Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1973

HONG KONG LÀ

113"-50'

HONG KONG, KOWLOON AND THE NEW TERRITORIES

KWANGTUNG

114°-00'

PROVINCE

Chun

DEEP BAY

22-30-

SAN TIN

Mai Po

22-20-

22-10

Lung Kwu

Chau

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

LUNG

KWU TAN

San Tin San Wal

ok Ma Chau

KAI

100

PAT HEUNG

Shan

HA TOUEN

KĀM TIDE

Tau

YUEN LONG DISTRICT

TUEN UN

đại Làm Chương

Beservoir

-100

00

CASTLE PEAK

BAY

TAI LA CHUNG Tsing

?Sha Chau

The Brothers

Keng

TỪNG CHUNG

Chek Lap Kok

Island

100

TAU ISTAN

SERIES HM 200(R) L

EDITION 2

113°-50'

C

H

/1149-10 N

A

Sham Chun

in Ma Hang

Sa Tau

Kok

CISPICT

CHUI

LUEMW

MARLET

FANLING

-100

AI PO

SHEK KONG

TALPO

STARLING

INLET

Keng

Lan

114°-20'

Crooked Island

CROOKED

• HARBOUR

MIRS

BAY

Double

Island

Port Island

PLOVER COVE

RESERVO

Yim Tin

Trai

TOLO

HARBOUR

DUSTRIE

TRI

WU KA

SHA

100

TOLO CHANNEL

Tap

Mun

Sham Chung

Lại chí Chong

LONG HARBOU

SHER

Ta

Shyl

100,

Chek

468

100

Long

SAI KUNG

NG

Tam Chun

Proposed

ervoir

SUEN WAN DISTRIC

SHAM

TSENG

Lung Tau

TSUEN WAN

KWA!

CHUNG

KAP SAGI MUN

Ma Wan

TSING YI

100

Howloon ReseMoirs

100

TIDE COVE

SHA TIN.

Tsang

Tai Oki

Siu Lek:

Yuen

Peng Chau

Kau Yi

100

ILVER MINE BAY

Sunshine Island

Hei Ling

Chau

ANDS DISTRICT

Shek Kwu

Chi Ma Wan

:♡

Chau

Cheung

Chau

WEST LAMMA

ing Sha

Tong Fuk

Soko Islands

Crown Lands & Survey Office P.W.D. 1974

114-00'

Green Island

VICTO

VICTORIA

Ap Lei Chau

EAST LAMMA CHANKA

Yung Shue

Wan

PICNIC BAY

LAMMA ISLAND

Kwu

PU

HONG

KONG

香港中央

STRAL

LIBRAR

HARBOUR

"DEEP WATER I

REPULSE BAY

1114-10'

Resi

SA

Sha HEBE Wan HAVEN

ISLAND

KAU SAI

CHAU

PORT SHELTER

ROCKY HARBOUR

Shelter

Vsland

Hau

Bluff Island

Renme's

JUNK BAY

"CLEAR WATER

TAI TAM

BAY

STANLEY

SHEK,

HOUSE

Ninepin Group

BAY

Tung Lung

Island

TATHONG CHANNEL

Po Toi

Group

Waglan Island

22°-10-

Basalt

Veland

B

Ping Chau

New Territories

Administration Districts

ELEVATION TINTS

METRES

700 +

(approximate

FEET conversions)

2300 +

-22-30

300

-

70.0.

1000

-

2300

22-20

100

-

300

325 -

1000

0 100

0 -

325

Main Road

Minor Roads

Railway

Ferry Route

Scale of Kilometres

?

8

10

T

KOREA

JAPAN

Nanking

INDIA

CHINA

Chungking,

YANGTZEN

Foochow

Shanghai EAST

Canton

CHINA SEA

AIWAN

BURMA

HONG KONG

PACIFIC OCEAN

20°

LAOS

THAI- LAND

KHMER

SOUTH CHINA SEA

PHILIPPINES

GUAM,

MALAYSIA

MALAYA

SINGA· PORE

BORNEO

SUMATRA

100°

JAVA

INDONESIA

ngoc

120°

0

1000

2000

Scale of kilometres

NEW GUINEA

PAPGA

140

香港公共圖書館

HONG KONG

VG

PUBLIC LIBRARI

Frontispiece: Pupils from the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals' secondary schools perform a colourful and popular Chinese folk dance during the grand procession of the Festival of Hong Kong.

燃?

r

HONG

KONG

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 00215389 0

HONG KONG 1974, REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1973

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PRESS 1974

Acc. No.

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

201856

Class.

HK 95125

Author

HOW

HKC

Contents

Chapter

Page

1

THE COMMUNITY: A GROWING AWARENESS

1

2

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

11

3

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

28

4

EMPLOYMENT

5

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

6

EDUCATION

7

HEALTH

8

LAND AND HOUSING

9

SOCIAL WELFARE

10

PUBLIC ORDER

101

107

:

11

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

120

12

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

124

13

COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

132

གླ ྴ མཻ ཌ ཆ རྫ ➢ 8 ྂ(c)

14

THE MEDIA

147

15

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

154

16

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

159

17

RECREATION

164

18

THE ENVIRONMENT

173

19

POPULATION

185

20

NATURAL HISTORY

189

21

HISTORY

193

22

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

202

iv

Illustrations

CONTENTS

Frontispiece

Water

Fiesta '73

Shatin

Museum

Page

facing

i

between vi-1

between 4-5

between 12-13

between

28-9

Border

between 44-5

Festival

between 60-1

Islands

between 76-7

Fire

between

108-9

Sport

between 172-3

Tourism

between

188-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Hong Kong, Kowloon and adjacent New Territories showing district names

CONTENTS

Appendices

1

Appendix

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Page

217

2

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

218

3-4

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

219

5-11

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

223

12-14

EMPLOYMENT

230

15

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX

232

16-18

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

233

19-22

EDUCATION

235

23-26

HEALTH

237

27-28

LAND AND HOUSING

239

29-32

PUBLIC ORDER

241

33

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

245

34-36

COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT

246

37

RECREATION

248

38

WEATHER

249

39-40

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

250

41

URBAN COUNCIL

252

42

SOCIAL WELFARE

253

INDEX

255

When dollars are quoted in this report, they are, unless otherwise stated, Hong Kong dollars. The official rate for conversion to US dollars is HK$5.085

=US$1.

WATER

UBLIC

 Hong Kong's water storage capacity has increased dramatically over the past few years. A total capacity of 68,000 million gallons, a regular supply from China and new projects under construction and planned should be sufficient to meet the ter- ritory's needs in the years to come. In 1973 work was completed on the massive Plover Cove reservoir to raise the height of the dams and increase the storage capacity by 14,000 million gallons. Another ambitious scheme is the 60,000-million-gallon High Island reservoir, due for completion in 1979. The island is being joined to the mainland with two huge dams. Above construction of a tunnel at High Island.

  Supplies from the Shek Pik reservoir on Lantau Island reach Hong Kong by two eight-mile pipelines on the sea-bed.

Part of the 280-million-gallon Aberdeen reservoir system above the town of Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island.

Some youngsters find other uses for the Tai Tam Tuk reservoir, the largest on Hong Kong Island.

When the Plover Cove reservoir dams were raised in 1973 it in- creased its capacity to 51,000 million gallons.

In 1972 construction began on a desalination plant at Lok On Pai which will eventually supply 40 million gallons a day.

  Workers are dwarfed by construction equipment at the High Island reservoir scheme.

П

 Work in progress at the west dam site of the High Island reservoir scheme.

1

The Community: A Growing Awareness

THE easy relationship which exists in Hong Kong between government and governed has frequently been misinterpreted as being due to paternalistic administrators, who know instinctively what is best for the public good, and a politically disinterested population content that its officials should continue to labour under this illusion.

       Whatever the situation may once have been, this is certainly not the case today. This chapter is concerned with the present relationship between the government and the population. It is about the different kinds of machinery and organisation that have been evolved to ensure that though the government may not be elected it should be responsive, and that though the public may not elect they should participate.

Throughout the last century, Hong Kong has improvised its own system of consultation between the government and the people, to overcome the obvious problems arising from its geo-political situation, which is not conducive to the emergence of a fully elected administration. Although its merits may not be readily apparent, this system has often proved more sensitive to the needs and aspirations of the people than the conventional and theoretically more democratic methods applying elsewhere.

The machinery of government is supported by a wide range of advisory boards and committees concerned with particular aspects of policy and representing the varied civic interests involved. At present there are about 120 of these bodies on which views other than those of government officials are represented. Most major policy decisions either emanate from their recommendations or are referred to them for comment and advice.

       This advisory system constitutes a versatile framework for sampling public opinion and provides a mechanism which has enabled the government to anticipate, and sometimes to stimulate, the relatively recent upsurge of popular interest in the way Hong Kong is governed.

       Although belated in its appearance, a new spirit of awareness has developed among the people, of a force such as dispels the image of indifference to government.

The Younger Generation

The initiative has come largely from the young-from the generation which has grown up to accept Hong Kong as its home, realistically discarding the more transient outlook adopted by its elders. Youngsters are not now confronted by the immediate problems faced by their parents, when the latter emigrated here from the mainland

THE COMMUNITY

2

    in the late forties and early fifties. Consequently, they are less inclined to look upon Hong Kong as a temporary home where the one preoccupation is the making of

money.

      The young predominate in Hong Kong society, where 55 per cent are under the age of 25. Therefore, the government has directed a large part of its community programmes to this alert and lively sector of the population.

In 1973 a special inter-departmental committee on youth services was set up to examine the needs of the young and to co-ordinate efforts to fulfil them. The com- mittee will provide a link between the various bodies which are concerned with youth services. It will seek to identify the problems and aspirations of young people, with particular attention to education, employment, group activities, sport, recreation and community involvement.

      Considerable progress has already been made in developing and expanding youth services. Government departments take special account in their plans of young people; a number of important committees, councils and advisory bodies have major interests in this field. Among these are the Board of Education, the Youth Employ- ment Advisory Service, the Local Employment Service, the district youth recreation co-ordinating committees and the central co-ordinating committee for youth recrea- tion. In addition, two new councils were appointed in the autumn of 1973-the Training Council and the Council for Recreation and Sport.

      Created as a result of the report submitted last year by the Industrial Training Advisory Committee, the Training Council is a permanent body, which will advise the government on measures necessary to provide a comprehensive system of train- ing geared to meet the developing needs of industry and, at a later date, of commerce and services.

The task of the Council for Recreation and Sport is to ensure that facilities for recreation and sport are expanded as far as resources will allow. Its terms of reference include responsibility for recommending special services and facilities to meet the leisure-time needs of young people.

      Hong Kong's Summer Youth Activities Programme, which has attracted wide- spread attention overseas for its scope and imagination, continues the steady expan- sion which has taken place since it was initiated seven summers ago. Involving numerous government departments and voluntary agencies, it now caters for almost 1.5 million youngsters annually.

      Although more pronounced among the young, new appetites and expectations are awakening throughout the community, at all age levels. They result from higher living standards and greater leisure opportunities.

      Wages and incomes have increased steadily during the past decade in both absolute and real terms. For example, even allowing for the increase in the cost of living as measured by the consumer price index, the average daily wage for industrial workers has increased by 46 per cent since March 1964. At the same time, a shortage

THE COMMUNITY

3

of labour has generated greater competition among employers, leading to better working conditions and reduced working hours as inducements to attract a dis- criminating work force.

       With more free time on their hands, and the means to explore new outlets, people are naturally taking a more critical look at their environment, and more interest in its development.

A Need to Know

Curiosity about administrative affairs has, in the past, been inhibited by more than the transient outlook of an immigrant community. The majority of Chinese found ready historical precedents for their aversion to the machinery of government. They were content to concentrate on their primary concern, which was to earn a living in a gregarious and competitive society.

But Hong Kong proved to be too small, too compact and too crowded to sustain this detachment indefinitely. The governmental process was difficult to ignore.

This change of attitude is well illustrated by the fuller treatment of domestic affairs in newspapers which had previously concentrated largely on external issues. Hong Kong's economic dependence on the rest of the world, as a market for its goods, long ago provided the stimulus for the business community to keep abreast of world events. But this limited stimulus no longer satisfied a readership which was becoming less concerned with the vagaries of overseas politics and their impact on the export trade.

Newspapers have always done well in Hong Kong, where the literacy rate- between 80 and 85 per cent of those aged 10 and over-is one of the highest in Asia.

The increasing drift from world to local news is a surprising inversion of the progression in most societies from a provincial to an international outlook.

       Perhaps even more influential than newspapers in this respect has been the impact of television, which now reaches 725,000 homes in Hong Kong, or 84 per cent of all families. News, topical events and discussion programmes have encouraged viewers to take a greater interest in the policies and actions of their government than ever before.

The government is keenly aware of television's potential as a medium for stim- ulating such interest. Through its own television unit (RHK Television), and with the co-operation of the two commercial television companies, the government now provides more than four hours of viewing each week.

These programmes consist largely of news, commentaries, documentaries, dis- cussions, dramas, and advertisement-type flashes intended to encourage public support for community campaigns. Viewing ratings for some of these programmes are high. It is estimated, for instance, that 79 per cent of all viewers aged 12 or over watch the daily 'Viewpoint' discussion programme on the Chinese channels. The stations themselves devote approximately 15 per cent of their transmission time to news, documentaries, education and discussion programmes.

THE COMMUNITY

During the year, the government announced that two further wireless television stations would be licensed. Together with the existing stations, they will eventually enable viewers to choose from five programme channels broadcast in colour.

Sound broadcasting also has done much to disseminate information on major policy issues, with news coverage and topical events programmes of considerable scope and variety, despite the rival attractions of television.

In the Chinese services of Radio Hong Kong, interest in local affairs has been stimulated by 'phone-in' programmes, which give opportunities for direct exchange of views between government officers and the people.

In order to compete more effectively with television and radio, newspapers have gone beyond straight reportage and now comment on local affairs in greater depth, stimulating response from their readers in the form of letters which appear in their growing correspondence columns.

The Government's Response

      Letters to the press provide a useful insight into public opinion. In typical month some 360 letters about government matters appear in the Chinese and English press. Many government departments have their own facilities for taking note of these, but an additional check is provided by the public relations division of the Information Services Department which scrutinises the readers' columns each day to sift all comment or criticism on government departments. These are either passed to the relevant departments for information or drawn to the attention of officers concerned should a reply be indicated.

The number of letters to the Chinese press has risen significantly in recent years, indicating that resort to pen and paper, as a means of achieving results, is no longer regarded as an idiosyncrasy of the expatriate minority.

Under the reorganisation of administrative machinery which followed upon the recommendations of management consultants, a Home Affairs and Information Branch was set up in 1973 within the Colonial Secretariat. This branch is responsible for the government's total public relations effort and co-ordinates the activities of the major departments concerned with information (these include the former Secre- tariat for Home Affairs, now the Home Affairs Department, the Information Services Department, Radio Hong Kong and the Government Printer).

      In addition, a study was carried out of how the government could strengthen and co-ordinate its existing methods of collecting, collating and assessing public opinion. It is envisaged that in future public opinion research will be conducted on a more scientific basis by professional survey methods, and new ways of testing public reaction, particularly at the grass roots level, will be established.

      A new procedure has been introduced to enable more members of the public to influence the government's policy-making process. Under this procedure, some important government policy programmes are published as Green Papers for full public discussion before a decision is made.

FIESTA '73

IC

  The third Festival of Hong Kong was, as usual, aimed at youth-but had something for everyone. More than 7,500 events, provided eight days of recreation and relaxation for all in Hong Kong. The festival combined the old with the new from the opening ceremony at the Hong Kong Stadium to the finale, a grand procession along Nathan Road. The many varied events catered to all tastes-from kung fu to chess, from ballet to horse racing, from bowls to boxing, from pop concert to Cantonese opera. The highlight of the festival was the crowning of Miss Festival of Hong Kong seen throughout the territory on television and by thousands of people in Statue Square.

=

The Lung Cheung Opera Troupe, a group of Radio Hong Kong artists. entertains a crowd in Edinburgh Place.

A spectacular display by Hong Kong schoolchildren at the opening

ceremony.

F

་་་ ་་-

7

 A military tattoo at the Hong Kong Stadium added to the excitement of the festival.

5.

THE COMMUNITY

Traditional Links

5

The Home Affairs Department has inherited responsibilities which date back to 1845, when the fledgling Hong Kong Government established its first formal links with the Chinese flooding into the newly founded colony. Since then there have been numerous changes of form and title, during which this section of the administration has grown steadily in stature and importance.

Until 1913, when the post of Secretary for Chinese Affairs was created, the officer entrusted with these responsibilities was known as the Registrar General. The title of Secretary for Chinese Affairs remained in use until 1969 when it was changed to Secretary for Home Affairs.

Following the recent reorganisation of the central government machinery, the Secretary for Home Affairs took on new responsibilities and moved to the Colonial Secretariat. A post of Director of Home Affairs was created to head the Home Affairs Department, which administers the City District Officer scheme and maintains other traditional links with the people.

Despite these formal changes, the basic reason for the existence of the office is substantially the same as it was in 1845-that there should be a senior officer whose primary job is the maintenance of two-way communication between the government and the people of Hong Kong.

Before 1941 the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs maintained its links with the people mainly through long established charitable organisations. These included- and still include the Tung Wah Hospitals and the Po Leung Kuk, both of which date from the early years of Hong Kong, as well as clan and district associations formed by people who either shared the same surname or the same provincial back- ground in China.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs also kept in close touch with the Chinese unofficial members of the Executive and Legislative Councils in their capacity as leaders of the Chinese community.

The early post-war years saw the development of the 'kaifong' movement, a revival of an ancient Chinese form of social organisation, adapted to the requirements of a Western urban society. The word 'kaifong' literally means 'neighbour', and the kaifong welfare associations had as their aim the continuation of the ancient tradition of neighbourly co-operation and mutual help among residents of a particular area. The first association of this type was formed in 1949 by a group of businessmen in Sham Shui Po. The movement spread rapidly and there are now more than 60 kaifong associations in Hong Kong and Kowloon.

The government soon saw that, in addition to providing welfare services for the people of their districts, the kaifongs could provide a useful new point of contact with the people. It therefore fostered and encouraged the kaifong movement from the start.

In the late 1960s, it became apparent to the government that there was a need for additional channels of communication. The centralised nature of the administrative

6

THE COMMUNITY

system in the urban areas meant that it was hardly represented in the city districts. The administration was based on functional rather than regional divisions. Although such a system is economical and efficient to operate, it has serious political disadvan- tages at the local level.

      It was to overcome these disadvantages that the City District Offices were established in 1968, as part of the then Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. The urban areas were divided into 10 districts, four in Hong Kong and six in Kowloon. Each district is in the charge of an administrative officer, who heads a staff of liaison officers.

City District Offices have been busy with a wide variety of activities, explaining government policies and actions to the public, reporting on public reaction, keeping in close contact with kaifongs and other local organisations, co-ordinating the activi- ties of government departments in their districts, arranging summer activities for youth, and providing a public enquiry and complaints service.

       Established in shop premises in the main streets of each district, the City District Offices have become an accepted part of the urban landscape. In 1973, the public enquiry counters in CDOs and the Home Affairs Department received 1.5 million queries, compared with a total of 1.4 million in 1972.

The UMELCO office

       Unofficial members of the Executive and Legislative Councils established the UMELCO office in 1964. This office operates both like an MP's constituency office and like an Ombudsman.

Set up primarily to deal with public complaints and representations, the office was considerably expanded and reinforced in August 1970, since when the number of cases dealt with has increased from an average of 19 a month to just over 200 a month.

       In addition to dealing with complaints and representations, the office serves as a method whereby members of the public can make known their views on matters of topical public concern.

       Comments on draft legislation, submitted to the UMELCO office, are considered by the unofficials during the process of law enactment. As a result changes are fre- quently made during the committee stage of a bill.

The Urban Council Ward System

       The ward system, established in 1965, whereby Urban Councillors keep in touch with the public, serves as a valuable adjunct to the other available channels for assessing public opinion.

Most of the 14 ward offices are located in densely populated areas, where members of the public can meet and discuss with an Urban Councillor their problems and difficulties, and learn something of the council's policies and practices.

THE COMMUNITY

7

Not unnaturally, in an area as small as Hong Kong, members of the public are apt to confuse the functions of the Urban Council with those of the central govern- ment. And even where they understand the demarcation of responsibility, they may still voice their complaints and grievances through the ward system, dealing with Urban Councillors whom they know in preference to government officials unfamiliar to them.

During the year ending March 31, 1973, a total of 8,783 cases were referred to the ward offices, the majority concerning hawker matters, public facilities and housing.

The Rural Scene

The smaller agricultural communities of the New Territories enjoy a closer relationship with officialdom than is possible in the crowded and more impersonal urban environment.

This is because the administrative process has been generously distributed in areas relatively thinly populated in comparison with the metropolis concentrated around Hong Kong harbour.

       Through its District Offices, the New Territories Administration maintains close links with more than 600 villages. District Officers and their staff endeavour to main- tain personal contact, by regular visits to even the most remote communities. In this way they gain a first-hand knowledge of conditions on the ground.

       The consultative channels are far-reaching and well defined, with each village appointing at least one representative to one of the 27 rural committees. These committees serve as sounding boards for local opinion, mediate in clan and family disputes and generally provide a bridge between the New Territories Administration and the people.

But the rural scene is not immune to change. The inroads of urban expansion, overflowing the city which once clearly ended at the northern end of the Kowloon peninsula, have necessitated a constant process of adaptation for the administrative system.

As a result of lessons learned in Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, comprehensive development planning has been instituted so that the complete range of community facilities and activities may be provided in a balanced way in the new towns. The old sub-division of districts has been changed to create new districts coping with these specialised needs in Tuen Mun and Shatin, where future satellite towns are developing.

The Chance to Act

Once people realised that they were being listened to, it was inevitable that more would seek to play a more positive role in the administration of their affairs. The possibilities for influencing government policy, by speaking out through the available channels of consultation, were not enough. They needed to contribute to the effec- tiveness of that policy.

8

THE COMMUNITY

However, after years of campaigning for public support to help deal with various community problems, comparatively little had been achieved. Then in late 1972 the government launched a vigorous and prolonged drive to clean-up Hong Kong. This represented the first major attempt to mobilise a full-scale community effort, concentrated on a particular problem.

       A drive by the Urban Services Department, and stricter penalties for litter offences, lent weight to the government's determination but could not claim full credit for the results achieved. The biggest single factor in the success of the cam- paign was the enthusiasm with which the public seized upon this opportunity to im- prove their surroundings, though it was greatly helped by the carefully planned publicity campaign, strongly supported by the press, television and radio.

       The task of involving the community fell mainly on the City District Officers, whose principal instrument was the area committee. Nearly 80 of these committees were established to encourage local participation in the campaign, with members drawn from all walks of life, including doctors, teachers, housewives, hawkers and factory workers.

       The area committees had two main functions-to undertake publicity and educational work, and to organise demonstration clean-up operations to show that conditions could be improved. More than 1,000 working groups were set up, based on streets or groups of buildings or drawn from various organisations. It is estimated that about 100,000 people were involved in the campaign.

The Fight Violent Crime Campaign

       The growing incidence of violent crime was a problem which prompted far greater concern than urban cleanliness; a concern made increasingly apparent in late 1972 through views expressed by community leaders and through newspaper comment. But the nature of the problem necessitated a more careful approach.

       The Fight Violent Crime Campaign, launched in June 1973, concentrated on the duty of members of the public to assist the police in dealing with criminals. The public were encouraged to report crime, dial 999 and raise a hue-and-cry, but were warned of the dangers of tackling an armed assailant.

       Following the action phase of the campaign, an opinion survey showed that the public were much more ready than before to co-operate with the police. Of those questioned, 65 per cent said they believed the campaign had achieved some success. Perhaps more significantly, 98 per cent considered that the campaign was worthwhile.

The area committees were again involved, and there is no doubt that their efforts are continuing to contribute a great deal to the success of the campaign.

       One of the causes of the growth of crime in Hong Kong was the lost feeling experienced by many immigrant families living in crowded tenement housing or multi-storey flats, in surroundings very different from those they had known. Cut off from their traditional clan associations, and removed from the security they had derived from their old social groupings, they found it difficult to replace those ties

THE COMMUNITY

9

with new ones. If the family next door had not shared that background, they re- mained strangers or, at best, acquaintances to be tolerated but kept at a distance.

When crime reared its head in these surroundings, the instinctive reaction was to retreat behind locked doors and ignore whatever might be happening outside. Prospects for neighbourly co-operation made little headway under these circum- stances, and the concept of getting together with one's fellow tenants, to organise collective action for the common good, remained remote and unreal.

Yet this spirit of neighbourly co-operation, which the old clan associations had encouraged, still offered the best hope of security for all concerned.

Accordingly, much of the planning and organisation of the Fight Violent Crime Campaign was directed towards reviving this mutual aid system and adapting the clan spirit to the new urban neighbourhood. Working largely through the CDOs, the New Territories Administration and the area committees, the Home Affairs Department enlisted support from kaifongs, rural committees and other voluntary associations for the creation of mutual aid committees which would serve as rallying points for this movement. Area committee members toured multi-storey estates and private residential blocks in their areas, explaining the benefits of mutual aid and encouraging tenants to join in.

By the end of 1973, a total of 1,214 mutual aid committees had been set up in various buildings and residential groupings, with a total membership of some 110,380 households. Crime prevention is by no means the sole preoccupation of these com- mittees, which are also involved in the Clean Your Building Campaign, the second phase of Clean Hong Kong, which began in the autumn of 1973.

The tradition of mutual aid originally grew up in a rural setting. Today this tradition is being harnessed to tackle urban social problems found in the management of multi-storey buildings under divided ownership. The mutual aid committee is a simple form of organisation which can be set up with a minimum of formality, enabling owners and tenants to work together to improve conditions in their build- ings. Although the basic aim of the movement is building management, it is already clear that the mutual aid committee has the potential to meet other needs; in particular the need to replace the social links that disappeared with the decline of traditional forms of village life. A sense of neighbourliness is already developing in some multi- storey blocks where mutual aid committees have been set up, and people are now getting to know their neighbours in a way which seemed impossible before.

Targets for Action

Corruption became a major talking point during the year-elevated to promi- nence by the flight of a senior police officer reported to have large sums deposited in banks overseas.

       Sir Alastair Blair-Kerr, Senior Puisne Judge, conducted a commission of enquiry into that aspect of corruption which involved the civil service, and submitted recommendations which led to the creation of an independent Anti-Corruption Commission.

10

THE COMMUNITY

      It was made clear from the outset that the public, who had overwhelmingly favoured the separation of any anti-corruption activity from the governmental system, would be expected to play their part in exposing corruption in all its forms.

      Other matters which prompted widespread discussion included the renewal of Crown leases, education and health goals, transport and-perhaps most prominent of all-the rising cost of living. Although a hardy perennial as a talking point in most societies, inflation-or more correctly the fear of inflation-is an especially sensitive problem among the people of Hong Kong, who rightly regard economic stability as of paramount importance for progress.

      The year 1973 was one in which not only public debate but also public participa- tion on matters of public concern were more readily forthcoming, and more widely dispersed, than before. The willingness to ventilate such issues, and to continue to deal with them, augurs well for the future.

2

Industry and Trade

     EXTERNAL trade reached record heights and Hong Kong's industrial and commercial sectors continued to expand in 1973. However, this growth must be viewed against a background of substantial world-wide inflation. Nevertheless trade increased in quantity as well as in value. The trade figures are satisfactory in view of the generally uncertain trading conditions created by the disturbed international currency situation, the increased protectionism and soft market conditions which continued to prevail in a number of Hong Kong's major markets. They are also satisfactory considering the vigorous competition offered by other exporting territories in the major markets.

Perhaps the greatest problem during the year for Hong Kong's traders and in- dustrialists was restricted supplies and high prices of many essential raw materials- notably petrochemical products, metal semi-manufactures and raw cotton. The inter- ruption in the free flow of oil from the Middle East towards the end of the year will create further supply difficulties for Hong Kong industry in 1974.

       Many factors have contributed to give Hong Kong its international reputation as a leading manufacturing and commercial centre in Asia-among them, an economic policy of free enterprise and free trade, an industrious work force, a sophisticated commercial infrastructure, a modern and efficient seaport, a strategically located air- port, and excellent world-wide communications. Access to markets in North America and close traditional trading links with Britain have also boosted Hong Kong's prosperity.

       Hong Kong is one of few territories still faithful to liberal economic policies of free enterprise and free trade. There are no import tariffs, and revenue duties are levied only in respect of locally manufactured or imported tobacco, alcoholic liq- uors and some hydrocarbon oils. Duty is also payable on first registration of non- Commonwealth motor vehicles.

Apart from provision of the infrastructure, either through direct services or by co-operation with public utility companies and autonomous bodies, the government's role in the economy remains one of providing a stable framework within which com- merce and industry can function efficiently and effectively with a minimum of inter- ference. The government intervenes only in response to the pressure of overriding economic or social needs. There is also no protection or subsidisation of manufactures.

       In November 1973 the government set up two committees to help Hong Kong meet the threat of an oil shortage following the Arab oil-producing countries' decision to cut their output. The first of these is the Oil Policy Committee, under the Deputy Colonial Secretary, which oversees the general strategy towards oil supplies and

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

considers broadly any necessary controls over consumption. This committee includes representatives of the oil industry and the electric power companies.

       The second committee is the Oil Distribution Committee, under a newly appointed Director of Oil Supplies, which proposes priorities and works out detailed plans for economising on oil consumption and for ensuring that priorities are met. This com- mittee includes oil company representatives and is serviced by a small oil supplies unit under the Director of Oil Supplies. Sub-committees of the Oil Distribution Committee have been established to include representatives of the electric power companies, other utilities, industry and transport.

By the end of the year, an order issued under Emergency Regulations had pro- hibited the use of electric lights for floodlighting or advertising purposes other than between certain specified hours; the territory had reverted to summertime; the power companies had reduced their voltage emission and spinning reserves; and a successful publicity campaign had been launched urging the public to economise in its use of power. Although the international situation continued to be extremely uncertain at the end of 1973, Hong Kong was ready to take the strain of any cut in supplies in 1974.

Industrial Development

Light industry predominates in Hong Kong-where a considerable variety of good quality goods is now produced-and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. Rising labour costs, shortages of certain raw materials, competition from other low-cost countries in Asia, active consumer protection activities in Hong Kong's major overseas markets and additional restraints on Hong Kong's textile trade, have main- tained pressure on manufacturers to seek higher productivity and diversification into more sophisticated product lines and also to move into new industries.

Several institutional organisations support industry in its efforts to upgrade production, management and marketing techniques. The Commerce and Industry Department is also active in these fields and is also responsible within the government for promotion of overseas investment in Hong Kong industry. About 12 per cent of Hong Kong's 620,000 workers in the manufacturing industry are employed in factories owned or partly owned by overseas interests. During 1973, a modification in Hong Kong's industrial land policy attracted several major foreign manufacturers to set up plants in the territory and at the end of the year, further industrial ventures were under consideration. However, despite these favourable developments, industry was greatly concerned over the possible implications of the 1973 international oil crisis.

Continuing and possibly increased difficulties over supplies, not only of fuels essential for industrial power but also of essential raw materials, seem likely.

Textiles

The textile industry not only dominates Hong Kong's economy, accounting for 50.2 per cent of its domestic exports and 45.9 per cent of its industrial labour force, but is also a significant factor in international trade in textiles. This situation is likely

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SHATIN

 First planned as a dormitory township Shatin New Town is now being developed as a complete satellite town with an eventual population of nearly half a million. A second Lion Rock Tunnel, scheduled for opening in early 1976, will give speedier access to the urban areas of Kowloon. The proposed mass transit railway system will also be extended to Shatin. Reclamation is providing the land for housing and industry. Hong Kong's second racecourse is also planned on land won back from Tolo Harbour. Above a silhouette of the Amah Rock near Shatin. The rock features in many local legends.

An aerial view of Shatin shows land reclaimed from Tolo Harbour, with newly constructed roads and other development already taking place.

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السريع

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On a hillside overlooking the town is the Temple of 10,000 Buddhas.

A young girl prays at an altar in the temple's courtyard.

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Boating is a favourite weekend pastime with youngsters in the New Territories. In Tolo Harbour colourful rowing boats mix with tradi- tional junks and sampans.

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The bright lights of the floating restaurant reflect in the calm waters,

while evening diners enjoy their seafood.

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Shoppers stroll past curio shops packed with fascinating trinkets for the young and old in a Shatin market street.

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Young cyclists take advantage of reclaimed land not yet required for

housing or industry.

ARIES

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Near the modern development project is Shatin's ancient walled village

-a sanctuary for local inhabitants in less peaceful times.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

13

to continue although the total number of export restraint agreements now in force will severely limit the industry's future growth.

The spinning mills, operating some 904,738 spindles, are among the most modern in the world. In 1973, production of cotton yarn was 286 million pounds, compared with 254 million pounds in 1972; this was achieved despite difficulties in securing adequate supplies of raw cotton from Pakistan, the deficiency being made good by increased purchases from the United States. The popularity of man-made fibre textiles has continued to grow and there was a further upsurge in the production of man-made fibre yarn and cotton man-made fibre blended yarns. During the year, production increased by 18 per cent to 86 million pounds. Production of woollen and worsted yarn amounted to 21.5 million pounds, a figure similar to that reached in 1972. Most of the yarn production of all fibres was consumed by local weavers.

The weaving sector, with 24,222 looms, produces fabrics of various fibres and blends. Total production increased by 6.4 per cent to 853 million square yards in 1973, of which 83.2 per cent was of cotton, 16.8 per cent man-made fibres or blends containing such fibres, and 0.3 per cent wool. The demand for cotton piecegoods remained strong, while man-made fibre fabrics further consolidated their position in the market.

In the knitting sector, exports of fabrics registered an increase of 14 per cent to 16.3 million pounds, of which 64.1 per cent was of man-made fibres, 35.7 per cent cotton, and 0.3 per cent wool. A substantial part of production of knitted fabrics of all fibres was used by local clothing manufacturers.

The finishing sector, comprising 366 registered establishments, continues to handle an ever increasing yardage of fabrics for bleaching, dyeing, printing and finish- ing by various other processes, such as heat-transfer printing. This sector offers sophisticated support facilities to spinners, weavers and knitters.

The manufacture of clothing continues to be the largest sector of the textile industry, with 4,597 firms employing 178,991 workers, and producing a wide variety of quality items, including fashion knitwear which continues to be in great demand. Total domestic exports of clothing in 1973 amounted to $7,382 million, an increase of 20.7 per cent over 1972. Garments of man-made fibres accounted for 43 per cent by value of all clothing exports.

Other Light Industries

As a result of growing competition in manufactures from other Southeast Asian countries, of which Hong Kong is a major producer and seller, local industrialists have had to adapt their operations and move into more sophisticated product lines. The most dramatic growth has been in the electronics industry which has now over- taken plastics as the second largest export earner, accounting for 12.4 per cent of domestic exports. The products manufactured cover a wide range of hardware, such as computer memory systems, transistors, integrated circuits and high grade semi- conductors. Also, consumer items such as desk and pocket electronic calculators, transistor radios, televisions and tuners. The 335 factories established in 1973 employed 55,428 workers and contributed $2,371 million to Hong Kong's domestic exports.)

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

The rate of growth of the plastics industry has levelled off principally on account of difficulties in securing adequate supplies of raw materials. At the end of 1973 efforts were continuing by the private sector and at official levels to improve the situation, but the oil crisis caused even greater uncertainties. Despite this problem, the industry's contribution to exports was still highly significant in 1973-overseas sales were worth $2,034 million, representing 10.6 per cent of total domestic exports. The 3,256 manu- facturing concerns maintain a work force of 70,666 and the plastics industry remains the second largest employer of labour. Hong Kong, by improving product quality and design, has taken over from Japan as the world's leading exporter of plastic novelties, dolls and toys. Other major items produced by the industry are artificial flowers and foliage, plastic decorative articles and fibre-glass reinforced plastic furniture.

The wig industry continued to decline in 1973, because of a further contraction in demand in overseas markets. The number of factories dropped from 194 in 1972, to 130, and the number of workers employed fell from 9,433 to 3,382 at the end of 1973. Exports of hair products in 1973 were valued at $110 million, a decrease of 50 per cent.

       Other light industries of significance are footwear, metal products and travel goods. Also watches and clocks in which, with other precision-engineering industries (including optical instruments), a marked improvement in both quality and output has taken place.

Heavy and Service Industries

       Hong Kong's heavy industry has responded well to the need for improved port facilities, servicing and accommodation. The development of the container terminals at Kwai Chung has enhanced Hong Kong's position as one of the leading shipping centres in Asia. Further, with the rapidly increasing significance of containerisation, Hong Kong has also ventured into the production of aluminium and aluminium-steel containers which, at present, are mainly exported to the United States.

The merging of the two major dockyards in 1972 resulted in the better utilisa- tion of equipment and manpower and improved services to customers, helping to ensure that Hong Kong will remain a significant ship-repair centre in Asia.

The aircraft engineering industry, maintaining its international reputation of skilled workmanship, provided maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines operating in Asia. Many types of aircraft can be completely overhauled locally--this applies to air frames as well as engines.

       Despite limited supplies of raw materials, rising labour costs and keen competition from neighbouring countries, the steel rolling industry maintained a satisfactory output. Annual production capacity stands at about 200,000 tons.

The manufacture of machinery, machine tools and parts continued to develop. Of particular importance are blow moulding, injection moulding and extrusion mould- ing machines of up to 80 oz capacity for the plastics industry, along with power presses,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

15

lathes, drapers, drill presses, polishing machines and textile knitting and warping machines.

Loans for Small Industry

One of the prominent features of local industry is that most factories operate on a small scale. At the beginning of 1973, there were more than 22,000 registered manu- facturing concerns, 98 per cent of which employed fewer than 200 workers. To provide medium-term financing at reasonable rates to small industrialists for the purchase of equipment and machines to improve their efficiency and output, a loan scheme was introduced in July 1972, by the Commerce and Industry Department, in conjunction with the banks and with the co-operation of the Hong Kong Productivity Centre. Loans approved since the inception of the scheme total $891,500, of which $781,500 was authorised in 1973. The scheme was modified in November 1973 with a view to making it more attractive to small industrialists, and it is hoped greater use will be made of it in future.

Industrial Investment Promotion

The Hong Kong Government welcomes overseas investment in local manufac- turing industry and the Commerce and Industry Department works closely with the Hong Kong Trade Development Council to attract such investment. The main joint effort for the year concerned outward missions of Hong Kong industrialists and officials which visited the United States, Britain, Denmark and the Federal Republic of Germany in May and June to explain the advantages of setting up manufacturing establishments in Hong Kong. This was followed by inward missions from Sweden and Britain in the latter part of the year to examine local investment possibilities.

At the end of 1973, there were at least 278 factories in Hong Kong either fully or partly owned by foreign interests. These establishments employed a total labour force of about 73,800 or 12 per cent of total employment in Hong Kong's manufacturing industry. The total investment involved was about $1,174 million. The main sources of overseas investment continued to be the United States, Japan, Britain, Australia and the Netherlands, the principal industries involved being textiles and electronics.

Industrial Land

The year saw a continuing demand for industrial land, and a number of sites located in Chai Wan, Yau Tong Bay, Castle Peak and Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung were sold by auction. In some cases the prices obtained at auction reached record levels. This was partly because of the significant demand for industrial land, but it was also influenced by the high level of activity and prices (particularly in relation to new listings) of shares on the various stock exchanges in the early part of the year. Prices of industrial land receded when the stock market boom collapsed, but remained significantly higher than prices paid last year.

In recent years the high cost of industrial land has tended to inhibit the establish- ment of industries which are economically attractive for Hong Kong at its present

URBAN COUNCIL P BLIC LIBRARIES

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     stage of industrial development, but which cannot operate in the high-rise flatted factory environment which is a feature of Hong Kong's industrial areas. Consequently, the government, after detailed study, modified its traditional industrial land policy to provide areas of land for sale on a restricted user basis. These are confined to industries of an advanced technological character whose operations are considered beneficial to the development of the economy as a whole. The first to benefit from this policy was a United States company which was granted five acres on Tsing Yi Island, for the manufacture of outboard marine engines. The company subsequently applied for a second five-acre site to double the intended production. This application was under consideration at the end of the year. The sale by private treaty of a 10-acre site, again on Tsing Yi Island, to another American company, has been approved in principle. It will be used to establish the largest single-train production plant for polystyrene in the world. A third major project for a plant to produce polyester fila- ment and fibre is under consideration. These proposed developments will help to widen Hong Kong's industrial base and provide a reliable domestic source of raw materials for Hong Kong's plastics and textiles industries.

Infrastructural facilities were strengthened by the opening of two more terminals to the Kwai Chung Container Port making three terminals in operation overall. The government is presently examining the need for further extensions. Operations of the terminals and their throughput of containers have combined to make this one of the world's most efficient container ports.

       Development plans for Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung, Tuen Mun and Shatin are well in hand, and industrialists are now moving to these new towns as there is little industrial land available in existing urban areas. With the Tsing Yi bridge (linking the island with Kwai Chung) nearing completion and ready to open for traffic in January 1974, it is expected that Tsing Yi Island will prove an increasingly attractive location for manufacturing industries. Consideration is also being given to the accelerated development of Junk Bay and to the provision of industrial estates at various places in the New Territories.

External Trade

External trade advanced to a record level in 1973. Total trade increased by 34 per cent to $55,004 million; imports increased by 33 per cent to $29,005 million; domestic exports by 28 per cent to $19,474 million; and re-exports by 57 per cent to $6,525 million. Summary trade statistics including a breakdown by countries and commodities and comparisons with the previous years, are contained in Appendices 3 and 4.

Hong Kong relies almost entirely on imports to meet the needs of its 4.2 million people and the extensive requirements of its diverse industries. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, most of our food has to be imported. The principal items in food imports totalling $5,065 million were fruit and vegetables, live animals, rice and other cereals, fish and fish preparations, meat and meat preparations and dairy products and eggs.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

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       As a result of unfavourable harvests in the main rice producing countries, and the imposition by Thailand of a total embargo on rice exports, the international supply situation tightened during the year causing a sharp increase in rice prices. Thailand normally supplies 60 per cent of Hong Kong's requirements. But local importers quickly turned to alternative sources and in the face of a world shortage, Hong Kong has enjoyed abundant supplies at relatively stable prices.

       Despite the world-wide shortages of essential raw materials, Hong Kong imported $12,024 million or 35 per cent more of raw materials and semi-manufactured goods such as textile fibres, yarn and fabrics, base metals, plastic moulding materials, and paper and paper board. Imports of capital goods at $3,571 million, which consisted largely of machinery and transport equipment, showed an increase of 28 per cent, while consumer goods and fuels were also imported in large quantities.

       Japan continued as the principal supplier in 1973, providing 20 per cent of all imports. Imports from China, the second largest supplier, accounted for 19 per cent of imports from all sources and 47 per cent of all food imports. Imports from the United States represented 13 per cent of all imports. Other important sources of im- ports were Britain, Taiwan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Singapore, Switzerland, Australia and Pakistan.

In 1973, domestic exports rose by $4,229 million to reach a value of $19,474 million, and consisted almost entirely of manufactured goods. The principal exports were textiles and clothing which accounted for more than 50 per cent of the total. But sales of miscellaneous manufactured articles, mainly plastic toys and dolls, arti- ficial flowers, jewellery and goldsmiths' and silversmiths' wares made up a further 18 per cent. Continued growth was registered also in exports of electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances (mainly transistor radios, transistors and diodes, and elec- tronic components and parts for computers), accounting for another 13 per cent of total domestic exports. Other light manufactured products such as metal manufac- tures, travel goods, footwear, and watches and clocks were also important exports.

       The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is now influenced less by such factors as tariff preference in Commonwealth markets than by economic conditions and commercial policies in principal markets. In 1973, 67 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to the United States and the enlarged European Economic Community. The United States, which remained the largest single market, took 35 per cent by value, while of the next largest markets, Britain absorbed 14 per cent and the Federal Republic of Germany, 10 per cent. The value of exports to Japan more than doubled during the year and accounted for five per cent of total domestic exports. Other important markets were Australia, Canada, Singapore, the Netherlands, Taiwan and Sweden.

       Considerable growth was registered in the entrepôt trade. Re-exports totalled $6,525 million in 1973, an increase of 57 per cent over the previous year. Whereas in recent years re-exports have been about 20 per cent of total exports, in 1973 they came to 25 per cent of the total. Japan remained the most important re-export market, followed by Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia and the United States. The principal com- modities re-exported were diamonds, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, crude

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

vegetable materials, watches and clocks, textiles and clothing, machinery, dyeing, tanning and colouring materials, and coffee. Re-exports of goods originating from China represented the largest share of re-exports of goods from all sources, accounting for 24 per cent of total re-exports, followed by goods from the United States and Japan.

International Economic Relations

The Commerce and Industry Department is responsible for the conduct of Hong Kong's external commercial relations. These are conducted within the framework of a commercial policy which is basically one of free trade. Hong Kong practices to the full the rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and virtually the only restrictions maintained on trade are those required by international obliga- tions. Most prominent among these are restraints on textile exports to most major trading partners. The majority of these were negotiated under the terms of the Cotton Textiles Arrangement (CTA) which expired on December 31, 1973. The CTA had been in existence for more than 11 years and at the time of its expiry more than 50 per cent of Hong Kong's textile exports were subject to restraints negotiated under its terms or, in the case of textiles other than cotton, negotiated broadly in conformity with its principles.

During 1973 intensive activity took place in Geneva under the auspices of the GATT to consider what, if anything, should replace the CTA. This culminated in a series of negotiations during the last quarter of the year, in which Hong Kong played an active part, and which resulted in the drawing up of an arrangement regarding international trade in textiles. This new arrangement, to last for four years from January 1, 1974, covers cotton, wool and man-made fibre textiles. Its objectives are broadly the same as the CTA, namely to avoid market disruption and the orderly development and expansion of international trade in textiles. The widening of its coverage represents in part the technological developments of the last decade which resulted in man-made fibres becoming increasingly a substitute for natural fibres. This change had in fact been reflected in a number of the bilateral agreements which Hong Kong had concluded with its major trading partners or in export restraints which Hong Kong had introduced unilaterally. Under the terms of the new arrangement, all of these restraints will require re-negotiation. These negotiations will, as is general practice, be conducted by the Commerce and Industry Department. It is anticipated that, as a result of the improved terms which it was possible to inscribe in the new arrangement, the existing bilateral agreements which Hong Kong has with a number of its trading partners will be substantially improved.

       The other major GATT activity in the course of 1973 was the launching of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations with the object of achieving further liberalisa- tion of world trade in regard to both tariffs and non-tariff barriers. Hong Kong was represented by the Director of Commerce and Industry at a ministerial meeting in Tokyo in September 1973. At that meeting he delivered a statement declaring Hong Kong's intention to participate in the negotiations which are expected to last until the end of 1975.

Another issue of considerable importance to Hong Kong concerned the various generalised preference schemes. These schemes, operated by most of the developed

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

19

countries to assist the export of manufactures by the developing countries, include provisions allowing duty-free or low tariff entry for products from beneficiary develop- ing countries.

The form, coverage and other provisions of the schemes differ from country to country and consequently the particular advantages offered vary. Hong Kong has been included as a beneficiary by all the developed countries operating such schemes except Norway and Finland. Hong Kong has consistently made it clear that it seeks no special advantage under these schemes but objects to being discriminated against in favour of countries which are in a similar state of development and are close trade competitors. Regrettably such discrimination is practised in respect of certain Hong Kong manufactured products by the EEC, Japan, Switzerland and Austria. This discrimination has been the subject of official exchanges, including visits to the countries concerned by officers of the Commerce and Industry Department, and some improvement has been achieved.

       The exclusion of Hong Kong from the enlarged EEC's Generalised Preference Scheme covering textiles and footwear was a matter of particular concern which emerged during the year. Under the terms of the Treaty of Accession, Britain was required to conform to EEC practice as regards the scheme from January 1, 1974. The implication of this was that, unless some change was made, Hong Kong was to be excluded from generalised preferences on textiles and footwear by Britain as well as by the Six and the other new members, Denmark and Ireland; while important competitors of Hong Kong were to qualify for the full benefits of the enlarged EEC scheme.

In July, a meeting was held in London between representatives of the British Government and the Hong Kong Government to discuss this problem. In August, a petition signed by seven of the leading trade and industrial associations in Hong Kong was sent to the Secretary of State through the Governor. The petition expressed grave concern over the exclusion of Hong Kong textiles and footwear from the enlarged EEC's Generalised Preference Scheme which would be binding on Britain in 1974. Subsequently, at the EEC Council of Ministers meeting on November 6, Mr John Davies, the British Minister responsible for European Affairs, made a strong statement in which he said that it was no longer acceptable for discrimination to apply against Hong Kong and that the British Government would press most resolutely for the inclusion of Hong Kong's textiles and footwear in the Community's scheme from January 1, 1975.

The United States and Canada have yet to introduce generalised schemes of preferences, although some legislative steps to do so were taken in both countries during 1973.

