basis of one third of a month's pay for each completed year of service up to a maximum of the equivalent of 12 months' wages. Up to five years' service prior to August 23, 1974 is counted in calculating severance payment.

This new legislation provides workers for the first time with a legal entitlement to severance pay, and represents another significant step forward in social legislation.

Trade Unions

       With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, most employees' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which are registered as societies and bear allegiance to opposing political groups. Divided

36

EMPLOYMENT

politically, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs, and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organisations.

        The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions is a left-wing organisation. Most of the members of its 66 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills, and public utilities. A further 26 unions, nominally independent, are friendly towards the federation and participate in its activities. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council has right-wing sympathies. Most of the members of its 85 affiliated unions and of the nine nominally independent unions which generally support the Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

        There are 105 independent unions some of which continue to make improve- ments in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

       The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are specified in the Trade Unions Ordinance which is administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions.

        Of the 347 unions on the register at the end of the year, 291 were employees' unions with a total declared membership of 296,481, a further 44 were organisations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 4,939, and 12 were mixed organisations with a total declared membership of 6,047.

Labour Administration and Services

        The Labour Department continued to expand during 1974 and now has an es- tablishment of 744. The services of the department in the New Territories have been extended during the year. A branch office was established at Tai Po in October 1974. In urban areas, further branch offices within easy access of the public have been es- tablished in Wan Chai and Shau Kei Wan. This network of offices plays a significant role in dealing promptly with labour matters.

       The Commissioner for Labour is the principal adviser to the government on labour matters. He is also the Commissioner of Mines.

        Labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which also ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under international labour conventions are observed. The department is organised into six divisions-labour relations, industry, employment, industrial health, industrial training, and development.

        During the year, the labour relations division dealt with 5,878 labour problems, most of which were of a grievance nature involving individuals in claims of wages in arrears, wages in lieu of notice, and holiday pay. There were 22 work stoppages and the number of working days lost in these disputes was 10,708, compared with 56,691 in 54 work stoppages in 1973.

        The Labour Tribunal Ordinance, enacted in March 1972, came into operation in March 1973. The tribunal, which is part of the Judiciary, provides a quick, simple

EMPLOYMENT

337

and inexpensive method of settling certain monetary claims arising from contracts of employment, the provisions of the Employment Ordinance, and certain other ordinances. Claims are determined by a legally qualified presiding officer sitting alone. The proceedings of the tribunal are conducted in an informal manner and generally in Cantonese.

        During the period January 1 to December 31, 1974, the tribunal dealt with 1,869 cases involving employees as claimants and a further 39 cases in which the claims were initiated by employers. A total of $1,677,448 was awarded by presiding officers. Of the cases dealt with by the tribunal 91 per cent had been referred from the labour relations service of the Labour Department after unsuccessful conciliation attempts.

       By the end of the year, the Labour Department had record of 86 formal joint consultative committees set up in 41 establishments. In addition, 56 firms are recorded as having some form of informal consultation. Most were working smoothly and achieving the object of bringing management and employees together to improve rela- tionships and to allow each to benefit from the experience of the other.

       Similar committees established in certain government departments discussed a wide range of administrative, welfare and organisational problems. A total of 85 special visits were made during the year to employers who have shown positive interest in introducing joint consultation.

       The factory inspectorate of the department's industry division is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its subsidiary legisla- tion, for the safety and health of workers in factories, building and engineering con- struction sites and other industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance were given to management on the guarding of dangerous parts of machinery, the adoption of safe working practices, and the general layout of factories to achieve safer working con- ditions.

       The Quarries (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations which offer a greater degree of safety to workers operating at a height on the face or top of quarries, came into opera- tion on January 1.

        The Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations which provide specifically for safety and health measures on construction sites came into operation on May 1. The depart- ment held regular informal discussions with representatives of the Building Contractors Association and the Society of Builders on ways and means of assisting contractors in implementing the safe practices required by the regulations.

        On January 30, the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Lifting Appliances and Lifting Gear) Regulations were approved by the Legislative Council. Effective from November 1, the regulations provide for the testing and examination of lifting ap- pliances and lifting gear used in industrial undertakings other than construction sites.

       During the year, the Industrial Safety Training Centre continued to provide basic and advanced safety training courses for workers and supervisors from industries and government departments, and to students from technical schools and vocational train- ing centres. A number of short courses on the safe use of abrasive wheels was added to the list of established courses on specific aspects of industrial safety.

38

EMPLOYMENT

A six-week training course for safety officers in industry was held. The centre also conducted a special course on accident prevention for those under the age of 21 partic- ipating in the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme. The centre's officers continued to inspect government workshops and maintained a close liaison with their staff in the promotion of safety at work.

The centre maintains a permanent display of personal protective items and machinery fitted with a variety of safety guards. Models of construction sites depicting safe working conditions were added to the items on display. Booklets and posters on industrial safety are also prepared by the centre.

The local employment service operates a free placement service from five offices. During the year, the service registered 45,791 job-seekers, recorded 4,929 employers' orders, and helped 3,441 workers find employment.

        In December 1973, a special register was established along the lines of the 'Pro- fessional and Executive Register' maintained by employment exchanges in Britain. It offers employment assistance to graduates of local universities as well as Hong Kong graduates in overseas universities and post-secondary colleges seeking to return to Hong Kong for employment. During the year, 461 graduates were registered and 141 employers' orders were received. A total of 43 graduates found employment through the assistance of the service.

The youth employment advisory service continued to expand its services to students and young people by providing information on careers and guidance in the choice of careers. During the year, 746 careers talks were given in 156 schools and 23 youth centres to some 45,000 students and youngsters, compared with 395 talks in 109 schools and youth centres to 21,000 students in 1973.

       The service also organised and participated in careers seminars and exhibitions providing careers information to students, teachers, parents and interested individuals. During the year, it organised six seminars and took part in 12 others. The third careers exhibition was held at the City Hall from December 20 to December 29, some 15 exhibitors from commerce, industry and government took part in the exhibition which attracted more than 93,000 visitors. The service began organising careers programmes for several secondary schools at the beginning of the year. These programmes provide for a series of general talks on principles of choosing a career, special talks by guest speakers on specific trades and industries and visits to related establishments.

The Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance controls contracts of employ- ment entered into in Hong Kong between overseas employers and manual workers, including domestic servants but excluding certain specific categories, proceeding over- seas for employment. During the year 719 contracts were attested.

Permission to work in Britian is given by the United Kingdom Department of Employment. Work permits are issued to applicants through the Immigration Depart- ment.

Under the Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1973 which came into force on January 1, all profit-making employment agencies, unless in an excluded class.

EMPLOYMENT

39

are required to obtain a licence from the Commissioner for Labour before starting operation. During the year, 41 licences were issued to employment agencies catering for employment of persons within Hong Kong and 13 to those catering for employment

overseas.

Industrial Health

The industrial health unit of the Labour Department offers an advisory service to the government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. The unit is primarily concerned with preventing occupational diseases and protecting workers against hazards in their working environment. These hazards are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate, or by officers of the unit. Control is achieved by environmental and biological monitoring and health education. The unit's laboratory, staffed by technicians trained in industrial hygiene, has been designated as a collaborating laboratory on air pollution by the World Health Organisation.

The measurement of concentrations in the air, such as chromium, lead, man- ganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust and sulphur dioxide, and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation noise and lighting, also form a major part of the duties of the unit. Medical examinations, including X-rays and pathological investigations, are also arranged for workers exposed to risks of lead, radiation, fluoride toxicity or silica dust, divers and compressed air workers.

       Responsibility for the clinical examination, case-work, and medical assessment of injured workers lies with the industrial health unit. Visits to the homes and places of work of injured workers are made by the health visitors of the unit.

The workmen's compensation unit administers the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance and is responsible for ensuring that injured workers or their dependants receive the compensation to which they are legally entitled. The Workmen's Compensa- tion Ordinance was amended on March 28, by raising the ceiling for non-manual workers to $2,000 a month and the maximum amount of compensation from $60,000 to $80,000. This amendment became operative from July 1.

The air pollution control unit operates under the guidance of the air pollution control officer, assisted by 11 smoke inspectors. The unit is responsible for the ad- ministration of the Clean Air Ordinance, Clean Air (Furnaces, Ovens and Chimneys) (Installation and Alteration) Regulations 1972, and the Clean Air (Restriction and Measurement of Smoke Emission) Regulations 1973. It offers free constructive advice to fuel-users on the efficient use of fuel and the reduction of smoke emissions from their plants.

Industrial Training

In October 1973 the Governor appointed the Hong Kong Training Council, under the chairmanship of Mr T. K. Ann, to advise him on measures necessary to ensure a comprehensive system of training geared to meet the developing needs of Hong Kong's economy. The training council succeeded the Industrial Training Advisory Committee (ITAC).

40

EMPLOYMENT

        At its first meeting in November 1973, the training council decided to set up 10 industry training boards to deal with the training problems of the 10 major industries- automobile repairs and servicing, building and civil engineering, clothing, electrical, electronics, machine shop and metal working, plastics, printing, ship-building and ship repairs, and textile. The council also set up five committees to handle matters common to more than one industry, such as apprenticeship, instructor training, technical training in institutions, translation of technical terms and vocational training. By the end of June 1974, all the industry training boards and committees had been appointed by the government. The entire training council complex is serviced by the industrial training division of the Labour Department.

        The training boards and committees have been active. All have identified and defined the technologist jobs in their respective industries, a job level previously out- side the purview of the ITAC. To up-date the manpower requirements of their indus- tries, the Automobile Repairs and Servicing Industry Training Board, the Shipbuilding and Ship Repairs Industry Training Board, the Electronics Industry Training Board and the Machine Shop and Metal Working Industry Training Board conducted man- power surveys during the year.

        In July 1974, the training council decided to take the first steps in extending its investigations to the commercial and services sectors and recommended to the govern- ment the establishment of an ad hoc committee on training in commerce and the services. The council also set up a sub-committee from among its members to look into the problems of technologist training generally.

        A milestone in the training of craftsmen and semi-skilled workers was the appoint- ment by the Governor of the Provisional Construction Industry Training Authority in June and the Provisional Clothing Industry Training Authority in July to pave the way for the eventual establishment of the statutory authorities to administer respec- tively the contributory training schemes for these two industries. These training authorities would be empowered to impose a levy on the total contract value of all building and civil engineering works and total export value of clothing articles to establish and run training centres to provide basic training in key building trades and training for garment-making machine operators in the clothing industry.

In the field of prevocational and vocational training, a number of centres offering training in technical, commercial and catering trades are run by voluntary welfare organisations and the government.

        In addition to the existing Morrison Hill Technical Institute, four more technical institutes are being built or planned. The two at Kwun Tong and Kwai Chung will start courses in September 1975. The remaining two at Cheung Sha Wan and San Po Kong are expected to be completed in September 1976 and 1977 respectively.

        The industrial training division of the Labour Department also continued with its work of encouraging and assisting employers to set up proper apprenticeship schemes for training craftsmen and technicians. This year 13 more firms have started apprentice training in the shipbuilding, electrical, electronics, plastics and textile industries.

EMPLOYMENT

41

Some 2,500 apprentices, both technician and craft are currently engaged under modern apprenticeship schemes recommended by the industrial training division.

        Technical education on a day-release basis forms an essential part of the appren- ticeship schemes proposed by the Labour Department. Part-time day-release courses for both technician and craft apprentices are presently provided by the Hong Kong Polytechnic and the Morrison Hill Technical Institute.

5

Primary Production

     ALTHOUGH only 12 per cent of the total land area is devoted to farming, and less than two per cent of the working population is involved in fishing, Hong Kong is still able to produce a large proportion of her fresh food requirements.

       The 1971 census showed that farmers comprised only 2.09 per cent of the total economically active population of Hong Kong, while fisherfolk made up another 1.88 per cent. Hong Kong's fishing fleet catches about 90 per cent of all fresh marine fish eaten in the territory, and local pond fish farmers produce some 8.5 per cent of the freshwater fish consumed. However, agricultural production is limited by the availability of suitable land rather than by numbers of people in the industry. Farmers in the New Territories produce about 45 per cent of the vegetables consumed, some 60 per cent of the total live chicken requirements, and about 15 per cent of all pigs slaughtered.

       The sudden increase in Hong Kong's population during the 1950s, due to large scale immigration from China, gave considerable stimulus to agricultural production both because of the increased demand and because many arrivals were skilled farmers. As a result, there was a rapid growth of intensively cultivated vegetable farming, and livestock production also increased greatly.

       Progressive developments also took place simultaneously in the local fishing industry. A large fleet of wind-driven junks, which had previously migrated up and down the coast, dependent upon the seasonal winds, was encouraged to become based at Hong Kong and concentrate on supplying the marine food demands of the ter- ritory's expanded population. That ready market stimulated fleet modernisation. With government assistance the mechanisation of the existing fleet was quickly in- itiated, and further impressive advances have since been made in the transition of the fleet from junks to modern boats utilising increasingly sophisticated gear and equipment.

A continued increase in marine fish production is called for to meet expanding demand. The present slow growth rate of supply in terms of total catch, albeit with fewer vessels, indicates that the demersal (bottom) fisheries of the grounds now worked are already being fully exploited to provide maximum sustainable yield. Attention has accordingly been turned towards the potential of the unexploited, or under exploited, pelagic (midwater) fisheries resources of the South China Sea.

Traditional rice cultivation has continued to decrease as vegetable growing has expanded. As the profit margin on rice cultivation has dropped in recent years, much former paddy land around the more remote villages has fallen into disuse and now

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

43

       lies fallow. The able-bodied members of these rural communities have moved to the city or overseas for better paid work. Meanwhile, vegetable production has continued to increase although at a slower rate. The skilled cultivator can maintain a good standard of living from a one-acre farm, and now uses many modern horticultural techniques such as sprinkler irrigation and mechanised cultivation to maintain a continuous succession of crops throughout the year.

       Pig and poultry farmers are more directly affected by the level of prices of im- ported pork and poultry, and livestock numbers tend to fluctuate in accordance with price levels and profitability. All livestock food, apart from pig swill, is imported; and high world prices for livestock feed, which prevailed in 1974, has resulted in a cutback in total livestock numbers as certain marginal producers moved from farming to industry. A trend in the reverse direction occurred towards the end of the year when farm profitability improved and there was a threat of industrial recession.

Administration and Services

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department provides a development information service to the primary industries. The details of new projects put forward are carefully considered, and those expected to prove both viable and in the interests of Hong Kong are actively encouraged.

Consumer demand and local primary production, within the context of world food production and supply, are investigated so that development planning can be undertaken. All available statistical data on production factors and food supplies, including imports, are collected and analysed to assist in the formulation of local production and marketing policies. Business efficiency of differing sectors and units. within primary industries are studied to establish and up-date productivity standards, and to facilitate advice on their improvement. Forward projection studies of the anticipated market demands for foods are prepared. Those projections are then related to the local primary production capacity, both actual and potential. New food supply sources are also examined. Detailed surveys and studies are carried out on the distribution systems, and on the dynamics of the wholesale marketing of foodstuffs, so that long term development decisions can be planned.

       The department concerns itself with optimum land utilisation and provides tech- nical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with the economic, social and technological development of the Hong Kong fishing industry, and the administrative organisation and supervision of co-operative societies of all types, plus the supervision of credit unions. The conservation of water and soil through afforesta- tion of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is also an important aspect of the department's work. Afforestation is principally undertaken by the department and private afforestation is relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

       Research programmes of the department extend to and include crop and animal husbandry as well as fisheries. On government farms experiments continue into im- proving the quality and yield per acre of vegetables, flowers and fruits. The cultivation

44

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

of vegetables and flowers under protective plastic structures is also showing promise. The department advises livestock farmers on modern methods of animal production and assists them by the supply of improved and exotic breeds of pigs and poultry, and also provides an artificial insemination service for pigs.

         Fisheries research is carried out from the main station in Aberdeen, and sub- stations at Kat O and Au Tau. The Aberdeen station is concerned with research into marine resources and associated hydrological and oceanographical work in both local waters and in the northern part of the South China Sea, and with aquaculture research. At the Kat O sub-station investigations are continuing into mariculture, and at the Au Tau sub-station experiments on the induced breeding of carp species have yielded promising results. The feasibility of rearing catfish, carp and other species in treated sewage effluents is being tested at the Shek Wu Hui pilot plant for the treatment of domestic sewage.

        Development and extension services are also provided for the agricultural and fishing industries. Due primarily to rising labour costs, the main development in the agricultural industry is the increasing interest which farmers have shown in the use of small farm machines and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of 1974, there were 1,210 rotary cultivators and 450 sprinkler units in use on vegetable farms. Other irrigation development comprised the construction of minor irrigation schemes-$968,000 was spent during the year, including expenditure on those irrigation works associated with the High Island Water Scheme. Most of these works are gravity systems with concrete lined channels, pipelines and fixed level concrete weirs for water level control.

       Development of the fishing fleet involves the modernisation of hull design and deck arrangements of vessels, and the introduction of more efficient fishing gear and navigational aids. These services are rendered, free of charge, to fishermen by the department. Experiments are also carried out to test the suitability for local conditions. of new fishing gear and labour-saving devices. Training classes are conducted in the main fishing centres to enable fishermen to obtain certificates of competency as local masters and engine operators, and to give them a working knowledge of navigation. Through the Fish Marketing Organisation, schooling facilities are available to fisher- men's children. At the end of 1974, there were 4,240 children attending the 14 schools established by the organisation, and 39 were attending other schools on scholarships provided by the organisation.

        Hong Kong is divided into three districts for agricultural extension. Each district is administered by a district extension staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with problems in farming, agricultural pollution and co-operative societies. Close contact with the farming community and liaison with local co-operative societies and rural associations is maintained by farm advisers. Both credit facilities and technical advice are available through the extension service.

        In the rural extension programme in 1974, more than 1,190 farmers attended farm discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out, in which 283 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of

MARKETS

  Marketing is a way of life in Hong Kong, so it's not surprising that market stalls abound in the urban areas where almost every conceivable household item can be purchased. There are seven wholesale fish markets in the territory and two wholesale vegetable markets, one for local produce and the other for imported goods. These wholesale markets supply the multitude of markets, market areas, licensed hawkers and other retail outlets. The Urban Services Department controls 41 public all-purpose retail markets and one wholesale market. The department is also engaged in a com- prehensive rebuilding and reprovisioning programme, which saw the opening of two new markets in 1974. So for the shopper who prefers a still to a supermarket there is plenty of scope in Hong Kong.

Fully Cont

the Con*

vices to.

wia

#me

Popular with tourists and local people is the 'Cat Street' curio market area on Hong Kong Island.

G PUBL

፡፡

It's serious business at the Canton Road jade market in Kowloon.

大生隆肉

新西蘭酒家

This market in Pei Ho Street, Kowloon attracts crowds of eager shoppers.

酒酷

Wanchai Road, Hong Kong caters for fruit, vegetables and dairy produce.

Fish is a popular food in Hong Kong, and selection and weighing must be done carefully-North Point Market, Hong Kong.

無軒

Known as 'The Poor Man's Nightclub' this evening market near the Macau Ferry Wharf offers a variety of purchases, from food to T-shirts.

BUSU

A mother inspects children's clothes at the road-side market in Hamilton Street, Kowloon.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

45

agricultural subjects. More than 153,820 visits were made to farmers and co-operative societies by both professional and technical officers on various agricultural purposes. Farmers also visited government experimental farms and farming projects.

        Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through an extension service, similar in scope to that provided for the agricultural industry, and by liaison with fishermen's co-operative societies. A number of these societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which continue to grow in size and effectiveness.

        Loans are available to the agricultural industry through four separate loan funds -the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organisation Loan Fund- all administered through the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. At December 31, 1974, the total loans issued since the inception of these four funds was $81,150,415. The total recovered was $75,973,099.

        The Fisheries Development Loan Fund, with a capital of $5 million, is administer- ed by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries specifically for the development of the fishing fleet. Finance from the World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies, donated by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1962, is also available to members of fishermen's co-operative societies. The Fish Marketing Organisation Loan Fund is another important source of loan finance for fishermen. This fund, with a ceiling of $6 million, was established in 1946 and has made loans totalling $48.6 million; of this amount, some $43.2 million had been repaid by the end of the year. The organisation also administers a revolving loan fund of $116,000 financed by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), specifically for shrimp fishermen.

       Co-operative societies operate under a Co-operative Societies Ordinance, which provides for the appointment of a Registrar (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) whose staff supervise and assist co-operative societies and encourage the formation of new ones. On December 31, 1974, more than 11,700 farmers and 2,281 fishermen were members of 88 rural societies with two federations among the farming com- munity, and 77 societies with four federations supported by the fisherfolk. A further 252 societies with about 8,345 members operate in the urban area, the bulk of these being co-operative building societies formed by local civil servants with financial aid from the government. The movement includes primary societies with such diverse objects and activities as vegetable marketing, pig raising, agriculture and fisheries credit, better living, thrift and loan, housing and the supply of consumer goods.

        In recognition of the needs of lower income groups for thrift and small loans, legislation in the form of the Credit Unions Ordinance was enacted in February 1970 to incorporate and regulate credit unions and to provide for incidental matters. The ordinance provides for the appointment of a Registrar (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) with powers and duties in regard to the registration of credit unions and their by-laws, the examination of accounts and general supervision. Up to the end of the year, 51 credit unions with 8,713 members were registered; a total of 27 credit unions were formed of groups of persons having a common bond of association;

46

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

18 by persons having common bonds of employment; and six by groups each with a common bond of residence.

Land Utilisation

Hong Kong's land area totals 404.3 square miles, of which only 12 per cent is used for farming, 76.2 per cent is marginal land with different degrees of sub- grade character, and built-up areas comprise the remaining 11.8 per cent. The need to establish new towns and residential areas on plans that provide for adequate open space, wider roads and public facilities of all kinds, inevitably means encroachment upon agricultural land. The losses, however, are partially offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

Approximate

Class

area

(square miles)

Percentage of whole

Remarks

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

47.6

11.8

(ii) Woodlands ...

49.1

12.1

Includes roads and railways. Natural and established wood-

lands.

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

237.3

58.7

(iv) Badlands

16.8

4.2

...

(v) Swamp and mangrove lands

5

1.2

(vi) Arable

43.1

10.7

Natural grass and scrub, includ-

ing Plover Cove Reservoir. Stripped of cover. Granite coun- try. Capable of regeneration. Capable of reclamation.

Includes orchards and market

gardens.

(vii) Fish ponds ...

5.4

1.3

Fresh and brackish water fish

farming.

Agricultural Industry

The government's policy is to foster the growth of the agricultural industry in Hong Kong to make the territory as self-sufficient in foodstuffs as possible, bearing in mind priorities in land utilisation and the economics of food production in the region.

Principal crops are vegetables, flowers, rice, fruit and other field crops. The value of crop production has increased considerably, from $89 million in 1963 to $261 million in 1974, a rise of 175 per cent. Vegetable production presently accounts for more than 80 per cent of the total value, having increased from $58 million in 1963 to $209 million in 1974.

Rice is the staple food of the southern Chinese. Two crops of rice a year can be grown on land where water is adequate. The normal yield from an acre of two-crop rice land is about two tons, or up to five tons with high fertiliser use and high yielding strains. The acreage of rice land has dropped from 23,353 acres in 1954 to 3,710 in 1974. Rice production continues to give way to intensive vegetable production, which gives a far higher return, where there is adequate water and good road access.

The main vegetable crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish, watercress, leaf mustard, spring onion and chive which grow all the year round with the peak production period in the cooler months. Considerable quantities of water spinach, string bean, Chinese spinach, green cucumber and many other

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

47

species of Chinese gourds are produced in summer and a wide range of exotic tem- perate vegetables including tomato, sweet pepper, cabbage, celery, head lettuce, cauliflower and carrot are grown in winter. The common types of flowers are gladiolus and chrysanthemum which grow all the year round; dahlia, rose, aster, snapdragon and carnation are grown in winter, and ginger lily and lotus flower in summer. Peach blossom and ornamental citrus are grown especially for the Lunar New Year. The area of land under vegetables and flowers has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 11,260 in 1974.

       A wide range of fruit is grown on the lower hill slopes. The principal crops are longan, lychee, wampei, tangerine, local lemon, banana, papaya and pineapple. Land under orchards in 1954 was 952 acres. By 1974, it was 1,590 acres.

       Other field crops such as sweet potato, taro, yam, soy bean and sugarcane are cultivated in the remote and drier areas where water and transport facilities are inadequate to grow vegetables or rice. The acreage under rainfed crops was 1,070 acres in 1974, compared with 3,450 acres in 1954.

As there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared for food. Pigs in Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming difficult to find. Although locally produced pigs represent only 12 per cent of total pigs killed, their value is $85 million each year.

      With an annual production value of $166 million, the poultry industry (including pigeons and quail) is continuing to develop on a more sophisticated basis. Farmers are adopting advanced methods of management and successfully adapting them to local conditions, taking the process through from locally bred chicks to table birds, using both local breeds and imported hybrids. Duck rearing is also important and steps are being taken to expand this industry.

       While local cattle and buffaloes are kept mainly for work, imported Friesians are kept by dairies, of which the largest is on Hong Kong Island and the others in smaller groups outside Kowloon and in the New Territories. Regular tuberculin testing is carried out on all dairy animals.

       Sporadic outbreaks of a mild type of foot-and-mouth disease (type O) and swine fever still occur, but these have been kept under control by vaccination. New- castle disease in poultry has been controlled by the use of the Ranikhet and intra- nasal-drop vaccines. While rinderpest was eradicated in 1950, vaccination continues using a tissue culture vaccine providing a prolonged immunity as safeguard against the reintroduction of the disease. Investigations to establish the incidence of inter- current disease in both pigs and poultry are undertaken at the veterinary laboratory.

       Legislation requires all imported dogs and cats to be quarantined for six months, except those from scheduled countries (Britain, Australia and New Zealand), to pre- vent the introduction of rabies which was eradicated in 1955. Stray dogs are caught and detained for observation and, if unclaimed, destroyed under the rabies control policy.

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       All cattle and pigs imported for food are also quarantined on arrival in Hong Kong, and any imported for breeding purposes are subject to strict health certifica- tion and isolation procedures.

Fishing Industry

       The production of fish is one of Hong Kong's most important primary industries. Government policy is to increase landings of fish, thus improving the socio-economic status of fishermen, and to meet the projected demand growth for this protein-rich food item.

       More than 150 fish species of commercial importance are present in the areas fished by the local fleet. The total quantity of fish and fishery products has increased from 105,000 metric tons (valued at $230 million) in 1968, to 138,069 metric tons (valued at $517 million) in 1974, an increase of 31 per cent by quantity and 125 per cent by value. Marine fish landings amounted to 94,711 metric tons at a wholesale value of $310 million, and supplied 89 per cent of the consumer demand.

        The fishing fleet totals some 5,600 vessels of which about 92 per cent are fitted with engines and mechanical aids. A large proportion of the fleet is owner-operated and provides employment for an estimated 47,000 fishermen, plus accommodation for them and their families.

Fish ponds totalling 3,450 acres are located in the New Territories, principally in the Yuen Long area. The main species raised is grey mullet but other important species are carp and big-head. Total pond production for 1974 was 3,394 metric tons valued at $28 million which met 11.9 per cent of local consumption. During the year, 12.4 million fish-fry, for stocking ponds, were imported from China and Taiwan. Grey mullet fry are caught locally.

       Marine fish culture is steadily growing in importance as the demand for live fish increases. This business involves the growing of marine fish from fry or fingerling stages to marketable size in cages suspended in the sea. It is estimated that 877 families were so engaged during 1974 and the total value of fish produced was in the region of $13.3 million.

Marketing

       Much of the wholesale marketing of primary products, particularly fresh foods, is a responsibility of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, and of the fish and vegetable marketing organisations administered by that department. Retail fresh food marketing is a matter for the Urban Council and for the Urban Services Depart-

ment.

       The local agriculture and fishing industries are served by the vegetable and fish marketing organisations. During the year 34 per cent of the total quantity of locally produced vegetables, and 77 per cent of the total landings of marine fish, were wholesaled through those two marketing organisations.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

49

The Vegetable Marketing Organisation operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, which provides for a board to advise the Director of Market- ing (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). Its main objective is to provide for the transportation of locally produced vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, the provision of marketing facilities, and the supervi- sion of sales and financial transactions in the market. Revenue is obtained from a 10 per cent commission on sales of vegetables. The organisation is a non-profit making concern and seeks to obtain maximum returns for growers by minimising their marketing costs. During the year 69,990 metric tons of vegetables valued at $83,140,834 were sold through the organisation.

       The Fish Marketing Organisation operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance, which also provides for a board to advise the Director of Marketing. The ordinance provides for the control of the landing, wholesale marketing importa- tion and exportation of marine fish. The Fish Marketing Organisation operates seven wholesale fish markets strategically sited at points to provide convenient services to the public, the trade and the industry. Revenue is obtained from a six per cent commission on proceeds of sales of fish, and surplus earnings are ploughed back into the primary sector in the form of low-interest rate loans for productive purposes, market and marketing, improvements, and support for the 14 schools managed for the benefit of fishermen's children. In 1974 landings made into the wholesale fish markets totalled 82,632 metric tons and were sold for some $221 million. In addition, 1,533 metric tons of imported marine fish were sold through these markets.

       Facilities in the existing wholesale markets for handling the ever increasing quantities of imported fresh vegetables, fruit, poultry, freshwater fish and crustacea are archaic and inadequate, resulting in widespread obstruction, traffic congestion and low marketing efficiency at high costs. There is an obvious need for improvement in these markets. Comprehensive surveys have therefore been conducted to obtain the data necessary for the long-term planning and establishment in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island of new markets, which will be under the direct aegis of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department.

       Because of the need for early action, it has proved necessary for the government to construct a number of temporary wholesale markets for use until permanent markets are built. A temporary wholesale market for the imported vegetable trade was opened in February 1974, to reduce distribution costs and to relieve congestion at the Kennedy Town Wholesale Market on Hong Kong Island, where previously almost all imported vegetables were received. That was followed by the opening in October of a temporary wholesale poultry market which provides improved facilities for the poultry wholesalers formerly in Yau Ma Tei (Kowloon). The land previously occupied by these traders is required by the government in connection with the future mass transit railway system. Both temporary wholesale markets are located at Hing Wah Street in the Cheung Sha Wan district, adjacent to the site for the permanent market project in Kowloon.

50

Mining

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Iron ore is mined underground and the concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan. Kaolin, feldspar and quartz are taken by opencast methods. Most kaolin is exported to Japan and most feldspar to Taiwan. All quartz, some feldspar and about 56 per cent of kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

Under the Mining Ordinance, the ownership and control of minerals is vested in the Crown. The Land Officer is empowered to grant mining leases and the Com- missioner of Mines to grant mining and prospecting licences. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of the year, there were three mining leases, six mining licences, and four prospect- ing licences valid for different areas.

The Mines Department is responsible for the inspection of mining and prospect- ing areas and stone quarries to enforce mining and explosive legislation, and safety regulations. It also deals with applications for prospecting and mining licences, the issue of mine blasting certificates, and delivers explosives from government depots to blasting sites. The Commissioner of Mines is responsible for the control and manage- ment of government depots which provide bulk storage facilities for all explosives imported into Hong Kong.

6

Education

      EDUCATION in Hong Kong reached another landmark in 1974 when the White Paper, spelling out the government's policy on the expansion of secondary education during the next decade, was tabled in the Legislative Council in October.

        The government's main objective is to make available, by 1979, subsidised educa- tion for every child for nine years-six years in a primary school followed by three years in a secondary school. All children should follow a common course of general education throughout these nine years. In junior secondary forms, all pupils should follow the same general curriculum, of which between 25 per cent and 30 per cent would be allocated to practical and technical subjects. The junior secondary curric- ulum will be designed to foster a liking for practical subjects, and it will be left to the discretion of individual schools to increase the proportion of time devoted to them. Schools will also be encouraged to ensure that junior secondary pupils parti- cipate in cultural activities (such as art and music) and in physical education.

        The secondary school entrance examination will be set for the last time in 1978 when sufficient aideď junior secondary places are available in 1979. A new public examination, for the Hong Kong Junior Certificate of Education, to be taken at the end of the junior secondary course will be introduced to provide a record of attainment and to act as a method of selection for the senior secondary course.

       It is also the government's aim to provide sufficient places in senior secondary forms in the public sector for 40 per cent of the 15-16 age group by 1979. It is intended that 60 per cent of these places should be in the grammar forms and 40 per cent in the technical forms. For those who do not reach senior secondary schools, there will be apprenticeship schemes coupled with the services of the technical institutes, and for the most talented students, the Polytechnic.

        To achieve the target of providing enough places for all children for the first three years of secondary education, a system of flotation coupled with an extended day will be introduced, as a temporary measure, into junior secondary forms until the building programme overtakes the school population.

        A balanced approach will be adopted on the language of instruction. It is the government's intention that individual school authorities should themselves decide whether the medium of instruction should be English or Chinese for any particular subject in junior secondary forms. The government also intends to review the policy in the White Paper as it develops.

Under the Education Ordinance, the Director of Education is responsible for all matters relating to education in Hong Kong. He directly controls all government

52

EDUCATION

schools, while other schools (with few exceptions) are required to be registered under the ordinance, thus providing the Director with the necessary powers to ensure that acceptable standards are maintained.

Pre-primary Education

There are 778 private kindergartens in Hong Kong providing education for child- ren in the three to six age group. These institutions are not maintained or run by the government but are registered with the Education Department and supervised by the inspectorate. The government gives assistance in the form of grants of Crown land to reliable bodies; exemption from payment of rates for non-profit making kindergartens; the allocation of kindergarten premises in public housing estates; and the provision of teacher training and further education facilities. It also makes freely available pro- fessional advice to teachers, school managers, parents and members of the public.

Primary Education

The great majority of primary schools use Chinese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Seven primary schools, including five operated by the government, cater for children whose first language is English.

There is a downward trend in the number of pupils enrolled in primary schools as a result of a general decline in birth rate. The total primary day school enrolment in September 1974 was 678,563, compared with 705,207 in the previous year. In addition, 18,424 pupils attended primary night schools and a limited number of special afternoon classes. During the year, 5,474 new primary places were provided, com- pared with 17,260 in the previous year. As the target of providing a government or subsidised primary place for every child of primary school age has already been reached, further provision of school places will be geared mainly to the needs of developing areas.

Since September 1971, education has been free in all government Chinese primary schools and in the great majority of aided primary schools. In the few aided primary schools where fees continue to be charged, fee remission of up to 20 per cent of the total enrolment may be awarded to meet cases of genuine hardship. To lighten further the burden of needy parents, a textbook and stationery grant of $30 per pupil each year, is available to 20 per cent of pupils enrolled in government and aided primary schools.

The Education Ordinance 1971 gives the Director of Education powers to enforce school attendance where parents appear to be unnecessarily withholding their children of primary school age. These powers will be exercised by the Director only after a care- ful investigation of the family's circumstances and the needs of the child. When an attendance order is made, parents have the right of appeal to a specially constituted board of review.

Since June 1968, the administration of primary schools has been decentralised and under the present arrangement, there are seven administration areas-two in Hong Kong, three in Kowloon and two in the New Territories.

EDUCATION

53

       To improve the quality of primary education, 11 government primary schools, in areas where provision of places is in excess of demand, have been converted to whole-day operation. A pilot scheme introducing integrated teaching is operating in six government, government-aided and private schools. An experiment in which study rooms were opened in the evening for pupils in the Chai Wan area started in September 1973. It is hoped to extend the scheme to other areas.

Special Education

       With the implementation of the second five-year development programme for special education in Hong Kong, the Education Department is continuing to increase the number of places for handicapped children in either special schools or special classes in ordinary schools. The number of special places for handicapped children has increased during the year 1973-4 from 4,400 to more than 6,000. The department is also expanding preventive measures by providing, through the special education section, more diagnostic and remedial services. The programme of overseas training for the nucleus of specialist staff of the special education section, local in-service courses for teachers in special schools and classes, and courses on the needs of handicapped children for teachers at colleges of education have all been expanded.

There are 36 special schools for blind, deaf, physically handicapped, slow learning and malajusted children. In addition, there are 70 special classes for slow learning children, 16 special classes for partially hearing children and three special classes for partially sighted children in 43 ordinary government primary schools. There are also 62 special classes for slow learning children in 17 ordinary aided primary schools. More than 480 less severely physically handicapped children have been placed in ordinary classes in government primary schools and government subsidised primary schools. These children are supervised regularly by members of the special education section.

The section provides diagnostic services which include audiological testing, psychological testing, speech testing and educational assessment, as well as remedial services in auditory training and speech therapy. It also runs an audiometric screening, a speech screening and a vision screening programme in government primary schools. During the year, these services were made available to more than 22,000 children. The section also runs in-service training courses for teachers of special schools and special classes. In addition, short courses on the education of handicapped children and seminars on speech therapy in the classroom are given to teachers in ordinary schools.

The special education section has a braille printing press operated by the Govern- ment Printer. This press produces primary Chinese textbooks and supplementary readers in braille, which are supplied to schools for the blind under government subsidy at one-tenth of the actual cost. As a result schools for the blind can purchase books at almost the same price as standard books.

Secondary Education

There are five types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools, secondary modern schools and

54

4

EDUCATION

prevocational schools. The 250 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have an enrol- ment of 253,000 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination. Instruction is in English, with Chinese taught as a second language. Successful Certificate of Education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or the Chinese University of Hong Kong or the Polytechnic. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition, there are 51,190 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction is offered in secondary level subjects. The most popular subject is English.

        The 101 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 63,449 pupils and offer a five- year course in the usual academic subjects also leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. Instruction is in Chinese, and English is taught as a second language. A number of Chinese middle schools also offer a one-year sixth form matric- ulation course to prepare students for entrance to the Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who obtain satisfactory results in the Certificate of Education exam- ination, higher education is available at the colleges of education, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute, the Polytechnic and other post-secondary colleges.

        There are 16 secondary technical schools, 15 of which offer a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Nine of the schools are govern- ment, five subsidised and two are private. Their total enrolment is 10,870. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, they prepare their pupils for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination and suitable candidates can continue their studies in Form VI or at the Polytechnic. Five subsidised secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,949 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also nine private and seven subsidised secondary schools with a total enrolment of 5,714 which offer some form of technical and trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education examination.

       There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools operated during the day. In September there were 336,986 such students, compared with 299,648 in the previous year. During the school year 12,901 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings. Furthermore, a total of 95,150 pupils entered the first year of secondary school. This represents the promotion of 83.6 per cent of the pupils completing primary schools. Of these pupils, 41.1 per cent were awarded government, government-aided or assisted places.

The government's aim is to provide by 1979, three years of aided secondary education for all children in the 12-14 age-group, with an interim target of providing places for 50 per cent of the age group by 1976. This interim target was almost achieved in September 1974 by providing the extra school places either directly in government or aided schools, in private non-profit making assisted schools, or by buying places in suitable private independent schools. For the 1974-5 school year 28,087 pupils have been awarded three-year assisted places on the results of the secondary school entrance examination. These places will be taken up in various private non-profit making and private independent schools.

EDUCATION

55

       It is also the government's aim to provide, by 1979, aided secondary places for 40 per cent of the 15-16 age-group, the interim target being to enable 18 to 20 per cent of the 12-16 age-group to take aided secondary courses leading to the Certificate of Education. In September, 91,850 such places representing provision for 16.9 per cent of the 12-16 age-group were available.

Post-secondary Education

There are a number of day and evening schools offering courses of varying stand- ards at post-secondary levels. These schools do not receive aid from the government and their courses are mainly conducted in Chinese.

The Hong Kong Baptist College, standing on a site granted by the government, was registered under the Post-secondary College Ordinance in March 1970, thereby acquiring a status below that of a university institution, but above that of a secondary school. It has four faculties-arts, business, natural sciences and engineering, and social sciences-with an enrolment of 3,478. There are altogether 15 departments offering 18 major fields and three course programmes.

        A college can be registered under the Post-secondary College Ordinance only when the Director of Education is satisfied with its academic standards, governing body, constitution, finances, educational facilities, number and qualifications of staff, and the number and conditions of admission of students. The Baptist College is the only institution at present registered under this ordinance.

Higher Education

       A scheme of student financial assistance, under which public funds are made available for grants and interest-free loans to needy students at the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, was introduced by the government in 1969-70. The administration of grants totalling $4.25 million and loans totalling $12.34 million for 1974-5 is in the hands of a joint universities' committee. The scheme represented a substantial increase in the amount of public funds available for student financing and aimed to ensure that students offered places in either of the two univer- sities should not be prevented, through lack of means, from taking the places offered.

       Both the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong have some financial resources of their own, but are largely financed by the government. Because of the importance of university development and the sums of public money involved, the government needs impartial and expert advice both on the assessment of the amount of grant required to sustain any level of university activity, and on developments necessary to the community's requirements for graduates. The govern- ment also needs advice on the allocation of funds between the universities. To carry out these functions there is a University Grants Committee appointed by the Governor. It also acts as the formal channel between the universities and the government.

The University Grants Committee was expanded in May 1972 to become the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee to advise the government on the allocation of funds for the Hong Kong Polytechnic which came into formal existence in August 1972.

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EDUCATION

The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the government and endowments which have since been increased. Substantial govern- ment grants are made, through the UPGC, towards the university's annual recurrent and non-recurrent expenditure.

The number of undergraduate places in each faculty in 1974-5 were-arts 738; science 454; medicine 781; engineering and architecture 672; and social sciences and law 653. Of these, a total of 1,100 places were available for new undergraduate entrants. There were also 656 places for postgraduate students (347 reading for higher degrees and 309 for diplomas and certificates), 21 students at the Chinese Language School, three visiting students, five external and four students reading for the Diplomas in Chinese Language. The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstratorships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year was 488. The degrees and other professional qualifications conferred by the university are equi- valent to those of universities in Britain.

The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level. Entry to the university is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination-3,174 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry in 1974.

The university's department of education offers graduates a one-year full-time course leading to a Diploma in Education and a two-year part-time course leading to a Certificate in Education. The department also offers the Master of Philosophy in Education, either as a six-term part-time period of study spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time candidature. As in other departments, the Doctor of Philosophy is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

The Department of Extra-mural Studies provided more than 210 evening and day-time courses for adult students in 1973-4. Between July 1973 to June 1974, a total of 6,268 attended regular courses. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin, but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from oriental studies through a full range of liberal arts to economics, law and commerce, and include a rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including a University Diploma in Management Studies.

       The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in October 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It com- prises three foundation colleges-Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. The university campus occupies 331 acres of land on Tai Po Road overlook- ing Tolo Harbour near Sha Tin. The site has been contoured into four plateaus with the headquarters and central activities near the centre of the campus, surrounded by the three foundation colleges.

Undergraduate teaching is conducted by the foundation colleges with the curricula determined by boards of studies in individual subjects. The undergraduate enrolment in September 1974 was 3,158 (arts 828, science 917, social science 927, and business administration 486). A total of 8,521 candidates sat for the Chinese University matric- ulation examination in summer 1974, and 2,626 passed, among whom 985 were admitted for the academic year 1974-5.

EDUCATION

57

At the graduate level, two types of programmes in 15 divisions are offered-a two-year programme of course-work and research thesis leading to a degree of Master of Philosophy in Humanities, Science or Social Science, Master of Business Admin- istration, and Master of Divinity; and a one-year programme of course-work leading to a degree of Master of Arts, Master of Science and Master of Social Science. The School of Education, inaugurated in September 1965, offers a one-year full-time and two-year part-time postgraduate course of professional training leading to a Diploma in Education. In September 1974, there were 192 students enrolled in the university's graduate programme.

In 1974 there were 651 students who graduated from the university-36 Masters of Philosophy, 25 Masters of Business Administration, four Masters of Science, five Masters of Arts in Education, 165 Bachelors of Arts, 154 Bachelors of Science, 90 Bachelors of Business Administration, and 172 Bachelors of Social Science.

The Department of Extramural Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong offers more than 470 general courses in a wide range of subjects, some of which can be taken by correspondence. In addition, the department offers a number of intensive courses leading to the award of certificates. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin.

The university library contains about 145,450 books and journals specialising in resources for advanced studies and research. In addition, the three college libraries have a total of more than 357,090 books, and journals for undergraduate studies and general reading.

University Research

The Chinese University of Hong Kong provides faculty members with research facilities. Three research institutes--the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities, the Institute of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Chinese Studies--were established to enable staff members to keep up with the latest developments in their own fields and to contribute to them. Various research centres have been set up within the three institutes to concentrate on specific fields of studies.

In the University of Hong Kong, the Centre of Asian Studies continued its basic interests in Kwangtung studies in 1974. These included preparation for publication of a catalogue of the Cantonese painting collection of the Luis de Camoes Museum in Macau, and the production of a short film on the Western district of Hong Kong. The inter-disciplinary study of the ecology of Hong Kong, first started in 1973 in co- operation with the Australian National University and with special reference to energy flows and the impact of the environment on the population's cultural adjust- ment, developed fast and satisfactorily in 1974. The centre continued to publish the Journal of Oriental Studies, while publication of several bibliographical guides and monographs of various research interests was completed in 1974.

The centre's research project on the effect of culture on managerial behaviour in Southeast Asia, financed by leading business firms in Hong Kong, has been particular- ly successful. The projects on crime and punishment, and the causes of inflation in

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EDUCATION

     Hong Kong, proceeded in 1974, and studies and discussions on the People's Republic of China continued to be of immediate significance.

In the faculties of arts, and social sciences and law, research studies were pursued in all aspects of the humanities. In economics, research projects relating to Hong Kong include studies of input-output structure, employment, monetary and fiscal system. The impact of public opinion on the New Territories Administration is being studied as a project in the Department of Political Science. In law, research on the system of direct and indirect taxation is being undertaken. In psychology the Master's Degree course in clinical psychology continues. The graduates of the first course in 1973, are now employed in the community. Research continues in various fields of psychology. Those of particular local interest relate to psycholingustics, and cross cultural studies of transvestitism in Asians, while projected schemes for the coming year relate to such diverse matters as pre-school education and acupuncture analgesia. The problems of psychological testing appropriate to local conditions are of constant concern to the department.

        In the medical faculty, a large number of research projects were conducted, in- cluding many of special significance to Hong Kong-studies on the role of current infant nutrition practices in growth of Hong Kong children; correction and investiga- tions related to spinal deformities and disorders and unequal leg lengths in the Chinese due to poliomyelitis; secretion of virus inhibitors in the colustrum of Chinese women; causes and metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis and cancer, epidemiology of infectious hepatitis and common hereditary anaemias in the Chinese; and research into the inter-relationship between physical and psychological characteristics and psychiatric illness among Chinese women.

In the science faculty, continuing projects included ecology of marine and fresh- water organisms, investigations of agricultural pests, studies of local ionospheric, geomagnetic and cosmic ray phenomena. The department of zoology carries out studies on growth and metabolism of cultured fish, and the influence of oil pollution on aquatic animals in coastal waters. Additionally, investigations are being carried out on problems of fouling in fresh-water pipelines and sea-water intakes.

       In the faculty of engineering and architecture, new and continuing projects included high-rise building research, building economics, stability of cracking, elec- tronic kymography, soil mechanics, fluid mechanics and automatic control, hot machining research and work management, resistance of buried cables, properties of semi-conductors and basic electronics research.

The Polytechnic

The Polytechnic was formally established in August 1972, taking over the premises of the former Hong Kong Technical College. The bulk of the Polytechnic's finances comes from the government through the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee. The block grant allocated to the Polytechnic for recurrent uses for the period August 1, 1974-July 31, 1975 was about $61.35 million.

In addition to accommodation taken over from the Technical College, a rented office building in the former Taikoo Dockyard premises at Quarry Bay and a group

EDUCATION

59

of one-storey temporary buildings provide teaching and workshop space for the rapidly increasing numbers of students and activities. During the year a major programme of campus development on a 23.5 acre site at Hung Hom was in progress. A grant of $90 million was made for the first phase of this plan which will include a podium, a multi-purpose complex and a library. The new library will have room for 400,000 books and study places for 3,000 students. When the Phase I project has been com- pleted in 1976, the Polytechnic will have sufficient space to cater for 6,000 day students.

       Enrolments at the beginning of the academic year 1974-5 were 3,000 full-time, 1,500 part-time day-release and sandwich, and 13,500 part-time evening students. These compare with the corresponding student numbers of 2,350, 1,200 and 11,200 in 1973-4. In September 1974 more than 14,500 candidates competed for 1,700 places available for new students in full-time courses. The enrolment target for 1980 is 8,000 full-time day and 20,000 part-time evening students.

       During 1974 the number of teaching departments increased from 11 to 14- accountancy and management studies; building and surveying; business studies; civil and structural engineering; computing science; design; electrical engineering; electronic engineering; languages; mathematics and science; mechanical and marine engineering; production and industrial engineering; nautical studies; and textile industries.

       The Polytechnic offers one-year full-time post-higher diploma courses leading to the award of Associateship of the Hong Kong Polytechnic, three-year full-time courses leading to the higher diploma, and two-year full-time courses leading to the technician or ordinary diploma. Part-time day release and sandwich courses of various durations, and numerous part-time evening courses leading to the higher, ordinary or technician certificates or other qualifications in a wide range of technical and commercial subjects at professional and technician levels are also offered.

       The associateship courses were first introduced in 1973-4 and have been wel- comed by both students and industry. Students of these courses are normally prepared for examinations of the professional institutions. In addition to the five associateship courses started in 1973-4 in electrical, electronic, mechanical, production and struc- tural engineering, two courses at this level in textile studies were offered in 1974-5. Many higher diploma courses of the Polytechnic are recognised by professional bodies. A number of British professional institutions have granted exemptions from certain parts of their examinations to holders of Polytechnic higher diplomas.

       Applicants for all full-time day courses of more than a year's duration leading to diplomas and certificates must be holders of the Hong Kong Certificate of Educa- tion, or its equivalent. In addition to satisfying the Polytechnic minimum entrance requirements, the applicant must also satisfy any additional entrance requirement prescribed for the specific course of study to which he applies for admission.

       Short full-time and part-time courses preparing candidates for professional examinations were organised throughout the year. These included qualifications approved by the British Department of Trade and Industry for marine engineers and mates and masters. Whenever there is a need for instruction in specific subjects of

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current interest to local commerce and industry or to a sufficient number of individ- uals, the Polytechnic tries to offer short courses to meet the demand. Those in the fields of accountancy, building technology, radar operation, business studies, chemical technology, computing studies, statistics, applied science, and textile studies have proved particularly popular during the year.

Apart from the usual academic activities, the Polytechnic is also the appointed local secretariat for the City and Guilds of London Institute Technological Examina- tions. Statistical information about these examinations conducted at the Polytechnic can be found in Appendix 20.

Morrison Hill Technical Institute

        The Morrison Hill Technical Institute, established in September 1969, now consists of six departments-commercial studies, construction, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, preliminary and general studies, and printing-since the department of technical teacher and workshop instructor training was detached from the institute and re-established as the Hong Kong Technical Teachers College. The institute operates craft and lower technician level courses on a full-time, block- release, part-time day-release, and part-time evening basis. Short courses in specialised technical-commercial subjects are also provided. Because of the ever-growing popu- larity for the wide range of courses offered by the institute, recent years have witnessed a tremendous increase in student enrolment-during the 1973-4 session, a total of 98 courses were provided. Of the 13,700 students enrolled in these courses, 82 per cent attended courses with entry requirements of below Form V level, while the remaining 18 per cent attended post-secondary courses with entry requirements of at least completion of Form V or equivalent.

As a large number of students attended on a part-time evening basis, the in- stitute made use of 19 external evening centres on both sides of the harbour, including the New Territories, to provide part-time evening courses for more than 11,500 students.

       The institute maintains close links with industry, commerce, and the apprentice- ship training unit of the Labour Department to gauge local manpower requirements and plan courses directly relevant to community needs. It is hoped that the department of printing, established last year, will play a major part in meeting the needs of the printing industry for properly trained craftsmen and technicians.

       As a result of the efforts and co-operation of the apprenticeship training unit of the Labour Department and the encouraging response and interest shown by industry and commerce, the institute has been able to fulfil an important role in providing part-time day-release training for both craft and technician apprentices in local in- dustry. During the 1973-4 session, the institute enrolled 1,300 registered apprentices sponsored by industry, an increase of 30 per cent over the previous year. The demand for more workshop facilities made expansion of the institute inevitable, and it is hoped that the newly-completed additional floor of the institute will help alleviate the extreme pressure imposed on existing facilities.

ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATION

1976

ANDBOOK

UNIVERSITIES

  Hong Kong is fortunate to have two universities-the University of Hong Kong on Hong Kong Island and the Chinese University of Hong Kong at Sha Tin in the New Territories. The University of Hong Kong, where the medium of in- struction is English, opened in 1911 with two faculties and 77 students. Today ther are five faculties and nearly 4,000 students It provides a university education of British standards for the people of Hong Kong. Some students from other countries are also admitted. At the Chinese University of Hong Kong, on its magnificent 331- acre site overlooking Tolo Harbour, the principal language of instruction is Chinese. The university community in 1974 included a student enrolment of about 3,200 and more than 600 teaching and administrative staff.

ONC

KONG PUBLIC

UNIVERSITY OF HO

KANG

THE

NESE SITY OF

ONG TONG

BY

五百斤油

Students attend the 89th Congregation of the University of Hong Kong at the City Hall in November. The ceremony was presided over by the university's Chancellor--the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose.

Sir Murray confers a Doctor of Medicine Degree on Dr Ho Hung-

chiu.

BITE

The campus of the Chinese University of Hong Kong occupies 331 acres on four plateaus, one for each of the three foundation colleges and one for the headquarters and administrative buildings.

The main compound of the University of Hong Kong in Western district.

I

The University of Hong Kong's Sir Robert Black College, a resi- dential college for visiting scholars and post-graduate students.

75

GF

IC

An imposing view of the Science Centre at the Chinese University

of Hong Kong.

Co-existence in Hong Kong-baseball at the cricket ground during an inter-varsity sports meeting.

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        Construction of the Kwun Tong Technical Institute and Kwai Chung Technical Institute has started and it is expected that the target date of completion June-July 1975 will be met. Full-time and part-time day-release courses at technician and craftsman levels will be offered at these institutes. The Education Department works closely with the Hong Kong Training Council, the Hong Kong Polytechnic and other interested parties in planning courses for technical institutes. At all times, the require- ments of local industry are the major criteria in determining the nature and extent of courses offered. The institutes aim to maintain a flexibility to adapt to the changing needs of Hong Kong.

        Another two technical institutes-at Cheung Sha Wan and San Po Kong- scheduled to open in 1976 and 1977 respectively, were in an advanced stage of planning.

Prevocational Schools

Expansion of the prevocational sector has continued rapidly, with the provision of a further 520 places for the session which started in September 1974, giving a total of 3,160 places in six prevocational schools.

        These schools provide a three-year post-primary course which consists of about 50 per cent general education and 50 per cent practical education. Practical syllabuses usually cover three major fields of industrial or commercial activities to ensure that students are introduced to as wide a spectrum of employment as possible. Practical subjects taught include mechanical engineering, automobile servicing, printing and typesetting, building trades, home economics, commercial subjects and textile trades. Additional trades will be included in future schools to suit local requirements. Exces- sive specialisation is not encouraged at this level, the aim being to introduce basic manipulative skills and to help students choose a suitable career. On leaving a pre- vocational school, opportunities are also provided for students to continue their studies in a technical institute.

       Prevocational education provides a suitable introduction to craft apprentice- ships, and considerable efforts are made to ensure that prevocational school leavers have the opportunity to enrol in recognised training schemes. Industrial acceptance of prevocational training is showing an encouraging upward trend, as the value of the link between school and industrial employment becomes appreciated.

        Prevocational schools are operated with government subsidy, and are mostly located in areas of high industrial and commercial development. The existing schools are located at Wang Tau Hom, Hung Hom, Central, Cheung Chau, Tsuen Wan and Aberdeen. Future development plans include new schools at Shek Kip Mei, Kwai Chung, Sau Mau Ping, Chai Wan, Tuen Mun and Sha Tin.

Advisory Inspectorate

        The Assistant Director (Chief Inspector of Schools), with the assistance of the Deputy Chief Inspector, is responsible for the work of the Advisory Inspectorate. The inspectorate's main function is the promotion of quality in the classroom. This

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work involves frequent visits to schools by specialist advisory inspectors, the develop- ment of advisory services and facilities, and the provision of courses, seminars and workshops for practising teachers. It also involves the evaluation of textbooks and other instructional materials, educational research and guidance, and curriculum development. Close liaison with other bodies, such as the various local examination authorities, is maintained by the Advisory Inspectorate.

       During the year, particular attention was paid to the quality of Chinese language teaching by the recently-established Chinese Language Teaching Centre. Like its counterpart, the English Language Teaching Centre, this centre is mainly concerned with the provision of refresher courses for teachers and the production of teaching materials designed to stimulate a more lively approach to language teaching than is usual with traditional methods.

       The Advisory Inspectorate gave full support in 1974 to the various public campaigns organised by the government, by encouraging as many schools as possible to participate. A keynote of the campaigns was the active role children played, setting an example to the rest of the community.

       In the important area of curriculum development, the pilot scheme in integrated science was extended to Form II in participating schools, evaluation of the work completed in Form I indicating successful progress. The Curriculum Development Editorial Board published the first in a series of occasional pamphlets designed to stimulate interest in selected aspects of curriculum work. Other curriculum proj- ects included experiments in the teaching of integrated social studies in secondary schools (with 'population' as the unifying theme), and an exploration of the relation- ship between art and mathematics. The organisation, supervision and evaluation of all curriculum projects initiated by the Education Department is the responsibility of the Advisory Inspectorate, working in close collaboration with the appropriate curriculum development committees. The formulation and realisation of educational objectives reflecting the needs of the community are the continuing responsibility of the Curriculum Development Committee, of which the Advisory Inspectorate is the professional executive arm.