Following consultations with the United States Government in June and July 1973, the United States-Hong Kong Cotton Textiles Agreement, due to expire on September 30, 1973, was extended for one year. Other one-year textile restraint agreements were concluded with Canada and Sweden.

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Documentation of Imports and Exports

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum, consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations. The most complex formalities are those resulting from Hong Kong's obligations to restrain certain exports of textile products. During the year, export licensing for health and safety purposes was introduced for exports of processed and manufactured foodstuffs and electrical products powered by mains supply. The number of import licences issued in 1973 totalled 39,233 and export licences 538,701.

       With Hong Kong's economic dependence on the export of manufactured goods, most made from imported materials, and the substantial re-export trade, an origin certification system which is satisfactory to overseas customs authorities, is vitally important. The Commerce and Industry Department issues certificates of origin and accepts the responsibility for safeguarding the integrity of the entire Hong Kong certification system. To this end, close liaison is maintained with overseas authorities and with the authorised non-government certificate-issuing bodies-the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce. The Chinese General Chamber of Commerce became a designated body competent to deliver certificates of origin on September 1, 1973. The value of domestic exports covered by certificates of Hong Kong origin issued by the six organisations during the year was $11,366 million. Of this, $6,373 million represented the value of exports supported by departmental certificates of origin.

        Britain and a number of other Commonwealth countries grant preferential rates of duty to Hong Kong products. To support claims to preference, the department issues Commonwealth preference certificates against legal undertakings given by manufacturers to use only Commonwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements prepared by authorised accountants. The value of goods exported under these cer- tificates during the year was $1,611 million. However, the value of this trade is likely to decline significantly over the next few years as Britain, now in the European Economic Community, will phase out the present Commonwealth preferential rates of duty by the middle of 1977.

       A number of countries grant tariff preferences to developing countries under the UNCTAD Generalised Preference Scheme. Hong Kong is a beneficiary under the schemes operated by the original six members of the EEC, Britain, New Zealand, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, Japan and Denmark. The value of exports in 1973 covered by generalised preference certificates, which in Hong Kong are issued only by the Commerce and Industry Department, amounted to $1,500 million.

       An estimated 74.8 per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports were covered by certificates of origin of one type or another-48.8 per cent of them by the department's certificates.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Administration

21

The Commerce and Industry Department's responsibilities include the conduct of overseas commercial relations, industrial development and investment promotion, origin certification, trade controls and the collection and protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. Its work is complemented by several autonomous institutions either wholly or partly financed by public funds, whose functions and activities are outlined in subsequent sections.

On matters of policy affecting trade and industry other than textiles, the Director of Commerce and Industry takes advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board of which he is chairman. This body of senior unofficial representatives of sectors including, commerce, industry, banking and insurance, is nominated by the Governor, and meets once a month. The Textiles Advisory Board, a more specialised board, also chaired by the Director, is consulted on matters affecting the textiles industry. It met on seven occasions during 1973. Both these boards are served by specialist committees as the need arises.

The Director of Commerce and Industry is also Commissioner of the Preventive Service. He is assisted by two deputy directors, one of whom is also the Deputy Commissioner of the Preventive Service, and five assistant directors, one of whom is the Assistant Commissioner of the Preventive Service. There are five divisions: administration, industry, and Preventive Service and dutiable commodities divisions, and two commercial relations divisions. The department has three overseas offices, in Brussels, Geneva and Washington, and it also has representation in the Hong Kong Government Office in London.

The administration division serves the organisation and management needs of the department, as well as being responsible for the operation of licensing control arrangements relating to certain categories of imports and exports, notably reserved commodities, including rice. It issues documents under the UNCTAD Generalised Preference Scheme, and is responsible for policy and procedures arising from cer- tification of origin and Commonwealth preference.

The commercial relation divisions collect and disseminate information on trade policy measures taken by other countries which may affect Hong Kong, and keep abreast of the activities of international organisations. These divisions are also responsible for conducting Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other governments and for implementing the agreements reached. This includes calculations and allocations under textile export control procedures. The overseas offices are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work and provide current information on international matters which may affect Hong Kong.

The industry division provides liaison between industry and other government departments, promotes overseas investment in local industry, and deals with specific industrial problems. It also operates a trade investigation service, which undertakes the regular inspection of factories and goods in connection with certification and licensing controls and conducts the prosecution of those suspected of contravening the relevant regulations. The division also handles trade complaints.

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The Preventive Service and dutiable commodities division comprises the Hong Kong Preventive Service, which is described more fully in Chapter 10, and an office which is responsible for the calculation and collection of duty.

Trade Development Council

       The Hong Kong Trade Development Council, established by statute in 1966, is charged with the responsibility of promoting, assisting and developing Hong Kong's overseas trade, with particular preference to exports. The council's chairman is appointed by the Governor. Its members comprise representatives of principal com- mercial and industrial organisations, two senior government officials and four nomi- nated members. The work of the council's executive is financed by subvention from the general revenue.

Offices overseas which provide extensive trade services for Hong Kong and foreign businessmen remain at 15. After the Brussels office was merged with the Amsterdam office, a new office was opened in Zurich. The council also maintains offices in London, Manchester, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Milan, Vienna, Stockholm, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Toronto, Tokyo and Sydney.

The council further stepped up its promotional activities abroad in 1973 covering more than 50 separate projects. It organised participation in a large number of general and specialised trade fairs such as the Frankfurt General Fair, Nuremberg Interna- tional Toy Fair, Cologne Housewares Fair, Pret-a-Porter Fashion Fair, Comis Eurotricot Knitwear Fair, Leipzig International Trade Fair and New York Interna- tional Toy and Jewellery Fair. Pilot projects were carried out at a number of other trade fairs including the Brno Trade Fair, Zagreb International Fair, Western Elec- tronic Show, Utrecht Autumn Fair, Poznan Consumer Goods Fair and Spoga Sporting Goods Fair. In addition, business groups comprising Hong Kong manu- facturers, exporters and importers visited Japan, Scandinavia, Africa, the United States, Canada and East Europe. Inward missions came from Sweden, Denmark, West Germany, Britain, the United States, the Netherlands, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

In March the council organised the sixth annual Hong Kong Ready-to-Wear Festival, which attracted more than 1,000 international buyers. It also took part in the Chinese Manufacturers' Association's annual exhibition of Hong Kong products.

The overseas circulation of the council's trade publications continued to increase during the year. The monthly magazine, 'Hong Kong Enterprise', distributed to 110 countries, now enjoys a circulation of 55,000. The 'Apparel' magazine, published twice a year, and the annual "Toys' magazine are circulated to department store chains, mail order houses and importers all over the world. Other publications dis- tributed overseas include 'Hong Kong for the Businessman' and 'Industrial Invest- ment Hong Kong', which is produced in collaboration with the Commerce and Industry Department. During the year, the council revised its promotion film, 'Hand- shakes Like This', for briefing businessmen overseas.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

23

      The corporation's function is to encourage and expand trade by protecting exporters against losses arising from a range of risks not normally covered by com- mercial insurers. In the performance of this function the security given to transactions by the corporation's insurance policies helps exporters to obtain finance. The corpora- tion's liabilities are guaranteed by the government.

       Exports to 152 different markets throughout the world were insured during 1973. Following the pattern of Hong Kong's export trade, most of this business was with buyers in North America, Britain and Western Europe. However, support was also given to business with countries in Africa, South America, the Middle East, Asia and Australasia.

       During the year the expansion in the corporation's business necessitated the authorisation of a further increase in the amount of the contingent liabilities which it is permitted under its ordinance to accept at any one time. By a resolution approved by the Legislative Council this authorised maximum liability amount was increased from $1,000 million to $1,250 million. This enabled the corporation to continue taking on more new business.

In moving this resolution the Financial Secretary announced that he intended to introduce legislation to provide for an increase in the capital of the corporation. When the Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation Ordinance was enacted in 1966 the aggregate amount of capital was set at $10 million. This figure was based on a recommendation in the Freeman Report that the initial capital requirements of the corporation would be of the order of $10-$15 million against the total contingent liability to be assumed of $500 million. Since the contingent liability of the corporation had increased to almost $1,000 million it was considered prudent that the capital of the corporation should be increased.

       Legislation to empower the corporation to issue unconditional guarantees to banks or other lending institutions is expected to be introduced at the same time. This measure is designed to facilitate the provision of finance to exporters of capital and semi-capital goods sold on medium terms of payment.

Hong Kong Productivity Council

The Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in January 1967 to promote the increased productivity of industry in Hong Kong. The council com- prises a chairman and 20 members all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 mem- bers represent management, labour, academic and professional interests; while the other 10 members represent government departments closely associated with produc- tivity matters.

The executive arm of the council is the Hong Kong Productivity Centre which was formally established on April 1, 1967. The centre co-ordinates the activities of persons and organisations engaged in the study and development of higher produc- tivity in industry. It also conducts training courses in productivity techniques, provides

24

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

consultancy services and technical assistance, undertakes economic research projects in industry and collects and disseminates information relating to productivity.

The centre is operating in three premises, one in Central and two in Kwun Tong which comprise five lecture rooms, electronic data processing facilities, a low cost automation unit, an industrial chemical laboratory, an audio-visual unit and a technical reference library.

In recognition of the need for Hong Kong to diversify into more sophisticated product lines and technically advanced industries, the council and centre have placed considerable emphasis on industrial technology both in the field of technical assistance and training. During the year, the centre conducted more than 180 training courses, undertook 60 industrial and technology projects, and organised two overseas study missions to observe technological trends in advanced countries. A technical informa- tion service was introduced to keep management and technical personnel in commerce and industry informed of the latest developments in management and manufacturing techniques.

To expand its electronic data processing facilities, the centre installed a sophis- ticated computer system with four magnetic tape handlers in September. With this important addition to its facilities, the centre is able to play a leading role in the pro- vision of computer training in Hong Kong.

Considerable progress was also made in the promotion of low cost automation as a means of improving the productivity and profitability of small-scale industry and in view of the excellent response received last year, the centre held another exhibition of low cost automation equipment in November 1973.

The centre participated in the Loans for Small Industry Scheme to the extent of undertaking technical feasibility studies referred to it.

The government is a member of the Asian Productivity Organisation. The deputy chairman of the council in 1973 was appointed by the Governor as Hong Kong's Director on the Governing Body of the Asian Productivity Organisation and the Executive Director of the Productivity Centre as Alternate Director.

       As a member of the Asian Productivity Organisation, Hong Kong was represented at the organisation's 13th Workshop Meeting of National Productivity Centres in Sri Lanka in February and at the 15th Governing Body Meeting in Saigon in May.

       During the year, the centre was admitted as a full member of the International Federation of Documentation (FID) and became a participating organisation of the Asian Network for Industrial Technology Information and Extension (Technonent: Asia) established under the auspices of the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC).

Trade and Industrial Organisations

       Founded in 1861, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the earliest established trade association in Hong Kong. Its membership stood at more than 2,000

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

25

at the end of 1973. It is an association representing all branches of commerce and industry, and is represented on a number of government boards and committees; it is also a member of the International Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce.

The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by statute in 1960, devotes much of its efforts helping to create an infrastructure to assist Hong Kong industry in its growth. Its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. Among the services which it offers are its Standards Centre and its testing laboratories for chemical, electrical, electronic and textile products, foot- wear, toys, watches and packaging materials. To encourage the development of better industrial design in Hong Kong, the industrial Design Council of the federation has instituted two awards for Hong Kong designed products-the Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries Award for Good Design. Competitions are held annually. The federation has also set up a Packaging Council and Packing Centre of promote creativity and innovation in the fields of product design and packaging. These efforts have been recognised at the international level by the decision of the World Packaging Organisation to transfer its secretariat from London to Hong Kong.

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of more than 0,000, representing factories of all sizes and industries. The association, a member of the International Chamber of Commerce, has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong. The association organises an annual exhibition of Hong Kong products which usually attracts nearly two million visitors. The association has been active in recent years promoting an expanded technical training programme and providing funds for the construction of a prevocational training school.

Trade Marks and Patents

       Trade marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in Britain or any other country, must satisfy all the require- ments of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for reg- istration. During the year 2,712 applications were received and 1,530 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,500 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

Hong Kong

...

United States

Britain...

Japan

West Germany

Switzerland France

...

371

315

...

187

Australia

185

113

Italy Denmark

86

42

37

33

16

The total number of marks on the Register at December 31, 1973, was 29,051.

26

26

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a British patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordin- ance. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in Britain with an extension to Hong Kong. A total of 873 patents were registered during the year, compared with 670 in 1972.

Companies

The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in Hong Kong. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. The Companies Law Revision Committee, which was reconstituted in 1968 to consider the revision of the ordinance, submitted its first report, dealing with the protection of investors, in June 1971. Some of the recommendations in the report were imple- mented by the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 1972, which came into force on March 1, 1973. This ordinance introduced more detailed requirements for pro- spectuses, and largely brought the relevant provisions of the Companies Ordinance into line with those of the Companies Act 1948; an important additional provision is that every prospectus must be in English and contain a Chinese translation. In April 1973 the committee submitted its second report dealing with aspects of general company law which were not covered in the first report, and included recommenda- tions on the subject of insider dealings.

Towards the end of the year two important Bills based upon the recommendations in the first report were introduced-the Securities Bill 1973 and the Protection of Investors Bill 1973. The main provisions of the first Bill include the establishment of a Securities Commission and the post of Commissioner for Securities with statutory powers to cope with problems arising from dealing in securities, whether on a stock exchange or outside; and the creation of a Federation of Stock Exchanges to bring about greater uniformity of method and better trading practices. It also includes the registration of all dealers (whether or not they are members of a stock exchange), investment advisers and their representatives; and the prevention of improper trading practices, such as market rigging, price manipulation and false markets and the use. of insider information. The provisions of the Stock Exchanges Control Ordinance 1973 and most of the previous conditions for recognition of a stock exchange have also been incorporated. The comparatively short Protection of Investors Bill 1973 aims to protect investors against fraudulent and reckless inducement to buy and sell securities, or invest in money-making schemes based on fluctuations in prices of shares or other forms of property. It also restricts advertisements in general which invite the public to do these things. Several other items of legislation based upon the rec- ommendations in the first report were under consideration at the end of the year.

On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100, plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1973, 5,518 new companies were incorporated, 708 more than the total incorporated in 1972. The nominal capital of new companies

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

27

registered during 1973 totalled $7,563,374,200-36 per cent more than the correspond- ing figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 264 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. During the year 1,555 companies increased their nominal capital by amounts totalling $23,761,743,000, on which fees were paid at the same rate of $2 per $1,000. At the end of the year there were 31,292 local companies on the register compared with 26,067 on December 31, 1972.

Companies incorporated overseas are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in Hong Kong. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year, 74 such com- panies were registered and 53 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 853 companies registered from 45 countries, including 225 from the United States, 110 from Britain and 99 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local com- panies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

      All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Acts 1958-67 in Britain, or-in the case of fire and marine insurance--by maintaining similar deposits elsewhere in the Com- monwealth. There are altogether 243 insurance companies, including 73 local com- panies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Registrar General must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

      The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships and money-lenders.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations

In Hong Kong the number of business failures in which recourse leads to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always comparatively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. During the year, 27 petitions in bankruptcy and 42 petitions for the winding-up of companies were presented to the court, and the court made 19 receiving orders, one administration order, and 37 orders for the winding-up of companies. For many years, the Official Receiver has become trustee or liquidator in almost every case, and this was so again in 1973. The assets realised by the Official Receiver during 1973 were about $30,259,598. In addition to the compulsory windings up, 199 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year, 189 by members' voluntary winding-up and 10 by creditors' voluntary winding-up.

3

Financial Structure

WITH the ultimate authority resting with the Legislative Council, Hong Kong has almost complete autonomy in financial affairs. However, approval by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is required before decisions are made on certain major matters such as currency and banking.

      Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence, to which it makes a substantial contribution. Under an agreement covering the five years from April 1, 1971 to March 31, 1976, Hong Kong is making a contri- bution in kind and in cash amounting to £40 million. About £28 million of this will be spent in Hong Kong on capital works and maintenance of buildings which will revert to Hong Kong if no longer required by the Armed Forces. The work is under- taken by the Public Works Department on behalf of the British Department of the Environment.

      On April 1, 1973, two re-constituted statutory bodies having a significant degree of financial autonomy were created. The newly constituted Urban Council continues to operate through the Urban Services Department, which remains a government department. It is free to draw up its own budget and to determine its own priorities of expenditure within its various spheres of activity. These are mainly financed from the yield from the newly constituted Urban Council rates and partly from other sources of revenue related, largely through fees and charges, to the service and facilities the council provides.

On the same date, the newly constituted Housing Authority assumed responsi- bility for the development and management of all public housing, taking over the responsibilities of the former Hong Kong Housing Authority, the Urban Council and the Resettlement Department. Its executive arm is the newly constituted Housing Department, which is also a government department. The authority is financed mainly from loans from the Development Loan Fund and income from rents, and is also allocated land at substantially less than its market value. The authority is responsible for squatter control, clearing squatters from sites required for development, and developing licensed areas. The cost of these activities and the deficit arising from the management of former resettlement estates are financed from general revenue.

A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after World War II. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively, a series of surpluses, some of them sub- stantial, have been accumulated. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which Hong Kong has had to face is a considerable achievement,

_

HO

MUSEUMBLIC LIBRARIE

Hong

Kong is in a unique position to record and study Chinese history and culture.

In the City Museum and Art Gallery, special exhibitions and displays are held regularly with exhibits from overseas, local collectors and the museum's own collections. The museum's collection of Chinese ceramics contains some fine examples of this tradi- tional art and local archaeological collections provide an interesting record of the region's past. Also frequently displayed are prints, engravings and photographs form- ing a unique record of early Sino-British contacts. Above a Chinese dish with a scene from a popular story. Ching dynasty, Yung Ching (1723-35).

H

PUE

A Chinese jade water-pot carved as a dragon with a tortoise shell ( Ming dynasty, 16th century), and ritual jade discs (about 3rd century BC).

100

ZA

Modern art and historical pictures are kept in the air-conditioned store-room when not on exhibition.

7

The many interesting and varied exhibits range from a Chinese glove · puppet, bridal shoes, à 14th century covered box from Thailand, and a contemporary cake-mould.

r

A stoneware jar with dragon and phoenix decorations in the museum gallery, Yuan dynasty (1260-1368)..

HO

·· A museum assistant restores

century BC in the museum's laborator

יד

A Chinese landscape scroll by Liang Yu-wej (late 14th century), goes on show in the art gallery.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

29

particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrow- ing. These annual capital spendings have been increasing in recent years and in 1972-3 they totalled some $1,600 million.

The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, was that during the earlier years exeptionally rapid increases in population generated economic activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreciable increases in the rates of tax. Revenue expanded nearly 16 times from $309 million in 1951-2 to $4,936 million in 1972-3. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been strong and continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before the government could develop community and social services necessary for an increasing population and made possible by economic growth itself. But as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow.

For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 57 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent. Consequently, in that year the surplus of the recurrent account could no longer finance all the capital expenditure and an overall deficit of $45 million occurred. Subsequent budgets fore- cast further and in some cases substantial deficits, but the actual results suggest that the economic strength and resilience of Hong Kong was underestimated, particularly earlier on-for 1965-6 is the only year in which another deficit has been recorded.

While the export trade remained buoyant, towards the end of 1964-5 the property market turned dull and this, to a degree, affected other sectors. The deficit of 1965-6 reflected this temporary setback.

There was a return to surplus in 1966-7. The change was assisted by a small increase in taxation, but a more important factor was a falling-off in capital works expenditure as certain major works, particularly the Plover Cove Reservoir scheme and certain major land developments, neared completion. There was also a fall in construction costs due largely to reduced private development.

The picture changed again in 1968 when, partly as an aftermath of success in surmounting the political difficulties of 1967, partly under the influence of world inflation on demand for Hong Kong exports, another period of unusually rapid growth began. This caused the growth of revenue at existing tax rates once again to out-distance the substantial rate of growth of expenditure on special services and development. A budget forecast of a deficit of $13 million in 1968-9 became an actual surplus of $208 million.

The pace of economic growth continued to accelerate in the following years with surpluses rising from $448 million in 1969-70 to $637 million in 1972-3. The estimated surplus for 1972-3 was $47 million but the stock market and property market booms in the second half of 1972 and early 1973 resulted in revenue for the year reaching a record figure of $4,936 million-$713 million of which came from stamp duties and $669 million from land sales. Expenditure exceeded the estimate of $3,657 million by

30

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

$643 million, the main factor contributing to the excess becing an initial contribution of $500 million to a fund established to finance the proposed underground railway system. Revenue and expenditure for the year 1971-2 and 1972-3 together with the estimates for 1973-4 are detailed and compared in Appendices 6 and 7.

       For 1973-4 the estimate of revenue is $4,922 million and expenditure $4,409 million. The indications are that actual revenue may slightly exceed the estimate, while increasing costs are likely to raise expenditure appreciably above $4,409 million. Therefore, the budgeted surplus of $513 million for 1973-4 may be optimistic.

       At March 31, 1973 net available public financial assets were $3,089 million, while the public debt as of March 31, 1973 was $53.4 million, less than $14 per head of population. Debts decreased by $4.1 million during the year, due mainly to the repay- ment of £200,000 of the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Hong Kong International Airport. This loan is repayable by 15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on October 1, 1961. The Rehabili- tation Loan of which $50 million was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; its sinking fund stood at $32.4 million on March 31, 1973.

In addition to the assets and liabilities referred to, there exist for special purposes the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund. The Development Loan Fund, now totalling $727 million, is used to finance social and economic development proj- ects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes, but during the year 3,250 university students received interest-free loans totalling $9.3 million. At March 31, 1973, liquid assets amounted to $65 million and outstanding commitments $108.6 million.

       The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is mainly for financing by grants and loans the expenditure involved in the development of social welfare services. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $41.6 million was credited during the period June 30, 1965 to March 31, 1973 by which date grants and loans amounting to $41.6 million had been approved. A further sum of $1.8 million, being unclaimed prize money as at March 31, 1973, is held in deposit.

      The audit of all public accounts and certain special funds is carried out by the Director of Audit, whose annual report on the accounts of the Hong Kong Govern- ment is presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

Duties

      There is no general tariff on goods in Hong Kong, but three groups of commodi- ties-alcoholic liquors, tobacco and hydrocarbon oils are subject to excise duties, whether they are locally manufactured or imported. In certain cases, preferential rates are charged on local manufactures and imports from Commonwealth countries.

Duties on table waters and furnace oil used for the production of electricity or gas were abolished with effect from April 1, 1973.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

31

On liquors, the basic rates range from $1.60 per gallon on Hong Kong brewed beer to $73 a gallon on non-Commonwealth liquors and spirits. On tobacco, they range from $2.50 a pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $11.25 a pound on non- Commonwealth cigars; and on hydrocarbon oils from $1.30 a gallon on diesel oil for road vehicles to $1.80 a gallon on motor spirits.

All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture or sale of dutiable commodi- ties must be licensed.

Rates

Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list, prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation, covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and parts of the New Territories. It is frequently revised to bring it up-to-date and such a revision came into force on April 1, 1973. As a result of this revaluation the overall average increase in rateable values was about 43 per cent. Also effective from April 1, 1973 was a new Rating Ordinance which updated rating practices and procedures and gave effect to changes proposed during the preceding year.

The principal changes introduced by the new ordinance included provision for the payment of both general rates and Urban Council rates on the rateable value of tenements in the urban areas. Compared with the single rate of 17 per cent previously applicable to such tenements, the new ordinance provided for the general rates and the Urban Council rates together not to exceed 15 per cent. The subsequent apportion- ment between the two by resolution of the Legislative Council was eight per cent for the general rates and six per cent for the Urban Council rates. Other changes were the introduction of what is known as 'tone of the list' in respect of the assessment of new premises-new assessments must be in line with those for comparable premises already included in the list.

There are few exemptions from rates. Premises used for educational, charitable and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments are reimbursed in the form of either direct subventions or contributions toward rates.

The estimated revenue from rates for 1973-4 is $559,390,000.

Internal Revenue

       Earnings and Profits Tax is covered by the Inland Revenue Ordinance on various forms of income arising in or derived from Hong Kong. The current standard rate of tax of 15 per cent has been in force since April 1, 1966. The various forms of income which are subject to separate taxes are-property, profits, interest and salaries.

       Property Tax is charged at the standard rate on the owner, but collected from the ratepayer, normally the occupier. There are various exemptions including property occupied by the owner for residential purposes, and property in the New Territories.

32

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

Unoccupied property was also, up to the year of assessment 1972-3, exempted; however, with effect from 1973-4 tax at half the standard rate has been imposed.

Interest Tax is charged at the standard rate on interest arising in or derived from Hong Kong. It is withheld at source unless it forms part of the profits of a corporation carrying on a trade or business in Hong Kong, in which case it will be subjected to Profits Tax.

Profits Tax is charged at the standard rate on profits arising in or derived from Hong Kong from a trade or business conducted in Hong Kong. Expenses incurred in the production of those profits are deductible.

Salaries Tax is charged on salaries arising in or derived from Hong Kong on a sliding scale which, for the year of assessment 1973-4, varies from five to 30 per cent on net chargeable income-income after deduction of personal allowances. However, the overall effective rate of tax is limited to 15 per cent of the income before deducting personal allowances.

The financial year ending March 31, 1973 saw the introduction of several far reaching measures and proposals in relation to Salaries Tax. Thus 1972-3 was the last year in which tax for the current year was based on income in the previous year. From 1973-4 taxes will be paid on a system using income from the previous year only as a basis for provisional tax-the final tax due will be computed from the assess- able income earned in the current year. A similar system for Profits Tax was forecast by the Financial Secretary when introducing his 1973-4 budget proposals.

A measure of tax reform was also introduced as part of the budget proposals. This increased the basic allowances: those for the taxpayer (from $7,000 to $10,000); his wife (from $7,000 to $10,000); his first child (from $2,000 to $3,000); his second child (from $2,000 to $2,500); his third child (from $1,000 to $1,500). The allowances for the fourth to sixth child remain at $1,000 and those from the seventh to ninth child at $500 each. All the other allowances-insurance contributions, dependent parents, working wives and lower income relief-were withdrawn. The proposals affect Salaries Tax assessments for 1973-4 onwards.

A further feature of the Inland Revenue Ordinance is the right of a taxpayer to elect for what is known as personal assessment. This aggregates his income from the four sources mentioned earlier and gives him the benefit of the same personal allowances and sliding scale of tax as would be allowed for Salaries Tax purposes. A set-off of tax paid on the individual sources of income is allowed.

There is no tax on dividends received as they are regarded as having been paid out of taxed profits.

It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1973-4 will be $1,492.9 million.

Estate Duty is imposed on that part of a deceased person's estate which is situated in Hong Kong. Estates which do not exceed $200,000 are exempt. The rate of duty varies from five per cent on estates valued between $200,000 and $300,000 to 15 per

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

33

cent on those in excess of $1 million. The yield for the financial year ending March 31, 1974 is estimated at $42 million.

Stamp Duty is modelled on the British system which imposes fixed duties on certain classes of documents and ad valorem duties on others. The year saw a doubling of the rate of duty on Share Contract Notes from 20 cents for every $100 to $4 for every $1,000, payable on both bought and sold notes. Among other ad valorem duties are those on conveyances of land ($2 for every $100 with relief for conveyances of low value properties), bills of exchange and exchange contract cancellation notes (25 cents for every $1,000), voluntary disposition inter vivos ($2 for every $100), lease premia ($2 for every $100). Several of the minor duties including those on agreements in hand, receipts, bills of lading, charter parties, and insurance policies were abolished as part of the 1973-4 budget measures. The estimated yield from this source for 1973-4 is $500 million.

Entertainment Tax is imposed on the price of admission to race meetings at a rate which varies with the amount charged and which averages approximately 22 per cent. The duty previously imposed on cinema admissions was abolished as part of the 1973-4 budget measures. The estimated yield from this source from 1973-4 is $3.9 million.

Betting Duty is imposed on bets made on an authorised totalisator or pari- mutuel and on contributions or subscriptions towards authorised cash sweeps. The duty is 7 per cent on bets and 25 per cent on cash sweep contributions and is assessed from the returns of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club which holds the monopoly for conducting such operations. The estimated yield for the financial year ending March 31, 1974 is $60 million.

Hotel Accommodation Tax is imposed on hotels and guest houses and is levied at the rate of two per cent on the accommodation charges. For the financial year 1973-4 this levy is estimated to yield $5.7 million.

Every business operating in Hong Kong, except non-profit-making or charitable institutions, is required to register and pay an annual registration fee of $25. Exemp- tion from payment of the fee is granted where the business is small. The income from these fees for the fiscal year 1973-4 is expected to yield $5 million.

Currency

       In the absence of a central bank, Hong Kong's currency notes are issued by three commercial banks, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation the Chartered Bank and the Merchantile Bank. Coins of one dollar, 50 cents, 10 cents and five cents and notes of one cent denomination are issued by the government. The total currency in nominal circulation at December 31, 1973 was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coin

Government one cent note issue

...

$3,448,308,000 $ 153,416,232

$ 110,042,341

$

642,166

34

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

The value of currency issued by the note-issuing banks is regulated by an Exchange Fund, which was set up in 1935 when the Hong Kong dollar ceased to be based on silver. Briefly, the fund receives payment from these banks in exchange for certificates of indebtedness denominated in Hong Kong dollars. These certificates are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary. They provide the legal backing for the notes issued by the banks (apart from their small 'fiduciary' issues-these are limited to a total of $95 million) and are issued against securities, of a kind approved by the Secretary of State, which are held by the banks and deposited with the Crown Agents in London. The fund's resources are invested in a variety of securities, both long and short-term, denominated in sterling and other currencies. Out of the income derived, the fund bears the cost of the note issue except for a small proportion, equivalent to the proportion borne by the 'fiduciary' issues to the total note issue, which is met by the note-issuing banks. In practice, from 1937 to 1968, the Exchange Fund operated in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards.

The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at approxi- mately 1s 3d. On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. The relationship with sterling was, however, not a statutory one, and was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in con- junction with the note-issuing banks. Nevertheless, it came to be generally regarded as a fixed relationship. Hong Kong, as both a dependent territory and a member of the sterling area, was required in practice to keep its official reserves, and the greater part of the reserves of the banking system, in the form of sterling.

       Thus, when sterling was devalued by 14.3 per cent in November 1967, Hong Kong suffered a substantial loss estimated at £50 million. After an immediate devaluation of the same proportion, the Hong Kong dollar was revalued by 10 per cent four days after the British move, making a final devaluation of 5.7 per cent. This did not reduce in any way the loss to the community; rather it determined where the loss would fall. The cost to Hong Kong's public funds amounted to $450 million, including compensation paid from the Exchange Fund to commercial banks against their consequential losses.

These events finally made it clear that the old relationship with the pound was no longer appropriate to Hong Kong's economic situation. On the other hand, it was not possible for Britain to allow any significant diversification of Hong Kong's sterling assets (amounting then to £350 million) into other currencies, in view of her own depleted reserves; while at that stage she was not prepared to offer guarantees of the international value of sterling reserves.

However, following negotiations in London, a novel arrangement was intro- duced in June 1968, whereby Hong Kong was allowed to use its sterling assets to purchase British Government bonds, of seven years maturity, denominated in Hong Kong dollars. These bonds were purchasable to a value of £100 million or 50 per

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

35

cent of official reserves, whichever was greater, up to an absolute maximum of £150 million. The arrangement, for which a charge was made, gave limited protection against loss from a further revaluation of the Hong Kong dollar in terms of sterling, but was soon superseded by a wider arrangement.

       Under the new deal, which was made possible by the backing of the so-called Basle arrangement, Britain offered all members of the sterling area, including Hong Kong, a free guarantee in terms of US dollar value of all officially held sterling in excess of 10 per cent of each country's total official external reserves. This was in return for their undertaking to maintain a minimum proportion of their reserves in sterling. The guarantee was for five years from September 25, 1968 and the rate guaranteed was US$2.40 to £1. Hong Kong accepted this new scheme, undertaking to maintain in her reserves a minimum sterling proportion of 99 per cent. This proportion was reduced to 89.1 per cent (or by 10 per cent) in September 1971, when the British Government agreed to a general reduction of the minimum sterling proportions which sterling-area countries had undertaken to maintain in their

reserves.

       Because there is no central bank, a substantial part of Hong Kong's exchange reserves are held by commercial banks. While the sterling assets held by these banks were not in themselves covered by the British guarantee, the UK-HK guarantee arrangement had a unique feature, carried on from the earlier Hong Kong Dollar Bond Scheme. This was a provision whereby official sterling deposits with com- mercial banks in Hong Kong ranked as official reserves for the purposes of the guarantee. This enabled arrangements to be made in February 1969, through the mechanism of the Exchange Fund, to bring a substantial part of commercial banks' sterling within the scope of the guarantee.

       Following the meeting of the Group of Ten in Washington towards the end of December 1971, it was announced that the US dollar would be devalued by 7.89 per cent. This was accompanied by a series of adjustments of other major world cur- rencies. However, both sterling and the Hong Kong dollar maintained their gold parity. In effect, this meant that the rate of exchange between the HK dollar and sterling remained unchanged at $14.55 to £1, while the HK dollar was revalued against the US dollar by 8.57 per cent. The official rate became HK$5.58 to US$1 whereas the previous rate had been HK$6.06 to US$1.

When the United Kingdom announced on June 23, 1972 that sterling was to be allowed to float, the Hong Kong Government decided to retain the rate of HK$14.55 to £1 until it became clear how the situation would develop. This meant that as sterling declined in value in international markets, so did the Hong Kong dollar and on July 6, 1972, the Hong Kong Government decided to restore the Hong Kong dollar almost to its previous exchange value by fixing a new rate of HK$5.65 to US$1, a devaluation of only 14 per cent from the previous US dollar rate of HK$5.58 to US$1. By quoting the rate in terms of US dollars rather than sterling, during the period while sterling is floating, Hong Kong avoids movements in the value of

36

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

sterling automatically bringing about equivalent rises and falls in the value of the Hong Kong dollar.

       When the US dollar was devalued again by 10 per cent on February 13, 1973, the Hong Kong dollar's gold parity was unchanged and a new rate of HK$5.085 to US$1 was fixed.

       When the Sterling Guarantee Agreement came to an end on September 24, 1973 the British Government made a unilateral offer for a further guarantee for a period of six months ending March 31, 1974. Hong Kong is participating in the arrangements made under the offer.

      At the same time as sterling started floating in June 1972, the sterling area disbanded, with the exception of the British Isles. From January 1, 1973, all Exchange Control Regulations in Hong Kong were rescinded and the banks no longer had any restraints on their foreign currency transactions. Furthermore, after September 24, 1973, they became free to invest their external assets in any currency.

Banking

      Due largely to additional lending by the banks, deposits increased during January 1973 by 10 per cent to $27,151 million. However, they decreased during the following four months to $24,282 million at the end of May, and then increased to $26,191 million by December 31-a net increase of six per cent over the previous year-end figure.

      Loans and advances increased during 1973 by 31 per cent to reach $23,263 million at December 31.

      At the end of 1973 there were 74 licensed banks in Hong Kong with a total of 543 banking offices, an increase of 65 banking offices during the year. In addition, there were 50 representative offices of foreign banks. Banks in Hong Kong have branches and correspondents throughout the world and offer a comprehensive service of the highest order.

       Monthly bank clearings averaged $38,655 million. Banking statistics for the past three years are shown in Appendix 11.

Stock Exchanges

      There were four stock exchanges engaged in active trading in Hong Kong at the end of 1973, although seven remained incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Ordinance. During the year, the total turnover reported by the stock exchanges was valued at $48,217.38 million, an increase of 10.2 per cent over the previous year's figure.

      A Securities Advisory Council and a post of Commissioner for Securities were established in January 1973, without statutory power, to help prepare the way for the statutory provisions likely to be imposed later.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

37

The Stock Exchanges Control Ordinance 1973 imposed heavy penalties on anyone operating a stock market which was not recognised under the ordinance, and had the effect of preventing any more stock exchanges being established.

The role played by the stock exchanges in the daily economic life of Hong Kong has increased significantly in the last few years. The heavy demand for shares up to the end of March 1973 prompted a marked increase in the number of companies listed on the exchanges. During the year, there were 53 public offers and 48 place- ments of shares, and at the end of the year the shares of 296 companies were listed on the stock exchanges.

4

KO

Employment

LEGISLATION covering all sections of the labour force continues to be introduced, amended and updated each year-and 1973 was no exception. In the past five years 50 items of labour legislation, all aimed at improving the working conditions and welfare of the workers, have been passed.

       This legislation has included maternity benefits for women and four rest-days month for most employees.

       The Labour Tribunal Ordinance came into effect on March 1, 1973, and safety regulations on work in confined spaces and construction sites were also introduced during the year. Various amendments were made to the Employment Ordinance in 1973 to expand provisions for holidays with pay and sickness allowance, and to control employment agencies.

       While the cost of living indices have risen by 74 per cent since 1964, the average industrial wage has increased by 153 per cent and the unemployment level has remain- ed low. Therefore, measured by real wages, standards of living have risen by about 46 per cent.

In December 1973, a total of 626,392 workers were employed in 29,105 establish- ments in the manufacturing sector. The largest section of the labour force-some 288,402-were engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting, and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods. The plastics industry remained the second largest employer. The demand for labour in the manufacturing industries continued to exceed the supply. Details of the distribution of industrial undertakings and of people employed in them are given in Appendices 12 and 13.

       Bulk of the industrial population is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon but there is increasing industrial develop- ment in the New Territories, particularly in the new township of Tsuen Wan. In December 1973, a total of 113,284 workers were recorded in 2,891 manufacturing establishments in the New Territories. Although most workers are engaged in modern manufacturing processes and to a small extent in mining and quarrying, traditional village industries still provide employment.

The 1971 population census showed a total working population of 1,582,849 in Hong Kong-1,049,989 male and 532,860 female. The main distribution of the work force was: manufacturing 677,498; services 312,173; commerce 208,604; construction and engineering 168,773; transport and communication 114,722; agriculture, forestry and fishing 62,975; public utilities 8,870; mining and quarrying 4,518; and other industries 24,716.

EMPLOYMENT

39

The number of workers who went overseas on contracts attested by the Com- missioner of Labour during 1973 was 701, compared with 737 in the previous year and 1,310 in 1971. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants.

Wages and Conditions of Work

Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industries are piece-rated, although daily rates of pay are also common. Men and women receive the same rates for piece-work, but women are generally paid less when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis or on piece rates and are customarily paid every two weeks or weekly.

       The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industries at the end of 1973 was $14.90 to $52.80 for skilled workers; $11.70 to $38.60 for semi-skilled workers; and $10.80 to $26 for unskilled workers. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, subsidised meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, paid rest-days, and a Lunar New Year bonus of one month's pay.

A consumer price index, intended as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, continued to be published throughout the year. It varied from 144 to 181 (base of 100-period of September 1963 to August 1964). In December 1973, this index stood at 170 (see Appendix 15). A special index based on the expendi- ture of households spending less than $600 a month and known as the modified consumer price index is also published and used as the basis for adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. A proportion of the wages of all minor staff (Scale 1) in the public service is adjusted quarterly by reference to this index.

        The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its regulations control the hours and conditions of work in industry. Since December 1, 1971, the maximum hours of work for women and young people, aged 16 and 17, employed in industry have been eight hours a day and 48 hours a week. In addition to establishing maximum daily working hours, the regulations impose a limit on overtime and provide for weekly rest-days, and rest-breaks for women and young people.

Young people aged 14 and 15 may work eight hours a day in industry with a break of one hour after five hours continuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground. The regulations also provide for a pre-employment medical examination of men employed underground or in tunnelling operations and for the periodical medical examination of men under 21 years of age employed under- ground.

Because of a continuing shortage of labour, a few large factories, mostly engaged in cotton spinning, were authorised in 1970 to employ women at night. This permis- sion was restricted to those able to comply with stringent conditions. This experimental concession is reviewed annually.

There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work between eight and 10 hours a day. Government employees, and

40

EMPLOYMENT

those working for the better employers in the private sector, may have shorter working hours, but usually not less than seven hours per day. Restrictions on the hours of work for women, first introduced in January 1959, have resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men employed alongside women in the same concern.

By December 31, 1973, a total of 35 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts. Cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 45,834 men and 52,826 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary through- out industry.

The Employment (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1973 extended the provisions for sickness allowance and holidays with pay to all manual workers irrespective of earnings and to non-manual employees earning not more than $1,500 a month. This means that more than one million employees in practically all trades and industries are now entitled to holidays with pay and sickness allowance.

The cumulative entitlement to paid sickness days has been increased from 12 days in one year to 24 days over two years. To qualify for a paid sickness allowance an employee must first work for three months on a continuous contract of employment.

The amended ordinance provides for six statutory holidays to be granted by the employer, in addition to the four monthly rest-days under the Employment Ordinance and weekly rest-days applicable to women and young persons under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Regulations. The six statutory holidays are the Lunar New Year's Day, the second day of Lunar New Year, Ching Ming Festival, Tuen Ng (Dragon Boat) Festival, the day following the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival and the first day of January. An employee must have three months continuous service prior to a statutory holiday to qualify for payment on that day.

       The new legislation helps bridge the gap in statutory benefits between the in- dustrial and non-industrial sectors, and represents another step forward in social legislation.

Trade Unions

With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, most employees' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which are registered as societies and bear allegiance to opposing political groups. Divided politically, and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs, and divergent loyalties have prevented those with com- mon interests from amalgamating into effective organisations.

       The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions is a left-wing organisation. Most of the members of its 66 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills, and public utilities. A further 23 unions, nominally independent, are friendly towards the federation and participate in its activities. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council has right-wing sympathies. Most of the members of its 85 affiliated unions and of the 10 nominally independent unions which generally support the

EMPLOYMENT

41

Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

There are 100 independent unions some of which continue to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are specified in the Trade Unions Ordinance which is administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions.

Of the 340 unions on the register at the end of 1973, 284 were employees' unions with a total declared membership of 252,425, a further 44 were organisations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 5,083, and 12 were mixed organisations with a total declared membership of 6,015.

Labour Administration and Services

The Labour Department continued to expand during the year and now has a staff of 692. Plans were underway to extend the services of the department in the New Territories by expanding the branch office at Yuen Long to include units of the labour relations, the local employment service, and the factory inspectorate. The network of branch offices plays a significant role in dealing promptly with labour matters in outlying areas.

The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the government on labour matters. He is also the Commissioner of Mines.

Labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which also ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under international labour conventions are observed. The department is organised into six divisions: labour relations, industry, employ- ment, industrial health, industrial training, and development.

The labour relations division dealt with 4,584 disputes in 1973. Of these 107 were labour disputes, 862 major grievance disputes and 3,615 minor grievance dis- putes; compared to 119,821, and 3,584 respectively in 1972. There were 47 strikes and seven lockouts and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 56,691, compared with 41,834 in 46 strikes in 1972. Most labour disputes were due mainly to problems arising from changes in piece rates, redundancy, dismissal and insolvency.

The Labour Tribunal Ordinance, enacted on March 29, 1972, came into operation on March 1, 1973. The tribunal, which is part of the Judiciary, provides a quick, simple and inexpensive method of settling certain monetary claims arising from con- tracts of employment, the provisions of the Employment Ordinance, and certain other ordinances. Claims are determined by a single, legally-qualified presiding officer assisted by a number of tribunal officers and supporting staff. The proceedings of the tribunal are conducted in an informal manner and generally in Cantonese.

During the period March 1 to December 31, 1973, the tribunal dealt with 878 cases involving employees as claimants and a further 30 cases in which the claims.

42

EMPLOYMENT

were initiated by employers. A total of $747,334.86 was awarded by the presiding officer. After unsuccessful conciliation attempts 91.4 per cent of the cases dealt with by the tribunal were referred by the labour relations service of the Labour Department.

By the end of the year, the Labour Department had record of 102 formal joint consultative committees set up in 50 establishments. In addition, 59 firms had some form of informal consultation. Most were working smoothly and achieving the object of bringing management and employees together to improve relationships and to allow each to benefit from the experience of the other.

Similar committees established in certain government departments discussed a wide range of administrative, welfare and organisational problems. A total of 142 special visits were made during the year to employers who have shown positive interest in introducing joint consultation.

A bilingual guide entitled 'Strikes, Strikers and the Law' was published and made available to employers and employees free of charge.

The factory inspectorate of the department's industry division is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its subsidiary legis- lation, for the safety of workers in factories, building and engineering construction sites and other industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance were given to manage- ment on the guarding of dangerous parts of machinery, the adoption of safe working practices, and the general layout of factories to achieve safer working conditions.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Confined Spaces) Regulations 1973 were enacted on April 27. They provide for safety measures for work in confined spaces. The Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations 1973-enacted on August 1- provide specially for safety and health measures on construction sites. Guides in Chinese and English to these two sets of regulations have been prepared for distri- bution to interested parties.

On November 14 the Quarries (Safety) Regulations were approved by the Legis- lative Council. To become effective from January 1, 1974, the regulations offer a greater degree of safety to workers operating at a height on the face or top of quarries.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (First Aid in Registrable Work- places) (Amendment) Regulations 1973 were approved by the Legislative Council on November 28. The amendment widened the meaning of 'first aiders'.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations 1973 were approved on November 28. The main purpose of the amendment is to correct minor defects in the regulations governing the hours of work of women and young persons.

During the year, the Industrial Safety Training Centre continued to provide basic and advanced safety training courses for workers and supervisors from indus- tries and government departments, and to students from technical and vocational training centres. A number of seminars and short courses on safety in confined spaces and on construction sites were organised.

EMPLOYMENT

43

A six-week training course for safety officers in industry and a number of special courses and seminars in conjunction with leading firms were also held. Subjects rang- ing from safety in the construction industry to fire prevention and the use of protective clothing were discussed. The centre maintains a permanent display of personal pro- tective items and machinery fitted with a variety of safety guards. It also prepares booklets and posters on industrial safety.

      The department staged Hong Kong's first major industrial safety exhibition during the Chinese Manufacturers' Association Fair in December. The exhibition, held with the support of a wide range of commercial and industrial firms, was attended by more than 900,000 visitors.

The local employment service introduces job-seekers to prospective employers and vice versa. During the year, the service registered 30,345 job-seekers, recorded 8,715 employers' orders, and helped 5,434 workers find employment.

      The youth employment advisory service continued with its second stage of development which involved group guidance in the form of careers talks to senior students in secondary schools and young people in youth centres. The dissemination of careers information has been further expanded during the year, and 395 talks were given in 109 schools and youth centres to some 21,000 students. The service also organised and participated in careers seminars and exhibitions providing careers information to students, teachers, parents and interested individuals. The service's second careers exhibition was held at the Chinese Manufacturers' Association Fair site from November 23 to December 2. Some 30 exhibitors from industry, commerce and the government took part in the exhibition, which attracted tens of thousands of visitors, the majority of whom were secondary school students and teachers.

The Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance controls contracts of em- ployment entered into in Hong Kong between overseas employers and manual workers, including domestic servants, but excluding certain specific categories, pro- ceeding overseas for employment. During the year 701 contracts were attested.

Permission to work in Britain is given by the British Department of Employment. During the first quarter of the year, 115 permits were issued through the Labour Department, including one to Commonwealth citizens seeking unspecified employ- ment, 31 to local people of British nationality going to specific jobs, and 83 to local residents who are not of British nationality. Since a change in administrative arrange- ments in April 1973, work permits are issued to applicants through the Immigration Department.

Industrial Health

The industrial health unit of the Labour Department offers an advisory service to the government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. The unit is primarily concerned with preventing occupational diseases and protecting workers against hazards in their working environment. These hazards are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate,

44

EMPLOYMENT

     or by officers of the unit. Control is achieved by environmental and biological moni- toring and health education. The unit's laboratory, staffed by technicians trained in industrial hygiene, has been designated as a collaborating laboratory on air pollution by the World Health Organisation.

       The measurement of concentrations in the air, such as chromium, lead, man- ganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust and sulphur dioxide, and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise, and lighting, also form a major part of the duties of the unit. Medical examinations, including X-rays and pathological investigations, are also arranged for workers exposed to risks of lead, radiation, fluoride toxicity or silica dust, and for government divers.

       Responsibility for the clinical examination, casework, and medical assessment of injured workers lies with the industrial health unit. Visits to the homes and places of work of injured workers are made by the health visitors of the unit.

      The workmen's compensation unit administers the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance and is responsible for ensuring that injured workers or their dependants receive the compensation to which they are legally entitled.

       The air pollution control unit operates under the guidance of the smoke abate- ment adviser, assisted by 10 assistant smoke inspectors. The unit is responsible for the administration of the Clean Air Ordinance. It offers free constructive advice to fuel-users on the efficient use of fuel and the reduction of smoke emissions from their plants.

      The Clean Air (Restriction and Measurement of Smoke Emission) Regulations were made by the Governor in Council on October 16, 1973. They cover the taking of samples, the limiting of emission of grit and dust and the prohibition of use of fuels exceeding certain viscosity.