Visual Education Centre

        The Visual Education Centre of the Education Department houses a large collection of media resources, including more than 10,000 items of films, loop films, filmstrips, slides, photographs, recorded tapes, discs and transparencies for overhead projectors. The centre also offers a support service to schools and produces slide sets, photographs and loop films for use in schools and to support curriculum develop- ment. The quarterly audio-visual news bulletin, which in its revised format now includes photographs, is also distributed to schools.

        A large number of teachers and visitors from schools and other organisations have visited the media production services unit since its inception in a Kowloon government primary school building last summer to provide facilities for teachers to produce their own resource materials to suit specific needs.

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       During 1974, a total of 1,346 teachers, student-teacher and training officers attended various courses and workshops, and participated in visits organised by the Visual Education Centre.

Teachers and Teacher Education

In March 1974 there were 36,221 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools-7,877 university graduates and 17,699 non-graduates qualified for teaching. Other teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 213 were in special schools. At the end of the 1973-4 school year, the ratio of pupils to teachers in primary day schools was 32.8, and 29.2 in secondary day schools.

Apart from technical teacher training, teacher education is provided at the Education Department's three colleges of education-Grantham, Northcote and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges offer full-time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers qualified for primary schools and lower forms of secondary schools. Third-year courses for specialist teachers are offered to prepare non-graduate teachers as specialists in art or physical education (at Grantham), domestic science or mathematics (at Northcote) and music (at Sir Robert Black) for higher forms in secondary schools.

       The colleges also provide in-service courses of training for unqualified teachers. These are part-time two-year evening courses, in either Chinese or English, leading to qualified teacher status. The number of students attending these courses has been considerably increased since September 1972 to cope with the demand for additional trained teachers.

In September 1974 there were 1,409 students in the two-year courses, 81 in the specialist third-year course, and 1,816 trainees in the in-service training courses.

New premises at Pipers Hill for the Sir Robert Black College of Education were completed in mid-1974 and the college opened in September at the new location. The previous premises in Hung Hom are now an annex to Grantham College of Education in which are provided both full-time and in-service courses for the educa- tion of teachers. The multi-purpose games hall and a new four-storey wing for Grantham College of Education were also completed and opened during the year. Northcote College of Education in Bonham Road has been refurnished and all the in-service courses are now centred there, while the full-time course remains at the Sassoon Road premises.

In September, the new Technical Teachers' College was established in temporary premises. A principal was recruited from Britain and took up his post in May. Until then, technical teacher training had been carried out by a department of the Morrison Hill Technical Institute, but demand for technical teachers has expanded sufficiently to justify the establishment of a separate college for this purpose. The college prepares teachers for technical institutes, secondary schools and prevocational schools.

The student teachers preparing for technical institutes and, in many cases, for prevocational schools, are mature persons holding suitable technical qualifications

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who have spent a number of years qualifying in responsible positions in industrial or commercial employment. These student teachers follow a one-year full-time course. To meet the demand of the two new technical institutes opening in 1975, some staff have already been appointed and enrolled at the Technical Teachers' College for a one-year in-service technical teachers training course in preparation for their new duties. The student teachers preparing for secondary school posts are generally school leavers possessing suitable qualifications and motivation and these follow a two-year full-time course to qualify them as technical teachers.

       The college also provides an in-service course of training for unqualified teachers. This is a two-year evening course leading to qualified teacher status. Another impor- tant part of the college's work is the running of short refresher courses for existing teachers.

        As an incentive for qualified and experienced persons from commerce and in- dustry to take up teaching as a career, a system of enhanced grants has been in- troduced. Under this scheme, student teachers are paid an allowance during training, the size of the allowance being related to their working experience, and comparable to the salary they would have otherwise received had they remained in commerce or industry. By this means, student teachers possessing valuable first-hand knowledge and experience of modern Hong Kong working conditions, problems and rewards are incorporated into the educational system, where the benefits of their experience will ultimately be passed on to subsequent generations of students.

        In addition to training teachers for educational establishments the college also provides training for industrial trade instructors. These courses are offered on a part-time day-release basis or as an evening course. The object is to equip the expert craftsman with a repertoire of training techniques suitable for use in factory-based operative training.

        Student enrolments for the 1974-5 session are 53 for the two-year full-time course, 23 for the two-year evening course, 70 for the one-year full-time course and 112 for the industrial trade instructors part-time day-release and evening courses.

Adult Education

Adult education is provided by the adult education section of the Education Department through the Evening Institute, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and 14 adult education and recreation centres.

        The Evening Institute provides seven types of courses which constitute the whole educational ladder for adults from literacy level to secondary studies. The institute runs rural literacy classes and general background classes which provide fundamental education with special reference to adult needs and interests. It also provides practical classes specially designed to give adults opportunities to learn housecraft, sewing, knitting and woodwork. After elementary general education, there is a three-year young people's course (formerly known as the post-primary extension course) providing secondary education with a practical bias for young people who do not

EDUCATION

65

aim to pursue academic studies. There are two types of academic courses at secondary level-the middle school course for adults and the secondary school course (both English and Chinese) for young people leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education. There is also the teachers' course providing additional in-service training in art, music, handwork, woodwork, teaching of English in primary schools, teaching of modern mathematics in lower secondary schools, gymnastics, rebound tumbling, folk dance, oriental dance and modern educational dance. By far the most popular are the English courses at various levels. During the past year, more than 180 classes were provided for more than 4,000 students.

        The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers a three-year general arts course leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. Many people from the teaching profession have found this course a great help to their work in the teaching of Chinese. There are 13 classes accommodated in two centres, one on each side of the harbour.

The adult education section also provides informal education through 14 adult education and recreation centres which are located in densely populated urban and rural areas. Activities offered in these centres incorporate educational and recreational components along the lines of community development. These activities range from music appreciation and sports to group study of art, photography and dramatics.

       Apart from its regular activities, the adult education section has also designed various schemes which aim at serving the community. In conjunction with the Prisons Department, 17 classes giving instruction to inmates in general subjects with a moral and civic emphasis and also in subjects of a practical nature, have been organised at various prisons and addiction treatment centres. Classes are also held at the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

Examinations

In 1974 there were four local examinations for schools, one conducted by the Education Department, one by the Board of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, one by the Chinese University of Hong Kong Matriculation Board, and one by the Advanced Level Examination Board of the University of Hong Kong.

       The secondary school entrance examination selects pupils for places in govern- ment and aided secondary schools, and for assisted places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to give advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to take part and are encouraged to enter all their Primary Six pupils for the examination.

The Hong Kong Certificate of Education is primarily intended for children who have completed a five-year course of secondary education. There were formerly two examinations-the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) and the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese)-these were combined into one examination conducted by the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Board, which comprises mem- bers representing participating secondary schools, the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Education Department.

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The Certificate of Education examination and the secondary school entrance examination are processed with the help of the government computer, which also marks such papers in these examinations as are set in the multiple-choice format. The computer also allocates secondary school places to pupils who have taken the secondary school entrance examination in accordance with their results and their stated preferences.

       The Education Department provides a local secretariat for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations, academic and professional, at standards comparable with those in Britain. These examinations include the General Certificate of Education, which is open to both school and private candidates who hold a Certificate of Educa- tion of the required standard, unless they have reached the age of 23, in which case no entry qualification is required. Appendix 20 shows the more important overseas examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

Educational Television

The Educational Television Service (ETV), now reaching the final phase in the first stage of development, covers the third, fourth, fifth and sixth years of primary education in the four basic subjects of Chinese language, English language, math- ematics and social studies. The total audience is about 440,000 children and 10,000 teachers. Since the opening of the ETV series in September 1971, more than 3,000 television receivers have been installed in primary schools at a total cost of about $5 million.

       ETV programmes, which are produced in the ETV Centre at Broadcast Drive, Kowloon, and transmitted by the two commercial television stations between 8 am and 5 pm Monday to Friday, are based on syllabuses in use in primary schools and are designed to complement and supplement classroom teaching. Notes for teachers and pupils accompany each programme and demand careful preparation and follow- up. Evaluation is supplied by teachers, questionnaires, visits to schools by ETV producers, and reports from inspectors of schools.

Music

       Throughout the year more than 500 primary and secondary school music teachers attended a series of refresher courses and music workshops organised by the music section of the Education Department. Three of the workshops for secondary school music teachers dealt with choral and instrumental music with particular reference to their use as an extra-curricular music activity.

       By arrangement with the Goethe Institute, Professor Hermann Regner and Pro- fessor Barbara Haselbach from the Mozarteum in Salzburg conducted a seminar in September for music students from the college of education on the Orff-system of tuition.

       The 26th Hong Kong Schools Music Festival attracted 3,872 entries and an estimated 25,000 competitors took part in 320 classes.

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        The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra presented three concerts, and were joined by choirs from five secondary schools in a special performance for the Festival of Hong Kong. At this concert 200 primary school children gave the first local performance of Richard Rodney Bennett's 'The Midnight Thief'.

       The Youth Orchestra also played for the Hong Kong Ballet Group's gala per- formances at the Lee Theatre where Dame Margot Fonteyn and Mr Heinz Bosl were among the special guest stars.

        The annual practical examination of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music attracted 6,402 candidates, and 2,186 candidates entered for the theory examination. For the 14th successive year a Hong Kong candidate won the annual scholarship awarded jointly to India and Hong Kong. The scholarship, valued at $30,000, is tenable for three years at the Royal College of Music.

        A total of 97 candidates entered for the Trinity College of Music examinations and 911 ballet students took part in the Royal Academy of Dancing Examinations.

        The Hong Kong Children's Choir took part in the 11th International Society for Music Education, in Perth, Western Australia.

Art

       The Cultural Crafts Centre continued to promote an active interest among schools in art and allied creative skills. Art work produced by Hong Kong school- children during the year won international acclaim-as it has done for many years, wherever it is sent-and in local competitions and exhibitions the standard was equally high. The most notable achievement was the award of high honours in the Commonwealth Institute Exhibition of Young People's Art. Further proof of the standard attained in Hong Kong was the award of a large number of medals and certificates from Finland. Competitions for poster design, outdoor murals and other graphic work attracted entries of a high standard on various subjects, including road safety, anti-narcotics, anti-crime, industrial safety and rehabilitation of the handi- capped. The wider scope of art teaching was reflected in the much increased number of candidates taking part in the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, entries having doubled over the last three years.

Recreation

       Outdoor education camps for primary schools involved 10,422 campers from 100 primary schools during 1974. In the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme for Schools, 3,540 students were actively working for their bronze, silver and gold awards. A total of 324 bronze awards, 52 silver and eight gold were presented to successful candidates. In conjunction with the Hong Kong and New Territories Schools Sports Associations, and the Hong Kong Amateur Gymnastics Association, various competitions in gymnastics, athletics, dance, swimming and sailing attracted widespread participation by primary and secondary schools.

       With financial aid from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and the government, and the co-operation of various government departments and voluntary agencies, the

EDUCATION

68 number of primary and secondary schools and students taking part in the 1974 Sum- mer Youth Activities Programme increased by about 20 per cent. More than 600,000 school students in urban and rural areas took part in activities such as camping, visits and excursions, the 'learn-to-swim' scheme, coaching and training schemes in various sports, and games. Day camps and recreational activities were also provided for handicapped children.

With the formation of the Hong Kong Schools Sports Council in 1974, the Hong Kong schools' swimming team took part in the 1974 Schools International Swimming Meet, held in Singapore, and competed with six other national teams.

       Another major step has been taken in the development of recreation and sport for the community with the launching of a special recreation and sport scheme. Under the aegis of the Council for Recreation and Sport, a new unit was established with experienced officers from the physical education section of the Education Department posted to this work and new staff recruited.

       The most important function of the new unit is to set up and administer an organisation of recreation and sports officers at district level. The functions of each district recreation and sports officer are to assist the community to make maximum use of all sports facilities in the district, with particular emphasis on meeting the needs of young people.

The officers work closely with the City District Officers and District Officers in the New Territories, the Community and Youth Officers of the Social Welfare Department, the police community relations officers and the district staff of the Urban Services Department in jointly promoting activities in physical recreation and sports for all age groups. They are involved in forming district sports councils, in stimulating activity in recreation and sport by voluntary associations and clubs, and liaise with the various athletic associations and sports clubs.

The first six districts to benefit from the scheme are Western, Eastern, Sham Shui Po, Wong Tai Sin, Kwun Tong and Yuen Long.

Hong Kong Students in Britain

The student section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London is respon- sible for exercising broad supervision over the education and general welfare of Hong Kong students, including trainee nurses, during their studies or training in Britain.

The main duties of the section are to assist with the placement of students in universities, polytechnics, technical colleges, colleges of further education and other educational institutions. The section also looks after students' welfare during their studies or training, and advises the students on courses which will help them find employment either in Hong Kong or elsewhere on completion of their studies. Nurses under training are regarded as students.

To carry out these duties as effectively as possible, close liaison is maintained with the Education Department and other departments in Hong Kong, and with the British Council, the Ministry of Overseas Development, the Department of

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Health and Social Security and all the educational institutions and hospitals in Britain where Hong Kong students are training.

New arrivals during the year totalled 1,249 compared with 994 the previous year. Of these, 440 joined universities, polytechnics and other institutions to take profes- sional courses. By the end of the year, a total of 5,300 students had been recorded, compared with 4,300 last year. The subjects taken by these students covered a wide range and clearly showed the modern tendency away from the traditional university academic courses to the many practical subjects now available in British polytechnics and technical colleges.

       Applications to universities, polytechnics and colleges for the next academic year also showed an increase on the previous year with the section processing 251 applications for entry to university compared with 128 in 1973; and 1,575 applica- tions for entry to polytechnics and other institutions of higher education compared with 1,240.

       Student visitors to the section in 1974 totalled 906 compared with 724 during the previous year. They came to discuss academic, career and personal problems, with the possibilities of employment in Hong Kong figuring high among the careers enquiries.

        The government maintains the Hong Kong Students Centre, formerly known as Hong Kong House, as a residential and social centre in London for Hong Kong students in Britain. It accommodates some 75 students and serves as a focal point and meeting place for many more. The Hong Kong Commissioner in London is responsible for the administration of the centre and is assisted by an advisory board which includes two student representatives. The student adviser is a member of the board and, on behalf of the Commissioner, is responsible for day-to-day liaison with the warden.

Hong Kong Students in Other Countries

        Hong Kong students are also studying in a number of countries other than Britain, mainly in English-speaking countries such as Canada, Australia and the United States. Of the 3,761 students who left for Canada in 1974, the majority went initially to secondary schools in preparation for later college or university entrance. The opposite was true, however, in the case of the United States--the majority of the 2,812 students issued with student-visas were accepted for studies at the post- secondary level. There were only 91 students who went to Australia, mostly for post-secondary courses.

The overseas students and scholarships section of the Education Department gives advice and information to students intending to further their education overseas. In 1974, enquiries were received from about 2,500 students and parents concerning the choice of courses and educational institutions in countries other than Britain, admission requirements, tuition and accommodation costs, application procedures and opportunities for financial assistance.

7

Health

     ALTHOUGH Hong Kong's geographical and environmental circumstances make it vulnerable to infectious diseases, it has been free from epidemic and any quarantinable diseases in recent years. However, surveillance measures are still taken to prevent the introduction of smallpox or cholera into Hong Kong. The control of diphtheria and poliomyelitis was so successful that these two diseases were nearly eradicated due largely to the active immunisation programmes and health education.

        Where once communicable diseases headed the list of the major causes of death, the situation has now changed with the degenerative diseases dominating the picture. The most common causes of death in Hong Kong are cancer, heart and hypertensive diseases, pneumonia, cerebrovascular diseases, accidents and tuberculosis.

        Two new projects were opened for service during the year-the Wu York Yu Clinic at Tsz Wan Shan and the Sha Tau Kok Clinic in the New Territories. Five projects were under construction-the 1,300-bed Princess Margaret Hospital; the combined staff quarter for this hospital complex; the Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung Polyclinic Stage II; the Specialist Clinic Hong Kong Island East and the Kowloon East Polyclinic Stage I.

        The Medical Development Advisory Committee, which was appointed by the government in March 1973, produced a report which set out standards in the provision of hospital beds and clinics for the period 1973-82, and estimated the requirements for doctors, dentists and nurses. This report was made available to the public and interested bodies for comments. In the light of public reaction and competing claims on resources including staff, fiscal and land, the government has incorporated various recommenda- tions for the further development of medical and health services for the next decade into a policy White Paper, 'The Further Development of Medical and Health Services in Hong Kong'. This paper was tabled in the Legislative Council in July. The future expansion and improvement of the services will be planned along its proposals.

Administration

        The Medical and Health Department is responsible for medical and health care services for the community of Hong Kong. It operates hospitals and clinics throughout the urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health with family planning, school health, industrial health and port health services and undertakes measures for the control of epidemic and endemic diseases. The estimated expenditure of the depart- ment for the financial year 1974-5 is $312,733,000. To this should be added subven- tions totalling an estimated $169,690,000 to many non-government institutions and

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71

     organisations. The estimated capital expenditure on hospitals and other buildings including furniture and equipment is $55,047,000.

Communicable Diseases

       The total number of communicable diseases reported during 1974 was 12,866, but cholera has not been reported in Hong Kong since 1969. Routine nightsoil sampling for cholera vibrios was continued on a year-round basis as part of the surveillance programme. No cholera vibrio was isolated from the samples collected. However, there was no room for complacency and the public was advised to observe strictly the rules of personal and food hygiene. Following a decision of the World Health Assembly cholera vaccination certificates were not required for international travellers entering Hong Kong after January 1, 1974.

Tuberculosis remains a community health problem in Hong Kong. It has been estimated that about 0.7 per cent of the population is suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment. Males are affected as frequently as females, the disease being common in elderly man, while drug addicts are also prone.

The government, either by subvention or directly through the Government Chest Service, spends more than 35 million annually on control measures. The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association, and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council; while certain other organisations, including the Tung Wah Group and the Caritas Medical Centre also provide treatment facilities with the aid of substantial government subventions. The Government Chest Service operates seven full-time clinics. There are 11 subsidiary centres throughout Hong Kong. Co- ordination is ensured by the Co-ordinating Committee for Treatment of Tuberculosis which meets every three months.

The Chest Service maintains an extensive Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vac- cination programme and during the year 97 per cent of babies born in Hong Kong received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. The widespread use of this prophylactic measure has led to the rapid fall in tuberculosis in young people in Hong Kong. The investigations of the different techniques of BCG to newborn infants showed that the simple triangular needle technique gave more satisfactory results than the bifurcated needle technique. An intensive survey of children born after July 1966 notified as suffering or dying from tuberculosis is proceeding smoothly.

The cornerstone of treatment is ambulatory chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. Treatment of tuberculosis in the last 15 years has changed completely, and the disease can now usually be cured, provided the patient is co-operative and takes treatment regularly. The patient is given initially an intensive three-month daily treatment of streptomycin, PAS and Isoniazid, followed by a regimen of twice weekly streptomycin injections and high dosage Isoniazid tablets. This has the advantage of being a completely supervised regimen.

Large scale co-operation with the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom continued. The majority of new patients are treated on an outpatient basis and it is now possible to treat a proportion of drug resistant cases--which previously

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required hospitalisation--on an outpatient basis. Present treatment lasts 18 or even 24 months. It may be possible that this can be cut by half in the not too distant future.

The results of these many investigations are of international interest and it is hoped that they will, within the next few years, revolutionise the approach to the treatment of tuberculosis. As the problems of tuberculosis are slowly but steadily being overcome there is increasing attention being paid to the investigation of non- tuberculous diseases of the respiratory system such as asthma and bronchiectasis.

Venereal disease is diagnosed and treated free at social hygiene clinics. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis remained low in 1974, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. The overall increase in the incidence of all venereal diseases is slight, due largely to the energetic control measures such as contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine ante-natal blood tests.

Leprosy has been brought under control in Hong Kong, with the incidence dropping steadily in recent years. Outpatients were seen and treated at social hygiene centres and inpatients admitted to the Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium maintained by the Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary. However, in view of the decreasing incidence of the disease, it has been decided to close the leprosarium in 1975 when Princess Margaret Hospital opens and patients requiring hospitalisation will be accommodated in new quarters. During recent years there has been some advance in overcoming the prejudice against employment of cured leprosy patients.

       Malaria transmission has ceased in Hong Kong, and all cases notified during the year were imported. Preventive measures in the urban areas concentrate on anti-larval operations such as draining and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. In the greater part of the rural New Territories screening of buildings and use of mosquito nets constitute the main protection against malaria.

Diphtheria control in Hong Kong illustrates again the success of public health measures in disease prevention. Fifteen years ago more than 2,000 cases were reported and mass inoculation against the disease was intensified. Since then there has been a steady decline in the number of cases. The disease has almost been eradicated. How- ever, immunisation will have to be continued to maintain a high level of immunity among children to safeguard against the spread of the disease.

Poliomyelitis has also been brought under control. No cases were reported in 1974. Oral vaccine is offered at maternal and child health centres and a general immunisation campaign is carried out in January and March each year. About 90 per cent of infants receive one dose of polio-vaccine soon after birth and 77 per cent of the infants receive two doses of the trivalent vaccine later. Epidemiological surveillance of the disease was maintained throughout the year. This included virolog- ical investigation of laboratory specimens for polio-virus and a poliomyelitis faecal survey among normal children to discover the distribution of polio-virus in the community.

Measles is most prevalent among children under five years and epidemics are characteristically biennial. In Hong Kong, the disease is associated with high mortality due to complications, such as bronchopneumonia, because of the delay in seeking

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      proper medical treatment. Measles vaccine has been made available free to the public since 1967 and is included in the immunisation programme. Campaigns were conducted twice in 1974 to combat the return of the biennial pattern. A special opinion survey was also undertaken to look into the possible factors of the non-acceptance of the vaccine in a sector of the population.

        Influenza occurred sporadically during the year. The surveillance programme was continued on a year-round basis. Several outpatient clinics have been designated as influenza surveillance centres and these report regularly the number of influenza-like illnesses. The government virus unit continued to function as a World Health Organ- isation international influenza centre, and virological investigation of throat swabbings and throat washings were carried out routinely on samples taken from influenza-like illnesses.

        Viral hepatitis was made statutorily notifiable since March 1974. Most cases were among adolescents and adults and a higher proportion was found among men. Steps were being taken to promote better and more complete reporting and investigation of the disease.

        Other communicable diseases remain at a low level and do not constitute a major public health problem.

Port Health Service

        The Port Health Service continued to fulfil its duties and responsibilities in preventing the introduction of quarantinable diseases into Hong Kong, the sanitary control of port and airport areas, and the provision of facilities as required by the International Health Regulations.

It provides facilities for vaccination and the issue of International Vaccination Certificates, and for inspection and deratting and the issue of International Deratting or Deratting Exemption Certificates to ships on international voyages. It also renders medical assistance to ships in the harbour and transmits free medical advice to ships at sea. A 24-hour quarantine service at sea and air and the granting of radio pratigue to ships from clean ports on request is maintained. A general survey of food and water sample on air caterers at Hong Kong International Airport was conducted during the year.

Family Health Service

       In early 1973, a decision was made by the government to participate in the opera- tion of family planning clinics. The principle was that the provision of family planning facilities should be made part of the Medical and Health Department's normal health services. As from October 1973, the Medical and Health Department started a phased plan to incorporate those clinics previously operated by the Family Planning Associa- tion, in 30 government clinics and two hospitals. The whole plan calls for the integra- tion of family planning services into the already comprehensive maternal and child health programme. This includes ante-natal, post-natal, maternity services and health education for mothers as well as special infant and toddlers welfare sessions and preventive immunisation schedules for their children.

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In accordance with its expanded responsibilities and function as a result of the integration of family planning services, the Maternal and Child Health Service has been reorganised and during the year a Family Health Service has been established to operate the family health programme.

        The service operates 37 health centres, 21 full-time and the remainder on a sessional basis, and also 23 maternity homes. Home visits are often made by health visitors and nurses to advise mothers or to follow-up defaulters of the health pro- grammes. Health education is given both at the centres and homes.

During the year 96.4 per cent of babies born attended the centres for child health service, and there has been an increase in the number of attendances at family planning clinics. It is evident that the Family Health Service plays an important role to maintain and promote the health of the two important groups of the population-women of child-bearing age and children from birth to five years-and, indirectly, the health of their family.

School Health

The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Participation is voluntary and for $5 a year, schoolchildren receive medical treatment including free medicine from private medical practitioners. The government contributes $20 a year per enrolled pupil as well as the board's administrative expenses. Enrolment at the end of the year was 75,234 pupils from 652 schools and 202 private medical practitioners were participating.

The School Health Service continues as a government responsibility and is con- cerned with the environmental health and sanitary condition of school premises and the control of communicable diseases in schools. Routine inspection of schools is undertaken by school health inspectors, while immunisation of schoolchildren against the major infectious diseases is arranged by health officers.

Mental Health

       Castle Peak Hospital provides for the full-time care for all types of psychiatric patients who are mostly admitted voluntarily, whereas the psychiatric unit in Kowloon Hospital and the university psychiatric unit in Queen Mary Hospital provide compre- hensive psychiatric service in a general hospital setting. Outpatient treatment is avail- able in the urban areas and in the New Territories and day-patients are treated at the Hong Kong Psychiatric Centre on Hong Kong Island, and at the psychiatric unit in Kowloon Hospital and the Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre in Kowloon. The Yau Ma Tei centre also provides special facilities for the observation and treatment of disturbed children. Occupational, social and recreational therapies are given in all centres and units. Criminal offenders who are mentally ill are observed and treated at the Prisons Department's Siu Lam Psychiatric Centre. Although the severely sub-normal are treated at the Siu Lam Hospital, other cases of mental sub-normality are under the care of the Social Welfare Department and the Education Department, where they receive special training and education. Certain voluntary agencies working in close

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      co-operation with the Mental Health Service assist in the rehabilitation of patients before their return to full activities in the community.

Drug Dependence

        Following a comprehensive review of the problem of dangerous drugs in Hong Kong in all its aspects, the Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN) was reconstituted in January 1974 with strengthened terms of reference and a more com- pact membership. It is now the sole advisory instrument of the government in all policy matters relating to the interdiction of illicit drug trafficking into and through Hong Kong and the eradication of drug abuse from the community. It is serviced by a small secretariat headed by the Commissioner for Narcotics in the office of the Secretary for Security.

        Drug addiction remains a serious social problem in Hong Kong, with perhaps as many as 100,000 persons, mostly male, addicted to opium or heroin. This represents about two per cent of the population. A central register of drug addicts was established in April 1972. It has now received some 50,000 returns from reporting agencies indicating that there are at least that number of addicts in the community.

       To spearhead the development of treatment and rehabilitation programmes for addicts commensurate with the size of the problem being faced, a narcotics and drugs administration division has been created in the Medical and Health Department. Hong Kong is fortunate in possessing some excellent programmes of drug treatment and rehabilitation, but they are limited in size. Considerable expansion will be essential if the back of the addiction problem is to be broken. This is now being actively examined.

        The Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts remains the largest agency to treat addicts on a voluntary basis. It has accommodation for 500 male addicts at its centre on Shek Kwu Chau island. Residence there is entirely voluntary, addicts being free to leave at any time they wish following detoxification, though all are encouraged to complete the full course of treatment, and about half do so. Experience indicates that the policy of giving an addict complete freedom of choice regarding the length of his residence in the centre is the correct one. Apart from enabling the turnover of addicts to be profitably increased, this policy has greatly improved the atmosphere there.

        The Discharged Prisoners Aid Society operates a small residential drug treatment and rehabilitation centre at Yuen Long, New Territories, for 24 voluntary male addicts who are members and who have taken to, or relapsed into drug abuse upon release from prison. Both societies operate small sections for women drug addicts.

        Two methadone maintenance pilot projects were started in December 1972 in an attempt to determine whether or not this form of therapy has a place among Hong Kong's drug treatment programmes. One project is run by the Medical and Health Department for 550 addicts, the other by the Discharged Prisoners Aid Society for 100 addicts. Both are voluntary schemes programmed and funded to operate for three years when they will be critically evaluated. The admission criteria and other procedures

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governing the two programmes are substantially different to broaden the experience of the study as widely as possible. This form of therapy attracted its quota of addicts without difficulty; indeed, such was the pressure on the Medical and Health Depart- ment's project that it was extended in October 1973 to cater for an additional 1,000 addicts, although these fall outside the pilot study.

       Both pilot projects are making encouraging progress to an extent which indicates from preliminary assessments that methadone maintenance programmes will have a place in the treatment of drug addiction in Hong Kong.

       Successful law enforcement operations in November 1974 caused a scarcity of heroin at street level and a great rise in prices. In December, as an emergency increase, the government opened three additional outpatient methadone clinics primarily on humanitarian grounds to ease the withdrawal symptoms of addicts who could no longer afford to buy opium or heroin. The response was encouraging.

Hospitals

       There are three types of hospitals in Hong Kong-government, government- assisted and private, with a total of 17,034 beds representing four beds per thousand population. Institutions operated by the Armed Forces are excluded. The bed occupancy of some hospitals is actually higher than the normal bed capacities as tem- porary beds are used whenever the need arises.

       Queen Mary Hospital with a capacity of 1,150 beds is the main general hospital for Hong Kong Island. Although it is maintained by the government, it is also the teaching hospital for the medical school of the University of Hong Kong.

       Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as a main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. It has a capacity of 1,596 beds but the pressure for admission necessitates the extensive use of temporary beds bringing the total number to 1,898. Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. In addition, Kowloon Hospital contains an acute psychiatric unit of 67 beds, a spinal injuries unit of 50 beds, a thoracic unit of 101 beds and a tuberculosis unit.

The Tsan Yuk Hospital has 300 beds for maternity cases and is used for the teaching of medical students and training of midwives. The only infectious disease hospital, Lai Chi Kok Hospital, will be substituted by a new wing at the Princess Margaret Hospital early next year. Tang Shiu Kin Hospital provides additional casualty service on Hong Kong Island. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau Island.

Small hospitals are also operated in prisons; and maternity beds for normal maternity cases are provided in many government clinics and health centres. Fanling Hospital was taken over by the Medical and Health Department from the Lutheran World Service in 1973.

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The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is a long established charitable organisation. It operates three general hospitals, the Tung Wah, Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah hospitals with a total of 2,274 beds and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. It also provides subsidiary beds for long term patients and tuberculosis patients at the Wong Tai Sin Infirmary. The recurrent expenditure of these institutions is met mainly by a large annual subvention from the government. The group provides a valuable contribution to Hong Kong's medical facilities and the institutions are gradually being modernised and expanded. The Centenary Block Extension at the Tung Wah Hospital was completed and provides another 424 beds.

The Pok Oi Hospital in Yuen Long in the New Territories is another long established charitable organisation operating with the assistance of a government subvention. Other government-assisted hospitals include the Yan Chai Hospital at Tsuen Wan with 100 beds and the United Christian Hospital at Kwun Tong with 555 beds. A number of other hospitals are maintained by missionary and charitable organisations such as the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre, Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital, the Duchess of Kent Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and the Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital. All of these receive substantial government subventions.

Specialist Services

       Clinical specialist services in various fields are available in government hospitals and outpatient centres. These are also clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene together with specialist services offered by the Government Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory. The Medical and Health Department Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Institute of Radiology offers specialist services in both diagnostic and therapeutic services. The Queen Mary Hospital and Queen Elizabeth Hospital maintain blood banks and the Hong Kong Red Cross operates a blood-collecting service for voluntary blood donation.

Outpatient Services

       To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern western medicine, the outpatient services, provided mainly by the government and subsidised organisations and private agencies, are developing steadily. The government now operates 50 clinics for general outpatients, with specialist facilities available in the major centres of the urban areas. Similar specialist facilities are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from the major hospitals in the urban area. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take the medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, while other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

In accordance with the Medical Clinics Ordinance, all clinics are required to renew their registration annually. On December 31 there were 79 registered static clinics and two mobile clinics under the control of registered medical practitioners and 337 clinics registered with exemption, making a total of 416. The low-cost medi- cal care scheme, in which clinics are set up in public housing estates by registered medical practitioners, continued to operate during the year.

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At all government general outpatient and specialist outpatient clinics there is a nominal charge of $1 a visit, which includes all diagnostic investigations, treatment and medicine. There are no charges for patients at tuberculosis, social hygiene or leprosy clinics or for patients suffering from quarantinable diseases. Similarly, no charges are made at certain remote institutions located in outlying areas or at floating clinics. The infant welfare, ante-natal and post-natal clinics are also free. For patients admitted in the general wards of government hospitals, the daily maintenance and treatment fee ranges from $2 to $6 according to the diet supplied. A limited number of private rooms and small semi-private wards are provided at major hospitals. The charges for these are much higher than general class wards and in addition all treatment is chargeable. But for the patients who are unable to pay the medical fee, the charge can be either waived or reduced at the discretion of the Director of Medical and Health Services.

Dental Services

The Government Dental Service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly- paid government officers and their families, and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 32 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. It appears from clinical observation that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will become more marked in the future.

Many voluntary bodies and welfare organisations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Association and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free of charge. The Church World Services, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully equipped static and mobile dental clinics.

Ophthalmic Service

There are three full-time outpatient centres which are equipped with investigation, treatment and operation facilities. The service also operates on a sessional basis in various urban clinics and in the outlying districts of the New Territories. Ophthalmic surgery is performed at the two major government hospitals in which 36 beds are reserved for this purpose. The staff of the ophthalmic service also deal with emergencies at the three casualty departments.

Training

There is a Faculty of Medicine in the Hong Kong University. Graduates are conferred the degrees of MB, BS, which have been recognised for registration by the

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      General Medical Council of Great Britain since 1911. In recent years the medical school has expanded to an annual intake of 150 students to meet Hong Kong's in- creasing need for doctors. Both the government and the University of Hong Kong maintain a programme of post-graduate training. Suitable candidates, when selected, are given training under the supervision of the consultants for four years. A local officer who has completed four years continuous resident service and has been confirmed to the pensionable establishment, may be granted paid study leave to attend a course outside Hong Kong. Through these arrangements many doctors in the past have been able to attend courses of study overseas. Opportunities are also available for doctors to sit the higher professional examination in Hong Kong by arrangements with overseas bodies like the Royal Colleges of the United Kingdom and Australia.

The school of physiotherapy run by the Medical and Health Department provides qualified physiotherapists for the service as well as for government-assisted hospitals. For other para-medical grades of staff, in-service training and opportunities are pro- vided to enable them to qualify as radiographers, laboratory technicians, dispensers, prosthetists, mould laboratory and dental technicians. A number of suitable and promising staff of these para-medical services are sent abroad for further training and experience.

       Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry but a dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from Hong Kong to go overseas each year to study dentistry. A total of 93 scholarships have been awarded since the scheme started in 1954.

       There are three government hospital schools of nursing where instruction is given in English. Two of these provide a three-year course in general nursing and are attached to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Queen Mary Hospital. The other school provides a three-year course in psychiatric nursing.

       Other approved nurse training schools are attached to the government-assisted or private hospitals, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital where instruction is given in Chinese and the Caritas Medical Centre where instruction is given in English. Final registration ex- aminations are conducted by the Hong Kong Nursing Board.

       Queen Elizabeth Hospital and all these government-assisted and private hospitals run one-year courses in obstetric nursing for registered nurses. Students are qualified to sit for the Registration Examinations conducted by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. Courses are recognised as equivalent to Part I Midwifery Training of the Central Midwives Board in England. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary mid- wifery, adequate practical training in this respect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board in England is not possible.

       The Tsan Yuk Hospital, the only government maternity hospital, offers a two-year obstetric course in Chinese for students who are not registered nurses. On completion of this two-year training they are eligible to sit for the Registration Examination conducted by the Hong Kong Midwives Board.

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       The Kowloon Hospital and other government-assisted and private hospital schools of nursing also offer two-year courses in general nurse training or psychiatric nurse training. As from July 1972, pupil nurses who have completed these courses and passed the examination conducted by the Hong Kong Nursing Board become enrolled nurses.

       A nine-month course for health visitors is held at the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital. This prepares entrants to sit for the examination of the Royal Society for the Promo- tion of Health. Health auxiliaries who supplement the health visitors service, continue to have a two-year training course in health education and basic public health nursing at the same hospital.

The government conducts a continuous post-graduate overseas training pro- gramme for graduate nurses to specialise in such areas as nursing administration, nursing education, dietetics, orthopaedic nursing, intensive care therapy, operating theatre services and ophthalmic nursing.

The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Diploma of Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspector for General Overseas Appointments, the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors, the Certificate for Health Visitors and School Nurses, and the Diploma of Air Pollution Control.

Research

        During 1974 a major breakthrough was made in cancer research at the Medical and Health Department Institute of Radiology. Continuing research on the epidemi- ology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) reached an important milestone when, working in collaboration with doctors W. and G. Henle, of Philadelphia, the presence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) was demonstrated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and not the lymphoid cells in the tumour stroma. It is believed to be the first time that EBNA has been demonstrated in NPC cells. Previously, working in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, the institute demonstrated a consistent serological association between the virus and NPC and the presence of Epstein-Barr virions in lymphoblastoid cells in culture derived from NPC biopsies. Further investigation to determine whether a causal relationship exists between the virus and the cancer is in progress.

       Work is also carried out in two clinical units in Queen Elizabeth Hospital on the application of epidural anaesthesia for painless labour, the control of premature labour with Salbutamol, the treatment of chorio-carcinoma and Hydatidiform mole, the assay of human chorionic gonadotrophin content in placenta and the study of myo- metrial activities in response to a herb and other drugs.

       Investigations conducted in the Medical and Health Department Institute of Pathology covered mainly virology and histopathology. The serological survey of poliomyelitis antibodies has been completed among children under five years. The susceptible population declined from 21.07 per cent in 1960 to 4.58 per cent in 1973.

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      Phase I in World Health Organisation collaborative study of cytomegalo-virus in- fection was completed and revealed a high frequency (94 per cent) of cytomegalo-virus antibody in adults of 20-30 years in Hong Kong. Phase II and III of this study were in progress in 1974. In connection with influenza surveillance in Hong Kong a survey of local pigs showed presence of antibodies to human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/1/68 (17.3 per cent); to the current virus strain A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (26.8 per cent) and to the swine influenza virus (33.6 per cent).

       In histopathology, current interest is directed toward accurate histopathological typing of bone tumours and inflammatory lesions of bones and joints.

Environmental Hygiene

        The Urban Services Department emerged from a major reorganisation on a regional basis far better equipped to carry out its wide-ranging tasks under environ- mental hygiene and in many other fields. Among other things the department is responsible for street cleansing, and disposing of refuse and nightsoil, the management of public conveniences and bathhouses, and the disposal of the dead.

        The department, as the executive or working arm of the Urban Council, does this work in the urban areas on behalf of the council. In the New Territories, it does iden- tical tasks under the guidance of the Director of Urban Services.

        The magnitude of the task is shown by the fact that 9,000 men and women are employed, using 373 specially made vehicles, among them the latest types of cleansing and rubbish collection vehicles recently imported from Australia.

        The daily collection of rubbish totals 3,400 tons. About 1,200 tons is burnt daily in the incinerators at Kennedy Town (Hong Kong Island) and Lai Chi Kok (Kowloon). The rest goes to dumps at Gin Drinkers Bay, Ngau Tam Mei and Shuen Wan in the New Territories. Another dump, at Chau Tau, was closed during the year.

       A free overnight collection service for nightsoil continued from remaining un- sewered tenements and the like. More than 5.5 million gallons collected during the year was taken to Western (Hong Kong Island) or Lai Chi Kok (Kowloon) to be loaded into barges and dumped in deep water outside the harbour limits, where the current takes it out to sea.

       The Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign broke new ground with a 'clean our beaches' drive as well as the more customary cleansing of districts. An experiment was held to see if it were practicable to collect sea-borne rubbish from beaches, with a small fleet of sampans and a cargo-boat 'mother ship'. The drive, held in the main swimming season from June to the end of August, involved publicity, the use of resources of various government departments, and the active participation of students and volunteers recruited through the Education Department, City District Offices and the New Territories Administration. The drive succeeded in carrying the message to the beach-going public and, during this summer, all 37 gazetted beaches (12 on Hong Kong Island and the remainder in the New Territories) were kept noticeably cleaner than in previous years.

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       District 'black-spot clean-ups' were held in April, May, September and October. Each of the 10 Urban Services districts in the urban areas (four on Hong Kong Island and six in Kowloon) carried out intensive localised operations to clean up black spots in their districts and maintain the campaign message to the public.

       Also, the department was geared up for its main campaign effort of the 1974-5 financial year-a territory-wide campaign in early 1975 before Chinese New Year. This will include block-by-block inspection of buildings by teams of USD officers, and wholesale junk removal.

       Perhaps the most important aspect of the campaign in 1974 was the emphasis on community involvement and education, with special efforts to arouse interest among schoolchildren in all matters related to environmental hygiene.

       The hygiene staff, with health inspectors forming its backbone, are responsible for the maintenance of environmental sanitation and hygiene control of all premises licensed under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance. Regular inspections are carried out of domestic and licensed premises. During the year, 12,059 licensed premises, including those in the New Territories, were regularly inspected by health inspectors. The investigation of complaints of sanitary nuisances, of vermin infesta- tion, and of food poisoning cases and the control of infectious diseases are also carried out by the hygiene staff in close liaison with the Medical and Health Depart- ment. All applications for licences (other than hawker licences) issued under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance are dealt with by a central licensing unit to ensure that only premises that comply with the statutory standards of hygiene are granted licences.

        The health education section continued to organise publicity campaigns on various aspects of environmental health and also helped other government depart- ments and voluntary agencies in publicising various aspects of health and hygiene.

       Training courses and talks on many topics of environmental health were held for specific groups of the public, such as food handlers, cadets of the Hong Kong Red Cross Society, St John Ambulance Association and also management personnel in multi-storey buildings.

To disseminate health knowledge and promote health education among school- children, various activities in the form of contests and competitions were organised jointly with the Education Department and voluntary agencies.

       The food (import/export) section of the department provides highly necessary services for the control of imported meat, poultry, milk and frozen confections. To improve control over imported meat and poultry, a revised set of Imported Meat and Poultry Regulations has been proposed and is expected to be enacted shortly. During the year, a health certification section was set up to look after the export of food. In addition, this section deals with inspection and certification of animal products for export under veterinary certificate. For general overall control of food quality, regular surveys and scheduled sampling system have been carried out for chemical and bacteriological analysis to check composition and purity of food and

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beverages. From October, a survey on pesticides in food, beginning with poultry and poultry products, began to ascertain how far agricultural products have been con- taminated, and effective controls can be planned.

The cornerstone of the territory's retail food supply continued to be the 61 retail markets (41 in Hong Kong and Kowloon and 20 in the New Territories), where fresh meat, fish, poultry, fruit, vegetables and other food is sold under conditions laid down by food hygiene legislation.

       Many of the markets are now too small and ill-equipped to meet the heavy demands of a rapidly growing population. Therefore, the Urban Council has launched an extensive programme for the redevelopment of old markets, as well as the con- struction of new ones.

       In line with the latest concept, new markets are being included on the lower floors of some multi-user buildings which provide a full range of community facilities (for example, multi-storey car parks, social welfare facilities, clinics, and government offices) on the upper floors. The new markets are built to modern standards with larger stalls and improved facilities, and also provide accommodation for hawkers who formerly traded on the streets. Particular emphasis is also placed on the provi- sion of adequate market facilities for public housing estates, where lack of facilities has resulted in a considerable hawker problem.

       Investigations into which could become hawker-permitted streets under the Hawker By-laws (1972) were completed during the year. Involved were representatives of the Urban Council, Urban Services Department, Royal Hong Kong Police Force, the Home Affairs Department, Fire Services, Transport Department and Public Works Department. The results will be placed before the council's hawkers select committee with recommendations as to which streets should be gazetted. Legislation, including the naming of hawker-permitted streets, was also being drafted to control hawkers in the New Territories.

       The reorganisation of the Urban Services Department in 1973 led to a decen- tralisation of hawker control enforcement. The policy of non-issue of further licences continued, as did plans to move on-street hawkers into off-street sites wherever possible.

       The Hawker Control Force, its strength now down to about 250, policed hawkers only in certain districts of Hong Kong Island. In Kowloon, policing of hawkers remained a responsibility of the police. A change in the situation was underway with the gradual introduction of general duties teams, intended to combine the functions of supervision with cleansing.

       Pest control staff carry out measures for the control of rodents, mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, fleas, ticks, bed-bugs, and other pests of public health or medical importance. They also give advice to the public and government departments. Their work includes clearing, training and regular weekly larvicidal oiling of streams to prevent breeding of malarial mosquitoes on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon, and at Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill Village and Cheung Chau in the New Territories.

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The abattoirs at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island and Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon continued to provide a satisfactory service to the public with high standards of meat inspection and hygiene. The total number of animals slaughtered during the year at both abattoirs was 2,477,975 pigs and 140,782 cattle, the daily average being 2,645 pigs and 170 cattle at the Kennedy Town Abattoir and 4,144 pigs and 215 cattle at the Cheung Sha Wan Abattoir.

       Installation of a third pig dressing line at the Cheung Sha Wan Abattoir began in August and other improvements at both abattoirs, including a third pig dressing line at Kennedy Town, will follow. Planning of a third abattoir in the New Territories was still being considered to meet the requirements of the expanding population and new towns. The private slaughterhouses at Tai Po and Yuen Long continued to operate satisfactorily. Specially trained USD health inspectors inspect the slaughtered animals both in government abattoirs and in the private slaughterhouses.

       In the New Territories, environmental hygiene, cleansing, hawkers and markets, recreation and amenities, pest control, cemeteries and crematoria and slaughterhouses are the responsibility of the New Territories region of the Urban Services Department. Unlike the regions covering the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon, which are under the aegis of the Urban Council, the New Territories region works directly as part of the government machine. The region maintains close co-operation with the New Territories Administration and other government departments.

       During the year, the extension of services and facilities such as incinerators, aqua privies and refuse collection points continued. Some improvement to the environment of the New Territories was achieved by further extensions of cleansing services and the introduction of gangs to tackle the problem of polluted nullahs and stream. courses. Planning for the various urban services facilities and services essential for the balanced development of the three new towns of Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun and Sha Tin demanded increasingly close attention.

       The proliferation of hawkers in the major townships remained a problem calling for urgent attention and action was in progress to deal with this problem by providing off-street sites where possible. To strengthen control staff on the ground a general duties team, consisting of 150 labourers plus supervisory staff, was formed in Tsuen Wan on an experimental basis. This corresponded with the formation of similar teams in the urban areas.

       Responsibility for 'offensive trades' in the New Territories previously that of the New Territories Administration, shifted to the Urban Services Department. The change reflected the need to pay more attention to reducing the dangers of environ- mental pollution that are commonly associated with such trades. It is planned that eventually all offensive trade establishments in the New Territories will be contained in designated areas where adequate protective measures against possible pollution will be available.

       During the year the problem of maintaining adequate refuse dumps in the face of local opposition caused some measure of difficulty, though the introduction of greatly improved controlled tipping techniques seemed likely to ease such opposition.

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       Disposal of the dead is the responsibility of Urban Council in the urban areas and the Urban Services Department in the New Territories. In the urban areas, six public cemeteries and two public crematoria are directly under the control of the Urban Council which also supervises 20 private cemeteries. In the New Territories, the Urban Services Department controls five public cemeteries, and one public crematorium and supervises eight private cemeteries and a private crematorium. The Urban Council operates two funeral depots, while there are two commercial funeral parlours and 35 undertakers licensed to arrange funeral services. In addition, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals provides a non-profit making funeral parlour on either side of the harbour.

8

Land and Housing

     WITH more than four million people living in an area of only 404 square miles, which includes the New Territories and outlying islands, and with much of the country mountainous and unsuitable for development, building land is at a premium, and substantial government revenue is obtained from land transactions. All land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown.

       Land administration on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon is the responsibility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Terri- tories known as New Kowloon, between Boundary Street and the Kowloon Foothills. The Secretary for the New Territories is responsible for land administration through- out the rest of the New Territories.

For Hong Kong Island and Kowloon all leases of Crown land and private land transactions are recorded in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of lots in New Kowloon and a number of lots in the urban parts of the New Territories) such records are kept in the District Offices of the New Territories Administration. The inland lots in the New Territories are mostly located in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them, with a few exceptions, are recorded in the Registrar General's Department.

In the early days of Hong Kong, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. With the exception of the New Territories, they are now granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a reassessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

       The government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auctions and the majority of land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. Regular land auctions are held by the government and a six monthly provisional sales forecast is published listing the Crown land available for sale during the following six months. Leases for certain special purposes are offered for sale by public tender. During 1974 grants by private treaty of two industrial lots on Tsing Yi Island were also made under a newly approved policy for industries which could bring new technology to Hong Kong, but are land-intensive and cannot operate in multi-storey development.

       Previously the realised premium was normally payable by a percentage of the sale price on the fall of the hammer and the balance within a short period after the sale. An

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exception was made for industrial lots in certain developing areas where the premium could be paid by instalments. As a result of a change introduced in 1969, for valuable sites in Central, where the realised price of the site was $10 million or more, payment could be made by annual instalments over 10 years free of interest. During 1970 a further change provided for 10 per cent of the realised price to be paid within one month of the auction, and the balance by 10 equal annual instalments bearing interest at 10 per cent a year. At the end of 1972, in view of the increase in land values, the $10 million figure was raised to $20 million. In 1974 a further extension to the system of deferred payments was made to enable developers of large commercial-residential sites and industrialists throughout Hong Kong to enjoy the option of payment over 10 years at 10 per cent interest. To assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, there is a concession which, subject to certain conditions, permits the sub-letting of parts of the building before payment of the outstanding balance of premium.

The demand for both industrial and non-industrial land was well maintained in the early part of the year, but high interest rates and the general difficulty in obtaining development finance resulted in a marked slackening in demand and a downward pressure on land values in the latter part of 1974. The revenue from land transac- tions for the financial year 1973-4 was $164.5 million, well below the record of $576 million received in the financial year 1972-3, but in line with average revenue for previous years.

       Where it is not possible to dispose of Crown land immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some purpose in the future, the land is rarely left vacant. It may be let out either on temporary annual licence (formerly known as 'permit') or on short-term tenancy. The 1973-4 revenue from this type of tenure was about $10.6 million in the urban area, and $3.6 million in the New Territories (including modification of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, licences are cancelled and the number decreases each year. The number of short-term tenancies, however, is increasing. Revenue derived in rent from buildings owned by the government in whole or part totalled $5.7 million.

In the past, difficulty has sometimes been experienced in disposing of Crown land because of its unauthorised occupation, normally for storing goods. This necessitated overcoming considerable clearance problems before vacant possession could be obtained and sale could take place. In recent years a policy of fencing vacant sites and installing security guards has helped to reduce this problem and a major step forward was achieved with the enactment of the Crown Lands Ordinance at the end of 1972. This ordinance gives the Director of Public Works and the Secretary for the New Territories much greater and more direct powers to combat the unlawful occupation of Crown land and enables clearances to be effected more quickly and usually without litigation.

In recent years the terms of many 75-year Crown leases have expired. Many of these are non-renewable leases but unless the land is required for a public purpose, it is government policy to negotiate a new lease with the former lessee. The premium

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payable represents the full market value of the land, less the buildings. The premium is normally payable by up to 21 annual instalments, with interest at 10 per cent per annum. Where a property is required for a public purpose on the expiration of a non-renewable lease, the government normally pays ex-gratia compensation for any building on the land at the time it resumes possession.

In June 1973 the 75-year renewable Crown leases of about 5,000 lots and sections of lots in New Kowloon involving about 40,000 owners fell due for renewal. In addi- tion, renewable Crown leases of about 200 lots and sections of lots in Kowloon had already fallen due for renewal but had not been renewed because of problems asso- ciated with multiple ownership.

In accordance with their terms these leases were to be renewed at a reassessed Crown rent being 'such rent as shall be fairly and impartially fixed by the Director of Public Works as the fair and reasonable rental value of the ground at the date of such renewal'. The method of determining such rents previously adopted by the Director of Public Works was to assess the rent on the basis of the value of the land at the date of renewal.

However, it was decided by the government in 1973, in view of the sharp rise in land prices in late 1972 and the early part of 1973, that the practice of determining the reassessed rent in accordance with the provisions of Crown leases would produce an unacceptably high revised rental and should be abandoned, and that all renewable Crown leases should be statutorily renewed at an annual rent equal to three per cent of the rateable value of the property. The necessary legislation was passed as the Crown Leases Ordinance 1973. Following the enactment of this ordinance, work is proceeding on the preparation of Crown rent returns for those 5,000 lots and sections of lots in New Kowloon which were statutorily renewed in July 1973. It is hoped that this substantial backlog will be cleared by March 1975 when estimated revenue accruing from these cases, together with other statutorily renewed leases arising since, should amount to about $15 million annually.

Land Office

The issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases is dealt with by the Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department. The Land Office also has responsibility for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; the granting of mining leases; and for giving legal and other advice to the government generally on matters relating to land.

       The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that formerly in operation in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all instruments registered under it shall have priority accord- ing to their respective dates of registration, and that unregistered instruments, other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years, shall be null and void as against any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable consideration. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does

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     not guarantee it. The ordinance is under review and changes in the system may be recommended.

The number of instruments registered in the Land Office during the year dropped by 11.6 per cent from last year's total of 96,366 to 85,182. More detailed statistics with comparisons with previous years are contained in Appendix 28.

At the end of the year the card index of property owners contained the names of 251,273 people (an increase of 14,159 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being owners or part owners of small individual flats.

Urban Renewal and Environmental Improvement

In the Urban Renewal Pilot Scheme area, more than 80 properties were acquired by negotiation or resumption during the financial year 1973-4 at a cost of more than $16 million. A total of 304 properties have been acquired, and a further 61 remain. Some 50 pre-war properties were demolished during the year, and domestic tenants requiring alternative accommodation were rehoused. Further progress was also made in acquiring properties for the provision of open space and government institutional and community facilities in the densely populated urban areas of Western District, Wan Chai and Yau Ma Tei. More than $43 million was spent in the financial year 1973-4 on a total of 78 properties.

Resumption

To enable public works projects to proceed it is sometimes necessary to resume privately owned land. During the financial year 1973-4, resumption boards con- stituted under the Crown Lands Resumption Ordinance awarded more than $25 million in compensation. Most older roads are subject to widening lines which are implemented as and when properties fronting the road are redeveloped. During the year, negotiations carried out to acquire land for road widening involved compensa- tion payments of more than $8 million, although in many of the cases a free surrender was obtained. At the end of 1974 the new Lands Tribunal Ordinance came into opera- tion. It provides for the establishment of a permanent Tribunal to adjudicate on all statutory claims to compensation in respect of land. Consequential amendments had to be made to the relevant ordinances, including the Crown Lands Resumption Ordin- ance, to adapt procedures to the new Tribunal. At the same time a Mass Transit (Land Acquisition and Related Matters) Ordinance was enacted to provide for the special land acquisition problems of the mass transit railway. Claims under this ordin- ance will also be adjudicated on by the new Lands Tribunal.

Survey

       Land surveying in Hong Kong serves three main purposes-the establishment and maintenance of a system of control points (for position and height) on which all surveys are based; the setting out of public works and delineation of boundaries of private lots and government sites, such as cadastral surveys; and the production of maps and plans for both government and private use.

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       The provision of a precise network of control points for aerial surveys was one of the main tasks during the year and this work is expected to continue. Another major control project was the remeasuring of the special roof-top traverse for the mass transit railway, as many of the marked points originally had disappeared.

There was a marked fall off in demand for boundary surveys, enabling more staff to be deployed in coping with arrears in other sectors. Following the decision by the government that Hong Kong would convert to the metric system, all surveys have been made in metric units from October 1974, although cadastral plans will continue to show dimensions in imperial units until January 1976, after which the Building Ordinance Office will accept plans and drawings in both metric and imperial units.

       In January 1974 two contractors were awarded a new aerial survey contract, to provide urgently needed 1/500 scale plans for engineering designs for use in connection with the new towns of the New Territories. Funds were also approved to set up a Public Works Department photogrammetric unit and arrangements were made to call for tenders so that the necessary equipment could be installed in 1975.

       Progress was made with revision of large scale maps and a start was made on converting the existing imperial unit maps to metric scales, some 100 sheets being re-drawn at 1/1,000 scale during the year.

A good start was also made on changing to a metric format for small scale maps −1/10,000 scale and smaller, which are also to be completely dual-language in future. Metrication presented the opportunity to re-design the mapping sheet grid system so that all maps from 1/1,000 scale to 1/20,000 scale are the same size and all sheets covering the same area are tied to the same reference. It is possible by identifying a point on one map series to find the same point, with a minimum of trouble, on larger or smaller scale maps or plans. In addition, three sheets of the four-sheet 'Countryside' series and seven sheets of a 15-sheet street map series were published.

Town Planning

       The two bodies mainly responsible for town planning in Hong Kong are the Town Planning Board, chaired by the Director of Public Works and comprising nine official and five unofficial members; and the Land Development Policy Committee (Land Development Planning Committee prior to August), chaired by the Secretary for the Environment and comprising six official members. The functions of the Town Planning Office include the servicing of these two bodies, and, together with the New Territories Development Department, servicing the New Territories Development Progress Committee. There are three main levels of planning which proceed from general concepts to development projects. They are the Hong Kong Outline Plan (formerly the Colony Outline Plan), statutory outline zoning plans, and departmental plans in the form of planning guides, outline development plans, planning layouts and 10-year development programmes.

The original Colony Outline Plan, which was based on a data bank of land use and demographic information and the findings of six inter-departmental working committees, was prepared under the guidance of the Land Development Planning

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Committee. It has provided a framework for all other planning activities and sets out general planning concepts for future population distribution and development. As the Hong Kong outline plan it will continue to serve these purposes and recommend standards for the provision of community facilities, suggest the general locations of major facilities and define the functions of areas in board terms. It will also provide a framework for the preparation of statutory outline zoning plans, planning guides, and other plans and form a basis for the formulation of land development programmes and the reappraisal of transportation proposals. The data bank is continually up- dated and the plan itself is now being revised, taking into account the 1971 census and recent developments in planning policies and techniques.

       Outline zoning plans are prepared by the Town Planning Board when instructed by the Governor, who is advised of the need by the Land Development Policy Com- mittee. These plans show land for public and private development, housing, industry, commercial development, roads, open spaces and other uses.

       Background studies are prepared for all areas before detailed planning proceeds. They identify deficiencies or over-provision of community facilities and land required for various uses in relation to the existing and future populations of planning areas.

The board's plans become statutory and the zoning proposals are enforceable by the Building Authority, as soon as they are exhibited as draft plans for public comment. Any objections are then considered by the board. The draft plans are amended where appropriate, and submitted, together with any outstanding objections, to the Governor in Council for final approval. The zoning proposals are implemented through lease conditions where possible, and through the Buildings Ordinance. During the year, two statutory plans were formally approved by the Governor in Council, eight were being prepared by the board, and four more were referred back to the board for replacement.

      Departmental planning guides for developing rural areas and outline develop- ment and layout plans for developing urban areas are prepared within the framework of the Hong Kong Outline Plan, and statutory outline zoning plans where these exist. Outline development and layout plans are drawn to larger scales and show detailed road patterns and the layout of sites for various uses including reserves for government and community uses, open spaces, utility companies and other specific requirements. After consultation with other departments and amendment where appropriate, these plans are submitted to the layout plans sub-committee of the Land Development Policy Committee or to the New Territories Development Prog- ress Committee for agreement.

In the urban areas they are then adopted by the Director of Public Works, or in rural areas by the Secretary for the New Territories. During the year, three outline development plans were adopted. These plans have no statutory effect but are used as a guide for the formulation of leases, the sale of Crown land and the development of public and private land.

Most of Hong Kong's developing areas are now covered by some form of plan; in the urban areas, by statutory plans. However, many of the present departmental

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and statutory plans are due for revision and replacement by plans which take account of more sophisticated forms of development and increasing social requirements.

During the year, the validity of the Town Planning Board Wan Chai Outline Zoning Plan was challenged by a developer in court, and judgement was given in favour of the developer. The point at issue was a relatively minor one of presentation, but it affected the validity of all existing outline zoning plans. The validity of the outline zoning plans was restored by the enactment of the Town Planning (Amend- ment and Validation) Ordinance in August. The future of town planning legislation in Hong Kong is being examined by an inter-departmental study group.

The main object of the outline zoning plans in the existing densely populated urban area is to improve the environment by providing for open spaces, schools and other facilities, where at present there is little or no such provision. Certain areas such as Wan Chai--where a large amount of 'urban renewal' especially by public investment will be required in future-are designated 'environmental improvement areas' to facilitate subsequent resumption.

Because of redevelopment, a rising standard of living, and the growth of popula- tion, major development outside the existing urban areas is essential. Most of this new development is included in the new towns programme controlled by the New Territories Development Department.

New Towns

       For many years, flat land for development in Hong Kong has been formed by cutting platforms into hill slopes, and using the excavated material to fill nearby low-lying land and shallow seabed to form further flat land. This system is being applied in the development of new towns.

       At Kwun Tong, to the east of the Kowloon peninsula, development which has been taking place since 1955 is now almost completed, covering an area of 913 acres and housing more than half a million people. While land formation and the provision of water, roads and drainage has been a government responsibility, building develop- ment has been shared with private enterprise. Government and subsidised housing accommodates about 392,000 people and private buildings about 156,000. Local industry in Kwun Tong employs about 105,000 workers.

The new long-term housing programme to be carried out by the Housing Author- ity provides for about half of the new public housing to be built in the three new towns of Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun (Castle Peak) and Sha Tin, and in old townships such as Tai Po and Yuen Long in the New Territories. The new towns will gradually be developed as balanced communities with public and private housing, employment and community facilities to minimise traffic within and between the towns.

Tsuen Wan New Town, northwest of Kowloon, has been developed for residen- tial and industrial uses since the early fifties and has now grown to half its ultimate planned size with a population of more than 400,000 in a formed area of 2,420 acres. The full population capacity of the new town is 850,000. One major area to the north

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      of the existing development is being planned to provide housing for 114,000 people in a 450-acre area together with 47 acres for industrial development. Another area now being developed is Tsing Yi Island which is connected to the mainland by a bridge opened by the Governor on February 28, 1974. Tsing Yi Island's population is expected to grow from its present 4,000 to 158,000, and the island forms an integral part of the new town. But, it will have all the facilities required to make it a self- contained community while also providing a number of sites suitable for heavy in- dustry needing sea access.

        At Tuen Mun New Town, on the west side of the New Territories, the bulk of the engineering work for Stage IA development was completed, providing a total land area of 230 acres and a population capacity of 55,000. The first public housing estate, Sun Fat Estate, has been completed, providing homes for 11,000 people. Work has also started on the second estate, Tai Hing Estate Phase I, to provide homes for another 29,000. Most of the 52 acres of industrial land produced in Stage IA has already been sold and is at various stages of development by private industrialists. The new town is planned to cover 2,740 acres with a target population of 467,800.

        At Sha Tin New Town, to the north of Kowloon peninsula, 150 acres will ac- commodate a population of 54,000. The construction of the first public housing estate, known as Lek Yuen San Tsuen, is well advanced. This, when completed, will provide accommodation for 23,000. Construction of the Wo Che public housing estate to accommodate a further 20,000 began in November 1974. The next stage of develop- ment is being planned to provide a further 890 acres which will produce a balanced township of 227,000 by 1983. The new town, when completed, will accommodate a population of 495,000 in an area of some 4,450 acres.

       Concurrently with the development of the three major new towns, plans for the market towns of Tai Po, Fanling, Shek Wu Hui, Yuen Long and Sham Tseng are being formulated for their development with an ultimate target population of 290,000. In the rural parts of the New Territories, developments of smaller communities related to public housing estates are planned for the islands of Cheung Chau and Peng Chau, at Tai O and Mui Wo on Lantau Island, and at Lau Fau Shan, Tan Kwai Tsuen, and Sai Kung. It is estimated that up to 300,000 people in the rural New Territories will require some form of housing assistance within the long-term housing programme.

Private Building

       In 1973 the statutory period for processing plans submitted to the Building Authority was extended to 60 days, to enable consultants to assist in checking struc- tural submissions and to allow a system of curtailed checking to be adopted in the Buildings Ordinance Office. This proved sufficient to allow the backlog of overdue plans to be dealt with, and as a result new submissions in 1974 were processed, with few exceptions, within the new statutory time limit. Having achieved this position, the Buildings Ordinance Office was studying ways of how best to increase the emphasis on inspections of works in progress and reverting to a more detailed examination of plans.

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       Private building began to lose momentum during 1974, mainly as a result of a reduction in investment in speculative building which become less attractive as high interest rates and the rapidly rising cost of labour and materials checked demand and lowered predictable profit margins. Nevertheless, a total of 718 new building pro- posals were submitted in 1974, compared with 1,104 in 1973, and the total cost of new buildings completed during the year was $1,869 million, an increase of 30 per cent over the figure of $1,429 million for 1973.

       Preparations, under the guidance of a Public Works Department steering group, for the planned introduction of metrication into the building industry in 1976 were well in hand by the end of the year. The conversion of the Buildings Ordinance and Regulations, including the new Structural Regulations, into the terms of the Inter- national System of Weights and Measures (AI System) was completed with a view to enactment in 1975.

       In the continuing process of reviewing and revising the Buildings Ordinance and Regulations some significant changes were introduced in 1974. The Buildings (Amend- ment) Ordinance 1974 replaced the old title of 'authorised architect' with 'authorised person'. The register of 'authorised persons' is now divided into three separate lists, one for architects, one for civil, municipal and structural engineers and one for sur- veyors, thus recognising the fact that the statutory duties of authorised architects had for many years been carried out by engineers and surveyors as well as architects. Consequential amendments were also introduced by the Building (Administration) (Amendment) Regulations 1974, the Building (Construction) (Amendment) Regula- tions 1974, and the Building (Demolition Works) (Amendment) Regulations 1974. The Temporary Restriction of Building Development (Pok Fu Lam and Mid-Levels) Ordinance was generally extended in operation until July 31, 1975, but was later amended to delete the Pok Fu Lam area and apply only to Mid-Levels as from January 1, 1975.

       Several buildings of note were completed during the year. They included the circular First National City Bank Building in the Central commercial district and the 28-storey Plaza Hotel overlooking Victoria Park. In addition, a start was made on the huge New World Centre complex on the former Holt's Wharf site in Tsim Sha Tsui. The old Wing On department store in Des Voeux Road, Central was demolished to make way for a new 33-storey building. Alexandra House was also demolished to permit redevelopment of the site.

       The dangerous buildings division of the Buildings Ordinance Office continued to deal with the demolition or repair of dangerous buildings. Other activities of the division included a survey of potentially dangerous buildings on a planned survey basis, routine reinspection of suspect buildings and increasing action in response to mounting complaints about defective drainage. During the year some 113 buildings were closed and demolished, compared with 421 buildings in 1973; 519 repair notices were served, against 645 the previous year and 203 defective drainage notices were served.

       Heavy rain from typhoon Carmen in late October caused the fall of some boulders on to a property in Tai Hang Road. Some damage was caused to the car park structure

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and because of possible further landslips the residents were evacuated after a Building Closure Order had been issued. The residents were allowed to return on October 28 on the understanding that they would again have to leave if further heavy rains occurred. Therefore, with the approach of tropical storm Elaine residents were once again evacuated, eventually being allowed to return early in November. The Building Closure Order remained in force and reoccupation was permitted only on the under- standing that further heavy rains would again necessitate evacuation. Investigations were being carried out at the end of the year to find means of stabilising the slope and remedying any structural damage before the next wet season.

The high pressure of work in the Buildings Ordinance Office on the processing of plans and site inspections continued to prevent any comprehensive action being taken to deal with unauthorised structures. Enforcement action continued to be taken, how- ever, in all cases where a serious fire, structural or other hazard existed, and all other cases were listed for review when sufficient staff has been recruited. Some 66 notices were served compared with 1,722 in 1973.

Ten appeals were lodged against decisions by the Building Authority under the Buildings Ordinance. These resulted in one judgement in favour of the appellant, one decision upheld, four cases adjourned, one withdrawn, two pending and one over which the Appeal Tribunal had no jurisdiction.

Housing

       The 10-year housing programme which was announced by the Governor in Octo- ber 1972 promises greatly improved living conditions for the many Hong Kong families who cannot hope to afford such accommodation in the private housing sector. The programme, which is now in its second year, aims to break the back of Hong Kong's housing problem by building public housing for an additional 1.5 million people.

To tackle this ambitious project, a new Housing Authority was appointed in April 1973 to direct the planning, building and management of all public housing estates in Hong Kong. With its executive arm, the new Housing Department, it took over the functions previously divided between the former Housing Authority, the Urban Council, the Housing Board, the housing division of the Urban Services De- partment, the Resettlement Department and the Public Works Department. Member- ship of the Housing Authority is made up of eight Urban Councillors, five other unofficials and six official members, all appointed by the Governor.

It is serviced by a new Housing Department, also formed in April 1973, which is the result of an amalgamation of the Resettlement Department and the housing division of the Urban Services Department. The Housing Ordinance and the Resettle- ment Ordinance were repealed and replaced by the Housing Ordinance 1973.

All estates previously known as resettlement, government low-cost housing or Housing Authority estates are now officially known as public housing estates. For management purposes these estates are divided into two groups: Group 'A' estates comprise the former Housing Authority estates and government low-cost housing estates, while group 'B' estates are the former resettlement blocks.

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       The new Housing Authority is responsible for housing all categories of persons eligible for public housing. These fall into three major categories-families which become suddenly homeless due to natural disaster (2,484 housed in 1974); families cleared from Crown land for development or from dangerous tenement buildings (13,600 housed in 1974); and families unsatisfactorily housed in private, public or temporary housing who apply to be put on the waiting list. They are given a lower priority than the first two categories-17,624 were rehoused in 1974.

       Waiting list applicants must have a family of at least three people, including husband and wife. The income limit for a family of three to six persons is $1,400 a month, and for a family of 10 or more, $2,000.

       During the year 57,949 people were housed in public housing estates, bringing the total number of tenants to 1,800,000, representing 42 per cent of the population.

At the end of 1974, a total of 10 public housing estates were in various stages of construction while 11 others were at an advanced planning stage. These estates will provide 67,700 flats for nearly 473,000 people at an estimated cost of about $1,745 million.

       To meet the demands of the 10-year public housing programme, the new Housing Authority is seeking more efficient and more economical building methods. It is also giving a lot of attention to improved flat design, and to a better range of amenities in its estates. A special feature during the year was the inclusion of a number of two-bedroom flats at Oi Man Estate in Ho Man Tin, the first estate on the 10-year programme, which is now being filled. Another innovation at this estate was a communal television antenna system designed to eliminate the untidy proliferation of individual aerials. If found successful, it will be extended to other estates.

       Where necessary to meet district needs, that is, to cater for residents of the sur- rounding area as well as of its own tenants, the Housing Authority's new estates will have specially designed commercial centres, fully air-conditioned and with shopping arcades, supermarkets, department stores, cafes, restaurants and banks. Oi Man Estate and Lek Yuen Estate in Sha Tin will be the first two estates to have such centres.

       The long-term housing programme will also bring improvements to the living conditions of the 500,000 people who were rehoused in the early stages of Hong Kong's squatter resettlement operation, between 1954 and 1962. The first redevelopment scheme is well advanced at Shek Kip Mei where the first resettlement block was built 20 years ago. This will provide greatly improved accommodation for about 60,000 persons and is now entering its third phase.

        Six Mark I blocks have been converted into self-contained flats, each with its own toilet, kitchen and verandah. During the year, 6,500 tenants from three other blocks which were due to be demolished or converted, moved into these six blocks or to a nearby estate.

       A similar scheme aimed at providing more living space per family, is being planned at Tai Hang Tung Estate, where some 35,000 persons will eventually be rehoused.

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Housing Authority Factory Estates

97

       These are provided to enable smallscale operators of squatter factories, work- shops and other industrial undertakings to continue making a living when their struc- tures are demolished in clearance operations. There are altogether 26 flatted factory blocks of five or seven storeys providing a total of about 9,500 standard-sized units of 256 square feet each. At the end of the year two more factory blocks containing 800 units were completed at Kowloon Bay. More than 100 different types of manufacture are undertaken in these factory blocks, which make a useful contribution to the economy of Hong Kong.

Licensed Areas

        Most unleased Crown land on which it is possible to build is occupied, mainly by domestic squatters, small factories, workshops, shops and others. Consequently when such an area is needed for development, a clearance operation has to be carried

out.

       Domestic squatters who meet certain criteria are given accommodation in public housing estates while operators of squatter shops, workshops and industrial undertakings are paid ex-gratia compensation on clearance. If they are small or medium-sized operators they may opt for reprovisioning in a flatted factory, provided units are available and their trade is suitable for factory operation.

       However, in any clearance operation there are some who do not meet the criteria laid down for rehousing or cash compensation. If they are domestic squatters and are found to be genuinely homeless, they are offered a site in a licensed area to build a temporary structure. This offer is also open to victims of natural disasters who are ineligible for direct rehousing. Licensed areas are provided with such basic facilities as a simple water supply, surface drains, bathhouses and latrines. Towards the end of the year the government accepted a recommendation by the Housing Authority that these basic facilities should be improved to include an electricity supply and in- dividual water taps. A further improvement in many of the new licensed areas will be the provision of part-built structures, so that tenants need provide only wall panels and partition. Efforts are also made to introduce community services such as family planning, counselling and youth activities.

       There are at present 26 licensed areas with a population of about 40,000. Construction of two new licensed areas with part-built structures for an additional 14,000 people was proceeding towards the end of the year.

Squatter Control

       There were many more new squatters than in the previous year, due to a variety of interrelated factors such as the clearance of rooftop squatters from tenements under redevelopment, a great increase in the flow of immigrants from China, dif- ficulties facing young couples with children trying to find accommodation, and a recession in industry. The position has been made worse by the activities of racketeers who offer to sell flimsy huts to hard-pressed families with the promise of eventual public housing.

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       Several large-scale exercises were carried out to clear squatter blackspots, moving the occupants from these unsanitary conditions to the better environment of the new- type licensed areas until such time as they can be offered permanent public housing.

Rent Control

       Legislation controlling rents of pre-war premises and providing security of tenure was instituted by proclamation immediately after the war and was later embodied in 1947 in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance-since re-enacted as Part I of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. This legislation applies to both domestic and business premises and restricts rents by reference to pre-war levels, while excluding from control any new or substantially reconstructed buildings. Following an amendment in 1953, permitted increases in standard rents were raised to 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises, at which level they have remained ever since.

       There is provision in the legislation for exclusion of pre-war premises where redevelopment is intended. Exclusions are made on the recommendation of a Tenancy Tribunal, by order of the Governor, and the payment of compensation to tenants dispossessed is almost invariably a condition of the grant of such an order. During 1974 a total of 154 exclusion orders were approved, involving 384 buildings. A tenant may also agree to accept compensation from his landlord in return for delivering up vacant possession of his premises. Such agreements must be endorsed by the Com- missioner of Rating and Valuation and must be in a form approved by him. Under this provision 661 agreements were endorsed during 1974.

There is a provision for a landlord and tenant, or a prospective landlord and tenant, to agree a rent in excess of the permitted rent for a period not exceeding five years, but agreements must be approved by a Tenancy Tribunal. Premises which, since November 1973, have become the subject of such agreements approved by the Tenancy Tribunal are automatically excluded from further control.

A Tenancy Inquiry Bureau with two offices, one on Hong Kong Island and the other in Kowloon, assists rent control legislation by providing factual information to Tenancy Tribunals in respect of exclusion proceedings, where pre-war premises are declared dangerous by the Building Authority. This may also involve the payment of compensation. Assistance is also given to other government departments where pre- war premises are being acquired for public purposes. In addition, the bureau provides general advice and assistance on tenancy matters and has an important mediatory role between parties involved in tenancy disputes. During 1974 the Tenancy Inquiry Bureau was transferred from the Home Affairs Department to the Rating and Valua- tion Department.

       In respect of post-war premises, legislation dates back to 1952 with the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance, since re-enacted as Part IV of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. This legislation gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants who had entered into oral tenancy agreements involving the pay- ment of key money or premia. In 1963 the three year security provided by this

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ordinance was extended to five years. However, the payment of key money in such circumstances, is no longer so prevalent in Hong Kong.

        Increases in rent in 1961 and the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance, now Part V of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance, which generally requires landlords seeking posses- sion to give six months' notice of termination.

       The first comprehensive legislation affecting post-war domestic premises was the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1963 which was enacted primarily to control increases in rents and provided a measure of security of tenure. With an increase in the supply of newly completed buildings from 1963 to 1966 the housing position eased and rents stabilised. As a result, this ordinance was allowed to expire in June 1966. For the next three years the situation remained fairly quiet but, with a return of confidence following the disturbances in 1967 and a continuing demand for accommodation, rents by the end of 1969 had taken a sharp upward trend.

       While the situation was being considered a temporary measure was enacted in January 1970 to 'freeze' rents. This was closely followed in June by the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1970, since re-enacted as Part II of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. This ordinance, which follow- ed closely the provisions of the 1963 ordinance, contained a number of exclusions- in particular, larger flats and houses, fresh lettings and lettings in newly constructed buildings were not controlled. The ordinance was due to expire at the end of May 1974 but because of the continuing upward trend of rents for uncontrolled accom- modation it became necessary, in June 1973, to enact further temporary legislation to extend controls to unprotected tenancies. In December 1973, the 1970 legislation and the temporary ordinance were repealed and replaced by a revised Part II to the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance which provided security of tenure and controlled increases in rent for the vast majority of tenants and sub-tenants in post-war domestic premises. It does not, however, apply to tenancies in buildings certified for occupation on or after the date of its coming into operation, December 15, 1973. This new legislation is due to expire on December 14, 1976, but may in certain circumstances, where rents have been increased, provide security of tenure beyond that date. In respect of existing tenancies landlords and tenants are free to agree an increase in rent but such agreements must be endorsed by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. Where an increase is not agreed the landlord may apply to the Commissioner for his certificate of what increase may be made to the current rent. The amount of this increase is arrived at by taking the difference between the fair market rent, as determined by the Commissioner, and the current rent and dividing by five, subject to a maximum increase of 21 per cent of the current rent if the rateable value of the premises is $30,000 or less.

        Where premises become vacant and the landlord wishes to let to a new tenant, the parties are free to agree the rent payable but have to inform the Commissioner. Any such tenancy becomes subject to the provisions of the legislation. The Commis- sioner has wide powers under the ordinance and also issues certificates to assist in

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disputes as to the primary user of premises. Where landlords or tenants are dis- satisfied with the increase of rent certified there is a right of review by an independent Rent Tribunal and also of appeal to the District Court.

Management of Buildings in Multiple Ownership

       By the end of 1974 a total of 694 corporations were voluntarily formed by the owners of buildings in multiple ownership under the umbrella of the legislation passed in 1970 to assist the owners in the management of their buildings. This was an increase of 112 over the total up to the end of 1973. The City District Officers and the New Territories District Officers have continued to give assistance and advice to the owners over the procedures involved and also help in the creation of Mutual Aid Committees in this type of building. These committees are voluntary and involve both owners and tenants in the improvement of conditions in their buildings.

       Experience to date with the Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) Ordinance shows that the rate of incorporation of owners of flats in multi-storey buildings needs to be accelerated and that further practical means should, if possible, be devised to assist the managements of these buildings in their maintenance and im- provement. The government is considering these problems.

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Social Welfare

THE five year plan for the development of social welfare, which was approved by the Legislative Council in 1973 and set the direction in which social welfare was to be expanded and improved in future years, was successfully implemented in 1974. Eighty- five projects in the first two years of the plan were completed on schedule. These included the Po Leung Kuk Welfare Building, the Chai Wan Community Centre, two new homes for the aged, and two estate welfare buildings, one in Lam Tin and the other in Tsz Wan Shan.

       Services introduced in 1973 continued to expand, such as the Institute for Social Work Training and the Community and Youth Officers scheme. Rates of payment in social security, which included the disability and infirmity allowance scheme introduced in 1973, were revised twice to keep in step with the cost of living.

       The Child Care Centres Bill and Regulations, which were introduced into the Legislative Council in November 1974 will bring under control all child care centres for children under the age of six. The Bill and Regulations, which are supplemented by a Code of Practice, prescribed certain minimum standards for accommodation, health, safety measures and staff qualifications in all child care centres to ensure that children in those centres are cared for properly.

       The government is advised by the Social Welfare Advisory Committee on all matters of social welfare policy, including subventions for voluntary agencies and grants from the Lotteries Fund. The committee is appointed by the Governor and consists mainly of leading unofficials. The Director of Social Welfare is the chairman.

       The Social Welfare Department is responsible for carrying out government policies for social welfare. It operates through five divisions--the group and community work division, which aims at the development of coherent groups and social respon- sibility; family services division, which is responsible for a wide range of social welfare services to help individuals and families; the probation and corrections division, which provides social services for the courts and rehabilitation in its correctional institutions for young offenders; and the rehabilitation division, which is concerned with services for the disabled. Also the social security division, responsible for the administration of public assistance and other social security schemes; the training section, responsible for in-service training and staff development programmes; the planning and develop- ment unit, which plans and co-ordinates welfare services; the research and evaluation unit, responsible for social welfare research, evaluation of services and statistical matters; and the public relations unit.

       The government is not alone in the provision of social welfare services. Voluntary agencies also play a vital role in meeting the needs of the community. There are more

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than 100 such agencies and the majority of them are members of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service (Appendix 42). Many of them receive financial aid in the form of recurrent subventions from the government. These have in recent years become the main source of income of the voluntary sector. The dwindling amounts of overseas aid to Hong Kong's agencies have made these organisations increasingly dependent on government assistance and local resources, such as charitable funds and donations. The Community Chest of Hong Kong, which was formed by more than 60 welfare organisations (Appendix 42), represents an effort by its member agencies to centralise local donation campaigns.

Reflecting the expansion of social welfare services, government expenditure on social welfare has increased tremendously. In the financial year 1973-4 staff salaries and overheads, direct welfare services, subvention and allocations from the Lotteries Fund totalled $146 million, an increase of about 70 per cent over the previous financial year.

Social Security

Social security has been accepted as a government responsibility, and is ad- ministered by the Social Welfare Department. In 1974 emphasis has been laid on consolidating the three schemes-the public assistance scheme, the disability and informity allowance scheme and the criminal and law enforcement injuries compensa- tion scheme.

Public assistance has continued to meet the essential needs of the poorest members of the community. It provides cash assistance to families and individuals whose income and resources are below a prescribed level. The scale of assistance was increased twice during the year to keep pace with rising prices. On January 1, the monthly level was raised from $120 to $145 for a single person with corresponding increases for eligible members of a family. On June 1, a further increase to $180 for the single person was approved and for eligible members of a family the level went up to $130 for each of the first three members, $105 for each of the next three and $80 for every additional member. To these scale rates could be added allowances for rent, school fees, special diets and other extra needs, which have also been revised.

At the end of 1974 the number of active public assistance cases totalled 40,267 compared with about 25,000 at the end of the previous year. This increase is due partly to the growth of population, partly to the growing awareness of the scheme, and to some extent to the higher levels of benefit. The amount expended on public assistance payments for the financial year 1973-4 was $45 million compared with $30.5 million in the previous financial year.

       The disability and infirmity allowance scheme, which started in April 1973, provides non-means-tested and non-contributory cash benefits to two specially vulner- able groups of the community-the severely disabled, and the elderly infirm (those aged 75 and over) who are not looked after in a residential institution. The level of benefit for the severely disabled matches the public assistance rate for a single person, while the infirm receive half that rate. In line with public assistance the levels of the allowances were raised twice in 1974-on January 1, when they were increased from $120 to $145 and $60 to $72.50 for disability and infirmity allowances respectively,

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and again on June 1, when they went up to $180 and $90. During 1974 the scheme became firmly established with 53,862 individuals drawing allowances by the end of the year, compared with 39,016 at the end of 1973. Expenditure on payments for the financial year 1973-4 was $26.27 million.

        The levels of benefit of both the public assistance scheme and the disability and infirmity allowance scheme are reviewed regularly in the light of the cost of living. For this purpose a special public assistance index has been maintained which measures movements of the cost of food and services among the lowest income group. To gain an insight into the way the public assistance scheme matches the needs of those it is designed to help, an annual sample survey of cases is undertaken. It was found in 1974 that about 70 per cent of recipients were single and the great majority of these were elderly. The balance was made up of widows with young children (five per cent) and other categories (25 per cent). Seventy per cent of the people receiving public assistance have no other income, and a further 21 per cent have less than $250 a month.

       The criminal and law enforcement injuries compensation scheme is also non- means-tested and non-contributory. It was established in May 1973 and is designed to provide ex-gratia compensation to those persons, or the dependents of those who become victims of crimes of violence or who are accidentally injured by weapons used by law enforcement officers in the execution of their duty. By the end of the year 241 cases had been awarded compensation. Expenditure on compensation payments amounted to nearly $637,000 for the financial year 1973-4.

Emergency Relief

       The government plays a key role in providing emergency relief to victims of disasters. Fortunately no large scale event occurred in 1974, but there were several incidents mainly resulting from fires. Help was given to 3,349 victims. This included hot meals, blankets and temporary accommodation. Various improvements to the quality of the relief service were introduced in the course of the year. For example, the dietary content of meals was upgraded and milk powder for infants and hot water was made available at the site of emergencies. Drinking cups and ground mats were included as part of the relief kit given to all victims. The emergency relief teams were also strengthened by the assignment of more staff to such duties, while co-ordination at the district level of the efforts of all departments involved in handling emergencies continued to improve.

        Cash assistance and compensation are provided by the Emergency Relief Fund. The rates of assistance are kept under constant review and were increased substantially during the year.

Family Welfare Services

       Family services include counselling on social problems such as adjustment to physical and mental disabilities, training and employment; recommendations for day or residential care, compassionate rehousing, schooling and medical attention; pro- tection of women, children and young persons in need of care; investigations of cases

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concerning proposed marriage of minors, non-attendance at primary schools, and workmen's compensation. Although cases are normally dealt with on an individual basis, increasing use has been made of group methods. During 1974, family services were rendered to 23,806 families and individuals through a network of regional offices.

       The family services division of the Social Welfare Department exercises the department's statutory responsibilities in connection with the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance and the Adoption Ordinance. Children and women in moral danger are assisted through counselling and guidance, and unmarried mothers are placed in special institutions run by voluntary organisations. The department runs a centre for the temporary care of children found abandoned or wandering, and two centres for girls with behaviour problems. It also advises the Supreme Court on the suitability of adoptive parents in accordance with the provisions of the Adoption Ordinance. A total of 633 adoption cases were completed during the year.

       Another aspect of family work is compassionate rehousing, whereby room alloca- tion is processed on the basis of recommendations made by the Medical and Health Department, certain voluntary agencies, and the Social Welfare Department.

Family social work has also been extended into schools during the year in an attempt to gain a better understanding, and to assist in the solution of problems experienced by school children and their families.

       An important development for child care services during the year was the intro- duction of legislation to control the operation of child care centres. Both this legislation and the subvention policy are aimed at ensuring adequate standards. At December 31, 1974 there were 8,535 places available in 88 non-profit-making nurseries and creches. The majority of these places are heavily subsidised by the government and are reserved for low income families.

       Services rendered by voluntary agencies are equally varied. They include family counselling, marriage counselling, social work in schools, child care centres, residential institutions or homes for children and young persons with special needs. In some fields the voluntary agencies are pioneering new services such as the home-help service and the foster care service.

Rehabilitation

To provide social and vocational training to the handicapped the Social Welfare Department runs 18 centres and institutions, the newest additions during the year being a prevocational training centre for 60 mentally retarded children, and a place of refuge for the special care of certain mentally retarded children who cannot be accommodated in ordinary centres. On the average some 1,400 physically and mentally disabled people daily make use of these services which are designed to help them func- tion to the best of their ability, exercise their residual skills and learn a trade or craft so that they can be placed into employment. To facilitate further development a government planning team has been set up to prepare a programme plan for services. to the disabled.

Some 43 voluntary agencies also work in this field which comprises five main areas-blindness, deafness, mental illness, mental retardation and physical disability.

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     During the year a number of activities were organised aiming at acquainting the public with the needs of the disabled and the assistance necessary to enable them to become contributing members of the community. A 'rehabilitation week' took place during the last week of March under the auspices of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. An exhibition on blind welfare services was organised in September by the Jaycees. In the course of the year the Hong Kong Society for the Blind considerably improved its rehabilitation and training facilities.

Group and Community Work

       Group and community work embraces both community development and services for children and youth. Community development is a process by which individuals are encouraged to form groups and by which these groups are encouraged towards a sense of fellowship and collective responsibility, the aim being to create a more cohesive and stable society.

       The role of the Social Welfare Department in community development is twofold. First to provide a network of bases for community work in the form of community centres, estate welfare buildings and community halls which provide social and rec- reational facilities such as libraries, communal hall, day nurseries, clubs for all age groups, as well as casework services. These buildings conveniently bring neighbour- hood welfare services together under one roof. The department's second function is to establish Community and Youth Officers (CYOs) in each of the administrative districts to work closely with the City District Officers in the urban area and the District Officers in the New Territories. Their function is to stimulate and co-ordinate the development of community and youth services within their districts. By the end of the year 12 CYOs had been appointed in the urban area and two in the New Territories.

       Children and youth services aim to encourage young people to be involved in worthwhile activities and interests and to organise their own groups, thereby assisting them to become mature, responsible and contributing members of the community. The wide variety of activities provided includes interest groups, informal classes, holiday and work camps, uniformed youth groups, award schemes, youth councils, libraries and vocational training classes. These services can best be provided by voluntary agencies such as Caritas, YMCA, YWCA, the Lutheran World Service, the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association and many others, which are making major contributions. The voluntary sector is particularly active in experimental youth work like play leadership programmes in public parks and playgrounds, detached youth work for street-corner boys and counselling services for young people. A significant part of youth work is the encour- agement of active participation by young people in voluntary service projects within the community.

Probation and Correction

       The Social Welfare Department is responsible for the supervision of offenders placed on probation and the operation of correctional institutions. Some 50 social

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workers of the department are appointed as probation officers and are attached to various courts. In addition to making social enquiries, they organise activities for the probationers, and maintain contact with area committees in the Fight Violent Crime Campaign. On December 31 a total of 2,627 people were under probation and 7,821 social enquiries had been made in the year, which included reviews of long sentences, petitions and condemned prisoners. Schemes launched in the year included a survey on recidivism of ex-probationers and a volunteer pilot scheme whereby a small number of volunteers were selected to befriend probationers. The results from both schemes were encouraging.

There are five correctional institutions catering for boys and girls of various age groups. They are: Begonia Road Boys' Home, Ma Tau Wei Girls' Home, Kwun Tong Hostel, Castle Peak Boys' Home and O Pui Shan Boys' Home. The total capacity is 584. An aftercare service is also provided for probationers released on licence to bridge the gap between life in a reformatory school and that in the community.

       Voluntary organisations which play a part in the prevention of juvenile de- linquency are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys' Centres. The latter runs the Shing Tak Centre and the Chak Yan Centre, both providing residential training for boys who are underprivileged or delinquent.

Training of Social Workers

       The development of effective social welfare services depends largely on the employment of qualified and trained workers. In Hong Kong professional social work training at the degree level is available at the two universities from which 56 social work students graduated in 1974. The Baptist College runs a diploma course in social work which in 1974 was completed by 19 students. The Institute for Social Work Training, which opened in September 1973 with an enrolment of 50 students, offers a two year course leading to a certificate in social work. This institute caters for students who do not plan to enter university but wish to take up social work as a career, and for untrained workers already serving in the government or welfare organisations. The course is job-oriented and the Hong Kong aspects of social work training are heavily emphasised. Another 75 students were enrolled in September 1974.

The training section of the Social Welfare Department organises in-service training programmes for untrained social workers, and refresher courses for trained personnel from both the voluntary sector and the government. In addition it operates a demonstration day nursery which is also used as a training centre for nursery workers. Fieldwork supervision was provided for 43 university students during the academic year 1973-4.

Planning

The five year plan for the development of social welfare is reviewed annually to ensure that a flexible approach is maintained and that the comprehensive range of projects remains relevant, timely, and within the capacity of the resources available. At each review the plan in extended one year and in that way it keeps abreast of the continuing social welfare needs of Hong Kong.

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       The 1974 review noted projects completed or in progress under the plan for the first two years (1973 and 1974), examined in depth the projects in train for 1975, and looked more generally at those scheduled for 1976 and 1978. Further projects were also agreed, to extend the plan beyond 1978. Detailed action plans for immediate development were prepared as guidelines for the coming year.

Research and Evaluation

       In 1974 a steering committee on evaluation was set up in which the government and the voluntary sector are both represented. The main purpose is to assess existing welfare services to ensure that what is being provided is commensurate with the chang- ing needs of the community.

       Within the government, a number of projects have been completed by the research and evaluation unit of the Social Welfare Department. Notable ones include 'A Study of the Impact of the Disability and Infirmity Allowance Scheme Upon Its Target Population' and 'A Study of Closed Cases Having Applied for Criminal and Law Enforcement Injuries Compensation, 1973-4'. Another major project which began in August 1974 and which will last a period of 12 months is the 'Sample Household Expenditure Survey on Public Assistance Recipients'. This survey when completed should enable the government to compile an index accurately reflecting changes in the cost of living of households eligible for public assistance.

In the voluntary sector, attention has also been paid to research work. The Hong Kong Council of Social Service has a research department which maintains a close link with the voluntary agencies in promoting research for the improvement of welfare services in Hong Kong.

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Public Order

IN any community with more than four million people in a relatively small space, a major concern of the government is public order. The Royal Hong Kong Police Force, the Fire Services Department and the Prisons Department endeavour to keep up with the latest methods to deal with their problems. Overseas studies are made and visiting experts are consulted in various fields of internal security. Modern equipment is also tested and used by these departments if found suitable to the territory's conditions.

Police

Hong Kong continued to follow a world-wide trend in increasing crimes of violence although the force continued its efforts to cut down the crime rate, and several important counter measures were taken against criminals. One measure was the restructuring of the criminal investigation department in Kowloon District, which was launched as a pilot scheme in July. This reorganisation was aimed at improving the efficiency in the collating of criminal intelligence and crime detection and prevention. This involved the provision of more teams to investigate serious or complex crimes; the establishment of CID patrol and support squads for crime prevention; and more efficient methods of collection, collation, assessment and dissemination of criminal intelligence.

       Another experimental scheme introduced during the year was the neighbourhood policing scheme. Modelled on Britain's home beat system the scheme involves the establishment of small units of policemen stationed in housing estates. They remain in a specific area for at least a year to build up a mutual understanding with estate residents. Their responsibilities are to maintain law and order and to promote good police public relations.

       This concept of improved co-operation of, and assistance from the public was also extended to another innovation the Police Community Relations Officer Scheme, which was introduced in March. It involves the introduction into divisions of Com- munity Relations Officers. Their main tasks are to establish and maintain close contact and liaison with community organisations including City District Committees, Area Committees, Mutual Aid Committees, Kaifongs, schools, youth centres, clubs and associations; and to project a good police image and to offer advice and guidance to the local community.

        The community was also involved in the 'Good Citizen Award Fund' and greater emphasis was placed on educating members of the public about their respon- sibilities in assisting the police in their fight against crime. The fund, set up during the 1973 'Fight Violent Crime Campaign', was exploited by staging large-scale public

POLICE

In the early days of Hong Kong the police force was a mere handful of men. Now, more than 130 years later, the Royal Hong Kong Police Force has an establishment of about 16,000 with a wide range of the latest and most sophisticated equipment at its disposal. In addition to regular police the force has a civilian establishment of almost 3,000 and is supported by 7,000 part-time volunteers of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force. In October 1974 female strength in the force topped 1,000 making it the largest women's police group in the British Commonwealth. During the year, the force had many notable successes in its fight against crime, including several major seizures of illicit narcotics with a total retail value estimated at more than $120 million.

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A police launch from Marine District patrols territorial waters off Hong Kong Island.

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Police recruit constables and inspectors graduate at the conclusion of their basic training at the Police Training School, Aberdeen.

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  Hong Kong Island District control-room handles incoming 999 calls and inter-change of messages between mobile patrols.

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Three alsatians attached to the police dog unit await instructions

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presentation ceremonies at Tsz Wan Shan and Wan Chai-more than $70,000 was handed out to public spirited people.

       There were several other measures taken which, collectively greatly assist the fight against crime. Recruitment of regular police is now proceeding at a satisfactory rate, and with new intakes of high quality. This was encouraged by a pay rise which now gives police constables a minimum salary of $1,095 a month. While there is still a high percentage of vacancies in the force, the auxiliary police almost reached its full establishment of 7,000 at the end of 1974.

       Civilianisation, including the introduction of a pilot traffic warden scheme, freed about 300 uniformed men and women from routine work by the end of 1974.

Crime

       During 1974 a total of 55,911 crimes were reported to the police, an increase of 40.6 per cent over the previous year. Of those reported 25,709 cases were detected, giving an overall detection rate of 46 per cent-compared with 46.9 per cent for the preceding year.

        There were also more arrests in 1974; a total of 20,572 persons were apprehended compared with 14,480 in 1973. This represents an increase of 6,092, or 42.1 per cent.

       Of the total number of persons prosecuted 18,827 were adults (16 years or over) and 1,745 were juveniles. Compared with the previous year, both figures showed increases of 5,873 (45.3 per cent) and 219 (14.4 per cent) respectively.

       The Special Crimes Squad continued to maintain pressure and was responsible for bringing 48 persons before the courts for various offences. The most notable success was in connection with a $4.6 million jewel robbery in Tsim Sha Tsui in June. This followed two months of intensive investigation. More than one million dollars worth of stolen gems were recovered. During the year the unit has been responsible for the recovery of stolen property valued at more than $2 million as well as 108 lbs of narcotics and an assortment of arms and ammunition.

       The Triad Society Bureau concluded the first part of an in-depth survey on the scope and scale of triad activities, which should prove valuable in the planning of counter action. As a result of its continuing selection and intensive tactical action the bureau has neutralised a number of organised criminal syndicates and disrupted several deep-rooted criminal monopolies. Particular success was achieved against organised triad activities when 37 persons were charged with conspiracy to traffic in narcotics into and within the maximum security prison at Stanley. During the year the bureau was responsible for effecting the arrest of 1,137 persons.

        The systematic development of effective procedure to deal with the collection, collation and dissemination of triad intelligence was also a prime objective of the bureau during 1974. The bureau's central index was linked to the Criminal Records Office indices, providing an overall improved information service to the force on known or suspected criminal personalities.

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The former Juvenile Protection Office was effectively merged with the bureau during the year resulting in the responsibility for the juvenile liaison scheme being transferred to the districts.

       The General Investigation Office deals with a wide variety of cases including matters referred by other government departments, as well as organised gambling and vice. Notable investigations included a commercial eavesdropping, an abortionist, and cases involving foreign prostitutes.

In the field of organised gambling, direct action resulted in 70 raids conducted against establishments resulting in the arrest of 1,816 persons and the seizure of $118,239. In connection with prostitution, 104 raids were carried out and 463 persons arrested.

        In respect of indecent or obscene magazines and newspapers 65 summonses were taken out. Heavy fines and temporary suspension of printing press licences have made the publishers somewhat more cautious.

        The office also takes action against unregistered doctors, dentists and clinics and 41 premises were entered under warrant resulting in the arrest of 39 persons for a variety of offences, particularly the operation of unlicensed clinics under the Anti- biotics Ordinance and the Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance.

        More than 360 reports requiring investigation were received from other govern- ment departments, principally from the Immigration Department, Registration of Persons Office and the Registrar General's Department.

       The Homicide Squad, formed in 1972, continued to investigate cases of a pro- tracted and complicated nature as well as those cases with international ramifications.

        Included among the fraud cases investigated by the Commercial Crime Office was one involving the apparent mis-appropriation of about $15 million by a com- pany's senior officer who has since left Hong Kong. Another case reported during the year involved complaints arising from the operations of a company trading in commodity options. These arose when one of the directors and three persons described as consultants to the company left Hong Kong and monies due to investors were not paid. Sixty-five clients complained that they paid the company US$760,518 for the purchase of commodity options and that they were owed US$1,067,167.52 arising from these transactions.

        Government action to combat the counterfeiting of watches included the forma- tion, in December 1973, of a watch committee under the chairmanship of the Deputy Director of the Commerce and Industry Department. The trade investigation branch of the Commerce and Industry Department now shoulders the main responsibility for action in this field. This is because of the trade nature of this type of offence. One of the effects of this decision has been to free the Commercial Crime Office to con- centrate on frauds, counterfeit currency and forgeries. Police continue to lend their full support to the Commerce and Industry Department in this, both in terms of active operations when manpower permits, and in linking the Interpol network to the efforts of the department and the police force.

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       As a result of police action, the practice of displaying watches and jewellery for sale to which false trademarks or hallmarks have been applied is now much less common, to the benefit of both the local consumer and tourists.

       With the formation in early 1974 of a copyright investigation unit by the Com- merce and Industry Department, responsibility for the enforcement of the Copyright Ordinance is now being borne by that unit, thus freeing police from this commitment.

        The Narcotics Bureau made a number of large seizures during the year totalling 4,727 kilos of raw opium, 95.4 kilos of heroin, 285.5 kilos of morphine, 4.175 kilos of cannabis and 416 kilos of barbitone. Three large seizures of raw opium were made, including a complete consignment at the importation stage which totalled 1,282.9 kilos of raw opium and 27.884 kilos of morphine. In addition seven clandestine heroin laboratories and two 'factories' producing acetic anhydride were neutralised. The total retail value of all drugs seized by the Narcotics Bureau during 1974 exceeded $121 million.

The Identification Bureau which comprises four sections (main fingerprint collection, scenes of crime, photographic and document examination) is undergoing an extensive modification to the Henry system of classification. This modification is scheduled for completion next year. During the year 42,232 fingerprint forms were processed and 25,056 persons identified through the bureau, which holds 318,180 fingerprints on file.

        The CID Training School in the former Aberdeen Police Station, held 12-week courses for inspectorate and rank and file, including women police officers. Since April 1970 when the school opened 1,093 students have received instruction, includ- ing officers from the Royal Brunei Police, Hong Kong Immigration Department and Hong Kong Preventive Service.

Police Tactical Unit

The primary role of the Police Tactical Unit, which is based at Volunteer Slopes, Fanling, in the New Territories is to provide all members of the police force with a thorough grounding in anti-riot and crowd control tactics. The unit also provides a ready supply of trained men capable of being deployed to any situation at short notice.

Training comprises a 27-week course, following which each company has a period of 12 weeks reserve.

Each year a total of nine companies undergo training at the PTU, and peri- odically platoons of women police are formed for a one week attachment, during which they are given instruction in basic crowd control. When the need arises for an honour guard, members are selected from one of the companies under training and given instruction at the PTU.

Also based at Volunteer Slopes is the Police Personnel Carrier Unit which is equipped with 15 Saracen armoured personnel carriers.

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Communications and Transport Branch

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        The Communications and Transport Branch plans, installs, commissions and maintains for the force a sophisticated communications network which consists of radio installations, a comprehensive computer controlled teleprinter system, a telephone network, radar installations and a variety of electronic equipment. It also manages a transport fleet of 1,114 vehicles, a driver establishment of 1,249 and a driving school where all police drivers are trained and tested.

During the year 1,619 radios and 24 radar installations were in operation. There are 33 main radio systems, six territory-wide and 27 district networks.

        Of the 12 projects put in hand during the year, the most significant was a beat radio scheme aimed at providing all policemen on urban beats with portable radios. The scheme is in an advanced stage of planning and introduction of the first phase is expected in late 1975.

        The force PABX telephone network was commissioned during the year and now all major units have their own exchanges which are inter-connected by tie-lines.

Police Training School

        All police inspectors and constables on first appointment undergo basic training courses of 27 and 26 weeks respectively at the Police Training School, Wong Chuk Hang, Aberdeen. Instruction includes criminal law, police procedures, court proce- dures, physical training, first-aid, weapon training and drill. Following the trend of the police in Britain, the syllabus was revised during the latter part of the year to give greater emphasis to functional leadership and on-the-job training. A campsite on Tsing Yi Island was acquired for this purpose. With the completion of the language laboratory, the school has now taken over from the training unit of the Colonial Secretariat the task of providing an intensive Cantonese course for overseas officers.

        Apart from basic training, the school also conducts in-service, continuation and advanced training courses for serving officers. The aim of these is to refresh and bring police officers up-to-date and to develop their leadership and management qualities, particularly in the case of recently promoted police officers. During the year, 894 police officers attended these courses. When the latest expansion to the school is completed in early 1975, the additional facilities provided will enable a greater number of police officers to be trained each year.

The Police Training School also held one police service course for 28 boys and girls aged between 14 and 20 as part of the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme.

Police Cadet School

        A long-term investment for the future is how the Royal Hong Kong Police Force looks upon the Police Cadet School which opened at Fan Gardens in September 1973.

        It is hoped that eventually the majority of Hong Kong's police constables will pass through the PCS and the school will be meeting the majority recruitment needs of the force.

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       Cadets undergo a balanced syllabus of academic, physical and vocational train- ing. The academic studies comprise English, Cantonese, mathematics and social studies. In vocational training, cadets are introduced to the four disciplined services.

       The school offers free education, including books and stationery, free accom- modation and food, free uniform, free medical care and other fringe benefits. Cadets receive $60 each month as pocket money. Recruiting is within the 154-17 age bracket and there are also height, weight, education and residential qualifications for appli-

cants.

In 1974 the school was fully subscribed with 300 cadets, including 30 students undertaking a special one-year course. However, eventual planned strength for the school is 1,200 when it moves to its permanent accommodation at Shuen Wan, near Plover Cove. The school will then be graduating 600 cadets a year, about half of the annual recruitment needs of the force.

Recruitment

       Recruitment reached a new zenith with 168 inspectors, including 134 from overseas, being taken on strength during the year, compared with 111 in 1973 and 71 in 1972. Constable strength was increased by 2,222 compared with 1,320 in 1973. Of this number 412 were women. The number of inspectors and constables passing out from the Police Training School during the year was 94 and 1,428 as compared to 81 and 753 respectively in 1973.

        The extended interview scheme introduced in 1970 to test the suitability of local applicants for the post of inspector was also used to test rank and file recommended for promotion to the inspectorate grade. Lasting three days, this is designed to test candidates' power of English comprehension and expression, maturity, initiative, common sense and leadership qualities. A total of 92 local applicants and 20 rank and file attended the interviews. Of these 18 and five respectively were taken on strength as recruit inspectors.

The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force

       The establishment of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force is 7,000 all ranks and the strength of the force at the close of the year was 6,875-an increase of 115 per cent compared with 1973.

       During the year the auxiliaries supplied an average of 1,800 officers daily to support the regular police in their beat and anti-crime patrol duties. Auxiliary police officers performing these duties made many good arrests.

       Members of the force are required to undergo 14 days and 96 hours training a year. Seven of the training days are spent at an annual camp. Duties in support of regular police are purely voluntary and additional to periods of training. Apart from their normal training requirement auxiliary police officers attended additional weapon training courses and internal security training courses.

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Traffic

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       During the year 14.4 miles of road were laid, bringing the total to 651.7, an increase of 2.26 per cent. With 193,439 vehicles registered at the end of 1974, traffic density on the roads was 296.82 vehicles per mile. At the end of 1973 there were 202,775 vehicles giving a traffic density of 318.19 vehicles per mile.

       The fixed penalty system was introduced in 1971, and a total of 509,085 tickets were issued during 1974. Of these 88 per cent (432,000) were paid without appear- ance in court. Of the 106,137 cases which went to court, 74,064 were subsequently convicted, 36 dismissed and the remainder withdrawn. There is recourse in law to apply for a court order to seize the offending vehicle if the debt is not paid; the number of applications for court orders made so far is 342, and 46 vehicles have been seized.

       Road safety activities during the year consisted of two campaigns. The first was directed at pedestrians, reminding them of the advice given by the 'crossing code' introduced at the end of 1973. The second was aimed at both pedestrians and motorists, the latter being encouraged particularly to drive defensively. The Standing Conference on Road Safety, which was established in 1973, continued to hold reg- ular meetings and co-ordinate road safety activities throughout Hong Kong.

Administration

       Mr B. F. Slevin was appointed Commissioner of Police on January 15, 1974 succeeding Mr C. P. Sutcliffe who retired after 14 years service.

       During the year, five projects in the police building programme were completed. These included new sub-divisional stations at Chai Wan and Stanley, an additional block at Kowloon City Divisional Station, extra accommodation at Tsim Sha Tsui Station and improvements to frontier posts. Additionally, phase one of Kowloon District Headquarters was completed.

       At the end of the year, there were 52 projects in the police building programme, none having been added during 1974. The construction of North Point and Kwai Chung divisional stations and additional accommodation at the Police Training School were well advanced. Piling and site formation was completed in a number of other projects.

       The planning and research division of Police Headquarters completed a number of major projects during the year, including the completion of a study on force computer requirements and a number of examinations of procedures designed to ensure effective deployment of resources in specific areas. Work also began on the force long term development plan.

Women Police

       The year was one of changing concept, experiment and expansion. A direct result of this has been the increasing number of policewomen being sought for opera- tional roles in the Criminal Investigation Department and other specialist branches and formations.

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       With the introduction of the police community relations officer scheme one woman chief inspector is now serving in this capacity in the satellite town of Tsuen Wan.

       The year also marked the 25th anniversary of the inception of women police in the force and a short historical commemorative book was published and $22,236 profit was donated to the Community Chest.

        Besides day-to-day constabulary duties a number of officers voluntarily assist in the training of St John Ambulance cadets and teaching the handicapped to swim.

       Recruitment has continued to attract many young people, with 404 women recruits joining this year. The strength is 1,056 with 24 per cent of the rank and file recognised as English speakers. More than 30 per cent of the strength are married officers.

Marine Police

       The Marine Police are responsible for maintaining law and order within Hong Kong waters, an area of about 700 square miles, and for policing the outlying islands. To perform these roles, Marine Police have an establishment of 1,348 police officers and 47 police vessels.

       Besides performing police duties, the launches carried 315 sick and injured persons from the outlying islands to hospitals in the urban area.

       Also during the year, 7,072 illegal immigrants were arrested by Marine Police. This compares with 1,796 in 1970, 3,694 in 1971, 5,833 in 1972 and 6,139 in 1973.

Independent Commission Against Corruption

In October 1973, it was decided to establish an anti-corruption commission, separate from any government department, with full responsibility for investigating and rooting out corruption. Mr J. Cater, former Secretary for Home Affairs and Information was appointed to head the new commission and Mr J. V. Prendergast, former Director of Special Branch was appointed Deputy Commissioner and Director of Operations. The Independent Commission Against Corruption was established on February 15, by the enactment of the Independent Commission Against Corruption Ordinance 1974. At the same time, the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance was amended to transfer powers of investigation to the Commissioner.

       The Commissioner Against Corruption answers directly to the Governor and is advised by an advisory committee composed largely of private citizens. The commis- sion comprises three functional branches. The operations branch investigates all allegations of corruption and operates a round-the-clock report centre. A corruption prevention branch examines the practices and procedures of government departments and public bodies with a view to eliminating or at least reducing opportunities for corruption. And a community relations branch is charged with enlisting and fostering public support in combatting corruption and educating the public against the evils of corruption. The establishment of the commission is 682 posts. Public advertisements

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to fill these posts resulted in more than 8,100 applications. Some 369 posts have been filled and priority has been given to bring the operations branch to full strength. Recruitment is continuing with all possible speed to build up the corruption prevention and community relations branches. The latter will operate mainly through sub-offices established in the main population centres. It is planned that the first two sub-offices should be operational early in 1975.

       In the period since the commission came into being 3,189 allegations of corruption have been received-about three times the number received during the previous year. An operations target committee considers all reports and advises on action to be taken. The courts dealt with 108 cases, resulting in the conviction of 66 persons. A further 22 cases were still before the courts. Changes have been made to the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance to broaden the scope and strengthen further the Commissioner's powers of investigation. A corruption prevention advisory committee and a citizens advisory committee on community relations are also to be established to advise the Commissioner in these fields.

Prisons Department

       Hong Kong's penal system provides specialised programmes for offenders aged between 14 and 21, convicted persons who are found to be addicted to drugs, as well as for prisoners in minimum and maximum security institutions.

        The Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the overall administration of 14 institutions.

Prisons

       Stanley Prison, on the south-east of Hong Kong Island, is the largest security institution and accommodates both first offenders and others serving long sentences or requiring maximum security. Built in 1936 to accommodate some 1,600 prisoners the average daily muster in 1974 was 2,770. During the year work has gone ahead to improve security at the prison. All prisoners are employed within the prison on such industries as tailoring, carpentry, shoemaking, basketwork, silk screening, fibre-glass moulding and laundry work, all under qualified technical instructors. An outside annexe accommodates 80 prisoners who carry out general maintenance work outside the prison but within the adjacent area. These prisoners are classified as suitable for minimum security conditions and are serving sentences of under 18 months.

Victoria Reception Centre in Central, is easily accessible to most of the law courts and receives all male prisoners on remand and after sentencing. A separate section is set aside to accommodate offenders aged 14-21 remanded by the courts for further hearing. All convicted prisoners undergo a thorough medical examination and appear before a classification board to determine to which institution they will be sent, taking into account such factors as physical fitness, category of security required, type of offence and past history. Although only designed to accommodate 442 inmates the average daily muster in 1974 was 843. The completion of a new reception centre now under construction in Kowloon will provide relief for the overcrowding that exists in this institution.

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        Chi Ma Wan Prison on Lantau Island, is a minimum security institution and caters for prisoners serving sentences of under three years, mostly first offenders. This type of institution offers much greater potential for rehabilitation and considerably eases the prisoners' re-integration into society. The prisoners are usually employed on constructive projects, such as afforestation, reclamation, drainage, building and road works, often carried out far from the institution. This work is planned in co-operation with the New Territories Administration and besides giving the prisoners a sense of pride and achievement it greatly benefits the local population.

Siu Lam Psychiatric Centre near Castle Peak in the New Territories was opened in 1972 and caters for remand and convicted male prisoners who require psychiatric care. There is accommodation for 120 patients at the centre which is manned by trained staff with a consultant psychiatrist.

        Tai Lam Centre for Women, also near Castle Peak, caters for remand and con- victed women prisoners, the treatment of convicted females found to be drug addicts and the training and rehabilitation of young female offenders aged between 14 and 21. Work carried out is geared to female inmates and includes a large mechanised laundry.

Chatham Road Centre, near Hung Hom, Kowloon, accommodates young offenders remanded by the courts for a report from the Commissioner as to their suitability for detention in a training or detention centre, male offenders remanded by the courts on minor offences requiring only minimum security and young offenders sentenced to less than 18 months.

Ma Hang Prison situated near Stanley, on Hong Kong Island, caters for male prisoners requiring only minimum security who are sentenced to less than 18 months and in the case of geriatrics, less than three years.

        Pik Uk Prison situated on Clearwater Bay Road, Kowloon, was due for comple- tion in January 1975. Built to ease the growing prison population it will accommodate male prisoners requiring only minimum security and sentenced to less than three years. It is intended that a large proportion of the prisoners will be engaged in outside work on community projects in co-operation with the New Territories Administration.

Training Centres

        These centres provide an alternative to imprisonment for offenders aged between 14 and 21. Being basically a rehabilitative form of training the daily tempo is brisk and the inmates are fully occupied in studies, vocational and trade training, hobbies and sport. A sentence runs from a minimum of six months to a maximum of three years depending upon the inmate's progress and other factors, the average stay being 14 months. This is followed by a compulsory period of three years supervision under an aftercare officer.