Industrial Training

      In December 1972 the government completed processing the recommendations of the industrial training advisory committee and decided to establish a permanent body the Hong Kong Training Council--to advise on measures necessary to ensure a comprehensive system of training geared to the developing needs of Hong Kong. The council will have greater responsibilities and possibly, at a later stage, statutory backing. To achieve its objectives, the council will, like the ITAC, work through a complex of training boards and committees. The training boards will be responsible for their respective industries and the committees will tackle problems common to a number of industries. The Hong Kong Training Council was formally appointed on October 12, 1973 under the chairmanship of Mr T. K. Ann.

      Although the appointment of the ITAC complex came to an end on December 31, 1972, some of the associated committees were directed to continue with their work on an ad hoc basis, pending their replacement by the training boards under the permanent training council. This was to ensure that the work of updating manpower data would not be disrupted.

HONG KO

:

BORDER

Each day tourists, businessmen, farmers and residents travel between Hong Kong and China. About 14 per cent of Hong Kong's foodstuff comes from China and the pigs, cattle and vegetables are delivered daily across the border by rail and road. The 22-mile land border extends from Deep Bay in the west to Sha Tau Kok in the east, with the focal point for travellers the railway crossing at Lo Wu. Passengers disembark the Hong Kong train and walk across the bridge to meet the Chinese train which will take them to Canton and beyond. Above tourists gaze into China from the Lok Ma Chau vantage point.

مروز

*

Lo Wu is the principal crossing point for goods-wagons which bring livestock into Hong Kong daily.

AVAVAV

TELA

Hong Kong residents cross the frontier at Lo Wu at Christmas to visit relatives in China.

v

A panoramic view of the border from a hilltop at Nam Hang. The

meandering river denotes the international boundary. In the distance

is the Chinese town of Shum Chun.

Livestock, mainly pigs, is herded daily across the road bridge at Man Kam To. Modern trucks transport the animals and other goods from the border area into Hong Kong.

The international boundary runs through the fishing village of Sha Tau

Kok. Above villagers cross freely in both directions.

全世界东产生

The grazing cattle and buildings in the background are in China; the cultivated field in the foreground is in Hong Kong. A woman farm worker passes through 'a gate into China'.

EMPLOYMENT

45

In 1973 the building trades, textiles and printing industrial committees conducted the second manpower surveys of their respective industries, and the plastics, clothing, and electrical apparatus and appliances industrial committees were in the process of compiling reports on the second manpower surveys. The printing and shipbuilding and ship repairs industrial committees continued with their preparation of minimum job standards and specification for principal jobs in their industries.

In the field of pre-vocational and vocational training, a number of centres offering training in technical, commercial and catering trades are run by voluntary welfare organisations and the government. Committees of the ITAC complex have played an active role in co-ordinating and raising the standards of training in these centres.

In addition to the existing Morrison Hill Technical Institute, the government has, in line with the recommendations made by ITAC, decided to build another four technical institutes by 1977. The need for expanding the pre-vocational education programme was also under consideration by the government.

The apprenticeship training unit of the Labour Department continued with its work of encouraging and assisting employers to set up proper apprenticeship schemes for training craftsmen and technicians. This year, 40 more firms have started technician training in the electronics, building, textiles and garment industries. These companies also provided craft training in the metal working, printing, electrical, plastics, ship- building and ship repairs, and automobile servicing industries. Some 2,300 apprentices, both technician and craft are currently engaged under modern apprenticeship schemes recommended by the apprenticeship training unit.

Technical education on a day-release basis forms an essential part of the appren- ticeship scheme proposed by the Labour Department. Part-time day-release courses for both technician and craft apprentices are provided by the Hong Kong Poly- technic and the Morrison Hill Technical Institute.

5

Primary Production

ALTHOUGH only 12 per cent of Hong Kong's 404 square miles total land area is devoted to farming and less than two per cent of the population is involved in fishing, the territory is still able to produce a large proportion of its fresh food requirements.

       The 1971 census shows that farmers and their dependants comprise only 2.48 per cent of the population, while fisherfolk make up another 1.53 per cent of the total. Despite these low percentages, farmers of the New Territories usually produce about 45 per cent of vegetables consumed locally, nearly 70 per cent of total live chicken requirements and about 15 per cent of all pigs slaughtered. Hong Kong's fishing fleet catches about 90 per cent of all marine fish eaten in the territory.

       However, 1973 was the wettest year on record in Hong Kong and the heavy rainfall reduced local vegetable, flower and fruit harvests. There was also a world- wide shortage of feed grains early in 1973 which pushed up local feed prices, so re- ducing production by pig and poultry farmers for the first time in many years.

The sudden increase in Hong Kong's population during the 1950s, due to massive immigration from China, gave considerable stimulus to agricultural production as many of the new arrivals were farmers. There was also a great demand for food, and these changes resulted in a rapid growth of small, intensively cultivated vegetable and livestock farms. Traditional rice cultivation was less profitable, and those farmers who retained rice fields tended to diversify production by planting vegetables after the harvesting of the second rice crop.

       The number employed in farming and fishing reached its peak during the mid- 1960s, but the attraction of nearby industrial satellite towns, offering higher wages, has led to a reduction in the number of these workers over the past five years.

Hong Kong's rapid industrialisation has brought increasing prosperity to its more than four million inhabitants. But, with few natural resources manufacturing industries depend heavily on imported raw materials.

Administration and Services

      The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilisation and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with the economic, social and technological development of Hong Kong fish- eries, especially those aspects which directly involve fishermen, and the administrative organisation of co-operative societies of all types. The conservation of water and soil through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is also an im- portant aspect of the department's work. Afforestation is principally undertaken by

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

47

    the department and private afforestation is relatively unimportant. The New Terri- tories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

      Research programmes of the department extend to and include crop and animal husbandry as well as fisheries. On government farms experiments continue into im- proving the quality and yield per acre of strains of local vegetables, flowers and fruits. Results have been generally satisfactory. To improve quality in the field of animal husbandry, the department supplies farmers with breeding stock of pigs and poultry and also provides an artificial insemination service for pigs.

Fisheries research is carried out from the main station in Aberdeen, and sub- stations at Kat O and Au Tau. The Aberdeen station is concerned with research into marine resources and associated hydrological and oceanographical work in both local waters and in the northern part of the South China Sea, and with aquaculture research. At the Kat O sub-station investigations are continuing into mariculture, and at the Au Tau sub-station experiments relating to fresh water fish, including the induced breeding of carp species, are in hand.

Development and extension services are also provided for the agricultural and fishing industries. The main development in the agricultural industry (due primarily to rising labour costs) is the increasing interest which farmers have shown in the use of small farm machines and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of 1973, there were 755 rotary cultivators in use on fields and 323 sprinkler units on vegetable farms.

With financial and technical assistance from the government, the fishing industry is in the process of further development and modernisation with the introduction of new vessel designs, including the 90-foot wooden pair trawler and the 76-foot stern otter trawler to be fitted with hydraulic steering gear. Labour-saving mechanical line haulers have been introduced to long-liner fishermen to increase their produc- tivity. About 349 modern wooden fishing vessels have so far been built, 259 with private funds and 90 with government financial aid.

      Hong Kong is divided into three districts for agricultural extension. Each district is administered by a District Extension Staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with farming, livestock and co-operative problems. Close contact with the farming community is maintained by farm advisers and liaison with local co-operative societies and rural associations. Both credit and technical facilities are available through the extension service.

In the rural extension programme in 1973, more than 1,120 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out, in which 195 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. More than 171,175 visits were made to farmers and co-operative societies by both professional and technical officers. Farmers also visited government experi- mental farms and farming projects.

Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through an extension service, similar in scope to that provided for the agricultural industry, and by liaison

48

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

     with fishermen's co-operative societies. A number of these societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which continue to grow in size and effectiveness. Exten- sion work also included the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as local masters and engine operators, and the instruction of local fishermen in naviga- tion. As an adjunct to extension work through the Fish Marketing Organisation, schooling facilities are provided for the children of fishermen. Fourteen schools have so far been established and about 4,247 children were being educated at these at the end of 1973. A further 325 were attending other schools on scholarships provided by the organisation.

Loans are available to the agricultural industry through four separate loan funds -the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organisation Loan Fund- all administered through the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. At December 31, 1973, the total loans issued since the inception of these four funds was $71,206,975. The total recovered was $67,080,693.

The Fisheries Development Loan Fund, administered by the Director of Agri- culture and Fisheries, is allotted specifically for the development of the distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. The World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies, made available in 1954 by the United Nations High Com- mission for Refugees, also assists members of fishermen's co-operative societies. Further credit facilities are available to fishermen through the revolving loan fund of the Fish Marketing Organisation. This fund was established in 1946 and has made loans totalling $43 million; of this, some $39 million had been repaid by the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was raised to five million in 1973. The organisation also administers a revolving loan fund of $115,000 financed by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, specifically for shrimp fishermen.

Co-operative societies operate under a Co-operative Societies Ordinance, which provides for the appointment of a Registrar (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) whose staff supervise and assist co-operative societies and encourage the formation of new ones. On December 31, 1973, more than 11,940 farmers and 2,260 fishermen were members of 90 rural societies with two federations among the farming com- munity, and 78 societies with four federations supported by the fisherfolk. A further 252 societies with about 8,390 members operate in the urban area, the bulk of these being co-operative building societies formed by local civil servants with financial aid from the government. The movement includes primary societies with such diverse objects and activities as vegetable marketing, pig raising, agriculture and fisheries credit, better living, thrift and loan, housing and the supply of consumer goods.

       In recognition of the needs of lower income groups for thrift and small loans, legislation in the form of the Credit Unions Ordinance was enacted in February 1970 to incorporate and regulate credit unions and to provide for incidental matters. The ordinance provides for the appointment of a Registrar (the Director of Agricul- ture and Fisheries) with powers and duties in regard to the registration of credit unions and their by-laws, the examination of accounts and general supervision. Up to the end of the year, 50 credit unions with 8,311 members were registered; a total of 27 credit unions were formed of groups of persons having a common bond of

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

49

association; 18 by persons having common bonds of employment; and five by groups each with a common bond of residence.

Land Utilisation

       Hong Kong's land area totals 403.9 square miles, of which only 12.1 per cent is used for farming, 76.4 per cent is marginal land with different degrees of sub-grade character, and built-up areas comprise the remaining 11.5 per cent. The need to es- tablish new towns and residential areas on plans that provide for adequate open space, wider roads and public facilities of all kinds, inevitably means encroachment upon agricultural land. The losses, however, are partially offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

Class

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

(ii) Woodlands ...

Approximate Percentage

Remarks

area

(square miles)

of whole

46.4

11.5

49.1

12.2

Includes roads and railways. Natural and established wood-

lands.

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

237.3

58.8

:

:

(iv) Badlands

16.8

4.2

(v) Swamp and mangrove lands

5.0

1.2

(vi) Arable

44.3

10.9

Natural grass and scrub, includ-

ing Plover Cove reservoir. Stripped of cover. Granite coun- try. Capable of regeneration. Capable of reclamation.

Includes orchards and market

gardens.

(vii) Fish ponds

5.0

1.2

Fresh and brackish water fish

farming.

Agricultural Industry

The government's policy is to foster the growth of the agricultural industry in Hong Kong to make Hong Kong as self-sufficient in foodstuffs as possible, bearing in mind priorities in land utilisation and the economics of food production in the region.

       Principal crops are vegetables, flowers, rice, fruit and other field crops. The value of crop production has increased considerably, from $89 million in 1963 to $260 million in 1973, a rise of 192 per cent. Vegetable production presently accounts for more than 78 per cent of the total value, having increased from $58 million in 1963 to $204 million in 1973.

       Rice is the staple food of the southern Chinese. Two crops of rice a year can be grown on land where water is adequate. The normal yield from an acre of two-crop rice land is approximately two tons. But the yield per acre can be increased to more than five tons by planting high yielding strains of rice selected from varieties IR8 and Non-sensitive BPI (bicol), together with improved management and high levels of manuring. Since 1954 the acreage of rice land has dropped from 23,353 acres to 5,640 acres in 1973. Rice production continues to give way to intensive vegetable production, which gives a far higher return, where there is adequate water and good road access.

50

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

      The main vegetable crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish, water-cress, leaf mustard, spring onion and chive which grow all the year round with the peak production period in the cooler months. Considerable quantities of water spinach, string bean, Chinese spinach, green cucumber and many other species of Chinese gourds are produced in summer and a wide range of exotic temperate vegetables including tomato, sweet pepper, cabbage, celery, head lettuce, cauliflower and carrot are grown in winter. The common types of flowers are gladiolus and chrysanthemum which grow all the year round; dahlia, rose, aster, snapdragon and carnation are grown in winter, and ginger lily and lotus flower in summer. Peach blossom and ornamental citrus are grown especially for the Lunar New Year. The area of land under vegetables and flowers has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 10,950 acres in 1973.

A wide range of fruit is grown on the lower hill slopes. The principal crops are longan, lychee, wampei, tangerine, local lemon, banana, papaya and pineapple. Land under orchards in 1954 was 952 acres. By 1973, it was 1,590 acres.

      Other field crops such as sweet potato, taro, yam, soy bean and sugarcane are cultivated in the remote and drier areas where water and transport facilities are inadequate to grow vegetables or rice. The acreage under rainfed crops was 1,300 acres in 1973, compared with 3,450 acres in 1954.

      As there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared for food. Pigs in Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming difficult to find. Although locally produced pigs represent only 12 per cent of total pigs killed, their value is $65.9 million per annum, and proposals to stimulate and expand production are being implemented.

      With an annual production value of $179 million, the poultry industry (including pigeons and quail) is continuing to develop on a more sophisticated basis. Farmers are adopting advanced methods of management and successfully adapting them to local conditions, taking the process through from locally bred chicks to table birds, using both local breeds and imported hybrids. Duck rearing is also important and steps are being taken to expand this industry.

      While local cattle and buffaloes are kept mainly for work, imported Friesians are kept by dairies, of which the largest is on Hong Kong Island and the others in smaller groups outside Kowloon and in the New Territories. Regular tuberculin testing is carried out on all dairy animals.

      Sporadic outbreaks of a mild type of foot-and-mouth disease (type O) and swine fever still occur, but these have been kept under control by vaccination. Newcastle disease in poultry has been controlled by the use of the Ranikhet and intra-nasal- drop vaccines. The lapinised rinderpest vaccine formerly used was replaced in 1970 by a tissue-culture vaccine which gives a prolonged immunity against the rinderpest disease in cattle. Investigations to establish the incidence of intercurrent disease in both pigs and poultry are undertaken at the veterinary laboratory.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

51

Legislation requires all imported dogs and cats to be quarantined for six months, except those from scheduled countries (Britain, Australia and New Zealand), to prevent the introduction of rabies. Stray dogs are caught and detained for observa- tion and, if unclaimed, destroyed in pursuance of the rabies control policy.

Fishing Industry

As marine fish is one of Hong Kong's main primary products, every effort is made to encourage the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of fishermen.

The fishing fleet comprises 5,400 vessels, of which about 5,000 are mechanised. The number of fishermen is estimated at 46,000 and the main fishing centres are at Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, Castle Peak, Tai Po and Sai Kung. The larger part of the fleet is owner-operated, while the remainder is directed by fish dealers.

Fish ponds totalling 3,180 acres are mainly located in the Yuen Long area. The most important species is the grey mullet, the fry of which are collected along the coastal waters in spring. Other important species for cultivation include silver carp, grass carp, big-head and mud carp; a total of 13.5 million of these fry were imported from China and Taiwan during 1973. Total fish pond production in 1973 amounted to 3,054 metric tons, representing 9.68 per cent of the local freshwater fish consumption; this quantity is valued at $23.16 million.

Edible oysters are cultivated in Deep Bay. Production amounted to 92 metric tons of oyster meat, valued at approximately $1,365,000. Part of this quantity was dried for export.

Marine fish culture sprouted from the growing demand for live fish in recent years. Rafts for hanging the cages in which fingerlings are kept are found in most fishing centres. It was estimated that there were about 460 families engaged in this form of venture, and the total value was more than $9 million. Contamination from the spillage of about 3,000 tons of oil from a ruptured storage tank at Ap Lei Chau, during November, affected large numbers of fish and made it necessary for marine culture operations to be temporarily suspended. Some $5.9 million in compensation was paid by the oil company concerned.

Marketing

There are two principal wholesale marketing organisations serving the agriculture and fishing industries. These are the Vegetable Marketing Organisation and the Fish Marketing Organisation.

       The Vegetable Marketing Organisation operates under the Agriculture Products (Marketing) Ordinance, which provides for a board to advise the Director of Market- ing (the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). Its main objective is to provide for orderly transportation of locally-produced vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, and the supervision of sales and financial transac- tions in the market. Revenue is obtained from a 10 per cent commission on sales of vegetables. The organisation is a non-profit-making concern and seeks to obtain

52

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

    maximum returns for growers by minimising their marketing costs. During 1973, a total of 76,467 metric tons of vegetables, valued at $93,256,000 were sold through the organisation.

      The Fish Marketing Organisation operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance, which likewise provides for a board to advise the Director of Marketing. The organisation grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War, with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. It provides orderly marketing and transportation facilities for the primary producer and the retailer of marine fish, at the organisation's seven wholesale markets. Revenue is obtained from a six per cent commission on sales of fish. As a non-profit-making body, surplus earnings are ploughed back into the primary sector of the fishing industry through low-interest loans for productive purposes. In 1973, landings marketed through wholesale fish markets totalled 77,248 metric tons valued at $201 million.

      Further progress was made on projects for the creation of permanent markets in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island which will provide improved facilities to wholesale imported vegetables, fruit, poultry, freshwater fish, crustacea and flowers. The accommodation requirements for the proposed Kowloon market complex was approved, and a site has been found for the Hong Kong Island project. A temporary wholesale market for the sale of imported vegetables in Kowloon was under con- struction; this will enable the trade to achieve a more efficient distribution of supplies in Kowloon and to the New Territories. Land requirement of the mass transit railway has necessitated taking over some of the existing market sites. Therefore the planning of more temporary wholesale markets, with adequate space and facilities, was under- taken as a reprovisioning measure pending completion of the permanent projects.

Mining

      Iron ore is mined underground and the concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan. Kaolin, feldspar and quartz are taken by opencast methods, and some kaolin is exported to Japan and Taiwan. All of the quartz, most of the feldspar and about 20 per cent of kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

      Under the Mining Ordinance, the ownership and control of minerals is vested in the Crown. The Land Officer is empowered to grant mining leases and the Com- missioner of Mines to grant mining and prospecting licences. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of the year, there were three mining leases, eight mining licences, and three pros- pecting licences valid for different areas.

      The Mines Department is responsible for the inspection of mining and prospect- ing areas and stone quarries for the enforcement of mining legislation, safety reg- ulations, and explosive legislation. It also deals with applications for prospecting and mining licences, the issue of mine blasting certificates, and the delivery of ex- plosives from government depots to blasting sites. The Commissioner of Mines is responsible for the control and management of government depots which provide bulk storage facilities for all explosives imported into Hong Kong.

6

Education

     EXPANSION of secondary and technical education was the main feature of 1973- representing significant progress towards the interim expansion target in secondary education by 1976.

Work started on construction of the second and third technical institutes sched- uled for opening in 1975, education television in its third year of operation extended its courses in Primary 5 level, and the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Board made preparations for introduction of the new combined Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination in 1974. This will enable subjects to be taken in English or in Chinese.

In January, the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, appointed Mr P. C. Woo, senior unofficial member of the Legislative Council, as chairman of the reconstituted Board of Education. There were 12 other members including the Director of Educa- tion as vice-chairman. The board, after consideration of the views of all interested educational bodies, submitted to the Governor a report containing recommendations on the future secondary education policy in the next decade. The report was tabled in the Legislative Council at the end of October and members of the public were invited to comment on it.

In its report, the board recommended that the principal objective should be the provision of three-year places for all children aged 12-14 and five-year places in government and fully-aided secondary schools for 40 per cent of those in the 12-16 age group. It is anticipated that this goal can be achieved by the end of 1984. As an interim target, the board proposed the provision by the end of 1981 of sufficient places for 80 per cent of those aged 12-14 and sufficient five-year fully aided places for 36 per cent of the 12-16 age group. The board also recommended that it is educa- tionally unsound to introduce bi-sessional operation; the government should con- tribute more to the capital costs of new school building projects, every effort should be made to minimise the harmful effects of public examinations, and Chinese should become the usual medium of instruction in lower forms of secondary schools. Further recommendations were that no free secondary education should be introduced at present but the position should be kept under regular review and no child should be denied a government, aided or assisted place in a secondary school because of his parent's inability to pay school fees, and a fourth college of education should be established as soon as possible.

Under the Education Ordinance, the Director of Education is responsible for all matters relating to education in Hong Kong. He directly controls all government

54

EDUCATION

    schools. Other schools, with a few exceptions, are required to be registered under the ordinance, providing the Director with the necessary powers to ensure that acceptable standards are maintained.

In March 1972 a Select Committee of the Legislative Council submitted a report on the findings of its enquiry into the costs of operating English-speaking schools. As a result of this report interim annual fees of $2,050 for secondary and $1,150 for primary English-speaking schools were introduced in January 1973. This was done on the understanding that within a period of approximately one year the government, in consultation with the English Schools Foundation, would work out long-term financial arrangements for the operation of the schools run by the foundation. These arrangements are to maintain the principle of parity of subsidy between the English- speaking schools and equivalent Chinese-speaking schools, to ensure similarity of fee levels in schools run by the government and the English Schools Foundation, and to provide a sound financial basis for the foundation to operate its schools.

These arrangements were finalised in September 1973 and as a result it was announced that fees at English-speaking schools would be raised on January 1, 1974 to $2,530 a year at secondary schools and $1,330 a year at primary schools. At the same time it was announced that the government, as an employer, would adjust the local education allowance scheme available for civil servants accordingly.

Pre-primary Education

      There are 758 private kindergartens in Hong Kong providing education for 132,335 children in the three to five age group. These institutions are not maintained or run by the government but are registered with the Education Department and supervised by the inspectorate. The government gives assistance in the form of grants of Crown Land to reliable bodies; exemption from payment of rates for non-profit- making kindergartens; the provision of accommodation and the waiving of rents in public housing estates; and the provision of teacher training and further education facilities. It also makes freely available professional advice to teachers, school mana- gers, parents and members of the public.

Primary Education

      The great majority of primary schools use Cantonese as the language of instruc- tion. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Seven primary schools, including five operated by the government, cater for children whose first language is English.

      There is a downward trend in the number of pupils enrolled in primary schools as a result of a general decline in birth rate. The total primary day school enrolment in September was 705,207, compared with 728,426 in the previous year. In addition, 18,372 pupils attended primary night schools and a limited number of special afternoon classes. During the year, 17,260 new primary places were provided, compared with 26,820 in the previous year. As the target of providing a government or subsidised primary place for every child of primary school age has already been reached, further provision of school places is geared mainly to the needs of developing areas.

EDUCATION

555

       As from September 1971, education is free in all government Chinese primary schools and in the majority of aided primary schools. In those aided primary schools where fees continue to be charged, fee remission may be awarded of up to 20 per cent of the total enrolment to meet cases of genuine hardship. In order to lighten further the burden of needy parents, a textbook and stationary grant of $20 per pupil per annum, is available to 20 per cent of pupils enrolled in government and aided primary schools.

       The Education Ordinance 1971 gives the Director of Education powers to enforce school attendance where parents appear to be unnecessarily withholding their children of suitable age. These powers will be exercised by the Director only after a careful investigation of the family's circumstances and the needs of the child. When an attendance order is made, parents have the right of appeal to a specially constituted board of review. The decision of the board is final.

To improve the quality of primary education, seven government primary schools in areas where provision of places is in excess of demand have been converted into whole-day operation. A pilot scheme introducing integrated teaching is operating in six government aided and private schools. The administration of primary schools has been decentralised and is organised on an area basis.

Special Education

With the implementation of the second five-year development programme for special education in Hong Kong, the Education Department is continuing to increase the number of places for handicapped children in either special schools or special classes in ordinary schools. The department is also expanding preventive measures by providing, through the special education section, more diagnostic and remedial services. Another aim is to expand the training programme with overseas training for the nucleus of specialist staff of the special education section, by local in-service courses for teachers in special schools and classes, and by courses on the needs of handicapped children for teachers-in-training at colleges of education.

      There are 36 special schools for blind, deaf, physically handicapped, slow- learning and maladjusted children. In addition, there are 59 special classes for slow- learning children, 12 special classes for partially-hearing children and two special classes for partially-sighted children in 37 ordinary government primary schools. Five voluntary organisations have responded to the expansion programme of special education in Hong Kong and have opened a total of 13 special classes for slow- learning children in five subsidised primary schools. More than 5,300 places in special schools and special classes are now available for handicapped children in Hong Kong. In addition, more than 450 less severely physically handicapped children have been placed in ordinary classes in government primary schools and government subsidised primary schools. These children are supervised regularly by the special education section.

      This section provides diagnostic services which include audiologic testing, psycho- logical testing, speech testing and educational assessment, as well as remedial services

56

EDUCATION

in auditory training and speech therapy. It also runs an audiometric screening and a speech screening programme in government primary schools. During the year, these services were made available to more than 20,200 children. The section also runs in- service training courses for teachers of special schools and special classes. In addition, short courses on the education of handicapped children and seminars on speech. therapy in the classroom are given to teachers in ordinary schools.

      The special education section has a braille printing press operated by the Govern- ment Printer. This press produces primary Cantonese textbooks and supplementary readers in braille, which are supplied to schools for the blind under government subsidy at one-tenth the actual cost. As a result, schools for the blind can purchase braille books at almost the same price as standard books.

Secondary Education

      There are five types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools, secondary modern schools and prevocational schools. The 239 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have an enrol- ment of 223,254 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) Examination. Instruc- tion is in English, with Chinese taught as a second language. Successful Certificate of Education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or the Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition, there are 44,190 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

      The 96 Chinese middle day schools accommodated 57,321 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) Examination. Instruction is in Chinese, and English is taught as a second language. A number of Chinese middle schools also offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to the Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who obtain satisfactory results in the Certificate of Education examinations, higher education is available at the colleges of education, the Technical Institute, the Polytechnic and other post-secondary colleges.

There are 16 secondary technical schools 15 of which offer a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Nine of the schools are govern- ment, five are subsidised and two are private. Their total enrolment is 9,984. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, they prepare their pupils for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination and suitable candidates can continue their studies in Form VI or at the Polytechnic. Five subsidised secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,730 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also 10 private and six subsidised secondary schools with a total enrol- ment of 5,263 which offer some form of technical or trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education Examination. Plans have been approved to provide 6,600 places in three-year courses in subsidised prevocational schools and six such schools are already in operation.

EDUCATION

57

        There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools operated during the day. In September there were 299,648 such students, compared with 279,483 in the previous year. During the school year 16,700 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings. Furthermore, a total of 87,804 pupils entered the first year of secondary school. This represents the pro- motion of 79.2 per cent of the pupils completing primary school. Of these pupils, 40.5 per cent were awarded government, government-aided or assisted places.

       The government's declared aim is to provide three years of aided secondary education for all children in the 12-14 age group seeking it. This will require a sub- stantial programme of expansion, and every effort is being made to achieve the interim target of providing places for 50 per cent of the age group by 1976. Within this figure and by the same date, provision will be made for 18-20 per cent of the 12-16 age group to proceed to aided courses leading to a Certificate of Education. The long-term aim is to double the provision of five-year courses offering secondary education in government and aided schools.

       The extra school places to be found in Forms I-III under this new policy will be provided either directly in government or aided schools, or in private non-profit- making schools which will be assisted for the purpose, or by buying places in suitable private profit-making schools. For 1973-4 22,445 pupils have been awarded three- year assisted places on the results of the Secondary School Entrance Examination, to be taken up in various private non-profit-making and private profit-making secondary schools.

Post-secondary Education

       There are a number of day and evening schools offering courses of varying stand- ards at post-secondary level. These schools do not receive aid from the government and their courses are mainly conducted in Chinese.

The Hong Kong Baptist College, on a site granted by the government, was registered under the Post-secondary Colleges Ordinance in March 1970, which recog- nises a status below that of a university institution, but above a secondary school. It has four faculties-arts, business, natural sciences and engineering, and social sciences. A college will be registered under this ordinance only when the Director of Education is satisfied of the academic standards of the institution, its governing body, legal status, finances, educational facilities and constitution or instruments of government.

Higher Education

A scheme of student financing, under which public funds are made available for grants and interest-free loans to needy students at the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, was introduced by the government in 1969-70 The administration of grants totalling $2.84 million and loans totalling $10.60 million for 1973-4 is in the hands of a joint universities' committee. The scheme presented a substantial increase in the amount of public funds available for student financing and aimed to ensure that students offered a place in either of the two universities should not be prevented, through lack of means, from accepting the offer.

58

EDUCATION

      Both the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong have financial resources of their own, but are largely financed by the government. Because of the importance of university development and the sums of public money involved, the government needs impartial and expert advice both on the assessment of the amount of grant required to sustain any level of university activity, and on developments necessary to meet the community's requirements for graduates. The government also needs advice on the allocation of funds between the universities. To carry out these functions there is a University Grants Committee appointed by the Governor. It also acts as the formal channel between the universities and the government.

      The University Grants Committee was expanded in May 1972 to become the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee to advise the government also on the allocation of funds for the Hong Kong Polytechnic which came into being in August 1972.

      The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the government and endownments which have since been increased. Substantial government grants are also made towards the university's annual recurrent and non- recurrent expenditure.

      The number of undergraduate places in each faculty in 1973-4 were as follows: arts 705; science 467; medicine 758; engineering and architecture 630; and social sciences and law 586. Of these, a total of 910 places were available for new under- graduate entrants. There were also 629 places for postgraduate students-391 reading for higher degrees and 238 for diplomas and certificates-39 students at the Chinese Language School, one visiting student, six external students and two students reading for the Diploma in Chinese Language. The number of full-time teaching posts (in- cluding demonstratorships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year was 505. All the degrees and other professional qualifications conferred by the uni- versity are on the same footing as those of the universities in Britain.

      The university's Department of Education offers graduates a one-year full-time course leading to a Diploma in Education and a two-year part-time course leading to a Certificate in Education. The department also offers the Master of Philosophy in Humanities following a qualifying examination, either as a six-term part-time period of study spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time candida- ture. As in other departments, the Doctor of Philosophy is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

      The Department of Extra-mural Studies provided more than 217 evening and day-time courses for adult students in 1972-3. During the period July 1972 to June 1973, 5,630 attended regular courses and 402 attended public lectures, seminars and conferences. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from oriental studies through a full range of liberal arts to economics, law and commerce, and include a rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including a University Diploma in Management Studies.

EDUCATION

59

       The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level. Entry to the uni- versity is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination-2,994 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry in 1973.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in October 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It com- prises Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. The university is situated on 33 acres of land on Tai Po Road near Shatin. United College, which was located on Hong Kong Island, moved into the Shatin campus in December 1971, and New Asia College, which was located in Kowloon, in July 1973.

The Chinese University has three faculties and the total undergraduate enrolment in September 1973 was 2,790 (arts 784, science 801, commerce and social science 1,205). During the year, 595 students graduated from the university-21 Masters of Philosophy, 17 Masters of Business Administration, 152 Bachelors of Arts, 81 Bache- lors of Business Administration, 181 Bachelors of Social Science, and 143 Bachelors of Science. In the matriculation examination held in the summer of 1973, a total of 7,485 candidates sat and 2,499 passed. The total number of freshmen for the academic year 1973-4 is 827.

The Graduate School of the university, established in September 1966, has been offering postgraduate courses in arts, science, business administration, and social science leading to a Master's degree. Since the academic year 1971-2, two types of programmes have been offered: a two-year programme of course-work and research thesis leading to a degree of Master of Philosophy in Humanities, Science or Social Science, Master of Business Administration, and Master of Divinity; and a one-year programme of course-work leading to a degree of Master of Arts, Master of Science and Master of Social Science. Up to October 1973, 188 students had been awarded. Master's degrees. In the current academic year, there are 177 students in the school.

       The School of Education, inaugurated in September 1965, offers a one-year full-time and two-year part-time postgraduate course of professional training leading to a Diploma in Education. A total of 73 students obtained the diploma in 1973.

      The Lingnam Institute of Business Administration was inaugurated in September 1966. The institute provides facilities for graduate study and research in the broad area of business administration, and offers a two-year curriculum leading to the degree of Master of Business Administration.

      The Department of Extra-mural Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong offered more than 500 courses and had an enrolment of 15,609 during 1972-3. In addition to general courses, the department offers certificate and correspondence courses in a wide range of subjects. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin.

University Research

       Both universities conduct a wide range of research programmes each year. In the University of Hong Kong, the Centre of Asian Studies continued its basic interests

60

EDUCATION

in Kwangtung studies during 1973. These included a Canton Delta seminar series which attracted scholars from all over the world and led to participation in the Orientalists Congress in Paris. Also included was photographing, for archival purposes, the Cantonese painting collection of the Luis de Camoes Museum in Macau, and acquiring esoteric texts dealing with geomancy and Chinese medicine in Hong Kong. In addition, a new field of enquiry has been developed in co-operation with the Austra- lian National University. The centre is providing the base for a co-operative and inter-disciplinary study of the ecology of Hong Kong with special reference to energy flows and the impact of the environment on the population's cultural adjustment. Publication of the centre's previous research on modernisation, housing, and hawkers has been completed, while several bibliographical projects have been completed and others are in progress.

The centre's research co-operation with the Hong Kong Bar Association has been particularly successful in projects to consider the impact of corporal punishment on habitual relapse into crime and on the reaction of young convicted offenders to the total judicial process. A theoretical study of the causes of inflation in Hong Kong had particular practical impact in 1973, and studies and discussions dealing with the People's Republic of China are also of immediate significance.

      In the faculties of arts, and social sciences and law, research studies were pursued in all aspects of the humanities. Work continued on urban and rural development problems, with special reference to Hong Kong conditions. The university is in an unusually fortunate position to pursue comparative East-West studies in psychology, in literature and in modern intellectual history, and these fields were explored in 1973. Research has been undertaken in industrial relations, dangerous drugs legisla- tion, sociological studies of criminal behaviour, Hong Kong's administration and political culture, and the place of Hong Kong in the Commonwealth. In law, research relevant to Hong Kong environments has been conducted to study patterns of homi- cide, relationship of customary and modern law, development of the public adminis- tration of the New Territories, and origins of Hong Kong's landholding system. In social work, research has included family planning, resettlement estate living, com- munity nursing, and the elderly in Wan Chai. Linguistic work on Chinese dialects and enquiry into the philosophy of language has also continued. In addition to the courses leading to the Master's degree in Arts and Social Sciences, a new course leading to the degree of Master of Social Work, which is to replace the Diploma in Social Work course, has been instituted.

      In the medical faculty, a large number of research projects were conducted. The study of the growth and development of Hong Kong children continued. Other projects with special significance to Hong Kong included secretion of virus inhibitors in Chinese women, folate metabolism in pregnant Chinese and the folate content of certain common food stuffs, vitamin B12 absorption in Chinese, Chinese drug plants, kidney disease in Hong Kong, and research on acupuncture. New and con- tinuing projects in science, engineering and architecture included high-rise building research, building economics, ecology of marine and fresh-water organisms, investi- gations of agricultural pests, stability of cracking, electronic kymography and studies of local ionospheric, geomagnetic and cosmic ray phenomena.

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FESTIVAL

RIES

LIC LIBRAS

Hailed as one of the most significant cultural events ever staged in Asia, the Hong Kong Arts Festival, February 26 to March 24, 1973, attracted top performers from all over the world. Famous artists-from ballet's Dame Margot Fonteyn to the pop world's Lulu-thrilled capacity crowds in the city's theatres. The London Phil- harmonic Orchestra, the Royal Danish Ballet Group, and the New London Ballet all added to the lustre of the festival. Art exhibitions and other displays included contemporary French tapestries, traditional Chinese musical instruments, and paint- ings from the Philippines. Above a traditional Chinese puppet show.

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The Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, at the opening of the festival. In the background is the New Japan Philharmonic Orchestra.

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A member of the London Philharmonic Orchestra shows the effort and concentration required during a rehearsal.

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  A Royal Javanese Dancer from the Court of the Sultan of Jogjakarta demonstrates the grace, beauty and colour of a classical dance.

Local and visiting ballet fans were treated to some polished perform- ances from the Royal Danish Ballet Group.

Cast of the Bristol Old Vic Company in a performance of William Congreve's, The Double Dealer.

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    A local craftsman shows his skill carving intricate designs in ivory during a display at a leading hotel.

  Two Hong Kong youngsters stop to admire a still-life French tapestry by Le Corbusier at the City Hall Museum and Art Gallery.

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        Research centres have also been set up in the Chinese University of Hong Kong. There are now centres in the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities, the Institute of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Chinese Studies. These provide wide-ranging research and training opportunities for staff and students of the university.

       Projects in the social studies and humanities field include studies on the impact of urban industrialisation on a Chinese village, the impact of industrialisation on fertility in Hong Kong, Kwun Tong as an industrial community, and the various aspects of Hong Kong's hawkers. They also covered the legal problems of the press in Hong Kong, and the preparation of a series of socio-economic maps of Hong Kong. Science and technology projects include physiological studies on mud-skipper fish, and pollution studies and marine ecology of Tolo Harbour. Chinese studies include the Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong, a comparative study of frequencies of the vocabulary in Mandarin and Cantonese, and the compilation of a dictionary of spoken Ch'ao-chou dialect.

The Polytechnic

        The Polytechnic was formally established on August 1, 1972, taking over the work of the former Hong Kong Technical College. The bulk of the Polytechnic's finances comes from the Hong Kong Government through the University and Poly- technic Grants Committee. The block grant allocated to the Polytechnic for recurrent uses for the period April 1, 1973-July 31, 1974 is about $61.9 million. A grant of £500,000 for library books and teaching equipment has been made by the British Government.

        In addition to 25,000 square metres of accommodation taken over from the Technical College, a rented office building in the former Taikoo Dockyard premises at Quarry Bay and a group of one-storey temporary buildings provide teaching and workshop space for the rapidly increasing numbers of students and activities. The planning of a major programme of campus development on a site of about 23.5 acres at Hung Hom is in progress. The first phase of this plan is expected to be com- pleted by the beginning of the academic year 1975-6.

        Enrolments at the beginning of the academic year 1973-4 were 2,350 full-time, 1,200 part-time day-release and sandwich, and 11,200 part-time evening students. These compare with the corresponding student numbers of 1,850, 970, and 9,920 in 1972-3. In September 1973, more than 12,800 candidates competed for 1,460 places available for new students in full-time courses. The enrolment target for 1978 is 8,000 full-time and 20,000 part-time students.

        During 1973 the number of teaching departments increased from eight to 11- accountancy and management studies; building and surveying; business studies; civil and structural engineering; design; electrical engineering; languages; mathe- matics and science; mechanical, production and marine engineering; nautical studies; and textile industries. Three new departments have been planned for 1974-comput- ing science, electronic engineering, and production and industrial engineering.

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The Polytechnic offers three-year full-time courses leading to the higher diploma, two-year full-time courses leading to the technician or ordinary diploma, and one- year full-time courses leading to certificates. Part-time day-release and sandwich courses of various durations, and numerous part-time evening courses leading to the higher, ordinary or technician certificates or other qualifications in a wide range of technical and commercial subjects at professional and technician levels are also offered.

        To satisfy the minimum entrance requirements to full-time courses, candidates are expected to have gained the Hong Kong Certificate of Education or an equivalent qualification. They must also satisfy any additional requirements for admission into the particular courses for which they apply.

       A number of British professional institutions have granted exemptions from certain parts of their examinations to holders of Polytechnic higher diplomas. A major academic development during the year was the introduction of a one-year full-time course at the post-higher diploma level leading to the award of the Associate- ship of the Hong Kong Polytechnic, AP(HK). Five associateship courses are offered in 1973-4 in electrical, electronic, mechanical, production and structural engineering.

       Short full-time and part-time courses preparing candidates for professional examinations are organised throughout the year. These include qualifications approved by the British Department of Trade and Industry for marine engineers and mates and masters. Whenever there is a need for instruction in specific subjects of current interest to local commerce and industry or to a sufficient number of individuals, the Polytechnic tries to offer short courses to meet the demand. Those in the fields of accountancy, building technology, radar operation and textile studies have proved particularly popular during the year.

Morrison Hill Technical Institute

        The Morrison Hill Technical Institute, established in September 1969, now consists of seven departments: commercial studies (previously known as business studies), construction, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, preliminary and general studies, and printing, as well as technical teacher and workshop instructor training. It operates craft and lower technician level courses on a full-time, block- release, part-time day-release, and part-time evening basis. Short courses in specialised technical-commercial subjects are also provided. During the 1972-3 session, a total of 92 courses were provided. Of the 12,800 students enrolled in these courses, 82 per cent attended courses with entry requirements of below Form V level, while the remaining 18 per cent attended post-secondary courses with entry requirements of at least completion of Form V or its equivalent.

        As a large number of students attended on a part-time evening basis, the institute made use of 17 external evening centres on both sides of the harbour, including the New Territories, to provide part-time evening courses for more than 9,500 students.

The institute maintains close links with industry, commerce and the apprentice- ship training unit of the Labour Department to gauge local manpower requirements

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and plan courses directly relevant to community needs. To meet the needs of the printing industry for properly trained craftsmen and technicians, a new department of printing has been established with workshops and classrooms temporarily set up at Caine Lane. Courses are being run on a part-time day-release basis. This depart- ment will move to Kwun Tong where one of the two new technical institutes is scheduled for completion by 1975.

       The department of technical teacher and workshop instructor training offers both a one-year and a two-year full-time course. It also provides for in-service techni- cal teacher training, as well as training for workshop instructors on a part-time day- release and part-time evening basis. Upgrading training for serving technical teachers is another important task undertaken by the institute.

       As a result of the efforts and co-operation of the apprenticeship training unit of the Labour Department and the encouraging response and interest shown by industry and commerce the institute has been able to fulfil an important role in providing part-time day-release training for both craft and technician apprentices in local industry. The increasing support given by industry and commerce in sponsoring students for courses has resulted in a need for expansion of facilities. This will be achieved when an additional floor, housing three new workshops, is completed next

year.

        The Institution of Electrical and Electronics Technician Engineers gave official recognition to a number of courses run by the Morrison Hill Technical Institute. Holders of either the Technician Diploma in Electronic Engineering or the Final Certificate for Electrical-Electronic Technicians may now apply for technician asso- ciate membership of the institution. Holders of the Electrical-Electronics Technician's Endorsement Certificate together with either the Technician Diploma in Electronic Engineering or the Final Certificate for Electrical or Electronic Technicians may obtain graduate or corporate membership. This degree of recognition has enhanced the status and reputation of the institute.

Prevocational Schools

       Expansion of the prevocational sector has continued rapidly, with the provision of a further 1,080 places for the session which started in September 1973, giving a total of 2,640 places in six prevocational schools.

These schools provide a three-year post-primary course-about 50 per cent general education and 50 per cent practical training. Practical syllabuses usually cover three major fields of industrial or commercial training to ensure that students are introduced to as wide a spectrum of employment as possible. Practical subjects taught include mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, automobile servicing, printing and typesetting, building trades, commercial subjects and textile trades. Additional trades will be included in future schools to suit local requirements. Specialisation is not encouraged at this level, the aim being to introduce basic manipulative skills and to help students choose a suitable career. On leaving a prevocational school opportuni- ties are also provided for students to continue their studies in a technical institute.

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Prevocational education provides for students a suitable introduction to craft apprenticeships, and considerable efforts are made to ensure that prevocational school leavers have the opportunity to enrol in recognised training schemes. Industrial accept- ance of prevocational training is showing an encouraging upward trend, as the value of the link between school and industrial employment becomes appreciated.

       At present, all prevocational schools are operated with a government subsidy, and are located in areas of high industrial and commercial development. The existing schools are located at Wang Tau Hom, Hung Hom, Central District, Cheung Chau, Tsuen Wan and Aberdeen. Future development plans include new schools at Shek Kip Mei, Kwai Chung and Sau Mau Ping. These additional schools, together with expansion and development of existing schools, will provide a further 3,720 places by 1976.

Advisory Inspectorate

The Assistant Director (Chief Inspector of Schools), with the assistance of the Deputy Chief Inspector, is responsible for the work of the Advisory Inspectorate. The inspectorate's main function is the promotion of quality in the classroom. This work involves frequent visits to schools by specialist advisory inspectors, the develop- ment of advisory services and facilities, and the provision of courses, seminars and workshops for practising teachers. It also involves the evaluation of textbooks and other instructional materials, educational research and guidance, and curriculum development. Close liaison with other bodies, such as the various local examination authorities, is maintained by the Advisory Inspectorate.

       A notable development during 1973 was the opening of the Chinese Language Teaching Centre which, like its well-established counterpart, the English Language Teaching Centre, is mainly concerned with the provision of refresher courses for teachers and the production of teaching materials designed to stimulate a more lively approach to language teaching than is usual with traditional methods.

       In the important area of curriculum development, a pilot scheme in integrated science, initially for Form I has been introduced into 20 selected secondary schools. Other curriculum projects included experiments in the teaching of Chinese, English and geography in secondary schools. The organisation, supervision and evaluation of this experimental work is the responsibility of the Advisory Inspectorate, working in close collaboration with the appropriate curriculum development committees. The primary and secondary curriculum planning committees are mainly concerned with the formulation of educational objectives in keeping with the needs of the community, in line with their responsibility for the provision of programmes of curriculum renewal and innovation at the primary and secondary level.

Visual Education Centre

       The Visual Education Centre of the Education Department loans a wide range of audio-visual media to schools. A large selection of modern equipment is on display at the centre which also houses photographic and graphic facilities.

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        During 1973 a series of films showing the exhibition performances of the Danish gymnastic team, were produced in co-operation with the physical education section of the Advisory Inspectorate. Sets of colour slides and black and white photographs were also produced for schools.

        Production of the Audio-Visual News Bulletin was continued, and 2,500 copies were issued to schools and educational institutions every three months.

        An important development was the setting up of a media production service unit in a government primary school in Kowloon. Photographic and graphic facili- ties, and model-making equipment and tools are available for teachers to produce their own instructional materials.

Teachers and Teacher Education

        In March 1973 there were 36,101 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools-8,215 university graduates and 17,009 non- graduates qualified for teaching. Other teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 278 were in special schools. At the end of the 1972-3 school year, the ratio of pupils to teachers in primary day schools was 33.2, and 28.2 in secondary day schools.

        Teacher education is provided at the Education Department's three colleges of education-Grantham, Northcote and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges offer full- time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers qualified for primary schools and lower forms of secondary schools. Specialist third-year courses are offered to prepare non-granduate teachers as specialists in art or physical education (at Grantham), domestic science or mathematics (Northcote) and music (Sir Robert Black) for higher forms in secondary schools. The specialist third-year course in mathematics is also proving popular.

The colleges also provide in-service courses of training for unqualified teachers. These are part-time two-year evening courses, in either Chinese or English, leading to qualified teacher status. The number of students attending these courses was considerably expanded from September 1972 to cope with the demand for additional trained teachers.

Since September 1969, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute has been offering special full-time one-year and two-year courses for training technical teachers. In September 1973 there were 1,289 students in the two-year courses, 71 in the specialist third-year course, 1,706 trainees in the in-service training courses, and 15 in the one- year and 23 in the two-year course for special full-time training of technical teachers.

        New premises for the Sir Robert Black College of Education were under con- struction and expected to be completed by mid-1974. In addition, an extension to Grantham College of Education to provide increased facilities was under construction. Northcote College of Education is also expanding and additional accommodation is being made available.

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Adult Education

EDUCATION

Adult education is provided by the Education Department through the adult education section in the Evening Institute, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and 14 adult education and recreation centres.

The Evening Institute provides seven types of courses, which constitute the whole educational ladder for adults from literacy level to post-secondary studies. The institute runs rural literacy classes and general background classes which provide fundamental education with special reference to adult needs and interests. It also provides practical classes which give adults an opportunity to learn housecraft, sewing-knitting and woodwork. A three-year post-primary extension course providing additional training with a practical bias is also available for those who have finished primary level but do not anticipate further education at secondary level. There are two types of courses at secondary level: the middle school course for adults and the secondary school course for young people leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English and Chinese) examinations. The teachers' courses provide in- service additional training for teachers in art, educational dance, the teaching of English, handwork, modern mathematics, music, physical education and woodwork. In addition, there are a considerable number of English courses from elementary to post-certificate level. Altogether the Evening Institute provides 682 classes in 118 locations in both urban and rural areas.

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers a three-year course in general arts leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. The curriculum includes post-secondary level studies in Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology and English language and literature. Most of the students are primary school teachers. There are 14 classes accommodated in two centres, one on each side of the harbour.

The 14 adult education and recreation centres are located in densely-populated districts. Activities they offer, though informally structured, incorporate both educa- tional and recreational components along the lines of community development. These activities range from music appreciation and sport to group study of art, photography and dramatics. All the organisers and supervisors of these centres have additional training in current concepts and practices of adult education, in addition to basic qualifications in teaching.