        Cape Collinson Training Centre on the Cape Collinson headland near Sai Wan, Hong Kong Island, caters for the age group usually 18 to 21 years.

        Tai Tam Gap Training Centre, off the Shek O Road, Hong Kong Island, caters for the younger age group, usually 14 to 17 years.

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Detention Centres

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        These centres are another alternative for the courts to consider in dealing with offenders aged between 14 and 21. Basically deterrent in nature, the programme is designed to provide a rigorous and demanding routine while providing positive training. The sentence runs from a minimum of one month to a maximum of six months depending on the detainee's progress and other factors, the average stay being four months, followed by a compulsory period of six months supervision under an aftercare officer. Aimed at the young criminal who has never experienced institutional life, emphasis is placed on strict discipline and hard work with few privileges. This type of centre has been in operation for two years, and results so far are most encouraging. Sha Tsui Detention Centre on Lantau Island, caters for the age group usually 18 to 21. Tong Fuk Detention Centre also on Lantau Island, caters for the younger age group usually 14 to 17 years.

Addiction Treatment Centres

       If a convicted prisoner is found to be drug dependant the treatment centres can, if the person is suitable, be an alternative to imprisonment. The period of treatment is from six to 18 months depending on the inmate's progress and other factors, fol- lowed by a compulsory period of 12 months supervision under an aftercare officer. The majority of inmates respond to the treatment and the programme of the centre and there is usually a rapid improvement in their well-being and physique. The centres are run on open lines and the work carried out by the inmates is usually of a construc- tive nature, often in community work for the benefit of the local population. Compre- hensive medical and psychological treatment aided by individual and group counselling are all part of the programme. The New Life House is a half-way house which helps to span the gap between institutional life and society.

       Tai Lam Drug Addiction Treatment Centre, near Castle Peak, caters mostly for the first offender. Ma Po Ping Drug Addiction Treatment Centre on Lantau Island, caters mostly for the recidivist.

Aftercare

       Aftercare, specifically provided under the Training, Detention and Treatment Centres Ordinance, is carried out by officers of the Prisons Department and plays an important role in the rehabilitation of ex-inmates. Aftercare work starts soon after an inmate is admitted to a centre when mutual trust and respect is fostered between the case worker and his client. The aftercare officer provides advice and assistance to the former inmates and his family and if necessary makes recommendations for the inmates recall to further training or treatment.

Staff

All newly recruited staff undergo a 12-month training programme at the Staff Training Institute at Stanley and in the field, with specialised training for certain types of institution. The training is comprehensive in both theory and practice and

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intermediate and advanced examinations are held. Recruitment drives continued successfully throughout 1974. Although the department remained under strength, especially at the officer level, there was a net increase of 714 in the strength.

Fire Services

       The Fire Services Department had one of its busiest years on record, answering 6,971 fire, 109,103 ambulance and 3,602 special service calls. Calling on experience gained in previous years, the department was able to cope satisfactorily with problems which arose when water restrictions were introduced in late September for a short time.

       The two most prevalent causes of fire were careless disposal of lighted cigarette ends (1,685) and electrical faults (1,183)-or 41 per cent of all fires in Hong Kong during a year in which 25 people died and 384 were injured (33 firemen) as a result of fire.

        Direct monetary loss from fire was estimated at about $50 million. Indirect losses, which are largely incalculable, are claimed by experts to be as much as three times the figure for direct losses.

The department continued its planned expansion programme which aims to keep pace with increasing urbanisation of the rural areas, and provide cover for urban areas with a high fire risk. During 1974, a new fire station was opened at Yau Ma Tei; at the end of the year there were 18 stations in various categories of the public works programme.

Ambulance Command

       The Ambulance Command is also expanding to meet continuously growing demands on its services. A depot was opened at Yau Ma Tei in March and another at Tsz Wan Shan in September, bringing the total to nine, and a further 11 are planned before the end of the decade. The ambulance fleet remained at 86 at the end of the year, although five ambulances were en route and an additional eight had been ordered for 1975. Modern facilities are provided on ambulances, and staff are now being trained to administer treatment to patients as soon as they are placed in an ambulance.

        The number of calls dealt with by the command has been rising each year, and in 1974 there was a seven per cent increase. On several days, close to 400 calls were answered.

Fire Prevention Bureau

        It was another busy year for the Fire Prevention Bureau, which carried out 176,530 inspections of schools, factories, residences, places of public entertainment, and restaurants. The number of complaints of all kinds investigated was 83,590, the majority concerned with means of escape. The bureau is required to lay down mini- mum fire protection requirements for new buildings and, during the year, a total of

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5,756 plans were received for processing. Strict action is taken against contraventions of the Dangerous Goods Ordinance and, in 1974, the number of prosecutions relating to offences against this ordinance was 1,103. Fines totalling $444,765 were levied. The bureau has eight divisions staffed by 199 officers, and operates round the clock.

Appliances

       New appliances brought into service included an 85 feet Simon Snorkel (elevated hydraulic platform), and 11 fire-engines. Three modern mobile kitchens designed by the department to provide meals for men attending major fires were also introduced during the year. The total number of appliances and vehicles in service is now 352. There are six fireboats and the Airport Fire Contingent mans a Civil Aviation Depart- ment rescue catamaran. A replacement for the No 3 Fireboat stationed at Aberdeen has been approved at a cost of more than $1.25 million. A number of appliances are on order, including a 91 feet Snorkel and 12 x 50 feet snorkels. It is planned to buy three 170 feet turntable ladders. Following a long period of evaluation, 30 American-made radio transmitter sets capable of performing both portable and mobile roles were bought; an additional 39 are on order. A variety of fire-fighting and related equipment from different parts of the world was tested during the year, but most was found not to fit the department's requirements.

Recruitment

       Recruitment of firemen and ambulancemen was generally satisfactory, although recruitment of assistant station officers of the required calibre proved difficult. Of a total of 293 applicants to join this rank, only 21 were appointed. As a result, there was a deficiency of 22 per cent at the end of the year. There were 439 applications to joint in the rank of ambulance officer, of whom two were appointed. Applications to join as firemen (operational and marine), ambulancemen, senior firemen (control) and senior ambulancemen totalled 2,701-190 were appointed.

Training School

Intake at the Training School totalled 497 all ranks, of whom 78 were officers. There were 11 initial training courses attended by 448 recruits, and three passing out parades; a total of 492 recruits completed training during the year. The Training School also takes on the responsibility of giving fire-fighting training to staff of other government departments and of commercial and industrial firms in Hong Kong. During 1974, the number of persons who received this training was 1,006.

Establishment

The departmental establishment at the end of the year was 3,717 all ranks, an increase of 267 over the previous year's figure. Strength was 3,339, giving a deficiency of 378 (or 10 per cent). The non-uniformed establishment increased from 328 at the end of 1973 to 344.

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The Hong Kong Preventive Service is a disciplined force of 1,100 officers and men under the control of the Director of Commerce and Industry in his capacity as Commissioner.

       The service is responsible for the protection of revenue derived from three cate- gories of goods which are dutiable-alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and hydrocarbon oils used for automotive purposes. Physical controls over the import, export, manufac- ture, sale and storage of these commodities throughout Hong Kong are administered by the service. The success of revenue protection operations is reflected in the number of seizures made during the year-29 illicit stills, 14,816 gallons of fermenting materials, 2,705 lbs of tobacco, 2,546 gallons of liquor and 2,832 gallons of diesel oil were taken into custody and confiscated.

       The service has important responsibilities in the prevention and detection of illicit narcotic and other dangerous drugs usage. More than half the strength of the service is now totally committed to anti-drug activity. While the main effort has centred on the prevention of illegal imports in the harbour and at the airport, there has been a concentrated drive against premises used for the manufacture and sale of drugs. During the year 1,400 successful operations were mounted leading to the seizure of 627 lbs of dangerous drugs, which included 30 lbs of heroin and 19 lbs of morphine. A total of 4,148 persons were arrested in connection with these cases; three persons were found manufacturing and 176 trafficking. The majority of persons arrested were convicted of simple possession of narcotics and smoking dangerous drugs in a divan. The total value of dangerous drugs seized was more than $3.6 million. In addition, 4,445 lbs of acetic anhydride (used in the manufacture of heroin) valued at $537,450, was seized aboard four ocean-going vessels.

       At the beginning of the year the service assumed an additional responsibility when it became the sole agency for enforcing copyright legislation. A small unit was established within the service specifically to deal with matters concerning the infringe- ment of copyright. During the year this unit handled 78 cases involving the seizure of 268 tape cassette recorders, two high speed tape copying machines, 154,238 pirated cassette tapes, 15,581 pirated records, 339 pirated record cartridges and 58 pirated books. In addition, more than 8,000 blank cassette tapes were seized under the Merchandise Marks Ordinance for bearing false labels. A total of 67 persons were convicted of various copyright offences resulting in fines amounting to almost $230,000 being imposed by the courts.

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Tourism and Immigration

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     TOURISM is Hong Kong's second largest foreign currency earner, with nearly 1.3 million visitors attracted to the territory in 1974. Despite the current slow-down of economic activity gross earnings from tourism were estimated at $2,850 million, an increase of nine per cent over 1973. Hong Kong also attracts many immigrants, and during the year 36,224 legal immigrants, mostly from China, arrived in the territory.

Tourism

       In a year of worldwide slow-down of economic activity and rising fuel prices, the tourist industry has not remained unaffected, dependent as it is on low-cost sea and air transportation. However, compared with other well-developed tourist des- tinations around the world, Hong Kong has fared well, recording an overall, although small, increase in the number of arrivals of 0.3 per cent over 1973. This does not compare with the higher growth rates of previous years, but must still be regarded as a satisfactory achievement.

       A total of 1,295,462 visitors arrived in Hong Kong during 1974 and the South- east Asia regional market, which developed rapidly during 1973, continued to grow despite some travel restrictions and various economic problems. Visitors from South- east Asia numbered 275,670 and now represent 21.3 per cent of all visitors. At the same time there has been a significant decline in the number of Japanese visitors- a total of 423,098 arrived in Hong Kong in 1974. The American market has continued to grow, slowly, despite higher air fares on Pacific routes. This was made possible by the expansion of 10-day charter programmes from the United States which have brought thousands of Americans to Hong Kong for longer stays than in the past. A similar although much smaller programme is now in operation from Britain, but overall the British market has declined due primarily to the unfavourable economic situation there. Within Western Europe long-haul travel is about the same level as last year, with considerable variations between countries, and West Germany sustain- ing above average growth.

The increase in the number of visitors from Australia and New Zealand con- tinued, and this is developing into an important market for Hong Kong due to the introduction of a charter programme. During the year 117,901 Australians and New Zealanders visited Hong Kong and it is expected that this trend will continue despite devaluation of the Australian currency. During the autumn a large scale Hong Kong promotion took place in Australia coinciding with the introduction of a direct Hong Kong/Sydney/Hong Kong, Cathay Pacific Airways route.

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       A slight decline in hotel occupancy during the year from 77 per cent in 1973 to about 72 per cent reflected the increase in the number of hotel rooms from 11,432 to 13,241 with the opening of the Sheraton Hong Kong Hotel and the Hotel Plaza. Still under construction was the Holiday Inn, due to open in early 1975. A number of other hotel projects in the pipeline will reach completion in 1976-7.

       The active promotion by the Hong Kong Tourist Association of a longer stay in Hong Kong appears to have made some impact with the average length increasing slightly from 3.5 nights in 1973 to 3.6 nights in 1974. During the year the HKTA also developed a series of tour planning guides for overseas markets to back up the longer stay programme with emphasis on some new or different tours, plus a host of do-it-yourself activities.

       Two of the most popular tours developed during the year take visitors to the islands of Lantau, Cheung Chau and Peng Chau, and the association is also actively engaged in developing more new tours encompassing other areas in the New Territories.

       During the year the Hong Kong Tourist Association, in conjunction with the travel industry as a whole and local kaifong associations, lent its support to a lantern festival organised in Victoria Park at mid-autumn festival. It is hoped that this will develop into a regular tourist attraction.

As the Hong Kong Convention Centre in the World Trade Centre neared com- pletion, scheduled for mid-1975, a number of conventions, conferences and exhibition bookings were made for its facilities. At the same time the Hong Kong Tourist As- sociation was making preparations for the establishment of a convention department to further develop Hong Kong's potential as a convention destination.

The second Arts Festival held in February 1974 continued to enrich and promote Hong Kong's cultural image abroad and generated numerous other cultural activities in Hong Kong during the year. The support for the 1975 Arts Festival from overseas was most encouraging.

       The Hong Kong Tourist Association launched a courtesy programme during the year with emphasis on education and incentives to improve standards and atti- tudes among employees in the industry. For the educational phase of the programme a film was produced which imparts the courtesy message in a humorous way to employees in the industry. This film has already been shown to thousands of tourist industry employees. In association with its retail trade members the HKTA also organised a series of sales training courses at the Kwun Tong Vocational Training Centre. A beginner's course for guides was also held at the centre during the autumn, in conjunction with the Hong Kong Association of Travel Agents.

       Despite the impact worldwide of tightening money supply visitors' spending power still increased in current terms. Per capita expenditure in 1974 was estimated at $1,900 compared with $1,750 in 1973. The overall earnings from the tourist industry during 1974 was estimated at $2,850 million, an increase over 1973 of nine per cent.

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Immigration

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       The work of the Immigration Department falls into four divisions-the control of people moving in and out of Hong Kong; the issue of travel documents to local residents; the issue of visas and entry certificates on behalf of Britain and Common- wealth countries without their own visa office in Hong Kong; and naturalisation and registration under the British Nationality Acts.

To match the increasing volume and complexity of immigration case work, the establishment was increased to 758 immigration service officers and 433 other officers. The recruits included more than 30 university graduate immigration officers, the highest number of graduates to join the department in one year. An additional two floors were allocated giving the department a total of 10 floors in International Building. The investigation division moved to spacious accommodation in nearby Li Po Chun Chambers. Various internal moves have been planned to benefit both the public and the staff next year.

        The travel trade is particularly sensitive to variations in the world economic climate and it was no surprise to find immigration statistics reflecting the general slow-down of economic activity. Hong Kong remained a strong attraction to over- seas Chinese, and it was necessary to introduce measures to reduce the numbers of those who come as visitors with the intention of staying illegally. Emigration from Hong Kong was affected by a general tightening of immigration control overseas as countries sought to grapple with rising unemployment. Even so traffic increased by 0.12 per cent and brought the number of passengers passing through immigration control to a record 9,664,479. Of these, 3,473,646 travelled by air (up three per cent); 4,408,915 travelled by sea (mainly Macau traffic, down one per cent), and 1,781,918 by land (down three per cent). A total of 4,076 passengers were refused permission to land, of these, 665 were allowed to transit Hong Kong under supervision. The remainder, who were returned from where they came, held invalid travel documents, or were personally undesirable, or were outside the rules for residence. The number of persons entering from China legally fell from 55,659 in 1973 to 32,920.

        Demand for travel documents was uneven-62,391 British (Hong Kong) passports (53,835 in 1973); 78,052 Certificates of Identity (90,772 in 1973); and 487,100 Re- entry Permits (693,542 in 1973) were issued.

In February, the Governor delegated authority to the Director of Immigration to sign certificates of naturalisation and registration, and in March the naturalisa- tion unit of the Colonial Secretariat was absorbed into the Immigration Department's own naturalisation section. The machinery for dealing with applications remains unchanged. They are seen by the Naturalisation Applications Board, with members drawn from the Home Affairs Department and the Security Branch of the Colonial Secretariat, with an assistant director of immigration as chairman. During the year, 1,011 applications for naturalisation were received (1,018 in 1973), plus 1,490 applica- tions for registration as citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies (1,345 in 1973).

       The influx of illegal immigrants continued to cause concern. During the year, 22,928 cases of illegal entry were recorded (21,758 in 1973). During the year, 445

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AIRPORT

The story of Hong Kong International Airport, as with most other major airports in the world, is one of continual growth to meet the ever increasing demands im- posed by larger and faster aircraft carrying more and more passengers, freight and mail. In 1929 an area of reclaimed land in Kowloon Bay was rented for use as a landing field and it is from this beginning that the present modern airport has de- veloped. During 1932-the first full year of operation 1,185 passengers were carried from an aerodrome covering 205 acres. By 1974 the airport had grown to 550 acres, almost wholly on reclaimed land, and passengers totalled nearly four mil- lion. Below is a group of ground hostesses representing most of the 29 airlines which fly in and out of Hong Kong.

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persons, mostly illegal immigrants, were removed from Hong Kong under Removal Orders authorised by the Governor (389 in 1973); 19 persons were deported for life on the authority of the Governor in Council (five in 1973); and 2,917 prosecutions were instituted under the Immigration Ordinance (4,422 in 1973), mainly for illegal entry, contravention of landing conditions and false documentation. Fines totalled $709,465 ($1,470,585 in 1973). In addition 218 illegal immigrants from China, who were apprehended while trying to enter Hong Kong, were refused permission to land and repatriated to China under arrangements which came into effect at the end of November.

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Public Works and Utilities

   EXPENDITURE on public works continues to be the government's greatest single financial commitment. The programme includes the formation and reclamation of land and the construction of all types of public buildings, as well as the provision of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs.

     Approved capital expenditure for the financial year 1974-5 was $1,465 million, or about a quarter of total government expenditure. Of this sum, $152 million is being spent on public housing, $294 million on roads and $387 million on water supplies.

Water Supplies

     The continuous water supply enjoyed for the previous six years came to an end on September 25, when as a result of below average summer rains, water restrictions had to be imposed.

     At the beginning of the year the storage position had been considerably more favourable than in the previous year, there being 51,941 million gallons in storage on January 1, 1974 compared with 40,613 million gallons on January 1, 1973. Rainfall, however, was 6.04 inches less than the average of 85.41 inches, with long periods of hot dry weather in July and August. Yields were consequently depleted so that Hong Kong entered the dry season in October with its reservoirs only 51.1 per cent full. This meant that the territory had 34,438 million gallons in storage on October 1, 1974, compared with 65,513 million gallons on October 1, 1973. A decision to impose restrictions was made in early September with the intention of reducing consumption by some 25 per cent and entering the 1975 wet season with not less than 10,000 million gallons in storage. A 16-hour daily supply between 6 am and 10 pm was introduced on September 25, and further reduced to a 10-hour daily supply, in two periods 6 am to 11 am and 4 pm to 9 pm, from October 9. A continuous supply was maintained to hospitals, industrial areas and other consumers having an essential need for such supplies.

But for two late typhoons it would have been necessary further to restrict the supply to a four-hour daily zoned supply at the end of October. Typhoon Carmen, which affected the territory from October 18 to 20, brought some 20 inches of rain and made it possible to avoid such severe restrictions.

On January 1, 1974, about 40,665 million gallons of water were stored in Plover Cove. Owing to the reduced inflow and absence of strong typhoon winds during the summer months the salinity of the impounded water increased and severe stratifica- tion occurred. Typhoon Carmen and its associated rains rectified the stratification

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and reduced the salinity, which by the end of 1974 was little different from that at the beginning of the year-94 ppm. The quality of the abstracted water remained satisfactory throughout the year.

The agreement with the People's Council of Kwangtung Province provides for the annual supply of 18,500 million gallons; in fact, the total delivery of water from October 1, 1973 to August 10, 1974 was 18,507 million gallons.

Demand for water continued to rise, but at a slower rate than in previous years, with a daily peak of 256.5 million gallons, a decrease of 0.2 per cent from the 1973 peak. The average consumption throughout the year was 210.5 million gallons per day, much the same as last year because of the slower increase in demand and the imposi- tion of restrictions. A total of 76,841 million gallons of potable water was consumed compared with 78,780 million gallons in 1973. In addition, 14,139 million gallons of salt water for flushing were supplied, 1.6 per cent more than 1973.

All civil engineering work related to the raising of Plover Cove dams, the con- struction of the extension pumping station at Tai Po Tau and the uprating and extension of Sha Tin Treatment Works was completed, pumping plant installed and the commissioning of filter beds to provide a total output of 175 million gallons a day well advanced. The uprating of Tai Mei Tuk Pumping Station continued, with one uprating pump installed and the second on site awaiting installation. An order was placed for a further extension pump for Tai Po Tau Pumping Station, to meet an- ticipated demands.

The drier summer enabled satisfactory progress to be made on the main contract for the construction of dams for High Island Reservoir, although some delays were caused when remedial works were required to seal leakage beneath the eastern sea cofferdam. Production of sand bitumen for the cofferdam filters started at the begin- ning of the year and on completion the plant was converted to the production of asphaltic concrete for the impervious, flexible cores for the main dams. With the closure of the eastern sea cofferdam, the reservoir area was pumped out and water collected from rains maintained at a low level for salt dilution. Dolosse casting was completed and the units placed in position and the casting yard was then converted to the production of Svee blocks. Work on access roads, tunnels and intakes con- tinued according to programme, with final tunnel breakthrough of the 24-mile tunnel system on August 19. The construction of the main pumping station progressed satisfactorily and contracts for constructing the lowland pumping stations were let. At Sha Tin, contracts were awarded and work started on construction of additional clarifiers and uprating of the filters to increase capacity of the treatment works from 175 to 240 million gallons a day. Breakthrough of the second Lion Rock Tunnel was made on April 29, and work on tunnel lining and pipe laying was ahead of schedule.

Work on the 40-million-gallon a day desalter continued satisfactorily, although the fuel crisis had repercussions on the manufacture and delivery of plant from Japan. This caused a delay in completion of the first unit, commissioning of which had to be re-scheduled for January 1975. All major civil engineering works were completed, with the emphasis changing to plant erection. Most senior posts were filled although difficulty was experienced in recruiting certain specialist staff.

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     In addition to the major water schemes, work continued on other projects to provide for increasing demand in existing and new areas of development. The exten- sion of supplies to New Territories villages in the Tai Po and Yuen Long districts was completed and a further scheme was under consideration. In Kowloon the first stage of a scheme to extend supplies eastwards to provide for new development was well in hand, as was the provision of supplies to new development at Lai Chi Kok. On Hong Kong Island, a scheme to improve supplies to Shau Kei Wan and Chai Wan was well in hand and a scheme to provide for growing development at Pok Fu Lam was started.

     The implementation of improvements in consumer services continued to be hampered by the lack of middle management staff, while the shortage of clerical staff continued to pose problems in dealing with the ever increasing number of consumers. On the brighter side, approval was given to proceed with computerisation of the meter installation and water billing systems. Further detailed studies on specific requirements were necessary for the monitoring of the waterworks system and these continued throughout the year in connection with the examination of the safety of reservoirs. Inspections of certain older reservoirs were conducted by an approved engineer and reports containing specific recommendations for safety measures received for con- sideration. Proposals for provision of water supplies to new towns at Sha Tin, Tuen Mun and Tsuen Wan were amended in the light of revised programmes for development.

Buildings

      The year started with uncertainty concerning fuel and cement supplies, and a substantial increase in the price of cement. The inflationary conditions both overseas and locally have persisted, but have been accompanied in Hong Kong by a marked contraction in demand for new construction in the public, and to a lesser degree in the private, sectors.

As a result, overall building costs have shown a slight but steady decrease after an initial increase in the early part of the year. Material costs generally have followed the same pattern and wages have remained steady, although output from the labour force has increased.

     Unfortunately these conditions are not conducive to the investment necessary to bring about a greater degree of mechanisation or system building in Hong Kong. Therefore, if the demand for new construction were to increase, wage rates in the building industry would probably be forced upwards.

Despite initial difficulties in obtaining adequate supplies of cement at the begin- ning of the year, progress on construction of government buildings has in general been faster than expected, due to the comparatively dry summer and increased productivity. Maintenance works on buildings continued to expand and construction of buildings for the Property Services Agency of the Department of the Environment progressed satisfactorily. Private architects, quantity surveyors and consultant en- gineers continued to assist in the public building programme but on a reduced scale, several projects having been curtailed.

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During the year expenditure on public housing and associated building work amounted to $169 million, and on all other projects to $204 million.

       During the year, as part of the 10-year housing programme, five housing blocks providing accommodation for 16,700 people were completed. Also completed were one estate welfare building, one 24-classroom primary school, two kindergartens and two flatted factories in various housing estates, together with the first phase of the conversion of resettlement blocks at Shek Kip Mei Estate, involving work on six blocks.

       By the end of the year work was in progress on 40 housing blocks which, when completed, will provide accommodation for about 157,850 people, while fifteen 24- classroom primary schools, 15 kindergartens, one estate welfare centre, five estate welfare halls and four large commercial complexes were also under construction. In addition, site formation work, planning or preparatory work was in hand or con- struction work was about to start on several housing estates which, when completed, will provide accommodation for a further 110,000 people.

       Many varied projects were completed during the year, those most notable on Hong Kong Island were the extension to Shau Kei Wan Government Secondary Technical School, the multi-storey car park at Murray Road, the pharmaceutical manufactory at the central medical stores of Government Supplies Department, a police station at Stanley and a sub-divisional police station at Chai Wan, a block containing 39 married soldiers' quarters at Victoria Barracks, a community centre at Chai Wan, the first stage of Kennedy Town Swimming Pool and a playground at Pokfulam Road.

      Among the many buildings completed in Kowloon were the apron services complex at Hong Kong International Airport, a passenger pier, apron docks, air bridges and the piling work for the vehicular deck and multi-storey car park, all forming part of the airport terminal building modifications, together with a college of education at Piper's Hill, the reprovisioning of the Department of the Environment property at Kai Tak, a new building for Radio Hong Kong, the new Lai Chi Kok General Hospital, the first stage of Kowloon District Police Headquarters, and the reprovisioning of Sai Yee Street Playground.

       Work completed in the New Territories included the installation of air naviga- tional aids on Cheung Chau, a training school for the Preventive Service, the reprovi- sioning of Marine Department quarters at Tathong Point Light Station, a detention centre for young offenders at Shek Pik, pest control stores, offices and quarters at Rennie's Mill, a swimming pool complex and park at Tsuen Wan and temporary office accommodation for the New Territories development department of the Public Works Department at Sha Tin.

      Projects under construction at the end of the year included the installation of secondary surveillance radar on Mount Parker, technical institutes at Kwun Tong and Kwai Chung, an ambulance depot at Mount Davis, an extension to the work- shops and apprentice training practice shop at the Caroline Hill premises of the electrical and mechanical office of the Public Works Department, staff quarters to serve both the newly completed Lai Chi Kok General Hospital and a new mental hospital to be sited adjacent to it, medical clinics at Kowloon East and Kwai Chung

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and a medical specialist clinic to serve the east of Hong Kong Island. Also under construction were a new divisional police headquarters and police station at Kwai Chung; accommodation for the Police Tactical Unit companies at Aberdeen; the new General Post Office in Central; a new prison and a maximum security training centre at Pik Uk; departmental quarters for the uniformed staff of the Immigration Department; and the new railway terminal building, bus terminus, multi-storey car park for 900 cars, and podium to the indoor stadium, all forming part of the Kowloon-Canton Railway Hung Hom development complex. Several playgrounds, amenity areas, latrines, hawker bazaars and floodlighting schemes were also in hand.

      At the end of the year design, working drawings or contract documents were in preparation for about 200 projects, including a new restaurant and kitchen, a new arrivals hall, an extension to the existing office block, new passenger piers and apron docks and new airside waiting accommodation, all of which will form part of the building modification at Hong Kong International Airport. Also included are second- ary technical schools at Oxford Road and Kwai Shing, a technical institute at Cheung Sha Wan, fire stations at Kotewall Road, Chung Hom Kok and San Hui, a multi- storey car park at Yau Ma Tei, the reprovisioning of Green Island Signal Station, a servicing depot for the electrical and mechanical office of the Public Works Depart- ment at Silvermine Bay, Lantau, a second block of government offices in Garden Road, the reprovisioning of the headquarters of the Royal Hong Kong Regiment, and a new judiciary building on Gascoigne Road. Also in the planning or pre- contract stages were a mental hospital at Lai Chi Kok, a pupil nursing auxiliaries training school together with nurses' quarters at Kowloon Hospital, district police headquarters for the Kowloon, New Territories and marine districts, divisional police stations in Central, Cheung Sha Wan and Sha Tin and sub-divisional police stations at Sheung Kwai Chung and Ping Che Road, an international mail centre, a pre-release centre for Prisons' Department, a community centre at Yau Ma Tei and the reprovisioning of Sheung Shui Social Centre, an outdoor stadium at Ho Man Tin ulti- mately intended to accommodate 50,000 spectators, a sports training centre and velo- drome at Causeway Bay, swimming pool complexes at Tai Wan and Hammer Hill Road, an indoor games centre at Morrison Hill, and indoor games halls at Morse Park, Cheung Sha Wan and Boundary Street. Design work was also in hand for the superstructure of the indoor stadium which will form part of the Kowloon-Canton Railway Hung Hom development complex. When completed this stadium will be capable of seating 15,000 spectators. In addition, several recreation grounds, beach buildings, markets and off-street refuse collection centres were also being planned.

Drainage and Anti-pollution Projects

Sewage from buildings is generally conveyed by a separate system of sewers and, in most cases, is discharged into the sea via submarine outfalls after screening to remove offensive solids. A close and constant watch was kept on building develop- ments so that existing sewers were enlarged or duplicated and new sewers were laid in time to meet these increasing needs. Accordingly, new sewers were laid in North Point and Kowloon Tong and were being laid in Aberdeen, Chai Wan, Yau Ma Tei and in Tuen Mun and Sha Tin new towns.

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With the growing concern over environmental pollution, more emphasis was placed on sewage treatment and waste disposal, and the abatement of water pollution. This year saw the completion of four major investigations in these areas by consulting engineers-an investigation into the best method for treating and disposing of sewage from the north-west Kowloon area, a feasibility study on sewage treatment for Sha Tin New Town, a study on stream pollution in the New Territories, and an investigation of the disposal of solid wastes in Hong Kong. The construction of the Shek Wu Hui pilot sewage treatment plant was completed and the plant was being commissioned with a view to carrying out experiments for assessing the suita- bility of various sewage treatment methods under Hong Kong conditions. A temporary sewage treatment plant at Sha Tin New Town was being constructed to meet the needs of the initial stage of development. The first stage of the plant had been completed and was being commissioned. A new submarine outfall off the east end of Wan Chai reclamation was being constructed while a new submarine outfall off the west end was commissioned.

The design of a sewage screening plant and submarine outfall for Aberdeen was in hand, and consulting engineers were assigned to proceed with the design of the interim and permanent sewage treatment plant for Sha Tin New Town. Consulting engineers were also engaged to carry out technical audit and pre-commissioning study for the design and construction of the polystyrene polymerisation plant on Tsing Yi Island.

Monitoring of water quality in local waters was continued to obtain long-term data for the design of new facilities for sewage treatment and disposal, and to establish pollution levels and trends.

The major part of the Shing Mun River training works at Sha Tin was completed and the design of the remaining part was in hand. The first phase of the Jordan nullah extension in Kowloon Bay was also completed, and works in progress included exten- sion and construction of an arterial drain in Chai Wan Reclamation and Kwai Chung, the laying of stormwater drains at Sha Tin and Tuen Mun new towns, and construction of drainage improvement works at On Lok Tsuen, Fanling.

Port Works

       On Hong Kong Island 1,100 feet of seawall and a public berth were completed at Kennedy Town. The seawall will protect a reclamation earmarked as a site for a temporary wholesale fruit and vegetable market; the public berth facilitates the landing of fruit and vegetables and other foodstuff from China. Other works completed were 760 feet of seawall and rubble mound at Ah Kung Ngam, and 1,700 feet of sea- wall at Chai Wan. Work continued on the fifth and final stage of the Central reclama- tion scheme. Work started on a salt-water pumphouse at Edinburgh Place which will provide cooling water for the air-conditioning system of Murray Road Car Park and the future Murray Building II.

       In Kowloon, work was completed on the breakwaters for the Kowloon Bay Typhoon Shelter and cargo-handling basin, 1,100 feet of seawall for the next stage of the reclamation of Kowloon Bay, a salt-water pumphouse off the airport runway

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to augment the existing salt-water airport pumphouse and the final stage of the sea- wall and reclamation for the extension of Tong Mi Road. At Sham Shui Po the completion of 1,200 feet of seawall permitted work to concentrate on reclamation to provide land for a ferry concourse and for the West Kowloon corridor road project.

In the New Territories a public pier at Pak Sha Wan, Hebe Haven, was completed. This pier provides better access to the swimming beaches in the Sai Kung Peninsula. Other works completed were a tide gauge house and the installation of tide recording equipment at Tsim Bei Tsui, Deep Bay, and 2,100 feet of rubble mound at Shuen Wan, Tolo Harbour, for enclosing a controlled tipping site for refuse. This will eventually provide additional recreational space.

Land Development

     In Kowloon, development of land for housing, commercial and community uses and for road improvement included about 3.2 acres of terraced sites at Pak Tin and 42 acres at the Clear Water Bay Road development. Off Cornwall Street, three acres of park area were formed. In Kwun Tong, progress was made in the reclamation of 21 acres of land at Kowloon Bay for public roads and industrial de- velopment. At Kai Tak, 17 acres were formed for the extension of airport facilities. At Sham Shui Po 8.2 acres were reclaimed and at the Tong Mi Road extension, 3.9 acres.

On Hong Kong Island, reclamation continued with the formation of 4.2 acres of land at Chai Wan, 2.5 acres at Kennedy Town and 4.5 acres in Central. At Ap Lei Chau 6.6 acres of terraced sites were formed for government housing estates.

      In the New Territories, progress was made in the reclamation of six acres at Gin Drinker's Bay for industrial purposes. Also reclaimed were three acres at Shuen Wan and 0.9 of an acre at the Kwai Chung incinerator site. In the first stage of the new town at Tuen Mun, the remaining site formation, roads and drains including the trunk road between San Hui and Fu Tei were completed. Construction of Pillar Point Road from Pak Kok to Pillar Point started. In the first stage of the new town at Sha Tin, a further 50 acres of land were reclaimed for housing and community uses.

Quarries

     Two new long-term contracts for the operation of quarries were let during the year, one of which combined two of the existing sites. So, although the number of contracts remained the same, the total output capacity has been substantially increased.

     Supplies of crushed rock products continued adequately to meet demand although the cost, particularly of bituminous materials, rose considerably due to the inter- national oil situation.

      Development and modernisation at the two government quarries at Mount Butler on Hong Kong Island and Diamond Hill on the mainland continued, special attention being paid to the suppression of air pollution from dust emission. A new asphalt mixing plant to meet the increasing demand from government road construc- tion projects was being installed at Diamond Hill.

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      A firm of specialist consultants was employed to report on current and future requirements for quarry products and to recommend locations for new quarry sites to meet requirements up to 1990.

The materials testing laboratories operated by the quarries section of the civil engineering office of the Public Works Department carried out 97,030 tests on build- ing materials, of which 10,974 were for private firms.

The civil engineering office also continued to operate the sand monopoly, supply- ing building sand for sale to the public at various depots throughout Hong Kong.

Public Utilities

Electricity

Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma are supplied with electricity by the Hongkong Electric Company while Kowloon and the New Territories-including Lantau and a number of outlying islands-receive their supply from the China Light and Power Company. The island of Cheung Chau is served by the Cheung Chau Electric Company. In addition, minor enterprises such as some village co-operatives produce current for certain remote localities.

       The three companies are investor-owned, and do not operate under a franchise. However, the government does exercise a measure of financial control over the two main undertakings.

Generation of electricity for Kowloon, the New Territories and several outlying islands is carried out partly by the China Light and Power Company and partly by Peninsula Electric Power Company, an enterprise financed 60 per cent by Esso and 40 per cent by China Light. It owns the power stations at Tsing Yi (962 MW) and Hok Un 'C' (240 MW). Operation of these plants is in the hands of China Light, which also has its own station Hok Un 'A' and 'B' (410 MW) and a number of diesel sets (6MW). At Tsing Yi Island, an additional capacity of 600 MW is due to be installed by 1977.

Hongkong Electric has generating stations at North Point (271 MW) and Ap Lei Chau (380 MW). Therefore, including Cheung Chau's 5 MW, there is a combined capacity of 2,274 MW.

Transmission is carried out at 132 kV and 66 kV, while distribution is effected mainly at 33 kV, 11 kV and 346 volts. The supply is 50 hertz alternating current, normally at 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 33 kV and 11 kV. Safety aspects are covered by an Electricity Supply Ordinance.

Early in the year, the price of fuel oil rose dramatically to about four times its former level, bringing about a substantial increase in the fuel cost adjustment which forms part of the electricity tariff. Also, since fuel oil was in short supply for the first few months of the year the government had to impose certain restrictions on the use of electricity, but was able to lift these toward the end of May as the supply situation improved.

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      Following substantial increases in costs, and after consultation with the govern- ment as provided for in the scheme of control, China Light and Power revised its basic tariff upwards by one cent per unit from April 1.

     Main electricity statistics for 1974, as well as electricity sales figures for the years 1971 to 1974, are shown in Appendix 33.

Gas

      The Hong Kong and China Gas Company supplies Towngas to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. The supply is available throughout the urban areas, including Aberdeen and Repulse Bay on Hong Kong Island and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong, Kwai Chung and Tsuen Wan. Towngas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon, and Hong Kong Island is supplied by two submarine gas mains across the harbour. The total installed production capacity of the station is about 28 million cubic feet per day.

      Gas is sold on a thermal basis (one therm=100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of Towngas is 455 BTUs per cubic foot. The total quantity of gas sold in 1974 was 14 million therms compared with 12.1 million in 1973, an increase of 16 per cent.

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Communications and Transport

     HONG KONG has one of the most comprehensive communications and transport systems in Asia. With most of its four million people living in twin cities divided by one of the world's busiest harbours, the territory utilises almost every means of transport. Kowloon and Victoria are linked by a cross-harbour road tunnel and efficient ferry services. Fleets of double-decker and single-decker buses, minibuses and taxis con- tribute to a public transport network that will include an underground railway by 1980. Also, sedate trams clatter through Central District, cable-cars climb more than 1,300 feet up Victoria Peak and a railway links urban Kowloon with the Chinese border.

Hong Kong's sophisticated communications system continues to expand to keep pace with advances in technology. Satellite earth stations, computers, and highly complex electronic equipment have all been a part of Hong Kong's communications network for some years.

Shipping

The port of Hong Kong, one of the most perfect natural harbours in the world, caters for all the requirements of modern shipping and holds a place of prominence as a pivotal port in Southeast Asia. Varying in width from one to six miles the har- bour encompasses a total area of 23 square miles.

The administration of the port is one of the reponsibilities of the Director of Marine. To keep the Hong Kong Government advised of the shipping, commercial and other changing needs of the port, two advisory committees, the Port Committee which is advisory to the Governor, and the Port Executive Committee which is advisory to the Director of Marine, meet at regular intervals. The Marine Department does not control or operate any of the major wharves or warehouses in the port as, with the exception of the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal, all wharves and terminals are provided and operated by private enterprise.

The Marine Department does, however, operate and maintain 74 mooring buoys for ocean-going vessels within the harbour. Of these, 45 are suitable for vessels up to 600 feet in length and the balance may be used by ships up to 450 feet in length. Sixty-five of the moorings are special typhoon buoys and these are strategically located for ships remaining in port during the passage of tropical storms. Additionally, safe anchorages are available for large, deep draught vessels which frequent the port. Commercial wharves are capable of accommodating vessels of up to 1,000 feet in length with draughts up to 40 feet.

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      Quarantine and immigration facilities are available on a 24-hour basis at the Western Quarantine Anchorage and from 6.30 am to 6 pm in the Eastern Quarantine Anchorage. The extended service at the Western Anchorage reflects the higher utilisation of the western approaches by vessels arriving at and departing from the port. Ships are normally cleared inwards on arrival and large passenger vessels are processed en route to their allocated berths. Advance immigration clearance and radio pratique may be obtained by certain vessels on application.

      Navigational aids in the harbour and approaches are constantly being improved to ensure safe access to and from the port. All fairway buoys are lighted and many beacons are fitted with radar reflectors. A network of signal stations at Waglan Island, Green Island, North Point and the Marine Department Port Communica- tions Centre are all inter-connected by telephone, radio-telephone and teleprinter circuits. A modified Hague Plan VHF (radio-telephone) Port Operations Service is also operated by the Marine Department which ensures comprehensive marine communication throughout the harbour and its approaches. Although pilotage in the waters of Hong Kong is not compulsory, it is considered advisable in view of the density of marine traffic and the scale of harbour works continuously being undertaken.

Surveillance of fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo working areas is effectively undertaken by Marine Department launch patrols. The launches are in continuous radio contact with the port control office which is able to initiate and co-ordinate any action required by unusual circumstances. A fleet of modern fire-fighting vessels, operated by the Fire Services Department, is kept in a state of readiness and units are stationed on both sides of the harbour. These and other government vessels are equipped with harbour pollution control equipment. The pollution control unit of the Marine Department is responsible for the detection and control of oil pollution within the waters of Hong Kong. The harbour cleansing unit removes floating refuse from the main harbour and typhoon shelters. A refuse collection service for ocean- going ships is in operation.

      Although the tonnage of cargo carried in containers continues to increase, a large percentage of the dry cargo handled in Hong Kong is still at some stage transported by lighters. More than 2,000 lighters and junks are now used for this purpose and nearly half of these are mechanised. Shipboard cargo gear is normally used for loading and discharging cargo alongside wharves or in the stream but floating heavy lift cranes are available when required. Wharf and godown companies are fully aware of the advantages and increased productivity which result from mechanisation, and modern equipment is being increasingly used to facilitate the rapid turnround of ships.

      Three terminals at Kwai Chung cater for third generation container ships up to 60,000 gross tons calling at the port on scheduled services. Development of three additional berths is now underway and it is anticipated that they will be operational by late 1975. The existing terminals collectively occupy 125 acres of reclaimed land and have complete back-up services which include marshalling yards, cranes, ancillary

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equipment and large container freight stations. Berths 1, 2 and 3 are operated respec- tively by Modern Terminals, Kowloon Container Warehouse Company and Sea-Land Orient. The approach channel to Kwai Chung is dredged to give a depth of 40 feet at chart datum over a width of 1,100 feet. Interim container berths within Victoria Harbour are located at Tsim Sha Tsui, North Point and Hung Hom-these are operated respectively by the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company, North Point Wharves, and Whampoa Terminals.

Good bunkering facilities are provided in the port and vessels may be supplied with fuel oil from either the wharves at the oil terminals or from a fleet of harbour oilers. Fresh water is obtainable at commercial wharves or from water boats which service vessels at anchor or at government mooring buoys.

Hong Kong United Dockyards, formed in 1973 by the amalgamation of the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company and the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company, has extensive facilities for the repair, maintenance and drydocking or slipping of all types and class of vessels up to 35,000 deadweight tons in the case of bulk oil tankers, or 750 feet in length and 88 feet beam in the case of passenger liners. It also has drydocks capable of docking vessels up to 25,000 deadweight tons. Additionally, the Island Navigation Corporation operates a floating drydock with a lifting capacity of 100,000 deadweight tons. Minor shipyards in Hong Kong continue to flourish with more than 170 slipways equipped to undertake repairs to small vessels. These shipyards have also developed a capacity for building specialised craft, partic- ularly sophisticated pleasure craft and yachts.

Hong Kong continues to maintain a prominent role as a centre of recruitment for seamen and more than 30,000, out of a total of more than 81,000 locally registered seamen, are serving on board some 1,500 British and foreign flag vessels. The Seamen's Recruiting Office and the Mercantile Marine Office combine to register and supervise the employment of seamen on board vessels of all flags. The Mariners' Club in Kowloon provides recreational and welfare facilities of a high standard for visiting seamen of all nationalities.

       The proximity of Hong Kong to Macau continues to attract both tourists and residents to Macau. The facilities at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island are being improved. The volume of passenger traffic on the route has increased from 1.34 million in 1963 to more than 4.48 million in 1974.

During the year the port was free of any major incidents. In May, a complete reorganisation of the Eastern Harbour took place following completion of the airport runway extension. This involved the delineation of the eastern fairway, establishment of a prohibited area and a prohibited anchorage, and the resiting of the eastern dangerous goods anchorage in Junk Bay. The first of a series of five new cargo handl- ing basins for lighters and small craft, which will be under the direct control of the Marine Department, was opened in July at Wan Chai on the Hong Kong Island waterfront. This cargo basin can accommodate 21 lighters (100-foot) and 28 standard motor cargo boats at any given time. Parking space is provided for 134 lorries. Fees are charged on a time basis for the use of the facilities, providing an incentive towards quick turn-round of both vessels and lorries.

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The breaking-up of the underwater section of the 'Seawise University' started in July, the work is expected to take a considerable time to complete, depending on difficulties encountered.

     New and amended legislation effecting the work of the Marine Department amounted to 10 items. The most prominent of these was the new Port Control (Cargo Working Areas) Ordinance. In addition, the departmental legislative programme comprised a further 20 items at present under consideration.

Civil Aviation

     Hong Kong International Airport is one of the busiest airports in Southeast Asia although, because of limitations imposed by the mountainous nature of the surround- ing terrain and the physical size of the area which it serves, the entire site amounts to only 550 acres. Much of this land has been reclaimed from the sea, including the 800 feet wide promontory on which the runway, recently extended to 11,130 feet, is built.

The airport is conveniently situated, close to the main commercial, hotel and shopping centres of Tsim Sha Tsui in Kowloon and Central on Hong Kong Island, both of which can be reached by road within 20 minutes. Taxis, hotel buses, and a private limousine service are available and at the end of 1974 it was anticipated that a public bus service would be inaugurated in the near future.

Geographically Hong Kong is strategically placed at the confluence of the rapidly expanding air traffic route network of Southeast Asia, and the major international airlines provide rapid communication with all the important world centres of com- merce, industry and tourism. The economic importance of the airport, as a factor in the continued growth and well-being of Hong Kong is therefore readily apparent. During the financial year 1973-4, a total of 3,662,943 arriving and departing passengers and 100,721 metric tons of freight passed through the airport. This represented, in each case, almost a 20 per cent increase over the previous year. Revenue from the airport during the same period amounted to $155 million.

More than 1,000 scheduled services are operated each week by 31 international airlines and almost 20 per cent of these services are now flown by wide-bodied aircraft. In addition a significant number of non-scheduled passenger and freight charter operations are operated.

     Cathay Pacific Airways, a British owned airline registered in Hong Kong operates a comprehensive network of services throughout Southeast Asia and also to and from Australia-most flights by Boeing 707 aircraft. However, for the future the airline has placed an order for two Lockheed L-1011 Tristars and these are expected to be brought into use during 1975. Hong Kong's other airline, Hong Kong Air International, operates helicopter flights around the local area on many diverse tasks ranging from the lifting of heavy industrial and building equipment to passenger sightseeing tours of beauty spots.

     Responsibility for the efficient management and development of Hong Kong International Airport rests with the Civil Aviation Department. With the escalation of construction costs, certain development projects, particularly in regard to the

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expansion of existing terminal facilities for the processing of passengers and cargo have had to be postponed or re-phased. This means that during busy peak periods the airport caters for some 1,000 passengers an hour in excess of the present designed capacity. However, it is hoped that it will prove possible, by diverting funds from other projects, to improve this situation in the not too distant future. Despite the financial restrictions it has still been possible during recent months to complete two extra piers running alongside the terminal airside frontage, three transfer vehicle docks, and four airbridges serving two nose-in parking bays for Boeing 747 aircraft. The existing passenger terminal provides a full range of services for passengers, visitors and well-wishers alike-bars, restaurants, shopping arcades, banking and money changing services, all are available. Duty-free shops are also established for the convenience of passengers. These facilities are supplied by private concerns operat- ing under a franchise from the government-the resulting income contributes substantially to the economic viability of the airport.

During the year an extension to the runway promontory was completed and brought into operation. This has been a massive development project necessitating dredging more than two million cubic yards of mud from the sea bed in water 60 feet to 80 feet deep and subsequent filling with almost eight million cubic yards of rock, stones and earth prior to work starting on paving the runway and taxiway surfaces. A further 2,780 feet has how been added to the 200 feet wide runway making a total paved surface length of 11,130 feet. Associated with this extension a new instrument landing system has been commissioned for use by aircraft landing from the sea. Traffic approaching in the opposite direction is now able to make use of a new and unique instrument guidance system. Other developments completed during the year were a new airport sub-fire station and an additional taxiway serving the main aircraft parking aprons.

The Civil Aviation Department is also responsible for the provision of air traffic control and search and rescue facilities for all aircraft operating in the Hong Kong Flight Information Region, an area of some 100,000 square miles over the South China Sea. Radio navigational and approach aids meet the most stringent internationally agreed standards and are supplemented and updated as required. In addition to the instrument landing and guidance systems, these aids include three surveillance radars, one precision approach radar, three VORS (VHF omni range beacons), three DMES (distance measuring equipment), and non-directional beacons. A sophisticated computer-controlled secondary surveillance radar system is expected to come into operation during 1975.

       Civil aviation, even with today's international problems of oil and finance, is a dynamic and demanding industry. Hong Kong International Airport is continually being developed and improved, but the fact remains that there is little or no space for expansion and it appears inevitable that the industry demand will outstrip the capability of the airport to provide an efficient service. Accordingly, and bearing in mind the serious effect this would have on Hong Kong's economy, the government in 1973 commissioned a long-term planning study to determine which courses of action are available to forestall this situation. This study has recently been completed and is now being considered by the authorities.

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Despite rising costs and shortage of supplies of some basic materials following the oil crisis, the highways construction programme progressed as scheduled. A total of $235.7 million was spent on construction of major highway projects and $40.8 million on improvements and maintenance during the year.

The total length of roads in Hong Kong maintained by the government at the end of 1974 was 651.7 miles, of which 210 miles are on Hong Kong Island, 192.98 miles in Kowloon and 248.72 miles in the New Territories. On Hong Kong Island, the major road widening schemes at Queensway, Shek Pai Wan Road and Wong Chuk Hang Road highlighted the intensive effort made by the government to improve existing road capacities to meet the increasing traffic demands. Construction of new roads was also carried out in Chai Wan, Central, Wan Chai Reclamation, Shau Kei Wan, Wong Chuk Hang and the Jardines' Lookout area. Investigations were carried out by consulting engineers on possible alternative alignments for the Hong Kong Island Eastern Corridor from Causeway Bay to Shau Kei Wan, and for a proposed bridge link across the Lei Yue Mun straits. The Canal Road flyover extension, which will provide the northern connections for the proposed road tunnel between Happy Valley and Aberdeen, proceeded to the design stage.

      In Kowloon, high priority was given to the planning and construction of relief routes for traffic diversion during the construction of the mass transit railway. Among these, Tong Mi Road extension, Jordan Road intersection and the ferry concourse Stage I and Sai Yee Street link road were completed, while good progress was main- tained on the elevated road from Gascoigne Road to Tong Mi Road, Canton Road duplication, Prince Edward Road-Lai Chi Kok Road flyover and the major inter- changes at Waterloo Road-Argyle Street and Waterloo Road-Prince Edward Road- Boundary Street.

     Works continued on construction of the primary distributor route along the Kowloon Foothills. The Lion Rock interchange, the Piper's Hill interchange and Lung Cheung Road extension Stage II from Sha Tin Pass Road to Hammer Hill Road were completed and works at the Tai Woh Ping, Nam Cheong and Fung Mo and Choi Hung interchanges were well advanced. Road connections to the eastern and western portals of the airport tunnel road were being designed. Other road projects substantially completed included Lai Chi Kok Beach Road, Tai Yip Street and the grade separated access to the airport.

In the New Territories, the completion of the Tsing Yi Bridge marked the begin- ning of a new era for the development of Tsing Yi Island. The Stage I works on Tuen Mun Road, to provide a 94 mile dual three-lane carriageway between Tsuen Wan and Tuen Mun, started in October. Construction of this high-capacity link is essential for future development in Tuen Mun. Improvement of the second carriageway of Castle Peak Road (between Tuen Mun and Ping Shan), together with work on nearby feeder roads to Lam Tei, Shap Pat Heung, and between Tin Sam and Ha Heung, were completed. Various works were undertaken in development areas in Kwai Chung and Lai Chi Kok Terrace Road. Three footbridges over Kwai Chung Road and a car park at Ting Kau were also completed. Plans for widening the approaches

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of Lion Rock Tunnel were being prepared to serve Sha Tin New Town development and the new racecourse. The second stage of Ma On Shan Road, from Kei Ling Ha Lo Wai to Nai Chung, and the provision of a climbing lane on Tai Po Road near the Chinese University were also completed.

      Traffic management techniques continued to be applied to make the best use of the existing road network. A bus priority scheme to improve public transport in the Mid-Levels was implemented. Schemes for clearways and other restrictions on kerbside activities were imposed on many main traffic routes. Installation of 13.7 miles of cables started as a first step forward towards a computerised area traffic control system for western Kowloon. Traffic light signal installation continued and a total of 271 sets were operative by the end of the year. The street lighting system was also expanded with the installation of a total of 1,316 new lamps during the year.

      Two reports on transport undertaken by consulting engineers were completed, one on the transport requirements for the New Territories by 1983, which included preliminary designs for more than 25 miles of roads, and another on traffic generation in the Peak area to relate permissible plot rations for building redevelopment with the capacity of the road network serving the area. Work on the Hong Kong Com- prehensive Transport Study was in progress. Other surveys on the level of service provided by public transport vehicles, such as taxis and vehicular ferries, were also conducted.

      A multi-disciplined traffic management group was set up to plan, co-ordinate and implement traffic management schemes to facilitate the construction of the initial system of the mass transit railway. Strategic plans for traffic diversions for the first four stages of the construction of the railway both in Kowloon and Hong Kong were prepared and formally approved. Detailed design and planning for the implemen- tation of these measures was well in hand for both Kowloon and Hong Kong. In Kowloon, where construction work is expected to begin first, the initial phases of these diversions were being implemented.

Road Tunnels

Two road tunnels are at present in operation-one through Sz Tsz Shan (Lion Rock) and the other across the harbour. Three more are being built or actively planned -one additional to Lion Rock, another under the airport runway, and a third linking Aberdeen and Happy Valley.

      The government-managed Lion Rock Tunnel, opened in November 1967, provides a faster route between Kowloon and the rural township of Sha Tin. In 1974, it was used by 4,723,315 vehicles and revenue from toll fees-50 cents for small vehicles and $1 for large vehicles-totalled $2,800,400. Work on the second Lion Rock Tunnel, which will provide two more traffic lanes, is making good progress and is expected to be completed in 1977.

      The cross-harbour tunnel, a $320 million project operated by the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company in which the government has a 25 per cent interest, was opened in

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1972. The number of vehicles using it during 1974 totalled 14,276,446. Revenue from toll fees, which vary from $2 to $20, amounted to $86,291,481.

The airport tunnel, which will link Ma Tau Kok to Ngau Tau Kok and Kwun Tong to relieve traffic congestion in the Kowloon City area, is under construction and expected to be completed by 1977.

      The Aberdeen-Happy Valley tunnel, which will relieve the overloaded Pok Fu Lam route, is now under active investigation, including the drilling of a pilot tunnel. Construction work may start in 1975 and be completed by 1978.

Traffic Congestion

       Traffic congestion, while continuing to be heavy at many locations, has not deteriorated during the year, probably because for the first time in many years the number of vehicles licensed for use on the roads went down. However, the com- mencement of work on the mass transit railway in 1975 will undoubtedly cause severe traffic congestion in certain areas.

       To deal with the general congestion problem the government published a Green Paper 'Transport in Hong Kong' outlining certain proposals for the future. These include improvements to the road system at a cost of $1,400 million over the next four years; expansion and improvement of public transport by the construction of a mass transit railway and by a reorganisation of the bus services; and the more economic use of the road system. This includes giving priority to buses and trams, restrictions on goods vehicle operations, deterring ownership and use of private cars, and improving the mechanical condition of vehicles. If all these proposals become accepted government policy, then Hong Kong's road system, which is severely restrict- ed by the geography of the territory, should be able to cope with movement of pas- sengers and goods for many years to come.

Parking

       In Hong Kong where the density of traffic is among the highest in the world, parking becomes increasingly difficult. To improve traffic flow, the number of on- street parking spaces in the more congested parts of the urban area is being progres- sively reduced, thus increasing the demand for off-street car parks.

At present, there are seven government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 4,500 vehicles. Five of these car parks are located in the Central business district. One more car park, within the Hung Hom Railway Terminus complex, is now under construction and will accommodate 1,000 vehicles. A further four car parks, with 4,300 spaces, are planned, but construction is not due to begin for one or two years. The government increased the fees for multi- storey car parks in October and this has resulted in spaces becoming easily available for those who are prepared to pay the price.

       In addition, there are nine multi-storey car parks operated by private enterprise. They vary in size from 100 to 1,400 spaces, with a total capacity of 5,000 vehicles.

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Most of them are situated in the commercial-residential areas of Causeway Bay, North Point, Tsim Sha Tsui, Mong Kok and San Po Kong. A further three are under construction and will provide a further 1,000 spaces. Another seven private car parks with a total capacity of 5,200 vehicles are planned and construction is expected to start in 1975.

The government also provides off-street open-air car parks on a temporary basis on land awaiting development. In 1974 there were six of these car parks, three within the urban areas and chargeable, with a total capacity of 1,500 vehicles. Two more are planned and construction was expected to start in 1975. Charges for these temporary car parks were also increased in October.

Where on-street parking facilities are provided, the government's policy is to ration the limited space available by means of parking meters. At the end of the year, there were 10,000 meters on the streets and the number will increase to 13,000 in early 1975. To ensure a reasonable turnover of short term parkers, the government approved higher rates of fees for parking meters in 1972, but because of delays in the delivery of equipment, the first of the new rate meters were not installed in Central and Tsim Sha Tsui until mid-1974. Since then, old meters have been replaced gradually in other areas. During the year, because of increasing demand for parking spaces and the need to ration the limited number of such spaces available in the area, Tsuen Wan became the first New Territories district to have meters installed; Tai Kok Tsui in Kowloon was the first area where parking spaces for lorries were metered. All parking meters operate from 8 am to midnight and it was expected that hours of operation would be extended to cover Sundays and public holidays in 1975.