       Apart from its regular activities, the adult education section has occasionally designed various schemes aimed at serving the community. In conjunction with the Prisons Department, several classes giving instruction in general subjects with a moral and civic emphasis and also in subjects of a practical nature are organised for inmates at different prisons. Classes are also held at the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

Educational Television

The Educational Television Service (ETV), now in the third year of operation, is regularly received by about 330,000 children in the third, fourth and fifth years

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of primary education. The programmes are produced in the ETV Centre and cover four subjects-Chinese language, English language, mathematics and social studies -for each of the three levels.

Programmes are based on syllabuses in use in primary schools and are designed to complement and supplement classroom teaching. Notes for teachers and pupils accompany each programme and demand careful preparation and follow-up. Evalua- tion is supplied by teachers, questionnaires, visits to schools by ETV producers and reports from inspectors of schools.

About 2,600 television receivers serving some 8,000 classes have been installed in schools since the opening of the ETV service in September 1971. It is estimated that another 600 receivers will be required in 1974 when the ETV service extends to sixth year primary school children.

Examinations

In 1973 there were five local examinations for schools, one conducted by the Education Department, two by the Board of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, one by the Advanced Level Examination Board of the University of Hong Kong and one by the Chinese University of Hong Kong Matriculation Board.

The Secondary School Entrance Examination selects pupils for places in govern- ment and aided secondary schools, and for assisted places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to give advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to take part and are encouraged to enter all their Primary 6 pupils for the examination.

Since 1972, the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (English) and the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (Chinese) have been conducted by the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Board, which comprises members representing participating secondary schools, the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Education Department. The board aims at combining the two examinations over the years, into one examination where subjects can be taken either in English or Chinese.

The two Certificate of Education examinations and the Secondary School En- trance Examination are processed with the help of the government computer, which also marks papers in these examinations which are set in the multiple-choice format. The computer also allocates secondary school places to pupils who have taken the Secondary School Entrance Examination in accordance with their results and their stated preferences.

The Education Department provides a local secretariat for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations, academic and professional, at standards comparable with those in Britain. These examinations include the General Certificate of Educa- tion, which is open to both school and private candidates who hold a Certificate of Education of the required standard, unless they have reached the age of 23, in which

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case no entry qualification is required. The University of London degree examinations are also conducted annually in May and June. Appendix 20 shows the more important overseas examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

Music and Art in Schools

The 25th Hong Kong Schools Music and Speech Festival attracted 10,541 entries and an estimated 56,000 competitors took part in 426 available classes.

       The annual practical examination of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music attracted 5,819 candidates and 2,143 candidates entered for the theory examinations. A Hong Kong candidate was again awarded the annual scholarship awarded jointly to India and Hong Kong, valued at $30,000 and tenable for three years at the Royal Academy of Music, London, for the 13th successive year.

       A total of 88 candidates entered for the examinations of the Trinity College of Music and 894 ballet students took part in the Royal Academy of Dancing examina- tions.

The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra presented a concert in the City Hall prior to taking part in the 5th International Festival of Youth Orchestras in Scotland. Four- teen members of the Hong Kong Youth Orchestra were selected from among all the orchestras attending the festival to appear with the International Festival Orchestras under Leopold Stockowski in a grand festival finale concert in the Royal Albert Hall, London.

Many schoolchildren provided posters and drawings to assist with various social activities, notably the Clean Hong Kong Campaign, the Fight Violent Crime Cam- paign, the Road Safety Campaign, the Anti-Narcotics Campaign and the Festival of Hong Kong 1973. School art exhibitions and competitions have become increas- ingly popular. Pupils' work exhibited in Britain and Japan was highly commended.

Recreation

The Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, organised by the physical education section of the Education Department, continued to gain popularity among secondary school students. The scheme has 45 participating schools with some 2,500 candidates working for the gold, silver and bronze awards. The organising of outdoor education camps for primary school children is another major task in the field of recreation. During 1973, 11,000 students from 177 primary schools had the opportunity of enjoying the facilities provided in five camping areas. Throughout the year, compe- titions covering nearly all aspects of physical education were run in conjunction with associations such as the Hong Kong and New Territories Schools Sports Associations, the Hong Kong School Sailing Association and Hong Kong Amateur Gymnastic Association. These competitions attracted some 28,000 students from 510 schools participating in gymnastics, games, dance and athletics competitions.

During the summer vacation, more camping activities were organised for 2,200 normal as well as handicapped students from 70 primary, secondary and special

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     schools. A total of 14 summer courses including gymnastics, dance, ball games, swimming, life-saving and Chinese boxing, were also conducted for physical education teachers serving in primary and secondary schools.

The physical education section was heavily involved in the 1973 Festival of Hong Kong, organising activities for school children. More than 50,000 children participated in the festival where youth was the keynote. Particular attention was given to activities for physically handicapped students.

Overseas Studies in the United Kingdom

       The students' section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London is responsible for keeping records of all officially recommended students in Britain and for assisting them to find places in universities and institutions of higher education. The same services are provided for nurses undergoing training in hospitals in Britain. The section also makes arrangements for students, including nurses, to be met and accommodated on arrival. The section also helps with personal and educational problems during their stay, and to find employment, particularly in Hong Kong, after graduation or completion of training. The section maintains close relations with the Education Department and other departments in Hong Kong on matters of welfare and employment. Similarly, in Britain, close contact has been kept with the British Council, the Overseas Development Administration and with hospitals and educational institutions where Hong Kong students are studying.

       There are some 4,400 students recorded by the student adviser, excluding govern- ment servants but including apprentices on sandwich courses and nurse trainees, undergoing a wide range of courses in Britain.

       On January 1, 1973 Mr Gordon White, formerly senior examinations officer in the Colonial Secretariat in Hong Kong, arrived to take up the newly established post of appointments officer. One of his duties is the secretaryship of both the United Kingdom Selection Board and the Nurses Selection Board. Until Mr White's arrival this duty has been the responsibility of the student adviser. The boards recommend for appointment those students and nurses who are found suitable for posts in Hong Kong.

       Competition for admission to universities is keen, particularly to the medicine and law faculties. Even after considerable preliminary eliminations by these institu- tions, applications and places finished in the ratio of 17 to one. During 1973, 66 Hong Kong candidates from a total of 128 were offered conditional places and most of those applying for polytechnics and colleges were accepted.

        During the year, there were 994 new arrivals from Hong Kong, of whom 347 joined universities, polytechnics and other institutions of professional courses, 144 were trainee-nurses and 503 registered for GCE courses.

       The government maintains the Hong Kong Students Centre, formerly known as the Hong Kong House, as a residential and social centre in London for Hong Kong students in Britain. It accommodates some 75 students and serves as a focal and meet- ing place for many more. The Administrative Commissioner in London is responsible

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for the administration of the Hong Kong Students Centre and is assisted in this work by an advisory board which includes two student representatives. The student adviser is a member of the board and, on behalf of the Commissioner, is responsible for day-to-day liaison with the warden.

Overseas Studies in Other Countries

Hong Kong students also undertake studies in Canada, Australia and the United States. Of the 3,026 students who went to Canada, the majority went to secondary schools in the hope of later gaining easier access to one of the universities. This trend accounts for a nearly 10-fold increase in 10 years of students seeking overseas study in Canada. Although 122 students went to Australia in 1973 the number has shown no marked change over the past five years. There were 2,706 students who went to the United States, most for post-secondary education in a college or university.

7

Health

THE steady progress of Hong Kong's medical services' development programme continued during 1973. Medical and Health Department projects included the construction of Princess Margaret Hospital, and a new outpatients department at St John Hospital, Cheung Chau Island. The Tsz Wan Shan standard urban clinic and maternity home was completed in November.

        In May a new health office with staff quarters at Cheung Sha on Lantau Island was completed, and on September 3, a maternal and child health centre at Yau Tong was opened.

       Building of combined staff quarters for Princess Margaret Hospital and the reprovisioning of the Sha Tau Kok rural clinic and maternity home also started.

        Although Hong Kong's geographical and environmental circumstances make it vulnerable to infectious diseases, it has been free from any major epidemic in recent years. Considerable improvements have been made in the control of communicable diseases with the result that few cases occur. However, precautionary measures against the reappearance of cholera were maintained throughout the year. Diphtheria and poliomyelitis have been brought under control, due largely to the prevention programme, while the incidence of measles has remained at a low level in recent years.

Where once communicable diseases were responsible for the greater number of deaths, the position has now reversed and there are more deaths from non-communic- able diseases and from accidents. The most common causes of death in Hong Kong are cancer, heart and hypertensive diseases, pneumonia, cerebrovascular diseases and tuberculosis.

Administration

The Medical and Health Department provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health and port health services, and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease.

The estimated expenditure of the department for the financial year 1973-4 is $267,710,100. To this should be added subventions totalling an estimated $137,203,100 to many non-government medical institutions and organisations. The estimated capital expenditure on hospital and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $61,796,000.

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Communicable Diseases

HEALTH

Cholera has not been reported in Hong Kong since 1969. Routine sampling of nightsoil for cholera vibrios was carried out on a year-round basis as part of the surveillance programme. Following a decision of the World Health Assembly cholera vaccination certificates will not be required by an international traveller entering Hong Kong after January 1, 1974.

Tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem. It is believed from figures available that approximately 0.8 per cent of the population is suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment. Males are affected at least twice as commonly as females, the disease being common in elderly men, while drug addicts are also prone. Tuberculosis in the young is now relatively uncommon and the once large numbers of acute and often fatal cases of tuberculosis in infants are no longer seen.

The government, either by subvention or directly through the Government Chest Service, spends more than $29 million annually on control measures. The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association, and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council; while certain other organisations, including the Tung Wah Group and the Caritas Medical Centre also provide treatment facilities with the aid of substantial government subventions. The Government Chest Service operates seven full-time clinics. There are 13 subsidiary centres throughout Hong Kong.

The Chest Service maintains an extensive Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vac- cination programme and during the year 97 per cent of babies born in Hong Kong received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. It is believed that the widespread use of this prophylactic measure has led to the rapid fall in tuberculosis in young people in Hong Kong. There are several lines of investigation proceeding with BCG. The investigation of the different techniques of giving BCG to newborn infants showed that the simple triangular needle technique gave satisfactory results. Investigations into direct BCG, advocated for some countries, showed it is not applicable to Hong Kong. The intensive survey of children born after July 1, 1966 notified as suffering or dying from tuberculosis is proceeding smoothly. An investigation into the bifur- cated needle technique of giving BCG has been started.

       The cornerstone of treatment is ambulatory chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. The position with regard to the treatment of tuberculosis in the last 15 years has changed completely, and the disease can now nearly always be cured, provided the patient is co-operative and takes treatment regularly. The previous monthly issue of PAS/Isoniazid tablets has now, in a large proportion of cases, been replaced by a regimen of twice weekly Streptomycin injections and high dosage Isoniazid tablets. This has the advantage of being a completely supervised regimen, while it is known that some patients did not take their drugs regularly when issued on a monthly basis.

       Large scale co-operation with the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom continued. The majority of new patients are treated on an outpatient basis and it is also now possible to treat at least a proportion of drug resistant cases-

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which previously required hospitalisation-on a completely outpatient basis. Much effort is now being directed towards shortening treatment. Present treatment will certainly cure the great majority of patients suffering from tuberculosis. However, drugs have to be taken for 18 or even 24 months and this is asking much of the patient. It may be possible that this can be cut by half in the not too distant future.

       The results of these many investigations are of international interest and it is hoped that they will, within the next few years, revolutionise the approach to the treatment of tuberculosis.

       Hong Kong now has 1,634 beds available specifically for the treatment of tuber- culosis. The government provides 108 beds in Kowloon Hospital, but the majority are in government-assisted hospitals, notably those managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association. This association offers a total of 805 beds distributed between Grantham Hospital, Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home. In addition, the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council has 302 beds at its Haven of Hope Sanatorium. The Tung Wah Group plays an important role in the treatment of tuberculosis and the chest unit at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary has 185 beds in spacious accommodation.

       Venereal disease is diagnosed and treated free at social hygiene clinics. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis continued to remain low in 1973, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. Latent and late syphilis and gonorrboea have stayed comparatively unchanged and the incidence of chancroid and lymphogranuloma remained low. The maintenance of this satisfactory position is due, at least in part, to energetic control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine ante-natal blood tests.

       Leprosy remains a comparatively minor public health problem. Each week 20 outpatient sessions are held solely for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while other sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. The Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary, with the aid of a government subvention, maintains the Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium for the treatment of infectious cases and a small number of patients requiring reconstructive operations are also accepted. Due to the decreasing incidence of the disease, the number of new cases admitted to the leprosarium has shown a notable reduction in recent years. In June 1971 it was decided to phase out and eventually close the lep- rosarium. Further leprosy cases requiring hospital treatment will be accommodated in the special infectious disease unit of the Princess Margaret Hospital, scheduled for completion in 1974.

         Malaria can now be considered to have been controlled and transmission of the disease has ceased in Hong Kong. During the year 16 cases were reported but on investigation all were found to have been imported. No fresh cases were notified. Malaria prevention in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures con- sisting of draining and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. In the greater part of the New Territories, where the background is essentially rural, screening of buildings and use of mosquito nets constitute the main protection against malaria. All anti- mosquito measures for the prevention of malaria are carried out by the pest control

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     section of the Urban Services Department. Clinical aspects of malaria control such as surveys and chemotherapy are the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department.

Although one case was reported during the year, diphtheria can be considered to have been eradicated from Hong Kong. The story of diphtheria control has been a fascinating one. In 1959, when mass inoculation against the disease started, 2,059 cases were notified. Since then there has been a steady decline in the number of cases each year culminating in the virtual absence of cases in 1973. But immunisation against the disease will have to be continued indefinitely as reduction in the immunity status of the population would result in its reintroduction.

Poliomyelitis has been brought under control since the introduction of the poliomyelitis vaccination programme in 1963. During the year only three cases were reported. Vaccine is offered free at government maternal and child health centres and a general immunisation campaign is mounted annually in January and March. Infants in hospitals and maternity homes are given one dose of Type 1 polio-vaccine soon after birth. This is followed by two doses of balanced trivalent vaccine at three and five months and a booster dose at 18 months. Epidemiological surveillance of the disease was maintained throughout the year. This included virological investiga- tion of laboratory specimens for polio-virus and the carrying out of a poliomyelitis faecal survey among normal children to find the distribution of polio-virus in the community.

       Measles is most prevalent among children under the age of five years and epidemics are characteristically biennial. In Hong Kong during epidemics the disease is usually associated with high mortality due mainly to complications, such as bron- chopneumonia, encountered too late for treatment to be effective. Since December 1967 measles vaccine was included in the public health vaccination programme and the vaccine is now regularly available at government maternal and child health centres. Anti-measles campaigns are conducted throughout Hong Kong each year, and for 1973 the campaign was started in April, lasting about nine weeks. During the drive, measles vaccine was made available at all government dispensaries, clinics and health centres, and also in other inoculation posts set up in resettlement and low-cost housing estates, health offices and other areas. The disease incidence and its mortality have remained low in the last five years. However, in 1973 there was some evidence to suggest that the biennial occurrence of measles, a feature of the disease before the introduction of vaccination, was recurring.

Influenza occurred sporadically during the year. In conjunction with the World Health Organisation, the disease continued to be kept under a surveillance programme in which epidemiological and laboratory information about the disease is transmitted regularly overseas. The epidemiological information includes regular recording of influenza-like illness seen in the general outpatient departments of certain designated clinics, and also the recording of deaths from influenza, pneumonia and bronchitis.

       Other communicable diseases remain at a low level, and do not constitute a major public health problem.

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        The Port Health Service is responsible for the enforcement of the International Health Regulations, the Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance and the sanitary control of the port and airport areas. It provides facilities for the vaccination and the issue of International Vaccination Certificates to travellers, and for the inspection, deratting and the issue of International Deratting or Deratting Exemption Certificates to ships on international voyages. It also renders medical assistance to ships in the harbour and transmits free medical advice to ships at sea. A 24-hour service for the inspection of incoming passengers arriving by sea and air and the granting of radio pratique to ships from clean ports on request is maintained through- out the year.

       Epidemiological information is regularly exchanged with the World Health Organisation in Geneva, the Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila, and several neighbouring health administrations.

Maternal and Child Health

        There is increasing public understanding of the value of Hong Kong's maternal and child health facilities. Almost all babies are born either in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes, and confinements at home attended by private mid- wives now represent less than one per cent of total deliveries. The Government District Midwifery Service has 23 centres, and the total number of maternity beds available for deliveries in these centres is 443. There are 64 registered midwives practising privately in 40 maternity and nursing homes, which are regularly inspected by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff.

         The Government Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 36 centres, 21 of which are full-time. Two full-time centres became operational during the year, one at Yau Tong and one at Tsz Wan Shan. Clinics are held for infants, and children between two and five years old, and ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also conducted. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinic are visited at home, and health visitors also go to the homes of newborn infants whose names appear on the monthly birth returns. Health education forms an im- portant part of this work. In October 1973 the initial stage of the takeover of family planning clinics from the Family Planning Association by the Medical and Health Department was introduced.

School Health

        The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Participation is voluntary and for $5 a year schoolchildren receive medical treatment, including free medicine, from private medical practitioners. The government contributes $20 a year per enrolled pupil as well as the board's administrative expenses. Enrolment at the end of the year was 73,162 pupils from 637 schools, and 189 private medical practitioners were participating.

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The School Health Service continues as a government responsibility and is con- cerned with the environmental health and sanitary condition of school premises and the control of communicable diseases in schools. Routine inspection of schools is undertaken by school health inspectors, while immunisation of schoolchildren against the major infectious diseases is arranged by health officers.

Mental Health

Psychiatric cases are admitted to Castle Peak Hospital, mostly as voluntary patients, whereas the psychiatric unit in Kowloon Hospital, West Wing provides comprehensive psychiatric services in a general hospital setting. There is also a university psychiatric unit in Queen Mary Hospital. Outpatient treatment is available in the urban areas and in the New Territories, and day-patients are treated in the Psychiatric Day Centre on Hong Kong Island as well as the psychiatric unit in Kowloon Hospital and the Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre in Kowloon. The Yau Ma Tei centre also provides special facilities for the observation of disturbed children. Occupational therapy is given in all centres and units. Prisoners are observed and treated in the Prisons Department's Siu Lam Psychiatric Centre. The severe mentally subnormal are treated in the Siu Lam Hospital, whereas other cases of mental sub- normality are in the care of the Social Welfare Department and the Education Department, where they receive occupational training and education. Certain volun- tary agencies, working in close co-operation with the Mental Health Service, assist in the rehabilitation of patients before their return to full social and economic activities in the community.

Drug Dependence

       While continuing to give full programme treatment to voluntary patients with motivation, the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts (SARDA) experimented with short-term withdrawal treatment for patients without real motiva- tion to go through the entire comprehensive programme. These patients were admitted for treatment and stayed for about a month. It was the society's view that facilities were being wasted on patients not motivated for a planned rehabilitation programme.

       The Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN) continued to provide a useful channel for the exchange of information and ideas between agencies engaged in the medical and social rehabilitation of addicts and the suppression of the drug trade. However, with the implementation of the recommendations of the McKinsey Report on the machinery of government, the Security Branch is now responsible for policy and programmes covering narcotics, and the Commissioner for Narcotics is answer- able to the Secretary for Security. Nevertheless, the Commissioner's role remains the same in the government's drive against narcotics.

       The Central Registry of Drug Addicts of ACAN, set up in April 1972, has received about 36,000 returns from reporting agencies, and the first annual tabulation of the data was completed at the end of 1973.

In December 1972, the Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society started a pilot scheme on methadone maintenance for 100 male addicts. The scheme is financed by the

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Lotteries Fund, and is a study programme for three years. The immediate aim of the scheme is to discover if local drug addicts can adapt to taking methadone instead of opium or heroin, and if not, why not. Patients are accepted on a first come first served basis. On registering, the only requirements are that the person is male, a resident of Hong Kong, and that he brings his identity card and two passport size photo- graphs. A maximum of 10 patients can be treated at any one time, each patient staying up to seven days.

Before the patient is given methadone he is observed closely to verify that he is a true narcotic addict. While in the centre he has no access to drugs and a true nar- cotic addict will develop withdrawal signs approximately 20 to 30 hours after admis- sion. Methadone treatment is then started. The initial dose is 20 mgm. This is increased daily by 10 mgm until a maximum stabilising dose of 40 mgm is reached on the fifth day. The relatively low dose of methadone blocks the craving for narcotics, allows the addict to do a full day's work, facilitates social rehabilitation work, is safe and economical.

        Any concurrent medical problems the patient may have are dealt with or he is referred to a specialist. A psychiatrist visits the centre to deal with psychological or psychiatric matters and a social worker attends to social and work problems. After discharge the patient must return to the centre each day for his daily supply of methadone and is tested for the presence of methadone and any other narcotic substances in his body.

        The Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilitation Ordinance was amended to extend the period within which an absconding patient may be recaptured by the superintendent of a treatment centre or the police. This period is now 90 days instead of the former 28 days.

Hospitals

There are now 16,848 hospital beds available in Hong Kong, representing 4.1 beds per thousand of the population (see Appendix 25). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes, but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds, 14,795 are in government hospitals and institutions or in government-assisted hospitals, while the remaining 2,053 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and for the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases there are 12,721 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity, giving a ratio of 3.1 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the hospitals, but in some cases the actual occupancy is much higher, as temporary beds are used whenever the need arises.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as the main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories, with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. It has a capacity of 1,596 beds, but the pressure for admission necessitates the extensive use of temporary beds bringing the total number of functional beds in the hospital to 1,898. Kowloon hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. In

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addition, Kowloon Hospital contains an acute psychiatric unit of 67 beds, a para- plegic unit of 50 beds and a thoracic surgical unit of 101 beds.

       On Hong Kong Island, the government maintains another large general 1,150-bed hospital, Queen Mary Hospital. It is also the teaching hospital for the medical faculty of the University of Hong Kong. Construction work on the hospital's new mortuary continued during 1973.

       Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialised purposes. Siu Lam Hospital has 200 beds for the severe grade of the mentally subnormal. Apart from this and Castle Peak Hospital there are two infectious disease hospitals and a maternity hospital of 300 beds, where the teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out. The Tang Shiu Kin Hospital provides casualty services. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau.

Small hospitals are also established in prisons; and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries. Fanling Hospital was taken over by the Medical and Health Department from the Lutheran World Service during 1973.

       The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, a long established charitable organisation, operates three general hospitals, the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah with a total of 2,274 beds, and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. It also provides subsidiary beds for long-term patients at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary. These hospitals, whose recurrent expenditure is met mainly by a large subvention from the government, provide a valuable contribution to Hong Kong's medical facilities and are gradually being modernised and expanded. Alteration work at the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital was completed during the year and the hospital now admits cases referred from Tang Shiu Kin Hospital.

        The Pok Oi Hospital, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, is another long- established charitable organisation operating with the assistance of a government subvention. It has been modernised and expanded.

        Two government-assisted hospitals were completed during the year. The Yan Chai Hospital at Tsuen Wan has 100 beds and an outpatient department. It was opened in August 1973. Another hospital, the United Christian Hospital at Kwun Tong became partly operational in November 1973. It has 555 beds with outpatient, casualty and emergency services.

        A number of other hospitals are maintained by missionary and charitable organisations such as the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre at So Uk, Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital, the Duchess of Kent Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home, and the Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital. Several receive substantial government subvention.

Specialist Services

       In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in various medical fields. There are also specialised clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, together with

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specialist services offered by the Government Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory. The Medical and Health Department Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals maintain blood banks, and the Hong Kong Red Cross Society operates a blood-collecting service for voluntary blood donation; laboratory work for three blood banks is carried out by the Institute of Pathology.

Outpatient Clinics

To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services, provided mainly by the government and also by subsidised organisations and private agencies, are developing steadily. The government now maintains 49 clinics for general outpatients, with specialist facilities available in the major centres of the urban areas. Similar specialist facilities are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Ter- ritories, while other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

In accordance with the Medical Clinics Ordinance, all clinics are required to be re-registered annually. On December 31, 1973 there were 75 registered static clinics and three registered mobile clinics under the control of registered medical practi- tioners, and 340 clinics registered with exemption, making a total of 418. The Low Cost Medical Care Scheme under which static clinics are set up in resettlement and housing estates continued to operate during the year, and in allocating these premises, registered doctors are given priority.

Medical Fees

       At government general outpatient clinics there is a nominal charge of $1 a visit, including medicine and such things as X-rays and laboratory tests. Consultation at a specialist clinic also costs $1. There are no charges for patients at tuberculosis, social hygiene, and leprosy clinics or for patients suffering from quarantinable diseases. Similarly, no charges are made at certain remote institutions located in outlying areas or on the floating clinics. The infant welfare and ante-natal and post-natal clinics are also free.

       For patients admitted in the general ward of government hospitals, the daily maintenance and treatment fee ranges from $2 to $6 according to the diet supplied. A limited number of private rooms and small semi-private wards are provided at major hospitals. The charges for these are much higher than general-class wards and, in addition, all treatment is chargeable.

       Where a patient is unable to pay the medical fees, provision has been made for the charges to be either waived or reduced at the discretion of the Director of Medical and Health Services.

Dental Services

The Government Dental Service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly- paid government officers and their families, and offers a limited treatment programme

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for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 32 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

       Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receive water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. It appears from clinical observation that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will become more marked in the future.

       Many voluntary bodies and welfare organisations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Association and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free of charge. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped static and mobile dental clinics.

Ophthalmic Service

Based on three full-time outpatient centres, equipped with operating, investiga- tion and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the New Territories. Ophthalmic surgery is performed at the eye clinics as well as in two government hospitals, in which 38 beds are reserved for ophthalmic cases. The staff of the Ophthalmic Service also deal with ophthalmic emergencies at three casualty departments situated at the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Kwong Wah Hospitals.

Training

       The degrees of MB, BS, conferred by the University of Hong Kong, have been recognised for registration by the General Medical Council of Great Britain since 1911. During recent years the Medical Faculty has expanded to meet Hong Kong's increasing need for doctors. Post-graduate clinical training is available, and the government maintains a programme for the training of its doctors for post-graduate qualifications. Suitable candidates, when selected, are given training under the super- vision of the clinical specialists for a period of about four years. A local officer who has completed four years continuous resident service and has been confirmed to the pensionable establishment, may be granted paid study leave to attend a course outside Hong Kong. Through this arrangement many government doctors in the past years have been given paid leave to attend courses of study overseas. In addition, opportunities are also available for doctors to sit the higher professional examina- tions in Hong Kong by arrangements with the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Australia and Edinburgh, leading to Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons and Fellow- ship of the Faculty Anaesthesia, as well as the Part I Examination of the Royal Colleges of Medicine, Pathology, Obstetrics and Cynaecology, and in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology.

       The school of physiotherapy run by the Medical and Health Department pro- duces qualified physiotherapists for the service, as well as for government-assisted

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hospitals. For other para-medical grades of staff in-service training and opportunities are provided to enable them to qualify as radiographers, laboratory technicians, dispensers, prosthetic, orthoptic, mould laboratory, and dental technicians. A number of suitable and promising staff of these para-medical services are sent abroad for further training and experience.

       Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry, but a government dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from Hong Kong to go overseas each year to study dentistry. A total of 93 scholarships have been awarded since the scheme started in 1954.

        There are three government hospital schools of nursing where instruction is given in English; two of these provide a three-year course in general nursing and are attached to Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Queen Mary Hospital. The other school, in Castle Peak Hospital, provides a three-year course in psychiatric nursing.

       Other approved nurse training schools are attached to the following government- assisted or private hospitals; the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital-where instruction is given in Chinese-and the Caritas Medical Centre, where instruction is given in English. Final registration examinations are conducted by the Hong Kong Nursing Board, with full reciprocity of registration between the board and the General Nursing Council for England and Wales.

        Queen Elizabeth Hospital and all the above-mentioned government-assisted and private hospitals run one-year courses in obstetric nursing for registered nurses. On completion of their training, students are qualified to sit for the registration examination conducted by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The courses, held at Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Caritas Medical Centre, are conducted in English, and are recognised as equivalent to Part 1 midwifery training by the Central Mid- wives Board in England. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board in England is not possible at present.

       The Tsan Yuk Hospital, which is the only government maternity hospital, offers a two-year obstetric course in Chinese for students who are not registered nurses. On completion of this two-year training, they are eligible to sit for the registration examination conducted by the Hong Kong Midwives Board.

       The Government Hospital Schools of Nursing also offer two-year courses in general nurse training and psychiatric nurse training at Kowloon Hospital and Castle Peak Hospital respectively. Five other approved schools for this type of course in general nursing are attached to government-assisted and private hospitals. They are Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Haven of Hope Sanatorium, Grantham Hospital, Tung Wah Group of Hospitals and Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital. As from July 1972, pupil nurses who have completed these courses and have passed the examination conducted by the Hong Kong Nursing Board become enrolled

nurses.

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A nine-month course for health visitors is held at the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, which prepares entrants to sit for the examination of the Royal Society for the Pro- motion of Health. Health auxiliaries, who supplement the health visitor service, continue to have a two-year training course in health education and basic public health nursing at the same hospital.

       The government conducts a continuous post-graduate overseas training programme for graduate nurses. Subjects studied during 1972 were nursing admin- istration, nursing education, dietetics, orthopaedic nursing, intensive-care therapy, operating theatre service and ophthalmic nursing.

       The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspector for General Overseas Appointments, the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors, the Certificate for Health Visitors and School Nurses and the Diploma of Air Pollution Control. Training for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health In- spection for General Overseas Appointments and the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors is carried out within the Urban Services Department.

Environmental Health

       Responsibility for public cleansing and conservancy services and for the disposal of the dead in the urban areas rests with the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories, this responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services.

       In the Urban Services Department, about 8,900 employees are engaged in street cleansing, the removal of refuse, junk and nightsoil, and the management of public conveniences and bathhouses.

       The day-to-day collection of refuse and junk employs 287 vehicles of various types. Ten mechanical sweepers and 29 street-washing vehicles are used for cleansing the streets.

An average of 3,200 tons of refuse is collected and disposed of daily-1,300 tons at the two incinerators operated by the Public Works Department and 1,900 tons at the dumps at Gin Drinker's Bay, Chau Tau, Ngau Tam Mei and Shuen Wan in the New Territories. Construction of a second incinerator in Kowloon is nearing completion and planning for a third is in progress.

       The need for the free nightsoil collection service continued to diminish as pre- war property was replaced by modern buildings with waterborne sanitation. In the urban areas about 15,400 gallons of nightsoil are collected daily from 11,890 floors with dry latrines and from 1,875 pans located in temporary latrine structures erected on building sites and in squatter or licensed resettlement areas. Thirty-three specialised vehicles and three tanker-barges are employed on this service and all nightsoil collected is dumped in deep sea outside harbour limits where currents are favourable to its disposal.

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The 'Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign', which began in 1972 and continued on until the end of March 1973, achieved remarkable success. The campaign, although planned and overseen by the Urban Council, covered the New Territories as well as the urban areas. It reached its peak in November 1972 with a massive clean-up in which the entire community joined forces with the government to fight filth and to create cleaner living conditions generally. It was decided that this success should be firmly and vigorously built upon. Therefore, the campaign continued in 1973 with constant pressure being maintained to prevent any major decline in the standards which had been achieved. However, one area of cleansing in which the results were considered to be less successful was that of the communal areas inside and immediately surrounding buildings. This was particularly the multi-storey, multi-purpose, multi- ownership buildings of which there are approximately 20,000 of three storeys or more in urban Hong Kong.

Phase Two of the 'Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign' concentrated on the clean- liness of buildings. From August to October 1973 a two-month long operation known as 'Clean Our Buildings' was launched involving extensive publicity, the mobilisation of resources of numerous government departments and the active participation of volunteers from area committees. Towards the end of the campaign, newly formed units of community co-operation, the 'Mutual Aid Committee', increased still further the involvement of people drawn from all strata of society.

This year, the operation took the form of a systematic block-by-block inspection of buildings by teams of Urban Services Department officers. They advised residents on all matters relating to cleanliness and hygiene, and helped remove unwanted junk, and generally clean the internal communal areas, rooftops, canopies and back lanes.

Perhaps the most significant aspect of the campaign in 1973 was the interest aroused among school children in all matters related to environmental hygiene. This resulted in the formation of 531 'anti-litter groups' in primary schools and 41 'con- servancy groups' in secondary schools.

The hygiene staff, consisting mainly of the health inspectorate, is responsible for the maintenance of environmental sanitation and for the hygiene control of all types of food business, food and drink, and laundries. Regular inspection of domestic premises is carried out by health inspectors, who are also responsible for investiga- ting complaints of sanitary nuisances and for the prevention of fly and mosquito breeding. Investigations into food poisoning cases and control of infectious diseases are carried out in close liaison with the Medical and Health Department. All appli- cations for licences in the urban areas (other than hawker licences) issued under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance and its subsidiary legislation are dealt with by a central licensing unit which ensures that only premises that comply with the statutory standard of hygiene are granted licences. During the year, 11,700 licensed premises, including the New Territories, were regularly inspected by the health staff.

        The food inspection and certification unit provides valuable services for the control of imported food, including milk and frozen confection, and meat and poultry. Measures are being taken to tighten control over the importation of meat

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     and poultry and the requisite amendments to the Imported Meat and Poultry Regula- tions are expected to be completed shortly. In addition, this unit deals with inspection and certification of animal products for export under veterinary certificates and food- stuffs destined for export. During the year, the Preservatives in Food Regulations were brought up to date to enable better control to be exercised over the use of preservatives in food. Continued effort is maintained in regular surveys and sampling for chemical and bacteriological analysis to enable composition and purity of food and beverages to be maintained and food additives and contaminants checked.

Pest control staff render advice and carry out measures for the control of rodents, nuisance mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, fleas, ticks, bedbugs, wasps and other pests. Clearing, training and regular weekly larvicidal oiling of streams to prevent breed- ing of malarial mosquitoes on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon, and at Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill Village and Cheung Chau in the New Territories, is also a pest control function.

       The health education section continued to organise publicity campaigns on various aspects of environmental health and also assisted other government depart- ments and voluntary agencies in their campaigns on various aspects of health and hygiene.

       Training courses on various topics of environmental health were held for specific groups of the public, such as personnel in the catering trade, cadets of the Red Cross Society and the St John Ambulance Association, Boy Scouts, management personnel in multi-storey buildings, and caretakers and supervisory staff in building sites.

To disseminate health knowledge and promote health education among the young, various activities in the form of schoolchildren's contests and competitions were organised jointly with the Education Department and voluntary agencies.

Public markets serve as convenient centres where fresh meat, fish, poultry, vegetables and fruit are available. There are altogether 61 public retail markets- 41 in the urban areas and 20 in the New Territories-many built decades ago and now too small and badly equipped to cope with the heavy demands from a rapidly growing population. Therefore, the Urban Council has launched an extensive pro- gramme for the reconstruction of old markets as well as the construction of new ones. The new markets are built not only to modern standards with larger, brighter stalls and improved facilities, but are also provided with mini-stalls to accommodate hawkers who formerly traded on the streets.

Other facilities, including roof-top children's playgrounds, libraries and reading rooms are also provided above new markets. Particular emphasis is also placed on the provision of adequate market facilities for public housing estates, where lack of facilities has resulted in a considerable hawker problem.

        Implementation of the Hawker By-laws (1972) made under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance has started. The initial steps required the physical delineation of all fixed pitch hawker stalls and this has now been completed. The next stage will be to compile lists of hawker permitted streets in the urban area for

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gazetting. This is being actively pursued jointly by the Urban Services Department, the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, Fire Services Department, Transport Depart- ment and Public Works Department. Only after hawker permitted streets have been gazetted will the real effect of the Hawker By-laws (1972) be seen.

       The general policy of not issuing hawker licences has continued and the policy of siting licensed hawkers in off-street hawker bazaars and markets is being pursued as vigorously as the availability of suitable sites allows. The hawker liaison section continues to consolidate its position and has proved effective in the management of licensed hawkers, particularly those operating in off-street bazaars. However, illegal hawking still poses considerable control problems.

        The strength of the Hawker Control Force was much depleted during the year. The force now has a strength of less than 250 officers and men, all of whom are deployed on Hong Kong Island. In Kowloon, the police still remain the sole authority for hawker control. Therefore, the Urban Council has agreed that four general duties teams, each consisting of seven officers of overseer rank and above, and 150 labourers, should be set up on a trial basis to assess their suitability to deal with hawker problems. The ultimate aim is to replace the Hawker Control Force with these teams.

        It has become obvious, during the year, that the mass transit railway proposals will require the movement of many hawkers, particularly in the side-streets of Mong Kok and Sham Shui Po to allow traffic diversions made necessary by the scheme. This problem is at present under study.

       The two government abattoirs--at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island and at Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon-continued to provide a satisfactory service to the public with high standards of meat inspection and hygiene. The total number of animals slaughtered during the year at both abattoirs was 2,493,521 pigs and 159,848 cattle, a daily average of 4,047 pigs and 252 cattle at Cheung Sha Wan Abattoir alone. The construction of an additional pig dressing line at the Cheung Sha Wan Abattoir will start soon and the additional line for the Kennedy Town Abattoir will follow shortly. When completed, these will help the abattoirs to cope with the in- creased number of animals admitted for slaughter over the years. A new abattoir to meet the requirements of the expanding population and the new towns in the New Territories is also under consideration. The two private slaughterhouses in the New Territories-one at Tai Po and the other at Yuen Long-continued to operate satis- factorily. Specially trained health inspectors of the Urban Services Department inspect the slaughtered animals, both in the government abattoirs and in the private slaughter- houses.

       The New Territories division of the Urban Services Department is fully and directly responsible for environmental hygiene, cleansing, hawkers and markets, rec- reation and amenities, cemeteries and crematoria, and slaughterhouses in the New Territories. It works in close liaison with the New Territories Administration, the Medical and Health Department, the Housing Department and the Heung Yee Kuk, the statutory consultative body in the New Territories. Combatting pollution and upgrading basic services in the rural areas have remained the major concern of the

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division. Much progress has been made with the basic services. Most of the larger villages have now been provided with full-time cleansing labourers and the division, working in co-operation with the New Territories Administration, has embarked on an intensive programme of providing aqua-privies, incinerators and refuse collection points. The division is also heavily involved in the planning and development of sophisticated urban services in the three new towns of Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun and Shatin as part of the 10-year housing programme.

       The disposal of the dead is the responsibility of the Urban Council in the Urban Areas and of the Urban Services Department in the New Territories. There are six public cemeteries (two of which are now closed) and two public crematoria directly controlled by the Urban Council; 20 private cemeteries are under its general super- vision. In the New Territories, there are five public cemeteries and one public crema- torium under the direct control of the Urban Services Department. In addition, eight private cemeteries and a private crematorium are under its general supervision. The Urban Council provides two funeral depots, one of which is open 24 hours a day for reposing services and last rites, and for transportation to a public cemetery or crematorium for interment or cremation. Such services are free of charge. Two commercial funeral parlours and 33 undertakers are licensed to arrange funeral services. In addition, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals provides a non-profit-making funeral service in Kowloon.

8

Land and Housing

WITH more than four million people living in an area of only 404 square miles, which includes the New Territories and the outlying islands, land in Hong Kong is at a pre- mium. And government revenue from land transactions has soared to record heights.

       For Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon (the Kowloon foothills) govern- ment revenue from transactions during the financial year 1972-3 rose to a record $576 million.

       All land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown and where it is not possible to dispose of it immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some purpose in the future, the land is rarely left vacant. It may be let out either on temporary annual licence (formerly known as 'permit') or on short-term tenancy. The 1972-3 revenue from this type of tenure was approximately $9 million in the urban area, and $2 million in the New Territories (including modification of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, licences are cancelled and the number decreases each year. However, short-term tenancies are increasing. Revenue derived in rent from buildings owned by the government in whole or part totalled $9 million.

       In the early days of Hong Kong, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. With the exception of the New Territories, they are now granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a reassessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

       Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the responsibility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the building authority and chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and New Kowloon. The District Commissioner, New Territories, is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All leases of Crown land and private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar Generals Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of lots in New Kowloon and a number of lots in the urban parts of the New Territories) in the District Offices of the New Territories Administration. The inland lots in the New Territories are mostly located in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them, with a few exceptions, are recorded in the Registrar Generals Department. The principal laws relating to the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

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       The government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction. All land available to the general public for commercial and industrial pur- poses and for residential sites is sold in this way. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools, up to the full market value and payment by instalments for public utilities.

Previously the realised premium was normally payable by a percentage of the sale price on the fall of the hammer and the balance within a short period after the sale. The exception was industrial lots, where it could be paid by instalments. As a result of a change introduced in 1969, in respect of valuable sites in Central when the upset price of the site is $10 million or more, payment may be made by annual instal- ments over 10 years free of interest. During 1971 a further change provided for 10 per cent of the realised price to be paid within one month of the auction, and the balance by 10 equal annual instalments bearing interest at 10 per cent a year.

       To assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, there is a concession which, subject to certain conditions, permits the sub-letting of parts of the building without having to pay the outstanding balance of premium. In the past difficulty has sometimes been experienced in disposing of Crown land because of its unauthorised occupation, normally for storing goods. This necessitated over- coming considerable clearance problems before vacant possession could be obtained and sale could take place. In recent years a policy of fencing vacant sites and installing security guards helped to reduce this problem and a major step forward was achieved with the enactment of the Crown Lands Ordinance at the end of 1972. This ordinance gives the Director of Public Works and the District Commissioner, New Territories much greater and more direct powers to combat the unlawful occupation of Crown land and enables clearances to be effected more quickly and usually without need to resort to litigation.

In recent years the terms of a considerable number of 75-year Crown leases have expired. Many of these are non-renewable leases but unless the land is required for a public purpose, it is government policy to negotiate a new lease with the former lessee. The premium payable represents the full market value of the land, less the buildings. The premium is normally payable by up to 21 annual instalments, with interest at 10 per cent per annum. Where a property is required for a public purpose on the expiration of a non-renewable lease, it is the government's policy to pay ex-gratia compensation for any building on the land at the time it resumes possession.

        On June 30, 1973 the 75-year renewable Crown leases of approximately 5,000 lots and sections of lots in New Kowloon involving about 40,000 owners fell due for renewal. In addition, renewable Crown leases of about 200 lots and sections of lots in Kowloon had already fallen due for renewal but had not been renewed because of problems associated with multiple ownership.

In accordance with their terms these leases were to be renewed at a reassessed Crown rent being 'such rent as shall be fairly and impartially fixed by the Director of Public Works as the fair and reasonable rental value of the ground at the date of

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such renewal'. The method of determining such rents previously adopted by the Director of Public Works was to assess the rent on the basis of the value of the land at the date of renewal.

This method was challenged in court and upheld on appeal to the Privy Council but, a review of the lease renewal policy resulted in the introduction of several con- cessions in favour of the Crown lessees. These included, in the case of underdeveloped lots, a new Crown rent equal to 30 per cent of the net annual value at the date of renewal, and in the case of lots with pre-war buildings subject to the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, no increase in the Crown rent on renewal.

In view of the sharp rise in land prices in late 1972 and the early part of 1973 a further concession was proposed to the effect that the rent should be assessed on either the value of the land at the date of expiry of the lease or that pertaining one year prior to expiry, whichever was the less. Legislation was drafted on this basis but there was considerable public pressure from interested parties for yet a further revision of the government's lease renewal policy. It was eventually decided that determining the reassessed rent in accordance with the provisions of Crown leases should be abandoned and that all Crown leases should be statutorily renewed on annual rent at an amount equal to three per cent of the rateable value of the property. This legislation passed into law on December 12 as the Crown Leases Ordinance 1973.

The issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases is dealt with by the Land Office, a branch of the Registrar Generals Department which also has responsibility for the registration of all instruments affecting land, as well as the settling and registration of conditions of sale, the grant and exchange of Crown land, the granting of mining leases, and advising the government generally on matters relating to land.

        The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries, in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration. Also that deeds and instruments not registered, other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years, shall be absolutely null and void as against any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortagee for valuable consideration. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it. The ordinance is now under review and changes in the system are anticipated.

The number of instruments registered in the Land Office during the year rose by 5.8 per cent from last year's total of 91,057 to 96,366. More detailed statistics with comparisons with previous years are contained in Appendix 28. At the end of 1973 the card index of property owners contained the names of 237,114 people (an increase of 19,647 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being merely owners or part owners of small individual flats.

Setting out public works and boundaries of private lots and government sites (cadastral or title survey), the delineation of town planning layouts and the production of plans and maps; are the responsibilities of the Hong Kong islands survey division and mainland survey division of the Crown Lands and Survey Office. Activity during

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     1973 continued to give emphasis to the work relating to the mass transit railway scheme.

Triangulation control points were established in several areas of the New Territories where development will be taking place in connection with new town developments.

Details of the draft of a new air survey mapping contract were finalised during the year and tenders were to be invited from nine overseas air survey firms.

Preparatory work for the production of new metric 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 dual- language topographic maps were also underway and the first three sheets in the 1:20,000 series were scheduled for publication by the end of 1974. These maps will replace the existing 1:25,000 series (L882) when all 15 sheets are available by early 1977.

The first fully metric topographic map produced in this office will be the third revision of the popular 1:50,000 series which will be available in early 1974. All contours and spot-heights are in metres in this new edition.

The second edition of the official guide map with metric contours and improved colour tints, was published in August 1973. The second sheet of the 'Countryside Series', covering the west of the New Territories, was delayed because of more urgent commitments, but should be available in early 1974. Compilation work for a com- pletely new 1:7,500 scale street-plan series, to replace the existing eight inch to one mile maps was also in hand and the first block of sheets should be published in 1974.

Town Planning

The two bodies mainly responsible for town planning in Hong Kong are the Town Planning Board, chaired by the Director of Public Works and comprising nine official and five unofficial members, and the Land Development Planning Committee, chaired by the Secretary for the Environment and comprising six official members. The functions of the Town Planning Office include the servicing of these two bodies. There are three main levels of planning which proceed from general concepts to development projects. They are the Colony Outline Plan, statutory outline zoning plans, and departmental plans in the form of planning guides, outline development plans and planning layouts.

The Colony Outline Plan, which is based on a data bank of land use and demo- graphic information and the findings of six inter-departmental working committees, was prepared and revised under the guidance of the Land Development Planning Committee. It provides a framework for all other planning activities and sets out general planning concepts for future population distribution and development. The plan recommends standards for the provision of community facilities, suggests the locations of major facilities and defines the functions of areas in broad terms. It provides a framework for the preparation of statutory outline zoning plans, planning guides, outline development and layout plans. It also forms a basis for the formula- tion of land development programmes and the reappraisal of transportation pro- posals. The data bank is continuously up-dated and the plan itself requires periodical

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     reviews to be effective. Work was proceeding on its updating and revision, taking into account the results of the 1971 census and recent changes in policies.

       Background studies are prepared for all areas before detailed planning proceeds. They identify deficiencies or over-provision of community facilities and land required for various uses in relation to the existing and future populations of planning areas. A 10-year development programme for all of Hong Kong is being prepared within the framework of the Colony Outline Plan.

       On the advice of the Land Development Planning Committee, the Governor instructs the Town Planning Board to prepare plans under the provisions of the Town Planning Ordinance, for areas where development is likely to affect leased land or private interests. The board's draft plans are exhibited for public objection. Objections are heard by the board which may amend its plans. Any which are not withdrawn are submitted to the Governor in Council together with the draft plans. Once the draft plans are approved by the Governor in Council they become statutory documents. The zoning proposals are implemented through lease conditions where possible, and through the Buildings Ordinance. During the year a total of six draft statutory plans have been prepared by the Town Planning Board, two were referred back to the board for amendment or replacement, a further nine were in various stages of preparation and one draft statutory plan was approved during the year.

       Departmental planning guides for developing rural areas and outline develop- ment and layout plans for developing urban areas are prepared within the framework of the Colony Outline Plan, and of statutory outline zoning plans where these exist. Outline development and layout plans are drawn to larger scales and indicate road patterns and the layout of sites for various uses including reserves for government, institution and community uses, open spaces, utility companies and other specific requirements. After consulting with other departments and making amendments where appropriate, these plans are submitted to the Land Development Planning Committee for agreement. They are then adopted by the Director of Public Works when they are in the urban areas, or by the District Commissioner when they are in the New Territories. During the year, four outline development plans were adopted. These plans have no statutory effect but are used as a guide for the formulation of leases, the sale of Crown land and the redevelopment of leased land.

       Most of Hong Kong's developing areas are now covered by departmental planning guides and outline development and layout plans. Most parts of both the older and new urban areas are covered by statutory plans. However, many of the present departmental and statutory plans were due for revision and replacement by plans which take account of more sophisticated forms of development and increasing social requirements.

Urban Renewal Pilot Scheme

       In the urban renewal pilot scheme area, more than 60 properties have been acquired by negotiation or resumption during the year, at a cost of more than $11 million. The total number of properties acquired was 223, and a further 142 remained.

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     The programme to acquire these latter properties by negotiation or resumption was continuing.

       Some 57 pre-war properties have been demolished during the year, and domestic tenants requiring alternative accommodation have been rehoused.