Public Transport

Scheduled passenger services are provided by seven private companies and the government-operated Kowloon-Canton Railway. The China Motor Bus Company (CMB) runs bus services on Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) (KMB) in Kowloon and the mainland part of the New Territories, and the New Lantau Bus Company (1973) on Lantau Island. Both CMB and KMB operate joint cross-harbour services using the cross-harbour tunnel. Additional scheduled services are provided on Hong Kong Island by Hongkong Tramways and the Peak Tramways Company. A regular and comprehensive network of cross-harbour and outlying island ferry services is run by the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company, and the Star Ferry Company operates a service between Central and Kowloon Point. Other passenger transport services are provided by public light buses, taxis and public (hire) cars. The passenger traffic carried by each of the undertakings during the past three years is listed in Appendix 35.

Kowloon-Canton Railway (British Section)

The Kowloon-Canton Railway is a government department which has operated profitably over the last 20 years. As a result it has made a valuable financial contribu- tion to the general revenue of Hong Kong as well as being of vital importance in ensuring a regular supply of goods from China.

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The daily passenger service of 17 trains each way was improved in 1974 by the acquisition of 40 new coaches. This enables each train to comprise 14 coaches. In addition, it is proposed to supplement the service by a further 10 trains operating daily between Kowloon and University stations. These will be the first one-class trains operated by the railway.

       On November 4, passenger fares were increased for the first time since 1947. The same day saw the elimination of second and third class fares and their substitution by an 'ordinary' class. A further innovation was the introduction of a seat reservation system. Another notable success for the railway was the operation of complete trains of oil from China, with a potential of some 2,000 tons a day.

Freight traffic fell in the early part of 1974 but, with the inception of oil trains, the position changed with the number of daily trains increased on occasions from five to eight. On one day a record number of 219 wagons were dealt with.

       The railway which is used increasingly by passengers to and from China has three daily connections each way at the border and is a significant feature in the govern- ment's policy to re-deploy the population into the New Territories.

With the increased volume of traffic the single line railway is reaching the limit of its capacity and a programme to double track and re-signal the line from Kowloon to Sha Tin is due for completion in 1976. A new freight and passenger terminal at Hung Hom is due to open in 1975.

Plans have been submitted to the government for double tracking the remainder of the railway, with modernisation and expansion of terminals and electrification at a cost of around $400 million. The railway is considered an integral part of a long- term plan for the public transportation needs of Hong Kong.

Mass Transit Railway

In February a 'letter of intent' was signed between a Japanese consortium and the Hong Kong Government by which both parties agreed to negotiate a formal contract for building, equipping and financing the first four stages of the mass transit railway. In March the government created, by statute, the Mass Transit Railway Provisional Authority with powers to plan and establish the project. Negotiations for the formal contract continued and the authority built up its staffing and other capa- bilities to enable the Mass Transit Railway Corporation to be established at the appro- priate time.

The Provisional Authority held six series of talks with the Japanese consortium during 1974 both in Hong Kong and in Tokyo. These talks were partly to determine whether the consortium's engineering design solutions met the Provisional Authority's specifications and other requirements for the project and partly to reach a conclusion on the provisions of the formal contract. At the end of the year the talks were continu- ing.

The Provisional Authority also carried out a series of measures aimed at the set- ting up of a Mass Transit Railway Corporation in such a way that, as soon as the

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formal contract is signed with the Japanese consortium, work could proceed on the project without delay. Accordingly, the Provisional Authority drew up for the govern- ment a Bill providing for the compulsory acquisition of private land for the protection of the route of the railway. The Mass Transit Railway (Land Resumption and Related Provisions) Bill became law in September. The Provisional Authority-through its executive arm in the Public Works Department-continued with a series of land clearances needed to facilitate construction of the railway. Seventy-one of the 79 areas needed as works and construction sites were acquired and cleared. A large number of development proposals, both public and private, were examined to ensure that they did not conflict with the requirements of the railway. Between May and September the Provisional Authority launched an international campaign to recruit staff for the future corporation. By the end of the year, the Provisional Authority had recruited six chief officers of the future corporation and about 50 other staff.

Buses

       During 1974, the Kowloon Motor Bus Company's fleet increased from 1,324 to 1,371 vehicles, of which 363 were single-deck buses and the rest, double-deck buses. At the end of the year, the company had on order, or under construction, 144 double-deck buses, 35 single-deck buses and 100 single-deck coaches which will be progressively added to the fleet during 1975-6. The new double-deck buses have accommodation for 102 seated and 19 standing passengers, probably the largest capacity of any double-deck bus in the world. The carrying capacity of the fleet rose by 3.8 per cent to 128,790 at the end of the year. During the year nine new routes were introduced-four in Kowloon and four in the New Territories-making a total of 106 routes. One additional cross-harbour route was introduced, run jointly with the China Motor Bus Company, giving a total of six such routes. During the year, the company's buses operated 54.9 million miles and passenger traffic increased from 493.7 million to 564.5 million. This was the first increase in three years. The company has continued to convert routes to one-man operation, generally using the coin-box method of fare collection, and by the end of the year, 51 per cent of all double-deck and 94 per cent of all single-deck buses were one-man operated.

       On Hong Kong Island, the number of bus routes operated by the China Motor Bus Company increased from 39 to a total of 47 by the end of 1974. The company operates 476 double-deck and 119 single-deck buses, representing an increase of five per cent over the previous year. Considerable progress has been made with converting single-deck buses to double-deck buses and this, together with the intake of additional buses, has resulted in the carrying capacity increasing by 8.7 per cent to 50,932. At the end of the year, the company had on order, or under construction, 178 double-deck buses. The new double-deck buses have accommodation for 102 seated and 19 standing passengers. More than 95 per cent of the company's buses are one-man operated, most of them using the coin-box fare collection method. During the year, the company's buses operated 19.7 million miles, and passenger traffic increased from 150.6 million to 181.2 million, the first annual increase since 1969.

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       Hong Kong Island saw the introduction of the territory's first 'bus-only' lane in September 1973, and the success of this initial experiment resulted in a more ambitious scheme being introduced in the Mid-Levels area in April 1974. This scheme reserved some two miles of road for buses only, and despite initial problems, proved effective in improving the efficiency and reliability of bus services in the area to the extent that passenger trips increased by 40 per cent. The popular cross-harbour bus routes carried 67.5 million passengers and operated 8.6 million miles during the year. The China Motor Bus Company is constructing a new multi-storey depot at Chai Wan capable of accommodating 450 large capacity double-deck buses. Building has started and is expected to be completed towards the end of 1975. The present franchises of both KMB and CMB are due to expire on February 14, 1975. However, in 1974 negotiations for new franchises on different terms were taking place with the bus companies and a new Bill to govern the operation of all omnibus services was intro- duced into the Legislative Council.

      On Lantau Island, bus services are provided by the New Lantau Bus Company (1973) under a non-exclusive franchise issued on April 1, 1974. The company's main problem is catering for recreational traffic with 38 per cent of the total number of passengers being carried on Sundays and public holidays.

      The 14-seater public light buses (PLBs or mini-buses) are a popular form of public transport, carrying an estimated 1.2 million passengers a day. There were 4,277 licensed at the end of the year. They may ply for hire anywhere except on roads or in areas where prohibitions or restrictions apply. Because of the tendency of light- bus drivers to stop indiscriminately and obstruct traffic flow, more restricted zones had to be introduced during the year, the most significant of which affected a large part of Central district where public light buses are now prohibited. This particular scheme resulted in a two-day strike in January by mini-bus drivers on Hong Kong Island. However, it was interesting to note that during the period of the strike, the franchised bus and tram companies were able to cope adequately, mainly because of the significant reduction in traffic congestion. This enabled them to operate almost all scheduled journeys, as opposed to usual losses of up to 25 per cent of scheduled mileage. Mini-bus fares are not regulated and tend to operate according to demand. During the year, efforts were made to persuade mini-bus operators to provide feeder routes over roads generally unsuitable for more conventional buses. This has met with little response, though on Hong Kong Island there are now three such routes linking the Peak and upper Mid-Levels areas with Central.

      Coaches for sight-seeing tours and school and factory buses are operated by a number of companies. In addition, some schools and factories provide their own private omnibus and light-bus services. At the end of 1974, the number of vehicles licensed for these purposes totalled 3,150.

Trams

      The Hongkong Tramways Company operates 162 double-deck tramcars and 22 single-deck trailers along 8.7 miles of double-track on the north shore of Hong Kong Island stretching from Kennedy Town to Shau Kei Wan with a single-track loop

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around Happy Valley. The company's fleet covered 6.3 million miles and carried 147.6 million passengers during 1974, the highest utilisation of any form of road passenger transport. The maximum frequency of the service through Central district is one tramcar every 25 seconds in each direction. The company completed the con- version of all tramcars to one-conductor operation and also, to improve passenger loading times, increased its outlets for the sale of monthly tickets and introduced the pre-selling of tickets by conductors at selected busy tram stops. In addition to the services operated on its three main routes, the company has attempted an improve- ment by introducing new services on an experimental basis.

       The Peak Tramways Company operates a funicular tram service stopping at five intermediate stations between Garden Road and Victoria Peak, 1,305 feet above sea level. The railway is thought to be the steepest funicular railway in the world, using steel wire ropes as its sole means of haulage, with the steepest gradient being 1 in 2. Since the service started operation in 1888 the size of the tramcars has been progres- sively increased to their present maximum capacity of 72 passengers each. During the year, 2.1 million passengers were carried.

Ferries

The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company operates a fleet of 82 vessels including 12 vehicular ferries, seven triple-deck passenger ferries, 41 double-deck ferries and 21 water buses and water taxis. The number of vessels increased by 16 over the previous year. The company provides 14 cross-harbour routes and 12 routes to the New Territories and outlying islands. The year saw the introduction of three new regular passenger services, one new vehicular ferry service between North Point and Kwun Tong on the withdrawal of a similar service between North Point and Kowloon City, and four new services to the New Territories and the outling islands to cater for increasing weekend recreational traffic. During the year, the cross-harbour services carried 136.1 million passengers, while the New Territories and outlying island services carried 14.1 million passengers, compared to 146.8 million and 11.6 million respectively in the previous year. The vehicular ferries carried 3.9 million vehicles. Fares were increased on the cross-harbour services to 30 cents first class and 20 cents second class in July. De luxe class fares at a standard rate of $1 for inside harbour services and $4 for outside harbour services on any type of vessel, were also introduced.

       The Star Ferry Company's fleet of 10 vessels provides a passenger ferry service between Central and Tsim Sha Tsui. During the year 50.4 million passengers were carried, compared to 51 million in the previous year. At the end of 1974, the possi- bility of resuming the Hung Hom-Central ferry service was being considered.

Taxis and Public Hire Cars

Taxis, prior to 1974, were licensed for use either on Hong Kong Island or in Kowloon, charging different fares. In March, this zoning system was abolished and taxi fares standardised, enabling taxis to operate throughout Hong Kong and Kowloon at a revised standard fare of $2 for the first mile and 20 cents for each subsequent

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fifth of a mile. At present, there are 4,754 licensed taxis which carry an estimated 563,000 passengers a day. At the end of the year, consideration was being given to introducing taxis for the New Territories.

      Licensed public (hire) cars, which totalled 1,264 at the end of 1974, differ from taxis in that they are available for hire only on a prearranged basis with the charge being negotiated between the hirer and the driver. Many public cars are owned by hotels for the exclusive use of their guests.

Transport Administration

      Advising the Governor in Council on broad issues of transport policy, with a view to improving the movement of people and freight, is a government-appointed body, the Transport Advisory Committee. During the year, the committee was re- constituted with the Secretary for the Environment as chairman, so that its respon- sibilities might be more closely related to Hong Kong's general environmental problems. Secretariat for the committee is provided by the Transport Department.

      The Transport Department is the statutory authority responsible for planning and regulating public transport services. It also carries out a wide range of duties including vehicle licensing, driving tests and vehicle inspections and statutory func- tions under the Road Traffic Ordinance, and legislation relating to the public transport companies.

      During the year, a number of amendments were made to regulations under the Road Traffic Ordinance. One significant change makes it compulsory for petrol- engined vehicles, imported into Hong Kong and manufactured after November 1, 1974, to comply with the provisions of Regulation 15 made by the Economic Com- mission for Europe (ECE) which sets out in detail the manufacturing standards and tests required of these vehicles to control the emission of exhaust gases. There are plans to follow this up with similar controls on new diesel-engined vehicles. Another change in the regulations provides for the introduction of new road signs which are based on a code of international signs agreed by a United Nations convention and which have already been adopted by many countries. These new signs are largely symbolic and do away as much as possible with writing, thus enabling motorists to identify a symbol more readily and speedily.

Licensing

      The year saw a significant drop in the number of registered vehicles. At December 31, there were 193,439 registered vehicles compared with 202,775 at the end of 1973 (vehicle statistics are given in Appendix 35). Demand for driving licences was steady. Their number at the end of the year totalled 474,531, an increase of 20,961 over 1973. During the year, several changes were made in respect of driving licences. Driving licence records have now been computerised; vehicle licence records were put on computer some years ago. This change, which is related to a system of fixed penalties for driving offences to be introduced by the police, made it possible for a new laminated card type of driving licence to be introduced to replace the booklet type. To improve

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the general standard of driving, a pilot scheme to train learner drivers indoors was introduced in June. Training courses in basic driving techniques are provided, using 16 driving simulators, a film and a computer-controlled panel, for learner drivers before they undergo driving instruction on the road. Up to the end of the year, 1,749 persons had attended such courses.

Postal Services

       It was estimated that about 262 million items, comprising letters, registered arti- cles and parcels were handled during the year-an increase of 0.5 per cent compared with 1973. This was due mainly to an increase of five per cent in items received from abroad for delivery in Hong Kong, which offset a fall in outgoing air and surface mail. The fall in outward surface mail was most significant due to a sharp decline in small packet postings to China. A slight increase in items posted for local delivery was recorded despite a large fall in the volume of permit mail postings. The 'speedpost service' introduced at the end of 1973 between Hong Kong, Britain and the United States, designed to provide a rapid link for urgent business documents and commercial papers, continued to expand. A service to Brazil was also implemented and extension of these facilities to other countries was under active consideration. Express mail services to nearly 100 countries were also introduced involving 133,000 items being sent by this facility during the year. A further additional service, known as 'ac- celerated surface post' which utilises spare aircraft capacity to send surface mail for printed matters to Britain, was introduced at the end of the year. This service will probably be expanded to other destinations later.

A public opinion survey was conducted by a group of university students em- ployed by the Post Office during their summer vacation. All post offices were visited and more than 2,000 customers were invited to give their views on postal and counter services. The survey showed that while the majority of customers were satisfied with services being given, some constructive criticism was made which will prove valuable in indicating areas for improvement.

There were 68 post offices in operation at the end of the year with another two nearing completion. These provide facilities for the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels, and the issue and payment of postal and money orders. Business reply facilities, cash on delivery for parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for the bulk posting of business mail are also available. Agency services on behalf of other government departments include pay- ment of public assistance benefits which now exceed 68,000 a month, an increase of more than 70 per cent on the previous year.

Mail is delivered twice a day, except in certain rural and residential areas where the volume of mail does not justify more than one delivery. A fleet of more than 80 vehicles is used for post box collections, motorised deliveries and the internal move- ment of mail. Because of the operational advantages in using the cross-harbour tunnel a significant departure from the Victoria Harbour scene was the withdrawal of the Royal Mail launches from their regular harbour services.

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During the year direct mail despatches were regularly made to more than 250 destinations overseas. This represents an increase of 25 per cent over the previous year and follows a special review of the routing of mails to ensure optimum service.

No new offices were opened in 1974 but maximum planning effort has been directed toward the progress of the new General Post Office and the International Mail Centre. Piling for the new General Post Office was completed, the contract was let and building work started during the year. Contracts were also signed for the provision of mechanisation equipment for the project. Progress on the planning of the International Mail Centre has continued and tenders for the building and for the mechanisation equipment were expected to be sought in 1975.

During the year there were three commemorative stamp issues. In January two stamps of values 10 cents and $1.30 were issued to mark the Lunar New Year-Year of the Tiger. This issue was the eighth in the series of Lunar New Year stamps. February saw the issue of three stamps in the 10 cents, $1 and $2 denominations to commemorate the Hong Kong Arts Festival. On this occasion, for the first time in Hong Kong, special souvenir sheets incorporating all three stamps of the Arts Festival were sold. In October there was a special stamp issue to commemorate the centenary of the Universal Postal Union. The three stamps in this series were issued in the values 10 cents, 50 cents and $2. Specially designed first day covers were placed on sale with each of the stamp issues. At Christmas a specially designed pictorial aerogramme was made available.

Telecommunication Services

The Postmaster General, as the Telecommunication Authority, administers the Telecommunication Ordinance and is responsible for the control and supervision of all telecommunication services operating in Hong Kong. The Post Office licenses and inspects installations operating under the ordinance, monitors radio transmissions and investigates interference. It also provides an advisory service to the government and co-ordinates the communication requirements of all departments. In addition, it carries out electronics maintenance for 27 government departments, ranging over 250 sites throughout Hong Kong, mainly in the fields of radio, audio, communal television aerial systems and electromedical equipment.

Overseas communication facilities are provided by Cable and Wireless with 369 telephone and 926 telegraph circuits to all parts of the world. A submarine coaxial cable with a capacity of 80 telephone channels extends southwestwards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam where it joins other cable systems to Japan, the United States and Australia. Two satellite earth station antennae provide direct links to the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean satellites. Facilities are provided to give Hong Kong international transmission and reception of television programmes in either 625/50 PAL or 525/60 NTSC standards in colour or monochrome. Communication facilities are also provided for ship-to-shore services and to nearby countries by VHF, tropospheric scatter and HF radio systems.

Telegraph traffic for the public telegram service, airline operations and other commercial organisations is provided by Cable and Wireless from their message

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switching centre, comprising six computer processors, which currently handle 3.5 million messages, or about 1,200 million characters, each month. To handle the increasing international telex traffic two telex exchanges are in operation serving more than 3,000 subscribers.

       International telephone services to most overseas countries are provided by Cable and Wireless in conjunction with the Hong Kong Telephone Company. The international telephone exchange is equipped for 675 circuits.

       The public telephone service within Hong Kong is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company, a public company operating under a franchise from the govern- ment. The telephone system is fully automatic, with a flat rate charging system allowing for an unlimited number of local calls, and consists of 52 exchanges serving almost one million telephone stations. Exchange equipment ranges from electro- mechanical switching system to the latest design of common control semi-electronic apparatus. The telephone penetration of 23 stations per hundred population is the highest recorded in Asia, with the exception of Japan. Provision is made for a variety of systems required by the commercial sector and for a harbourphone service, which enables vessels entering the harbour to be connected to the telephone network within minutes of mooring.

       Telephone services into the more remote rural areas are provided by the use of multiplexing, microwave and small carrier techniques. Planning and development is in hand to extend rural services and also to deal with the massive task of diverting 300,000 telephone circuits with the minimum of disruption for the first stage of the proposed underground railway system.

14

The Media

    HONG KONG has a free press and one of the highest newspaper readerships in Asia. Apart from 314 publications with a total estimated circulation of 1.5 million, there are two radio stations, and four television channels providing entertainment and information to an audience of some two million people.

The purchase price of a radio or television is perhaps the lowest in the world and no licence fee is required for either. The price of newspapers remains, in most cases, a mere HK30 cents.

Press

Newspapers account for 107 of the 314 publications now registered with the Registrar of Newspapers, including three English dailies and 96 Chinese language newspapers. The combined daily circulation of the English language papers is estimated at 110,000, while the Chinese newspapers command an estimated circulation of 1.35 million. Of the 68 Chinese dailies there are four selling more than 100,000 copies each.

The China Mail, Hong Kong's oldest newspaper, closed down for financial reasons after 129 years of publication. The closure immediately sparked off a severance pay dispute which was later settled with the help of the Labour Department.

Periodicals represent the other main sector of Hong Kong's press. There are 207 such publications, divided into 54 English and 151 Chinese and two Japanese. These magazines cover a wide range of subjects, from specialist technical journals to local entertainment guides.

The Hong Kong Journalists Association, representing a major group of Hong Kong pressmen with more than 600 members, was formed in 1968. This year it took the initiative in efforts to introduce a four-year training scheme for journalists.

Some Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 19 members and four associated members. The Society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in matters affecting the interests of local newspapers, the society or its members.

      The Hong Kong Press Club, a body closely linked with the Hong Kong Journal- ists Association, was officially opened by the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, in February to provide social and working facilities for journalists and photographers. The Foreign Correspondents Club in Central is also popular with local and visiting journalists, as well as advertising, public relations and business people.

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       Also opened during the year was a branch of the Press Foundation of Asia (PFA), an association of Asian publishers and editors representing 300 publications. The PFA, with its headquarters in Manila, represents and co-ordinates the functions of seven national press institutes.

       Hong Kong is the base of Southeast Asian operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies represented include the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Kyodo, Reuters and United Press International.

       The 12th quadrennial Commonwealth Press Union Conference was held in Hong Kong from October 3 to 6. Held in Hong Kong for the first time, the conference was attended by 164 representatives from 15 Commonwealth countries and Hong Kong. The Governor officially opened the three-day conference. Topics of international im- portance discussed included press freedom, pressures on the press, telecommunications, newsprint supply and journalistic education.

Printing and Publishing

       Significantly, in just five years the value of Hong Kong exports of printed matter has more than doubled, from $63 million in 1969 to $180 million in 1974. During this period Australia has replaced Britain as Hong Kong's biggest overseas customer.

       Many printers have established themselves in the North Point district on Hong Kong Island, while others operate from flatted factories in areas such as the high-rise industrial satellite of Kwun Tong. About 75 per cent of Hong Kong's 1,200 printing firms use the letterpress method, producing mainly small-scale printing such as letterheads, posters, wrappers and textbooks. The remainder mostly use offset, and although they are fewer in number, their capital investment in mainly German or Japanese equipment is far higher, and their volume of production is much greater than that of letterpress. Many specialise in printing books, textbooks, periodicals, calendars and diaries; others concentrate on wrappings and industrial packaging.

       The standard of offset printing is high, with printing and illustrative production techniques comparing favourably with those of the world's leading printing nations. Electronic colour-engraving machines are widely used and colour separation technique is good. Two and four-colour printing machines are widely used; and leading printers introduced eight-colour rotary and web-offset machines as early as 1962.

       During the past 10 years many overseas publishers have established offices or regional headquarters in Hong Kong where printing represents a substantial saving over other areas, and excellent distribution and communication facilities are readily available.

        Many educational book publishers have also established their regional head- quarters in Hong Kong. These include Heinemann Educational Books, the Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill Far Eastern Publishers, and IPC of London which has set up its regional headquarters in Hong Kong to handle the interests of its sub- sidiaries. The Asian editions of Time, Newsweek, and almost one million copies every month of Reader's Digest are printed in Hong Kong.

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Television

THE MEDIA

      Hong Kong became the first of Britain's overseas territories to operate a television station when in 1957 Rediffusion (HK) pioneered a wired television service on an exclusive franchise. Starting with a single channel operation the service continued to expand until by 1973 the company had more than 100,000 subscribers and was pro- viding a wide variety of programmes on two channels, one in Chinese and the other in English. The company terminated the service in October 1973. Before this the company had become a shareholder in a new company which in 1973 was granted a franchise to operate a dual-channel wireless television service.

The first wireless television service in Hong Kong was provided by Television Broadcasts (HKTVB) and came into operation in November 1967. This company, which enjoyed an exclusive wireless licence during its first five years, broadcasts on two channels, the Jade (Chinese) and the Pearl (English). The company employs the UHF 625-line PAL colour system with its main transmitters on Temple Hill and 10 auxiliary transmitters for each channel located in various areas. This gives complete coverage to all areas of Hong Kong with the exception of minor isolated rural pockets. The company maintains a large studio and office complex and employs 550 locally trained personnel.

      The second wireless television licence franchise holder, Rediffusion Television, also uses the UHF 625-line PAL colour system and its main and auxiliary transmitters are co-sited with those of HKTVB. The company uses the studio and office premises of the previous wired service company which has been added to and modified exten- sively. The company began its Chinese service transmissions in December 1973 and its English service in April 1974.

      The viewing public now has available to it a total of 350 hours of television weekly on four channels, mainly in colour. This will increase further in 1975 when it is expected that the third station, Commercial Television, also licensed in 1973, will go on air on a single Chinese-language channel.

      This continuing increase in available programme services has been accompanied by a steady growth in television ownership. Television ownership at the end of 1974 was estimated to be 780,000 and 2.6 million people are said to watch television daily.

      Under the Television Ordinance all television franchise holders are required to provide air-time for government produced programmes. The majority of those pro- grammes are produced by Radio Hong Kong's television production unit. This unit further expanded its production during the year and now provides a regular series of programmes in both English and Chinese for transmission by the commercial stations. Their Chinese drama services in colour continued to attract high viewer ratings and a new live discussion programme introduced during the year with studio audiences and phone-in participation attracted much local interest. Other government material conveying public service information messages and a regular series of topical features is produced by the Government Information Services.

There is also a requirement on licencees under the ordinance to broadcast the schools programmes produced by the educational television division of the Education

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Department. This important contribution to the local educational system is now in its fourth year and produces programmes on a wide range of educational subjects for primary schools which are transmitted five days a week.

With the termination of Rediffusion's exclusive wired franchise at the end of 1973, the way was opened for the introduction of legislation enabling the use of aerial distribution systems, broadcast relay services and closed circuit television sys- tems. The use of these had been inhibited by the terms of the wired franchise. Due to Hong Kong's hilly terrain together with the large number of high-rise buildings, there are many areas where difficulty is experienced in receiving adequate television signals. Wired relay services and aerial distribution systems can therefore have an important part to play in ensuring satisfactory viewing for such areas. Additionally, it is hoped that the general wide-scale use of these systems will lead eventually to a reduction in the number of unsightly aerial arrays which disfigure so many buildings in Hong Kong.

Progress in the adoption of these systems during the year has not been as rapid as expected, but there are signs that both property developers and architects are beginning to realise the benefits which these systems can provide. The government has taken the lead by installing aerial distribution systems in its housing estate developments.

In 1974 there were four broadcast relay systems introduced by Broadcast Relay Services. The same company also introduced Hong Kong's first closed-circuit hotel television service which shows entertainment feature films in the guest rooms of two major local hotels.

Sound Broadcasting

Hong Kong is served by two radio broadcasting organisations each operating English and Chinese sound channels. Radio Hong Kong is financed from general revenue and carries no advertising. As the government radio station, Radio Hong Kong is charged with producing radio and television programmes which inform, educate and entertain. All the services offered by Radio Hong Kong operated under the station's own management for the first full year in 1974.

A principal function of Radio Hong Kong is the production of bulletins on local and overseas news. Coverage of news in 1974 was such that the station was able to offer the public three bulletins dealing with news in depth, a news summary, and hourly headlines every day in Chinese and English. This coverage gave the public a balanced picture of both international and, more particularly, domestic news.

       Although the station makes news and public affairs programmes its prime con- sideration, these are set within a pattern of other programmes. Both the Chinese and the English services set out to win larger and more discerning audiences by a variety of programmes, on each channel, which are designed to cater for different tastes.

Radio Hong Kong's television unit does not have colour recording facilities yet, but the problem is overcome to some extent by using colour film wherever possible and hiring colourised outside-broadcast units. On the programme side the main

156

THE MEDIA

developments during the year were in Chinese programmes. A new bilingual live dis- cussion programme, 'Needlepoint', quickly became popular and is an excellent example of what can be done to bridge the communication gap in a multilingual society.

      Among other things 'Needlepoint' set out to cross the language barrier, for while the programme was being transmitted in Cantonese a simultaneous translation went out on the English FM service.

      With the public's appetite for news growing almost daily the flexibility of Com- mercial Radio's independent news service has improved the quality of all its news and current affairs programmes.

The station operated an 'open line' format for the first time, providing another channel for grievances, questions and answers. The high rate of involvement in public affairs was maintained with active participation in the Community Chest and all government campaigns.

Successful shows for charity were staged in conjunction with the Urban Services Department and welfare organisations. To combat the increase in prices of school textbooks, the station collected used books for distribution to needy students. More than 40,000 books were donated by 1,500 people and were given free to students.

Film Industry

Hong Kong's motion picture and cinema industries continued to do good business during the year although not maintaining the unprecedented boom and successes seen in 1973. This success had been mainly related to the local and world-wide interest in locally made kung-fu and other martial arts films which reached its peak in 1973. In 1974 there were signs that the popularity of these films was decreasing and that two of the major local film producing companies, Shaw Brothers and Golden Harvest, were turning their attention to other and new subjects for their films. One such innova- tion which achieved immediate local success was the social satire type of film set in local and identifiable situations and produced in the Cantonese dialect rather than Mandarin which is the usual language for local films. A number of these films were made during the year and while they were commercially successful in the local cinemas they are essentially parochial in their appeal and cannot therefore expect the same degree of success overseas as that enjoyed by the kung-fu films. Nevertheless, a con- siderable number of local films continued to be subtitled and dubbed in many languages for showing in various parts of the world.

The four most popular films shown during the year were 'Games Gamblers Play', 'The Sting', 'The Godfather' and 'Papillon', achieving estimated gross receipts of $6,251,634, $3,600,000, $3,097,000 and $3,035,000 respectively.

During 1973 and 1974, the number of cinemas in Hong Kong decreased by 17 to a total of 80. This decrease is considered to reflect to some extent the increasing popularity of television. But another contributing factor has been the ever-increasing pressure on urban land which has stimulated property developers to demolish the

PRINTING

  During the past 10 years Hong Kong has established itself as one of the printing centres of the world, where top quality printing is available at substantial savings over other places. Australia is the terri- tory's biggest customer, mostly for colour book printing. Most of the smaller firms produce mainly letterheads and forms. The larger companies use offset and many specialise in books, textbooks, periodicals, calendars, diaries, specialised forms and industrial packaging. The Hong Kong Government has its own Printing Depart- ment at North Point. This department handles both a large volume and a wide range of government printing. It also handles all government contracts for out- side specialised printing.

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A four-colour offset press at Dai Nippon, one of Hong Kong's largest printing houses.

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The Government Printer's two-colour Heidelberg offset machine.

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Textile printing at the Nam Sing Dyeing Works at Tsuen Wan.

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  Printing traditional Chinese door-gods from hand-carved wooden blocks at the Sun Yuen Fat factory at Kwun Tong.

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This Metro offset press at the Sing Tao Chinese daily newspaper is capable of producing 140,000 copies an hour.

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Screen printing on glass-at the San Miguel Brewery.

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older one-storey cinemas to make way for more profitable multi-purpose high-rise buildings. Nevertheless, cinema-going continued to be a major leisure activity in Hong Kong with an estimated attendance during the year of 70 million.

Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censorship in accord- ance with the law and are viewed by the Panel of Film Censors. A total of 7,530 films were submitted for censorship, including 178 local productions. Early in the year, as part of the continuing effort to ensure that the film censor's decisions accurately reflect current local opinions on standards in filmed entertainment, the Television and Films Authority commissioned a survey to ascertain the views of the public on the question of sex and violence on the screen. This survey indicated among other things, that the public in Hong Kong considers that film censorship is a proper and necessary function of the government and that the fairly vigorous standards set by the censors relating to the portrayal of sex and violence are approximately correct.

Government Information Services

The Government Information Services is a major link between the government, the people of Hong Kong and the rest of the world. The department is organised in three main divisions-news, publicity and public relations-with certain services common to all three.

The news division, probably the most familiar service to the Hong Kong public, produces a daily information bulletin in English and Chinese. It is backed by a tele- printer service. The bulletins give factual information on both official policy and public projects, as well as routine notices and statistics. It is distributed to more than 120 newspapers, news agencies and broadcasting stations.

Following the successful experiment with facsimile transmission in 1969, a full 24-hour service was inaugurated in May 1974. As news in English is transmitted over the teleprinter network, news in Chinese is sent simultaneously over the facsimile transmitter. So are weather, police and other reports.

The new service was an instant success and the number of subscribers increased quickly from five to 27, covering almost the entire field of the local Chinese media.

The news division also becomes the nerve centre of all communications during typhoons, severe rainstorms, and all other emergencies. Once the 'emergency roster' is in force, the division is manned round-the-clock by a team of officers. Liaison officers are also deployed to the Royal Observatory, the Social Welfare Department, the New Territories Administration, the Public Works Department, Medical and Health Department, Marine Department, Housing Department, Fire Services and to the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. These officers ensure that up-to-the-minute information on the situation reaches the news division for dissemination to the media and the public.

The department's editorial section which produces the annual report and most other government publications, is grouped with the marketing office, which is respon- sible for the distribution techniques for the whole department and the recently acquired responsibility of the sale of government publications.

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       With the assumption of the responsibilities for the Festival of Hong Kong, the two main promotional sections were grouped together forming the festival and campaigns sub-division. The campaigns office continues to be responsible in an advisory and executive function for all the major and minor publicity promotions mounted on behalf of the government.

       The major function of the public relations division is to promote understanding and improve the relationship between the government and the people. Its responsi- bility is to explain, through the media, government policies to the people and reflect public opinion to the departments concerned.

        In recent years, the Government Information Services has set up units in many other government departments with the aim of promoting better liaison between the government and the press, and to improve relations between these departments and the public.

        The information section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London works in close collaboration with the Government Information Services. Press relations form an important part of its work and news releases for the British press are prepared from information bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. In the wider context of public relations, it deals with all general enquiries about Hong Kong, operates a lecture service, organises seminars for newly-recruited expatriate civil servants, and distributes government literature.

15

The Armed Services and

Auxiliary Services

THE British Army, Navy and Royal Air Force are all represented in Hong Kong and are under the command of the Commander British Forces, Lieutenant General Sir Edwin Bramall.

The Commander British Forces advises the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, on matters affecting the security of Hong Kong and is responsible to the Chief of Defence Staff in London. The Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the government in maintaining security and stability.

Army units predominate, and are under the direct command of the Commander British Forces, who has the additional appointment of Commander Land Forces. Royal Navy ships are under the direct operational control of the Commodore-in- Charge, Hong Kong (headquarters at HMS Tamar). The Commander Royal Air Force commands the Royal Air Force station at Kai Tak and associated units, in- cluding No. 28 Squadron which is equipped with Wessex helicopters.

       The Commodore-in-Charge Hong Kong, Commodore J. A. G. Evans, com- mands the naval base HMS Tamar and has operational control of Royal Navy ships in Hong Kong and its waters. The major part of the naval force is the permanently assigned Hong Kong Squadron consisting of the guardship, HMS Chichester, and five patrol craft, HM Ships Monkton, Wolverton, Wasperton, Beachampton and Yarnton.

        In addition to the Hong Kong Squadron, some 20 Royal Naval and Common- wealth ships have visited Hong Kong this year. These ships have formed part of the task groups from Britain deployed in Asia, and have visited Hong Kong for relaxation and to use the maintenance facilities provided by HMS Tamar. Major warships visit- ing with these groups were the guided missile destroyer HMS Fife and the helicopter cruiser HMS Blake. Other warship visits this year included the French Naval Training Squadron, the French Ships Jeanne d'Arc and Forbin.

        HMS Tamar employs about 560 Hong Kong Chinese naval ratings in various fields which include cooks, stewards, technicians and seamen-300 cooks and stewards are serving worldwide in operational ships of the fleet. Laundering, tailoring, shoe- making and hairdressing facilities are provided for the fleet by 270 Hong Kong Chinese seagoing civilians. Also a work force of 150 Hong Kong Chinese civilians provides mainly clerical, storekeeping and labouring backings for HMS Tamar. A further 800 locally recruited men serve worldwide in the Royal Fleet Auxiliaries which provide food, fuel and stores for Her Majesty's Fleet.

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THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

        Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island and has under its command, 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, stationed at Sek Kong in the New Territories and 51 Infantry Brigade with its headquarters in Kowloon.

        Units stationed in Hong Kong for some or all of 1974 were the 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery, C Squadron the 16th/5th Queen's Royal Lancers, C Squadron 1st Royal Tank Regiment, the 1st Battalion the Kings Regiment, the 1st Battalion. the Royal Hampshire Regiment, the 1st Battalion Black Watch, the 2nd Battalion the 2nd King Edward VII Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles), the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, and the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles. In addition to these, there was a wide range of supporting units providing assistance to all three services.

Throughout 1974 units of the Army manned positions in the border area, and in conjunction with the Royal Hong Kong Police Force provided joint police-military patrols in that area and in the more remote parts of the territory.

The Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak is a separate enclave adjacent to the civil airport and uses the airport's runway and control services. The Royal Air Force has its own radar and signal facilities for the long distance control of military aircraft approaching Hong Kong. The radar facilities are shared with the Civil Aviation Department to ensure safety of all aircraft, whether civil or military, operating within the Hong Kong Flight Information Region.

No. 28 Squadron, based at RAF Kai Tak, is equipped with eight Wessex helicop- ters used primarily for the rapid movement of troops and supplies. The squadron also provides a standby aircraft for seach and rescue in Hong Kong and nearby waters and carries out, together with the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, a medical evacuation service for both military personnel and civilians from outlying areas to the main hospitals in Kowloon. The fuel crisis in the early part of 1974 resulted in a reduction in the number of training flights through RAF Kai Tak. However, once the oil situation had stabilised Vulcan, Victor, Canberra and Nimrod aircraft of Strike Command resumed their routine training flights from Britain. Royal Air Force transport aircraft continue to maintain their regular services together with transport aircraft on exercise support or training schedules. Air Commodore M. P. Stanton is currently the Commander Royal Air Force, Hong Kong.

The continuing secure and stable situation in Hong Kong in 1974 enabled the Armed Forces to extend help of all kinds to the local community. This varied in scope from the provision of recreational activities on a large scale for the young to the undertaking of construction projects. Recreational activities included the use of Service sporting facilities, provision of Service instructors and coaches in all sports, and a major contribution to the Summer Youth Activities Programme in the form of an intensive training course for youth leaders.

Linked to this work are the numerous patrols which the Services carry out with the police to isolated areas of Hong Kong. These visits help the government keep in touch with the areas and engender confidence among the inhabitants.

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The primary task of the British Armed Forces in Hong Kong remains, however, to be ready at all times to give instant support to the Hong Kong Government and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, should this be necessary. Therefore, the Services have maintained a high standard of training and alertness and jointly with the New Territories Administration and the police, have steadily improved the arrangements for the security of the border and other critical areas of Hong Kong and its waters.

Local Auxiliary Defence Services

In addition to the regular forces, Hong Kong has two auxiliary defence units, the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. These are administered by the Hong Kong Government but would come under the Commander British Forces and the appropriate Service commanders, if called out.

       The Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) numbers more than 700 volunteers and about 40 permanent staff. It is a light reconnaissance regiment com- prising five reconnaissance squadrons, a headquarters squadron and a home guard squadron. There is also a junior leaders' squadron of 135 boys. The regiment is based on Hong Kong Island, with a squadron in Kowloon.

       The regiment operates in support of the British Armed Forces stationed in Hong Kong in both an internal security and a reconnaissance role. Its equipment, role and organisation are constantly under review to keep the regiment in line with modern British Army training.

       The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, which this year celebrated its 25th anniversary, is based at Royal Air Force Kai Tak alongside Hong Kong International Airport. It has an establishment of 111 volunteers supported by more than 50 per- manent staff. With a fleet of five aircraft, a twin-engined Britten-Norman Islander, one Beechcraft Musketeer and three Alouette Mark III helicopters, its main role is internal security.

The unit gives intensive training to volunteers at weekends and in the evenings to enable them to undertake full-time duties in an emergency. During the year more than 110 casualty evacuation flights were carried out. In addition, together with the Medical and Health Department, the unit provides a flying doctor service to outlying districts every Saturday. The search and rescue and aerial survey capabilities of the unit continue to expand.

Essential Services Corps

The Essential Services Corps comprises four autonomous services-units of the Essential Services Corps, the Civil Aid Services, the Auxiliary Medical Service and the Auxiliary Fire Services.

        The 70 units in the corps can be mobilised at times of civil disorder to help maintain public utilities and other essential services if the security of Hong Kong, or the welfare of the population, is endangered. About half of the 11,400 corps personnel come from government departments and the rest from commercial organisations.

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Each unit is staffed mainly by a restricted number of volunteers employed by the departments or organisations concerned.

        On the call out of units, members of the corps undertake, under a disciplinary code, special obligations in return for which they are entitled to substantial benefits appropriate to the abnormal conditions of service. Comprehensive plans for the operation of each essential service in times of civil disorder are constantly under review and co-ordinated with the police and military. Units of the corps hold occa- sional exercises to practise their role. The headquarters of units also take part in joint command and control exercises with the police and military.

        The Civil Aid Services, founded in 1951 as a voluntary, disciplined, uniformed organisation to assist other regular emergency services in combating natural disasters and civil unrest, has gradually taken on a more diversified role. Apart from such emergency duties as reconnaissance and reporting of incidents, manning typhoon shelters and assisting in registration and feeding of the homeless, adult members can now be seen, as the situation demands, carrying out crowd control duties during government-sponsored campaigns; first aid, casualty handling, light and heavy search and rescue in respect of landslides, collapsed buildings, and persons lost or injured in the mountains; and anti-oil pollution duties.

The Civil Aid Services also provide a comprehensive despatch rider and radio communication service linking districts in the urban and rural areas. Training is being undertaken in forest and rural area patrolling to assist the conservation and forests division of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department in forest fire prevention and conservation matters.

       The strength of the Civil Aid Services lies in the willingness of the volunteers, who are drawn from almost every walk of life in Hong Kong, to turn out at any time, no matter how inconvenient and inclement the weather, to perform arduous and un- pleasant duties. The Civil Aid Services comprise 3,800 trained adult male and female officers and members with a recruit cadre of 800.

       On completion of a year's training, recruits are transferred to either a warden zone, a rescue or command unit, or one of the administrative divisions near their place of work or residence. The general emphasis in training is geared to the opera- tional role of the Civil Aid Services.

        In addition to the adult wing of the Civil Aid Services, a junior wing, the Cadet Corps, has been in operation since 1968. The strength of the corps is 1,900 youths aged 14 to 18 years, with 200 recruits undergoing enrolment. The youths are recruited, in the main, from resettlement and other heavily congested urban areas into a cadet unit in the area in which they live. There are 20 units, but plans to increase the number of units and lower the age group to 12 years are being studied.

        The aim of the Cadet Corps is to train boys to be good citizens. During their training, they are taught the basic skills as practised in the adult service, as well as camping, trekking, orientating, forestry conservation, life-saving and mountaineering. More advanced courses are held for the 17-18 age group in mechanical engineering

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and allied subjects. Cadet services are in increasing demand to assist in controlling crowds during performances sponsored by kaifong and charitable organisations, gov- ernment campaigns and sports events.

        In October 1973, a 50-acre site was granted to the Civil Aid Services for use as a camping area for cadets. The site is situated 750 feet above Tsing Lung Tau near Tsuen Wan and comprises the old deserted village of Yuen Tun, surrounding hills and abandoned paddy fields. To make the camp site habitable, a lot of work is required and in 1974 the government granted funds for the construction of essential facilities. In February, 68 Gurkha Engineers and 3 Field Squadron, Royal Engineers, constructed a motor road to within 200 yards of the village. The cadets have also renovated the old houses and opened neglected drainage channels and village paths. When the project is completed, it will be possible for up to 300 youths to camp in the area at any time.

       The Auxiliary Medical Service, formed 24 years ago, has now reached full strength with a membership in excess of 6,200 volunteers. The majority of members are in the age group 17-25 years. Other members comprise volunteers of the medical and nursing profession. Non-professional members are trained regularly in first aid, nursing and casualty handling. Practical training involves the manning of Fire Service ambulances at weekends, ward training in major hospitals, and reinforcing the life- guard force of the Urban Services Department during the swimming season. The main emphasis in training has been on the Auxiliary Medical Service's operational role.

       During emergencies Auxiliary Medical Service officers and members are called out, as required, to augment regular staff in the Medical and Health Department, Fire Services ambulance division, Social Welfare Department, City District Offices and to provide first aid parties to assist the Civil Aid Services.

       The Auxiliary Medical Service has teams in all parts of the urban areas, the New Territories and on the off-shore islands. There is always a long waiting list of volun- teers wishing to join the service.

The Auxiliary Fire Services

       The strength of the Auxiliary Fire Services has been further reduced over the past year, following the introduction of new service requirements in 1972. These are minimum attendance of 50 per cent, compulsory retirement at the age of 50 and up- grading of medical standards. At the close of the year, there were 171 auxiliary fire officers and men, compared with 199 at the end of 1973.

       Seven officers attended a 10-day breathing apparatus training course at the Fire Services Training School to qualify as instructors. The aim is to qualify all members to wear breathing apparatus.

16

Religion and Custom

It would be misleading for the visitor to gauge the role religion plays in the life of the average family in Hong Kong from the number and size of churches and temples found here. These generally lack the glamour and history of churches in London or temples in Bangkok. Apart from Christian followers, most Chinese conduct their religious practices in private by offering burning incense to the ancestral shrines in their homes or a 'God Shelf' in their shops. These types of traditional religious rites become more elaborate during major festivals or in ceremonies of birth, marriage and death.

       Religious practices include Taoism, Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. There has been a notable revival of interest in Buddhism and Taoism in recent years, mainly because of the immigration of Buddhists from China and the vogue for the martial art, kung-fu, which claims mystic links with these religions. Together, these religions maintain a strong hold among older Chinese and, to a lesser degree, the younger people.

Religious studies are conducted in a large number of monasteries, nunneries, hermitages and academies; those at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan being more popular with urban dwellers mainly because of their accessibility. However, some better known monasteries are situated in more remote and unspoilt parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin Monastery on Lantau Island is famous for its beautiful view of the sunrise and there are large numbers of visitors at weekends and holidays.

Other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories which attract both sightseers and devotees are Ching Shan Tsz and Tsing Chung Koon at Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor and Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen near Tsuen Wan and Sai Lam at Sha Tin. At Tao Fong Shan, near Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture, where the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on for many years. To meet the demands of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in apartments in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

Temples, on the other hand, play an important part in Chinese religious life as places of public worship. For instance, Tin Hau, as a major deity, alone claims 250,000 worshippers. These temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but subsidiary deities may often be found in the same temple. Many of them are sea gods and sea goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port.

       Except for Kwun Yam, 'Buddhist Goddess of Mercy', the majority are deified mortals who have been traditionally worshipped as a result of their performance of

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      actual or mythical feats. Among the more famous are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of righteousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of Cheung Chau Island) and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors). Many Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to fishing harbours, and the best known of these is at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Other Tin Hau temples originally established close to the shore are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations.

        Also famous is the Man Mo Temple in Hollywood Road, which is dedicated to the gods of literacy and martial valour. Other popular temples of Taoist origin include the recently rebuilt Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin in New Kowloon and the Che Kung Temple at Sha Tin. Steps are being taken to provide proper facilities for the fast growing population in public housing estates to worship and celebrate religious festivals.

       In the New Territories, traditional clan organisation has been preserved to a great extent. Many villages have an ancestral hall where ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. The hall is also the centre of both religious and secular life for the clansmen-villagers. Animism in the form of shrines, or simply joss sticks burnt at the foot of rocks and trees to honour spirits of the locality is found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

There are five major festivals in the Chinese calendar. The first and foremost is the Lunar New Year. Gifts and visits are exchanged among friends and relatives, and children are happy receivers of 'lucky money' from adults. During the Ching Ming Festival in spring, ancestral graves are visited. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated in early summer when the spectacular dragon boat races are held and steamed rice in lotus leaves is eaten. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon. Gifts of mooncakes, wines and fruits are exchanged among relatives and friends and children play with colourful lanterns. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb various hills in remembrance of a Chinese family and its legendary escape from plague and death by fleeing to the top of a high moun- tain. Visits to family graves are also paid on this day.

Organised Christianity dates back almost to the foundation of Hong Kong, the first churches being established in 1842. Today there are nearly 600 churches and chapels. The most recent Hong Kong Church Directory lists about 50 denominations and sect groups.

There is no formal religious census, but the estimated number of Christians is 440,000 slightly more than 10 per cent of the total population. Of these, more than half are Roman Catholic, and slightly less than half, Protestant.

Protestant churches are responsible for more than 250 primary schools, and 130 middle schools and colleges. The Christian concern for post secondary education is shown by the existence of Chung Chi College of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Baptist College.

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The Christian churches also sponsor a variety of service programmes including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, homes for the aged, family service centres, vocational training centres, aid for the handicapped and many others. With decreasing overseas assistance, the local congregations are having to take a greater share of the support.

The mainline denominations, together with active Christian organisations (such as the YMCA, YWCA, and the Bible Society) have associated themselves for co- operative work in the Hong Kong Christian Council. Established in 1954, the council promotes ecumenical projects and concerns in Christian service, industrial mission, Christian education and communication. The council's Christian Centre facilities in- clude a conference room, recording studios, film libraries, and a reference library. The Christian Council's 23 members represent the majority of the Protestant Church membership in Hong Kong.

       In the same building with the council is the long-established Hong Kong Chinese Christian Churches Union. The union is an association based on congregations rather than denominations. It now has 174 member-congregations.

Another organisation with a long history is the Chinese Christian Literature Council-publishers of Christian literature for the Chinese communities of Southeast Asia. This council carries on the activities of the former Christian Literature Society of Shanghai.

The Christian Study Centre at Sha Tin is an ecumenical study and research centre which promotes seminars and studies of Christian concerns and Christian understand- ing of Asian culture and religions.

The opening in December 1973 of the United Christian Hospital in Kwun Tong marked the culmination of 11 years of planning. The project began in the Christian Council's Committee for a United Christian Hospital. The local church campaign was sponsored jointly by the Christian Council and the Chinese Christian Churches Union. Altogether, local Hong Kong community contributions provided 20 per cent of the total construction cost. Overseas assistance matched this amount, and the Hong Kong Government subsidy covered the remaining 60 per cent.

       Before the establishment of Hong Kong the Roman Catholic Church's work in the area was part of its general missionary programme for South China. In April 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Monsignor Theodore Joset as its first Prefect. He built a matshed church at what is now the intersection of Wellington and Pottinger Streets, established a seminary for training Chinese priests, and persuaded religious sisters to come to Hong Kong and start schools, hospitals, creches and other welfare work.

In 1867 the Pontifical Institute of the Foreign Missions of Milan took charge of the Prefecture with the Right Reverend T. Raimondi as Prefect Apostolic (later Bishop) of Hong Kong. This institute remained in control of the Church until the first Chinese Bishop of the 131-year-old Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong, the Most Reverend Francis Chen-ping Hsu was formally installed in October 1969. Almost two years later, in September 1971, the Most Reverend Peter Wang-kei Lei

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was consecrated Auxiliary Bishop of Hong Kong. The Church in Hong Kong suffered sad losses when Bishop Hsu died in May 1973, at the age of 52, and his successor, Bishop Peter Wang-kei Lei, died suddenly on July 23, 1974. Bishop Lei had been appointed in December 1973.

        Health, education and diversified social welfare works have been maintained and in some cases extended during the past year. In education, expansion continued and there are now 201 Catholic primary and secondary schools with a total enrolment of 249,084.

Social services include seven vocational centres, seven social centres, 12 hostels for students and working people, six hospitals, one maternity home, 20 general clinics, five dental clinics, two mobile clinics, four residential homes for children and 15 day nurseries, two homes for the aged, two for the blind and two training centres for the disabled.

        In their Christian social commitment, the Catholic clergy and laity have, during the past year, increasingly engaged in joint activities related to contemporary con- ditions in Hong Kong with other Christian groups. In general the social dimension of education has been more stressed in the schools.

        Church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 340 priests, 103 religious brothers and 793 religious sisters, 36 religious orders and congregations representing 33 nationalities. In 1974 Catholics numbered about 260,000, more than 90 per cent of them Chinese, in 53 parishes on Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and 16 rural districts of the New Territories.

        During the past 30 years more than 20,000 followers of Islam, mostly Chinese, have established themselves in Hong Kong. Other members of the Muslim community are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Iran and neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street Mosque and Wongneichong Road Mosque on Hong Kong Island, and the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

        The Shelley Street Mosque, the first to be built in Hong Kong, dates back to the early days of the introduction of the Islamic faith in the 1880s. It was rebuilt in 1915. The Kowloon mosque was built towards the end of the last century for the use originally of Muslim soldiers of the former Indian Army but was subsequently handed over to the local Muslim community. Two places have been set aside by the government as burial grounds for Muslims. One is at Happy Valley and the other at Cape Collinson, Chai Wan.

        Co-ordinating body for all religious affairs is the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community Fund of Hong Kong. A board of trustees, comprising representa- tives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is responsible for the manage- ment and maintenance of all mosques and cemeteries. The trustees are also responsible for organising the celebration of Muslim festivals and other religious events. Charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial aid to the needy, hospitalisa- tion and assisted education, is conducted through a welfare committee working under the direction of the board of trustees.

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        With more than 8,000 members the Hindu community, which can trace its ties with Hong Kong back to early settlement, centres its religious and social activities round its temple at Happy Valley. This temple is frequently visited by swamis and learned men from overseas who give spiritual lectures to the community. A number of festivals are also observed, the more important being the Holi Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Diwali.

        The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, yoga classes and teaching Hindi to the Indian community. During 1974, the association sponsored several seminars on the ancient Hindu teachings of Bhagwat Gita and Upanshads which were given by Hindu scholars invited from India. The seminars were held in English and were open to all nationalities. Religious music recitals are also held periodically at the temple.

       Hong Kong's Jewish community worships at a synagogue in Robinson Road. Constructed in 1901 on land given by Sir Jacob Sassoon and his family the synagogue is in memory of Sir Jacob's mother Leah. It is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 500 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from Britain, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States, South Africa and Israel.

17

Recreation

WITH land at a premium in Hong Kong even the smallest plot made available for recreation is utilised to the fullest extent. Each year, and 1974 was no exception, the overall programme to provide sporting and other recreational facilities, has continued to expand, although public demand always tends to outstrip existing amenities.

The Council for Recreation and Sport, headed by the Secretary for Home Affairs and composed of both official and unofficial members, was set up in December 1973. During its first year of operation it has worked towards providing greater opportunity for recreation and sport for the general public, particularly young people, both in school and at work, in Hong Kong. Funds, including generous private donations, have been channelled through the council for the expansion of various activities.

The council has recommended the introduction of a recreation and sports scheme, to be implemented in three stages, to organise and stimulate recreational and sporting activities on a district basis. The first stage, in October 1974, included the appointment of six recreation and sports officers in both city and New Territories districts. The scheme is run by the Education Department.

An inter-departmental committee on services for youth, which is also under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Home Affairs and consists of senior government officials, was formed in November 1973. Its main role is to identify the problems and aspirations of young people, with particular attention to education, employment, group and youth activities, sport and recreation and community involvement.

The committee advises those bodies concerned on ways to expand and improve their services. In the past year the committee has been primarily concerned with the problem of 12 and 13-year-olds who are neither at work nor at school.

        In June 1972, the government announced approval, in principle, of a $33 million plan to develop countryside recreational facilities. Main features of the plan are de- velopment of four major parks in the New Territories and provision of picnic areas and hiking facilities on Hong Kong Island. Work on the provision of roads, steps and footpaths, litter bins and refuse collection services, tables and benches, barbecue pits and shelters gained momentum during the year.

        The parks in the New Territories will each be about two square miles. The picnic areas on Hong Kong Island, although smaller in area, will contain similar facilities. Significant progress was made in the development of Shing Mun and Lion Rock Country Parks in the New Territories and Tai Tam, Wong Nai Chung and Aberdeen picnic areas on Hong Kong Island. Countryside recreational developments have also

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been carried out at the Bride's Pool area which is additional to the above plan. Public appreciation of the new facilities has been demonstrated by large increases in the num- bers of visitors to those areas. The Director of Agriculture and Fisheries is responsible for management of these country parks and recreational areas.

       Swimming is by far the most popular form of recreation in Hong Kong, and long, hot summer in 1974 sent attendances at beaches and swimming pools shooting above 15 million by the end of the summer. Swimming lessons continued and the annual water safety campaign was held to drive home the 'swim-in-safety' message.

The Urban Council controls beaches and pools in the urban areas and the Urban Services Department those in the New Territories. These comprise: Hong Kong Island-12 beaches and three swimming pool complexes; Kowloon--four swimming pool complexes; New Territories-25 beaches and one swimming pool complex.

       Good progress was made in 1974 on expanding swimming facilities, with a new pool complex opened on Hong Kong Island (Kennedy Town) and another nearing completion in the New Territories (Tsuen Wan).

       More pool complexes are planned for Aberdeen and Chai Wan on Hong Kong Island; Tai Wan, Hammer Hill and Kowloon Park in Kowloon, and Yuen Long, Kwai Chung, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun in the New Territories. Other recreational facilities range from stadia and sports grounds to parks, playgrounds, sitting-out areas and amenity plots.

       Eighty recreation and amenities projects are in the capital works programme including nine swimming pools; a football stadium of international standard at Ho Man Tin; two indoor stadia at Hung Hom and Morrison Hill for sports such as table tennis, basketball and badminton; a sports training centre and velodrome at Causeway Bay; and several large parks. Projects completed included an attractive rest garden on Signal Hill in Tsim Sha Tsui and a 3.7-acre playground at Pok Fu Lam Road.

       The Urban Council and Urban Services Department launched a determined drive to make Hong Kong greener as well as cleaner, and during the year 179,500 trees, shrubs and flowers were planted. They included 13,000 semi-mature trees im- ported at a cost of $3 million, specially provided by the council from its own funds, and 400 semi-mature trees in the New Territories, for which the government paid $80,000. These trees were spread among parks, playgrounds, along roadsides and in other public places. The Urban Council and Urban Services Department now manage a total of 1,555.89 acres of public open space, 992.45 in the urban areas and the rest in the New Territories.

The annual Urban Council flower show, held each spring, continued to be a popular event in 1974 drawing 111,675 flower-lovers to the City Hall.