Environmental Improvement

       The year has seen a considerable expansion in environmental improvement proposals with a view to providing open space and government institutional and community facilities in the densely populated urban areas. The three environmental improvement areas already approved by the Governor in Council are the Urban Renewal District (March 7, 1972), Shek Kip Mei (January 18, 1972) and Cheung Sha Wan (November 14, 1972). The plans for these districts cover 1,600 acres and addi- tional environmental improvement proposals were in draft form awaiting approval, including Tai Kok Tsui, Wan Chai, Yau Ma Tei and Kennedy Town.

       These projects will require the acquisition of some 1,500 properties in Hong Kong and Kowloon during the coming years. About 230 properties have already been purchased, more than 50 of which were bought in the current year for about $33 million.

Urban Renewal and Improvement

       The draft Tak Kok Tsui outline zoning plan will, if approved, eventually neces- sitate the acquisition of 302 properties. Similar arrangements to those applicable to both Wan Chai and Yau Ma Tei would have to be made to deal with property redevelopment which is frustrated by the draft plan. The total compensation costs for these affected properties have been estimated at about $180 million.

Resumption

       To enable a large number of projects to proceed, the number of resumptions has increased in both the urban area and in the New Territories. In the urban areas many of the resumptions are for major new highways, which frequently involve the use of the procedure prescribed in the Streets (Alteration) Ordinance. As many highway projects, such as elevated roads, affect land which is fully developed, compensation claims are now more sophisticated and time-consuming both in negotiation and in Compensation Board proceedings.

New Towns

       Because of the lack of flat land in the territory, designs for the four new towns now in various stages of development have been based upon general principles of cutting platforms into hill slopes to form terraced sites. The excavated material is then used to fill nearby low-lying land and shallow seabed to form further flat land.

       At Kwun Tong, to the east of the Kowloon peninsula, 618 acres of land have been formed in this way since 1955 at a cost of some $89 million. The town is now almost completed, covering an area of 913 acres and housing more than half a million

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     people. While land formation and the provision of roads, water and drainage has been a government responsibility, building development has been shared with private enterprise. Government and aided housing accommodates about 379,000 people and private enterprise contributing housing for about 150,000. Local industry in Kwun Tong employs about 95,000 workers.

        The other three large New Towns are in the New Territories at Tsuen Wan, Shatin and Tuen Mun (previously known as Castle Peak). In order to meet the government's 10-year public housing target the development of these new towns is being accelerated and considerable reorganisation has been necessary within certain government departments. This will ensure balanced development of public and private housing, employment and community facilities to provide compact self-contained towns with the need for city and intercity commuter traffic kept to the minimum.

        At Tsuen Wan New Town, northwest of Kowloon, further residential and in- dustrial development is taking place on land already formed and two more major areas of development are now being planned. The town already has a population of more than 400,000. One area to the north of the existing development will provide housing for 114,000, together with 47 acres of land for industrial development and the land required for a town centre incorporating administrative, commercial and cultural facilities. The second area to be developed is Tsing Yi Island which will be connected to the mainland by a bridge due to be completed early in 1974. Tsing Yi is being planned for a population of 158,000 and although an integral part of Tsuen Wan New Town it will have all the facilities required to make it a self-contained community while also providing a number of sites suitable for heavy industry that needs sea access.

       The New Town of Tuen Mun at the western part of the New Territories already has a population of 34,000. Two hundred acres have already been formed and are being developed for industrial and residential use. In the next 10 years it is planned to expand the new town to an area of about 2,070 acres with a target population of 464,000 persons.

       The initial stage of development of Shatin New Town is now well in hand and includes residential development for 56,000, together with an industrial area of 13.5 acres. The next stage is now being planned to provide a balanced township of 236,000 by 1979. A further stage of development is also being planned which will increase population to 461,000 by 1983 and provide for an ultimate population of 475,000. Concurrently with the development of the new town the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club is building a new racecourse which also incorporates other sports facilities and is due for completion in 1978.

       Concurrently with the development of the three major new towns, plans for the towns of Tai Po, Fanling-Sheung Shui, and Yuen Long are being formulated for their development with an ultimate target population of 124,000, 98,000 and 85,000 respectively. Concurrently with this, development of smaller communities related to public housing estates are planned for the islands of Cheung Chau and Peng Chau, at Tai O and Mui Wo on Lantau Island and at Lau Fau Shan, Tan Kwai Tsuen and Sai Kung in the New Territories.

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       After the June rainstorms in 1972 staff of the Buildings Ordinance Office had to defer normal duties to deal with emergency works in connection with dangerous buildings. Therefore, with the building boom, the backlog of building plans for processing continued to build up in the early part of 1973. It became necessary to pass the Buildings Ordinance (Extension of Operation of Section 30A) (Amendment) Regulations 1973. These regulations extended to June 30, 1973, the period in which the statutory time limits within which applications for the approval of plans and consent to start works must be processed by the Building Authority were suspended. To help clear the backlog of overdue plans, consultants were engaged in February to assist in checking structural submissions and a system of curtailed checking was introduced on May 15, 1973. These temporary measures have proved to be of great assistance.

As building proposals were getting more complex, additional checking procedures became necessary to ensure that interests of the government were not frustrated and the safety of adjoining property was not endangered, the 28-day time limit for pro- cessing building plans was neither realistic nor practicable. The Building (Administra- tion) Regulations 1973 were introduced on July 1, 1973 to extend the statutory period for the approval of new submissions to 60 days and for re-submissions not constitu- ting a major revision to 30 days.

       The Temporary Restriction of Building Development (Pok Fu Lam and Mid- levels) Ordinance became effective in July. Under this ordinance it is mandatory for the Building Authority to refuse, until January 31, 1974, to give approval to all new plans submitted after July 4, 1973 for building works in the Pok Fu Lam and Mid- levels areas. However, this legislation had no effect on buildings under construction nor on projects approved before July 4, 1973. The Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1973 was enacted to ensure that large sites to be developed have a reasonable internal road layout. Therefore, on September 14, 1973 the Building (Administration) (Amend- ment) (No 2) Regulations 1973 came into operation whereby the Building (Adminis- tration) Regulation 16 was amended to require proper enquiries to be made from the principal government engineer Highways Office regarding the provision of streets within a site on which building works are to be carried out, including connection to a public street.

Several buildings of note were completed or near completion during the year. They include the 34-storey Excelsior Hotel at East Point, the 35-storey Furama Hotel near the City Hall, the 18-storey Sheraton Hotel at the junction of Nathan Road and Salisbury Road in Kowloon, and the 52-storey Connaught Centre, once claimed to be the tallest building in Asia.

The dangerous buildings division of the Buildings Ordinance Office continued with demolition or repair of dangerous buildings. Other functions of the division included survey of potential dangerous buildings on a planned survey basis, routine re-inspection of suspect buildings and action in connection with the repair of defective

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drainage. During the year some 421 buildings were closed and demolished, compared with 374 buildings in 1972; and 645 repair notices were served, against 710 the previous year.

       Due to the high pressure of work in the Buildings Ordinance Office, action in connection with unauthorised building works had to be curtailed considerably. How- ever, because of a number of small fires in a large residential block in King's Road, a survey of the building was carried out in January, disclosing many blocked escape routes and a large number of illegal structures. Notices under the Buildings Ordinance were served on respective owners requiring them to reinstate the building to its condition when it was certified for occupation. This action was extensively publicised as a warning to the public. During 1973, some 1,722 notices were served, compared with 186 for 1972.

During the year one registered contractor was successfully prosecuted for contravention of the Buildings Ordinance. Disciplinary proceedings were instituted by the Building Authority against eight architects and seven registered contractors for similar reasons. One appeal was heard against the decision made by the Building Authority under the Buildings Ordinance which resulted in a judgment being given in favour of the appellant.

Rent Control

       On December 31, 1972 all existing legislation affecting the relationship of land- lord and tenant was consolidated into one ordinance-the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance. Previous ordinances then formed parts of the consolidat- ed ordinance. Therefore, where reference to ordinances is made in the following paragraphs, the relevant 'part' of the consolidated ordinance is shown in brackets.

       Legislation controlling rents and providing security of tenure was instituted by proclamation immediately after World War II and was later embodied in 1947 in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance (Part I). It applied to both domestic and business premises and restricted rents by reference to pre-war levels, while excluding new and substantially reconstructed buildings from control. Following an amendment in 1953, permitted increases in standard rents were raised to 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises, at which level they have remained ever since.

       There is provision in the legislation for the exclusion of pre-war premises where redevelopment is intended. Such exclusions are made on the recommendation of a Tenancy Tribunal, by order of the Governor or the Governor in Council in the case of an appeal. The payment of compensation to tenants dispossessed is almost in- variably a condition to the grant of an Exclusion Order. During 1973, 146 such orders were approved, involving 422 buildings. A legislative amendment in 1968 provided that, subject to the agreement being certified by the Secretariat for Home Affairs, a tenant may accept compensation from his landlord in return for vacant possession of his premises: 776 agreements under this provision were certified during 1973.

       The 1953 amending legislation also provided for the establishment as part of the Secretariat for Home Affairs of two tenancy enquiry bureaux, one in Hong Kong

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and one in Kowloon, to assist in the working of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. Their principal task is to provide factual information to tenancy tribunals in respect of exclusion proceedings, and where premises are declared dangerous by the Building Authority, which may also involve the payment of compensation. They also provide general advice and assistance on tenancy matters.

       In respect of post-war premises, legislation dates back to 1952 and the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance (Part IV) which gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants who had entered into oral tenancy agreements involving the payment of key money or premia. In 1963 the three-year security provided by this ordinance was extended to five years. However, the payment of key money in these circumstances is no longer so prevalent in Hong Kong. Increases in rent in 1961 and the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance (Part V) which generally requires landlords seeking possession to give six months notice of termination.

The first comprehensive legislation affecting post-war domestic premises was the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1963 which was enacted primarily to control increases in rents and provide a measure of security of tenure. With an increase in the supply of newly completed buildings from 1963 to 1966 the housing position eased and rents stabilised. As a result, this ordinance was allowed to expire on June 30, 1966. For the next three years the situation remained quiet but, with a return of confidence following the disturbances in 1967 and a continuing demand for accommodation, rents by the end of 1969 had taken a sharp upward trend. While the situation was being considered, a temporary measure was enacted in January 1970 to 'freeze' rents and this was followed in June by the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1970 (Part II). This ordinance which followed closely the provisions of the 1963 ordinance contained a number of exclusions-in particular larger flats and houses, fresh lettings and lettings in newly constructed buildings were not controlled. The ordinance was due to expire at the end of May 1974 but because of the continuing upward trend of rentals for uncontrolled accom- modation it became necessary in June 1973 to enact further temporary legislation to 'freeze' the rents of unprotected tenancies.

       This was followed in December by more comprehensive legislation, which repealed both the 1970 ordinance (Part II) and temporary ordinance, providing security of tenure and controlling rents and increases in rent for the vast majority of tenants in post-war domestic premises. This new legislation-Part II of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance-is due to expire on November 30, 1976 but may, in certain circumstances where rents have been increased, provide security beyond this date. In respect of existing tenancies landlords and tenants are free to agree an in- crease in rent, but such agreements must be endorsed by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. Where an increase is not agreed the landlord may apply to the Com- missioner for his certificate of what increase may be made to the current rent. Where premises become vacant and the landlord wishes to let to a new tenant, application must be made to the Commissioner for a certificate of the fair market rent and the rent for a subsequent tenancy should not exceed the figure certified. The Commissioner has wide powers under the ordinance and also issues certificates to assist in disputes

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as to whether or not particular premises are excluded from its provisions. Where landlords or tenants are dissatisfied with the increase of rent certified or the certificate of fair market rent there is a right of review by an independent rent tribunal and also by appeal to the District Court.

Multi-storey Building Management

The Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) Ordinance was enacted in 1970. This provides for the owners of individual apartments in the many large multi- storey buildings in multiple ownership to join together and form an effective manage- ment body to look after the building. By the end of 1973, largely as a result of efforts by City District Officers and New Territories District Officers to explain the procedures involved, a total of 582 corporations had been registered. Many of these corporations have been able to make notable improvements in the management of their buildings. Training courses and seminars for office-bearers in these corporations have been organised by the Home Affairs Department.

       A new form of organisation designed to improve conditions in multi-storey buildings was devised during 1973 in connection with the Fight Violent Crime Cam- paign and Clean Your Buildings Campaign. This was the mutual aid committee, a simple form of non-statutory body in which tenants as well as owners are able to join in improving conditions in their buildings. Some 1,214 of these committees had been formed by the end of the year.

Housing

       Since 1953, when it built the first rudimentary low-rent resettlement blocks to accommodate thousands of homeless squatters, the Hong Kong Government has become non-profit-making landlord to nearly 43 per cent of the population. But, in spite of this vast achievement the problem of housing remains.

        To tackle it the government, in 1972, announced an ambitious housing pro- gramme. The avowed target is to build on such a scale that, within 10 years, there will be enough permanant homes, self-contained with good amenities and in a reason- able environment for everyone in Hong Kong.

When realised, this will mean the virtual disappearance of squatter areas, and the elimination of overcrowding and sharing. It would also allow for the rehousing of those uprooted by development schemes and for the homeless and the unfortunate.

       This means building homes for 1.5 million people-almost half the present population during the next 10 years. The total cost of developing sites and building accommodation for this figure, at present day prices, would be more than $5,400 million.

       The programme demands a high degree of efficiency and co-ordination. To achieve this, a new Housing Authority was formed in April 1973 with the responsi- bility for planning, building and managing all public housing estates in Hong Kong. It has taken over the functions previously divided between the former Housing Author- ity, the Urban Council, the Housing Board, the housing division of the Urban Services

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      Department, the Resettlement Department and the Public Works Department. Mem- bership of the authority is made up of eight Urban Councillors, five other unofficials and six official members, all appointed by the Governor.

       It is serviced by a new Housing Department, also formed in April, which is the result of an amalgamation of the Resettlement Department and the housing division of the Urban Services Department. The Housing Ordinance and Resettlement Ordin- ance which set out the jurisdiction of the two public bodies were repealed and replaced by the Housing Ordinance 1973.

       With Hong Kong's grave shortage of land and almost every available hillside carved into housing sites it is inevitable that the bulk of new estates must be in the New Territories. But providing new towns is not enough. To be acceptable to their inhabitants there must be good communications with the old urban areas, good social facilities, and employment.

With this in mind the new towns will have the essentials of modern life-schools, clinics, parks, playgrounds, markets, police, fire and ambulance stations, and com- munity centres. There will also be sites for private and commercial development.

       Under the programme three such towns are to be developed in the New Terri- tories. The largest, Tsuen Wan, including Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi will have a population of more than 670,000. The second largest at Tuen Mun will have a popu- lation of about 464,000 while Shatin has a planned population of 475,000.

       To cope with demands in the coming years, the Housing Department is expand- ing its construction branch. A recruitment campaign was launched overseas and locally for architects, building services engineers and structural engineers. To achieve the 10-year target it is inevitable that modern building techniques will have to be adopted to save time and labour. Detailed planning and implementation of the housing pro- gramme is well under way, but no dramatic increase in the production of public housing is expected until 1976.

Three new urban housing projects have been started or were taking shape during 1973. These are Oi Man, Ha Kwai Chung and Hammer Hill estates. The first phase of Oi Man is nearing completion and should be ready for occupation in early 1974. Site formation of Ha Kwai Chung is in hand and the first living units should be ready by mid-1975. Twelve other public housing schemes are currently under construction or development by the Public Works Department and they should produce about 88,000 individual units in the next two years.

All government housing estates, previously known as resettlement, government low-cost housing or Housing Authority estates are now officially known as public housing estates. For management purposes these estates are divided into two groups. Group 'A' estates comprise what were formerly known as Housing Authority estates and low-cost estates. Group 'B' estates are all former resettlement blocks. During the year a total of 33,499 people were rehoused; 16,948 into group 'A' estates and 15,551 into group 'B' estates.

LAND AND HOUSING

Group 'A' Estates

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       At the end of 1973, the population at the 26 group 'A' public housing estates was 564,545. Domestic flats of this type are mostly self-contained with a private balcony, kitchen and toilet with a water closet and shower, although in some older estates tenants of two units have to share a toilet. Estates have shops, market stalls, schools, medical clinics, recreational areas and playgrounds and many have community

rooms.

       The applications section of the Housing Department keeps a waiting list from which eligible families are chosen to fill vacancies in public housing estates. By the end of 1973, 38,545 applications had been passed for allocation, 114,186 rejected or withdrawn and 99,216 were waiting for investigation.

       The Housing Department also manages Lung Cheung Court, a local government housing scheme planned by the former housing division and financed by the govern- ment for sale to civil servants. Another estate of the same type is being built at Ngok Yue Shan, Kwun Tong. Rents in group 'A' estates range from $51 a month for a six person flat to $249 a month for a 13 person flat.

       To be eligible for one of these flats an applicant must have a family of at least four people and a monthly family income within limits set by the Housing Authority. The maximum qualifying income for a family of 10 or more was raised in September 1973 from $1,250 to $2,000 with a lower ceiling for smaller families. The limit for a family of four was raised from $500 to $1,400.

Group 'B' Estates

       This type of public housing is allocated by a system of priorities. As in the past people made homeless in emergency circumstances and squatters who are cleared from a site needed for development are at the top of the list.

        Rents in these estates have been fixed at the lowest possible level, with the aim of recovering the capital cost over 40 years plus annually recurrent expenditure, including the cost of administration and management. Rent for a standard 120 square feet room in mark I or mark II block is $18 a month. That for a mark VI standard room of 140 square feet is $38 a month. Since 1954 the government has built more than 520 group 'B' type blocks in 25 estates with accommodation for 1.2 million people.

       Another 47,000 people are housed in 14 cottage areas, many built by voluntary agencies and later handed over to the government for management. Many 'B' estates are virtual townships, with shops, clinics and nurseries. The largest, Tsz Wan Shan, houses more than 145,000 people.

       One of the objectives of the new Housing Authority is to improve the environ- ment of many of the older estates and bring the level of management into line with that on the group 'A' estates. A caretaker system, which has proved essential for good management, is being expanded and will eventually cover all former mark III to VI resettlement blocks. Lighting in public areas has been improved and in the old mark I and II blocks, daytime lighting is provided in the communal bathrooms and

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toilets on the lower floors. A start was made on landscaping and planting in the open areas and small rest gardens have been opened in some estates. To unify the letting process, new tenants of older public housing estates are now required to sign a tenancy agreement.

One of the most ambitious projects now underway is a rehousing operation which will bring a radical improvement to the living conditions of 600,000 tenants on Hong Kong's oldest housing estates. Under the programme, which will take about 15 years to complete, all estates with mark I and II blocks will be redeveloped with a view to providing self-contained living units. They will also have improved amenities.

       In the initial phase of the scheme at Lower Shek Kip Mei Estate, more than 16,000 domestic tenants and about 100 shop and workshop tenants re-established new homes at nearby Upper Pak Tin Estate in 1973. Conversion of eight vacated blocks has already begun.

Government Factory Estates

       To enable operators of squatter factories, workshops and industrial undertakings to continue earning a living when their huts are demolished in clearance operations, the government has in the past 16 years built 24 flatted factory blocks to accommodate them. These five or seven-storey high blocks provide a total of 8,600 standard-sized units of 256 square feet each. More than 100 different types of manufacture are under- taken in these factory blocks, which contribute significantly to the economy of Hong Kong.

Squatter Control and Clearance

       All squatting on Crown land is by definition unlawful, but illegal structures are 'tolerated' if they were covered by the general survey on squatters carried out in 1964. When the land on which they stand is needed for development they are cleared and occupants rehoused in estates. Other illegal structures are cleared in the same way as the 'tolerated' ones and people who are genuinely homeless may apply for a site in a licensed area where they can build a hut on the site on payment of a small licence fee.

       Industrial undertakings operated in tolerated structures but requiring large open storage space are unsuitable for government flatted factories. These may be offered sites in a licensed area provided the trade falls within certain approved categories.

The squatter population continues to drop gradually and at the end of 1973 it was estimated to be 275,000 compared with 463,000 in 1965. The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan where control lies with the Housing Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non-prohibited areas. In prohibited areas, such as the margins of roads, development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with the approval of the District Office.

9

Social Welfare

      THE passage of the White Paper 'Social Welfare in Hong Kong: The Way Ahead' and its accompanying five year plan through the Legislative Council in April 1973 marked an important step in the development of social welfare in Hong Kong.

The White Paper and the five year plan were the result of joint efforts of the Social Welfare Department and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, and represented a concensus of opinion achieved in partnership between the department and the voluntary sector on how social welfare in Hong Kong should develop in the 1970s. The White Paper contains firm guidelines for development of the public and voluntary sector, enabling both sides to make detailed forward plans in a way that was not possible in the past. It also contains specific programmes formulated with particular reference to the needs of Hong Kong within its political and economic environment, its changing social patterns and its predominantly urban setting. These programmes cover a balanced social security system, community development with emphasis on youth, facilities for the disabled, aid to the elderly, rehabilitation of young offenders and probationers, welfare services for families with problems, and effective supportive services in training, planning, research and evaluation.

Implementation of the five year plan which spans the period between 1973 and 1978 will entail a total capital expenditure of about $50 million. The recurrent cost will rise from about $117 million a year in 1973 to $190 million in 1978. The total expenditure over the five years will be about $798 million, the major portion of which will be borne by the government.

        The Social Welfare Department is responsible for carrying out government policies for social welfare, and it operates through nine divisions-the group and community work division, which aims at the development of coherent groups and social responsibility; the family services division, which is responsible for a wide range of social welfare services to help individuals and families; the probation and correc- tions division, which provides social services for the courts and rehabilitation in its correctional institutions for young offenders; the rehabilitation division, which is concerned with services for the disabled, and the social security division, which is responsible for the administration of public assistance and other social security schemes. Also the training section, which is responsible for in-service training and staff development programmes; the planning and development unit, which is responsi- ble for planning and co-ordination of welfare services; the research and evaluation unit, which is responsible for social welfare research, evaluation of services and statistical matters; and the public relations unit.

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       The Social Welfare Advisory Committee which is appointed by the Governor and consists of leading unofficials advises the government on all matters of social welfare policy and on applications for subventions and grants from the Lotteries Fund from voluntary agencies. The Social Welfare Planning Committee, appointed by the Director of Social Welfare, is concerned with the forward planning of social welfare services and was involved especially in the preparation of the White Paper and the five year plan. It comprises members of the voluntary social welfare agencies, the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and the Social Welfare Department. Both committees are chaired by the Director of Social Welfare.

Co-ordination of work in the social welfare field is achieved by the department and by the Council of Social Service by maintaining close contact and co-operation with voluntary agencies, which play a significant role in the provision of social welfare services. Appendix 42 lists 93 voluntary organisations which are affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Many of these organisations receive a government subvention, but they also attract considerable support both locally and overseas. Local support may be gauged by the donations made to the Community Chest which in 1972-3 raised $11.6 million for distribution to 65 member organisations. A list of members of the Community Chest is given in Appendix 42.

Apart from increased spending for the maintenance of existing services and the establishment of new capital projects generally associated with normal progress, there have been significant new developments. Foremost among these was the introduction of the new Disability and Infirmity Allowance Scheme under which non-contributory, flat rate allowances are paid without an income limit to the elderly infirm and the severely disabled. This is a new departure in the field of social security and one that is specifically suited to the special needs and circumstances of Hong Kong.

Group and Community Work

The objectives of community development in Hong Kong are to create a more cohesive and stable society and to instil a sense of individual and collective responsi- bility into the community. The Social Welfare Department has a dual role to play. Firstly it provides social and recreational facilities such as community centres contain- ing communal halls, libraries, clubs for all ages, day nurseries, as well as casework services and various forms of vocational training. These centres help people to develop a sense of identity and responsibility in the community by encouraging the formation of groups sharing common interests. The department also operates community halls and estate welfare buildings which conveniently bring together under one roof the welfare services for people living in public housing estates. The long term aim is to put either an estate welfare building, a community hall or a community centre within easy reach of all sections of Hong Kong's population.

Secondly the department is engaged in establishing a network of 15 Community and Youth Officers on a district basis throughout Hong Kong. Their purpose is to develop and co-ordinate community and youth activities in close co-operation with the City District Officers in the urban areas and the District Officers in the New Terri- tories. Eleven Community and Youth Officers were appointed during the year.

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The Social Welfare Department works in close co-operation with voluntary welfare organisations such as the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, the Scouts Association, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the YMCA, the YWCA, the Duke of Edinburgh Awards Scheme, Caritas and many others in a variety of programmes.

The department is also involved in the Summer Youth Activities Programme, which has become an annual event. A large number of voluntary welfare organisa- tions, district organisations, community associations and youth groups are concerned with the planning and organisation of the massive recreation programme. About 1.5 million young people took part in the 1973 programme.

Family Welfare Service

The family service division of the department consists of a regionalised network of 18 casework offices located in five district offices and seven family service centres. Casework services provided by the department include counselling on problems in- volving family conflicts, the care of children and disturbed adolescents, unmarried mothers and advice on employment, compassionate housing, schooling for children, adoption, and day and residential care. The number of families and individuals receiv- ing such services totalled 22,784 in 1973.

The family services division is also responsible for carrying out statutory respon- sibilities, principally under the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance and the Adoption Ordinance. Temporary residential care is provided by the department's Chuk Yuen Children's Reception Centre for 80 children who are in need of care and protection, and an immediate home.

Legal adoption of children is made in accordance with the provisions of the Adoption Ordinance which requires investigation by the department as to the suita- bility of the adoptive parents. During the year, a total 351 children were adopted locally and 14 children were adopted by families abroad through two voluntary agencies, the International Social Service and Caritas.

The institutions liaison unit continues to advise and assist voluntary agencies operating non-profit-making residential and day-care services. During the year, more than 10,000 places were available in some 84 non-profit-making nurseries and creches and nine play centres. The majority of these are assisted by a recurrent subvention from the government.

For women and girls in moral danger and with behaviour problems, the depart- ment, in addition to providing the individual and her family with counselling, runs two pre-vocational training centres. Residential care and training for these girls are provided mainly by three voluntary welfare organisations-the Congregation of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Po Leung Kuk and the Salvation Army.

Rehabilitation

In the field of rehabilitation, the aim of the department is provide disabled peo- ple, where possible, with the opportunity of becoming independent and productive

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members of the community. This generally involves three phases-treatment to help individuals adjust to their disabilities; vocational training to encourage them to make the fullest possible use of their residual skills, and their restoration to society through appropriate training or placement in remunerative employment. Rehabilitation serv- ices are provided at 17 centres and institutions, and are supplemented by the work of more than a dozen voluntary welfare organisations. The continuing expansion of these services was marked by the opening during the year of the Pine Hill Training Centre and the Kwai Fong Morninglight Centre run by the Hong Kong Association for Mentally Handicapped Children and Young Persons, and the St James Sheltered Workshop run by the St James Settlement. Various improvements were also made to existing rehabilitation institutions.

        Through the joint efforts of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, the Social Welfare Department, the Transport Department and the Medical and Health Depart- ment a scheme to help physically handicapped drivers was introduced in May 1972. Under this scheme, a disabled driver suffering a permanent or substantial disability which causes him considerable difficulty in walking is exempted from parking meter fees and time limits at parking meters.

Probation and Correction

        The probation and corrections division of the department assists the courts with social enquiries and supervision of offenders on probation, and operates correctional institutions. At the end of the year, 2,602 people were under supervision on probation and 7,599 social enquiries were carried out at the direction of the courts.

       There are five correctional institutions catering for boys and girls of different age groups. The Castle Peak Boys Home and the O Pui Shan Boys Home are reformatory schools. Castle Peak caters for 150 boys between 14 and 16, and O Pui Shan for 140 boys aged 14 and below. The Begonia Road Boys Home is a combination of a remand home, a probation home and a place of refuge for 164 boys. The Ma Tau Wei Girls Home provides similar facilities for 60 girls. The fifth institution is the Kwun Tong Hostel for young men aged between 16 and 21 who are ordered to live there as a condition of their probation order. Aftercare service is also provided for boys who are released on licence to bridge the gap between life in a reformatory school and in the community.

       Voluntary organisations which play a leading part in helping to prevent the spread of juvenile delinquency are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys Centres, which provide residential training to those in need of special help.

Social Security

        Rapid development in the field of social security in Hong Kong was marked by the introduction during the year of two new schemes-the Disability and Infirmity Allowance Scheme and the Criminal and Law Enforcement Injuries Compensation Scheme. These two schemes together with the existing Public Assistance Scheme are administered by the social security division of the department.

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       The Public Assistance Scheme is designed to provide cash assistance to needy families and individuals whose income falls below a prescribed level. A review of the scheme was undertaken during the year in the light of increases in the cost living and improvements were effected in July 1973. These improvements included an 11 per cent increase in the scale of assistance, higher allowances for rents and more generous allowances for savings and capital assets. As from July 1973 the monthly scale of assistance was raised from $110 to $120 for a single person; and for members of a family, from $80 to $90 for each of the first three members, from $65 to $70 for each of the next three, and from $50 to $55 for each additional member. Under the revised criteria the number of active cases at the end of 1973 stood at 25,009 compared with 17,728 the previous year. Expenditure on public assistance payments for the financial year 1973-4 was $43 million compared with $30.5 million in the financial year 1972-3.

       The Disability and Infirmity Allowance Scheme was introduced on April 1, 1973. It is designed to provide cash assistance on a non-means-tested and non- contributory basis to the severely disabled and the elderly infirm-those aged 75 and over who are not in residential institutional care. The scale of assistance is the same as the public assistance rate for a single person and receipt of these allowances does not detract from entitlement to public assistance. Under the scheme, a severely disabled person is entitled to the full rate-$120 a month-and an elderly infirm person is entitled to half the rate of assistance-$60 a month. At the end of the year the number of cases stood at 39,016. Expenditure on disability and infirmity allowance payments for the financial year 1973-4 is estimated to be $25.3 million.

       Both the Public Assistance Scheme and the Disability and Infirmity Allowance Scheme are reviewed regularly in the light of the cost of living. In addition to the 11 per cent increase in the rates introduced in July 1973 a further substantial increase of 21 per cent is to be introduced on January 1, 1974.

       The Criminal and Law Enforcement Injuries Compensation Scheme set up on June 1, 1973 is a non-means-tested and non-contributory scheme designed to provide compensation to those who are injured, disabled or killed as a direct or indirect result of a crime of violence. Also to those who are accidentally injured, disabled or killed by a law enforcement officer in the execution of his duty. The scheme is admin- istered by two separate boards, the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board and the Law Enforcement Injuries Compensation Board whose members are appointed by the Governor. At the end of the year compensation was awarded to a total of 109 cases and expenditure on payments stood at $500,000.

Emergency Relief

       Emergency relief provided by the Social Welfare Department was on a much smaller scale than last year because in 1973 there was no major disaster. Nonetheless, 144 minor natural disasters resulting from various elements including typhoons, fires, and rainstorms, occurred and a total of 8,546 victims were registered with the department. They were provided with emergency relief-hot meals, temporary accommodation, blankets and clothing as well as financial aid from the Emergency

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     Relief Fund (formerly known as the Community Relief Trust Fund), from which payments amounting to $2,652,180 were made.

Training

Trained social workers are an essential element in the development of effective social welfare services. While professional social work training is available at both the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong, in-service training programmes for persons who are academically untrained but already em- ployed in social work, continue to be provided by the training section of the Social Welfare Department. In 1973 a total of 949 people from both government and voluntary welfare organisations attended the various training courses.

To meet the growing demand for trained supporting staff to fill those posts which do not require a university trained worker, the Institute for Social Work Training was established during the year under the Social Welfare Department to provide pre-service training in social work below university level. The institute's first two-year full-time course leading to a Certificate in Social Work started in October 1973 with an initial enrolment of 50 students.

To assist young people to obtain training at the two universities, a number of bursaries and scholarships are available from the Social Work Training Fund, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the American Women's Association and the government through the Social Welfare Department.

Research and Evaluation

The research and evaluation unit of the Social Welfare Department is responsible for formulating policy on research in the welfare field, assisting and conducting surveys and research projects in consultation with relevant organisations and assisting with the evaluation of the effectiveness of existing welfare services provided by subvented voluntary organisations. During the year, several research projects were completed by the unit. Two major projects were 'A Study on Profit-making Child Care Centres in Hong Kong' and 'A Study of Presenting Factors Leading to Dependency on Public Assistance' which revealed valuable information for the future planning of social welfare services.

:

10

Public Order

+

IN any community with more than four million people in a relatively small space, a major concern of the government is public order. The Royal Hong Kong Police Force, the Fire Services Department and the Prisons Department endeavour to keep up with the latest methods to deal with their problems. Overseas studies are made and visiting experts are consulted in various fields of internal security. Modern equipment is also tested and used by these departments if found suitable to the territory's conditions.

Police

There were no serious threats to the peace and stability of the territory during 1973, and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force was not required to deal with any major civil disturbance.

       The prevention and detection of crime continued to involve a large section of the force, with crime increasing as it has in large metropolitan centres elsewhere. More of the offences committed during the year were reported, primarily as a result of an intensive campaign launched during June in part aimed at involving the com- munity in the fight against violent crime. Another factor was the improved reporting facilities at all police stations, and the opening of new stations and prefabricated reporting centres. Police procedures were also modified to make it easier for the public to report crimes.

       The campaign involved many different government departments besides the regular police and the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force. The community responded well and, following an initial month-long action phase, the police kept up the pressure on criminals.

There were a number of well-organised bank robberies in which the criminals used fire-arms. On two separate occasions police sergeants were shot and killed while trying to apprehend bank robbers in Kowloon. Ten men and three women were arrested in connection with these cases and charged.

       There continued to be a manpower shortage during the year and by its close there were 3,521 vacancies, or a deficit of 22 per cent. A vigorous recruitment drive during July was followed in November by a further successful drive, the full effects of which should be apparent next year.

       A successful recruitment campaign for auxiliary police was also held and mem- bership of this force has reached about 7,000. The role of the auxiliary police also changed from that of internal security alone to supporting the regular force in their more normal police duties.

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       Police salaries were increased during the year and rank and file policemen who were earning $685 in January 1973 were being paid a monthly salary in excess of $1,000 11 months later, an increase of more than 45 per cent. Further recruitment campaigns are planned for the coming year and should result in police strength being substantially increased.

Crime

       During 1973, a total of 39,778 crimes were reported to police, an increase of 5,779 cases or 17 per cent over the previous year's figures. There was an increase in number of robberies (8,717 cases), burglaries (4,740), offences against public order (647), serious assaults (2,237), membership of unlawful societies (1,319) and frauds (1,001). However, there was a drop in the number of snatchings (623), persons arrested for going equipped for stealing and similar crimes (573), and unlawful possession charges (424).

       Of the cases reported, 18,663 were detected, giving an overall detection rate of 46.9 per cent compared with 59.3 per cent for the preceding year.

       But there were fewer arrests. A total of 14,480 persons were apprehended during the year, compared with 14,982 in 1972. This represents a decrease of 502, or 3.4 per cent.

       Of the total number of persons prosecuted 12,954 were adults (16 years and over) and 1,526 were juveniles. In comparison with the previous year, the number of adults prosecuted showed a decrease of 517 or 3.8 per cent. However, the number of juvenile offenders increased by 15 or one per cent. During the year, the Criminal Intelligence Unit, formed in May 1972, was reorganised into three separate units: the Criminal Intelligence Unit, which deals with the acquisition and collation of criminal intelligence, and carries out the functions of the Interpol office in Hong Kong; the Homicide Squad, dealing with murder investigations of a protracted nature; and the Special Crimes Squad, which handles particularly serious crimes.

       The Special Crimes Squad achieved some notable results during the year. The most outstanding success was the solving of a series of bank robberies between July 1972 and August 1973. Two months of intensive enquiries enabled the squad to build up sufficient intelligence to mount massive raids throughout Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories by joint forces of various CID sections just before dawn on August 15, 1973, following the killing of a police sergeant during a bank robbery. The sergeant had responded to a bank alarm sounded when the Cheung Sha Wan branch of the Chartered Bank was being robbed by an eight-man gang which stole more than $460,000. These raids resulted in the arrest of more than 30 persons, the recovery of six revolvers with ammunition stolen previously from bank guards and the seizure of a large sum of money believed to be the proceeds of the Chartered Bank robbery. Thirteen persons, 10 males and three females, were sub- sequently charged with various offences.

       During the year, triad gangs continued their criminal activities. The present gangs differ in make-up from their predecessors, but their activities are just as

OF

FIRE

The normal problems of fire prevention and firefighting are complicated in Hong Kong by one of the world's highest population densities. To meet these dangers Hong Kong's Fire Services Department has developed into one of the best equipped and most efficient fire-fighting forces in the world. Formed in 1868 when its 66 full- time firemen raced to the scene on foot, the department now has a fleet of modern appliances, including fire-boats, and more than 3,000 personnel. Besides actual firefighting the department maintains a Fire Prevention Bureau comprising seven divisions including, training and publicity, and an ambulance service.

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A fire on the last day of 1973 gutted this factory site and spread to

an adjoining hutted area leaving 127 people homeless.

V

共圖書

AVIATION NO 3

RESCUE

   The fire-boat Alexander Grantham sends up powerful jets of water in front of the Civil Aviation rescue launch. The rescue launch is manned by Fire Services personnel.

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This Christmas Day blaze at a Tai Hang Sai hutted area left 2,524 people homeless. The aftermath photographs show firemen in damping- down and turning-over operations.

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A fire and rescue practice at the Supreme Court building provided entertainment for the crowds in Statue Square during the Hong Kong Festival.

A fireman's view of a number of appliances at Harcourt Road. In- cluded are a 55 ft wheeled escape ladder, a 100 ft turntable ladder and an emergency tender.

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SWL800 LB MAX

WITH JACKS

SIMON SNORKE $585

800 LBS. 363 KG.

FBRAKE KEEP CLE

  A closeup of an elevated snorkel platform used in both rescue and fire-fighting operations.

ND HOSE STORE

PUBLIC ORDER

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     objectionable and continue to pose a disturbing threat to law and order. The year saw a marked increase in the number of gang fights which frequently resulted in serious injuries. In many cases the fights were caused by triad factions attempting to expand their areas of criminal influence.

       During 1973, 1,146 persons, involving 1,319 triad offences were brought before the courts, compared with 836 persons and 1,014 offences in the preceding year. Many active triad gangsters were convicted for crimes ranging from homicide to blackmail. The Triad Society Bureau, in conjunction with other units of the force, endeavoured to combat the spread of triad influence by concentrating on organised extortion and protection rackets. During the year 77 syndicates were smashed and their control over specific areas and activities neutralised.

       During 1973 a total of 1,526 juveniles (under 16 years) were arrested for various offences, representing 10.5 per cent of the total number arrested. This compares with 10.1 per cent in the previous year. Of the total number of juveniles arrested, 250 first offenders were referred to the Juvenile Protection Section for follow-up action under the juvenile liaison scheme. Only 12 were subsequently arrested for further offences, indicative of the continuing success of the system designed to rehabilitate juvenile first offenders.

       Although more young people are becoming involved with triad groups there was no evidence during the year of any dramatic change in the pattern of juvenile crimes. Offences against property continued to form the bulk of offences-82 per cent-committed by juveniles. At present the main crime problem concerning young people continues to be within the 16 to 21 years age group.

The General Investigation Office deals with infringements of ordinances administered by other government departments. Investigations are also conducted into organised gambling, prostitution and pornography.

During the year emphasis was placed on action against organised gambling and offences connected with prostitution. A total of 101 raids were conducted against gambling establishments resulting in the arrest of 2,000 persons and the seizure of $142,270.85. In connection with prostitution 72 raids were carried out, resulting in 106 arrests. A large quantity of indecent books, photographs and films was seized, in 46 raids made under the Indecent Exhibitions Ordinance.

The office also took action against unregistered doctors, dentists and clinics, resulting in 106 arrests for offences ranging from operating unlicensed clinics to offences under the Antibiotics and the Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinances.

       More than 190 reports requiring investigation were received from other government departments. The majority of these reports came from the Immigration Department, Registration of Persons Office and Registrar General's Department.

The Commercial Crime Office has, in addition to investigating a number of complex frauds, investigated for the first time, cases involving forged share certifi- cates. Certificates pertaining to be those of Hopewell Holdings, Hutchison Interna- tional, Mai Hon Enterprises, and the Orient Overseas Container Holdings were

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investigated. Arrests were made in all cases but in the first case there was insufficient evidence to prefer criminal charges against the two men arrested. At the and of 1973 a third person was being sought by the police. In the remaining cases five persons were arrested, of whom one has been acquitted, three convicted and the remaining defendant was awaiting trial at the end of the year.

A number of operations concerning spurious watches were also conducted under the Merchandise Marks Ordinance. They resulted in the seizure of 8,289 watches, a quantity of watch components and implements and dies for forging trade marks, and the conviction of 12 persons. Under the Copyright Ordinance similar operations were carried out in which 5,081 pirated books were seized and confiscated, with three convictions. Some 9,300 music cassettes and records were also seized-seven persons were convicted and seven others were awaiting trial at the end of 1973.

       Three fruad cases investigated involved two officials and three customers of a local bank and a total of $5,120,000. Three persons were arrested and charged in connection with these offences. The remaining two suspects had already left Hong Kong on the day before the offences were discovered.

       The Narcotics Bureau made a number of large seizures during the year totalling 399 kilos of morphine, 44.9 kilos of heroin, 1,748 kilos of opium and 11 kilos of cannabis. There was one large drug seizure, consisting of a complete consignment of 1,521.02 kilos of raw opium and 183.81 kilos of morphine. This was seized coming into Hong Kong. In the first six months of the year the total retail value of narcotics seized exceeded $26 million. The total retail value of all drugs seized during 1973 exceeded $42 million.

       The CID Training School, in the former Aberdeen Police Station, provides 12-week courses for inspectorate and rank and file, including women police officers. Since the school opened in April 1970, 974 students have received instruction, including officers from the Royal Brunei Police, immigration officers and Preventive Service inspectors.

The second crime prevention exhibition was held at the City Hall from May 4-7, 1973, with 14 local security companies participating. The exhibition was on a larger scale than in 1972 and was attended by an estimated 80,000 people.

Anti-Corruption

       The Anti-Corruption Office dealt with 1,397 allegations of corruption. Of these 841 were anonymous reports either by letter or by telephone. All reports were tabled before the Target Committee on Corruption for direction on action to be taken.

During the year 50 cases were dealt with by the courts resulting in the conviction of 47 persons, or 94 per cent of those charged. A total of 58 cases were dealt with by departmental government disciplinary action. The year saw the first charges brought under Section 10 of the new Prevention of Bribery Ordinance introduced in May 1971.

       In October it was decided to establish a separate Anti-Corruption Commission, headed by the former Secretary for Home Affairs and Information, Mr J. Cater.

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The Communications and Transport Branch plans, installs, commissions and maintains the electronic equipment which makes the force one of the most sophis- ticated and modern detection agencies in the world. Transport management and driver training are also its responsibilities.

During the year the first step was taken to equip beat policemen in urban areas with portable radios. Planning of this scheme is well advanced and major progress is expected in 1974. Throughout the year 1,586 radios and 24 radar installations were in operation. There are six main radio systems, two territory-wide and four district networks. Five other networks are provided for the mobile units of the District Internal Security Force. In April 1973 a two-way computer-controlled teleprinter system was installed, greatly improving communications within the force.

The vehicle establishment comprises 1,114 units, including motorcycles and specialised vehicles. Drivers are trained at the Police Driving School on Hong Kong Island.

Police Tactical Unit

The Police Tactical Unit (PTU) is a formation of highly-trained policemen and women able to act as an immediate striking force in the event of civil disturbances. Their main responsibilities are crowd control and the maintenance of internal security.

Based at Fanling in the New Territories it consists of 16 platoons-two four- platoon companies at the PTU base, two three-platoon companies attached to Kowloon and Hong Kong Island districts, and two platoons in the New Territories District. Squads under training and on district attachment perform 24-hour reserve duties on a rota system.

All police officers, as part of their career in Hong Kong, undergo training at the PTU, normally during their third year of service. There is a basic training phase of three months followed by a three-month district attachment in company formation. Police women are instructed mainly in crowd control techniques, predominantly the handling of passive resisters.

Police Training School

The Police Training School has undergone a transformation since moving to its present site at Wong Chuk Hang in 1948. The latest expansion programme which started in 1972 is expected to be completed by the end of 1974. The school's main function is to provide a six-month basic training course for newly recruited inspectors and constables. Recruitment of both probationary inspectors and recruit constables was higher than in the previous year. The latest expansion will provide additional training facilities and accommodation for 300 police officers to attend simultaneously in-service/continuation/advanced training courses varying in duration from three weeks to three months.

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       A total of 111 inspectors, both male and female, joined the force during the year, of whom 87 were from overseas, compared with 31 in the previous year. Constable strength was 1,179-of which 141 were women. The number of inspectors and constables who passed out from the school was 81 and 753 compared with 55 and 518 respectively in 1972.

       The extended interview system introduced in 1970 to test the suitability of local applicants for the post of police inspector was attended by 87 applicants. The interview lasts three days and is designed to test applicants' powers of English com- prehension and expression, maturity, initiative, common sense and powers of leader- ship. Of those who attended the interviews 13 were taken on strength as probationary inspectors.

Besides the basic training of probationary inspectors and recruit police consta- bles, in-service/continuation/advanced training courses were held for 1,097 serving officers during the year. The aim of these courses is to refresh and bring police officers up-to-date with the law and force procedure, and to develop their leadership and man-management qualities, particularly in the case of courses held for police officers recently promoted. In addition, traffic training courses are held for inspectors, sergeants and police constables as a regular part of in-service training.

The school also held two police service courses for a total of 37 boys and girls aged between 14 and 20 as part of the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme.

The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force

The strength of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force at the end of the year was 6,760 representing an increase of 2,999 compared with the figure at the close of 1972. The establishment of the force was increased to 7,000 all ranks in August 1973.

The increase in size of the force was the result of an intensive recruiting campaign launched in November 1972. The training of recruits who joined the force as a result of the campaign has continued throughout the year.

By the end of the year the auxiliaries were supplying an average of 1,500 officers daily to support the regular police in their beat and anti-crime patrol duties. Auxiliary police officers performing these duties made many arrests.

Members of the force are required to undergo 14 full days and 96 hours training a year. Seven of the training days are spent at an annual camp. Duties in support of regular police are purely voluntary and additional to periods of training. Apart from their normal training auxiliary police officers attended additional weapon training courses and internal security training courses.

Traffic

During 1973 10.63 miles of road were laid bringing the total to 637.30, an increase of 1.7 per cent. With 202,775 vehicles registered at the end of 1973, traffic density on the roads was 318.19 vehicles per mile.

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Major road works completed included a flyover across Pokfulam Road into Bonham Road at its junction with Hill Road, the extension of Cornwall Street to provide a western approach to Lung Cheung Road from Waterloo Road and a pedestrian bridge across Connaught Road. All assisted in reducing police traffic control commitments in these areas.

With the fixed penalty system, introduced in 1971, a total of 895,100 tickets were issued during 1973 and 84.74 per cent of these-758,511-were paid without appearance in court. Of the 136,589 cases which went to court 136,552 were sub- sequently convicted and 37 dismissed.

Road safety activities during the year consisted of two campaigns, the first directed towards parents to remind them of their responsibilities to teach their children road safety, and the second a major campaign entitled Cross in Safety. The larger campaign introduced the Crossing Code, a local adaptation of the Green Cross- ing Code which was introduced in Britain with great success two years ago. Finally, 1973 saw the introduction of the Standing Conference on Road Safety, an official government body similar to road safety councils which operate in other parts of the world.

Establishment

Force establishment at the close of the year totalled 16,025 all ranks, an increase of 1,209 over the previous year's figures. Strength, excluding women, was 11,805 made up of 191 gazetted officers, 1,023 inspectorate officers and 10,591 rank and file. The number of women serving with the force at December 31, was three gazetted officers, 45 inspectorate officers and 649 rank and file.

The number of civilian staff employed by the force rose by 285 to 2,492. During the year, the force lost the services of 1,564 men and women due to death, dismissal, retirement and resignation. The figure for the previous year was 1,177 (including 142 civilians on transfer to other government departments).

Administration

In September 1973 it was announced that Mr B. F. Slevin, a Deputy Commis- sioner of Police, would succeed the present Commissioner, Mr C. P. Sutcliffe, who was due to go on leave prior to retirement at the beginning of 1974.

At the end of the year there were 60 projects in the police building programme. These included an auxiliary police headquarters, four district headquarters, seven divisional headquarters, additional urban and rural police stations as well as quarters, accommodation for training purposes and other ancillary units. Police buildings com- pleted during 1973 were Stage III of Police Headquarters, now known as New May House, in Arsenal Street, four sub-divisional stations at Tsz Wan Shan, Ngau Tau Kok, Happy Valley and Chai Wan, a rural station at Yuen Ng Fan built in connection with the High Island water scheme, an additional wing at Hung Hom police station, and six permanent reporting centres at Shek Lei, Kwai Fong, Lok Fu, Sau Mau Ping,

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Tai Kok Tsui and Wah Fu. Twenty-five prefabricated reporting centres were estab- lished throughout the territory in connection with the Fight Violent Crime Campaign.