The Urban Council spent more than $1 million to provide a wide range of free entertainment for everyone, and in the New Territories the Urban Services Depart- ment expanded its own free entertainment programme to keep in step. The programme

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was arranged to appeal to residents of big housing estates and to young people, and the 1,000-odd functions were seen and enjoyed by more than 850,000 people.

Performances included variety shows, Chinese band concerts and operas, roller skating, film shows and band concerts. Other attractions included performances of Cantonese and Fukienese rod puppets, the Urban Council having encouraged a revival of interest in this traditional form of entertainment.

       In the swimming season, swimming galas and 'swim-ins' were held at beaches and swimming pools. Also, the council arranged 11 free launch picnics for 3,000 under- privileged children from its 10 urban districts, and for about 280 orphans. Variety shows staged at beaches to publicise the 'Clean Our Beaches' drive drew many tens of thousands more visitors at weekends.

To coincide with the Urban Council exhibition from November 8 to 17, an in- tensified entertainment and recreation programme was organised. Additional variety shows, Cantonese operas, concerts, fun fairs, youth dances and martial arts demon- strations were presented and sports competitions in football, mini-soccer, basketball, volleyball, track and field events, bowling, cycling, table tennis and judo were arranged.

       Urban Services Department's entertainment section was given wide assistance by other government departments, kaifong associations and rural committees, as well as many other public and private organisations.

Summer Youth Activities Programme

The Summer Youth Activities Programme, well established as an annual feature in Hong Kong, ended its sixth successful year. It attracted more than 1.5 million young people to take part in the activities and some 36,500 volunteers to assist in their planning and running.

       The programme is an extensive community effort involving the close co-operation of youth and welfare bodies, schools, district groups, the Armed Forces and govern- ment departments. It provides a diverse range of interesting activities throughout the summer months to give young people organised recreation and enable them to develop qualities of leadership. The programme also aims at cultivating a sense of civic respon- sibility in young people and encouraging them to participate in community service.

       The programme is not solely for the benefit of school children and special efforts are made to make opportunities available to young workers and other young people who are not members of any organised group. To ensure that the varied needs of young people from different walks of life are adequately met and to enable the programme to reach out to the widest cross-section of the community, district youth recreation co- ordinating committees work closely with the Social Welfare Department, and City and New Territories District Offices. These committees draw most of their members from welfare agencies and local organisations.

       The overall co-ordination of planning, particularly the financing and publicity of the youth programme, is undertaken by a Central Co-ordinating Committee for Youth Recreation. This committee was formed in early 1969. It comprises representatives from

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the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, the Association of Volunteers for Service and major government departments concerned with youth recreation.

A grant of $1.4 million from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and a similar amount contributed by the government, together with numerous donations from com- munity groups and private individuals helped to provide a varied and extensive pro- gramme of events.

Entertainment and the Arts

       The cultural life of Hong Kong in which the performing arts now play an import- ant role, tends to centre on the City Hall, which is administered by the Urban Council.

        Facilities offered by the City Hall, opened in 1962, include a 1,500-seat concert hall that can be quickly converted for use for theatrical productions, an intimate 470-seat theatre (also used as a cinema), two exhibition halls, rooms for lectures and conferences, and two public restaurants with bars. The City Museum and Art Gallery and the main branch of the Urban Council public libraries system are also located there.

Local performers and overseas artists appear regularly in the two auditoria and the demand for use of the City Hall facilities is far greater than can be met. Planning of a new and larger cultural complex in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, is now underway.

       Of performances by local artists during the year, 113 Chinese and Western music, drama, opera and dance were presented by the Urban Council, and attended by 72,870 people.

       The Urban Council, mostly in association with national cultural organisations such as the Alliance Francaise, the British Council, the American Library and the Goethe Institute, also engaged overseas artists to perform music, ballet and drama. In 1974, there were 75 such performances. Admission prices for students for these performances ranged from $2 to $5, and tickets were usually sold out quickly.

       In addition to participating in the Urban Council's presentations, local musical groups and soloists gave 69 concerts in the City Hall during the year. In drama, many Chinese groups, amateur as well as professional, and three active English ama- teur groups presented 34 productions, with 100 performances in the City Hall. The Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra turned professional in January and gave 70 concerts during the year.

       The 1974 Hong Kong Arts Festival, organised by the Hong Kong Arts Festival Society, took place at the City Hall and the Lee Theatre in February. Internationally known artists who performed at the festival included soloists Shura Cherkassky, Fou Ts'ong, Paul Tortelier, Yi-kwei Sze and Robert Tear, Hiroyuki Iwaki and Sergiu Commissiona conducting the Sydney Symphony Orchestra and Erich Bergel, Walter Weller and Bernard Klee conducting the London Symphony Orchestra. Also perform- ing at the festival were the Vienna Chamber Orchestra and Choir, the Allegri Quartet, the Prospect Theatre, the Birmingham Repertory and the Senegal Dancers. They gave Hong Kong a month of music, drama and dance.

MODERN ART

The more common materials of the modern painter are oil and acrylic. However, Chinese artists in Hong Kong add materials from their own tradition-Chinese ink and rice paper. Combinations of media and a synthesis of ideas drawn from both East and West create the unusual variety of work to be found in the contemporary art scene in Hong Kong. Austere calligraphy and carved form derived from the past exist side by side with the spontaneous gesture and bold experiment. Artists are numerous and those featured here show some of these various techniques and approaches to be found in the visual arts. While sculptors remain few, the number of painters and printmakers gaining rep- utations both in Hong Kong and over- seas steadily increases year by year.

P

TB

Leung Kui-ting

A young printmaker and painter gaining recognition overseas. Winner of Urban Council Fine Art Award.

P

BLIC

Hon Chi-fun

Painter of large acrylic works and printmaker (silkscreen) who has exhibited widely overseas.

Lui Shou-kwan

Inspired teacher and ink painter both within and outside the Chinese tradition. Well-known overseas.

ᄆᄆ

Cheung Yee

Sculptor in metal, wood, and stone who has carried out many commissions in public buildings and hotels. Well-known in Asia.

Voertí pudicity Jes

T

Wucius Wong

A well-known and outstanding ink painter, and former student of Lui Shou-kwan. Teaches design at Hong Kong Polytechnic.

הי

Van Lau

Sculptor specialising in metal work and printmaking (etching) who has carried out general commissions in Hong Kong.

K

The City Art Gallery organises regular open exhibitions, group and one-man shows. The gallary has a large and growing collection of contemporary Hong Kong art and gives awards to artists under the Urban Council award scheme.

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City Museum and Art Gallery

173

       The City Museum and Art Gallery is accommodated in the three top floors of the High Block of City Hall. It was established in 1962 and at present has four sec- tions: Chinese art and antiquities, local history, archaeology and ethnography, and local and contemporary art.

       The Chinese antiquities section has a comprehensive collection of ceramics. Although the items may not be of great value individually, they are representative of ceramics of various periods of Chinese history. In addition to the ceramics there are interesting pieces of bronze, jade, lacquerware, cloissonne and embroidery. The Chinese art section boasts a substantial collection of paintings and calligraphy by Kwangtung artists which are important to any comprehensive study of the art history of Kwangtung in the last two centuries. There are also notable works by Chinese artists of other regions.

       The collections of historical pictures, largely made up of the Chater, Hotung, Law and Sayer collections, have been augmented by many new acquisitions. The total of about 800 items forms a valuable and informative group of pictorial records of Sino-British relationship since the 18th century. A collection of more than 2,000 photographs depicts the evolution of Hong Kong from a fishing village in 1870 to a modern city.

       The collection of local archaeological finds continued to grow, as a result of ex- cavations conducted by the Hong Kong Archaeological Society. Archaeological work during the year was extensive, and the results impressive, the finds ranging from Han objects to neolithic artifacts. The ethnographical collection has been increasing steadily and includes items such as models of extinct Chinese fishing junks.

The local and contemporary art collection consists of painting, sculpture and prints by local artists as well as by artists of other Asian countries, many of whom are of Chinese origin.

       Apart from the permanent display of Chinese antiquities in the museum section, the first half of 1974 was marked by major exhibitions organised during the Arts Festival, including 'A Century of Chinese Paintings' in the art gallery and 'Chinese Puppets' in the exhibition hall, both attracting many visitors. Exhibitions from overseas were also well attended, the most popular being the 'Original Graphics by Picasso' and 'Contemporary Italian Sculpture'.

During the later part of the year, a series of exhibitions of materials from the collection was presented and, in November, a number of special displays organised in connection with 'Urbco '74', the exhibition designed to show the overall activity of the Urban Council.

The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, discovered in 1955 and preserved as a site museum, was closed in July for urgent repairs. The total attendance for the first six months was 7,612, averaging 42 per day, as compared with 8,440 and 56 for the same period in

1973.

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Total attendance at the City Museum and Art Gallery for 1974 was 250,836 representing an average of 828 people per day. The corresponding figures for 1973 were 279,189 and 901.

Libraries

During 1974 a new branch library was opened in Aberdeen taking the number of Urban Council public libraries to six-three on the Kowloon peninsula and three on Hong Kong Island. There is also a separate students' study room at Kowloon Park with 282 seats.

        The facilities of these libraries and study room are freely available to all residents of Hong Kong. The branch libraries at Waterloo Road and Ping Shek Estate in Kowloon and at Wah Fu Estate and Aberdeen on the island concentrate primarily on lending facilities for adult and junior readers, but also have newspaper/periodical sections and study rooms for students.

The City Hall and Yau Ma Tei libraries, the main libraries for each side of the harbour, provide similar facilities as the branch libraries but on a larger scale, and in addition have comprehensive reference sections. That of the City Hall concentrates on the humanities and social sciences, while the Yau Ma Tei Library is strong on science and technology.

The Tsuen Wan Public Library, the first public library to be set up in the New Territories by the Urban Services Department, opened in March 1974, and has proved popular.

The libraries have a total book stock of 587,056 in both Chinese and English, 3,939 reels of microfilm, and subscribe to 600 current newspapers and periodicals from all over the world. In the 12 years since the first (at the City Hall) was opened, 492,420 people have registered as borrowers. During the year, 3,076,206 books were borrowed from the lending sections and 366,360 books consulted in the reference sections.

        Extension activities in the form of book exhibitions, children's story hours, Christmas card competitions and organised school visits have been regular and popular features at the libraries. New libraries in Kwun Tong and Sham Shui Po are anticipated open in 1975.

The British Council

        The British Council's educational activities continued at a high level during 1974. Assistance was given to government departments and the two universities to enable staff members to visit British universities and other institutions and to attend specialist courses. Five British Council scholarships were awarded during 1974, four for training in teaching of English overseas. Acting for the Sino-British Fellowship Trust the council arranged five scholarships for post-graduate studies in Britain. The council also completed placing and travel arrangements for 13 British Common- wealth Fellows and Scholars from Hong Kong going to Britain.

The British Council also made arrangements for specialists from Britain to visit Hong Kong for consultations with government departments, the universities, and

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with local experts in their fields. Subjects covered included blood transfusion, chemistry, orthopaedics, industrial design, mathematics, medicine, technical and physical education, and librarianship. Among the visiting specialists were Dr F. Stratton, Director of the National Transfusion Service, Manchester Regional Hospital Board; Mr E. W. Somerville of Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre; Mr K. C. Harrison, City Librarian, Westminster Public Libraries, and President of the Commonwealth Library Association; Professor Peter Strevens, Professor of Applied Linguistics and Director of the Language Centre, University of Essex.

        On the arts side the council sponsored an exhibition of sculpture and reliefs by Mr Chan Ping-tim, a local artist, in July. Some 300 people attended the exhibition.

       The two libraries at Gloucester Building in Central and Star House in Kowloon loaned more than 72,000 books to 8,200 members. These readers, mainly students, also made full use of the reading rooms for study, where they were provided with more than 200 British newspapers and magazines on a wide range of subjects.

The council again provided at Star House the venue for the English section of the Hong Kong schools music festival. Educational films from a library of locally held prints were lent to a large number of schools and other institutions. Feature films of artistic and literary interest, and specialist medical films were obtained from London and shown to schools, university departments, and hospital staff.

During 1974 there were two book exhibitions organised by the British Council- the first on business and industrial management, and the second on architecture, town planning and industrial design. The exhibitions were displayed at the two council libraries in March and in September respectively-and were attended by about 1,400 visitors, including lecturers, librarians, business managers, industrial executives, architects, book-sellers, teachers and students.

The council continued to give advice and information to students leaving for higher studies in Britain. Close co-operation was maintained with the Education Department, and a large number of students were assisted and met by the British Council on arrival in London.

18

The Environment

*

A SMALL part of the Chinese mainland and a series of small offshore islands less than 100 miles south of the Tropic of Cancer, make up the territory of Hong Kong. Between the twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon lies the magnificent natural harbour, one of the busiest in the world.

        Hong Kong is situated on the south-east coast of China, 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of the Portuguese province of Macau. Geographically it lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E, adjoining the province of Kwangtung.

        The total land area is 404 square miles (including recent reclamations) of which Hong Kong Island, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprises 29.2 square miles, Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another 4.3 square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 370.5 square miles.

Topography and Geology

        Hong Kong's hilly topography has ensured survival of a relatively large expanse of countryside, often favourably compared to some of the most famous scenic areas in the world. Its steep and rugged slopes, rising from sea-level to two and three thousand feet, feature rocky crags, wooded ravines with rushing streams and open grassy slopes. Some 20 freshwater reservoirs of various sizes nestle among these hills giving additional charm to the scenery.

        The territory lies on the edge of an eroded mountain chain which extends along the south coast of China, and is largely composed of folded and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks with younger intrusions of granitic rocks mostly of the Jurassic Period. The oldest sedimentary rocks found in Hong Kong are those of the Tolo Harbour Formation. This formation is exposed at Ma Shi Chau and contains fossils dated as most probably Permian in age.

        However, its stratigraphic relationships are somewhat uncertain. The formation of minerals associated with the intrusion of the granitic rocks, has been of limited economic benefit to Hong Kong. Lead, zinc, tungsten, beryl and graphite have been mined intermittently, but only in small quantities. Iron ore mining has been of greater importance and there is currently an active mine at Ma On Shan, which exports concentrated ore to Japan.

Due to the hilly terrain, agricultural land is restricted. The most important area is the flat alluvium around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area. Outside the alluvial

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      areas soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acidic and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. However, given intensive labour input, water supply rather than soil condition tends to be the controlling factor in farming. The predominantly crystalline character of the rock formations unfortunately makes them unsuitable for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface run-off for all water supplies. The highly variable rainfall of the area has led to periodic water shortages. Most of Hong Kong's surface water supply has now been captured through the construction of catchments and reservoirs. After completion of the High Island reservoir scheme, desalination processes on a large scale will become necessary.

       Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia, but more profitable vegetable crops have increasingly displaced rice during the past 25 years and it is now grown on only 31 per cent of the area being used for agriculture. Fish ponds are also an important form of rural land use. The upland areas are mostly grass-covered and in several places, as in the Castle Peak area, severely eroded. Afforestation has been developed since 1945 but the area covered is still relatively small. The most important economic function of the uplands is for water catchment areas, which must be reconciled with needs of the crowded urban areas for recrea- tional space.

Climate and the Year's Weather

Climate

       Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it experiences seasonal weather conditions, unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when it is generally dry and sunny. After New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight, it is often persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon- when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

         The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and can occur from mid-April until September, but it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm in 1963 and 3,100.4 mm in 1973, the wettest year since 1889, but the mean value is 2,168.8 mm.

        Mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever re- corded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high

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     ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night.

       Mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent. The daily average of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to more than seven hours in mid-July and late October.

       Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected from May to November but are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less fre- quently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force, endangering life and property.

The Year's Weather

       Although exceptionally dry conditions prevailed during the first nine months of the year and created a serious water shortage, heavy downpours associated with typhoons Carmen and Elaine in October brought a welcome relief to the drought and brought an end to the water supply restrictions imposed in September. The accumulated rainfall was more than 30 per cent below average on September 30 but rose to seven per cent above normal by the end of the year.

Out of a total of 34 tropical cyclones which formed in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during the year, an unprecedented number of 11 affected Hong Kong and necessitated the hoisting of tropical cyclone warning signals. It was also the first time in the history of the Royal Observatory that four tropical cyclones affected the territory during October and one passed close enough to cause strong winds in December.

The first three months of the year were much drier and sunnier than usual and fire danger warnings were in force on 44 days. The first tropical cyclone reported in the year, severe tropical storm Wanda, formed to the east of the southern Philip- pines on January 10. It moved northeastwards and dissipated over the cold waters east of Luzon on January 14. Two cold spells were experienced during February when frost and ice formation were reported on high ground and in the New Terri- tories. The air temperature fell to 4.2°C at the Royal Observatory early on February 26, which was the lowest temperature recorded in the year. The minimum temperature recorded on the same morning at Tai Mo Shan and Tate's Cairn were -6.5°C and -2.2°C respectively. On February 23, widespread fog and low visibility associated with a moist airstream from the Pacific caused 23 aircraft to divert from Hong Kong International Airport. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted three times in February and once in March. A tropical storm, Amy, developed near the Caroline Islands on March 14. It moved westwards at first and then recurved northeastwards, dissipating over the Pacific to the southeast of Japan on March 19.

Violent thunderstorms associated with cold surges resulted in 231.1 mm of rainfall in April, making it the first month since September 1973 with above average

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rainfall. However, the heavy rains were confined to three days, and the month was sunnier than usual. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted on April 1-2 when a strong northerly surge affected Hong Kong. Tropical storm Babe formed near the Caroline Islands on April 26. It moved northwards and became extratropical six days later.

       Dry conditions returned in May and the rainfall for the month was more than 30 per cent below average. More than half of the month's rain fell on May 2 when an active trough of low pressure passed through Hong Kong from the north. A second trough arrived on May 30 and heavy thunderstorms associated with it resulted in the death of three campers on Lantau Island.

Although there were only five days in June with no rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory, the total rainfall for the month was still 20 per cent below average. The month was cloudy and a late surge of the winter monsoon on June 5-6 neces- sitated the hoisting of the strong monsoon signal for 21 hours. Four tropical cyclones were observed during the month and two affected Hong Kong. A tropical depression which formed over the South China Sea on June 6 caused periods of strong winds in Hong Kong on June 6-7 while typhoon Dinah, which developed over the Pacific about 50 miles off Yap, brought strong to gale force easterlies on June 12. However, both tropical cyclones were relatively dry and were associated with little rain in Hong Kong.

       July was warm and sunny with below average rainfall and the mean relative humidity of 78 per cent was the third lowest on record for the month. Four tropical cyclones formed in the western North Pacific during the month but only one, typhoon Ivy, brought gales to Hong Kong.

       August was even less humid than July and the mean relative humidity of 76 per cent was the lowest ever recorded for the month. It was also much warmer than usual and the mean maximum temperature of the month, 32°C, was the third highest on record. On August 20, under the influence of the southwest monsoon the air tem- perature rose to 34.3°C-the maximum recorded in the year. Slightly cooler condi- tions were experienced after the arrival of an early surge of the winter monsoon on August 25 and fire danger warnings were in force on August 25-27. Although seven tropical cyclones were reported during the month, none came sufficiently close to affect Hong Kong. This was the first occasion since 1969 when no signals were hoisted in August.

       Dry and warm weather continued in September with only 47 per cent of the average rainfall recorded during the month. The general deficiency in rain during the previous months created a serious problem of water shortage and restrictions on water supply were imposed on September 25. Out of the five tropical cyclones reported during the month, two, tropical storm Trix and severe tropical storm Wendy, necessitated the hoisting of tropical cyclone warning signals in Hong Kong.

       Dry conditions came to an end in October when prolonged heavy rain associated with tropical cyclones brought more than seven times the average amount of rainfall for the month to Hong Kong. The monthly total amounted to 718.4 mm which was

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the highest ever recorded in October. On October 19, Carmen passed about 70 miles south-southwest of Hong Kong and produced gales and widespread heavy rain. The rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory on October 18-20 amounted to 459.9 mm, which made Carmen the wettest tropical cyclone in October and the fourth wettest on record. Typhoon Elaine also brought 225.2 mm of rainfall to Hong Kong but the contributions from the other two typhoons, Bess and Della, were less than 0.5 mm. Because of the unusual number of tropical cyclones which threatened Hong Kong, signals were hoisted on 15 days of the month. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted on three occasions and fire danger warnings were in operation on three days.

The frequency of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific and South China Sea remained high in November and December. Altogether, six were observed during these two months. Typhoon Gloria came near the south China coast about 110 miles east of Hong Kong on November 9, causing fresh winds and periods of light rain, while typhoon Irma was responsible for the wettest December on record. More than 95 per cent of the month's total rainfall of 206.9 mm was produced by Irma on December 1-2. The 177.3 mm of rain which fell on December 2 represented the highest daily amount ever recorded in December.

Winter conditions set in around mid-November when temperatures began to fall steadily to generally below 20°C. However, the six cold surges which passed through Hong Kong during the last two months of the year were relatively weak and caused the air temperature to fall below 11°C on only one occasion. Fire danger warnings were in force on 15 days in November and 12 days in December, while the strong monsoon signal was displayed twice in each month.

The Royal Observatory

The Royal Observatory is directly concerned with all matters relating to mete- orology, geophysics and environmental sciences. It provides a diversity of services on a broad spectrum of environmental problems. These services not only play an important role in the economic progress and development in a modern society like Hong Kong, but also help to reduce the possible loss of life and property in natural catastrophes caused by severe weather systems such as thunderstorms, rainstorms and tropical cyclones.

Weather forecasts and tropical cyclone warnings are prepared in the Central Forecasting Office, while services for aviation are provided at the Airport Mete- orological Office.

Close liaison is maintained with all ships visiting Hong Kong and about 36 selected ships are provided with instruments by the observatory to encourage them to transmit weather reports which are used in the preparation of forecasts and for locating tropical cyclones. About 50 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two coastal radio stations in Hong Kong. All reports received are dis- seminated to other centres through the World Weather Watch telecommunication network. About 8,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received each day from other countries together with aircraft reports and other data. They are

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decoded, plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and for fishermen, and all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are given briefings, written forecasts and weather charts.

One of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory is to issue warn- ings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical cyclone is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, warnings for shipping are generally issued every three hours. These provide information on the strength of the circulation, the position and movement of the centre and the forecast position 24 hours ahead. Reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the Royal Observatory direct from meteorological satellites together with radar observations are used to locate the centre and evaluate the intensity of the tropical cyclone.

When Hong Kong is threatened, warnings are widely distributed by visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Advice and recommended precautions are broadcast at frequent intervals whenever signals are displayed. The Royal Observatory also issues strong monsoon, thunderstorm, heavy rain, fire hazard, frost and low temperature warnings whenever necessary.

The observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a 30- millimetre radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms and a 100-millimetre radar for locating large tropical disturbances up to 240 nautical miles away. A new iso-echo device was fitted to the larger radar in 1973 to facilitate the real-time estima- tion of the intensity of rainfall. This equipment now provides valuable additional information for rainfall forecasting, as well as for hydrological applications.

The observatory is responsible for Hong Kong's Time Service. Six pip signals from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 of a second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95 MHz and are relayed by broadcasting and television stations. With effect from January 1972, the time kept by the Hong Kong Time Standard was changed to Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC). This new time system has been adopted by international agreement and is based on an atomic time standard which provides a more uniform time scale than that based upon astronomical stand- ards. The UTC will never differ by more than 0.7 of a second from the astronomical time. To ensure this, step adjustment to UTC of one second was made on January 1, 1974 in accordance with international agreement.

Twelve seismometers are operated by the observatory. The department prepares bulletins of all earthquake tremors recorded and participates in the Pacific Tsunami Warning Service. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum-Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However, an average of two to three tremors may be felt each year by residents in certain locations such as on balconies of high buildings. During the year three such tremors occurred. The strongest was of intensity four to five in the Modified Mercalli Scale on November 19.

Geomagnetic measurements, which ceased in 1941 and resumed in 1971, were regularly made at the geomagnetic station near Tate's Cairn, where magnetic varia- tion was also recorded. This was made possible with a donation from the Nuffield

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Foundation for a joint project by the University of Hong Kong and the Royal Ob- servatory.

       The observatory answers requests for climatological and meteorological in- formation from various government departments, firms and the general public, and issues certificates for litigation purposes and for insurance claims. The department also acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of many projects in the territory that may be affected by meteorological conditions. Many investigations are concerned with the meteorological aspects of development projects which are potential sources of pollution. Technical papers are published on various aspects of the weather of Hong Kong and on a wide variety of geophysical subjects.

        Considerable effort has been made to computerise several of the department's operations this year. From January 1, 1974, all incoming meteorological messages were decoded by the computer on an operational basis and useful data was processed and archived on magnetic tapes for subsequent analyses. Charts displaying observa- tions of selected meteorological elements and their derived parameters were produced for use by forecasters at the Central Forecasting Office. With the installation of a new computer in June, meteorological messages were accepted directly from tele- communication circuits and automatically transferred to another computer for processing. During the year, statistical computations were carried out in the produc- tion of long-range rainfall forecasts for the summer months and in the preparation of various forecasting aids.

To make it easier to store and retrieve the vast amount of meteorological charts and records at the Royal Observatory, a microfilm unit was established in 1973 for transferring data onto either 35 mm aperture cards or 16 mm roll film. Readers and reader-printers have been employed to study the records.

       Installation of Runway Visual Range (RVR) measuring equipment at Hong Kong International Airport was completed on June 1, 1974. Three sets of trans- missometers were installed along the south-west side of the runway. Electronic equipment in the airport meteorological office converts the signals from the trans- missometers into RVR readings which are displayed in digital form at approach control, at the precision approach radar position, at the aerodrome control and at the meteorological office briefing counter.

The Committee for Scientific Co-ordination, chaired by the Director of the Royal Observatory, was established in 1962 to advise the government on scientific and tech- nological matters and policies and to co-ordinate scientific activities in Hong Kong. A Scientific Directory of Hong Kong 1974 was compiled in August. The prime purpose of the publication was to provide information on the scientific and technological potential in Hong Kong and to enable individuals and organisations overseas to survey the local scientific scene or to contact scientists working on specific problems.

Research

       Apart from carrying out numerous investigations and basic research in applied meteorology and geophysics, a considerable effort was devoted to meet the demand

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for meteorological analyses required in connection with several major engineering projects. These included a study of winds at Tate's Cairn for the Lion Rock cable car project and an analysis of upper-air data for the oil refinery at Lamma Island. Analyses of wind, visibility and height of cloud-base observations at Hong Kong International Airport were also completed for the Civil Aviation Department for planning airport development. A commercial computer was hired to process a large volume of data. Consultative services were rendered from time to time to other government depart- ments and to local and overseas institutes and organisations in relation to various weather-sensitive activities. These ranged from the selection of a suitable date for a sporting event in Hong Kong to the provision of weather outlooks for rescue opera- tions and oil prospecting in the China Seas.

       During 1974, a study of the influence of various meteorological parameters on nocturnal cooling was made and the results were used to construct nomograms for the prediction of minimum temperatures in the territory. An evaluation of the per- formance of objective techniques used in Hong Kong for forecasting tropical cyclone movement was carried out and the bias of each method was determined to enable appropriate corrections to be applied under operational conditions. Synoptic situa- tions associated with dry and wet summers in Hong Kong were examined to select suitable predictors for use in the preparation of long-range rainfall forecasts. Experi- ments were undertaken to determine the accuracy of an intensity rainguage recently developed by the Department of Meteorology at the University of Hawaii.

Pollution Monitoring and Control

        The former Advisory Committee on Air Pollution and the Advisory Committee on Environmental Pollution on Land and Water were re-constituted as the Advisory Committee on Environmental Pollution (EPCOM) on January 1, 1974. The terms of reference of the new committee are to keep under constant review the state of the environment and pollution and advise the Secretary for the Environment. EPCOM comprises a chairman and 15 non-government members representing many walks of life, and 12 senior government officers from various departments interested in pollution control. At the first meeting on January 17, 1974 members decided that because of its size the committee would function more efficiently if divided into three sub-committees. These deal separately with water and land pollution, air pollution, and noise pollution. All three sub-committees have met at regular intervals and a number of recommendations have been put forward, via the main committee, for the consideration of the Secretary for the Environment.

        During 1974 the Environment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat shouldered its full responsibility as the policy making body for the control of pollution. Activities of the Environment Branch embraced a wide range of pollution problems ranging from hawkers and markets through conservation of the countryside to the more com- plicated problems of potential large scale pollution by sophisticated modern industries such as petrochemicals manufacture, which had expressed an interest in operation in Hong Kong. The existing legislation concerning the control of pollution was frag- mented, limited in scope and generally unsatisfactory for the situation and future

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development. With the assistance of the departments concerned and specialist con- sultants, pollution control measures were prepared for a proposed petrochemical plant and were being prepared for a possible oil refinery and petrochemical complex. But to deal with the overall problem of pollution one of the most important tasks tackled by the Environment Branch was the introduction of comprehensive environ- mental legislation and the means to provide effective control.

       Regulations were enacted under the Clean Air Ordinance requiring owners of premises to submit plans of all new or proposed modifications of existing furnaces and chimneys. They set standards to ensure the most effective combustion of fossil fuels.

Results of aerial monitoring carried out by the air pollution control unit of the Labour Department continued to show a significant reduction in sulphur dioxide concentration for 1974. At Hung Hom, the level of sulphur dioxide was only about one twelfth of the maximum permitted level of 50 parts per hundred million set by the former Advisory Committee on Air Pollution. Readings at the station at Queen Elizabeth Hospital dropped to about three parts per hundred million, while readings in the Sham Shui Po and Central Market were about two parts per hundred million.

Although the unit relies more on constructive advice than stringent enforcement, it is still sometimes necessary to initiate prosecutions under the Clean Air Ordinance and the Clean Air (Furnaces, Ovens and Chimneys) (Installation and Alteration) Regulations 1972 against persistent offenders. During the year it was necessary to prosecute 60 cases under the ordinance and subsidiary regulations, with fines ranging from $50 to $4,100.

       During the year, the final steps were taken in the government's programme to bring all of Hong Kong under smoke control legislation. In April, the Cheung Sha Wan and Sham Shui Po districts were declared smoke control areas. Yuen Long- Tuen Mun followed in September, and Hong Kong Island - Ap Lei Chau were included in October. In December, the remaining areas of Kowloon and the New Territories were gazetted, bringing all land area of Hong Kong under smoke control legislation.

       The Agriculture and Fisheries Department obtained the services of a consultant to advise on methods of tackling pollution problems caused by agricultural wastes. The consultant, Professor Peter C. G. Isaac of Newcastle University was sent to Hong Kong under the auspices of the World Health Organisation and he made the first of three visits in February.

An agricultural waste treatment unit was being set up in the Agriculture and Fisheries Department to carry out this work. Early efforts will be directed towards reducing the pollution of stream courses in the New Territories caused by pig and poultry manure which in many areas were so grossly polluted that they could not be used for irrigation purposes. A poultry manure drier was purchased and installed, and a pilot scheme set up to collect wet poultry manure and dry it to an inoffensive granular product which can be used as an animal feedstuff or as a fertiliser. The problems caused by pig manure are considerably aggravated by the practice of hosing

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      manure from buildings directly into stream courses. The unit was investigating im- provements that could be made. A treatment system for pig manure was being set up at the government farm at Ta Kwu Ling. This will be used to determine design criteria for other similar systems and will demonstrate to local farmers the methods that are available for treating their wastes.

Marine pollution comes under the surveillance of an inter-departmental working party on the co-ordination of monitoring of local waters, under the chairmanship of the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries. The current monitoring programmes cover a wide range of physical, chemical and biological parameters and are designed to conserve marine environment quality and ecology and preserve recreational amenities and public health. Base-line data is being collected to identity any future deterioration in the marine environment. In its report to EPCOM in April 1974 the working party agreed that existing techniques for physical and chemical monitoring were acceptable and reasonably well standardised. The coverage in these fields is com- prehensive and additional turbidity measurements and dispersion studies in relation to specific sources of pollution were being contemplated. Biological monitoring has been initiated with surveys of inshore fisheries resources. The working party also recognises the need for studies of living organisms as accumulators of pollutants, and as indicators of the amounts and toxic effects of pollutants in waste discharges by employing biological assay and sensor procedures. The establishment of a centralised pollution monitoring system and information centre was considered premature, although it was agreed to make data within departments readily and freely available to others working in related fields.

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department carried out hydrographical and fisheries surveys in the East Lamma Channel to assess the effects of the Ap Lei Chau oil spill in November 1973. Tainting trials and cage experiments were also conducted to study its effects on fish reared in captivity.

The pollution control unit of the Marine Department deals with the three main aspects of harbour pollution-oil pollution, harbour scavenging and refuse collection from ocean-going vessels.

Under the overall guidance of a marine officer, the unit maintains surveillance on all aspects of oil transfer to and from ships. A patrol launch is used for this purpose and regular and frequent checks are made on ships and oil installations. Since the inception of the unit in 1971, many pollution offenders have been successfully prosecuted in the courts. The maximum fine for pollution in the harbour has recently been increased to $20,000 and six months imprisonment, and an additional fine of $4,000 can be imposed for failure to report oil pollution. The unit is equipped with stocks of oil dispersants, spray booms, sea-surface agitators and oil containment booms, and launches are always in a state of readiness to deal with oil pollution. A purpose-built launch which will be equipped with modern pollution control facilities was being constructed. VHF radio facilities enable the on-scene-commander to communicate and co-ordinate with the Port Communication Centre in the event of oil spillages.

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       The pollution control unit also operates a scavenging service in the main harbour and the typhoon shelters at Aberdeen, Causeway Bay and Yau Ma Tei. To cover these operations, 28 craft and three lighters are currently under contract to the Marine Department and during the year an average of 16 tons of refuse was removed daily. Of this, 55 per cent was fragmented timber, the remaining 45 per cent comprised domestic and sundry refuse.

       The refuse collection service comprising three craft, provided for ocean-going vessels has proved popular and is being well utilised. Each morning a list is compiled of ships which have remained in port for 48 hours or more. These ships are then visited by the pollution control unit and accumulated domestic refuse is removed. Any vessel wishing to make use of this service before they have been in port 48 hours may do so by direct contact with the unit. This service effectively precludes clandestine dumping during the hours of darkness.

The Royal Observatory is responsible for providing basic information to enable warnings to be issued of any possible health hazards due to radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions. Regular measurements of beta and gamma activity in the at- mosphere and in rainfall have been made since 1961 at the King's Park Meteorological Station of the Royal Observatory. The radioactivity of filtered water samples from several of Hong Kong's reservoirs is also regularly determined for the Water Authority. The general level of atmospheric radioactivity during the year was low.

The Radiation Board exercises control over the issue of licences for irradiating apparatus and radioactive substances. The board operates under the Radiation Ordin- ance and two sets of regulations, the Radiation (Control of Radioactive Substances) Regulations and the Radiation (Control of Irradiating Apparatus) Regulations.

Conservation

       Steep hill lands account for about three quarters of the total area of Hong Kong. The vegetative cover on these hills plays an important role in the management of the water catchments, in the provision of scenic and recreational amenities, the provision of scientific and educational opportunities, and in wildlife conservation.

       The public is now making increasingly heavy use of the woodlands for recreational activities. Unfortunately, this brings with it the problems of fire and litter, which in turn pose a threat to these amenities.

       Fire is by far the greatest hazard and there is need for rigorous protection measures throughout the hill lands. However, this is not possible with the restricted resources available at present. Consequently these resources are strategically deployed within the fire protection areas which include most of the non-urban parts of Hong Kong Island, parts of Lantau Island, the southern part of central New Territories, and Bride's Pool area-about 60 square miles in total. Fires within or threatening these areas are dealt with by forestry fire-crews working on a 24-hour standby system during the dry bush-fire season from October to April. Other fire precautions taken include the reduction of fire hazard, the construction of fire barriers, law enforcement and

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      military assistance in serious bush fires. Publicity and education work is aimed at in- creasing public awareness of the proper use and care of the countryside.

Under the five-year development programme (approved in 1972) and under sub- sequent provisions, countryside management services are being steadily improved in scope. They are also being extended in areas from about 75 square miles to about twice that size. The development and operation of countryside management services is the responsibility of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. The Director is assisted by an advisory committee on recreational development and nature conserva- tion. Its sub-committees include one dealing specifically with nature conservation, which is developing proposals for the conservation of specific areas for the preser- vation in their natural state of terrestrial and marine flora, fauna, geological and physiographical features of educational, scientific or scenic interest and value.

The greater part of the countryside is subject to some form of prohibition regard- ing bird and wild mammal hunting, and carrying firearms. Enforcement of the Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance is carried out by four full-time game wardens supported by 234 other government officials, who have powers of game wardens in addition to their normal duties, and by 25 honorary game wardens. Also, all Justices of the Peace and police officers have the statutory powers of game wardens.

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Population

     HONG KONG's rate of natural increase in population has dropped significantly in the past few years. Natural population increase was 14.5 per thousand in 1974, against 25.4 in 1964. Births dropped from 107,625 (30.7 per thousand) 10 years ago to 83,581 (19.7 per thousand) in 1974, while the death rate has remained stable at about five per thousand.

The total estimated population at the end of 1974 was 4,345,200 with 2,245,200 males and 2.1 million females. Compared with the estimated population in 1964 this represents an increase of 800,100 over the last 10 years.

More than 98 per cent of the population can be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin. Immigration Department records show the number of Commonwealth citizens residing in Hong Kong at the end of 1974 as: British 16,686 (excluding members of Armed Forces); Indian 6,799; Malaysian 4,508; Australian 3,677; Singaporean 2,278; Canadian 1,882; and other Commonwealth countries 2,108.

Non-Commonwealth alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than six months), based on records kept by the Aliens' Registration Office, totalled 25,894. The largest groups were American (6,761), Japanese (3,038), Portuguese (3,315), Pakistani (3,179), Filipino (2,828), Indonesian (1,462), German (1,150), Korean (791), Dutch (660) and French (665).

       Approximately 58 per cent of the urban population is of Hong Kong birth. Most of these, and the greater part of the immigrant population, originate from Kwangtung Province. The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest percentage of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are Po On, Tung Kwun, Wai Yeung, Mui Yuen, Chịu Chow, Sze Yap, Nam Hoi, Pun Yue, Shun Tak and Chung Shan. The urban population also includes immigrants from Fukien and Kiangsu, and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

       In the New Territories, the indigenous inhabitants consist principally of Can- tonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers, and the Tanka and Hoklo groups boat-dwellers. These people differ from each other physically and in dress and custom. The usual village community consists of a single clan but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan. But, intermarriage between land and boat people is rare.

Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Territories, occupying the best parts of the two principal plains in the north-western section and owning much

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BUTTERFLIES

With its sub-tropical climate Hong Kong attracts butterflies from both the tropical and temperate zones. More than 200 different species fly here and almost every year keen amateur collectors report catches new to Hong Kong. They range from the large, attractive swallowtails to the tiny blue of the Lycaenidae family, many exotic in their colouring. Butterflies are abundant in summer and some can be seen in the urban areas and building estates, as well as the countryside. Others can be found only in isolated spots on the islands and hills of the New Territories.

U

HONG K

KONG PU

LIBR

B

Danaus genutia genutia ♂

The Dark-veined Tiger, a common sight in the New Territories throughout the year.

CARIES

Papilio demoleus demoleus Q

The Lime butterfly, common to Hong Kong.

Papilio memnon agenor form alcanor

VLIC

Delias aglaja aglaja ♂

Lamproptera curius walkeri

Hebomoia glaucippe glaucippe q

FIES

יו

DO

Polyura ahamas athamas

G

BL

Argyreus hyperbius hyperbi

Dercas verhuelli form verhuelli

Graphium agamemnon agamemnon

Precis almana almana

One of the species of Pansy butterfly, seen in most gardens and open spaces.

*

Euploea midamus midamus

The Blue-spotted Crow is at home both in the sunshine and in wood- land shades.

G

Neptis hylas hylas

Like many other butterflies the Common Sailor loves to feed from the pollen of Lantana blossom.

POPULATION

189

of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages-those of the Tang Clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement dating from the late 11th century. Some of the villages on Lantau date back to the late 13th century.

Hakka people began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Can- tonese, or possibly even before. However, the Cantonese were the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, in the foothills, and on generally poorer land.

The Tanka have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep- sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the past few years, young men and women of the Tanka community have begun to take factory jobs and thousands have now moved their homes ashore.

Like the Tanka, the Hoklo have been in the area from earliest times. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. They are traditionally boat-dwellers and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations.

An increasing number of families are moving to the New Territories from Hong Kong Island and Kowloon as a result of urbanisation of certain districts, notably Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung, where large public housing estates have been built. Total population of the New Territories on census day, March 9, 1971, was 693,915 (including 28,215 boat people)-compared to 456,404 (including 46,459 boat people) in 1961. Population movement from the congested urban areas to the satellite towns of the New Territories will increase rapidly in the future with implementation of the government's 10-year housing plan.

Total population, excluding transients and boat people, on census day, was 3,856,736. The density of population per square mile was 9,562, compared to Singa- pore's 9,407 in the same year.

The 1971 census also showed that Mong Kok with 400,612 persons per square mile was then Hong Kong's most densely populated district.

Marriages

All marriages in Hong Kong are governed by the Marriage Ordinance and the Marriage Reform Ordinance. Under the Marriage Ordinance, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days in advance. The Regis- trar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the cele- bration of marriages or at any of the 13 full-time marriage registries and 13 part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year

190

POPULATION

34,993 marriages were performed in the registries and 2,641 at licensed places of wor- ship, a total of 37,634-7,198 more than in 1973. All records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

      The Marriage Reform Ordinance provides that all marriages entered into in Hong Kong on and after October 7, 1971, shall imply the voluntary union for 'life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others and may be contracted only in accordance with the Marriage Ordinance. It declares valid certain customary mar- riages and validates certain other customary marriages known as modern marriages, provided in each case they have been entered into before October 7, 1971. The Or- dinance also makes provision for post-registration of these customary and modern marriages and for dissolution of such marriages by mutual consent. During the year, 25 customary and four modern marriages were post-registered, including 10 in the New Territories.

      On June 1, 1974, the fees payable in respect of marriage registration matters were extensively revised. The two principal fees for the filing and exhibition of notice of marriage and for a marriage at the office of the Registrar, were increased from $2 to $10 and $10 to $50 respectively.

Births and Deaths

      The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout Hong Kong. The General Register Office in Central keeps all records of births and deaths, and sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts. In outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

The statutory period from date of birth during which a birth should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth a fee of $2 is charged for registra- tion. During the year 81,879 live births and 22,050 deaths were registered, compared with 80,147 and 21,360 respectively in 1973. These figures, when adjusted for under- registration, give a natural increase in population for 1974 of about 61,552. Illegiti- mate births registered during the year totalled 5,795 compared with 4,111 in 1973.

A birth which has not been registered within one year may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a $15 fee. During the year 1,415 births were post-registered, including 378 in the New Territories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there continues to be a number of applications for post-registration in respect of adults because facilities for registration were not available until 1932. Also some cases relate to births during the war years when there was no registration. However, in most cases last year ap- plications for post-registration were in respect of minors. New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub-registries or by mobile registration teams. All applications for post-registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

POPULATION

191

        The General Register Office is responsible for the collection of vital statistics throughout Hong Kong. The information is recorded on various statistical forms and coding sheets for card punching and data processing by the government computer.

On September 1, 1974, the fee for a certified copy of an entry in a register was increased from $1.50 to $3 and, where the copy is required to be sent by mail to an addressee outside Hong Kong, from $3 to $6. The fee for a shortened form of birth certificate was also revised at the same time from 50 cents to $1.

20

Natural History

4

     THICK undergrowth with scores of wild creatures in their natural surroundings-this was the scene that greeted the first Chinese settlers to Kowloon peninsula and Hong Kong Island, more than 2,000 years ago.

       Most of the big game vanished years ago as settlers steadily cut away the great forest replacing it first with paddy fields and villages, and later with skyscrapers and factories.

Rapid development of urban areas has made further inroads into the countryside but, especially in the New Territories, large areas of Hong Kong are still virtually un- touched, with wooded hillsides and valleys and green paddy fields.

Wild Life

Even so, many wild animals, particularly mammals, are declining in numbers. Indigenous mammals which can no longer be found are the Large Indian Civet, the Crab-eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, tigers and leopards. The last positive record of a tiger was in 1947 and the last recorded sighting of a leopard in 1957. Chinese Leopard Cats have been occasionally seen but the South China Red Fox and the Eastern Chinese Otter have not been reported for many years.

The Barking Deer, once plentiful, is now rare in the New Territories and those remaining on Hong Kong Island are confined to densely wooded areas.

       Over the past decade wild pigs were sufficiently scarce to warrant their being protected under the law. The numbers have, however, increased to such an extent that crop damage caused by them provoked bitter complaints from farmers. The legal protection was accordingly withdrawn on March 18, 1974, but an annual close season from February 1 to September 30 was introduced. With a view to culling the wild pig population, strictly controlled shooting by licensed hunters is permitted now during the winter when most of the damage to crops takes place.

Of the larger indigenous mammals, the Chinese Pangolin (Scaly Anteater) which grows to three-and-a-half feet and is protected by horny scales, is seen occasionally. Monkeys are still seen near the Kowloon reservoirs. Although originating from speci- mens either released or escaped from captivity, there are now small breeding groups of both Longtailed Macaques and Rhesus monkeys inhabiting the area.

Smaller mammals are common, with the Grey Shrew and the House Shrew being numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in parts of the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island.

NATURAL HISTORY

193

       More than 340 species of birds have been recorded in an apparently wild state during the past 50 years and a number of other species such as the Rose-ringed Para- keet, Sulphur Crested Cockatoo and the Common Mynah have been introduced. Species recently added to Hong Kong's list include White-capped Redstart, Pallas' Blue Robin and Citrine Wagtail.

       About 12 field outings are held each year by the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society and these provide an opportunity for both simple enjoyment and serious study of bird life. There is plenty of scope for amateur studies since little is known of the ecology of even the common species.

        Chinese Pond Herons, Cattle and Little Egrets regularly nest at the Yim Tso Ha egretry and one or two pairs of the rare Swinhoe's Egret have nested there for more than 10 years. A small number of Night Herons have also nested since 1972. This egretry is a strict nature reserve under the Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance.

        Even in the urban areas the Chinese Bulbul and Crested Mynah can be seen and the Black-eared Kite is a familiar sight around the harbour area. The Agriculture and Fisheries Department is conducting an ecological study of the Black-eared Kite in relation to the bird-strike hazard at Hong Kong International Airport.

       Snakes, lizards and frogs are plentiful in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapins and turtles, although none are common. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are: The Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait, with black and white bands; Macclelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black transverse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the rare Mountain Pit Viper and the White-lipped Pit Viper or Bamboo Snake. The Bam- boo Snake is bright green and, although less venomous than others, is more often seen and more likely to attack if accidentally disturbed. The Hamadryad, Kraits and Corals prey almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snakes, all ven- omous, are found in Hong Kong waters but have never been known to attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Hong Kong Newt, which has not been recorded anywhere else in the region.

       A further four species of butterflies were recorded for the first time during the year, bringing the total to 214 recorded species and forms in Hong Kong. Although many of the colourful butterflies are beautiful, the two commonly found types of Cabbage White butterflies are pests of economic importance, as their larvae cause considerable damage among the farmers' crops of brassica vegetables. Among the many local moths, the giant silkworm moths are noted for their large size and they occurred in unusually large numbers during the year. These moths include the Cynthia, the Fawn and Golden Emperor, and the Moon and Atlas moths. The Moon species has an average wing span of seven inches and the Atlas Moth nine inches. The beautiful Lantern Fly, closely related to cicadas, has delicately coloured wings and a remarkably

194

NATURAL HISTORY

long forehead. Other commonly found insects include many types of dragon and dam- sel flies, together with metallic coloured beetles and wasps. Weather conditions in 1974 were such that long-horn beetles were plentiful. Of particular interest is the Large Spotted Batocera Long-horn Beetle, which feeds on mountain tallow trees.

The largest of the land molluscs is the African Giant Snail, a specimen of which has been found measuring six inches in length. This species was introduced in 1938 and has become a crop and garden pest. The large black slug, Veronicella, is sufficiently different from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

Aquatic Life

Marine life forms in Hong Kong are diverse and mainly tropical in character, comprising a relatively large number of commercially important species of fish, crus- tacea, and molluscs. The discharge of the largest fresh water system in South China to the west, and the prevailing Taiwan current from the north-east, have created a situation where the westerly sector of Hong Kong has a predominantly brackish water fauna, while the eastern sector has a genuine marine fauna.

       Pomfrets (Parastromateus niger and Stromateoides spp), croakers (Argyrosomus spp), hairtails (Trichiurus spp), and ponyfish (Leiognathus spp) occur commonly, es- pecially in autumn. A variety of isospondylous fish, such as sardines (Sardinella spp), shads (Clupanodon spp) and long-jaw herrings (Thrissa spp) may also occur in large schools seasonally. However, the Yellowtail (Seriola quinquilineata), mackerels (Scom- beromorous spp) and Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), which were abundant, have now diminished in stock size. The natural bays and inlets of Hong Kong also serve as nursery grounds for a number of species, notably the Long-spined Bream (Evynnis cardinalis).

From time to time dolphins may be sighted in Hong Kong waters and identifica- tions have included the Common or Saddle-back Dolphin (Delphinus delphis), the Black Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and the Chinese White Dolphin (Sotalia chinensis).

A notable marine animal which has been successfully introduced in the Deep Bay area is the Japanese Oyster (Crassostrea gigas). It is now being cultivated.

The freshwater fauna of Hong Kong is relatively poor in variety compared with the Chinese mainland. This probably results from the absence of a perpetual system of rivers and lakes. Although there are large bodies of water stored in man-made reservoirs, only a few varieties of fish life have been introduced-primarily for water quality control purposes. The indigenous fauna comprises only limited species of cyprinid, loach and goby, while the African Tilapia has also established itself in local waters, but its initial introduction cannot be traced. Despite its limited size, Hong Kong has now some 3,200 acres of commercial fish ponds, where the Grey Mullet and seven species of Chinese carp are being produced at a rate of 1.2 tons per acre

per year.

NATURAL HISTORY

Flora

195

Hong Kong possesses a large and diverse flora of vascular plants-estimated at about 2,400 species, native and introduced-for so small an area. Generally Hong Kong offers the northern limit of tropical Asian flora.

        Few tall trees are to be found except in the fine fung shui groves around many villages in the New Territories. After centuries of cutting, burning and exposure, the barren hillsides present a dry and arid impression. The ravines, saved from man and fire by their rugged character and more moist winters, contain a dense vegetation particularly rich in low trees, flowering shrubs and ferns. However, many hill slopes, particularly those in the water catchment areas, have been replanted by sowing tree- seeds or planting tree-seedlings raised in nurseries.

It is to conservation of wooded areas by the Agriculture and Fisheries Depart- ment that Hong Kong owes much of its mixed woodland. In a few large ravines, particularly Tai Po Kau and Pok Fu Lam Valley, autumn and spring colours are particularly noticeable. There are several trees, shrubs and climbers whose leaves change to brilliant colours in autumn. Plants which show richest autumn colours con- tinue their display into February, before the start of spring. Many trees, shrubs and vines help to produce this effect-Liquidambar formosana, Rhus spp, Sapium spp, Mi- chilus thunbergii, Raphiolepis indica, Rourea microphylla, and Vitis cantoniensis.

Many plants in Hong Kong are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. The Bauhinia blakeana (Hong Kong Orchid Tree) was discovered in 1908 at Pok Fu Lam and was named after former Governor, Sir Henry Blake. It is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. It is now quite widely planted.

        Other plants produce fruits that are pecked at and eaten by birds. A common tree, the Sterculia is an example. The remarkable starlike fruit turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose the jet black seeds. The seeds are eaten by a number of birds including the Chinese Blue Magpie.

        A great variety of wild plants have medicinal and economic values. Parts of a common tree, Schefflera octophylla, are used in herbal medicines for the preparation of 'leung cha', a drink used chiefly for relieving indigestion. Shrubs like Psychotria rubra, Ardisia crispa and Strophanthus divaricatus are thought useful for bruises and certain injuries.

        Botanical explorations carried out by staff of the Hong Kong Herbarium, staff of the two universities and amateur botanists, have been fruitful. Since the publication of the Checklist of Hong Kong Plants (1966) there have been 43 new additions to the Hong Kong flora.

        More than 90 species of nature orchids are recorded. Some ground orchids are beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun Orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. A new species with greenish cream-white flowers was dis- covered in 1969 by Dr S. Y. Hu and was named Cymbidium maclehoseae in honour

196

NATURAL HISTORY

of Lady MacLehose, who is a keen naturalist. Other species include the White Susanna Orchid, the Yellow Buttercup Orchid, the Pink Bamboo Orchid and the Purple Lady's Slipper Orchid.

The Botanic Gardens under the management of the Urban Services Department was established in about 1871 for educational and display purposes. At the main entrance is the granite memorial gate, erected by the Imperial War Graves Commis- sion to commemorate all Chinese who died through enemy action during the years 1914-8 and 1939-45 in the services of the British Government.

      A group of Aleurites moluccana trees grown on both sides along the steps gives excellent shade in summer months. Along the path which leads up from the memorial gate, rows of flamboyant Delonix regia trees provide masses of brilliant red flowers in early summer.

The layout of the 17-acre gardens is strictly formal, with wide paths, pavilions and a large fountain as the central feature. These are surrounded by large flower beds in which a regular display of colour is maintained. The seasons of the year have a distinct bearing on the choice of subjects suitable for display. As a general rule during the wet summer months, plants such as Canna, Cosmos and Celosia form the mainstay of the gardens while in the cool dry winter, Astas, Antirrhinums, Dianthus, Delphiniums, Nasturtium, Petunias, Phlox and Verbena are grown to good effect.

       Not far from the main entrance there is a plant house where tropical, shade- loving plants are cultivated, and on the spacious lawns and grass slopes many trees and flowering shrubs are planted. The Bauhinia blakeana (Hong Kong Orchid Tree) growing in various parts of the gardens is probably the most beautiful winter flowering tree. It has a long flowering period from early November till the end of March.

      Under the Forestry Ordinance, special protection is given to certain plants in- cluding camellias, magnolias, orchids, azaleas and the Chinese New Year Flower.

The Hong Kong Herbarium, established in 1878, contains an important collection of about 31,500 plant specimens, including all the known 1,890 indigenous species and varieties, some 600 exotic species and varieties and some 2,500 related species from adjacent regions of East and Southeast Asia. The Hong Kong Herbarium, is situated at the headquarters of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department in the Canton Road Government Offices in Kowloon, and is open to the public.

21

"

+

History

THE history of Hong Kong stretches back many centuries with evidence of inhabita- tion from primitive times. But it is in the last few decades that the territory has emerged as a world centre of trade and industry.

Soon after liberation from Japanese occupation at the end of World War II, Hong Kong began a spectacular spiral in industrial, trade and social development.

The Post-War years

Following the Japanese surrender in 1945 Chinese civilians, many of whom had moved into China during the war, returned at almost 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000, rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, Hong Kong received an influx of people unparalleled in its history.

About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. The 1971 census put the population at 4,064,400.

After a period of economic stagnation, caused by American trade barriers against China, which applied temporarily to Hong Kong, and further sanctions against China following the Korean War (1950-3), Hong Kong entered an era of industrialisation. As an entrepôt port, the territory had earned a livelihood by a service she alone could perform, now she found herself directly competing with other manufacturing centres. The immigrants formed a huge reservoir of labour-industrious, trainable for the necessary skills, and all looking for jobs.

From the start, the industrial revolution was based on cotton textiles, gradually adding woollens and, in the late 1960s, man-made fibres and made-up garments. In 1959, 53 per cent of Hong Kong's total domestic exports were textiles and clothing, compared with 50 per cent in 1974, showing the continued dominance of textiles in Hong Kong's economy.

In 1959, the first year they were separated from re-exports, domestic exports were valued at $2,282.13 million-in 1974 they had increased by more than 900 per cent. Re-exports declined in relative importance but remained significant, comprising 30 per cent of total exports in 1959 and 24 per cent in 1974.

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HISTORY

      Economic expansion has enabled the government to increase its social services to match Hong Kong's all-round growth. Total enrolment in all types of schools and educational centres increased from 120,000 in 1948, to 1,302,838 in 1974. A govern- ment or subsidised primary school place is now available for every child of primary school age. Free primary education was introduced in September 1971 for the ver- nacular schools and at the same time a form of compulsory education for all primary schools came into force.

      The University of Hong Kong re-opened in 1946 with a total of 109 students and, by 1974, had expanded to 3,106 undergraduates, 367 higher degree students and 230 students reading for post-graduate diplomas or certificates. The Chinese University of Hong Kong opened in October 1963 comprising three student colleges, and enrolment had risen to 3,158 by September 1974. A polytechnic, run by its own board with its first principal appointed in 1971, assumed responsibility for the work of the Hong Kong Technical College in August 1972.

The Social Welfare Office, set up in 1946, became an independent government department in 1958, and has since been expanding its functions. More than 100 voluntary agencies, the majority of which are members of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, founded in 1946, offer a variety of services supplementing the work of the government. These include family welfare, group and community work and rehabilitation.

      The rapid industrialisation of Hong Kong has demanded special attention to labour legislation. Hours of work for women and young people in industry were regulated in 1959 and by the end of 1971 were reduced to eight a day and 48 a week. The Employment Ordinance provides for the protection of wages of manual workers and non-manual workers earning not more than $2,000 a month. It also regulates conditions of employment and contracts, provides for six days paid holidays each year and 24 days sick leave on half pay, and gives an entitlement to four rest days a month.

The first public housing estate was built in 1953, after 50,000 squatters lost their homes in a Christmas day fire at Shek Kip Mei. These housing blocks had only basic facilities with the intention of providing quickly a large number of homes for victims and other squatters at rents they could afford. Housing blocks have now been im- proved and standards of accommodation have been progressively raised in new housing estates.