       Buildings under construction at the end of the year were North Point, Kwai Chung, Cheung Sha Wan and frontier divisional headquarters, Phase I of Kowloon district headquarters, additional accommodation at Kowloon City police station and at the Police Training School, accommodation for the auxiliary police at Stirling Road and at the Wan Chai Reclamation, and the New Police Tactical Unit at Lung Cheung Road.

The principal recommendations of the committee appointed by the Commis- sioner to undertake a survey on the civilianisation of police posts were generally accepted by the Colonial Secretariat. The transfer of more than 800 police posts to civilian staff will be the target, phased over five years. During 1973 satisfactory pro- gress was made in this scheme and by December 1973 nearly 200 posts had been civilianised.

       The Planning and Research Division of Police Headquarters completed 10 projects during the year. A further 27 projects covering various subjects of police interest are also being critically examined by the division.

The Police Cadet School was opened in temporary accommodation at Fanling in September. This will accommodate up to 300 cadets in its present surroundings while the site for a much larger permanent school is being prepared at Shuen Wan, near Tai Po.

       A new summer uniform was introduced for all ranks including the Marine Police, where it has replaced the traditional 'sailor' rig.

       The last of the seven new Vosper-Thornycroft 78 sector patrol launches joined the police marine fleet early in the year. These vessels have proved to be well-suited to their role. At the end of the year the police marine fleet consisted of 47 vessels.

Recruitment

There was a considerable improvement in the recruiting of inspectors during 1973. A total of 101, including 87 from overseas, joined the force and 14 were pro- moted from the rank and file. However, with a vacancy figure in excess of 260 on December 31, 1973 this was still far from satisfactory.

To obtain the desired balance between local and overseas officers in the inspec- torate cadre and greatest need is to recruit larger numbers of officers from overseas. In an effort to stimulate overseas recruiting two advertising campaigns were launched in Canada and recruiting teams, the first headed personally by the Commissioner of Police, visited Canada to interview applicants. As a result 19 men and three women inspectors were recruited into the force.

Expenditure on advertising in Britain was also increased and in August an advertising consultant visited Hong Kong to obtain first-hand knowledge of the force and its environment to enable him to design a press campaign aimed at stimulat- ing recruitment. Following this visit funds were approved for an ambitious and continuing campaign to start in Britain early in 1974.

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Recruitment at the constable level was disappointing during the first seven months of the year. A recruiting campaign in July-August, which coincided with a service-wide increase in salary of eight per cent announced in August, resulted in an appreciable improvement. But, compared with the number of vacancies, suitable candidates were still not forthcoming in sufficient numbers.

       Considerable attention was paid during the year to the career-package offered to the would-be recruit which culminated in greatly improved salary scales. Enhanced entry points for candidates with better than minimum educational standards, were introduced on November 1. A further recruiting campaign was mounted shortly after the announcement of the revised salary scale. The results were most encouraging and at the end of the year 1,171 men and 141 women had been taken on as police con- stables. Of this total, 336 men and 34 women joined before June 30, 537 men and 74 women joined between July 1 and October 31, and 298 men and 33 women joined in the last two months of the year. On December 31 there were 696 applications for appointment under consideration.

The Police Training School conducts in-service courses for serving officers in addition to training new recruits. These are designed to refresh and up-date knowledge of law and police procedures and to develop leadership, self-confidence and team- work.

Off-Beat

The police newspaper 'Off-Beat' was launched at the beginning of the year and 12 months later had established itself as an interesting and popular addition to the establishment. It has a regular fortnightly circulation of 18,000 which has been in- creased to 100,000 when breaking an important news item of interest to the community of Hong Kong as a whole.

       'Off-Beat' is printed in both Chinese and English and covers a wide variety of personal and operational news. Its most important function is to independently represent the policemen and policewomen which it serves.

Prisons

        Hong Kong has a progressive penal system with separate institutions providing programmes for young offenders under 21, convicted persons who are found to be addicted to dangerous drugs, and prisoners in minimum security and maximum security institutions. The large number of convicted persons found to be drug addicts continues to present a challenge to the service. Crime stemming from addiction plays a large part in the rate of habitual relapse into crime. The increase in violent crime, particularly among young offenders, and the increase in gang triad activity, has been noticeable.

        The Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the overall administration of 13 institutions. These include security prisons, an open prison, a psychiatric centre, training and detention centres for young offenders, and drug addiction treatment centres. There is also an extensive aftercare system and a Staff Training Institution.

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       All male prisoners are received at Victoria Reception Centre in central Hong Kong, easily accessible to most of the Law Courts. Here all convicted prisoners undergo a thorough medical examination and appear before a classification board to determine to which institution they will be sent, taking into account such factors as physical and mental fitness, type of offence, length of sentence and past history.

Stanley Prison, in the south-east of Hong Kong Island, is the largest security institution and caters for both first offenders and others serving long sentences or requiring maximum security. Originally built in 1936 to accommodate some 1,600 prisoners the average daily muster in 1973 was 3,872. Prisoners are employed in such industries as tailoring, carpentry, shoemaking, basketwork, silk screening, fibreglass moulding and laundry work under qualified technical instructors. An outside annexe accommodates 80 prisoners serving sentences of under one year who, after classifica- tion, are found to be suitable for minimum security conditions. These prisoners are employed on general maintenance work outside the prison, but within the area of the annex.

Chi Ma Wan Prison is a minimum security institution situated on the island of Lantau and caters for certain categories of prisoners serving sentences of under three years, mostly first offenders. The minimum security institution has a much greater potential for successfully rehabilitating prisoners than the closed prison, and it considerably eases their re-integration into society. Work which may be carried out far from the institution, is always of a constructive nature, afforestation, drainage, building and road works. This work is planned in co-operation with the New Ter- ritories Administration. Besides giving the prisoners pride of achievement it greatly benefits the local population.

       Siu Lam Psychiatric Centre is situated near Castle Peak in the New Territories. Opened in 1972 it provides accommodation for 120 male patients, is manned by trained staff with a consultant psychiatrist and contains up-to-date facilities for dealing with offenders who require psychiatric care.

        The Tai Lam Centre for Women is also situated near Castle Peak in the New Territories and caters for remand and convicted women prisoners, the treatment of convicted female prisoners found to be drug addicts and the training and reha- bilitation of young female offenders between the ages of 14 and 21. Owing to the pressure on accommodation for the harder type of young male offender the women in this centre will soon be moved to a temporary location at Ma Hang on Stanley Peninsula, and the present institution will be modified to take only young male offenders.

Training and Detention Centres

These centres provide an alternative to imprisonment for convicted young offenders between the ages of 14 and 21. There are four training centres for males located at Cape Collinson, Tai Tam Gap, Chatham Road, and Victoria, altogether accommodating during 1973 a daily average of 958. The inmates of the Stanley Training Centre were moved to Chatham Road Training Centre in June 1973 making

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the site and buildings at the former Stanley Training Centre available for alternative use. This institution has been renamed Ma Hang Centre.

The daily tempo of training centres is brisk and the inmates are fully occupied in studies, vocational and trade training, hobbies and sport. A sentence runs from a minimum of nine months to a maximum of three years depending upon the inmates' progress and other factors, followed by a compulsory period of aftercare. The present training centres are run on fairly open lines. However, in view of the increasingly violent behaviour of the young offender of today, a new training centre at present being built at Pik Uk will be a maximum security institution.

There are two detention centres located at Sha Tsui and Tong Fuk situated on Lantau Island. This type of alternative treatment for selected young offender started in June 1972 and was intended to provide a 'short sharp shock'. Sentences range from a minimum of one month to a maximum of six months followed by six months compulsory aftercare. The emphasis is on strict discipline and hard work and is aimed at teaching inmates respect for the law while providing some form of positive training. The results achieved so far are encouraging.

Addiction Treatment Centres

       There are two drug addiction treatment centres for males located at Tai Lam near Castle Peak and Ma Po Ping on Lantau Island. If a convicted prisoner is found to be drug dependent the treatment centres can, if the person is suitable, be an alter- native to inprisonment. The period of treatment is from six to 18 months, followed by a compulsory period of 12 months aftercare. The majority of inmates respond to the treatment and the environment of the centre which is run on open lines, and there is usually a quick improvement in their well-being and physique. Comprehensive medical and psychological treatment aided by individual group counselling are all part of the programme. The New Life House is a half-way house which helps to span the gap between institutional life and society.

Aftercare

       Aftercare is specifically provided under the Training, Detention and Treatment Centres Ordinances. This is carried out by officers of the Prisons Department and plays an important role in the rehabilitation of those discharged. Aftercare work starts soon after an inmate is admitted to a centre when mutual trust and respect is fostered between the aftercare officer and the inmate. The aftercare officer provides advice and assistance to the former inmate and to his family. The total number of persons under aftercare at the end of 1973 was 2,433.

Staff

       The staffing difficulties encountered by the department eased somewhat during 1973 but the department is still short by some 200. All newly recruited staff undergo a 12-month programme of training both at the Staff Training Institute at Stanley and in the field. The training is comprehensive in both theory and practice and inter- mediate and advanced examinations are held.

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      Riots and disturbances occurred in prisons and institutions in many parts of the world during 1973 and Hong Kong was no exception. On April 19, 1973 a dis- turbance took place in the maximum security prison at Stanley. Three members of the staff were taken as hostages but were released three hours later unharmed. Damage caused was minor, and the disturbance was brought under control without injury to any prisoner. Two members of the staff received minor injuries. An enquiry was conducted into the incident and as a result, follow up action is now being taken. There were a total of 43 escapes or abscondings from institutions in 1973, compared with 29 in 1972.

Fire Services

The Fire Services Department continued its planned expansion programme, which aims to keep pace with the growth of industry and the increasing urbanisation of the rural areas. Two new fire stations were commissioned at Yau Tong and Fanling, and approval was given for the planning of a new type of divisional station of ad- vanced design as well as the replacement of one of the department's fleet of six fire- boats.

The current authorised establishment now totals 3,750 all ranks. They are equipped with 399 modern operational appliances of all types, together with 86 ambulances. Recruitment difficulties have continued and the service is currently nine per cent, or 350 officers and men, below strength. These shortages have, of necessity, had to be carried mainly in the Fire Prevention Bureau and the staff of headquarters with the result that forward planning and some fire prevention in- spections have had to be curtailed.

Despite these difficulties all emergency calls, of which there were 50,378, were handled without delay, while the Fire Prevention Bureau carried out 196,724 inspections and approved 6,268 new building plans.

Preventive Service

The Hong Kong Preventive Service is a disciplined force of 1,100 officers and men under the control of the Director of Commerce and Industry in his capacity as Commissioner.

The service is responsible for the protection of revenue derived from three categories of goods which are dutiable-alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and hydrocarbon oils used for automotive purposes. Physical controls over the import, export, manu- facture, sale and storage of these commodities throughout Hong Kong are adminis- tered by the service. The success of revenue protection operations is reflected in the number of seizures made during the year-61 illicit stills, 12,166 gallons of fermenting materials, 816 lbs of tobacco, 3,848 gallons of liquor and 3,904 gallons of diesel oil taken into custody and confiscated.

      The service has important responsibilities in the prevention and detection of illicit narcotic and other dangerous drugs usage. More than half the strength of

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the service is now totally committed to anti-drug activity. Although the main effort has centred on the prevention of illegal imports in the harbour and at the airport, there has been a concentrated drive against premises used for the manufacture and sale of drugs. During the year 894 operations were mounted leading to the seizure) of 1,290 lbs of dangerous drugs, which included 38 lbs of heroin and 17 lbs of mor- phine. A total of 3,683 arrests were made in connection with these cases, five persons were found manufacturing and 124 trafficking. The majority of persons arrested were convicted of simple possession of narcotics and smoking dangerous drugs in a divan. The total value of dangerous drugs seized was more than $5 million.

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Immigration and Tourism

IMMIGRANTS and tourists continued to flow into Hong Kong during 1973. For the second year in succession more than one million visitors were attracted to the territory, and more than 70,000 legal immigrants, mostly from China, arrived in Hong Kong.

Immigration

       The work of the Immigration Department falls into four divisions-the control of people moving in and out of Hong Kong, the issue of travel documents to local residents, the issue of entry certificates and visas for the United Kingdom and Com- monwealth countries not represented in Hong Kong, and naturalisation and registra- tion under the British Nationality Acts.

During 1973, 9,652,750 passengers passed through immigration control, an increase of 21 per cent over 1972. Of this figure 3,362,274 travelled by air (up 24 per cent), 4,458,709 by sea, mainly Macau traffic (up 16 per cent), and 1,831,767 by land (up 26 per cent). A new record was established in August 1973 when the monthly total of travellers passing through immigration control exceeded 1,000,000.

The number of passengers refused landings in 1973 was 5,457, but 1,446 of these were allowed to transit Hong Kong under supervision. Some concern was felt about the increasingly large number of persons leaving China with the permission of the Chinese authorities and entering Hong Kong. These totalled 55,659, compared to 20,355 in 1972, and 2,530 in 1971. The fact that most of these immigrants were likely to stay prompted serious misgivings about the effect on the government's long-term plans for housing, education and social services. However, towards the end of the year the number entering from China had fallen markedly.

Local residents continued to travel abroad in large numbers and demands for travel documents reached record levels, as full advantage was taken of the many cheap fares on offer. This year 53,835 British (Hong Kong) passports were issued, an increase of 58 per cent over 1972. In addition 90,772 Certificates of Identity (59,018 in 1972) and 693,542 Re-entry Permits (705,059 in 1972) were issued. Four new branch offices were opened, in Kwun Tong, Kennedy Town, Shau Kei Wan, and Yuen Long.

In July, the specialised work on visas and entry certificates for the United King- dom and those Commonwealth countries not represented in Hong Kong was central- ised in a new overseas visa section. Malaysia took over its own visa work in February, and Nigeria in July. The United Kingdom Immigration Act 1971 came into force in January 1973, making it more difficult for local residents to take employment in Britain.

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       The United Kingdom Immigration Act 1971 changed the procedures for registra- tion as a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies. In particular most applicants must now take the Oath of Allegiance. In certain circumstances registration became discretionary, making enquiries necessary into the applicant's background, as for naturalisation. During the year 1,018 applications for naturalisation were received (1,089 in 1972), plus 1,345 applications for registration as a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies (1,416 in 1972).

Illegal immigration caused concern. During the year 21,758 cases of illegal entry were recorded, an increase of 26 per cent over 1972. These figures do not tell the full story, as many illegal immigrants are not detected until long after their arrival, by which time it is often too late to attempt repatriation. During the year 389 persons, mostly illegal immigrants, were removed from Hong Kong under removal orders authorised by the Governor, an increase of 109 per cent over 1972. A few undesirable immigrants were also removed by this procedure. The Immigration Department took over responsibility for deportations from the police in May (except for security cases) and five persons were deported for life on the authority of the Governor in Council. Generally, deportation is reserved for serious criminal cases. Under the Immigration Ordinance, 4,422 prosecutions were instituted, mainly for illegal entry, contravention of landing conditions and false documentation-an increase of 92 per cent on last year's figure. Fines imposed totalled $1,470,585.

Tourism

       The value of tourism to the economy became more apparent during the year. Gross earnings from tourism in 1973 were estimated at $2,400 million, an increase of six per cent over 1972. This on its own compensated for Hong Kong's entire balance of trade deficit in visible imports and exports. The revenue from tourism makes it Hong Kong's second largest foreign currency earner.

       The number of visitors to Hong Kong in 1973 once again topped one million. The total number was 1,291,950, an increase of 19.4 per cent over 1972. The trend towards younger tourists continued, and in 1973 visitors in the under-35 bracket represented 38 per cent of the total, an increase of 26 per cent over the previous year. Younger tourists generally have less money to spend, but tend to be more adventurous and demanding than their older counterparts.

Holiday traffic and business traffic registered larger market shares during 1973 at the expense of stop-over traffic and those who came to visit friends or relatives, indicating the growing significance of Hong Kong as a holiday destination and as a business and finance centre.

Japanese visitors continued to dominate the tourist market, and during the year they numbered 476,091-36.8 per cent of all visitors. This trend is expected to persist for a number of years. For the first time the proportion of Southeast Asian visitors surpassed that of American visitors, reflecting the growing affluence within the region and consequent increase in intra-regional travel. More American visitors also came to Hong Kong, the increase in 1973 over 1972 was 8.3 per cent, reversing the falling

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trend of the last two years. United States' visitors numbered 230,425 during the year --17.8 per cent of total visitors.

West European arrivals, excluding visitors from the United Kingdom, in 1973 continued to show a high growth rate, 18.8 per cent more than in 1972, although as yet they only constitute 8.4 per cent of all visitors. Australia and New Zealand maintained an increased growth rate of 18.2 per cent in 1973 over the previous year.

       Charter flights and special promotional fares introduced by scheduled and non- scheduled airlines continue to attract more and more visitors to Asia. Trans-Pacific fares have also become more attractive, but economic conditions in the United States continue to have a dampening effect on travel from North America.

The average hotel occupancy rate remained steady at 79 per cent. During the year one major hotel and one smaller hotel opened to the public, increasing the avail- able accommodation by six per cent and bringing the total number of rooms at the end of 1973 to 11,432. In 1974 three major hotels are scheduled for completion and accommodation available is estimated to increase by about 22 per cent.

The average length of stay of 3.2 nights in 1972, increased slightly to 3.5 nights in 1973. From a survey undertaken during the year it emerged that most visitors on leaving Hong Kong would recommend a longer stay of five to six days. To widen Hong Kong's appeal and to encourage tourists to extend their stay, a number of new attractions are under construction, and various resort projects are now being planned for Lantau and other outlying districts of the New Territories. Carefully planned resort areas, taking advantage of Hong Kong's beaches, natural beauty and potential sporting facilities will attract visitors, as well as providing recreational facilities for local residents.

A major convention centre is now being constructed in Causeway Bay, and is expected to be completed in 1975. Intensive promotion is already under way making Hong Kong's future as a convention centre for Southeast Asia widely known. Several established hotels, and others still under construction offer conference facilities on a more limited scale.

       The Hong Kong Arts Festival in February and March provided Hong Kong with a cultural event of international significance. The festival, now an annual event, adds another aspect to the widening base of Hong Kong's tourist appeal.

During the year several new sightseeing tours were introduced by local tour operators, taking advantage of Hong Kong's coastal position, and introducing the visitor to some new aspects of its scenic beauty. Chinese culture also received more attention, and Cantonese opera and Chinese classical music will feature in the 1974 Arts Festival. A Chinese festival is also being adapted for the enjoyment of visitors.

In co-operation with the Hong Kong Association of Travel Agents, the Hong Kong Tourist Association organised a series of refresher courses for tourist guides during the year to bring their knowledge of Hong Kong up-to-date and to test their skills. The courses were held in English and Japanese. The Hong Kong Tourist

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      Association set up an office in Frankfurt, Germany during the year and also arranged to be represented in Johannesburg, South Africa.

       Intensive campaigns promoting Hong Kong were carried out in all major markets, based on the successful format of the Hong Kong Travel Fair and also introducing workshop discussions. A new film, Hong Kong Symphony, was completed during the year by a British documentary film team, and will be used for promotion through- out the world. The film emphasises the out-of-town aspects of Hong Kong against a background of music from the Hong Kong Arts Festival.

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Public Works and Utilities

     EXPENDITURE on public works continues to be the government's greatest single financial commitment. The programme includes the formation and reclamation of land and the construction of all types of public buildings, as well as the provision of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs.

Capital expenditure for the financial year 1973-4 is estimated at $1,050 million, or about 23 per cent of total government expenditure. Of this sum, $102 million is to be spent on public housing, $144 million on roads and $341 million on water supplies.

Water Supplies

In 1973, as in the previous five years, Hong Kong enjoyed a continuous water supply, but as the growth in demand showed no sign of decreasing, the risk of having to impose restrictions continues to pose a threat-but not an immediate one.

The storage position was better than the previous year-there were 40,613 million gallons in storage on January 1, 1973, compared with 35,205 million gallons on January 1, 1972. As in the previous year early rains soon improved the position, and heavy rains during August and September caused all reservoirs to overflow. The rainfall was the highest on record, a total of 122.06 inches. After the heavy rainfall and the increase in reservoir capacity with the completion of works to raise the level of the Plover Cove dams, Hong Kong had 65,513 million gallons in storage on October 1, 1973, compared with 51,032 million gallons on October 1, 1972.

       There was a total of 27,421 million gallons of water in Plover Cove on January 1, 1973 and the inflow during the summer months reduced the salinity of the water there from 170 parts per million to 114 parts per million by the end of the year. The quality of the stored water remained satisfactory throughout the year.

In accordance with a further agreement reached in November 1972 with the People's Council of Kwangtung Province, the supply from the Shum Chun Reservoir was increased by 3,500 million gallons a year-in future Hong Kong will receive 18,500 million gallons a year. The supply period was also extended-the new supply 'year' being from October 1 to August 10. During the current supply period 18,765 million gallons were delivered.

Demand for water rose steadily, and a new peak of 257.1 million gallons a day was reached, an increase of 9.5 per cent over the 1972 peak. The average consumption throughout the year was 215.84 million gallons per day, an increase of 10.1 per cent

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over the 1972 average. A total of 78,780 million gallons of potable water was con- sumed, compared with 71,563 million gallons in 1972. In addition, 13,916 million gallons of salt water for flushing were supplied, 8.5 per cent more than in 1972.

       Work continued on raising the Plover Cove dams and by the end of the year all major works were completed. At the same time, work on increasing the capacity of Tai Po Tau Pumping Station was completed while similar work on Tai Mei Tuk Pumping Station continued. Work at Shatin Treatment Works, the focal point of the territory's water supply, was substantially completed. New filters and settlement tanks were constructed to raise its capacity to 175 million gallons a day.

The heavy rainfall caused delays on the main contract for the construction of dams for High Island Reservoir. Mobilisation of plant and personnel and preliminary works on access roads and casting yards were in hand and excavation began at both the east and west dam sites. Work on tunnels and intakes to intercept water from the Sai Kung Peninsula continued according to programme, 20.6 miles of the total of 24 miles of tunnel were completed. Construction of the main pumping station started and the extent of contributory lowland flood pumping schemes was agreed. Six housing blocks containing a total of 240 flats and 60 shops were completed on the reclamation at Sai Kung, to house villagers in the reservoir area.

Work at the site of a 40 million gallons a day desalination plant at Lok On Pai intensified. Difficulties have arisen over recruiting senior specialist staff, but it is hoped that this will not affect the testing and commissioning of the first unit, now scheduled for August 1974.

In addition to these large schemes, work continued on other projects to bring dependable supplies of fresh water to New Territories villages in the Tai Po and Yuen Long districts. Work on providing supplies to Tai O on Lantau and to Tsing Yi Island was completed. Construction of the second tunnel through Lion Rock went ahead satisfactorily-bulk excavation at the Kowloon and Shatin portals was com- pleted and tunnelling reached 40 per cent completion. On Hong Kong Island, a major scheme to improve supplies to Shau Kei Wan and Chai Wan was started, as was a scheme to provide water to high-level development in the eastern part of New Kowloon.

       The task of improving consumer services was hampered by the inability to recruit middle-management staff, but the secondment of an officer from the Govern- ment Information Services enabled a report to be made on the structure and staff needed to provide an adequate customer service. As a result of the study undertaken by consultants, into computer applications within the Public Works Department, two reports, on meter installation and water billing activities, were received and recom- mendations subsequently made. Another consultants' report, on the need for greater use of equipment to moniter the waterworks system, was agreed and authority sought for implementing its findings.

Buildings

       Building costs remained reasonably steady for the first few months of the year, but sharp increases in the cost of many materials-particularly steel reinforcement,

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     plywood, mild steel and cement-forced overall costs up by nearly 20 per cent over the 12-month period. Labour costs rose steadily over the year by between 10-12 per cent. Due to the general world shortage of steel it appears unlikely that the present high cost of reinforcement will drop for at least six months.

      The increased interest shown last year in public building contracts continued, and as the year progressed private building appeared to be gathering momentum again. Since Hong Kong relies on overseas markets for virtually all its basic building materials, worldwide shortages of raw materials and general inflationary trends will continue to be reflected in local prices. Similarly there seems little likelihood of a drop, or even a levelling-off, in labour costs in the building industry and the demand for building workers greatly exceeds the supply.

      In order to control rising costs as far as possible and-in view of the vast building programme envisaged over the next 10 years-to maintain efficiency and speed with the limited trained labour force available in Hong Kong, a far greater degree of mechanised or system building will be essential.

      Progress on the construction of government buildings was generally good, despite difficulties in obtaining adequate and sufficiently experienced labour. Maintenance works on buildings continued to expand although the rate of expansion was affected. by the shortage of labour. Construction of buildings for the Property Services Agency of the United Kingdom Department of the Environment went ahead well. Private architects, private quantity surveyors and consultants continued to assist in the public building programme.

      During the year, expenditure on resettlement estates and associated buildings amounted to about $29 million, on government low-cost housing $35 million, and on all other projects $138 million.

The two types of public housing, resettlement and government low-cost housing, have now been combined under the 10-year (1973-4-1982-3) housing programme with a view to providing 1,800,000 individual units of 35 square feet. Of this overall housing target, the Public Works Department is responsible for the production of 558,000 individual units, the balance being the responsibility of the new Housing Department.

      During the year, 20 housing blocks providing accommodation for 71,500 people, one estate welfare building, six 24-classroom primary schools, and 10 kindergartens were completed in various housing estates. At the end of the year, work was continu- ing on 36 blocks which, when completed, will house about 124,500 people, while 14 24-classroom estate primary schools, 11 kindergartens and six restaurants were also under construction. The Phase I conversion work on six Mark I resettlement blocks at Shek Kip Mei estate and the construction of two flatted factories at Kowloon Bay were also in hand.

      Improvements to the electrical wiring in Mark I and II resettlement blocks at Chai Wan, Wang Tau Hom and Tai Wo Hau estates were finished during the year, completing the entire five-year rewiring programme. At the end of the year, piling

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work or planning or preparatory work was in hand, or construction work was about to start, on several estates which, when completed, will house a further 226,700 people.

Many varied and interesting projects were completed during the year. The most notable on Hong Kong Island were the alterations and improvements at Old North- cote Training College, the reprovisioning of the mortuary, virus laboratory and clinical pathology service at Queen Mary Hospital; a pharmaceutical manufactory at the Central Medical Stores, North Point; the third stage of the new police head- quarters, a police station at Shing Wo Road, a sub-divisional police station at Chai Wan and a market at Shek Tong Tsui.

Among the many buildings completed in Kowloon were the third stage of the modifications to the terminal buildings at Hong Kong International Airport; the additions and alterations to Grantham College of Education; a fire station at Yau Tong; the first stage of reprovisioning the Department of the Environment property at the airport; a clinic and maternity home at Tsz Wan Shan; sub-divisional police stations at Tsz Wan Shan and Ngau Tau Kok, and a market at Wong Tai Sin.

Work completed in the New Territories included a secondary school at Shatin, the conversion of the primary school at Sha Tau Kok, an out-patient clinic and major alterations at the St John Hospital, Cheung Chau, and a health office and staff quarters at Cheung Sha. The year also saw the completion of the reprovisioning of the clinic at Sha Tau Kok, departmental quarters for senior staff at Tsuen Wan, new village houses for Ham Tin and the first stage of Hoi Pa villages in Tsuen Wan, and departmental quarters at Tai Po.

Projects under way at the end of the year included the apron services complex at the airport; a College of Education at Piper's Hill; technical institutes at Kwun Tong and Kwai Chung; an ambulance depot at Mount Davis; a training school for the Preventive Service; the new Princess Margaret Hospital and staff quarters; a police station at Stanley and a police district headquarters in Kowloon; and a new driving school for the Royal Hong Kong Police. Also under construction were a new prison and a maximum security training centre, both at Pik Uk; a detention centre for young offenders on Lantau; departmental quarters for the Immigration Depart- ment; a community centre at Chai Wan; a swimming pool at Kennedy Town and a swimming pool and park at Tsuen Wan; and the rehousing associated with the High Island water scheme. Several playgrounds, amenity areas, latrines, hawker bazaars and floodlighting schemes were also in hand.

       At the end of the year design, or working drawings or contract documents were in preparation for more than 200 projects, including the fourth stage of the modifica- tions to terminal buildings at Hong Kong International Airport; secondary technical school at Kwai Fong; a new Fire Services headquarters and principal fire station on Hong Kong Island; fire stations at Wong Tai Sin and Chung Hom Kok; the second stage of a multi-storey car park at Yau Ma Tei; two office buildings, one with an associated car park, at Wan Chai; a Judiciary building at Gascoigne Road; a medical specialists' clinic on Hong Kong Island; a police divisional headquarters building on the island; divisional headquarters and police station buildings at Kwai Chung and

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     Fanling; new police district headquarters at Fanling; and a divisional police station at Cheung Sha Wan.

       Also in the planning or pre-contract stages were the new General Post Office and the new international mail centre, the Prison Department's 'half-way house' pre-release centre in the Beacon Hill area of Kowloon, a public park and swimming pool at Tai Wan, and several recreation grounds, beach buildings, markets and off- street refuse collection centres. Design work was also in hand for an outdoor stadium at Ho Man Tin.

       The Hung Hom development complex, which includes the new railway terminal building, a multi-storey car park for 900 cars and an indoor stadium for 15,000 spectators, was under construction.

Drainage and Pollution Projects

All the urban areas and the newly developing townships have been provided with a water-borne sewerage system to convey sewage, separately from stormwater, to suitable locations for treatment and disposal. There are, however, still some pre- war buildings in urban areas and buildings in rural areas which are not yet connected to public sewers. Building developments continued to be kept under surveillance so that hydraulic conditions of existing sewerage systems are constantly reviewed and suitable arrangements made to ensure that the capacity of the systems is not exceeded. Accordingly, new sewers were laid in Lai Chi Kok, Yau Ma Tei, Wan Chai and North Point.

Sewage in Hong Kong is generally discharged into the harbour through submarine outfalls, after being screened. A sewage screening plant in Lai Chi Kok was completed and a new submarine outfall off Wan Chai reclamation was being constructed. The investigation by consultants into the best method for treating and disposing of sewage from North West Kowloon, extending from Lai Chi Kok to Yau Ma Tei, was in an advanced stage.

Sewerage and sewage disposal systems are also being constructed in the new towns being developed in the New Territories. A sewage screening plant and pumping station in Tuen Mun New Town started operation. The construction of the Shek Wu Hui pilot sewage treatment was near completion. Consulting engineers were assigned to undertake a feasibility study on the requirement of a permanent sewage treatment works at Shatin. Design of a temporary sewage treatment works at Shatin to cater for the initial stage of development was completed.

Monitoring of water quality in Victoria Harbour and Tolo Harbour was started to obtain long-term data for the design of new facilities for sewage treatment and disposal, and to establish pollution levels and trends. A study on stream pollution in the New Territories was near completion.

Consulting engineers were being assigned to design and construct works for the training of the Lower Lam Tsuen River, New Territories. River training works at Shatin and Staunton Creek in Aberdeen continued. Works were also in progress for the extension of an arterial drain in the Kai Tak area.

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On Hong Kong Island 410 feet of seawall was completed at Aldrich Bay to retain a reclamation which will provide sites for boatyards, and work started on a further 760 feet of seawall and rubble mound protection for a similar purpose at Ah Kung Ngam, just outside Aldrich Bay. At Chai Wan 1,500 feet of seawall was completed and work on a further 1,700 feet started which, when finished, will provide protection for a works site for the mass transit railway scheme. Work continued on the fifth and final stage of the Central reclamation scheme and on the berth at Kennedy Town for larger craft which bring fruit and vegetables from China.

In Kowloon, work was completed on the Ma Tau Kok public pier, the Kwun Tong passenger ferry pier, and four dolphins which comprise the first stage of a project to provide fairway marks and typhoon moorings within Yau Ma Tei typhoon shelter. Work continued on the breakwaters for the Kowloon Bay typhoon shelter and cargo-handling basin and also on the seawall and reclamation for the extension of Tong Mi Road. Work started on a further 1,100 feet of seawall to permit the next stage of the reclamation of Kowloon Bay to proceed. At Sham Shui Po work began on 1,200 feet of seawall and reclamation to provide land for a ferry concourse and for the West Kowloon corridor road project.

In the New Territories, a road and flyover to the Kwai Chung Container Terminal were completed, and the dredging giving sea access to the terminal, including the dredging of a 1,100-foot channel past the wrecked Seawise University, was also finished. Other works completed in the New Territories were seawalls fronting the reclamation for the Kwai Chung incinerator and the reclamation east of Sai Kung Town; the extension of the pier at Sam Mun Tsai New Village; new public piers at Sha Lo Wan on Lantau and at Sai Wan on Cheung Chau; covers for the public piers at Tsing Yi and Yung Shue Wan; mooring facilities for police craft in Deep Bay and a slipway for the detained craft area on Tsing Yi Island. Navigation beacons were constructed at Yin Pai in Port Shelter and on the Kai Fong Pier at the 134 milestone Castle Peak Road.

Land Development

       At Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan progress was made in the reclamation of 27.5 acres of land comprising 19.5 acres at Kowloon Bay for public roads and industrial development and eight acres at Gin Drinkers Bay for industrial purposes.

In Kowloon, development of land for housing, schools, government, commercial and community uses included about 10.5 acres of terraced sites at Ho Man Tin, 4.5 acres at Pak Tin and 16 acres at Shun Lee Tsuen. At Kai Tak, 12 acres of land were formed for the extension of airport facilities. Also some 51 acres of terraced sites were formed at various borrow areas of the runway extension.

        On Hong Kong Island, reclamation continued with the formation of 7.6 acres of land at Chai Wan, 1.9 acres at Sandy Bay and 1.3 acres in Central. At Hing Wah and Ap Lei Chau 0.9 acre and 2.7 acres of terraced sites were formed for government housing estates. A total of 17.5 acres of land was reclaimed at Sai Kung in the New Territories.

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In the first stage of the new town at Tuen Mun, a further 4.5 acres of land were formed by cutting and filling. Work continued on the remaining site formation, roads and drains including the trunk road between San Hui and Fu Tei. In the first stage of the new town at Shatin, a further 40 acres were reclaimed and another 13 acres formed from low-lying areas for housing, industrial and community uses.

Quarrying

       There are six major quarries in full production under the government policy of concentrating stone production in large quarries let on long-term contracts. To meet estimated forecasts, progress was made during the year on plans to increase produc- tion of stone from these existing contract quarries and to let new long-term contracts for large quarries.

       Regulations limiting the height of the rock faces to less than 80 feet were put into effect. Quarries are now being developed by the modern method known as 'benching' and the former method of working on high faces is being discontinued. This has resulted in safer working conditions and, when fully implemented, will increase production.

       In line with this policy, the number of private quarries operating under the old system of Crown land licences was further reduced from five to four.

       A good supply of crushed-rock aggregates for construction works was available throughout the year, although quarry production was severely hampered by some exceptionally wet weather.

       At the two government quarries at Diamond Hill in Kowloon and Mount Butler on Hong Kong Island, which produce aggregates and road-surfacing materials for government projects, purchase of new crushing machinery and its installation to provide additional production capacity and to improve efficiency continued.

In conjunction with its role in the control of quarrying, the civil engineering office of the Public Works Department continued to operate the sand monopoly for the supply of building sand for sale to the public through its issuing depots. A new three-year contract was awarded during the year for the supply of sand dredged from seabed deposits in coastal waters not adjacent to the Hong Kong coastline under appropriate arrangements made with the Chinese authorities.

The materials-testing laboratories operated by the Civil Engineering Office of the Public Works Department carried out 86,000 tests on building materials; of these 9,000 were for private firms.

Public Utilities

Electricity

       Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma are supplied with electricity by the Hongkong Electric Company while Kowloon and the New Territories-including Lantau and a number of outlying islands-receive

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     their supply from the China Light and Power Company. The island of Cheung Chau is served by the Cheung Chau Electric Company. In addition, minor enterprises such as some village co-operatives produce current for certain remote localities.

The three companies are investor-owned, and do not operate under a franchise. However, since 1964 the government has exercised a measure of financial control over the two main undertakings.

Safety aspects are covered by an Electricity Supply Ordinance. The supply voltage is normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase, four-wire, 50 hertz alter- nating current. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 11 kV and, in some locations, 6.6 kV.

       In Kowloon and the New Territories, generation is carried out in part by the Peninsula Electric Power Company, an enterprise financed 50 per cent by Esso and 40 per cent by China Light. It owns the power stations at Tsing Yi (720 MW) and Hok Un 'C' (240 MW). Operation of these plants is in the hands of China Light, which also has its own station Hok Un 'A' and 'B' (410 MW) and a number of diesel sets (4 MW).

Hongkong Electric has generating stations at North Point (336 MW) and Ap Lei Chau (370 MW). Therefore, including Cheung Chau's 5 MW, there is a combined capacity of 2,085 MW.

Considerable additional capacity is being erected or planned; at Tsing Yi, a further 800 MW is due to be installed by 1977, and at Ap Lei Chau, a further 250 MW by 1976.

Main electricity statistics for 1973, as well as electricity sales figures for the years 1971 to 1973, are shown in Appendix 33.

Gas

The Hong Kong and China Gas Company supplies Towngas to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. The supply is available throughout the urban areas, including Repulse Bay on Hong Kong Island and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong, Kwai Chung and Tsuen Wan. Towngas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon, and the island is supplied by two submarine gas mains across the harbour. The total installed production capacity of the station is approximately 20 million cubic feet per day. Tsuen Wan is supplied by an independent station with a capacity of 900,000 cubic feet per day.

Gas is sold on a thermal basic (one therm=100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of Towngas in the urban area is 455 BTU per cubic foot and in the Tsuen Wan area it is 650 BTU per cubic foot. The total quantity of gas sold in 1973 was 12.1 million therms compared with 10.8 million in 1972, an increase of 12 per cent.

13

Communications and Transport

HONG KONG has one of the most comprehensive communications and transport systems in Asia. With most of its four million people living in twin cities divided by the world's busiest harbour, the territory utilises almost every means of transport. Kowloon and Victoria are linked by a cross-harbour road tunnel and efficient ferry services. Fleets of double-decker buses, minibuses and taxis contribute to a public transport network that will include an underground railway by 1980. In contrast, sedate trams clatter through Central District and cable-cars climb more than 1,300 feet up Victoria Peak. Hong Kong's sophisticated communications system continues to expand to keep pace with advances in technology. Satellite earth stations, computers, and highly complex electronic equipment have all been a part of Hong Kong's commu- nications network for some years.

Shipping

Hong Kong's harbour ranks with San Francisco and Rio de Janeiro as one of the three most perfect natural harbours in the world. Catering for all the requirements of modern shipping, it holds a place of prominence as a pivotal container port in Southeast Asia. Varying in width from one to six miles the harbour encompasses a total area of 23 square miles.

The administration of the port is one of the responsibilities of the Director of Marine. To keep the Hong Kong Government advised of the shipping, commercial and other changing needs of the port, two advisory committees, the Port Committee which is advisory to the Governor, and the Port Executive Committee, which is advisory to the Director of Marine, meet at regular intervals. As in most state-owned ports, the Marine Department neither controls nor operates any of the major wharves or warehouses in the port. With the exception of the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal, all terminals are provided and operated by private enterprise.

       However, the Marine Department does operate and maintain 74 mooring buoys for ocean-going vessels within the harbour. Of these, 43 are suitable for vessels up to 600 feet and the balance may be used by ships up to 450 feet. Of the 74 mooring buoys many are special typhoon moorings and these are strategically located for ships remaining in port during tropical storms. Additionally, safe anchorages are provided for large, deep draught vessels which frequent the port. Commercial wharves are capable of accommodating vessels of up to 1,000 feet with draughts up to 40 feet.

Quarantine and immigration facilities are available on a 24-hour basis at the Kellett Bank Anchorage and from 6.30 am to 6 pm in the Eastern Quarantine and Immigration Anchorage. Extended services at the Kellett Bank Anchorage reflect the higher utilisation of the western approaches by vessels arriving at and departing from

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the port. Ships are normally cleared on arrival and large passenger vessels are pro- cessed en route to their allocated berths. Advance immigration clearance and radio pratique may be obtained by certain vessels on application.

       Navigational aids in the harbour and approaches are constantly improved, help- ing to provide safe access to and from the port. Most fairway buoys are lighted and many beacons are fitted with radar reflectors. A network of signal stations at Waglan Island, Green Island, North Point and the Marine Department Port Communications Centre are all inter-connected by telephone, radio-telephone and teleprinter circuits. A modified Hague plan VHF (radio-telephone) port operations service is also operated by the department to ensure comprehensive marine communication throughout the harbour and its approaches. Although pilotage in the waters of Hong Kong is not compulsory, it is considered advisable in view of the density of marine traffic and the scale of harbour works continuously being undertaken.

       Surveillance of fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo working areas is effectively undertaken by Marine Department launch patrols. The patrol launches are in con- tinuous radio contact with the port control office which is able to initiate and co- ordinate any action required by unusual circumstances. A fleet of modern fire-fighting vessels, operated by the Fire Services Department, is kept in a state of readiness and units are stationed on both sides of the harbour. These and other government vessels are equipped with harbour pollution control equipment. The pollution control unit of the department is responsible for the detection and control of oil pollution within the waters of Hong Kong. The harbour cleansing unit removes floating refuse from the main harbour and typhoon shelters. A refuse collection service for ocean-going ships, introduced last year, is being fully utilised.

       Currently, a large percentage of cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage transported by lighters. More than 2,000 lighters and junks are now used for this purpose and nearly half of these are mechanised. Shipboard cargo gear is normally used for loading and discharging cargo alongside wharves or in the stream, but floating heavy-lift cranes are available when required. Wharf and godown companies are fully aware of the advantages and increased productivity which results from mechanisation, and modern equipment is being increasingly used to facilitate rapid turnround of ships.

       Three berths at Kwai Chung Container Terminal are now operational and cater for third generation container ships up to 60,000 gross tons calling at the port on scheduled services. The existing berths collectively occupy 125 acres of reclaimed land and have complete back-up services which include marshalling yards, cranes, ancillary equipment and large container freight stations. Berth Nos 1, 2 and 3 are operated respectively by Modern Terminals, Kowloon Container Warehouse Company, and Sea-Land Orient. The approach channel to Kwai Chung has recently been dredged to give a depth of 40 feet at chart datum, and the width of the channel has been in- creased to 1,100 feet. Interim container berths within Victoria Harbour are located at Tsim Sha Tsui, North Point and Hung Hom-these are operated respectively by the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company, North Point Wharves, and Whampoa Terminals.

       Good bunkering facilities are provided in the port and vessels may be supplied with fuel oil from either the wharves at the oil terminals or from a fleet of harbour

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      oilers. Fresh water is obtainable at commercial wharves or from water-boats which service vessels at anchor or at government mooring buoys.

       Hong Kong has long been associated with shipbuilding and ship repair services. The major shipyards are capable of building dry cargo vessels, tankers and general purpose passenger and cargo vessels up to 500 feet in length but at present the tendency is to specialise in ship repairs, modifications and conversions.

On January 1, 1973, the two major shipyards, Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company of Hong Kong and the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company pooled resources and now operate jointly as Hongkong United Dockyards. The company has extensive facilities for the repair, maintenance and drydocking or slipping of all types and class of bulk oil tankers up to 35,000 deadweight tons, or passenger liners 750 feet in length and 88 feet beam, and drydocks capable of docking vessels up to 25,000 deadweight tons. Additionally, the Island Navigation Corporation operates a floating drydock with a lifting capacity of 100,000 deadweight tons. Minor shipyards in Hong Kong continue to flourish with more than 170 slipways equipped to undertake repairs to small vessels. These shipyards have also developed a capacity for building specialised craft, particularly sophisticated pleasure craft and yachts.

Hong Kong continues to maintain a prominent role as a centre of recruitment for seamen and more than 23,000, out of a total of more than 75,000 locally registered men, are serving on board some 1,418 British and foreign flag vessels. The Seamen's Recruiting Office and the Mercentile Marine Office combine to register and supervise the employment of seamen on board vessels of all flags. The Mariners' Club in Kowloon provides recreation and welfare facilities of a high standard for visiting seamen of all nationalities.

The proximity of Hong Kong to the Portuguese territory of Macau continues to attract both tourists and residents to Macau. The facilities at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island are being improved. The volume of passenger traffic on the route has increased from 1.34 million in 1963 to more than 4.02 million in 1973. Bearing in mind a projected throughput of 5.5 million passengers by 1977, comprehensive plans have been laid before the government to completely reprovision present terminal facilities.

On March 30, 1973, a collision occurred in the eastern approaches to the port between the British tanker Eastgate and the French cargo vessel Circea. The collision resulted in extensive fire on board the Eastgate in which three crewmen died. A prelimi- nary investigation was conducted by the department which resulted in the Governor appointing a full Marine Court of Enquiry. This took place in September 1973 when it was found that the collision was caused by the excessive speed of the Circea during poor visibility. The court also found that the masters of both vessels acted in a seamanlike manner after the collision.

       Although storm warning signals were hoisted on several occasions throughout the year, there was no major damage to shipping or small craft in the port. Unusually heavy and frequent rain affected conventional cargo operations in the port during the

summer.

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New and amended legislation affecting the work of the Marine Department amounted to 17 items. The most important legislation was the new Pilotage Ordinance and major changes in the Merchant Shipping (Recruitment of Seamen) (Amendment) Ordinance 1973. In addition, the departmental legislative programme comprised a further 11 items under consideration.

Civil Aviation

Hong Kong International Airport, although one of the smallest international air- ports in the world in terms of land area, is one of the busiest and most efficient in Asia. Despite Hong Kong's limited space and mountainous terrain the airport has expanded from a 50-acre site in 1930 to one of more than 530 acres in 1973. Much of the land had to be reclaimed from the sea, including the 800 feet wide promontory on which the 8,340 by 200 feet runway was built in 1958.

The airport is less than three miles from the busy commercial, hotel and shipping centres of Tsim Sha Tsui in Kowloon and Victoria on Hong Kong Island-both less than 20 minutes away by car. Helicopter services between the airport and Hong Kong Island provide an interesting five-minute flight over the city and harbour. Taxis, hotel buses and a limousine service are readily available, and representatives of the Hong Kong Tourist Association and Hotel Association meet all arriving flights to help smooth the way for the visitor.

       The strategic position of Hong Kong, at the hub of the rapidly expanding air traffic routes of Asia, makes the airport of considerable economic significance to the territory. It provides swift air links with all the world's major centres of com- merce, industry and tourism, all factors essential to the continued prosperity of Hong Kong. During the financial year 1972-3, 3,056,795 passengers passed through the airport, and 20 per cent, by value, of Hong Kong's total domestic exports were transported by air. Revenue from the airport during the same period amounted to $122,300,000.

       Thirty international airlines provide some 950 scheduled jet passenger services per week to and from airports all over the world in aircraft ranging from the small twin engined Caravelle to the B747 'jumbo' jet, which currently provides nearly 15 per cent of these flights. There are more than 70 scheduled freight services per week, plus a large number of non-scheduled passenger and freight charter flights.

        Cathay Pacific Airways, a Hong Kong registered airline, operates seven B707s and five CV880 aircraft that provide more than 170 services per week in Asia to Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Australia. The airline will re-equip its fleet to 12 B707s and two CV880s by the end of 1974 and is actively considering the purchase of wide-bodied aircraft for possible operation in 1975.

       The major British passenger charter airlines operating to and from Hong Kong are the British Airways subsidiary companies, British Overseas Air Charter and British European Airways Airtours. Cargo charter operations are conducted mainly by Trans- meridian Air Cargo and Donaldson International Airways. The United States is represented in the passenger charter field by World Airways, Trans International

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Airlines and Pan American World Airways. The biggest operators of passenger charter flights in Asia are All Nippon Airways and Japan Air Lines Company. These inex- pensive flights are proving increasingly popular, especially during overseas school and university holiday periods when thousands of students, primarily Chinese, return to Hong Kong.

The airport terminal facilities provide a full range of services-bars, restaurants, shopping arcades, and banking and money changing services. Duty free shops and a nursery are available for passengers. These facilities are provided by private concerns operating under franchise. This income contributes substantially to the economic viability of the airport.

      Members of the public interested in flying are catered for by two private clubs at the airport. In addition to flying training, both clubs provide some amenities.

       The Civil Aviation Department manages and operates the airport. It is also responsible for the provision of air traffic control and search and rescue facilities for all aircraft operating in the Hong Kong Flight Information Region, an area of some 100,000 square miles over the South China Sea. An extensive telecommunications network provides speedy and reliable links with the major aviation centres in Asia. An aeronautical information service ensures timely distribution of essential informa- tion to the aviation world, and aviation meteorological services are provided in conjunction with the Royal Observatory.

Radio and navigational aids provided meet the most stringent international standards, and are supplemented or updated as necessary. These aids currently include three surveillance radars, an instrument landing system, distance measuring equip- ment, VHF omni-directional range, non-directional beacons and precision approach radar. An instrument guidance system for runway 13 will become operational in early 1974 and a sophisticated secondary surveillance radar system in 1975. The runway was being extended by 2,780 feet to 11,130 feet during 1973.

Civil aviation is a dynamic and demanding industry, and although the airport in Hong Kong is continually being developed and improved, there is little or no space for expansion. Therefore, the government has commissioned a study of the situation as it is likely to develop over the years ahead. The study will be completed in 1974.

Roads

       To keep pace with rapid social and economic progress and to meet the demands of ever increasing road traffic, the highways office of the Public Works Department continued with its extensive programme of road construction and improvements. Heavy maintenance work was particularly aggravated by the exceptional rainstorms in 1972 and the long wet season in 1973. During the year $125.7 million was spent on major highway projects, $8.7 million on road improvements and $33.8 million on maintenance and the repair of rainstorm damage.

The total mileage of roads in Hong Kong maintained by the government now stands at 637.30, of which 208.02 miles are on Hong Kong Island, 190.62 in Kowloon and 238.66 in the New Territories.

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On Hong Kong Island, the completion of Nam Fung Road was an important milestone in improving the road communication between the centre and the southern parts of the island. The new road, which is about one mile long and forms a direct link between Deep Water Bay Road and Wong Chuk Hang Road, was officially opened by the Governor on July 5.

As a continuation of the newly completed Waterfront Road, the section of Con- naught Road, Central between Harcourt Road and Morrison Street was substantially widened. The completion of this work, together with a new bus terminal and three public light bus terminals along the northern side of the widened road, brought con- siderable improvements to this major traffic route.

In the Mid-levels on the western part of Hong Kong, a flyover at the junction of Pokfulam Road/Hill Road/Bonham Road was built and opened to traffic in January 1973.

       Other road projects included the widening of Wong Chuk Hang Road between Aberdeen Technical School and Aberdeen Fire Station, the construction of flyovers in Robinson Road and Queensway, as well as construction of new roads in the areas of Chai Wan, Shau Kei Wan, North Point, Causeway Bay, Wan Chai Reclamation, Tin Hau Temple Road, Little Sai Wan, Chung Hom Kok and Jardine's Lookout.

Traffic management techniques continued in an effort to facilitate traffic move- ments on the existing road network. 'Clearway' schemes were introduced on a num- ber of main traffic routes to relieve traffic congestion by imposing restrictions on kerbside activities. Tenders were invited for the installation of an area traffic control system for western Kowloon as a first move towards computer-linked traffic control and surveillance. Good progress was made on the installation of traffic light signals at road intersections and pedestrian crossings and 246 sets of traffic signals were in operation by the end of 1973. The street lighting system was again expanded with a total of 1,182 new lamps.

       With work on the mass transit railway programmed to start in 1974 high priority was given to the design and planning of diversions to preserve free traffic flow through the period of construction. Several projects were advanced to provide the necessary future relief routes.

        Work started on a major comprehensive study of Hong Kong's long-term future transport demands and of the type of transport facilities required to meet the demands. Included in the study were interview surveys with some 25,000 households. A detailed traffic study of the Mid-levels and the Pok Fu Lam areas of Hong Kong Island was also carried out to determine what future development could be permitted in these areas. The public transport routes inventory was extended to include tramways. Parking surveys in the New Territories' satellite towns of Tsuen Wan, Yuen Long, Tai Po and Shatin and an interview survey of Macau ferry passengers were also carried out.

Road Tunnels

        A road tunnel from Happy Valley to Aberdeen is in the planning stage. This will relieve the overloaded Pokfulam Road route. Work is proceeding on the second

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Lion Rock tunnel which will provide two further traffic lanes between Kowloon and the Shatin valley.

       At the airport a road tunnel beneath the runway is being constructed to link Kwun Tong with Hung Hom, and relieve traffic congestion in the Kowloon City area.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

The British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern tip of the Kowloon peninsula to Lo Wu near the Chinese frontier, beyond which it joins the Chinese railway system. At present there is no direct passenger serv- ice between Kowloon and Canton and passengers travelling to and from China must change trains at the border and walk across a bridge connecting the two territories. Freight and mail wagons travel through without transhipment.

There are 17 daily passenger trains each way operating on the British section and an average of five goods trains per day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at weekends and public holidays, especially in winter, and special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Shatin Station, a popular picnic resort. Travelling time, between Tsim Sha Tsui and Lo Wu, including stops at seven intermediate stations, is about one hour.

       The greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year was 99,867 on April 5, 1973-the Ching Ming Festival day when Hong Kong residents paid their respects to their ancestors in the cemeteries at Wo Hop Shek and Sandy Ridge in the New Territories.

A locomotive and 40 carriages were ordered in 1973, 28 to replace existing rolling stock and 12 to lengthen trains or to form an additional train. Delivery is expected in the middle of 1974.

Construction of a new railway terminus is continuing at Hung Hom to replace the existing terminal station at Tsim Sha Tsui. Some of the trackwork, passenger platforms and drainage have been completed and provision of electrical power, light- ing and water supplies is in hand. A podium covering the passenger platforms and a part of the railway goods yard is being built to support the passenger concourse, booking hall, waiting rooms, restaurants, railway offices, a multi-storey car park and a bus station. Deep foundations are being laid for the extension of the podium to support an indoor stadium. Signalling material and other equipment for the terminus are being manufactured.

       The government has decided to proceed with the first stage of track-widening between Kowloon and Tai Po Market. This consists of doubling the single main line between Kowloon and Shatin and remodelling Mong Kok and Shatin stations. Work is expected to start early in 1974.

Parking

With one of the highest densities of traffic in the world, parking in Hong Kong becomes increasingly difficult each year. To improve traffic flow, the number of

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     on-street parking spaces is being progressively reduced, thus increasing the demand for off-street car parks.

Since 1966, it has been the government's policy to provide multi-storey car parks from public funds only in main commuter areas which have a high daily inflow of traffic and consequently a high parking requirement. In mixed residential and com- mercial areas, where the demand for parking exceeds the supply, sites are provided for sale to private enterprise, for development as multi-storey car parks and other activities that can conveniently be combined with car parking. Off-street open-air car parks are provided on a temporary basis on land awaiting development.

There are seven government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 4,500 vehicles. A further five car parks, to provide 4,000 spaces, are at an advanced stage of planning and construction is expected to start in 1974. Private enterprise operates eight car parks with a total capacity of 3,400 spaces and a further three are under construction, to provide an additional 1,600 spaces.

       Where on-street parking facilities are provided, it is the government's policy to ration the limited space available and to ensure a reasonable turn-over of short-term parkers by means of parking meters. Two thousand new meters were delivered during the year, making a total of 9,300 on the streets, and a further 4,000 on order. A programme of extending the operative hours of meters up to midnight is almost complete-extending the operation of meters to Sundays and public holidays will start next year.

Public Transport

       Apart from the Kowloon-Canton Railway, public transport is operated by private enterprise. There are six companies operating scheduled passenger services under ordinances which grant exclusive rights. They are the China Motor Bus Company, Hongkong Tramways, and the Peak Tramway Company which operate services on Hong Kong Island; the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933), which operates services in Kowloon and the mainland portion of the New Territories; and the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company and the Star Ferry Company, which operate services on specific routes across the harbour and in the waters of Hong Kong. In addition to these companies, public passenger services are also provided by the New Lantau Bus Company, public light buses, taxis and public cars. Appendix 35 lists the traffic carried by each of the undertakings for the three years up to 1973.

Buses

        At the end of 1973, the Kowloon Motor Bus Company's fleet totalled 1,324 vehicles, consisting of 965 double-deck buses and 359 single-deck buses. At the end of 1973 there were 184 double-deck buses and 30 single-deck buses on order or under construction to be added to the fleet during 1974-5. The fleet's total passenger-carrying capacity at the end of the year was 117,456. During the year, 490.4 million passengers were carried and 46.1 million miles were covered by the company's buses. At the end

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     of 1973, there were 92 routes-46 in Kowloon, 46 in the New Territories and five cross-harbour routes run jointly with the China Motor Bus Company.

The major part of the company's expansion during 1973 took place in the New Territories, where 15 new routes were introduced, utilising 49 buses. Many remote areas, not previously provided with bus services, are now being served.

Progress continued with the introduction of one-man operated buses-60 per cent of all single-deck buses and 27 per cent of all double-deck buses had been con- verted by the end of the year.

       Bus services on Hong Kong Island are operated by the China Motor Bus Com- pany, which has 405 double-deck and 160 single-deck buses. The total passenger carrying capacity of the fleet at the end of 1973 was 46,102, an increase of 22.3 per cent over 1972. On order or under construction at the end of 1973 were 134 double- deck buses, to be added to the fleet in 1974-5. During the year, 149.2 million passengers were carried and 15.5 million miles were covered by the company's buses. At the end of 1973, there were 39 routes-34 on the island and five cross-harbour routes run jointly with the Kowloon Motor Bus Company.

       The cross-harbour bus services continued to be popular and two new routes were introduced during the year, making a total of five. During 1973, the companies carried 20.9 million passengers through the cross-harbour tunnel, a significant increase over the 12.3 million passengers carried in the last five months of 1972, after the opening of the tunnel.

The New Lantau Bus Company was formed in early 1973, with the amalgamation of the three companies previously operating on the island. The company operated 41 buses, and carried 1,753,000 passengers during the year.

       The 3,900 public light buses (14-seater), carrying an estimated 1.15 million pas- sengers a day, continued to be a large public transport factor. They may ply for hire on any route, except for some particularly congested areas, where they are banned or where the setting down or picking up of passengers is prohibited. Fares are not regulated.

Trams

Hongkong Tramways operates an electric tramway service along the north shore of Hong Kong Island, with a fleet of 162 double-deck tramcars and 22 single-deck trailers. The double-tracked route, which runs from Kennedy Town in the west to Shau Kei Wan in the east, is divided into three main routes, two of which are about five miles long and include a single track loop around Happy Valley. The maximum frequency of the service through the city centre is one tramcar about every 25 seconds in each direction. In 1973 each vehicle carried an average of 899,500 passengers, the highest annual utilisation of any form of public transport. By the end of 1973, almost all tramcars had been converted to one-conductor operation.

The Peak Tramways Company has operated a funicular railway service to Vic- toria Peak since 1888. The present system has been in use since 1925, with cars drawn

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along the track by two miles of steel cable. The tramway climbs to an altitude of 1,305 feet and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in two. During the year, 1.96 million passengers were carried.

Taxis and Public Hire Cars

Taxis are licensed for use on either Hong Kong Island or Kowloon. On Hong Kong Island, fares are $1.50 for the first mile and 20 cents for every subsequent fifth of a mile. In Kowloon, the fare is $1 for the first mile and then 20 cents for each quarter of a mile. During 1973, 1,305 new licences were issued and by the end of the year there were 4,753 licensed taxis-3,311 in Kowloon and 1,442 on Hong Kong Island. The average tender price for the 999 new licences issued by competitive tender in 1973 was $84,000.

Public cars are hire cars which can be used to carry passengers on specified and pre-arranged journeys. They differ from taxis in that they may not ply for hire, trips must be pre-arranged, and the fare is a matter for negotiation between the hirer and the driver. By December 31, 1973 the number of public car licences issued was 1,106.

Contract Buses

A number of companies operate coaches for sight-seeing tours, school and factory bus services. In addition some schools and factories operate their own private omni- buses and light buses. The number of vehicles licensed for these purposes at the end of 1973 was 1,521.

Ferry Services

       The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company has a fleet of 66 diesel-engined vessels, including 12 vehicular ferries. The company operates 13 routes in the harbour between Hong Kong and Kowloon, as well as services to the New Territories, including outlying islands. The company introduced two new passenger services on July 2, 1973, from Shau Kei Wan to Kwun Tong and Sam Ka Tsuen.

There has been a considerable reduction in the number of vehicles, particularly private cars, using the vehicular ferries since the cross-harbour tunnel opened in August 1972. The company proposes to diversify its vehicular ferry services by intro- ducing new routes between North Point and Kwun Tong, and between Central and Sham Shui Po. Work on the Kwun Tong pier is well advanced and it should be available for use in 1974.

       During the year, the company introduced three new ferries of the water-bus or water-taxi type-smaller than the normal ferries. More vessels of this type are due in 1974.

       During 1973, the company carried a total of 158.4 million passengers-146.8 million on its cross-harbour services and 11.6 million to and from outlying districts. The vehicular ferries carried 4.1 million vehicles during the same period, a decrease of 32 per cent compared to the previous year.

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The Star Ferry Company runs a passenger ferry service across the harbour between Central District on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of Kowloon. The company uses 10 vessels on this service with a total passenger- carrying capacity of 5,600. Supplementary services are operated during the daily rush-hour traffic. A total of 51 million passengers were carried during 1973, a decrease of eight per cent over the previous year, because of the cross-harbour tunnel and the introduction of cross-harbour bus services.

Administration

      The Transport Advisory Committee, formed in 1965, has a membership of four official and six unofficial members, with one unofficial as its chairman. It advises the Governor on all aspects of transport and traffic policy, with the exception of external sea and air communications.

      The Transport Department provides a secretariat for the Transport Advisory Committee and carries out a wide range of executive functions including vehicle licensing, driving tests and vehicle inspection. As the statutory authority, the Com- missioner for Transport is also responsible for planning and regulating public trans- port services and co-ordinating action between other departments in the transport field.

Licensing

      The number of registered motor vehicles at the end of 1973 was 202,775, an increase of 8.9 per cent over the previous year (vehicle statistics are given in Appendix 35). Registrations of new private cars remained at a high level. This resulted in a net increase in private car registrations of 8,584 during 1973, compared to 14,851 in 1972.

      Demand for driving licences dropped significantly during the year, largely as a result of an increase in fees on March 1. Driving licence fees rose from $10 to $50 a year, provisional driving licence fees from $40 to $100 a year, and driving test application forms from $20 to $150. At the end of 1972, there were 191,952 candidates awaiting driving tests. By the end of 1973, this had been reduced to 32,202. During the year 182,055 tests were conducted.

Congestion

      Traffic conditions continued to get worse during 1973, with the number of motor vehicles on Hong Kong's roads increasing by 8.9 per cent to 202,775, representing 318 vehicles to every mile of road. The number of licensed drivers increased by 9.4 per cent to 455,061. Massive road improvements are also in hand or are being planned. However, the geography of Hong Kong places strict limitations on the amount of new road space that can be provided for vehicle circulation, particularly within the urban areas, and it was announced during the year that the government had decided to go ahead with the mass transit railway.

      As road congestion increases, public transport becomes less efficient, because it loses mileage through disrupted schedules and delays in frequency. As public transport

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becomes less efficient, the incentive to own a private car increases and so congestion becomes worse. It is clear that in the years ahead it will be necessary to place restraints on vehicle ownership and use in order to ensure that the best use is made of the road system. Particularly during peak hours, it will be necessary to ensure that public transport gets priority in the use of roads. This must be coupled with measures to ensure that improvements to public transport go hand-in-hand with any restrictions on the use of private transport.

Mass Transit Railway

In February, it was announced in the Legislative Council that the government had decided to proceed with the construction of the first four stages of the mass transit railway, and to establish a corporation to be responsible for financing, con- structing and operating the system. A steering group, set up in 1972, continued its examination of the various methods of financing and constructing the railway and held a series of meetings with the four consortia interested in the project.

In August 1973, the government decided that the complete construction and equipment of the first four stages of the railway should be awarded as a single contract.

Starting at the beginning of October, performance specifications, outline designs and other information was progressively issued to the consortia. In December, after receiving further proposals from the consortia, it was announced that the government had decided to enter into negotiations with a Japanese consortium to ascertain whether it would be possible to conclude a contract with them.

While the negotiations went ahead, the consulting engineers, who had been appointed to design the railway, continued with their design work under the control of a small PWD unit set up for the purpose. By the end of the year, the precise location of most stations and railway lines had been fixed, while the outline design of most of the 22 stations included in the first four stages of the system was completed. Technical specifications for the trains, signalling and control equipment, power supply and telecommunication equipment were also completed. Research and design continued on the air-conditioning of both trains and stations.

A series of committees was set up to co-ordinate the requirements of the mass transit railway with those of other government departments and the general public. The committees studied the integration of the railway with the transport system as a whole, the effect on public utilities of building the railway, the re-routing of traffic necessary to minimise the effects of the construction on the travelling public, the safety and security requirements of the system and the acquisition of land and property.

Work continued on the examination of public and private development proposals to ensure that they did not conflict with the requirements of the railway, and that, where necessary, station entrances and ventilation shafts could be accommodated within the buildings concerned.

Two contracts were let-one to establish the soil conditions along the alignment of the railway and the other for the construction of four trial tunnels to assess the

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problems likely to be encountered in tunnelling in soft ground under the particular conditions prevailing in Hong Kong.

The drafting of legislation continued and a start was made on the acquisition and clearance of land and property required for the construction of the railway.

Postal Services

      There was an increase in most categories of postal traffic in 1973 and it was estimated that 261 million postal items-letters, registered articles and parcels were handled during the year. This represented an increase of 4.6 per cent over 1972.

A notable feature of the changes in traffic patterns was a significant increase in the number of parcels and small packets despatched to China. But, a prohibition by China on the importation by post of used clothing and bedding, which came into effect on November 1, 1973, dampened the rising trend in the closing months of the year.

      There was also a sharp decline in air parcel traffic to the United States, due largely to a reduction in the number of American servicemen visiting Hong Kong.

      There were 68 post offices in operation at the end of the year all providing facilities for the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels, and the issue and payment of postal orders and money orders. Special services used mainly by the business community, such as business reply facilities, cash on delivery parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for bulk postings are available. Agency services provided on behalf of other government departments include payments of public assistance benefits-now nearly 40,000 a month, more than double the rate in 1972.

A new service to and from the United Kingdom known as Speedpost was intro- duced in September and was later extended to the United States. This is a contract service and is designed particularly for extremely urgent business documents and commercial papers on a regular and predetermined basis. Times of collection from the sender's premises and delivery to the addressee are specified and agreed with the customer, utilising specific flights and the integrity and resources of the distant postal administration. The service has proved of substantial value to firms engaged in a wide range of commercial and industrial activity.

Excluding Sundays, mail is delivered to most areas twice a day, except in certain rural and residential areas where the volume of mail does not justify more than one delivery a day. A fleet of 80 vehicles is used for posting box collections, motorised deliveries, and the internal movement of mail.

      During the year direct mail despatches were regularly made up for more than 200 different destinations overseas, and the routing of mails was kept under constant review to ensure that optimum use was made of available outlets. The greater number of container ships used for carrying mail during the year has resulted in a change in the pattern of surface despatches. The loading and unloading of containers takes place on Post Office premises and the use of containers has eased some of the storage prob- lems encountered in the past and facilitated mail handling.

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        Five new post offices were opened in 1973-at Victoria Peak, Tsat Tsz Mui, Yau Tong, Ho Man Tin, and Mei Foo Sun Chuen. The Cheung Chau Post Office, which was inadequate to meet the growing needs of the island, was reprovisioned in larger and more centrally situated accommodation. Improvement works were carried out at Kowloon Central Post Office, Kowloon Parcel Office and Tsim Sha Tsui Post Office where counter and sorting office facilities were expanded to cater for the growing needs in these districts.

       Temporary post offices were provided for the Festival of Hong Kong Stamp Ex- hibition in the City Hall and the 31st Exhibition of Hong Kong Products on the Wan Chai Reclamation.

         The year saw the clearance of the site for the new General Post Office in readiness for piling work to begin on this major building project. Tendering arrangements for the supply and erection of a structural steel frame for the second major project-the International Mail Centre at Hung Hom-were made by the Public Works Depart- ment. International manufacturers were invited to tender for the supply and installa- tion of postal mechanisation systems in both of these planned buildings.

        A new definitive issue of postage stamps was placed on sale on June 12, 1973, replacing the previous definitive issue which was introduced in 1962. There are 14 denominations in the new issue, one less than in the previous series, due to the elimination of the five-cent stamp. The main design feature is a plaster cast of the head of the Queen, by Arnold Machin.

       In addition to the definitive issue three commemorative issues were made during the year. In February, as part of a series to commemorate Lunar New Year, two stamps of values 10 cents and $1.30 were issued for 'The Year of the Ox'. In November there were two special issues, one to commemorate the wedding of Princess Anne, when two stamps-50 cents and $2-were placed on sale, and another to commemorate the Festival of Hong Kong for which three stamps of values 10 cents, 50 cents and $1 were issued. Specially designed first day covers were on sale with each of the stamp issues.

At Christmas the popular pictorial Christmas aerogrammes were again on sale.

Telecommunication Services

The Postmaster General, as the telecommunication authority, administers the Telecommunication Ordinance and is responsible for the control and supervision of all telecommunication services operating within and from Hong Kong. The Post Office licenses and inspects installations operating under the ordinance, monitors radio transmissions, and investigates interference. It also provides an advisory service to the government and co-ordinates the communication requirements of departments. In addition, it carries out electronics maintenance for 20 government departments, ranging over 246 sites throughout Hong Kong, mainly in the fields of radio, audio and electro-medical equipment.

Overseas communication facilities are provided by Cable and Wireless. A total of 312 telephone and 712 telegraph circuits to all parts of the world are provided by submarine cable, HF radio, satellite and tropospheric scatter systems.

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       A submarine coaxial cable with a capacity of 80 telephone channels extends west- wards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam where it is extended by other cable systems to Japan and the United States.

       Two satellite earth station antennae provide direct links both east and west by way of the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean satellites. The facilities available to Hong Kong by satellite include the international transmission and reception of colour television programmes.

HF radio systems continue to play a useful role and provide communication facilities to 12 countries.

      The computerised Message Switching Centre operated by Cable and Wireless handles the traffic of the public telegram service, airline operations and other com- mercial organisations. The system, which comprises four computers, is one of the largest installations of its type in the world, and it currently handles 3.5 million mes- sages per month-equivalent to 1,200 million characters.

      New Hong Kong headquarters for Cable and Wireless-New Mercury House--- was completed in January 1973. It was designed specifically for telecommunications purposes and is the largest building dedicated to the telecommunications industry in Asia.

      Installation of new equipment in the New Mercury House includes a computerised telex exchange and an international telephone exchange. The new telex exchange, which is identical to the one installed in 1972 in the old Mercury House, became opera- tional in July 1973 and carries the majority of telex traffic while the older one is being transferred to the new building. The telex circuit capacity will be doubled when transfer is completed.

      The international telephone exchange, which became operational in August 1973, has a capacity of 700 international circuits, providing overseas telephone services to link Hong Kong with the rest of the world.

Telephone service within Hong Kong is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company, which is a public company operating under a franchise from the govern- ment. The telephone system is fully automatic and consists of 48 exchanges serving some 9,000,000 telephone stations-21.4 telephones per 100 population, the highest rate in Asia, apart from Japan. Exchange line rentals are on a flat rate basis of $350 a year for business lines and $235 a year for residential lines. No charge is made for calls within Hong Kong. Connection to most overseas countries and to ships at sea is available through the external facilities operated by Cable and Wireless.

      The high demand for telephone service has continued and the average annual growth rate for the period 1968-73 is about 16 per cent. Some 100,000 new lines were installed during the year, representing a significant increase over previous years.

14

The Media

A PRESS free from government intervention and restriction enjoying complete freedom of expression has made way for a healthy and outward-thinking media in Hong Kong.

The territory boasts one of the highest newspaper readerships in Asia and there is an increasing demand for top-class entertainment. The 81 cinemas screen the latest films, and some of the world's top entertainers have appeared on stage in local theatres.

Apart from 316 publications with a total estimated circulation of 1.5 million, there are two radio stations, and four television channels providing entertainment and information to an audience of some two million people. The purchase price of a radio or television is perhaps the lowest in the world and no licence fee is required for either. The price of newspapers remains, in most cases, a mere HK 20 cents.

In addition to their own sources of local and world news, all media receive news releases, radio bulletins, films and photographs from the Government Information Services. The department maintains a 24-hour service and provides news coverage of all major events.

Press

Newspapers account for 113 of the 316 publications now registered with the Registrar of Newspapers, including four English dailies and 101 Chinese language newspapers. The combined daily circulation of the English language papers is estimated at 102,000, while the Chinese newspapers command an estimated circula- tion of 1.26 million. Of the 71 Chinese dailies there are three selling more than 100,000 copies each. Besides those concerned with general news, there are about 40 Chinese dailies whose content is solely entertainment orientated.

Periodicals represent the other main sector of Hong Kong's press. There are 201 such publications, divided into 54 English and 147 Chinese. These magazines cover a wide range of subjects, from the most specialised technical journals to local entertainment guides.

Some Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 19 members and four associated members. The society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in matters affecting the interests of local newspapers, the society or its members.

The Hong Kong Journalists Association continued to develop in 1973. During the year the HKJA led the way in establishing the basis for a permanent training

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scheme for journalists (in both English and Chinese languages) linked with a Journalists of the Year award scheme which enables four local journalists to travel overseas. The HKJA now has close links with journalist organisations in the United States, Canada, Britain and Australia.

Nearly a year's planning resulted, in December, in the establishment of the Hong Kong Press Club, a separate though closely-linked body providing social and working facilities for journalists and photographers. The Foreign Correspondents' Club in Central is also popular with local and visiting journalists, as well as advertis- ing, public relations and business people.

Hong Kong is the base of Southeast Asian operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies represented include the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Kyodo, Reuters and United Press International.

Printing and Publishing

Significantly, in just five years the value of Hong Kong exports of printed matter has more than doubled, from $52 million in 1968 to an estimated $135 million in 1973. During this period Australia has replaced Britain as Hong Kong's biggest overseas customer. Australians are said to read more books per head than any other nation, and more than half of all books published in Australia are now printed in Hong Kong.

Many printers have established themselves in the North Point district on Hong Kong Island, while others operate from flatted factories in areas such as the high-rise industrial satellite of Kwun Tong. About 75 per cent of Hong Kong's 1,200 printing firms use the letterpress method, producing mainly small-scale printing such as letterheads, posters, wrappers and textbooks. The remainder mostly use offset, and although they are fewer in number, their capital investment in mainly German or Japanese equipment is far higher, and their volume of production is much greater than that of letterpress. Many specialise in printing books, textbooks, periodicals, calendars and diaries; others concentrate on wrappings and industrial packaging.

       The standard of offset printing is high, with printing and illustrative production techniques comparing favourably with those of the world's leading printing nations. Electronic colour-engraving machines are widely used and colour separation tech- nique is generally good. Two and four-colour printing machines are widely used; and leading printers introduced eight-colour rotary and web-offset machines as early as 1962.

During the past 10 years many overseas publishers have established offices or regional headquarters in Hong Kong where printing represents a substantial saving over other areas, and excellent distribution and communication facilities are readily available.

Many educational book publishers have also established their regional head- quarters in Hong Kong. These include Heinemann Educational Books, the Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill Far Eastern Publishers, and IPC of London which has set up its regional headquarters in Hong Kong to handle the interests of its

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     subsidiaries. The Asian editions of Time, Newsweek, and almost one million copies every month of Reader's Digest are printed in Hong Kong.

Television

       Hong Kong was Britain's first overseas territory to operate a television service when Rediffusion (Hong Kong) pioneered a wired television service in 1957. The company began operating on one channel which screened 28 hours of television a week to about 63,000 viewers. By 1973, the company had more than 100,000 sub- scribers with a 405-line, two-channel service, one in Chinese and the other in English.

The company's exclusive franchise to operate the service ended in April 1973. It was granted a limited extension of the franchise and terminated its service on October 31, 1973. During the year, the company became a shareholder in a new company, Rediffusion Television, which now has a franchise to operate a dual-channel wireless television service.

A second television service came into operation in November 1967, with the first wireless transmission from Television Broadcast (HKTVB). This company, which has operated under an exclusive licence during its first five years, broadcasts two wireless channels, the Jade (Chinese) and the Pearl (English). The company employs the UHF, 625-line PAL colour system with its main transmitters on Temple Hill. There are now nine auxiliary transmitters for each channel, located in various areas to give coverage to both urban and rural Hong Kong. At the end of the year, HKTVB installed an additional storey onto its large studio and office complex.

Following the recommendations of a working party on the future of broadcasting, the government invited tenders in March 1973 for the setting up of two further commercial wireless television stations to operate additional services, one to be a two-channel (English and Chinese) service, the other to be a single-channel (Chinese language) service. The successful tenderers were Rediffusion Television and Com- mercial Television respectively. Rediffusion Television, by extensive modification and additions to the existing wired service programme production unit, was able to start colour broadcasting on the Chinese service from its main transmitter on December 1, 1973, and hopes to have its full service in operation during 1974. Commercial Television is scheduled to start operations in mid-1975.

Under the Television Ordinance the licences of all television franchise holders are administered by a Television Authority assisted by the Television Advisory Board. One of the obligations of the commercial television companies is to provide air- time for government produced programmes. The majority of these programmes are produced by Radio Hong Kong's television production unit. This unit continued to expand its output during the year and now provides a regular series of productions in both English and Chinese for transmission by commercial stations. These include talks and discussion programmes and a popular Chinese drama series.

There is also a requirement under the ordinance that licensees broadcast the schools' programmes produced by the Education Department. Now in its third year the division operates from the ETV centre in Broadcast Drive. It produces 15-minute

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programmes for primary schools which are transmitted five days a week, each com- mercial licensee providing about four hours each day for this series.

       At the end of 1973 legislation was introduced enabling the installation of aerial distribution systems, broadcast relay services and closed circuit television systems. The general use of these had previously been inhibited by the terms of the wired franchise to Rediffusion (Hong Kong). Due to Hong Kong's terrain, combined with the large number of high-rise buildings, there are many areas where difficulty is experienced in receiving adequate television signals. It is expected, therefore, that extensive use will be made of aerial distribution and broadcast relay systems in the future.

       As a medium of entertainment and information, television continued to expand rapidly during 1973. At the end of the year it was estimated that television ownership had risen to 700,000 households, and 2,390,000 people now watched television daily. Sales of colour TV sets showed a marked increase and it is expected that before long the majority of televisions sold will be colour receivers.

Sound Broadcasting

       Hong Kong is served by two radio broadcasting organisations each operating English and Chinese sound channels. Radio Hong Kong is financed from general revenue and carries no advertising. There are two separate channels in Chinese and English broadcasting from 6 am to 1 am on AM and FM. The aim of the service is to provide a wide range of programmes of interest to all sections of the community with particular emphasis on news and public affairs.

        The most notable advance in 1973 was the formation of a newsroom within Radio Hong Kong providing news broadcasts on the hour throughout the day. In addition to news stories covering the local scene, reports are also received from overseas correspondents who maintain a regular link with Radio Hong Kong's newsroom. Radio Hong Kong is also the first broadcasting service in Southeast Asia to relay the BBC world news by satellite daily.

       Heavy involvement in community affairs was the keynote of Commercial Radio's Chinese programmes during 1973. The station raised more than a million dollars for the Community Chest from listeners who participated in the two 'Commercial Radio Walk for a Million' walkathons. This figure was more than 10 per cent of the Community Chest target. The station also strongly supported campaigns, such as the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign, and the Fight Violent Crime Campaign. News, educational and all round entertainment programmes in Chinese were strengthened.

Two trends in public taste have affected English programmes of Commercial Radio during 1973. One was the increased interest in news and current affairs--both local and international-and the other the 're-discovery of radio'. Listener reaction and demand for up-to-the-minute news reports have led to fuller and more frequent coverage on practically every aspect of news from the introduction of the daily 'Police Report' at 7.30 am to the twice daily 20-30 minute extensive news bulletins.

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       Documentaries on the music and lives of top recording artists have been well received. The flexibility and mobility of radio has been exploited in outside broad- casts of sport and 'on location' music programmes.

Film Industry

       For Hong Kong's thriving motion picture industry 1973 was a period of boom and unprecendented successes. The Mandarin kung-fu film, 'The Five Fingers of Death', produced by Shaw Brothers, Hong Kong's principal film company, broke all box-office records in the United States. Similarly with Hong Kong's second largest film production company, Golden Harvest, whose film 'The Way of the Dragon' grossed $5.35 million in Hong Kong alone, more than any film previously. A later Golden Harvest film, 'Enter the Dragon' also enjoyed phenomenal success in the United States, a success marred by the death of Bruce Lee, the principal actor in the film and a local screen idol.

       The new-found popularity abroad of Chinese action films produced by the two major companies, inspired the production of hundreds of similar films by small independent companies. Films produced in Hong Kong, dubbed and sub-titled in various languages, are now attracting large audiences in many parts of the world. The development of these new markets in Europe, the United States, the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere provided a considerable stimulus to local producers, no longer limited to their traditional Southeast Asian outlets. It is estimated that between 350-400 major productions were completed during the year.

While much of the success of these Chinese 'action' films can be attributed to the current world-wide interest in kung-fu, karate and other martial arts, this present popularity will probably diminish. Nevertheless, it is believed there will remain a strong residual market for Hong Kong films in the future.

       There are 81 cinemas in Hong Kong, with a total seating capacity of 84,200, and attendance figures continued to be among the highest in the world per head of population.

       An interesting aspect of cinema-going habits in Hong Kong is the way in which the industry has been relatively unaffected by the impact of television. Although television ownership has increased enormously in recent years, the effect on local cinema-going habits has not been as dramatic as in other countries.

       Films for public exhibition in Hong Kong are subject to censorship. The Film Censorship Regulations are administered by the Television and Films Department, previously part of the Home Affairs Department, but which during the year was made a separate organisation. A total of 5,686 films were submitted for censorship in 1973, including 220 local productions.

Government Information Services

        The Government Information Services is a major link between the government, the people of Hong Kong, and the rest of the world. Utilising all the media, it provides

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     a continual flow of information both locally and overseas. Besides communicating the government's news, it also monitors local opinion as expressed in the media.

The department is organised in three main divisions-news, technical services and public relations-with certain services common to all three. The news division, probably the most familiar service to the Hong Kong public, produces a daily information bulletin in English and Chinese, supplemented by a teleprinter service which assists agencies and newspapers to meet urgent deadlines. A bi-lingual press enquiries service is also maintained 24 hours a day.

The news division becomes the nerve centre of all communications during typhoons, severe rainstorms, and all other emergencies. Once the 'emergency roster' is in force, the division is manned round the clock by a team of officers. Liaison officers are also deployed to the Royal Observatory, the Social Welfare Department, the New Territories Administration, the Public Works Department, Medical and Health Department, Marine Department, Housing Department, and to the Royal Hong Kong Police Force.

Although their activities are less well-known locally, the other two divisions of Government Information Services are concerned with a variety of activities that extend far beyond Hong Kong. The largest division within the department, technical services, comprises six sections: publications and editorial, design and display, photographic, films and marketing, and campaigns. The campaigns section was created following the massive Clean Hong Kong Campaign in 1972. With experience gained from this campaign it was found that a separate section was required to handle the dozen or so government promotions each year. The Fight Violent Crime Campaign was one of this section's major tasks of 1973.

The marketing section is responsible for distribution of all publicity materials including books, pamphlets, fact sheets and posters, produced by the department. It also distributes in Hong Kong various publications received from the Central Office of Information in Britain, maintains an up-to-date photographic library, operates a mobile film unit and a film lending library.

The editorial section employs qualified journalists who write material for direct mailing or syndication to newspapers and periodicals throughout the world. Publica- tions produced during the year ranged from 'Hong Kong 1974' to booklets on the port, and medical and health services.

       The design and display section produces posters, leaflets, books, booklets, exhibi- tions, displays, and window displays for the government. It also handles display advertisements, cinema and television graphics, symbols, and corporate image material. Major exhibition projects included the design of the Clean Hong Kong Fair, the Crime Prevention Exhibition and a cinema for the Action Committee Against Narcotics at the Chinese Manufacturers' Association Fair.

Short monthly newsreels, entitled 'Hong Kong Today', are commissioned by the film section of the technical services division. These are screened regularly in some 30 local cinemas and on local television channels.

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       The public relations division is more locally-oriented being primarily concerned with maintaining and improving the relationship between the government and the people of Hong Kong. It has a special responsibility to keep government departments informed of public opinion as expressed in the information media. There are some 20 Chinese daily newspapers concerned with general news and these are examined each day for topics of public interest. A weekly review is prepared in English and circulated to 200 senior officers of the government. The script of a weekly television programme is prepared to bring important topics in the Chinese newspapers to the notice of those who do not read Chinese.

       In recent years, the Information Services Department has set up many depart- mental units with the aim of promoting better liaison between the government and the press, and to improve relations between departments and the public. The units are manned by information officers seconded from the Information Services Depart- ment and are supported by the department's full resources.

       The information section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London works in close collaboration with the Government Information Services. Press relations form an important part of its work and news releases for the British press are prepared from information bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. In the wider context of public relations, it deals with all general enquiries about Hong Kong, operates a lecture service, organises seminars for newly-recruited expatriate civil servants, and distributes government literature.

       Following a group of management consultants' recommendations to strengthen the machinery of the government the Secretariat for Information was absorbed by a new Secretariat for Home Affairs as part of the Colonial Secretariat. Mr Jack Cater was appointed Secretary for Home Affairs on June 3, 1973 and subsequently handed over to Mr Denis Bray in mid-November, 1973.

15

The Armed Services and

Auxiliary Services

     THE British Army, Navy and Royal Air Force are all represented in Hong Kong and are under the command of the Commander British Forces.

Lieutenant General, Sir Richard Ward, was succeeded as Commander British Forces by Lieutenant General E. N. W. Bramall on December 1, 1973.

The Commander British Forces advises the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, on matters affecting the security of Hong Kong and is responsible to the Chief of Defence Staff in London. The Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the government in maintaining security and stability.

Army units predominate, and are under the direct command of the Commander British Forces, who has the additional appointment of Commander Land Forces. Royal Navy ships are under the direct operational control of the Commodore-in- Charge, Hong Kong (headquarters at HMS Tamar). The Commander Royal Air Force commands the Royal Air Force station at Kai Tak and associated units, in- cluding No. 28 Squadron which is equipped with Wessex helicopters.

The Commodore-in-Charge, Commodore J. A. G. Evans, commands the Naval Force in Hong Kong and its waters. During the year, the frigate HMS Chichester arrived to become the permanent Hong Kong guardship, and joined supporting patrol craft, HM Ships, Wasperton, Monkton, Beachampton, Wolverton and Yarnton to form the Hong Kong Squadron.

HM Canadian Ships Kootenay and Terra Nova visited Hong Kong during the summer. They were followed in the autumn by a squadron from the Royal Malaysian Navy. Hong Kong also received a visit from Rear Admiral Clayton in the cruiser HMS Tiger which was accompanied by frigates HMS Rhyl and HMAS Yarra, the Royal Fleet Auxiliaries Tidespring, Tidereach and Regent, and the submarine HMS Dreadnought.

Following naval reductions in Singapore, HMS Tamar's role as the remaining naval shore establishment in the Far East has become even more important. HMS Tamar provides essential services to the Hong Kong Squadron, to all Royal Navy ships stationed in the Far East, as well as to Commonwealth warships visiting for maintenance and recreation.

HMS Tamar employs about 700 Chinese naval ratings in various fields, including cooks, stewards, technicians and seamen. Four hundred of the cooks and stewards are serving worldwide in operational ships of the fleet. Laundering, tailoring, shoe- making and hairdressing facilities are provided for the fleet by 310 Chinese seagoing

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civilians, and a work force of 150 Chinese civilians provides clerical, storekeeping and labouring support for HMS Tamar. A further 800 locally recruited men serve worldwide in the Royal Fleet Auxiliaries which provide food, fuel and stores for Her Majesty's Fleet.

Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island and has under its command 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, stationed at Sek Kong in the New Territories, and 51 Infantry Brigade with its headquarters in Kowloon.

Units stationed in Hong Kong for some or all of 1973 were the 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery, C Squadron the 16th/5th Queen's Royal Lancers, the 1st Battalion the Kings Regiment, the 1st Battalion Black Watch, the 1st and the 2nd Battalion the 2nd King Edward VII Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles), the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles and the 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles. In addition to these, there was a wide range of supporting units providing assistance to all three services.

Throughout 1973 units of the Army manned positions in the border area, and in conjunction with the Royal Hong Kong Police Force provided joint police-military patrols in that area and in the more remote parts of the territory.

The Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak is a separate enclave adjacent to the civil airport, and uses the airport's runway and control services. The Royal Air Force has its own radar and signal facilities for the long distance control of military aircraft approaching Hong Kong. These facilities are shared with the Director of Civil Aviation to ensure safety of civil aircraft operating within the Hong Kong Flight Information Region.

No. 28 Squadron, based permanently at Kai Tak, is equipped with eight Wessex helicopters, primarily for rapid movement of troops and supplies. It also provides a standby aircraft for search and rescue in Hong Kong and near waters, and assists in the evacuation of casualties from islands and the New Territories. Vulcan aircraft continued their training flights from the United Kingdom, supplemented by detach- ments of Phantom fighter bombers and Victor tanker aircraft of Strike Command. Royal Air Force transport aircraft activity has maintained the established regular pattern. Air Commodore M. P. Stanton, is currently the Commander, Royal Air Force, Hong Kong.

       The continuing secure and stable situation in Hong Kong in 1973 enabled the Armed Forces to extend help of all kinds to the local community. This varied from the provision of large-scale recreational activities for the young, to the undertaking of construction projects. Recreational activities included the use of service sporting facilities, provision of service instructors and coaches in all forms of sport, and a major contribution to the Summer Youth Activities Programme. This took the form of an intensive training course for youth leaders.

        Linked to this work are the numerous patrols which the services carry out with the police to isolated parts of Hong Kong. These visits help the government keep in touch with the areas and engender confidence among the inhabitants.

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The primary task of the British Armed Forces in Hong Kong is, however, to be ready at all times to give instant support to the government and the police, should this be necessary. Therefore, the services have maintained a high standard of training and alertness and, jointly with the New Territories Administration and the police, have steadily improved arrangements for security at the border and other critical areas of the territory and its waters.

Local Auxiliary Defence Services

In addition to the regular forces, Hong Kong has two auxiliary defence units, the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. These are administered by the Hong Kong Government but would come under the Commander British Forces and his appropriate single service subordinate commanders, for operations if called out.

       The Royal Hong Kong Regiment, based on Hong Kong Island with nearly 700 volunteers and more than 40 permanent staff, is a light reconnaissance regiment comprising five reconnaissance squadrons, a headquarters squadron, and a home guard squadron. There is also a junior leaders squadron, a band and a training organisation. The regiment trains hard throughout the year to ensure that it can always effectively support either the regular forces or the Royal Hong Kong Police Force.

In April 1973, E Squadron took over part of Chatham Road Camp to provide the first permanent representation by the regiment in Kowloon. Near the end of the year they were joined by a second squadron, as part of the gradual move of the regiment across the harbour. This has become necessary as much of the land occupied by the present headquarters in Happy Valley will be used for a new flyover.

Since October the regiment, for the first time in 22 years, has been commanded by a local volunteer officer, Lieutenant Colonel J. Heywood.

The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force is a volunteer force backed by a nucleus of permanent staff. Its main role is internal security, and volunteers train in the evenings and at weekends to prepare for this task. Three Alouette III helicopters, two Beechcraft Musketeer trainers and one Britten-Norman Islander make up the fleet of aircraft and an increasing number of commitments are being undertaken.

       The unit's helicopters continue to provide a day and night casualty evacuation service as well as a means of rapid transport and communication for the government. Search and rescue and aerial survey capabilities are expanding and 1973 saw the introduction of fire-fighting buckets slung underneath helicopters for use in fighting hill fires. More than 150 casualty evacuation flights were carried out during the year.

Essential Services Corps

       The Essential Services Corps comprises four autonomous services-units of the Essential Services Corps, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Services and the Auxiliary Fire Services.

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        The corps' 68 units can be mobilised at times of civil disorder to help maintain public utilities and other essential services if the security of Hong Kong, or the welfare of the population, is endangered. Approximately half of the 11,000 corps personnel come from government departments and the rest from commercial organisations. Each unit is principally staffed by a restricted number of volunteers employed by the departments or organisations concerned.

       On the call out of units, members of the corps undertake, under a disciplinary code, special obligations in return for which they are entitled to substantial benefits appropriate to the abnormal conditions of service. Comprehensive plans for the operation of each essential service in times of civil disorder are constantly under review and co-ordinated with the police and military. Units of the corps hold occasional exercises to practise their role. The headquarters of units also take part in joint telephone command and control exercises with the police and military.

The Auxiliary Medical Service, formed 23 years ago, has a volunteer member- ship of more than 6,000 including medical officers and professional officers, as well as lay members who are trained, for emergency purposes, as hospital auxiliary dressers and nurses. The remainder are trained in first aid, life saving, as ambulance members and in light rescue. A large proportion of members are under 25.

       For practical and operational training, members are allocated at weekends and on public holidays for duty on Fire Services ambulances, hospital casualty depart- ments and at public beaches and swimming pools in support of regular staff.

       During emergencies Auxiliary Medical Service officers and members are called out, as required, to augment regular staff in the Medical and Health Department, Fire Services ambulance division, Social Welfare Department, City District Offices and to provide first aid parties to assist the Civil Aid Services.

       The Auxiliary Medical Service has teams in all parts of the urban areas, the New Territories and on the off-shore islands. There is always a long waiting list of volunteers wishing to join the service.

        The Civil Aid Services celebrated its 21st anniversary this year. Originally, the service consisted mainly of officers and members of the extinct Corps of Air Raid Wardens who had served Hong Kong before and during World War II. The emphasis was then on civil defence training. From 1962 onwards, there has been a gradual transition from war-time to peace-time emergency training. The transition was completed by 1969 and now only senior permanent staff officers of the service are trained in civil defence measures.

       The Civil Aid Services is a volunteer force comprising 4,000 adult male and female officers and members, and 2,000 cadets aged 14-18. The aim of the service is to train and maintain a multi-purpose force of disciplined, skilled and uniformed personnel to support regular services in rendering practical aid to the general public in any type of peace-time emergency or natural disaster. In the adult wing, officers and members are posted either to the warden service, rescue units, the command units, the pay and records unit or the stores sub-section according to their interest and ability.

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       Operational duties performed by members are varied and include crowd control, first aid and casualty handling, light and heavy rescue, including mountain rescue, search and rescue for hikers lost in the mountains, provision of a comprehensive communication and despatch riding system.

They also include reconnaissance and reporting of incidents, manning typhoon shelters, assisting in registration and feeding of the homeless, assisting to keep public utilities and essential services-trams, buses, docks, warehouses, electrical and gas companies-functioning.

       Besides emergency operational roles, members are being used more and more by government departments in various campaigns, such as the Fight Violent Crime Campaign, the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign, the Anti-Narcotics Campaign, as well as at social and recreational events, such as the Festival of Hong Kong, when the entire Civil Aid Services is fully mobilised.

The Civil Aid Services Cadet Corps has a total of 20 units, each 100 strong. The corps aims to train boys in citizenship, the basic skills as practised in the adult service, such as first aid and rescue work, and to develop in them a sense of civic responsibility. Training is carried out in the areas in which the youths live as well as at fixed camping sites in the New Territories, where they undergo a varied pro- gramme of outdoor activities-such as camping, canoeing, trekking, orienteering, life-saving and mountaineering.

         As a result of the introduction of new conditions of service for members of the Auxiliary Fire Services, the total strength is now 199 all ranks. Training programmes have been improved and the level of attendance has risen.

All Auxiliary Fire Services personnel respond automatically to No. 3 Alarm fires or above, should such fires break out while they are under training on Service premises. Voluntary attendance at major incidents is also encouraged.

       Breathing apparatus training for auxiliaries, which is now an essential part of a fireman's duties, has also been introduced at the Fire Service Training School. On qualifying, selected officers assume the role of instructors to train other Auxiliary Fire Services personnel. All Auxiliary Fire Services members will in future be required to qualify in wearing and maintenance of compressed air breathing apparatus.

16

Religion and Custom

#4

ALTHOUGH not always apparent to the visitor, religion plays an important role in the life of the average family in Hong Kong. It is easy to be misled by different appearances of religious observance, particularly between traditional Chinese practices and Christian churches, and even to assume a lack of religion in Chinese life. Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are churches in the City of London, but there are more signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, than in its Western counterpart. Many Chinese shops have a 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines, while the traditional religious rites associated with birth, marriage and death are still widely observed.

Religious practices include Taoism, Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years, mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Although Buddhism has more followers in Hong Kong, both maintain a strong hold among older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people.

Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monas- teries, nunneries and hermitages. Because of their accessibility, those at Shatin and Tsuen Wan are popular with urban dwellers. However, some better known monasteries are situated in more remote and unspoilt parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is regularly visited at weekends and holidays.

        Sightseers and devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories, such as Ching Shan Tsz and Tsing Chung Koon at Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor and Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen near Tsuen Wan and Sai Lam at Shatin. At Tao Fong Shan, near Shatin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture, where the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on for many years. To meet the demands of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in apartments in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

As places of public worship, temples play an important part in Chinese religious life. It is estimated that one major deity (Tin Hau) has not less than 250,000 worship- pers. The temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but sub- sidiary deities may often be found in the same temple. Many of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port.