A new unified Housing Authority was formed in April 1972, with the respon- sibility of planning, building and managing all public housing estates in Hong Kong. It is served by the Housing Department-the result of amalgamating the former Resettlement Department and the housing division of Urban Services Department. In the past 20 years, the government has provided homes for more than 1.7 million. people in its 53 public housing estates, representing more than 43 per cent of Hong Kong's population. Apart from public housing, another 131,000 people enjoy sub- sidised housing provided by the Hong Kong Housing Society, the largest of govern- ment-aided voluntary housing societies.

HISTORY

199

        Road development, including flyovers, has been remarkable. In 1967 the Lion Rock Tunnel opened to provide a high-speed road link between the New Territories and urban Kowloon; a twin tunnel is now under construction. A new era in Hong Kong's internal communications came with the opening of the cross-harbour tunnel in August 1972. Built by private enterprise with government participation, it is one of the longest underwater road tunnels in Asia.

Following the government's decision in February 1973 to proceed as soon as possible with the construction of a mass transit railway, negotiations were started with a Japanese consortium for the construction of the first four of the nine planned stages.

Early Inhabitation

Investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of popula- tion. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the 19th century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge on Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

Founding Hong Kong as a British Colony 1841-2

Hong Kong's rise as a centre of commerce and industry dates only from its found- ing as a British colony in 1842. By the end of the 18th century the British dominated the foreign trade at Canton but found conditions unsatisfactory, mainly because of the conflicting viewpoints of two quite dissimilar civilisations.

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HISTORY

      The Chinese regarded themselves as the only civilised people and treated all others as barbarians. Foreigners trading at Canton were subject to humiliating personal restrictions. Confined to the factory area, they were allowed to reside only for the trading season, during which they had to leave their families at Macau. They were forbidden to enter the city and to learn the Chinese language. Shipping dues were arbitrarily varied and generally much bickering resulted between British and Chinese. Yet there was mutual trust and the spoken word alone was sufficient for even the largest transactions.

       Trade had been in China's favour, and silver flowed in until the growth of the opium trade from 1800 onwards reversed this trend. The outflow of silver became more marked after 1834, when the East India Company lost its monopoly of the China trade and the foreign free traders. The company, hoping to get rich quickly, joined the lucrative opium trade, which the Chinese had made illegal in 1799.

      This led to the appointment of Lin Tse-hsu in March 1839 as special Commis- sioner in Canton, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. A week later he surround- ed the foreign factories with troops, stopped food supplies and refused to allow anyone to leave until all stocks of opium had been surrendered and dealers and ships' masters had signed a bond not to import opium on pain of execution. Captain Charles Elliot, RN, the British Government's representative as Superintendent of Trade, was shut up with the rest and authorised the surrender of 20,283 chests of opium after a siege of six weeks.

       But he would not allow normal trade to resume until he had reported fully to the British Government and received instructions. The British community retired to Macau and, when warned by the Portuguese Governor that he could not be respon- sible for their safety, took refuge on board ship in Hong Kong harbour in the summer of 1839.

      Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, decided that the time had come for a settlement of Sino-British commercial relations. Arguing that, in surrendering the opium, the British in Canton had been forced to ransom their lives-though in fact their lives had never been in danger-he demanded either a commercial treaty which would put trade relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British could live free from threats under their own flag.

      An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 to back these demands and thus began the so-called First Opium War, 1840-2. Hostilities alternated with negotiations until agreement was reached between Elliot and Keshen, the Manchu Commissioner. Lin had been replaced by Keshen after his exile in disgrace over the preliminaries of a treaty.

       Under the convention of Chuenpi, January 20, 1841, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain. A naval landing party hoisted the flag at Possession Point on January 26, 1841 and Elliot proclaimed Hong Kong a British colony-in June he sold plots of land and settlement began.

      Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of a part of China aroused shame and anger among the Chinese, and the unfortunate Keshen was ordered to

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Peking in chains. Palmerston was equally dissatisfied with Hong Kong which he contemptuously described as 'a barren island with hardly a house upon it' and refused to accept it as the island station which had been demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty.

'You have treated my instructions as if they were waste paper,' he told Elliot in a magisterial rebuke, and replaced him by Sir Henry Pottinger who arrived in August 1841. The latter conducted hostilities with determination. Twelve months later, August 1842, after pushing up the Yangtze River and threatening to assault Nanking, he brought the hostilities to an end by the Treaty of Nanking, August 29, 1842.

In the meantime, the Whig Government in England had fallen and in 1841 the new Tory Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen, issued revised instructions to Pottinger, dropping the demand for an island.

Pottinger, who had returned to Hong Kong during the winter lull in the cam- paign, was pleased with the progress of the new settlement and, in the Treaty of Nanking, deviated from his instructions by successfully demanding both a treaty and an island, thus securing Hong Kong. In addition five Chinese ports, including Canton, were opened for trade. The commercial treaty was embodied in the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, October 1843, by which the Chinese were allowed free access to Hong Kong Island for trading purposes.

Extensions to the Colony 1860--99

The Second Anglo-Chinese War, 1856-8, arose out of disputes over the inter- pretation of the earlier treaties and over the boarding of a British lorcha the 'Arrow', by Chinese in search of suspected pirates. The Treaty of Tientsin 1858, which ended the war, gave the British the privilege of diplomatic representation in China. The first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had been the first Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong, was fired on at Taku Bar on his way to Peking to present his credentials, and hostilities were renewed from 1859-60.

The troops serving on this second expedition camped on Kowloon peninsula, as the earliest colony photographs show. Finding it healthy, they wished to retain it as a military cantonment, with the result that Sir Harry Parkes, Consul at Canton, secured from the Viceroy the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking, 1860, which ended the hostilities, provided for its outright cession.

Other European countries and Japan were now demanding concessions from China, particularly after Germany, France and Russia had rescued her from the worst consequences of her defeat by Japan in 1895. In the ensuing tension Britain felt that efficient defence of Hong Kong harbour demanded control of the land around it.

By the Convention of Peking on June 9, 1898, the New Territories, comprising the area north of Kowloon up to the Shum Chun River, and 235 islands, were leased for 99 years. The move was directed against France and Russia, not against China, whose warships were allowed to use the wharf at Kowloon City, where Chinese

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authority was permitted to continue 'except in so far as may be inconsistent with the military requirements for the defence of Hong Kong'. An Order in Council of December 27, 1898 invoked this clause and the British thus unilaterally took over Kowloon City. Some desultory opposition, when the British took over the New Territories in March 1899, soon disappeared. The area was declared part of the colony but was administered separately from the urban area.

Growth of Hong Kong 1841-1941

       The new colony was a great disappointment at first. It attracted unruly elements; fever and typhoons threatened life and property and crime was rife. The Chinese influx was unexpected as it was not anticipated they would choose to live under a foreign flag. The population rose from 32,983 (31,463 Chinese) in 1851 to 878,947 (859,425 Chinese) in 1931.

       The Chinese asked only to be left alone, and thrived under a liberal British colonial rule. Hong Kong became a centre of Chinese emigration and of trade with Chinese communities abroad. Ocean-going shipping using the port increased from 2,889 ships of 1.5 million tons in 1860 to 23,881 of 29.1 million tons in 1939. The dominance of the China trade forced Hong Kong to conform to Chinese usage and to adopt the silver dollar in 1862 as the currency unit. In 1935, when China went off silver, Hong Kong had to follow suit with an equivalent 'managed' dollar.

       Hong Kong's administration followed the normal Crown Colony pattern, with a governor nominated by Whitehall and nominated Executive and Legislative Coun- cils with official majorities. The first unofficial members of the Legislative Council were nominated in 1850, and the first Chinese in 1880; the first unofficial member of the Executive Council appeared in 1896, and the first Chinese in 1926. Two electoral bodies, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, and the Unofficial Justices of the Peace, were each allowed from 1885 onwards to nominate a member of the Legislative Council.

      The British residents on a number of occasions strongly pressed for self-govern- ment, but the home government steadily refused to allow the Chinese majority to be subject to the control of a small European minority.

       A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883, became partly elected in 1887, and developed into an Urban Council in 1936. The intention at first was to govern the Chinese through Chinese magistrates seconded from the mainland, but this system of two parallel administrations was only half-heartedly applied and broke down mainly because of the weight of crime. It was completely abandoned in 1865 in favour of the principle of equality of all races before the law. In that year the Governor's instruc- tions were significantly amended to forbid him to assent to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected'. Government policy was laissez-faire, treating Hong Kong as a market place where all were free to come and go and where government held the scales impartially.

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        Public and utility services developed; the Hong Kong and China Gas Company in 1861, the Peak Tram in 1885, the Hong Kong Electric Company 1889, China Light and Power 1903, the electric Tramways in 1904 and the government-owned Kowloon- Canton Railway, completed in 1910. There were successive reclamation dating from 1851, notably one completed in 1904 in Central District, which produced Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road, and another in Wan Chai between 1921-9.

       A system of public education began in 1847 with grants to the Chinese vernacular schools, and the voluntary schools, mainly run by missionaries, were brought in by a grant scheme in 1873. The College of Medicine for the Chinese, founded in 1887, developed into the University of Hong Kong in 1911 with arts, engineering and medical faculties.

        The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in World War I was followed by strong nationalist and anti-foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappoint- ment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German con- cessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang.

        The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before causing considerable disruption to life in Hong Kong. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

Japanese Attack and Occupation 1941-5

       Japanese plans for political aggrandisement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of World War I to present her 'twenty-one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of World War II to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

       The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and Southeast Asia, and the position of Hong Kong became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and sub- sequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island.

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The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December 18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, including the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley under harsh conditions, while prisoners of war fared even worse. The Chinese population and neutrals also suffered under steadily deteriorating conditions. Trade virtually disappeared, currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many residents moved to Macau, the Portuguese province hospitably open- ing its doors to them. Towards the latter part of the occupation, the Japanese sought to ease the food problems by organising mass deportations.

      In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Territories and escaping allied personnel were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after news of the Japanese surrender was received on August 14, 1945, a provisional government was set up by Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) Frank Gimson. Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived on August 30 with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

22

Constitution and Administration

HONG KONG, as a British Crown Colony, is administered by the Hong Kong Govern- ment, of which the office of Governor is the central feature. The British Government's policy towards Hong Kong is that there shall be no major constitutional change-nor is there much popular pressure for it.

The Governor

        The Governor is the representative of the Queen and, as head of the government, presides at meetings of the Executive Council, whose advice he must seek on important policy matters. He is also the President of the Legislative Council, where he possesses both an original and a casting vote. All bills passed by the Legislative Council must have his assent before they become law. With strictly defined exceptions, he is respon- sible for every executive act of the government.

After appointment by the Queen, the Governor derives his authority from the Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom. These Letters Patent create the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Hong Kong, and require him to observe its laws and such instructions as may be given him by the Queen or Secretary of State. Among the more important of these are the Royal Instructions and Colonial Regulations.

Executive Council

The composition of the Executive Council is determined by the Royal Instruc- tions, which provide that it shall consist of five ex-officio members (the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs and the Financial Secretary) together with such other persons as are appointed by the Queen, or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State. At the present time, one official member and eight unofficial members have been appointed in addition to the five ex-officio members.

The Executive Council usually meets once a week throughout the year but addi- tional meetings are held if necessary. The Governor presides at meetings, although he is not a member of the council. Its function is to advise the Governor, who is required by the Royal Instructions to consult it on all important matters of policy subject to certain exceptions such as matters of extreme urgency or the appointment, disciplinary control or dismissal of public officers.

Meetings of the Executive Council are called by the Governor, who alone decides in accordance with the Royal Instructions which matters to submit for its advice.

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     However, should the Governor not submit a matter for the council's advice when requested by a member to do so, a record of the request and refusal must be entered in the minutes of the council if the requesting member so requires.

       The decision on any question which comes before the council is that of the Gover- nor. If he decides to act in opposition to the advice given by the majority of members, he is required to report his reasons to the Secretary of State.

       The Governor in Council (the Governor acting after receiving the advice of the Executive Council) is also the statutory authority for making regulations, rules and orders under a number of ordinances. The Governor in Council also considers appeals, petitions, and objections under ordinances which confer such a statutory right of appeal.

Legislative Council

      This council comprises the Governor, who is both a member and president, four ex-officio members (the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Financial Secretary), 10 official members and 15 unofficial members. With the exception of the ex-officio members, all members are appointed by the Queen or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State.

      The primary functions of the Legislative Council are to enact legislation and to control the expenditure of public funds. The Queen has the power to disallow laws passed by the council and assented to by the Governor. In addition, laws having effect within Hong Kong may also be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and by the Queen by Order in Council in exercise either of prerogative powers or of powers conferred by an English Act of Parliament.

      The procedure in the Legislative Council has provision for public debates and questions. There is a debate on financial and economic affairs in February-March of each year during the second reading of the Appropriation Bill. A wider-ranging debate on social progress and government policy in general, takes place at the opening of the new session of the council in October each year. The council meets in public once every two weeks throughout the year except for approximately a two-month recess which takes place during August-October.

       The Finance Committee of the council, which consists of the Colonial Secretary (chairman), the Financial Secretary, the Director of Public Works and all the un- official members of the Legislative Council, considers requests for Public Expenditure and the supplementary provision of funds, and meets in private.

Judiciary

      Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Supreme Court Ordinance, the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge and the puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent issued under the Public Seal by the Governor on instruc- tions from the Queen given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State. District judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by instrument under the Public Seal or by warrant. The qualifications of puisne judges are prescribed

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in the Supreme Court Ordinance and those of district judges in the District Court Ordinance.

        The function of the Judiciary is to try all prosecutions and to determine civil dis- putes, whether between individuals or between individuals and the government. The principle of English constitutional law that, in the performance of their judicial acts, members of the Judiciary are completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the government, is fundamental in Hong Kong. The English common law and the rules of equity are in force in Hong Kong, so far as they may be applicable to local circumstances. English Acts of Parliament are in force in Hong Kong only if applied by the Legislative Council or by their own terms or by an Order in Council. Locally enacted laws of Hong Kong are consolidated and revised periodically.

        The courts of justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Coroners Courts, the Tenancy Tribunal, the Labour Tribunal and the Land Tribunal. In 1974, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, eight puisne judges, 10 district judges, 46 magis- trates, three presidents of the Tenancy Tribunal, two presiding officers of the Labour Tribunal and a president of the Land Tribunal.

Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. However, in indictable offences, their powers of punish- ment are restricted to a maximum of two years imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may impose some higher penalty. Cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by magis- trates when trying two or more offences together may not exceed three years. Magis- trates also hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial to the Supreme Court. They also trans- fer criminal cases to the District Court for trial, on the application of the Attorney General. There is a coroner's court on Hong Kong Island and one in Kowloon.

The District Court, established in 1953, provides a simple method of trial of civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter is under $20,000, or $15,000 in the case of land, and also tries criminal cases transferred to it by the magistrates. It exercises appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals and in Tenancy Tribunal matters, and ordinary jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by a judge sitting alone; he may not award more than seven years imprisonment.

        The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1972-4 will be found in Appendix 31.

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court, which sits when required and is composed of two or three judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the

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    Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal in England. Appeals may be brought from the Full Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

Legal Aid

      Satisfactory progress was made generally in improving the efficiency of the civil and criminal legal aid schemes during 1974.

Aid is granted in civil cases provided that there is a prima facie case based on tenable evidence. Applications for aid in relation to civil cases were processed with greater speed and precision than was possible when the department was limited in professional man-power. The result is that cases are being finalised faster-usually by settlements, satisfactory to clients, out of court-without the delays and expenses in- cidental to court trials. Delays in litigation are not confined to Hong Kong or to legal aid cases, but continuous efforts are being made to shorten and eliminate delays wher- ever possible.

      The department's litigation unit is now conducting the solicitor's work incidental to almost all new and current civil cases. The legal aid officers in the unit brief Mem- bers of the Bar in all cases in which barristers would normally be briefed.

There was a substantial increase in the number of applications for aid in relation to civil cases compared with 1973. In particular, the number of cases in which aid was sought and granted in relation to bankruptcy and winding-up proceedings almost tripled. The Legal Aid (Amendment) Regulations 1974 were enacted to avoid financial hardship to legally-aided petitioners of receiving and winding-up orders.

      The Legal Aid (Assessment of Contributions) (Amendment) Regulations were enacted by the Governor in Council on August 20, 1974. These had the dual effect of bringing additional qualified applicants within the means test by increasing their per- sonal allowances, and decreasing the quantum of contributions payable by appplicants not eligible for free legal aid. As in 1973, the financial benefits provided under the amendments to these regulations apply equally to applicants for aid, in both civil and criminal cases.

      It is the government's intention that legal aid should be extended to embrace a larger sector of the community (notably in the middle income group). To achieve this an examination was carried out in 1974 to consider the financial and other implications of raising the limits of eligibility under the means test.

      At present, legal aid in criminal cases in the District Court is limited to persons accused of an offence carrying a maximum sentence of 14 years or more. In August 1974, the Governor in Council agreed that legal aid should be extended to all persons accused of any criminal offence tried in the District Court (subject to the means test) with effect from April 1, 1975, provided that fiscal considerations permitted. Since Legal Aid in Criminal Cases Rules came into effect in January 1970 no applicant has been refused aid on the means test, and only a handful of applicants have had to pay nominal contributions.

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       During 1974, the litigation unit continued to perform the work of solicitors in the majority of criminal trials in the Supreme Court and appeals in the Full Court. In all such cases, members of the Bar were briefed as advocates. This close co- operation between the unit and members of the Bar brought about a considerable saving in time and expense for all concerned. Legally-aided criminal cases tried in the District Court were for the most part conducted by solicitors in private practice.

Urban Council

       The Urban Council is a body corporate, responsible for handling its own finances under a chairman and vice-chairman elected by its own members. The council com- prises 24 members, 12 of whom are appointed by the Governor and 12 elected by residents eligible to vote under the Urban Council Ordinance. Their terms of office are four years, but a member may be re-appointed or re-elected for further terms. There are no official members.

The council continued to hold its public meetings once a month, but most of its business is decided by the standing committee of the whole council and 13 select committees which meet regularly and frequently. In addition, there are 33 sub- committees, boards and panels. The select committees, sub-committees, boards and panels co-opt such officials as are necessary, but each committee is chaired by an Urban Councillor.

        The Urban Council's responsibilities are restricted to Hong Kong Island, Kow- loon and New Kowloon, which hold more than 80 per cent of the population. Its main duties are: Public sanitation and cleansing; the licensing and hygienic control of all food premises, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries; and management and con- trol of markets, abattoirs, hawkers, cemeteries, crematoria and funeral parlours. They also include management of the City Hall, City Museum and Art Gallery, public libraries, government car parks, places of public recreation (bathing beaches, swim- ming pools, tennis and squash courts, football stadia, games halls, sports grounds, playgrounds and parks); the provision and patronage of cultural services and outdoor entertainment; licensing of places of public entertainment and liquor licensing. In all these fields, the Urban Council's policies and decisions are carried out by the Urban Services Department, the director of which is the principal executive officer of the council under the Urban Council Ordinance.

         Most of the cost of this work is met from income from the Urban Council's share (40 per cent) of the yield from rates in the urban area. Fees and charges provide other sources of income. In the fiscal year 1974-5 the total income of the council amounted to about $287 million.

Foreign Relations

       The foreign relations of the Hong Kong Government are the responsibility of the British Government, but with external trade a considerable degree of latitude is per- mitted to Hong Kong. The territory's dependence on trade makes it necessary for the Hong Kong Government to operate offices in London, Washington, Geneva and Brussels to maintain and improve commercial relations with other countries.

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Colonial Secretariat

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      The Colonial Secretary is the Governor's principal adviser on policy, the chief executive of the government, the head of the civil service and the chief government spokesman. His office, the Colonial Secretariat, is under the general direction of the Deputy Colonial Secretary and co-ordinates and supervises the work of all government departments.

The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and for the overall supervision, through his Deputy Financial Secretary and the Secretary for Economic Services, of departments primarily involved in this field.

      The Colonial Secretariat is organised into six policy and two resource branches, and a branch dealing with New Territories affairs, each headed by a Secretary. The policy branches are based on programme areas, as indicated by their titles; environ- ment, economic services, home affairs and information, housing, security and social services. The two resource branches (civil service and finance) deal with the govern- ment's personnel and finances.

A Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office, advises on the external political aspects of government policies.

London Office

      The London Office, at 6 Grafton Street, W1 is a projection of the Hong Kong Government in London, and as such forms part of the Colonial Secretariat, with the Commissioner directly responsible to the Colonial Secretary. The Commissioner pro- vides a point of direct contact in London between Hong Kong and various ministries and departments of the British Government, and other organisations with an interest in Hong Kong.

The London Office keeps under review British commercial, economic and indus- trial developments and official thinking on worldwide trade policies and advises the Hong Kong Government of the likely repercussions of these developments on Hong Kong. It is concerned with the welfare of Hong Kong residents in British, maintains contact with them, and assists them over problems arising from their residence in Britain or relating to their families and interests in Hong Kong. It operates well- developed publicity services aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image to the British public and the Chinese community in Britain. It also has special sections to look after the interests of Hong Kong students, including nurses and government trainees, resi- dent in Britain.

An appointments section recruits persons of Hong Kong origin in the United Kingdom to the public service. It also maintains close liaison with the various official agencies in Britain concerned with recruiting expatriate staff.

In January 1974 the London Office took over responsibility from the Crown Agents for the recruitment in the United Kingdom of inspectors for the Royal Hong Kong Police. A nationwide advertising campaign produced a large number of applications and led to a considerable increase in recruitment of police inspectors.

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During the year, the office also assumed responsibility for a new and experimental training course at Oxford, designed for 15 young Chinese administrative officers on probation. Under a Director of Studies seconded from Hong Kong, they will study management, economics and government, for an academic year.

Government Departments

The administrative functions of the government are discharged by more than 30 departments, most of which are organised on a functional basis and have responsi- bilities covering all Hong Kong. This form of organisation, rather than one based on authorities with responsibilities in a limited geographical area, is suitable for this small, compact territory and has enabled the government to provide services without regard to the capacity of residents of various districts to pay taxes.

Home Affairs Department and New Territories Administration

The two government departments most closely concerned with the reactions of the people to government policies and plans are the Home Affairs Department and the New Territories Administration.

The Home Affairs Department controls the 10 City District Officers in the urban areas while the New Territories Administration is in charge of the seven District Officers stationed in the New Territories. A primary function of both departments is to assess the impact of contemplated new policies on the population and, when they are adopted, to explain these policies to the public. They also report on trends of public opinion in the districts. In this general connection it has long been the practice of these two de- partments to foster links with a variety of private organisations including, in the urban areas, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, Po Leung Kuk, kaifong associations, district and clansmen's associations, multi-storey building associations and religious organisa- tions and youth groups.

The City District Office scheme, modelled on the long-established District Officer system, was introduced during 1968. The 10 City District Officers (six in Kowloon and four in Hong Kong) are charged with the three-fold duty of rendering services on behalf of the government, services for the community and services for the individual. They exercise a local co-ordinating function, test public opinion, watch for sources of grievance and tension, and in general try to interpret to the man in the street the measures adopted by a specialised and sophisticated administration. They also deal with individual complaints, answer enquiries, provide information and mediate in a variety of disputes.

During 1974 the City District Officers continued to mobilise the community to participate in the Fight Violent Crime Campaign and the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign. For the mutual aid committees this was a year of consolidation as well as expansion. In the early part of the year, the City District Officers devoted much time and effort to servicing these committees to bring about improvements in management, security and cleanliness in multi-storey buildings in both private and public sectors. During the year 368 new mutual aid committees were formed, bringing the total to 1,575 by the end of 1974.

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       At the City District Offices and sub-offices, almost all of which are located in shop- type premises easily accessible to the public, enquiry service counters are combined with the reception facilities. The primary objects of the enquiry services are to give the man in the street information and guidance on the services provided and functions performed by government departments, to explain rules and procedures, and to supple- ment broadcast information during tropical storms and other emergencies. During the year, the Home Affairs Department handled a total of about 1.6 million enquiries of all kinds.

       In the New Territories the Secretary for the New Territories and his seven District Officers exercise co-ordinating responsibilities, and in addition perform certain execu- tive functions, principally in relation to land administration. The arrangements for consultation with the public are more formalised to the extent that there is a village representative system. More than 900 village representatives are chosen from over 600 villages. Villages are grouped under 27 rural committees each of which has an executive committee. With one exception, all the executive committees of the rural committees are selected by secret ballot every two years by village representatives. The rural com- mittees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the government, receiving a small monthly subvention to cover part of their expenses. Within its own area the rural committee acts as spokesman for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the government and the people.

       The chairman and vice-chairman of the 27 rural committees, with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 special councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as 'rural consultative council'. Under the constitution es- tablished by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, the Kuk has an executive committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of rural committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice- chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close contact is maintained with the Secretary for the New Territories.

Use of the Chinese Language

      Following the emphasis on the use of Chinese in Government departments, the Home Affairs Department continued to recruit and train new staff during 1974. Many graduates from the two universities have joined the government service as Chinese language officers. Two induction courses were held for the new recruits. In addition, two extensive in-service training programmes for Chinese language officers were launch- ed in May-July and September-December to improve the standard of translation. In March, officers from the Chinese Language Authority went to Singapore to study the efforts and achievements made by its multi-lingual community. In July, the Controller of Translation Services of the Chinese language division represented the Hong Kong Government at a seminar on computational linguistics in the United States and visited the Chinese Division of the United Nations Secretariat. He returned with a wealth of

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information on new techniques in translation and many useful references which are instrumental in raising the standard of translation in the government to an interna- tionally accepted level.

       During the year, the Chinese Language Authority of the Home Affairs Depart- ment continued to provide high quality translation of a complex nature. Major projects undertaken included the Hong Kong annual report (Hong Kong 1975), the Economic Background to the 1974-5 Budget, the Green Paper on Transport in Hong Kong, the White Paper on the Problem of Dangerous Drugs in Hong Kong and the Interim Report on Social Causes of Crime.

A pilot study was made on the use of Chinese in government departments, and as a result new procedures and methods are being planned to review departmental prac- tices concerning the use of Chinese and to provide advice and guidance to departments. A study of Chinese documentary forms and styles was also initiated during the year.

Simultaneous interpretation facilities were maintained at meetings of Legislative Council and the Urban Council and its standing committee. Consecutive interpretation facilities were also provided at other government committee meetings including that of the Consumers' Council. An English-Chinese Glossary project of applied legal terms undertaken by the Chinese University of Hong Kong under the sponsorship of the government was completed and will be published in early 1975. This will provide a useful work of reference for government departments as well as for the public.

Advisory Committees

       One important feature of the administration system in Hong Kong is the compre- hensive network of more than 100 advisory bodies on which government officers and members of the public sit together to formulate advice to the government on matters of major importance. Examples are such bodies as the Board of Education, Medical Development Advisory Committee, Social Welfare Advisory Committee, Labour Ad- visory Board, Trade and Industry Advisory Board, Transport Advisory Committee, and the Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN).

Grievances

       In Hong Kong there are several well-developed channels for the examination of complaints from members of the public and for helping people who have difficulty in their dealings with government departments. Probably the most commonly used chan- nel is an appeal or complaint to the department concerned, which will ensure a review at a higher level. Another method is a letter to the Governor or the Colonial Secretary, which will also ensure that the matter is reconsidered. Complaints and representations are also dealt with by the office run by unofficial members of the Executive Council and Legislative Council-commonly referred to as the UMELCO office. City District Officers and District Officers in the New Territories also receive and investigate com- plaints. The absence of any statutory powers of investigation is offset by a lack of restriction on the type of complaint which UMELCO and the District and City District Officers can receive and investigate. Both systems deal effectively with many grievances.

214

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      In addition, members of the Urban Council operate a ward system through which they receive complaints from members of the public and bring them to the attention of the appropriate government department or raise them formally in the Urban Council,

Civil Service

The civil service provides the staff for all government departments, sub-depart- ments and other units of the administration. As at April 1, 1974 the total number of posts in the civil service (or its establishment as it is generally called) was 112,818. The strength on January 1, 1974 was 95,467 officers, of whom 93,318 were local officers and 2,149 were overseas officers.

      This indicates that about one person in every 40 in Hong Kong is employed by the government. There is a large proportion of labouring staff, and 38,659 of the total establishment of the civil service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Hong Kong civil service is unusual in that it does some jobs which in other territories and administrations are done by people who do not belong to the civil service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health and the police, are not always servants of the central government. In Hong Kong, the establishments of the Medical and Health Department (13,786), the Public Works Department (16,025), the Urban Serv- ices Department (18,634) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (19,114) account for a total of 67,589 posts, or about 60 per cent, of the total establishment of the service.

The service has grown from a little more than 17,500 in 1949 to about 45,000 in 1959 and to its present strength of more than 95,000. This reflects not only the continu- ing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the popula- tion, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population.

The cost of the civil service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1974-5 the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, ex- cluding pensions, is about $1,676 million. This represents about 43 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure included in the Budget.

The establishment of each post in the civil service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its establishment sub-committee, which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilised and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

      Recruitment and promotions to the civil service are, with a few exceptions, subject to the advice of the Public Services Commission, which was set up in 1950 and is in- dependent of the government. The commission also advises the government on dis- cipline cases. Sir Ronald Holmes is the full-time chairman of the commission, and leading citizens are appointed as members on a part-time voluntary basis.

      Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training and conditions of service in the civil service is exercised by the Civil Service Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

APPENDICES

Comen SRC LIBRAKES

Appendices

Appendix

Page

1

Units of Measurement

219

2

Overseas Representation

220

3

Hong Kong's External Trade by Major Trading Partners

221

4

Hong Kong's External Trade by S I T C Commodity Section/

Division

222

45

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Current Market

Prices

225

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Constant Market

Prices of 1966

225

6

Government Revenue by Source

226

7 Government Expenditure by Function

227

8

Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and

Expenditure

228

-9

Revenue from Duties

230

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

230

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

230

10

Money Supply

231

11

Banking: Liabilities and Assets

231

12

Number of Establishments and Employment in Manufacturing

Industry Analysed by Main Industrial Groups

232

13

Number of Establishments and Employment in Selected Manu-

facturing Industries

233

13

14 Reported Occupational Accidents

234

15 General Consumer Price Index

234

Modified Consumer Price Index

New Consumer Price Index (A)

235

235

New Consumer Price Index (B)

235

16

18

19

6789

Estimated Local Production of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

236

17 Local Production and Imports of Ores and Minerals

236

Imports of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

237

Categories of Schools

238

School Enrolment

238

21

22200

Overseas Examinations

238

Hong Kong Students in Britain

239

22

23

22

Students leaving Hong Kong for Overseas Studies Expenditure on Education

239

239

Vital Statistics

240

218

Appendix

Page

24

Causes of Death

240

25

Hospital Beds

241

26

Professional Medical Personnel

241

27

Domestic Units and Estimated Persons Accommodated as at

242

March 31, 1974

28

Land Office

243

Considerations in Instruments Registered in Land Office

243

29

Traffic Accidents

244

Traffic Casualties

244

309

Crime

244

Narcotic Offences

245

31

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court, Tenancy Tribunal and

246

Labour Tribunal

Work in the Magistracies

246

33 33

32

Prisons

247

Electricity Consumption, 1974

247

Electricity Distribution

247

Gas Production and Distribution

247

Water Consumption

247

34

International Movements of Aircraft and Vessels

248

International Movements of Passengers

248

International Movements of Commercial Cargo by Different

248

Means of Transport

35

Registered Motor Vehicles

249

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Undertaking

249

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Area

249

Public Transport: Daily Average Number of Passengers Carried by

Different Modes of Transport

249

3 333

36

Communications

250

37

Recreational Facilities Provided by the Urban Council and Urban

Services Department

250

38

Climatological Summary, 1974

251

Climatological Normals

251

39

The Executive Council

252

40

The Legislative Council

253

41

Urban Council

254

42

The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

255

The Community Chest of Hong Kong

256

Appendix I

Units of Measurement

219

Chinese, metric and British Imperial units are all in common use in Hong Kong. The Chinese units in the table below are those which have statutory equivalents in Hong Kong.

In China the standard size of the chek (Chinese foot) increased through the three millennia from the Chou period, and in practice the size also varied according to locality and the trade in which the unit was used. In Hong Kong the variation with usage still persists but the tabulated values are based on the statutory equivalent for the chek of 14 inches.

In the past, the values used in China for the units of mass have varied according to locality. The tabulated values are those in general use in Hong Kong and are in accord with the present statutory equivalent for the leung (tael) of 14 ounce.

Length

10 fan

Mass

10 tsün

Chinese Units

Equivalents

Metric (SI)

British (Imperial)

=

1 tsün (Chinese inch)

37.147 5 mm

1.462 5 in

1 chek (Chinese foot)

0.371 475 m

1.218 75 ft

10 fan (candareen)

==

1 tsin (mace)

3.779 94 g

58.333 3 gr

10 tsin

1 leung (tael)

37.799 4

g

1.333 33 oz

16 leung

-

1 kan (catty)

0.604 790 kg

1.333 33 lb

100 kan

1 tam (picul)

60.479 0

kg

1.190 48 cwt

        The conversion factors are printed in bold type when they are expressed exactly. Not more than six significant figures are used.

220

Australia

Britain

Canada

India

Malaysia

New Zealand

       Nigeria Singapore

Argentina

Austria

Belgium

Bolivia

Brazil

Burma

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Countries

Countries

:

Appendix 2

Overseas Representation

1.

Commonwealth Countries

Represented by

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

II. Foreign Countries

Commissioner

Represented by

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Denmark

Dominican Republic Ecuador

Egypt, Arab Republic of

El Salvador ...

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul-General Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Indonesia

Iran

Irish Republic

Israel

Italy...

Japan

Khmer Republic

Korea

Lebanon

Mexico

Netherlands

Nicaragua

Norway

Pakistan

Panama

Peru...

Philippines

Portugal

Republic of South Africa

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Thailand

United States of America

Uruguay

Venezuela

Vietnam

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland and Turkey are resident in London and have jurisdiction extending

to Hong Kong. Finland also has an Honorary Consul-General resident in Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, Denmark, France and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

Appendix 3

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Hong Kong's External Trade by Major Trading Partners

Imports

221

1972

1973

1974

1974/73

Per

Source/Destination

Per

$ million

$ million

$ million

Per

Change

cent

cent

cent

in per-

centage

Japan

5,045

23.2

5,853

20.2

7,142

20.

+22.0

China

3,847

17.7

5,634

19.4

5,991

17.6

+ 6.3

United States

2,595

11.9

3,702

12.8

4,621

13.5

+24.8

Britain

1,437

6.6

1,716

5.9

1,942

5.7

+13.2

Singapore

668

3.1

958

3.3

1,889

5.5

+97.2

Taiwan

1,309

6.0

1,686

5.8

1,765

5.2

+ 4.7

Germany, Federal Republic

748

3.4

1,114

3.8

1,193

3.5

+ 7.1

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

640

2.9

910

3.1

1,121

3.3

+23.2

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

409

1.9

602

2.1

864

2.5

+43.6

Australia

557

2.6

697

2.4

760

2.2

+ 9.1

Others

4,509

20.7

6,134

21.1

6,833

20.0

+11.4

Merchandise total

21,764

100.0

29,005

100.0

34,120

100.0

+17.6

Exports

United States

6,125

40.2

6,825

35.0

7,422

32.4

+ 8.7

Britain

2,195

14.4

2,814

14.5

2,768

12.1

1.7

Germany, Federal Republic

1,525

10.0

1,902

9.8

2,444

10.7

+28.5

Australia

445

2.9

771

4.0

1,298

5.7

+68.2

Japan

480

3.1

1,065

5.5

1,061

4.6

-

0.3

Singapore

350

2.3

536

2.7

626

2.7

+16.8

Canada

501

3.3

512

2.6

619

2.7

+21.0

Netherlands

295

1.9

411

2.1

504

2.2

+22.4

Sweden

254

1.7

324

1.7

389

1.7

+19.9

Taiwan

233

1.5

390

2.0

362

1.6

7.0

Others

2,843

18.6

3,924

20.1

5,418

23.6

+38.1

Merchandise total

15,245

100.0

19,474

100.0

22,911

100.0

+17.6

Re-exports

Japan

834

20.1

1,429

21.9

1,023

14.4

- 28.4

Singapore

435

10.5

737

11.3

862

12.1

+17.0

Taiwan

351

8.4

673

10.3

692

9.7

+ 2.9

Indonesia

326

7.9

528

8.1

615

8.6

United States

364

8.8

461

7.1

514

7.2

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

142

3.4

278

4.3

278

3.9

-

+16.6 +11.4

0.2

Macau

125

3.0

214

3.3

231

3.2

+ 7.6

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

108

2.6

158

2.4

201

2.8

+27.2

China

82

-

2.0

222

3.4

197

2.8

- 11.5

Australia

86

2.1

131

2.0

173

2.4

+31.8

Others

1,302

31.2

1,693

25.9

2,340

32.8

+38.2

Merchandise total

:

4,154

100.0

6,525

100.0

7,124

100.0

+ 9.2

222

Food

Appendix 4

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Hong Kong's External Trade by SITC Commodity

Section/Division

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations Fruit and vegetables

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Imports

Section/Division

Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Wood, lumber and cork

Textile fibres and their waste

Crude animal and vegetable materials, nes Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Petroleum and petroleum products

Others

Sub-total

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

Others

Sub-total ...

Chemicals

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

:

:::

$ Million

1972

1973

1974

717

832

1,118

378

521

618

470

632

628

583

1,101

1,326

818

961

1,198

713

867

1,225

3,679

༈ཆུ།

4,914

6,111

244

354

283

230

225

257

474

579

540

83

130

841

1,223

341

533

153

216

1,417

2,101

ལྕ༔ ཀླ།ཀླ

757

34

791

132

3

134

ཋཐྭ38ཞཱ། རྕོ།སྦ༐ ཀླ།ཚ

283

372

470

Sub-total

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resin Others ...

317

377

437

478

751

983

559

704

1,002

1,637

2,204

2,892

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

531

720

898

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products Non-metallic mineral manufactures, nes

3,632

4,856

4,576

1,624

2,298

2,248

Iron and steel.

482

682

974

Others

Sub-total

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

972

1,223

1,478

7,240

9,779

10,174

1,237

1,455

1,738

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances

2,088

2,737

3,316

Others

531

734

570

Sub-total

3,857

4,925

5,624

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Clothing

487

617

532

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

1,089

1,443

1,946

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, ne s

797

1,086

1,148

Others

259

377

377

Sub-total

2,632

3,523

4,004

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold

and coin

253

Total

21,971

481 29,433

454 34,509

Appendix 4-Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Exports

Section/Division

Food

Fish and fish preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Miscellaneous food preparations

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Pulp and waste paper

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

Crude animal and vegetable materials, nes Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Chemicals

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

223

$ Million

1972

1973

1974

122

2234

150

140

25

32

48

72

41

48

93893

46

236

301

299

47

26

41

5

52

32

47

32

51

80

103

146

241

32

42

38

25

29

38

192

267

397

1

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

::

:

1

5

5

5

31

30

37

48

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilets, polishing and cleansing preparations

46

71

Others

17

22

2008

34

52

78

38

Sub-total

131

171

201

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, ne s

Iron and steel...

Manufactures of metal, nes

Others

Sub-total

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances Others

Sub-total

1,552

2,352

2,737

124

170

161

17

51

88

415

521

641

82

119

153

2,191

3,213

3,781

104 1,963

214 2,622

317 3,296

58

61

62

2,125

2,898

3,674

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures and fittings

200

257

302

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

302

405

437

Clothing

6,113

7,454

8,752

Footwear

304

266

311

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

330

483

789

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, nes

2,920

3,524

3,699

Others

104

151

161

Sub-total

10,272

12,540

14,452

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold

and coin

41

Total

15,245

47

19,474

56

22,911

224

Food

Appendix 4-Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Re-exports

Section/ Division

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Wood, lumber and cork

Textile fibres and their waste

...

Crude animal and vegetable materials, nes Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Petroleum and petroleum products

Others

Sub-total

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

::

:

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Others

Sub-total

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products Non-metallic mineral manufactures, nes Manufactures of metal, nes

Others

Sub-total

:

:

::

::

:

$ Million

1972

1973

1974

43

129

78285

80

104

66

109

69

146

160

83

104

104

47

54

75

368

493

513

18

18

00.00

36

225

27

23

23

23

31

50

54

16

35

46

42

74

107

208

358

421

40

59

54

306

527

628

43

52

98

1

4

3

44

57

102

10

15

29

60

93

164

121

189

204

237

235

280

38

96

123

101

133

156

558

746

927

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances

Others

Sub-total

26

72

72

587

1,081

930

1,025

1,382

1,162

48

67

98

79

151

252

1,765

2,752

2,514

185

312

358

216

382

485

49

81

107

450

776

950

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Clothing

103

187

213

Professional scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

318

517

723

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, nes

148

326

369

Others

29

53

66

Sub-total

597

1,084

1,370

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold

and coin

196

231

278

Total

4,330

6,730

7,365

Appendix 5

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product

at Current Market Prices

GDP Component

Private consumption expenditure

:

:

:

:

Government consumption expenditure

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Exports less imports of goods and services

Gross domestic product at current market prices

Less indirect taxes less subsidies

225

$ Million

1971

1972

1973*

15,806

17,130

22,588

1,269

1,581

1,953

4,860

5,431

6,717

- 1,106

-95

-1,018

20,829

24,047

30,240

1,260

1,587

2,114

Gross domestic product at current factor cost

19,569

22,460

28,126

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Constant Market Prices of 1966

Private consumption expenditure

Government consumption expenditure

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Exports less imports of goods and services

:

Gross domestic product at constant market prices

* Preliminary figures.

13,529

14,078

16,178

1,045

1,106

1,272

3,619

3,781

4,240

-2,519

-2,152

-2,778

15,674

16,813

* 18,912

226

Appendix 6

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Government Revenue by Source

$ Million

Estimate 1974-5

Actual 1972-3

Actual 1973-4

Item

Recur- rent

Capital Total

Recur- rent

Capital Total

Recur- rent

Capital Total

Direct taxes

Earnings and profits tax

Estate duty

Sub-total

Indirect taxes

:

1,082.8

1,082.8 40.3 40.3

1,679.8

1,679.8 50.1 50.1

1,715.0

-

1,715.0

34.0 34.0

1,082.8

40.3 1,123.1

1,679.8

50.1 1,729.9

1,715.0

34.0 1,749.0

General rate ...

388.7

388.7

368.9

368.9

417.8

417.8

Excise duties ...

471.5

471.5

441.7

441.7

568.6

568.6

Royalties and concessions

71.4

38.7

110.1

79.5

84.8 164.3

104.8

104.8

Stamp duties...

713.2

713.2

462.6

462.6

465.0

465.0

Other taxes

149.0

149.0

118.4

118.4

147.1

147.1

Sub-total

1,793.8

38.7 1,832.5

1,471.1

84.8 1,555.9

1,703.3

1,703.3

Other revenue

Fines, forfeitures and penalties

42.3

42.3

54.4

54.4

69.3

69.3

Licences

104.3

104.3

116.3

116.3

190.7

190.7

Provision of goods and services

662.6

662.6

693.4

693.4

812.5

812.5

Income from properties and investments

494.1

669.5 1,163.6

440.2

318.6 758.8

473.9

459.0 932.9

Sub-total

1,303.3

669.5 1,972.8

1,304.3

318.6 1,622.9

1,546.4

459.0 2,005.4

Reimbursements, contributions and loan

repayments

Reimbursements

Contributions

Loan repayments

Sub-total

Total

28.5

28.5

21.1

5.1 26.2

7.6 7.6

295.4

23.8

49.6 12.7 62.3

319.2

295.4 10.3 34.1 2.6 2.6

12.9 332.1

345.6

345.6

25.5

12.4 37.9

3.6 3.6

4,229.5

761.2 4,990.7

4,774.4 466.4 5,240.8

371.1

5,335.8

16.0 387.1

509.0 5,844.8

Development loan fund receipts

Land sale premia, Kwun Tong

reclamation

Loan repayments

2.0 2.0 15.1 15.1

1.0

1.0

9.8

9.8

18.7 18.7

16.8

16,8

Interest on investments and loans.

16.3

16.3

36.2

36.2

37.8

37.8

Sub-total

16.3

17.1 33.4

36.2

19.7

55.9

37.8

26.6

64.4

Lotteries fund receipts

Net proceeds from Government lotteries

4.9

Loan repayments

0.3

Interest

1.3

93353

Other

...

Sub-total

Grand total

4.9

4.8

4.8

5.1

5.1

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

1.3

1.6

1.6

1.9

1.9

2.4

2.4

2.6

2.6

6.2

0.3

6.5

8.8

0.3

9.1

9.6

0.3

9.9

4,252.0

778.6 5,030.6

4,819.4

486.4 5,305.8

5,383.2

535.9 5,919.1

Note:

From April 1, 1973 government revenue excludes a portion transferred to the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Urban Council.

Other taxes comprises taxes on bets and sweepstakes, entertainment, hotel accommodation and motor vehicles.

Appendix 7

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Government Expenditure by Function

227

Actual 1972-3

Actual 1973-4

$ Million

Estimate

1974-5

Item

Recur- rent

Capital Total

Recur-

rent

Capital Total

Recur- rent

Capital

Total

General services

Administration

Law and order

67.4 13.0 80.4 314.0 34.5 348.5

Defence

69.9

59.6 129.5

72.7 41.3

92.2

10.7 102.9 408.9 43.4 452.3 114.0

90.7 12.0 102.7

464.8 49.7

514.5

76.3

43.1 119.4

Public relations

18.7

0.8 19.5

21.6

8.6

30.2

23.2

1.2 24.4

Revenue collection and financial control

55.7

3.4 59.1

68.2

4.7 72.9

71.8

1.5 73.3

Sub-total

525.7

111.3 637.0

663.6

108.7 772.3

726.8

107.5 834.3

Economic services

Primary products

21.5

1.2

22.7

25.9

2.2

28.1

27.6 13.3

40.9

Airport and harbour

29.8

76.0

Commerce and industry

13.7

105.8 13.7

36.4

98.7

135.1

50.3 67.7

118.0

16.1

0.1

16.2

15.8

0.1 15.9

Communications

Other ...

Sub-total

130.0 17.8 147.8 70.4 12.9 83.3

265.4 107.9 373.3

133.1 28.0

161.1

175.0

132.7 307.7

87.6 12.7

100.3

299.1 141.7

440.8

93.0 21.5 114.5

361.7 235.3

597.0

Community services

Transport, roads and civil engineering

146.7 711.0 857.7

175.6

Water (note 2)

Fire services

Amenities and related services

Sub-total

Social services

Education

98.6 267.0 365.6 46.7 5.7 52.4 155.5 41.5 197.0

447.5 1,025.2 1,472.7

719.2 894.8 112.8 371.9 484.7 56.4 4.4 60.8 183.3 59.3 242.6

528.1 1,154.8 1,682.9

Medical and health

Housing

Social welfare (note 3)

Labour

10.6

622.8 87.8 710.6 333.3 45.6 378.9 131.2 122.5 253.7 80.6 7.1 87.7 0.1 10.7

Sub-total

1,178.5

263.1 1,441.6

893.5 96.5 990.0 412.1 44.6 456.7 128.3 87.0 215.3 142.9 1.2 144.1

12.5

0.1 12.6

1,589.3

166.6 663.1 829.7 120.6 389.1 509.7 60.0 11.3 71.3 211.8 44.5 256.3 559.0 1,108.0 1,667.0

933.1 118.1 1,051.2 456.7 42.4 218.3

136.6

499.1 354.9

197.8

2.0 199.8

13.3

13.3

229.4 1,818.7

1,819,2

299.1 2,118.3

Common supporting services

Government launches and dockyard

19.9

12.4 32.3

25.2

3.4 28.6

16.5

9.5 26.0

Government printing

14.6

0.4 15.0

20.1

2,0 22.1

21.1

3.2 24.3

Government supplies

11.7

8.9 20.6

15.1

10.2 25.3

18.4

3.3 21.7

Architectural and electrical and

mechanical engineering offices

115.9

Sub-total

162.1

16.7 132.6

38.4 200.5

138.8 23.2 162,0

199.2 38.8 238.0

159.8

30.1

189.9

215.8

46.1 261.9

Unallocable expenditure

Government quarters

18.3

4.0 22.3

28.7

16.5

45.2

24.3 36.4

60.7

Passages, telephones, telegrams, etc

22.6

7.0 29.6

30.0

22.3

52.3

82,5

82.5

Extraordinary expenditure (note 4)

109.2

109.2

0.7

0.7

Sub-total

40.9

120.2

161.1

58.7

39.5

98.2

106.8

36.4

143.2

...

Other financial obligations

Public debt

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

Pensions and gratuities

97.0

97.0

116.7

116.7

1.6 123.0

0.5

2.1

123.0

...

Sub-total

Total

Development loan fund expenditure

Economic services

Social services

98.6

98.6

118.3

118.3

124.6

0.5 125.1

2,718.7 1,666.1 4,384.8

3,456.3 1,712.9 5,169.2

3,913.9 1,832,9 5,746.8

0.8 0.8

11.1 11.1

1.7

1.7

34.4

34.4

40.9 40.9

31.5

31.5

Community services

Sub-total

Lotteries fund expenditure

35.2

35.2

52.0

52.0

33.2

33.2

5.3

2,718.7 1,706.6 4,425.3

Social welfare grants and loans

Grand total

From April 1, 1973 Government expenditure excludes a portion transferred to the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Urban Council.

5.3

9.1 9.1

3,456.3 1,774.0 5,230.3

6.5

3,913.9 1,872.6 5,786.5

6.5

Note: 1.

2.

Excluding civil engineering works directly allocable to other services.

3.

Including expenditure on disability and infirmity allowance from 1974-5.

4.

Extraordinary expenditure in 1972-3 in respect of the arrears of salary paid as a result of the 1971 Salaries Commission.

228

Appendix }

(Chapter 3: Financial structure)

Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure

229

Actual 1972-3

Actual 1973-4

Estimate 1974-5

$ Million

Actual

Actual

1972-3

1973-4

Estimate 1974-5

Recurrent Account

Duties

Rates

Internal revenue

Motor vehicle taxes

:

Fines, forfeiture and penalties

Licences

Franchises

Fees and receipts

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

F

:

Revenue from properties and investments

Water

Postal services

Airport and air services

Kowloon-Canton Railway

Reimbursements

Recurrent Account

471.4

441.7

Capital Account

Estate duty

Taxi concession

Land sales

Contributions towards projects

Loan repayments

:

Deficit on Capital Account met by transfer from Revenue

Account

: :

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

568.6 Personal emoluments...

1,242.9

1,561.4

1,676.2

388.7

368.9

417.8 Departmental recurrent expenditure (excluding unallocated

1,892.7

2,219.3

2,270.5

stores)

396.0

498.1

674.8

57.0

46.4

67.0

Public Works recurrent

198.3

224.1

235.3

Subventions

42.3

54.4

69.3

550.5

742.2

843.0

98.7

110.6

179.2

University and Polytechnic grants

93.2

159.1

138.5

Defence

35.4

34.2

50.8

Pensions

252.5

250.4

287.2

:

:

56.4

56.3

60.0

97.0

Miscellaneous

418.2

403.2

442.2

:

:

116.7

123.0

65.4

98.4

163.1

148.3

171.9

194.9

Transfer to Capital Account

173.8

173.6

183.7 Surplus...

122.3

155.0

194.8

22.8

24.5

37.3

51.0

320.3

372.5

4,175.1

4,774.4

5,335.8

Capital Account

40.3

50.1

34.0 Capital works

38.7

84.8

Buildings

669.5

318.6

459.0

Engineering

5.1

10.3

12.4

Waterworks

7.6

2.6

3.6

838.7

1,246.5

1,323.9

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

838.7

636.7

1,246.5

71.6

1,323.9

98.0

4,175.1

4,774.4

5,335.8

:

Miscellaneous

Departmental special expenditure

Capital subventions

Special works and purchases for the Armed Services

University and Polytechnic grants

...

:

:

:

:

Contribution to Mass Transit Fund Miscellaneous (including public debt) Transfer to Development Loan Fund

1,599.9

1,712.9

1,832.9

Note:

From April 1, 1973 revenue and expenditure exclude those transferred to the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the

rban Council.

:

:

207.7

251.0

253.4

267.7

391.9

579.4

266.3

371.3

387.8

31.6

133.9

187.6

62.0

50.1

118.1

41.9

73.7

95.0

50.8

32.2

33.7

28.7

25.6

25.5

500.0

300.0

143.2

83.2

101.9

50.5

1,599.9

1,712.9

1,832.9

230

Appendix 9

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties*

Item

Import duty on

Hydrocarbon oils

Intoxicating liquor

Liquor other than intoxicating liquor

Tobacco

Duty on

Locally manufactured liquor

Table waters

Total

:

:

:

:

Actual

Actual

Estimate

1972-3

1973-4

1974-5

$

$

$

167,490,219 139,031,577

150,000,000

133,049,696

138,963,754

210,700,000

2,456,651

2,692,526

3,000,000

139,549,311

142,163,435

186,200,000

18,150,974

18,591,329

18,700,000

10,742,825

471,439,676

255,078

441,697,699

568,600,000

* These figures represent net revenue collected, i e after deducting refunds and drawbacks of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

Hydrocarbon oils

Liquor..

Tobacco

Miscellaneous

Total

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

201,934

201,020

200,000

4,072,938

4,417,912

4,700,000

812,102

823,188

800,000

46,662

3,040

3,000

5,133,636

5,445,160

5,703,000

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

Denaturing

Bonded warehouse supervision

Total

:

450,961

313,853

360,000

855,300

1,218,533

1,500,000

1,306,261

1,532,386

1,860,000

Appendix 10

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Money Supply

231

$ Million

As at end of year

1972

1973

1974

Legal tender coins and notes in circulation

Commercial bank issues (A)

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation...

2,697.30

2,924.00

3,009.00

The Chartered Bank

424.90

494.86

535.54

Mercantile Bank

28.43

29.45

29.32

Government issues (B)

      One-dollar coins Subsidiary coins

One-cent notes

Demand deposits with licensed banks (C)

127.92

153.42

173.92

99.05

110.04

118.37

0.60

0.64

0.67

8,500.61

8,622.62

8,161.35

Time deposits with licensed banks (D)

Savings deposits with licensed banks (E)

Money supply:

Definition 1 (A+B+C-F)

7,806.76

9,958.13

14,200.27

8,305.66

7,610.24

8,636.59

Licensed banks' holdings of legal tender (F)

Definition 2 (A+B+C+D÷E−F)

466.16

574.32

658.10

11,412.65

11,760.71

11,370.07

27,525.07

29,329.08 34,206.93

Appendix II

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Banking: Liabilities and Assets

As at end of year

Number of reporting banks

Liabilities

Notes in circulation

Deposits:

Demand

Time

:

:

$ Million

1972

1973

1974

73

74

74

3,151

3,448

3,574

8,500

8,623

8,161

7,807

9,958

14,200

8,306

7,610

8,637

3,103

3,723

5,167

5,428

8,911

15,460

4,030

5,056

6,710

40,325

47,329

61,909

466

574

658

3,104

3,843

5,216

10,616

10,201

14,726

17,726

23,263

29,549

1,491

1,923

2,363

59

62

48

6,863

7,463

9,349

40,325

47,329

61,909

:

:

:.

:

:

Savings

Balance due to:

Other banks in Hong Kong

Banks abroad

Other liabilities

Total liabilities

Assets

Cash (legal tender notes and coins) Balance due from:

Other banks in Hong Kong Banks abroad

Loans and advances

Investments:

Local Other

Other assets

Total assets

::

232

Appendix 12

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Number of Establishments and Employment in Manufacturing Industry Analysed by Main Industrial Groups

Establishments Persons employed

Industry

1973

1974

1973

1974

Food products

Beverages

Tobacco

:

:

1,118

1,031

14,352

13,625

33

25

3,213

2,864

4

4

831

817

Textiles

Wearing apparel, except footwear

Leather and leather products, except footwear and wearing apparel

Footwear except rubber, plastic and wooden footwear

Wood and cork products, except furniture

Furniture and fixtures, except primarily of metal

Paper and paper products

Printing, publishing and allied industries

Chemicals and chemical products

:

:

:

:

:

:

3,600

2,989

107,223

94,699

6,135

5,027

181,179 169,110

123

120

1,768

1,704

512

413

4,747

3,945

1,128

974

7,553

6,215

1,092

976

7,855

6,379

846

777

8,103

6,525

1,369

1,316

19,285

18,319

347

306

6,007

5,204

Products of petroleum and coal

2

1

15

8

Rubber products

388

333

7,277

6,621

Plastic products

3,631

3,158

70,560

56,121

Non-metallic mineral products, except products of petroleum and coal

302

264

4,238

3,042

Basic metal industries

242

211

3,058

2,892

Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

4,393

3,976

54,431

48,518

Machinery except electrical

1,149

1,035 10,997

9,650

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and supplies

794

677 70,345

60,930

Transport equipment

218

202

13,942

13,716

Professional and scientific, measuring and controlling equipment, and

photographic and optical goods

218

217

9,872 10,485

Other manufacturing industries

1,461

1,218 19,541 14,530

Total

29,105

25,250 626,392 555,919

Note: Figures for 1973 and 1974 refer to manufacturing establishments registered with or recorded by the Labour Department as well as other manufacturing establishments. Comparable figures for 1972 and earlier years are not available as figures prior to 1973 refer to only those registered with or recorded by the Labour Department.

233

Appendix 13

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Number of Establishments and Employment in Selected

Manufacturing Industries

Establishments

Industry

Persons employed

1973

1974

1973

1974

Textiles

Bleaching, dyeing and finishing

454

385

16,614

13,545

Cotton knitting

213

196

5,129

4,791

Cotton spinning

32

33

20,423

19,106

Cotton weaving

297

286

29,125

25,732

Made-up textile goods except wearing apparel

308

250

3,252

3,415

Wool spinning

10

8

3,065

1,874

Woollen knitting

1,467

1,098

15,313

14,143

Wearing apparel, except footwear

Garments

4,591

3,756

137,932

132,412

Gloves

279

246

11,039

9,241

Footwear except rubber, plastic and wooden footwear

Shoes

469

380

4,303

3,569

Furniture and fixtures, except primarily of metal

Wooden furniture

Paper and paper products

Paper boxes

Printing, publishing and allied industries

Job printing

Newspaper printing

Rubber products

774

694

5,496

4,593

:

624

559

6,362

4,957

1,068

1,044

13,515

12,562

25

24

3,168

3,033

Rubber footwear

213

171

6,088

5,427

Plastic products

Plastic flowers and foliage

550

441

10,867

5,485

Plastic toys

1,316

1,144 35,723

30,807

Plastic products (miscellaneous)

1,754

1,556

23,919

19,668

Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

Aluminium ware

89

72

2,912

2,343

Electroplating

315

290

2,960

2,468

Metal toys

91

81

2,284

1,785

Padlocks and bolts

112

106

2,126

2,041

Pressure stoves and lanterns

39

32

1,672

1,588

Tools and dies

504

436

2,407

...

2,207

Torch cases

45

40

2,411

1,955

Wrist watch bands

195

180

5,938

6,522

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and supplies

Dry batteries

10

9

2,213

1,705

Electric bulbs

98

84

4,752

4,412

Electronics

390

320

56,070

47,535

Transport equipment

Aircraft repairing

Ship building and repairing

Professional and scientific, measuring and controlling equipment, and

120598

55

3in

2,341

2,481

8,463

8,733

photographic and optical goods

Cameras

Watches and clocks

Other manufacturing industries

Jewellery and related articles

Wigs

::

22

16

2,796

2,680

144

148

5,887

6,980

468

373

5,228

4,240

131

75

2,871

1,318

Note: Figures for 1973 and 1974 refer to manufacturing establishments registered with or recorded by the Labour Department as well as other manufacturing establishments. Comparable figures for 1972 and earlier years are not available as figures prior to 1973 refer to only those registered with or recorded by the Labour Department.

234

Appendix 14

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Reported Occupational Accidents

1972

1973

1974

Cause

Non-

Non-

Non-

Fatal

Total Fatal

Total

Fatal

Total

fatal

fatal

fatal

Machinery: power driven

2

4,599

4,601

13

5,994

6,007

8

6,065

6,073

Machinery: other

1

616

617

3

511

514

415

415

Transport

8

318

326

80

1,138

1,218

48

1,032

1,080

Explosions or fires

Hot or corrosive substances

Gassing, poisoning and other

toxic substances

14

205

219

18

300

318

124

12

280

292

592

592

1,542

1,542

1,395

1,395

Electricity

...

5 2

11

16

4

14

18

3

8

11

44

46

9

100

109

3

112

115

Falls of persons

39

1,577

1,616

65

2,965

3,030

56

3,438

3,494

Stepping on or striking

against objects

1

3,552

3,553

6

3,795

3,801

4

4,400

4,404

Falling objects

10

1,770

1,780

11

2,129

2,140

9

2,173

2,182

Falls of grounds

9

13

22

5

10

15

5

8

13

Handling without machinery

4

2,614

2,618

2 5,303

5,305

1

4,298

4,299

Hand tools

1,712

1,712

3

3,250

3,253

1

2,894

2,895

Miscellaneous

26

1,369

1,395

85

3,163

3,248

59 1,901

1,960

Causes not yet ascertained

25

2,361

2,386

Total

121

18,992 19,113

304

30,214

30,518

234

30,780

31,014

Note: Figures for 1972 include only industrial accidents.

Figures for 1974 are subject to amendments.

Appendix 15

(Chapter 4: Employment)

General Consumer Price Index

(September 1963-August 1964-100)

Item

Weight 1972

Monthly average

Index for December

1973

1974

1972

1973

1974

All items

Foodstuffs

100.0

138.8

164.0

187.6

143

170

187

48.3

161.0

200.1

232.3

165

207

227

Housing

15.2

115.0

124.3

134.0

117

126

138

Fuel and light

3.0

104.2

111.4

159.8

105

124

165

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

3.3

112.7

120.5

133.8

116

123

140

Clothing and footwear

6.2

107.7

119.4

130.1

111

127

130

Durable goods

2.1

127.3

147.8

171.3

131

164

173

Miscellaneous goods

4.2

122.6

139.9

171.1

129

150

177

Transport and vehicles

3.2

127.4

133.5

140.7

132

135

146

Services

14.5

126.2

141.7

154.7

131

149

160

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $100 to $1,999 in 1963-4.

Appendix 15-Contd

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Modified Consumer Price Index

(September 1963-August 1964-100)

235

Item

Weight

Monthly average

Index for December

1972

1973

1974

1972

1973

1974

All items Foodstuffs

100.0

142.8

170.1

195.3

147

176

194

55.6

162.6

203.2

235.8

167

210

231

Housing

12.9

115.3

124.3

133.6

117

126

137

Fuel and light

3.0

106.3

114.8

164.6

107

129

170

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

4.2

112.6

119.6

133.0

115

122

139

Clothing and footwear

4.9

108.7

120.4

131.7

112

128

132

Durable goods

1.5

131.5

154.6

182.2

136

173

184

Miscellaneous goods

4.1

122.3

138.9

169.3

129

149

175

Transport and vehicles

2.8

132.1

138.0

140.7

138

138

144

Services

11.0

122.3

135.3

148.6

127

142

156

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $100 to $599 in 1963-4.

New Consumer Price Index (A)

All items Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

Clothing and footwear

Durable goods

...

Miscellaneous goods

Transport and vehicles

Services

...

Item

(July 1973-June 1974-100)

Monthly average

Index for December

Weight

1974 (July-December)

1974

100.00

107.0

106

56.60

105.8

103

14.08

105.5

108

3.39

126.8

128

2.65

108.7

110

3.82

101.3

101

1.41

106.0

106

4.58

113.5

114

4.36

106.3

107

9.11

108.2

111

Note: The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $400 and $1,500 in 1973-4.

New Consumer Price Index (B)

(July 1973-June 1974-100)

Monthly average

Item

Weight

1974 (July-December)

Index for December 1974

All items Foodstuffs

100.00

107.0

107

47.82

106.0

104

Housing

16.79

105.7

108

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drinks and tobacco

Clothing and footwear

2.71

125.8

127

2.04

108.0

109

5.92

101.0

101

Durable goods..

2.97

105.8

106

Miscellaneous goods

5.17

112.3

113

Transport and vehicles

5.11

109.5

111

Services

11.47

107.8

111

Note:

The weights are derived from households with monthly expenditure between $1,500 and $3,000 in 1973-4,

236

Appendix 16

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Estimated Local Production of Crops, Livestock,

Poultry and Fish

Item

Unit

1972

1973

1974

Crops

Rice (unhusked)

metric ton

7,800

7,000

3,100

...

...

metric ton

16,300

12,100

8,000

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or simply preserved)

metric ton

173,000

169,000

178,000

metric ton

3,100

2,500

3,400

$ thousand

18,710

23,769

27,780

Other field crops

Fresh fruits and nuts

Flowers

Livestock and poultry

Cattle

Sheep, lambs and goats

Pigs

Chicken

Other poultry

Dairy products and eggs

Milk (fresh)

Eggs (fresh)

Fish and fish preparations

head

2,900

2,900

1,900

head

10

30

30

thousand head

435

352

349

metric ton

23,500

16,400

14,500

metric ton

7,200

5,400

4,600

metric ton

6,700

6,100

5,300

thousand gross

1,196

838

779

Fish (fresh, chilled or frozen)

Marine water fish

metric ton

104,000

91,800

108,900

Fresh water fish

metric ton

2,700

3,100

3,400

Fish (dried, salted or smoked)

Marine water fish

metric ton

2,900

5,000

5,500

Crustaceans and molluscs (fresh, frozen, dried, salted, etc).

metric ton

20,300

15,500

18,400

Fish products and preparations

metric ton

750

430

1,100

Crustacean and mollusc products and preparations

metric ton

520

310

380

Meals (animal feeding-stuffs)

metric ton

3,400

4,700

3,700

Note: Other field crops include yam, millet, peanut, soybean, sugar cane, sweet potato and water chestnut.

Appendix 17

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Local Production and Imports of Ores and Minerals

Metric tons

:

Iron ore

Quartz

Feldspar

Graphite

Item

Clay and kaolin ...

:

:

:

:

:

:

1972

Production

1973

Imports

1974

1972

1973

1974

162,283

150,713

159,737

ww

+

3,631

1,015

351

3,172

1,031

2,474

1,149

1,340

5,566

2,469

1,355

1,127

1,046

1,650

2,359

3,162

6,759

3,320

7,190

7,648

9,793

:

:

Appendix 18

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Imports of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

237

Item

Unit

1972

1973

1974

Crops

Rice (unhusked)

metric ton

458,148

425,915 314,711

Wheat

metric ton

119,455

113,803 130,520

Other cereals and cereal preparations

metric ton

251,523

284,325 256,292

Other field crops

metric ton

45,072

41,194 42,473

...

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or simply preserved)

metric ton

442,766

251,848 279,148

Vegetables (preserved or prepared)

metric ton

57,302

67,135 64,392

Fresh fruits and nuts

Dried fruits and fruit preparations

Flowers

Sugar and honey

Coffee

Cocoa

Tea and mate

Livestock and poultry

metric ton

317,412

327,907 318,978

metric ton

30,962

32,434 32,899

$ thousand

2,647

2,866

2,867

metric ton

85,018

89,236

91,894

...

metric ton

9,174

25,687

14,222

metric ton

210

54

60

metric ton

7,623

7,788

6,883

Cattle

head

229,394

204,615

199,952

Sheep, lambs and goats

head

21,783

20,584 15,565

Pigs

...

Chicken

Other poultry

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

thousand head

2,538

2,548

2,471

metric ton

12,369

15,623

13,542

metric ton

15,839

13,861

11,748

metric ton

347

408

697

metric ton

87,157

97,058

95,891

Dairy products and eggs

Milk (fresh)

metric ton

2,702

3,555

4,270

Cream (fresh)

metric ton

260

334

419

Milk and cream (evaporated, condensed, powdered, etc)

metric ton

27,417

30,194

34,378

Butter, cheese and curd

metric ton

2,972

5,267

4,247

Eggs (fresh)

thousand gross

5,913

6,356

5,833

Eggs (preserved)

thousand gross

492

532

562

Fish and fish preparations

Fish (fresh, chilled or frozen)

Marine water fish

Fresh water fish ...

Fish (dried, salted or smoked)

Marine water fish

metric ton

7,426

11,490

9,787

metric ton

32,214

33,412

30,894

metric ton

7,042

7,249

6,992

Fresh water fish

metric ton

157

32

124

...

Crustaceans and molluscs (fresh, frozen, dried, salted, etc)

metric ton

18,594

20,972

22,611

Fish products and preparations

Crustacean and mollusc products and preparations

Oil and fats (crude or refined)

Meals (animal feeding-stuffs)

metric ton

2,880

2,311

3,717

metric ton

2,596

1,733

1,747

metric ton

319

265

219

metric ton

2,726

3,994

2,978

238

Government Grant

Subsidised Private

Special education

Total

Kindergarten

Private

Primary

Government and aided

Private

Sub-total

Secondary

Government and aided

Assisted private

Other private

Sub-total

Post-secondary

Government

Private

Sub-total

Adult education

Government

Private

Sub-total

Special education

Government and aided

Private

Sub-total

Total

Note:

Appendix 19

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

As at September 30

1972

1973

1974

136

131

122

22

22

22

719

737

734

1,987

1,941

1,901

31

35

37

2,895

2,866

2,816

School Enrolment

130,894

132,335

137,117

579,113

576,890

567,713

169,178

146,689

129,274

748,291

723,579

696,987

89,914

99,314

109,046

46,802

48,526

50,151

186,374

197,123

230,101

323,090

344,963

389,298

4,387

5,410

3,523*

8,206

8,197

8,248

12,593

13,607

11,771

37,893

41,723

27,042*

28,159

33,938

35,586

66,052

75,661

62,628

3,193

3,696

4,950

280

212

3,473

3,908

1,284,393

1,294,053

87 5,037 1,302,838

The schools and enrolments refer to both the day and night sections. * Excluding students enrolled in Hong Kong Polytechnic.

Appendix 20

(Chapter 6: Education)

Overseas Examinations

Examination

1972

Entries 1973

1974

Conducted by Education Department:

London Chamber of Commerce

University of London, General Certificate of Education

19,981

26,217

31,342

17,173

18,583

19,608

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)

9,237

10,522

12,950

Association of International Accountants

2,957

2,618

2,820

Pitman Examinations Institute, shorthand

1,662

1,962

1,816

Association of Certified Accountants

1,162

1,679

2,304

Chartered Institute of Secretaries and Administrators

845

1,299

1,660

Pitman Examinations Institute, typewriting

611

1,061

1,959

Associated Examining Board, General Certificate of Education

510

536

1,025

Pitman Examinations Institute, other subjects

575

Institute of Cost and Management Accountants

281

298

403

University of London, external degree

189

251

316

Canadian English Language Achievement Test

236

247

125

Canadian Scholastic Aptitude Test

236

247

125

Cambridge University Certificate of Proficiency in English

326

220

193

Cambridge University Lower Certificate in English

306

151

213

Royal Society of Arts

132

Others ...

315

730

700

Conducted by Hong Kong Polytechnic:

The City and Guilds of London Institute Technological Examinations

1,680

1,857

1,890

Total

57,839

68,478

80,024

Appendix 21

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students in Britain

Course attending

Professional courses

Nursing

Engineering

Secretarial

Science

Management and business studies

Medicine

Law

Accountancy

Textiles...

Arts

Education

English Language

Music

Architecture

Art and design

Computer science Pharmacy

Social science

Hotel and catering

Dentistry

Economics

Others

Sub-total

General Certificate of Education

School children

Total

:

:

239

As at December

1972

1973

1974

1,123

726

642

425

319

374

128

181

196

138

100

69

87

80

95

86

75

68

83

60

61

78

54

61

41

42

55

45

37

32

23

28

22

27

74

24

25

25

28

23

13

8

12

5

10

18

15

5

8

18

28

10

268

272

254

2,638

2,098

2,104

1,273

1,755

2,234

431

480

60

4,342

4,333

4,398

Students leaving Hong Kong for Overseas Studies

Britain

United States

Canada

Australia

Country

1971-2

1972-3

1973-4

913

1,310

1,352

2,746

2,420

2,812

1,628 91

2,536

3,761

113

91

Appendix 22

(Chapter 6: Education)

Expenditure on Education

1971-2 (Aug-July)

1972-3 (Aug-July)

Recurrent expenditure

Capital expenditure

Grants and subsidies

Grants to universities

126,558

152,313

9,373

12,266

$ Thousand

1973-4 (Aug-July)

169,051 19,679

332,678

529,618

591,334

125,463

150,896

187,002

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee

760*

799

843

Total

594,832

845,892

967,909

Education expenditure by other departments...

6,373

6,513

10,168

* Funds from the former University Grants Committee to the universities.

240

Appendix 23

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics

1972

::

:

4,078,400

1973

4,159,600

1974

4,248,700

80,344 19.7

82,252 19.8

83,581 19.7

21,397

21,251

22,029

5.2

5.1

5.2

17.5

16.8

17.4

11.6

11.0

11.0

0.20

0.10

0.16

Estimated mid-year population

Births:

Known live births

Crude birth rate (per 1,000 population)

Deaths:

Known deaths

Crude death rate (per 1,000 population)

Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

Neo-natal mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality rate (per 1,000 total births)

Appendix 24

(Chapter 7: Health)

Causes of Death

1971

1972

1973

Infective and parasitic ...

1,459

1,469

1,393

Tuberculosis, all forms

1,250

1,312

1,154

Neoplasms

...

4,256

4,388

4,562

Malignant, including neoplasms of lymphatic and

haematopoietic tissues

...

4,237

4,375

4,539

Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic and blood ...

235

276

295

Diabetes mellitus

...

159

179

201

Nervous system, sense organs and mental disorders

162

143

156

Circulatory system

...

5,129

5,157

5,358

Heart diseases, including hypertensive diseases

2,952

3,035

3,111

Cerebrovascular diseases

1,956

1,892

1,978

Respiratory system

3,369

3,645

3,373

Pneumonia, all forms

2,263

2,359

2,238

Bronchitis, emphysema and asthma

888

1,012

888

Digestive system

1,033

1,043

1,135

Peptic ulcer

163

165

169

Cirrhosis of liver

363

309

335

Genito-urinary system .....

440

454

443

Complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium

11

16

8

Skin, subcutaneous tissues, musculoskeletal system and

connective tissues

34

50

71

Congenital anomalies

283

350

336

Certain causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality

620

576

550

Symptoms and ill-defined conditions

Accidents, poisonings and violence

All accidents

Suicide and self-inflicted injuries

Total deaths

1,784

1,813

1,779

1,438

1,765

1,901

925

1,192

1,244

388

463

505

:

:

:

20,253

21,145

21,360

Category of hospitals

Appendix 25

(Chapter 7: Health)

Hospital Beds

Government hospitals

Government dispensaries

Government-assisted hospitals

Private hospitals

Private maternity homes

Private nursing/maternity homes

Total

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

241

As at end of year

1972

1973

1974

6,534

6,507

6,311

503

420

432

7,621

7,868

8,165

1,838

1,849

1,938

195

162

143

42

42

45

16,733

16,848

17,034

Appendix 26

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

As at end of year

In Government service

Total registered

1972

1973 1974

1972 1973

1974

Medical doctors

:

670*

715*

743*

2,333 2,533

2,723

Provisionally registered medical doctors

(house officers)

128

115

123

194

163

171

Dentists

61

63

65

485

496

513

Pharmacists

24

25

25

198

209

220

Midwives (without nursing qualifications)

258

277

293

776

862

893

Nurses (general, male and female, excluding

student nurses)

2,160

2,269

2,374

5,851 6,366

6,906

...

with midwifery qualifications

1,450

1,582 1,561

3,969 4,169 4,391

without midwifery qualifications

710

687

813

1,882

2,197 2,515

Nurses (psychiatric, male and female,

excluding student nurses)

218

222

232

184

204

228

...

* Including unregistrable assistant medical officers.

242

Appendix 27

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Domestic Units and Estimated Persons Accommodated

as at March 31, 1974

Domestic Units

Category

Government quarters ...

Public housing

Group A estates

Group B estates

...

     Group B cottage areas Housing Society estates

Sub-total

Private housing

Total permanent

:

Urban

Tsuen

Rest of

New

Total

areas

Wan

Territories

10,740

350

2,400

13,490

75,770

27,740

103,510

194,780

31,340

5,610

231,730

7,480

130

460

8,070

18,090

2,060

20,150

296,120

61,270

6,070

363,460

305,600

12,900

47,500

366,000

612,460

74,520

55,970

742,950

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Estimated Persons Accommodated

Category

Government quarters ...

Public housing

Group A estates

Group B estates

Group B cottage areas

Housing Society estates

Sub-total

Private housing

Total permanent

Temporary

Marine ...

Total population

:

:

:

Hong

Kowloon

Rest of

Tsuen

Kong Island

and New

New

Total

Wan

Kowloon

Territories

22,600

26,600

1,800

10,900

61,900

73,300 313,200

133,900

520,400

101,700

759,500

143,700

16,000

1,020,900

14,100

28,200

600

1,900

44,800

49,600

58,100

12,200

119,900

238,700 1,159,000

290,400

17,900

1,706,000

760,000 1,141,000

54,000

201,000

2,156,000

1,021,300 2,326,600

346,200

229,800

3,923,900

240,700

65,000

4,229,600

Note: A domestic unit means a house, flat, tenement floor or other living accommodation intended for occupation

by one household.

Group A estates refer to the former Government low-cost housing and the former Housing Authority estates. Group B estates refer to the former resettlement estates.

The statistics for government quarters are based on actual returns from various government departments. The population figures include persons living in barrack type accommodation, but this type of accommoda- tion is not included in the domestic unit figures. Non-departmental government quarters are included in the figures for private housing.

Appendix 28

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

243

Land Office

Item

1972

1973

1974

Instruments registered

Assignments of whole buildings or sites

1,798

1,715

659

Assignments of flats or other units

28,491

32,685

28,333

Agreements for sale and purchase of flats or other units

14,760

6,251

6,058

Building mortgages

196

96

115

Other mortgages

23,902

31,712

23,954

Reassignments and certificates of satisfaction

12,087

14,310

16,460

Exclusion orders

195

138

...

164

Re-development orders

Miscellaneous

Total ...

127

105

53

9,501

9,354

9,386

91,057

96,366

85,182

Conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc registered

Consents granted to entering into agreements for sale

and purchase

Modifications and variations of lease conditions

Crown leases issued

Determinations of Crown rent and premium

:

:

:

258

204

183

169

83

120

60

42

55

157

168

62

139

141

261

Multi-storey building owners corporations registered

147

153

112

Public searches in Land Office records

122,139

106,743

154,523

Considerations in Instruments Registered in Land Office

Assignments of whole buildings or sites

Assignments of flats or other units

Building mortgages

Other mortgages

Reassignments

Miscellaneous instruments

Total

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

$ Thousand

1,874,883

2,804,768 3,865,829 3,538,910

472,745 343,843 345,522

2,621,986 4,978,584 3,977,045

3,793,849 1,574,356

1,369,344

1,670,438

1,791,010

37,659

33,241

15,661

9,181,385

14,685,784

11,242,504

244

1972

1973

1974

3,726

3,954

3,644

6,156

6,004

4,935

2,916

2,835

2,403

21

14

12,798

12,814

10,996

Hong Kong Island

Kowloon

New Territories

Marine

Total

Appendix 29

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic Accidents

Hong Kong Island

        Fatal Serious

Slight

Kowloon

Traffic Casualties

Fatal

Serious Slight

New Territories

        Fatal Serious Slight

Marine

        Fatal Serious

Slight

Total

:

102

123

1,300

3,079

1,493 3,160

94 1,335 3,025

177

185

2,808

2,706

4,568

4,473

154 2,237 3,690

162

157

117

1,383

1,318

1,331

2,836

2,669

1,970

17

30

24

1+9

4

10

16,415

16,355

13,967

Appendix 30

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime

Number of cases

reported

Number of persons prosecuted

1972

1973

1974

1972

1973

1974

179

647

1,073

579

845

1,384

59

86

60

39

66

43

75

162

137

48

102

69

1,014

1,319

3,070

836

1,146

2,612

97

231

307

48

138

126

1,424

2,445

4,647

1,550

2,297

4,234

538

549

657

205

211

228

580

780

982

290

306

348

1,118

1,329

1,639

495

517

576

115

110

102

123

118

82

12

10

8

10

2

12

1,726

2,237

3,738

1,181

1,456

1,807

1

9

11

1

8

10

2

2

7

2

4

16

59

53

239

36

36

142

193

112

170

64

54

66

2,108

2,533

4,275

1,417

1,678

2,135

:

::

:

Against lawful authority

Against public order

Perjury

       Escape and rescue Unlawful society Other offences

Sub-total

Against public morality

Rape and indecent assault Other sexual offences

Sub-total

Against the

person

       Murder and manslaughter Attempted murder

Serious assaults

Abortion

Kidnapping

Criminal intimidation

Other offences

Sub-total

T:

Appendix 30- Contd

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime

Number of cases

245

reported

1972

1973

1974

1972

Number of persons

prosecuted 1973

1974

Against property

Robbery with firearms

25

21

33

19

11

13

Other robberies

7,379

8,696

12,754

2,180

1,833

2,198

All burglaries

3,688

4,740

6,328

750

487

712

Going equipped for stealing, etc

756

573

747

220

208

355

Blackmail

399

515

1,612

223

246

468

Theft from person

1,551

1,183

1,511

446

278

358

Other thefts

9,208

12,104

15,741

3,073

3,299

5,011

All frauds

847

1,001

1,885

194

262

667

Handling stolen goods

48

91

165

37

57

146

Malicious damage to property

305

552

850

154

201

236

Unlawful possession

573

424

565

445

351

515

Possession of an unlawful instrument

1,303

420

163

936

228

99

Loitering and trespass

970

739

637

920

693

587

Sub-total

27,052

31,059

42,991

9,597

8,154

11,365

Other crimes

Forgery and coinage.

514

599

384

62

Bribery and corruption

81

45

29

Possession of arms and ammunition

84

45

82

21

Conspiracy

33

22

233

25

Breach of deportation

9

13

8

12

Other crimes

Sub-total

Serious narcotic offences

Total

Crime detection rate

199

215

162

80

112

920

939

898

330

265

ཙཀྐམདྷཱནྡྷསྶ །ཙ

832322

1,377

1,473

1,461

1,593

1,569

1,785

33,999

39,778

55,911

14,982

14,480

20,572

:

1973-46.9 per cent

1974-46.0 per cent

1972-59.3 per cent

Narcotic Offences

Serious offences

Manufacturing

15

8

37

10

13

Trafficking (importing)

1

1

9

Other trafficking

3

1

8

7

49

Possession for purpose of trafficking

1,358

1,464

1,441

1,548

1,558

1,714

Sub-total

1,377

1,473

1,461

1,593

1,569

1,785

Opium

Possession of opium

2,833

2,253

1,932

2,395

1,998

Possession of equipment

1,745

265

170

233

52

88

88

Keeping a divan

229

370

265

228

374

259

Smoking opium

6,219

9,530

7,725

6,113

9,500

7,619

Other opium offences

20

20

22

2

Sub-total

9,566

12,343

10,177

8,788

11,962

9,712

Heroin

Possession of heroin

5,408

5,102

Possession of equipment

239

314

6,084 424

4,764

4,793

5,397

107

171

228

Keeping a divan

5

5

5

4

Smoking heroin

1,384

1,420

1,386

1,218

1,250

1,235

Other heroin offences

11

18

40

1

2

11

Sub-total

7,047

6,859

7,934

6,095

6,220

6,871

Other dangerous drugs

Possession

Smoking

248 38

Other offences

8

གྒའིསི

159

98

196

149

66

32

15

38

28

8

20

14

11

11

Sub-total

294

211

127

240

188

85

Total

18,284

20,886

19,699

16,716

19,939

18,453

246

Appendix 31

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court, Tenancy Tribunal and Labour Tribunal

Supreme Court

Civil appeals

Criminal appeals

Original jurisdiction

Miscellaneous proceedings

Adoptions

Divorce

1972

1973

1974

58

53

57

900

964

1,154

3,345

4,023

3,154

366

458

488

398

364

411

126

45

50

104

124

142

56

181

139

1,614

1,585

1,880

27

26

57

62

42

75

7,056

7,865

7,607

470

527

668

16,826

17,503

20,821

258

341

296

1,620

1,829

2,136

1,181

1,302

92

532

793

789

20,887

22,295

24,802

687

735

708

390

383

146

172

149

114

1,249

1,267

968

:

:

:

:

:

Criminal sessions

Admiralty jurisdiction

Probate grants

Bankruptcy

Company winding-up

Total ...

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

Civil jurisdiction

...

Workmen's compensation Distress for rent

Rent increase application

Divorce jurisdiction

Total ...

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

Exemption cases

Demolished building cases

Total ...

Labour Tribunal

Claims dealt with

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

805

1,908

Work in the Magistracies

Summary matters (charges, summonses and applications,

etc)

Adult defendants

517,339

615,228

537,258

601,693

667,246

773,923

Adult defendants convicted

...

539,066

608,482

508,826

Juvenile defendants

3,297

3,060

3,787

Juvenile defendants convicted

3,137

2,900

3,615

Charge sheets issued

213,806

221,912

189,726

Summonses issued

290,662

365,203

342,691

Miscellaneous proceedings issued

12,874

27,962

4,841

Population of

Prisons

Training centres Detention centres

Treatment centres

Discharges under aftercare

247

Appendix 32

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Prisons

As at end of year

Appendix 33

(Chapter 12: Public Works and Utilities)

Electricity Consumption, 1974

China Light and Power Company

The Hong Kong Electric Company ...

Cheung Chau Electric Company

:

1973

1974

4,064

5,775

826

610

206

255

1,383

1,581

2,374

3,006

Maximum

Sales per

Sales

Consumers

demand

head of population

MW

GW h

hundreds

kW h

1,005

4,279

6,744

1,372

(961)

(4,369)

(6,433)

(1,430)

442

1,632

2,307

1,583

(423)

(1,637)

(2,229)

(1,602)

6

43

308

(5)

(40)

(263)

5,917

9,094

1,393

(6,011)

(8,702)

(1,445)

Note: Relevant Orders of Emergency (Control of Oil) Regulations 1973 came into operation from 10.12.73 to 23.5.74.

Figures in brackets refer to 1973.

1 GW h=1,000,000 kW h.

Electricity Distribution

Domestic

Industrial

Commercial

Street lighting

Total

GW h

1972

1973

1974

1,193.37

1,322.29

1,393.72

2,211.41

2,419.89

2,319.10

1,984.57

2,243.96

2,178.71

22.99

24.45

25.60

5,412.34

6,010.59

5,917.13

Gas Production and Distribution

Therms

1972

Domestic Industrial

5,567,203

1973 6,572,427

1974

7,784,524

1,012,551

982,652

907,067

Commercial

4,179,161

4,554,073

5,295,410

Total

10,758,915

12,109,152

13,987,001

Water Consumption

Million gallons

1972

1973

1974

Fresh water

71,563

78,780

76,841

Salt water (flushing purposes)

12,829

13,916

14,139

Note: The total fresh water supply hours for 1974 were only 8,540.

248

Appendix 34

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

International Movements of Aircraft and Vessels

1972

1973

1974

Aircraft

Arrivals

24,548

26,915

26,469

Departures

24,546

26,907

26,460

Total

49,094

53,822

52,929

Ocean-going vessels

Arrivals

7,827

7,358

7,321

Departures

7,880

7,437

7,370

Total

15,707

14,795

14,691

River steamers, hydrofoil vessels, junks and launches

Arrivals

28,384

31,174

33,857

Departures

28,380

31,111

33,652

Total

56,764

62,285

67,509

Arrivals

International Movements of Passengers

(Immigration figures)

Air

Sea

Rail

Total

Departures

Air

Sea

Rail

Total

Note:

All figures quoted here exclude:--

i. Passengers in transit.

Thousands

1,335

1,662

1,711

1,912

2,245

2,218

730

937

926

3,977

4,844

4,855

1,367

1,700

1,763

1,924

2,213

2,191

719

895

855

4,010

4,808

4,809

ii. Passengers refused permission to land.

iii. Military passengers.

International Movements of Commercial Cargo

by Different Means of Transport

Air

Imports Exports

Total

Sea

Imports Exports

Total

Rail

Imports

Exports

Total

:

:

:

Metric tons

26,235

37,179

35,485

55,024

59,163

66,773

81,259

96,342

102,258

12,292,079 3,821,129

13,341,873

13,708,505

4,465,228

4,919,890

16,113,208

17,807,101

18,628,395

1,160,106 1,362

1,161,468

1,233,541 3,351

1,236,892

1,162,244 767

1,163,011

Appendix 35

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

Registered Motor Vehicles

249

Public service vehicles

Public buses

China Motor Bus Company Kowloon Motor Bus Company

New Lantau Bus Company

Others

Public Light buses

Taxis

Public hire cars

Private vehicles

Motor cycles Motor tricycles

1972

1973

1974

496

565

595

1,272

1,324

1,371

46

43

42

1,067

1,179

1,194

3,828

3,943

4,277

3,448

4,754

4,754

1,063

1,106

1,264

19,833

23,283

23,254

82

58

38

Private cars

120,725

129,309

119,273

Private buses

367

340

308

Private light buses

1,684

Goods vehicles

28,794

1,743 31,534

Crown vehicles (excluding vehicles of HM Forces)

Motor cycles

843

Other motor vehicles

2,645

843 2,751

Total

186,193

202,775

1,648 31,596

902 2,923 193,439

Tramcars

Hongkong Tramways Company

Tramcars

Trailers

Peak Tramways Company

Tramcars

Total

162

162

162

22

22

22

3

3

3

187

187

187

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Undertaking

Thousand journeys

1972

1973

1974

Kowloon Motor Bus Company

501,188

493,691

564,488

China Motor Bus Company

166,721

150,586

181,172

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company

179,496

155,532

150,291

Hongkong Tramways Company

148,464

145,672

147,588

"Star" Ferry Company

58,108

52,566

50,465

Kowloon-Canton Railway

10,972

11,808

12,168

Peak Tramways Company

2,260

1,964

2,051

New Lantau Bus Company Total

1,358

1,753

1,225

1,068,567

1,013,572

1,109,448

Public Transport: Passengers Carried by Area

Thousand journeys

Hong Kong Island

311,989

276,874

299,819

Kowloon

Cross harbour

Ferry

Tunnel

New Territories

Urban

422,076

387,039

420,114

227,965

196,349

186,610

12,320

46,641

67,519

39,766

49,461

67,690

Rural

44,812

45,459

53,550

Total

Ferry

Public Transport: Daily Average Number of Passengers

Carried by Different Modes of Transport

9,639

11,749

14,146

1,068,567

1,013,572

1,109,448

Bus

Public light bus*.

Ferry

Taxis*

Tram

Public hire car*

Rail

Total

* Estimate.

Thousand journeys

1,829

1,770

2,046

1,050

1,202

1,202

649

570

550

637

563

563

412

404

410

59

44

45

30

32

33

4,666

4,585

4,849

250

Appendix 36

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

Communications

1972

1973

Postal traffic:

1974 Estimated

posted to destinations abroad

Letter mails (million articles)

posted for local delivery

received from abroad for local delivery

in transit

Parcels (thousands)

posted to destinations abroad

posted for local delivery

80.1

80.7

76.4

112.9

118.8

121.7

51.2

55.4

58.2

2.2

2.4

2.5

2,517

2,489

2,464

35

61

74

received from abroad for local delivery

518

564

563

in transit

53

40

37

Telecommunication traffic:

Telegrams (thousands)

1972

1973

1974

accepted for transmission

1,371

1,361

1,101

received

in transit

Telex calls (thousand minutes)

outward

inward

International telephone calls (thousand minutes)

outward

inward

Radio pictures

transmitted

received

Broadcast and reception services (thousand hours)

press

meteorological

1,767

1,764

1,821

1,433

1,376

1,432

3,650

5,415

7,841

::

::

::

::

::

3,324

4,817

5,974

7,286

9,389

9,436

9,502

10,797

11,704

6,270

9,172

10,412

6,766

8,163

9,214

::

::

23

20

26

140

140

138

Appendix 37

(Chapter 17: Recreation)

Recreational Facilities Provided by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department

Facilities

1972

1973

1974

Children's playgrounds

Parks and gardens

Grass games pitches

Hardsurface mini soccer pitches

Basketball/volleyball/badminton courts

Tennis courts

272

298

305

396

454

458

50

51

51

94

99

99

363.

411

412

36

36

36

Running tracks

9

9

9

Beaches

37

37

37

Swimming pools

6

6

7

Indoor games hall (multi-purpose)

1

1

Obstacle golf course. squash courts, practice tennis courts, bowling and putting greens, soil surfaced mini soccer pitches, roller skating rinks and table tennis

49

57

57

Aviaries and mammal exhibits, concrete chess tables, model boat pools,

television sets and open air theatre

102

111

112

Bandstand, barbecue pits, composite beach buildings, car parks, changing rooms, fountains, dog's gardens, refreshment kiosks, public lavatories, public libraries, pavilions/shelters and spectators stands

*

452

481

481

Total acreage of public open space administered

1,529

1,568

1,570

Appendix 38

(Chapter 18: The Environment)

Climatological Summary, 1974

251

Month

Mean

pressure at mean sea level

Maxi-

mum air temper- ature

Mini-

Mean air temper- ature

mum Mean Mean Mean Total air dew relative amount bright temper- point humidity of cloud sunshine

ature

Prevail-

Total ing rainfall wind

direction

Mean wind speed

millibars °C

°C

ос

°C

per cent per cent

hours

mm points knots

January

1,018.2

23.8

16.1

10.8

10.4

71

46

169.1

3.9

E

7.1

February

1,018,9

25.2

14.3

4.2

8.6

71

61

128.1

37.0

E

7.1

March

1,017.6 27.5

17.7

10.5

13.7

78

71

119.4

31.7

E

5.8

April

1,012.4 28.7

22.0

11.8

19.0

83

71

135.1

231.1

E

5.2

May.

1,009.5 32.6

26.6

21.0

23.3

83

64

208.7

203.7

E

5.2

June

1,004,6 34.0

27.4

22.7

24.0

July

...

1,006.1 33.2

28.7

22.8

24.5

20

82

82

116.6

323.3 SW

6.4

78

64

246.0

184.2 SW

5.2

August

1,003.6

34.3

28.7

22.9

24.0

76

65

225.1

226.6

E

4.6

September

1,009.3 32.7

27.6

24.2

23.7

80

60

181.2

131.2

E

3.3

October

1,009.7 32.7

25.3

17.9

20.0

November

1,016.0 29.2

20.9

15.5

15.2

December

1,019.4 24.0

17.7

10.8

13.1

CNN

74

70

145.4

718.4

E

7.0

71

62

143.7

24.9

NNE

4.1

75

74

114.2 206.9

E

5.9

Mean

1,012.1

22.8

18.3

Total

FI

77

66

--

E

5.6

1,932.6 2,322.9

|

Climatological Normals

(1884-1939; 1947-60)

Month

millibars °C*

°C* °C

per cent per cent

hours

mm

points

knots

January

February

March

April

1,019.9 26.9

15.4

0.0

11.1

75

64

145.4

31.7

E

7.7

1,018.4 27.8

15.2

2.4

11.7

79

75

100.2

46.9

E

8.9

1,016.1 30.1

17.5

6.2

14.8

83

82

94.7

72.2

E

9.4

1,012,7

33.4

21.3

9.9

18.8

85

80

114.6

135.8

E

8.7

May.

...

1,009.2 35.5

25.2

15.4

22.4

85

76

156.1

292.7

E

8.3

June

July

...

1,005.9 35.6 27.3

19.2

24.2

84

78

159.9

401.2

E

7.6

...

1,004,9 35.7

27.9

22.2

24.7

83

69

213.7

371.7

E

6.8

August

1,004.9 36.1

27.7

21.6

24.6

September

1,008.4 35.2

27.1

18.4

23.1

October

1,013.8 34.3

24.6

14.1

19.3

November

...

1,017.5 31.8 20.2

6.5

15.1

December

Mean

1,019.7 28.7

1,012.6

17.3

4.8

11.9

22.3

18.5

Total

* 2 2 8 2

。།

84

67

200.9

370.8

E

6.5

79

61

197.5 278.8

E

7.8

72

51

218.9

99.2 E

8.5

69

53

187.9

43.1

E

7.8

70

55

172.6

24.9

E

7.2

79

68

E

7.9

}

1,963.1 2,168.8

* 1884-1939; 1947-74.

252

Type of appointment

Appendix 39

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

The Executive Council

Names of Members on January 2, 1975

Presided over by His Excellency the Governor,

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Ex-officio

25

Nominated

His Excellency the Commander British Forces

Lieutenant General Sir Edwin Noel Westby BRAMALL, KCB, OBE, MC

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS, CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, CMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr John William Dixon HOBLEY, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Affairs

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA, CBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated

The Honourable Sir Yuet-keung KAN, CBE, JP

15

The Honourable Sir Sidney GORDON, CBE, JP

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, CBE, JP

The Honourable SZETO Wai, CBE, JP

""

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen, CBE, JP

29

A

The Honourable ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP

The Honourable G.M. SAYER, JP

**

The Honourable Oswald CHEUNG, OBE, QC, JP

25

Type of appointment

Appendix 40

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

The Legislative Council

Names of Members on January 2, 1975

Ex-officio

His Excellency the Governor,

PRESIDENT:

""

"

Nominated

39

"

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS, CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-Cave, CMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr John William Dixon HOBLEY, QC, JP The Honourable the Secretary for Home Affairs

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP

The Honourable James Jeavons ROBSON, CBE, JP

(Secretary for the Environment)

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA, CBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

The Honourable Ian MacDonald LIGHTBODY, CMG, JP

(Secretary for Housing)

The Honourable David Harold JORDAN, MBE, JP

(Director of Commerce and Industry)

The Honourable Li Fook-kow, CMG, JP

(Secretary for Social Services)

The Honourable David AKERS-JONES, JP

(Secretary for the New Territories)

The Honourable Lewis Mervyn DAVIES, CMG, OBE, JP

(Secretary for Security)

The Honourable Kenneth Wallis Joseph TOPLEY, JP

(Director of Education)

The Honourable Ian Robert PRICE, TD, JP

(Commissioner for Labour)

The Honourable David Wylie MCDONALD, JP

(Director of Public Works)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated

"

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen, CBE, JP The Honourable Wilson WANG Tze-sam, OBE, JP

The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, OBE, JP

19

دو

27

""

""

The Honourable Oswald Victor CHEUNG, OBE, QC, JP The Honourable Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, OBE, JP The Honourable Mrs Catherine Joyce SYMONS, OBE, JP The Honourable Peter Gordon Williams, OBE, JP

The Honourable James Wu Man-hon, OBE, JP The Honourable Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, OBE, JP

The Honourable Li Fook-wo, OBE, JP

The Honourable John Henry BREMRIDGE, JP Dr the Honourable Harry FANG Sin-yang, OBE, JP The Honourable Miss Ko Siu-wah, MBE, JP

The Honourable Lo Tak-shing, JP

The Honourable Francis Yuan-hao TIEN, OBE, JP

253

254

Type of appointment

Elected by Urban Council

33

Appendix 41

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Names of Members on January 2, 1975

CHAIRMAN:

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira SALES, CBE(H), JP (A)

VICE-CHAIRMAN:

The Honourable Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, OBE, JP (E)

MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE, QC, JP (E)

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT (E)

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick (E)

The Honourable Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, OBE, JP (A)

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE, JP (A)

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, JP (A)

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP (A)

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa (E)

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun, JP (A)

Mr Peter CHAN Chi-kwan (E)

| Mr SHUM Choi-sang, MBE, JP (A)

Mr John MACKENZIE (A)

Mr Charles Sin Cho-chiu (E)

Miss Cecilia YEUNG Lai-yin (E)

| Mrs Grace Ho, JP (A)

Mr TSIN Sai-nin (E)

Mr Edmund CHOW Wai-hung (E)

Mr Ambrose CHOI Kwok-ching (E)

Dr WONG Pun-cheuk (E)

Mr Hu Fa-kuang (A)

Mr Alex Wu Shu-chih, OBE (A)

Mr WONG Shiu-cheuck, MBE, JP (A)

Note: (E)- Elected.

(A)=Appointed.

Appendix 42

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(A) The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

American Women's Association of Hong Kong

Association of Volunteers for Service

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission Canossian Mission (Welfare Services)

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Catholic Relief Services-USCC

Catholic Women's League

Member Agencies

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association Chai Wan Area Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

(Hong Kong)

Children's Meals Society

Child Care Centre-Walled City

Chinese Young Men's Christian Association

Christian Children's Fund

Christian Family Service Centre

Church of Christ in China, Hong Kong Council, Social

Welfare Department

Community Development Committee, The Church of the

Good Shepherd

Conference Board of Christian Social Concerns of the

Methodist Church

Convent of Good Shepherd

Department of Social Work, University of Hong Kong Diocesan Welfare Council of the Diocese of Hong Kong

and Macau

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

The Endeavourers

Epworth Village Community Centre (The Chinese

Methodist Church)

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

Finnish Missionary Society

Five District Business Welfare Association

Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club

Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel and Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-TB and Thoracic Disease Association

Hong Kong Association for Mentally Handicapped

Children and Young Persons

Hong Kong Baptist College

Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council

Hong Kong Cheshire Home

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Women

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society Hong Kong Family Welfare Society Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups Hong Kong Housing Society

Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Marriage Guidance Council

Hong Kong PHAB Association

Hong Kong Playground Association

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong Red Swastika

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Shue Yan College

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Deaf

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

The Leprosy Mission

Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters

Marycove

Mennonite Ministries

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association Norwegian Missionary Society

Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

The Salvation Army

Save the Children Fund

Scout Association

S.K.H. Lady MacLehose Centre

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese Methodist

Church

Society for Community Organisation

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Sports Association for the Physically Handicapped

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals United Christian Hospital

World Council of Churches

World Vision

Young Men's Christian Association

Young Women's Christian Association Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

255

256

Appendix 42-Contd

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(B) The Community Chest of Hong Kong

Buddhist Po Ching Home for the Aged Women

Calvary Social Service Centre

Canossian Mission Welfare Services

Caritas-Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council

Catholic Women's League

Child Care Centre-Kowloon Walled City

Children's Meals Society

Chinese Young Men's Christian Association

Christian Family Service Centre

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

Epworth Village Community Centre

Family Planning Association

Hans Andersen Club

Happy Home for the Aged

Heep Hong Club for Handicapped Children

Holy Carpenter Youth Centre

Holy Nativity Social Service Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Council of the Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Member Agencies

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

Kei Oi Youth Centre

Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Lutheran World Federation

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

North Point Estate Residents Association

Practical Training Centre of the Churches

Project Concern-Hong Kong

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

St Christopher's Home

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

St Thomas' Day Nursery

Salvation Army-Hong Kong Command

Save the Children Fund

Shaukiwan Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

Sisters of the Good Shepherd (Pelletier Hall)

Society for Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Workers Tours and Travel Service

Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

Young Women's Christian Association

Youth Centre of St Barnabas'

Abattoirs, 84

Action Committee Against Narcotics, 75-6,

213

Administration, Government, 205-12 Advisory committees, 183-5, 213 Agriculture-

and Fisheries Department, 42-9, 185,

196

industry 42-50

Airport, 26, 73, 129, 138-9, 183 Alliance Francaise, 172

Ambulance service, 119

American Library, 172

Aquatic life, 194

Armed Services, 25, 159-63, 171

Arrangement Regarding International Trade

in Textiles (MTA), 14

Art collections, 172

Arts, Festival, 123, 172

Asian Development Bank, 26

Asian Productivity Organisation, 21

Association of Volunteers for Service, 172

Auxiliary Fire Services, 161-3

Auxiliary Medical Service, 161-3

Auxiliary Services, 159-63

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 24 Banks, 25-32

Birth and death registration, 190-1 Botanic Gardens, 196

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, 105

British Council, 172, 174-5

Buddhism, 164-5

Building(s)--

Authority, 86, 91

development, 128-30

Bus services, 143, 145-6

Business registration, 29

Cable and Wireless, 150-1 Campaigns-

    Fight Violent Crime, 106, 108, 211 Keep Hong Kong Clean, 81-2, 211

Caritas Medical Centre, 71, 78, 105 Cathay Pacific Airways, 122, 138 Central Co-ordinating Committee for Youth

Recreation, 171

Index

Cheung Chau Electric Co, 133-4

China, 1, 42, 58, 86

China Light and Power Co, 133-4, 203 China Motor Bus Co, 143, 145-6

Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, 16 Chinese language, 51-69, 212-3

Chinese Manufacturers' Association, 16, 22 Christians, 164-8

Church World Services, 78

City District Offices, 68, 81, 171, 211-2 City Hall, 38, 172, 209

City Museum and Art Gallery, 172, 173-4,

209

Civil-

Aid Services, 161-3

Aviation, 138-9, 183

Service, see Public Service

Climate, 177-80

Colonial Secretariat, 210

Commerce and Industry Department, 8, 10,

12, 14, 16, 20, 110

Committee for Scientific Co-ordination, 182 Commonwealth preference, 15, 17

Communicable diseases, 71-3 Communications, 135-51

Community work, 105

Community Chest, 3, 102, 115

Community Relief Trust Fund (see Emergency

Relief Fund)

Community and Youth Officer scheme, 6 Co-ordinating Committee for Treatment of

Tuberculosis, 71

Companies Registry, 23-4

Confucius, 164

Conservation, (see also Environment), 186-7

Constitution, 205-12

Consumer price index, 34

Container facilities, 10

Convention of Chuenpi, 200

Convention of Peking, 201 Co-operative societies, 45

Cotton, 9

Cotton Textiles Arrangement (CTA), 14 Council for Recreation and Sport, 68, 169 Crime, 109-11, 213

Cross-harbour tunnel, 141-2, 199 Currency, 29-31

258

Deaths, 190-1

Defence, 159-63

Dental services, 78

Development Loan Fund, 25, 26 Discharged Prisoners Aid Society, 75 District Offices, 68, 86, 171, 211-2 District Court, 207-8, 209

Documentation of Imports and Exports,

16-7

Drainage, 130-1

Drug addiction, 4, 75-6, 118, 213 Drug seizures, 76, 111,

Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme, 38

Dutiable commodities, 27

Economy, 1, 25-32

Education, 3-4, 51-69

adult, 64-5

Advisory Inspectorate, 61-2 art, 67

Department, 81, 169

  educational television, 66 examinations, 65-6 higher, 55-7

music, 66-7 overseas, 68-9

  Polytechnic, 51, 54, 58-60 post-secondary, 55 pre-primary, 52

prevocational, 61

primary, 52-3

research, 57-8

secondary, 53-5

special, 53

teachers, 63-4

technical, 60-1

Visual Education Centre, 62-3

Electricity, 133-4

Electronics industry, 10

Emergency Regulations, 7,

Emergency Relief Fund, 103

Employment, 5, 33-41

Entertainment, 172

Environment, 39, 81-5, 89, 176-87

Essential Services Corps, 161-3

European Economic Community, 15-6 Exchange Banks Association, 32 Exchange Fund, 30

Executive Council, 205-6, 213-4

Factories and industrial undertakings, 97

Ordinance, 5

Family Health Service, 73-4 Family planning, 4, 73-4

Family welfare services, 103-4 Farming, 42-50

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

16, 22

Ferry services, 147

Festival of Hong Kong, 158 Film industry, 156-7

Finance, 25-32

Fire Services, 83, 108, 119-20, 157 Fish Marketing Organisation, 44, 49 Fisheries

Development Loan Fund, 45 Fishing industry, 42-50

Flora, 195-6

Foreign Correspondents Club, 152

Foreign Relations, 209

Full Court, 207-8, 209

Gas, 134

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

(GATT), 14-5

Geology, 176-7

Goethe Institute, 172

Government Chest Service, 71

Government Information Services, see

Information Services Department

Governor, office of, 205

Grievances, 213-4

Hawkers, 83

Health, 70-85

administration, 70-1

dental services, 78

industrial, 39

mental, 74-5

ophthalmic services, 78

outpatient services, 77

research, 80-1

schools, 74

specialist services, 77

training, 78-80

Heavy industries, 10

High Island Water Scheme, 44, 127 Hindu community, 168

History, 197-204

Home Affairs Department, 83, 211-2

HK Air International, 138

HK Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases

Association, 71

HK Association of Travel Agents, 123

HK and China Gas Co, 134, 203

HK Chinese Christian Churches Union, 166 HK Christian Council, 166

HK Council of Social Service, 3, 102, 105,

107, 172

HK Dental Association, 78

HK Exporters' Association, 20 HK Export Credit Insurance Corp, 20 HK Federation of Stock Exchanges, 32 HK Federation of Trade Unions, 36 HK Federation of Youth Groups, 105 HK General Chamber of Commerce, 16,

20, 22

HK Journalists Association, 152

HK and Kowloon Trades Union Council, 36 HK Midwives Board, 79

HK Nursing Board, 79

Joseph Trust Fund, 45 Judiciary, 206-8

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, 71

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, 45 Kaifongs, 108, 211

Kowloon-Canton Railway, 143-4, 203 Kowloon Motor Bus Co, 143, 145-6 Kwai Chung Container Terminal, 10

Labour-

Land(s), 86-100

Department, 5, 33-41, 60, Tribunal, 5, 33, 207

184

development, 90-1, 132

Office, 89

resumption, 89

259

HK Outline Plan, 90-1

HK Philharmonic Orchestra, 172

HK Society for the Blind, 105

HK Telephone Co, 151

HK Tourist Association, 123

HK Training Council, 39-40

Hongkong Electric Co, 133-4, 203

Hongkong Tramways, 143, 146-7

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co, 143, 147

Hospitals, 70-85

Housing, 86-100

Authority, 25, 95, 198

Department, 157

private, 93-5

Society, 198

Immigration, 110-1, 122-5, 197-204

Independent Commission Against Corruption,

115-6

        Indian Chamber of Commerce, 16 Industrial-

design, 22

development, 8-13

investment promotion, 12

land, 11-2

safety, 37

training, 39-41

Industry and trade, 7-24

Information Services Department, 154, 157-8

Internal revenue, 28-9

International economic relations, 14-6

International Monetary Fund, 30

Islamic community, 167

Japanese occupation, 197, 203-4

Jaycees, 105

Jewish community, 168

Survey, 89-90

Tribunal, 89, 207

utilisation, 46

Legal Aid, 208-9

Legislative Council, 25, 31, 51, 206, 213-4 Leprosy Mission, 72

Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, 173 Libraries, 174

Light industries, 8, 9-10

Loans, 12-3

London Office, Hong Kong Government, 18,

68-9, 158, 210-1

Lotteries Fund, 26-7, 101

Lutheran World Service, 76, 78, 105

MacLehose, Sir Murray, 159

Marine Department, 157, 185 Marriages, 189-90

Mass transit railway, 144-5, 199 Media, 152-8

Medical-

Development Advisory Committee, 70

and Health Department, 4-5, 70-85, 157, 214 fees, 78

Mining, 50, 176

Morrison Hill Technical Institute, 40-1, 54

Mutual Aid Committees, 108, 211

Narcotics, 75-6

Natural history, 192-6

Naturalisation Applications Board, 124

New Lantau Bus Co, 143, 146

New Territories-

Administration, 81, 84, 86, 117, 157, 211-2

Heung Yee Kuk, 212 land development, 91

260

New towns, 92-3

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, 152 Newspapers, 152-3

Oil Distribution Committee, 7 Oil Policy Committee, 7

Oil refinery, 11

Oil supplies, 7

Parking, 142-3

Peak Tramways Co, 143, 147, 203 Peninsula Electric Power Co, 133 Petrochemical complex, 11 Plastics, 8, 10 Plover Cove, 127

Po Leung Kuk, 2-3, 211 Police, 83, 108-15, 157, 214 Pollution, 39, 183-6 Polytechnic, 41, 51, 54, 58-60 Population, 1, 188-91 Port-

Committee, 135

Communication Centre, 185 Executive Committee, 135 health, 73

works, 131-2

Postal services, 149-50

Press, 152-3

Club, 152

Foundation of Asia, 153

Preventive Service, 18, 111, 21, 129

Primary Production, 42-50

Printing and publishing, 153

Public-

Prisons, 108, 116-9

Probation, 105-6

Productivity Council, 21-2

cars, 147-8

order, 108-21

service, 214

Services Commission, 214

transport, 143-4

utilities, 126-34

157, 214

Works Department, 25, 83, 90, 126-34,

Red Cross, 77, 82

Registrar General, 23, 86, 88-9, 110, 190-1 Rehabilitation, 104-5

Religion and Custom, 164-8 Rent control, 98-100 Rent Tribunal, 100

Research-

agricultural, 42-9, 58 fisheries, 42-9, 58

meteorology, 182-3 social, 107

universities, 57-8

Revenue and expenditure, 28-9 Roads, 140-1, 199

Road tunnels, 141-2, 199 RHK Auxiliary Air Force, 161 RHK Jockey Club, 67, 172 RHK Regiment, 161

Royal Observatory, 157, 177-86

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade,

78, 82, 115

School(s) (see also Education)---

Health Service, 74

Medical Service Board, 74 Secretary for Security, 31-2, 75 Shipbuilding and repairing, 11 Shipping, 135-8

Social-

welfare, 1-7, 26, 65, 101-7

Welfare Department, 3, 6, 65, 101-7, 157, 171

Welfare Advisory Committee, 101

security, 102-3

training, 106

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of

Drug Addicts, 75

Sound broadcasting, 155-6

Squatters, 25, 97-8, 198

Stamp Duty, 29

Star Ferry, 143, 147

Stock exchanges, 31-2

Summer Youth Activities Programme, 68, 171-2

Supreme Court, 207-8, 209

Swimming, 170

Taoism, 164

Taxes, 28-9

Quarrying, 132-3

Radio, Commercial, 155-6

Radio Hong Kong, 129, 154-6

Rates, 27--8

Recreation, 67-8, 169-75

Taxis, 147-8

Teachers and teacher training, 63-4

Telecommunications, 150-1

Television, 66, 154-5

Tenancy Inquiry Bureau, 98

Tenancy Tribunal, 98, 207

261

Textiles, 9

Textiles Serveillance Body (TSB), 14 Topography, 176-7

Tourism, 122-5

Town planning, 90-2

Town Planning Board, 86 Trade-

and Industry Advisory Board, 17-8 Development Council, 12, 18-20 external, 13-4

Facilitation Committee, 17, 20 history, 197-203

marks and patents, 22-3

Trade unions, 35-6

Traffic, 142

Trams, 146-7, 203

Transport, 135-51

Licensing, 148-9

public, 143-8

Advisory Committee, 148

Department, 83

Treaty of Nanking, 201

Treaty of Tientsin, 201

Tsing Yi Island, 11-2

Tuen Mun (Castle Peak), 11

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 2, 71, 77, 211 Typhoons, tropical storms and rainstorms,

126, 177-83

UMELCO, 213

Universities, 51-69, 203, 213

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee,

55, 58 Urban-

Council, 25, 27-8, 48, 83-5, 142, 170-1,

172, 173, 209, 213-4

renewal, 89

Services Department, 25, 48, 81-5, 170-1,

209, 214

Vegetable Marketing Organisation, 45, 49 Voluntary agencies, 2

Wages, 34-5

Water-

consumption, 8

supplies, 126-8

Weather; 177-80

Wild life, 192-4

Workmen's compensation, 6

World Refugee Year Loan Fund, 45 World Trade Centre, 123

YMCA, YWCA, 105, 166

Printed and Published by J. R. Lee, Government Printer, at the Government Press Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1975

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HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

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and from

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A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

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First published: February 1975

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIT'S

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