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Except for Kwun Yam, Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been traditionally worshipped. Better known are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of righteousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau) and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors). Many Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Other Tin Hau temples originally established close to the shore are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations.

       Dedicated to the gods of literacy and martial valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, controlled by the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. Other popular temples of Taoist origin include the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin in New Kowloon and the Che Kung temple at Shatin. The Sik Sik Yuen has been rebuilt and was reopened by the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, on September 28, 1973.

       With the rapid growth of the population in new resettlement and other public housing estates, steps are being taken to provide proper facilities for worship and celebration of religious festivals.

       In the New Territories, where traditional clan organisation has been preserved to a great extent, many villages have an ancestral hall. Ancestral tablets of the clan are kept in the hall and venerated. Village inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both religious and secular life. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

       The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are widely observed. During the spring Ching Ming Festival, graves of family ancestors are visited. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout Hong Kong. The Mid- Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. Visits to family graves are also paid on this day.

Because Chinese may follow one or other of these ways or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, Christianity, with its exclusive aims, often seems uncongenial to the Chinese spirit. Nevertheless, Christianity is rooted deeply and growing steadily in Hong Kong.

       It dates back almost to the foundation of Hong Kong, the first church being established in 1842. Since then the Christian church has grown steadily--today

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there are nearly 500 churches and chapels, grouped together in some 60 denominations and sect groups. The number of Christians in Hong Kong is estimated at about 440,000-slightly more than 10 per cent of the total population. Of these, more than half are Catholic, and slightly less than half, Protestant. There is an annual increase in church membership of about four per cent. Churches and chapels are being established in new housing estates and satellite towns.

       The majority of congregations in Hong Kong are Chinese speaking, mostly Cantonese and a few Mandarin, but about 16 churches hold services in English, German and Japanese. Major world denominations are represented in the Adventists, Anglicans, Alliance, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists, Pentecostals and Roman Catholics, while churches of Presbyterian and congregational types are joined in the Church of Christ in China. In addition, there are a number of non-denominational churches.

       Protestant churches are responsible for more than 250 primary schools and 130 middle schools and colleges throughout the territory, and the number is increasing every year. They also sponsor a variety of service programmes, including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, homes for the aged, family service centres, vocational training centres, aid for the handicapped and many others. In the past, a large percentage of these projects was financed almost entirely from overseas sources, but this has decreased considerably and most service programmes are now locally supported.

        Churches affiliated to the World Council of Churches come together with other Christian organisations (such as the YMCA, the YWCA and the Bible Society) in the Hong Kong Christian Council. Established in 1954, the council's headquarters, known as the Christian Centre, houses the offices of the Hong Kong Christian Service, Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee, Chinese Christian Literature Council and the Audio Visual Evangelism Committee. Facilities include an ecumenical library, recording studio and a conference room. The Hong Kong Christian Council's 23 members represent the majority of Protestant Church membership in Hong Kong.

       In the same building is the long-established Hong Kong Chinese Christian Churches Union, in which churches are linked on a congregational basis. The union now has 165 member-congregations.

        Before the establishment of Hong Kong the Roman Catholic Church's work in the area was part of its general missionary programme for South China. On April 22, 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Monsignor Theodore Joset as its first Prefect. He built a matshed church at what is now the intersection of Wellington and Pottinger Streets, established a seminary for training Chinese priests, and persuaded religious sisters to come to Hong Kong and start schools, hospitals, creches and other welfare work.

        In 1867 the Pontifical Institute of the Foreign Missions of Milan took charge of the Prefecture with the Right Reverend T. Raimondi as Prefect Apostolic (later Bishop) of Hong Kong. This institute remained in control of the Church until the first Chinese Bishop of the 131-year-old Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong, the Most Reverend Francis Chen-ping Hsu was formally installed on October 26,

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1969. Almost two years later, on September 8, 1971, the Most Reverend Peter Wang-kei Lei was consecrated Auxiliary Bishop of Hong Kong. The Church in Hong Kong suffered a sad loss when Bishop Hsu died on May 23, 1973, at the age of 52. Bishop Peter Wang-kei Lei was appointed as his successor in the see of Hong Kong on December 21, 1973.

Health, education and diversified social welfare works have been maintained and in some cases extended during the past year. In education, expansion continued and there are now 189 Catholic primary and secondary schools with a total enrolment of 243,857.

Social services include six vocational centres, six social centres, 13 hostels for students and working people, six hospitals, one maternity home, 20 general clinics, five dental clinics, two mobile clinics, four residential homes for children and 19 day nurseries, two homes for the aged, two for the blind and two training centres for the disabled.

In their Christian social commitment, the Catholic clergy and laity have, during the past year, increasingly engaged in joint activities related to contemporary con- ditions in Hong Kong with other Christian groups. In general the social dimension of education has been more stressed in the schools.

In February 1973 the first meeting of the central committee of the newly formed Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences took place in Hong Kong. It was presided over by Stephen Cardinal Kim of Korea with Bishop Hsu as executive secretary. This was an historic occasion-for the first time representatives of various Catholic hierarchies in Asia officially met to see in what ways they could co-operate.

Today, Church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 333 priests, 117 religious brothers and 797 religious sisters, 34 religious orders and congregations representing 32 nationalities. Catholics, at September 1973, numbered 257,713, more than 90 per cent of them Chinese, spread out in 53 parishes on Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and 15 rural districts of the New Territories.

       With more than 8,000 members the Hindu community, which can trace its ties with Hong Kong back to early settlement, centres its religious and social activities round its temple at Happy Valley. This temple is frequently visited by swamis and learned men from overseas who give spiritual lectures to the community. A number of festivals are also observed, the more important being the Holi Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Diwali.

       The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, yoga classes and teaching Hindi to the Indian community. During 1973, the association sponsored several seminars on the ancient Hindu teachings of Bhagwat Gita and Upanshads which were given by Hindu scholars invited from India. The seminars were held in English and were open to all nationalities. Religious music recitals are also held periodically at the temple.

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During the past 30 years more than 20,000 followers of Islam, mostly Chinese, have established themselves in Hong Kong. Other members of the Muslim com- munity are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Iran and neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street and Wongneichong Road Mosques on Hong Kong Island, and the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

Co-ordinating body for all religious affairs is the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community Fund of Hong Kong. A board of trustees, comprising representa- tives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is responsible for the manage- ment and maintenance of all mosques and cemeteries. The trustees are also responsible for organising the celebration of Muslim festivals and other religious events. Charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial aid to the needy, hospitalisa- tion and assisted education, is conducted through a welfare committee working under the direction of the board of trustees.

Hong Kong's Jewish community worships at a synagogue in Robinson Road. Constructed in 1901 on land given by Sir Jacob Sassoon and his family the synagogue is in memory of Sir Jacob's mother Leah. It is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 500 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States, South Africa and Israel.

17

Recreation

WITH land at a premium in Hong Kong even the smallest plot made available for recreation is utilised to the fullest extent. Each year, and 1973 was no exception, the overall programme to provide sporting and other recreational facilities continues to expand, although public demand always tends to outstrip existing amenities.

      In October 1973 the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, announced that a Council for Recreation and Sport is to be set up to give new impetus to the provision of more and better recreational facilities for the people of Hong Kong. The proposed council will be headed by the Secretary for Home Affairs and will have its own secretariat to provide it with administrative muscle.

      It will bring together a high-level group with special experience of the present public and private organisations controlling the main recreational facilities. The council will advise the government on recreational facilities, particularly on how to expand them and maximise their use, increase supervision of activities, and the extent and direction of financial assistance to amateur sport. It will also make recommenda- tions on any special services and facilities it considers necessary to meet the leisure time needs of young people.

Present facilities vary from small playgrounds and gardens serving an adjacent locality, to large parks catering for many needs. A variety of new projects are planned and work has started in many places to improve existing amenities and provide addi- tional facilities where possible.

      The Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department, builds and administers recreational facilities in the urban areas.

      Major projects completed during the year included the two-acre Kennedy Town Service Reservoir Playground, Tsun Yip Street Playground (2.4 acres) and Fook Wah Tsuen Playground (3.24 acres), along with many small playgrounds, some inside government housing estates. The council has many ambitious projects planned, but under arrangements drawn up when it was given financial autonomy on April 1, 1973, the largest public works items will continue to be financed from central revenue. But the council will finance most other projects from its own funds. Central revenue projects include Hong Kong's first velodrome and sports training centre at Causeway Bay, which will provide both indoor and outdoor athletic training facilities, and two new major sports facilities in Kowloon, the Hung Hom Indoor Stadium with seating for 15,000, and a large football stadium at Ho Man Tin.

      Projects financed by the council include an indoor games hall at San Po Kong completed in 1973, and intended to be the first of many. This hall will be used mainly for basketball, volleyball and badminton.

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       In the New Territories, this responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services working closely with the District Commissioner, New Territories Adminis- tration. During the year, an additional 9.56 acres of public open space were provided throughout the New Territories. These included two playgrounds of 1.05 acres at Kwai Fong Estate, 13 playgrounds of 5.09 acres at Kwai Shing Estate, two more of 1.10 acres at Lei Muk Shue Estate, with several more rest gardens in New Territories' towns.

        In June 1972, the government announced approval, in principle, of a $33 million plan to develop other recreational facilities. Main features of the plan are develop- ment of four major parks in the New Territories and provision of picnic areas and hiking facilities on Hong Kong Island. The parks in the New Territories will each be about two square miles. It is envisaged that they will have barbecue pits, shelters, seats, benches, tables, pavilions, surfaced tracks for service vehicles, and surfaced and unsurfaced foot-tracks for visitors. They will be provided with toilet facilities, refuse bins and water supplies. More picnic spots, barbecue pits, toilets and other facilities will be provided in the 40 square miles of recreational areas surrounding the parks. On Hong Kong Island, the proposed picnic areas will be at Quarry Bay, Tai Tam, Shek O, Brick Hill, Pok Fu Lam, Mount Davis and Wong Nei Chung. The Director of Agriculture and Fisheries will be responsible for management of these country parks and recreational areas.

In support of the general aims of the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign and the Fight Violent Crime Campaign, 'black spots' and 'crime sites' totalling an area of 22 acres were cleared and developed for use as temporary playgrounds and gardens or sitting-out areas.

The Urban Council and Urban Services Department now manage a total of 1,567 acres of public open space (1,004 in the urban areas and 563 in the New Terri- tories). During the year, 259,385 trees, shrubs and seasonal flowers were planted in these parks, playgrounds, along roadsides and in other public places. Among these, were 10,000 semi-mature trees for the urban areas, for which $2 million was specially provided by the Urban Council from its own vote. Percentage of survival was high, mainly because the unusually wet weather was favourable for planting.

In addition to its own planting programme, the Urban Council also encourages horticulture in Hong Kong by its annual flower show each spring. This year it at- tracted nearly 79,000 people.

As usual, swimming was the most popular outdoor summer activity. It is estimated that, on each Sunday and public holiday during the summer months, about 300,000 people used the 38 gazetted beaches and six public swimming pools under the management of the Urban Council and Urban Services Department.

During the peak swimming season, July and August, daily attendance at the six Urban Council pools regularly reached 70,000 when the weather was fine. However, because of the unusually wet weather during those months-wettest summer since 1889 the average attendance was much lower than last year. Swimming lessons were given at these pools for 1,850 members of the public during the summer

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holidays; 1,100 were beginners who learnt to swim a minimum distance of 25 metres, and 400 attended intermediate courses and improved their swimming ability to a minimum distance of 400 metres in any style. The remainer attended advanced courses, newly introduced this year. Further expansion of this Urban Council 'Learn- to-Swim' scheme is planned in response to popular demand.

      Another aspect of the Urban Council Water Safety Campaign was the launching of a pilot scheme with the Education Department and outside agencies to establish water safety clubs, initially in schools-32 clubs have been formed so far.

      Heavy rainfall also affected beaches, but less damage was caused than last year. There were further instances of red tide, but no cases of red eye disease were reported at either beaches or swimming pools.

      Of the six public swimming pools, four are located on the Kowloon peninsula. Three are complexes consisting of one main and one secondary pool, a diving pool, three teaching pools, a children's pool and a paddling pool. The other two pools, on Hong Kong Island, include the new all-weather heated swimming pool at Morrison Hill. As expected, it is popular with the public, with an average attendance last winter of 30,000 per month. Construction of a second heated swimming pool will begin next year in Kowloon.

       Meanwhile, the Kennedy Town pool complex is expected to be completed early in 1974. Because of limited site area, it will be smaller than existing standard com- plexes. Also, the first swimming pool in the New Territories is now under construc- tion at Tsuen Wan and will be a standard pool complex. Completion date is late 1974. Plans are also in hand for new pools in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Terri- tories.

      During the year, a total of 3,318,162 people used the pools, a decrease of 291,199 over the previous year's record of 3,609,361 people. The decrease was due to the unusually wet weather during the summer.

The recreation and entertainment section of the Urban Council and Urban Services Department continued throughout the year to carry out programmes in public recreation and entertainment, laying special emphasis on events and activities which appeal to youth, residents of large housing estates and outlying parts of the New Territories. The section was given wide assistance and support by many govern- ment departments, local bodies such as kaifong associations and rural committees, and many other public and private organisations.

There were four peak periods of activity during the year: the Summer Youth Activities Programme-June to September; the Hong Kong Festival-November 24 to December 2; Christmas and New Year; and the Lunar New Year.

       The monthly programme includes such well-established items as variety shows, traditional Chinese operas performed by the Lung Cheung Dramatic Troupe of Radio Hong Kong, open air concerts by military bands and film shows.

Certain functions were specially organised during the Summer Youth Activities Programme for young children, including launch picnics and swimming parties in

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pools managed by the Urban Council. In July a special young people's programme was introduced for the first time in that month. Entitled the 'Urban Council Youth Week 1973' it comprised more than 100 items, including sporting competitions in volleyball, basketball, miniature-football and cycling. These were organised jointly with the Hong Kong and Kowloon Volleyball Association, the Hong Kong Amateur Basketball Association, the Hong Kong Miniature Football Association, and the Hong Kong Cycling Association. The Urban Council also sponsored a Summer Youth Soccer League in conjunction with the Chinese Football Association in which 30 teams took part. Four swimming galas and two demonstrations of synchronised swimming to music were also held to entertain about 6,000 young people.

       Objectives of these programmes continued to be the involvement and entertain- ment of as many young people as possible, particularly those living in densely populated areas, and to bring popular entertainment to the public wherever possible, whatever the age group. The number of events and public attendance continue to increase. About 800 functions were organised during the year with a total attendance of more than 750,000.

Summer Youth Activities Programme

       Now in its fifth year, the Summer Youth Activities Programme has established itself as a permanent feature in the life of Hong Kong's young people. The programme is a large-scale community effort involving many youth and welfare voluntary agencies, schools, district groups, the Armed Forces and government departments. The main purpose of providing a wide range of interesting activities throughout the summer months is to give young people a good time and enable them to develop potential qualities of leadership. The programme also aims at educating youth in civic responsibilities and community service, at a time when half the population is under 22 years of age. Increasing affluence and better education have produced grow- ing numbers of young people with the time and inclination to take part in leisure activities.

       It is estimated that this year nearly 1.5 million young people took part in activities, with more than 30,000 volunteers involved in the organisation of the events and programmes. Although activities are held during the summer months to benefit school children, special efforts are made to attract young workers and other young people who are not members of any organised group. In this respect, local committees working closely with city and New Territories district offices and the Social Welfare Department, play a significant role in deepening the penetration of the Summer Youth Activities Programme. It promotes a better understanding of rural life in urban youth, and of urban life in young people from country areas.

        To provide the co-ordination needed by a programme of this scale-involving people from all walks of life and widely dispersed sources of finance and manpower- the Central Co-ordinating Committee for Youth Recreation was set up in 1969 with the active support of the government. The committee comprises representatives from

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the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, the Association of Volunteers for Service and major government departments, all concerned with youth recreation.

      Generous grants of more than $1 million from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and a similar contribution by the government, together with numerous dona- tions from community groups, firms, families and private individuals, made possible another successful Summer Youth Activities Programme.

Entertainment and the Arts

      The cultural life of Hong Kong in which the performing arts now play an im- portant role, tends to centre on the City Hall, administered by the Urban Council.

Facilities offered by the City Hall, opened in 1962, include a 1,500-seat concert hall that can be quickly converted for use for theatrical productions, an intimate 470-seat theatre (also used as a cinema), two exhibition halls, rooms for lectures and conferences, and two public restaurants with bars. In addition, the City Museum and Art Gallery and the main branch of the Urban Council public libraries system are also located there.

      Local performers and overseas artists are presented regularly in the two auditoria. Unfortunately, the demand for use of the City Hall facilities is far greater than can be met. The Urban Council has therefore proposed the construction of an additional and larger cultural complex in Kowloon.

      Of performances by local artists in 1973, a total of 200 Chinese and Western music, drama, opera and dance was presented by the Urban Council. They were attended by 165,883 people.

The Urban Council, mostly in association with national cultural organisations such as the Alliance Francaise, the British Council and the Goethe Institute, also engages overseas artists to perform music, ballet and drama. In 1973, there were 102 such performances.

The council also arranged regular concerts of recorded music using sophisticated equipment in the Concert Hall where acoustics are exceptionally good. In planning these 'hi-fi' concerts, attempts are made to include works which are unlikely to be heard 'live' in Hong Kong, and these have been particularly well received by the public. Admission price for students at Urban Council cultural presentations ranges from $1 to $3, and tickets are usually sold out quickly.

      In addition to participating in the Urban Council's presentations, local musical groups and soloists gave 180 concerts in the City Hall during the year. In drama, many Chinese groups, amateur as well as professional, and three active English amateur groups presented 34 productions, with 109 performances in the City Hall.

Among projects planned by the Urban Council are regular performances of Chinese classical instrumental music, Chinese drama and Western plays translated into Chinese. The Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, a semi-professional group

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sponsored by the council, gave 18 concerts in 1973 at the City Hall and intends to become fully professional in 1974.

The first international Hong Kong Arts Festival organised by the non-profit- making Hong Kong Arts Festival Society took place at the City Hall and the Lee Theatre in March 1973. Internationally known artists who performed at the festival included Margot Fonteyn, Yehudi Menuhin, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Seijo Ozawa conducting the New Japanese Philharmonic Orchestra, Erich Leinsdorf, and John Pritchard and Edo de Waart conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra. Also performing at the festival were the Bristol Old Vic, the London Gala Ballet, the Royal Danish Ballet and the Royal Javanese Dancers.

They gave Hong Kong a complete month of music, drama and dance. Overall attendance at the City Hall concert hall and theatre exceeded 90 per cent of the seating capacity, of which some 15 per cent consisted of students. The event was so successful that the organisers have decided to present similar festivals in 1974 and 1975.

City Museum and Art Gallery

       The City Museum and Art Gallery, situated on the upper floors of the High Block of the City Hall, is also administered by the Urban Council. Founded in 1962, it has built up collections of Chinese art and antiquities, historical pictures, ethno- graphical materials, archaeological finds, as well as local and contemporary art.

The collection of Chinese art and antiquities consists of paintings, calligraphy, rubbings, ceramics, bronze, jade, lacquerware, cloisonne and embroidery. The most comprehensive group in the collection is ceramics which includes some fine specimens and representative pieces of almost every period in Chinese history. Another notable group is the collection of Kwangtung paintings and calligraphy illustrating the development of Kwangtung art and culture in the last two centuries.

       In the historical collections, there are more than 700 paintings, water-colours, drawings, lithographs and engravings, made up of the Chater, Hotung, Law and Sayer Collections as well as later acquisitions. Together, they provide a vivid pictorial record of Sino-British contacts in the 18th and early 19th centuries. These are further supplemented by about 2,000 old photographs which portray the dramatic progress of Hong Kong from 1870 to the present day.

       Ethnological materials relating to Hong Kong's folk life continued to be collected and preserved. In co-operation with the Hong Kong Archaeological Society, frequent field trips to various archaeological sites in Hong Kong were made, resulting in fruitful excavations. The finds included Han and T'ang coins, bronzes, stone implements, bones, pots and numerous pot sherds.

       The collection of local and contemporary art includes paintings, sculpture and prints by Hong Kong artists as well as prints by artists in other parts of Asia, in- cluding many of Chinese origin.

       The permanent display in the museum section continued to show selected items of Chinese antiquities from the collection.

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       In the Art Gallery, 14 special exhibitions were held during 1973, including two large-scale Chinese art exhibitions-the Ch'i Pai-Shih and the Kwangtung painting exhibitions. Paintings on display were loaned from various local collectors and both exhibitions proved successful. An exhibition of contemporary prints by Chinese artists consisting of original graphic work by Chinese artists from all over the world was also one of the most successful of the year. The seventh children's art exhibition- a biennial survey of art education in local schools-attracted many young visitors.

       Six exhibitions came from abroad, including contemporary French tapestries, Indian miniatures, graphic art in Germany, Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, contemporary French art photographs, and Fabric Vibrations featuring tie-dye creations by American craftsmen.

The Lei Cheng Uk Museum, a site museum of a Han Tomb discovered in 1955 and preserved, continued to attract many visitors. Relics on display provide a glimpse of life in South China 2,000 years ago. Conversion of the display room started in the latter part of the year in order to provide better facilities for display and exhibitions.

Total attendance at the City Museum and Art Gallery for 1973 was 279,189, representing an average of 901 people per day. The corresponding figures for 1972 were 217,601 and 704. At the Lei Cheng Uk Museum-admission 30 cents for adults and 10 cents for children-total attendance was 17,578 averaging 58 per day. In 1972, the figures were 22,866 and 74.

Libraries

       There are five Urban Council public libraries, three on the Kowloon peninsula and two on Hong Kong Island. These libraries offer free lending, reference and study room facilities to all residents of Hong Kong. There is a comprehensive bookstock of 526,055 volumes in both English and Chinese, 296 current newspapers and periodicals from all over the world, 2,765 reels of microfilm and 1,230 seats in the study rooms. There is also separate students' study room at Kowloon Park with

282 seats.

      The City Hall and Yau Ma Tei libraries, the main libraries for each side of the harbour, have comprehensive reference sections in addition to the normal adult lending, junior newspaper and periodical sections and students' study rooms. Branch libraries at Waterloo Road and Ping Shek Estate in Kowloon and at Wah Fu Estate on the southwest of Hong Kong Island concentrate on lending facilities for adult and junior readers, but also have newspaper and periodical sections and study rooms for students.

       Public libraries continue to be well-used and, in the 11 years since the first (at the City Hall) was opened, 413,661 people have registered as borrowers. In 1973, 2,651,935 books were borrowed from the lending libraries and 354,735 books con- sulted in the reference libraries.

       Various extension activities in the form of book exhibitions, children's story- hours, a Christmas card competition and organised school visits have been a regular feature at the libraries and all have proved successful.

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Plans for additional public libraries with the eventual aim of setting up a branch library in every urban district have been made by the Urban Council.

The first public library to be set up in the New Territories by the Urban Services Department at Tsuen Wan is due to open in early 1974.

The British Council

The highlight of valuable contributions to educational and cultural activities by the British Council this year was the Hong Kong Arts Festival. The council provided financial backing for 10 concerts by the London Philharmonic Orchestra during the festival, held from February 26 to March 24. With a variety of conductors, John Pritchard, Eric Leinsdorf, and Edo de Waart, and soloists, Ida Haendel, John Lill, Michael Roll, and Rodney Friend they provided a background of orchestral music of great range and virtuosity before their historic tour of the People's Republic of China.

Although not directly backed by the council the appearance of the New London Gala Ballet, led by Galina Samsova and Andre Prokovsky, was an extension of a British Council-sponsored tour of other Asian cities. The group gave 12 performances at the Lee Theatre. Another popular item was the Bristol Old Vic's spirited modern production of the "Taming of the Shrew', specially mounted last year for a British Council-sponsored tour of Latin America.

As a festival follow-up the English Chamber Orchestra, with its dynamic con- ductor, Andrew Davis, gave two concerts at the City Hall on April 4 and 5, under the joint auspices of Capital Artists and the British Council. The second concert presented an original composition by the orchestra's principal horn, Anthony Halstead, and featured as guest soloist the Chinese concert pianist Fou Ts'ong.

The two libraries in Gloucester Building, Victoria, and Star House, Kowloon, continued to provide a wide range of English books, and reading rooms for study, catering mainly for university and secondary school students. Opening the Star House Library each Saturday afternoon, the busiest period for issues, has proved particularly popular with part-time students.

The combined book stock in the Victoria and Kowloon libraries reached 34,157 and membership was about 7,600. On any one day during the year an average of 2,700 books were out on loan. In the reading rooms students and the general public were provided with copies of 229 British newspapers and magazines covering a wide range of subjects of interest to Hong Kong.

       Assistance was given to government departments and the two universities, which had staff wishing to visit British universities and other institutions, for specialist courses or study tours. Seven British Council scholarships, four for teaching English as a second language, and six Sino-British Followship Trust Scholarships were awarded for post-graduate studies in the United Kingdom. The council also com- pleted arrangements for eight British Commonwealth Scholars from Hong Kong to visit Britain.

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In reverse the British Council made arrangements for specialists from Britain to visit Hong Kong for consultations with government departments and the univer- sities, or give lectures to local professional societies. Subjects covered included de- velopmental paediatrics, neurochemistry, social welfare, pathology, town planning, technical and physical education, mathematics and plant growth regulation.

      The longest advisory visit was that of Dr K. S. Holt of the Wolfson Centre, Department of Developmental Paediatrics, Institute of Child Health, University of London. Dr Holt came for four weeks in February at the request of Director of Medical and Health Services, to advise on the assessment, training, and education of handicapped children.

After consultations with Medical and Health, Education, and Social Welfare departments, voluntary organisations and institutions under the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, the University of Hong Kong, and a number of clinics, schools and private individuals, he submitted a comprehensive report. In the report to the Director of Medical and Health Services he focused attention on basic problems and suggested guidelines for the future.

      Another visit of interest to Hong Kong's educational and economic plans was that of Mr K. G. Lavender, Principal of Wandsworth Technical College, Inner London Education Authority, who carried out a three-week advisory visit on sec- ondary, technical, and pre-vocational education. Mr H. W. B. Hayley, Director of Physical Education at the University of Keele dealt with yet another aspect of edu- cation, and came to advise the Chinese University of Hong Kong on co-ordinating its sports and athletic activities.

Advice and information to students leaving for higher studies in Britain was also provided by the council, which maintained close co-operation with the Education Department. A large number of students were met and assisted by the British Council on arrival in London.

The council again provided accommodation at Star House for the English speech section of the Hong Kong Schools Music Festival. Local educational films were lent to a large number of schools and other institutions, and several feature films of artistic and literary interest, and specialist medical films, were obtained from London and shown to schools, university departments, and hospital staff.

Two book exhibitions were also arranged during the year-a small exhibition of illustrated books for younger children at Victoria Library in March attracted about 500 visitors. A larger exhibition of English language teaching books was held at Education Department's English Language Teaching Centre, and at the University Library of the Chinese University of Hong Kong during April and May. About 2,100 people attended this exhibition which aroused considerable interest among university teaching staff.

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In a year in which the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, announced the setting up of a Council for Recreation and Sport, many interesting and international sporting fixtures took place in Hong Kong. Despite limited space in the territory the choice of sports is wide. The most popular include swimming, basketball, soccer, cricket, martial arts, canoeing, horse racing, and sailing. The Council for Recreation and Sport was appointed under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Home Affairs, and will ensure that facilities in the urban and rural areas are expanded and their use maximised. Above competitors in the World 505 Championships held at Repulse Bay in November.

Night racing was introduced for the first time at Happy Valley this year, and proved popular with horse-racing fans.

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Hong Kong was the venue of a World Cup soccer clash between Australia and South Korea. Australia won 1-0 to go through to the next round in Munich.

  Martial arts gained world-wide popularity in 1973-members of the Japan Karate Association of Hong Kong train on Shek O beach.

World tennis ace Rod Laver won the men's championship of the Viceroy Tennis Classic at Victoria Park.

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Large crowds saw the thrills and spills of the seventh Hongkong International Karting Prix at Victoria Park in November.

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A new sport to Hong Kong, mini-power-boat racing, was launched at Repulse Bay during 1973.

An attractive addition to the year's sports line-up was this water-ballet troupe at Repulse Bay. The team later gave a display at the second Southeast Asian Water-Ski Championships in Manila,

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The Environment

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A SMALL part of the Chinese mainland and a series of small offshore islands less than 100 miles south of the Tropic of Cancer, make up the territory of Hong Kong. Between the twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon lies the magnificent natural harbour, one of the busiest in the world.

Hong Kong is situated on the south-east coast of China, 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of the Portuguese province of Macau. Geographically it lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. London is 6,000 miles away, less than 20 hours by jet.

The total land area is 404 square miles (including recent reclamations) of which Hong Kong Island, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprises 29.2 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another 4.3 square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 370.5 square miles.

Topography and Geology

Hong Kong's hilly topography has ensured survival of a relatively large expanse of countryside, often favourably compared to some of the most famous scenic areas in the world. Its steep and rugged slopes, rising from sealevel to two and three thousand feet, feature rocky crags, wooded ravines with rushing streams and open grassy slopes. Some 20 freshwater reservoirs of various sizes nestle among these hills giving additional charm to the scenery.

The territory lies on the edge of an eroded mountain chain which extends along the south coast of China, and is largely composed of folded and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks with younger intrusions of granitic rocks mostly of the Jurassic Period. The oldest sedimentary rocks found in Hong Kong are those of the Tolo Harbour Formation. This formation is exposed at Ma Shi Chau and con- tains fossils dated as most probably Permian in age.

However, its stratigraphic relationships are somewhat uncertain. The formation of minerals associated with the intrusion of the granitic rocks, has been of limited economic benefit to Hong Kong. Lead, zinc, tungsten, beryl and graphite have been mined intermittently, but only in small quantities. Iron ore mining has been of greater importance and there is currently an active mine at Ma On Shan, which exports concentrated ore to Japan.

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       Due to the hilly terrain, agricultural land is restricted. The most important area is the flat alluvium around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area. Outside the alluvial areas, soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acidic and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. However, given intensive labour input, water supply rather than soil condition tends to be the controlling factor in farming. The predominantly crystalline character of the rock formations unfortunately makes them unsuitable for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface run-off for all water supplies. The highly variable rainfall of the area has led to periodic water shortages. Most of Hong Kong's surface water supply has now been captured through the construction of catchments and reser- voirs. After completion of the High Island reservoir scheme, desalination processes on a large scale will become necessary.

        Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia, but more profitable vegetable crops have increasingly displaced rice during the past 25 years and it is now grown on only 31 per cent of the area being used for agriculture. Fish ponds are also an important form of rural land use. The upland areas are mostly grass-covered and in several places, as in the Castle Peak area, severely eroded. Afforestation has been developed since 1945 but the area covered is still relatively small. The most important economic function of the uplands is for water catchment areas, which must be reconciled with needs of the crowded urban areas for recrea- tional space.

Climate and the Year's Weather

Climate

        Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it experiences seasonal weather conditions, unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when it is generally dry and sunny. After New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight, it is often persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

         The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and can occur from mid-April until September, but it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm in 1963 and 3,100.4 mm in 1973, the wettest year since 1889, but the mean value is 2168.8 mm.

Mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever re- corded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However,

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greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night.

        Mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The daily average of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to more than seven hours in mid-July and late October.

Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected from May to November but are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less fre- quently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force, endangering life and property.

The Year's Weather

        With a total rainfall of 3,100.4 mm, more than 40 per cent above average, 1973 was the wettest year ever recorded in Hong Kong. The year was also much warmer than usual with the second highest mean temperature on record.

Twenty-two tropical cyclones were reported over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea from July to November and this was the first time since 1917 that there were no tropical cyclones over the region during the first half of the year. Of the nine typhoons and tropical storms which affected Hong Kong during the year, only Typhoon Dot came sufficiently close to cause gales and damage.

January was slightly warmer and more cloudy than usual with rainfall more than 80 per cent above average. Most of the month's rain fell during January 17-23 when a succession of upper air disturbances affected the south China coast. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted three times as a result of the intensification of the winter monsoon. Dry northerly air also affected Hong Kong during the month and neces- sitated the issue of the fire danger warnings on seven days.

February was the mildest on record with only half the average rainfall. Both the mean dew point and the mean minimum temperature were the highest on record for February. Relatively weak surges of the winter monsoon affected Hong Kong during the month and the strong monsoon signal was hoisted only once, for nine hours on February 20. On February 21-23, widespread coastal fog and low visibility caused 17 aircraft to divert from Hong Kong International Airport.

The abnormally warm weather of February continued during March. The mean temperature as well as the mean maximum and minimum temperatures for the month were all second highest on record for March, while the maximum temperature of 30.1°C, recorded on the last day of the month, was the highest ever recorded in any March. The month was dry with a total rainfall of only 13.3 mm. The strong mon- soon signal was hoisted twice as a result of the arrival of two monsoon surges. For

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the first half of the month, Hong Kong was under the influence of a warm and moist airstream from the South China Sea and the weather was mainly cloudy and humid with light rain patches and coastal fog. However, drier air from the north affected Hong Kong during the remainder of the month and fire danger warnings were issued twice during this period.

April was also warm and dry. The mean temperature of 24.0°C was highest on record for the month and was equalled only once before, in April 1964. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted three times, twice to warn strong northeast winds and once to warn strong southwesterlies. Thunderstorms were reported on several days and there was a hailstorm over the northwestern part of the New Territories on April 7. Warm and humid air from the southeast caused mist and fog patches over Hong Kong for eight days and resulted in the diversion of 23 aircraft.

May was wetter and hotter than usual with rainfall more than 75 per cent above average. During the month there were only two days on which no rainfall was re- corded at the Royal Observatory. Cold fronts from the north and troughs over the South China Sea brought heavy rain and widespread thunderstorms and thunder- storm and/or heavy rain warnings were issued on 10 days.

In June, both the rainfall and air temperature were close to average. However, there was no tropical cyclone during the month and the rain was mostly associated with passages of active troughs from the north.

Six tropical cyclones formed over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea in July. Of these only Typhoon Dot and Tropical Storm Wilda necessitated the hoisting of tropical cyclone warning signals in Hong Kong.

The first tropical cyclone for the year was Tropical Storm Wilda which passed about 200 miles east of Hong Kong on July 3. Typhoon Dot formed in the South China Sea on July 14 and passed about 12 miles to the east of the Royal Observatory early on July 17. Gales and heavy showers were experienced in Hong Kong during the passage of Dot and some flooding was also reported in low-lying areas. This typhoon contributed about one-third of the month's total rainfall which was nearly 90 per cent above average.

During August, seven tropical cyclones formed over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea, but only three, Typhoon Georgia and Tropical Storms Joan and Kate, affected Hong Kong. They all passed within 180 miles to the south and caused periods of strong winds and heavy rain. The rainfall for the month was more than double the average figure and was the second highest on record for August. The total rainfall from May to August and from January to August were both the highest ever recorded. On August 30, the strong monsoon signal was hoisted for four hours to warn strong easterly winds.

The abnormally wet weather of July and August continued during September. The rainfall recorded was more than 70 per cent above average while the accumulated total from January 1 up to the end of September exceeded the rainfall of the previous wettest year, 1889. During the month Typhoon Marge and Severe Tropical Storm

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Louise were the only two tropical cyclones reported in the western north Pacific and the South China Sea. Both formed in the vicinity of north Luzon and moved west- wards across the South China Sea causing freshening of winds over Hong Kong. Two surges of the winter monsoon passed through Hong Kong and necessitated the hoisting of the strong monsoon signal on September 24 and 27-28.

        October was much drier than normal. Only 4.7 mm of rainfall were recorded during the month, representing less than five per cent of the average amount for October. On October 28, the relative humidity fell to a minimum of 21 per cent which was the lowest on record for October and was equalled once previously, in October 1968.

        Four typhoons were reported in the month but only Typhoons Nora and Ruth came sufficiently close to affect Hong Kong. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted on three occasions during outbreaks of cold air from the north.

        No measurable rainfall was recorded during the first 24 days of November and the month's total rainfall amounted to only 9.3 mm against the average value of 43.1 mm. During the month, two tropical cyclones were reported over the South China Sea and one near the Philippines, but none affected Hong Kong. Due to dry weather conditions, fire danger warnings were in operation on 25 days of the month.

An intense and persistent continental anticyclone dominated China and the neighbouring seas during December and resulted in exceptionally dry and clear weather in Hong Kong. The month was the sunniest December since 1939 and the mean relative humidity and dew point were both the lowest on record for December. On December 31, the relative humidity fell to a minimum of 14 per cent which was the lowest ever experienced for the month. No measurable rainfall was recorded during December and a fire danger warning was in force every day. The strong monsoon signal was hoisted three times during the intensification of the northeast

monsoon.

The year will be remembered for the exceptionally wet and cloudy summer and the unusually persistent clear and fine weather in November and December.

The Royal Observatory

The Royal Observatory is directly concerned with all matters relating to meteorology, geophysics and environmental sciences. It provides a diversity of services on a broad spectrum of environmental problems. These services not only play an important role in the economic progress and development in a modern. society like Hong Kong, but also help reduce possible loss of life and property in natural catastrophes caused by severe weather systems such as thunderstorms, rain- storms and tropical cyclones.

Weather forecasts and tropical cyclone warnings are prepared in the Central Forecasting Office, while services for aviation are provided at the Airport Meteoro- logical Office.

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       Close liaison is maintained with all ships visiting Hong Kong and about 45 selected vessels are provided with instruments by the observatory and encouraged to transmit weather reports. These are used to prepare forecasts and locate tropical cyclones. About 60 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two coastal radio stations in Hong Kong, and disseminated to other centres through the World Weather Watch telecommunication network. About 5,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received each day from other countries together with aircraft reports and other data. They are decoded, plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and fisher- men, and all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are given briefings, written forecasts and weather charts.

One of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical cyclone is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, warnings for shipping are generally issued every three hours. These provide information on the maximum winds, the position and movement of the centre and the forecast position 24 hours ahead. Reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the Royal Observatory direct from meteorological satellites together with radar observations are used to locate the centre and evaluate the intensity of the tropical cyclone.

       When Hong Kong is threatened, warnings are widely distributed by visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Advice and recommended precautions are broadcast at frequent intervals whenever signals are displayed. Gale or storm signals 5, 6, 7 and 8 were renumbered as 8NW, 8SW, 8NE, 8SE from January 1, 1973. The Royal Observatory also issues strong monsoon, thunderstorm and/or heavy rain, fire hazard, frost and low temperature warnings whenever necessary.

        The observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a 30-millimetre radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms and a 100-millimetre radar for locating larger tropical disturbances up to 240 nautical miles away. A new iso-echo device was fitted to the larger radar in 1973 to facilitate the real-time estima- tion of the intensity of rainfall. This equipment now provides valuable additional information for rainfall forecasting, as well as for hydrological applications.

       The observatory is responsible for Hong Kong's Time Service. Six pip signals from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95 MHz and are relayed by broadcasting and television stations. With effect from January 1, 1972, the time kept by the Hong Kong Time Standard was changed to Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC). This new time system has been adopted by international agreement and is based on an atomic time standard which provides a more uniform time scale than that based upon astronomical standards. The UTC will never differ by more than 0.7 second from the astronomical time. To ensure this, step adjustments to UTC of one second were made on July 1, 1972 and January 1, 1973 in accordance with international agreement.

        Twelve seismometers are operated by the observatory. The department prepares bulletins of all earthquake tremors recorded and participates in the Pacific Tsunami

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Warning Service. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum-Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However, an average of two to three tremors may be felt each year by residents in certain locations, but none were reported in 1973.

Geomagnetic measurements, which ceased in 1941 and resumed in 1971, were regularly made at the geomagnetic station near Tate's Cairn, where magnetic varia- tion was also recorded. This was made possible with a donation from the Nuffield Foundation for a joint project by the University of Hong Kong and the Royal Observatory. Absolute measurements were also made on the site of the old geomag- netic station at Au Tau in January 1973.

         The observatory answers requests for climatological and meteorological in- formation from various government departments, private companies and the general public, and issues certificates for litigation purposes and for insurance claims. The department also acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of many projects in the territory that may be affected by meteorological conditions. A growing number of investigations are now concerned with the meteorological aspects of development projects which are potential sources of pollution. Technical papers are published on various aspects of Hong Kong weather and on a wide variety of geophysical sub- jects.

A computer was installed in November 1973 for processing and analyses of mete- orological data. An order has also been placed to install a further system in 1974 to directly accept meteorological messages received from various communication circuits.

To make it easier to store and retrieve the vast amount of meteorological charts and records at the Royal Observatory, a microfilm unit was established in January 1973 for transferring data onto either 35-mm aperture cards or 16-mm roll film. Readers and reader-printers have been employed to study the records.

         Equipment for measuring Runway Visual Range (RVR) was received and will shortly be installed at Hong Kong International Airport. Meanwhile, the Royal Observatory continued to calibrate high intensity runway lights to estimate RVR by the human observer.

         The Committee for Scientific Co-ordination, chaired by the Director of the Royal Observatory, was established in 1962 to advise the government on scientific and technological matters and policies and to co-ordinate scientific activities in Hong Kong.

         In co-operation with the two universities in Hong Kong, a special symposium in marine sciences was held in December 1973 and was attended by 65 participants from 16 countries.

Research

        Apart from basic research activities in connection with operational require- ments of the department, numerous investigations were carried out on various aspects

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of meteorology and geophysics to meet the demand for services by aviation, shipping, industry and the general public. Many enquiries needed quick answers while a number involved detailed investigation using computer facilities. These included a detailed analysis of meteorological data for a long term planning study of Hong Kong's air transport system.

During the year, nomograms for predicting daily minimum temperature for the winter months were prepared and mean upper-air streamline and temperature charts for Southeast Asia were completed. A joint paper with a staff member of the Univer- sity of Southampton entitled 'A Dimensionless Unitgraph for Hong Kong' was prepared and presented in the Symposium on the Design of Water Resources Proj- ects with Inadequate Data, held in Madrid on June 4-9, 1973. Other papers com- pleted included 'Quantitative Forecasting of the Winter Monsoon', 'Hong Kong Monthly and Annual Mean Temperatures: Their Trend and Persistent Character- istics' and 'Radar Climatology of Hong Kong for the years 1967-69'.

Several case studies on unusual weather in 1972 and 1973 were undertaken and a technical report on the severe rainstorms which caused disasters in Hong Kong during June 1972 was completed.

Pollution Monitoring and Control

        The Royal Observatory is responsible for providing basic information to enable warnings to be issued of any possible health hazards from radioactive fallout from old and fresh nuclear explosions. This, and regular measurements of beta and gamma activity in the atmosphere and in rainfall have been made since 1961 at the King's Park Meteorological Station of the Royal Observatory. Radioactivity of filtered water samples from several reservoirs in the territory is also regularly monitored.

       Licences for irradiating apparatus and radioactive substances are controlled by the Radiation Board, set up within the Medical and Health Department. The board's effectiveness is assured by two sets of regulations covering radiation control-the Control of Radioactivity Substances, and the Control of Irradiating Apparatus.

        The Advisory Committee on Air Pollution was reconstituted in December 1970 as a permanent advisory committee under the chairmanship of Mr J. L. Marden. Its members are drawn from various government departments, including the Royal Observatory, Public Works, Medical and Health, Urban Services, Labour and Transport, as well as the Colonial Secretariat. A number of unofficial members are appointed for their special interest or expertise in this field. The committee's terms of reference are to keep air pollution in Hong Kong under constant review and advise the government on appropriate measures for its control.

       Regulations have been enacted under the Clean Air Ordinance requiring owners of premises to submit plans of all new or proposed modifications of existing furnaces and chimneys. They set standards to ensure that combustion of liquid fuels will produce a minimum of dark smoke. Consideration is also being given to controlling emissions from motor vehicles. With the assistance of the China Light and Power

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Company, substantial progress has also been made in reducing the level of sulphur dioxide in the Hung Hom area.

       Results of monitoring carried out by the air pollution control unit of the Labour Department showed a significant reduction in sulphur dioxide concentration. At Hung Hom, the level of sulphur dioxide was only about one fifth of the maximum permitted level of 50 parts per hundred million set by the Advisory Committee on Air Pollution. Readings at the station at Queen Elizabeth Hospital dropped to about three parts per hundred million, while readings in the Sham Shui Po and Central Market stations were below one part per hundred million.

        Smoke densities also showed a similar drop. This was due partly to the efforts of smoke inspectors of the air pollution control unit and co-operation from fuel- users. Although the unit relies more on constructive advice than stringent enforcement, it is still sometimes necessary to initiate prosecutions under the Clean Air Ordinance against persistent offenders. During the year it was necessary to prosecute in 11 cases under this ordinance, with fines ranging from $400 to $1,500.

Tsuen Wan was declared a smoke control area in March 1973, bringing the number of such areas to four.

       Recently it became apparent that existing fragmented control over various aspects of environmental pollution was unsatisfactory. Therefore the Advisory Committee on Air Pollution was combined with the Advisory Committee on En- vironmental Pollution on Land and Water (EPCOM). The combined committee was given wider terms of reference, including investigation and control of noise pollution.

        A preliminary investigation into pollution from agricultural wastes was made and a report outlining the problem and ideas for tackling it prepared by the Agricul- ture and Fisheries Department. This report was given to the Advisory Committee on Environmental Pollution, and other government departments. The department also gave assistance to consultants engaged by the government to look into the overall pollution problem in the New Territories.

       An inter-departmental working committee under the chairmanship of the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries was created in June 1973, to make recom- mendations on co-ordination of marine pollution monitoring of local waters by several departments. Main aims are to determine what data is presently being col- lected, its frequency and technology standards used; to identify present information and data gaps which need filling to complete the background picture; to centralise a data bank of information available to all interested parties; and to collate the analyses of data. A considerable amount of chemical, physical and biological data is currently being collected and analysed. The biological situations in the present marine environment are being studied so that the effect of marine pollution on the biota and ecosystem can in future be related scientifically. This working committee will report to EPCOM.

       Water pollution comes under the pollution control unit of the Marine Depart- ment. The three main aspects of harbour pollution dealt with by the unit are oil pollution, harbour scavenging and refuse collection from ocean-going vessels.

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       Under the overall guidance of a marine officer, the unit maintains surveillance on all aspects of oil transfer to and from ships. A patrol launch is used and regular and frequent checks are made on ships and oil installations throughout Hong Kong waters. Since the inception of the unit in 1971, many offenders have been successfully prosecuted. The maximum fine for polluting the harbour has recently been increased to $20,000 and six months imprisonment. An additional fine of $4,000 can be imposed for failure to report oil pollution.

The unit is equipped with stocks of emulsifiers, spray booms, sea-surface agitators and oil booms, and launches are always ready to deal with oil pollution. A purpose- built launch, equipped with modern pollution control facilities, is being constructed. VHF radio facilities enable the on-scene-commander to communicate and co- ordinate with the Port Communication Centre in event of oil spillages.

The pollution control unit also operates a scavenging service in the main harbour and typhoon shelters at Aberdeen, Causeway Bay and Yau Ma Tei. To cover these operations, 31 craft are under contract to the Marine Department, and during the year an average of 20 tons of refuse was removed daily. Of this, 55 per cent was fragmented timber, the remaining 45 per cent comprised domestic and sundry refuse.

The refuse collection service for ocean-going vessels has proved popular and is being well utilised. Each morning ships which have been in port 48 hours or longer are visited by the pollution control unit and accumulated domestic refuse is removed, effectively discouraging clandestine dumping at night.

Conservation

The dense natural forest which once covered Hong Kong disappeared long ago, and today woodland is found only in certain localities. Some of it is natural, the remainder created, or assisted, by planting undertaken in the fifties to repair the ravages of war. Today work continues chiefly to stabilise soils, cover scars made by engineering works, and improve scenic and recreational amenities.

Conservation of the countryside is made difficult by the age-old problem of fire and by modern needs of the public for open-air recreation. Following the wettest summer in Hong Kong's recorded history, the weather changed dramatically result- ing in the sunniest and driest December on record. Vegetation on the hillsides became tinder dry leading to the worst fire season for many years. By December 21 more than 950 fires had been recorded and nearly 500 extinguished by forestry staff of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, more than twice the 10-year average. Damage included 3,000 acres of plantations, 2,600 of which were burned over the Christmas holiday, together with an unknown acreage of scrub and grassland. Fire protection measures include propaganda, cleaning fire-breaks at the end of summer, and pro- vision of fire lookouts and teams of fire-fighters on a 24-hour standby system during dry winter weather.

Most weekends and public holidays roads are congested with private cars, mini-buses and coaches taking people into the countryside. Trains and ferries are

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also crowded. Some visitors go to popular locations which have catering facilities, others prefer to picnic near their means of transport, while a lesser but still sub- stantial number prefer to walk in the hills, picnic and camp. In effect, almost the whole of the countryside is used like a national park. This means that in Hong Kong the conservation of the countryside must go hand in hand with development of recreational opportunities.

       For this reason the government adopted a broad development plan in 1972 for recreation and nature conservation. During the past year planning and design work has progressed and in certain localities additional picnic facilities have already been provided, initially in the Shing Mun Country Park near Tsuen Wan, and in the Tai Tam area of Hong Kong Island. Towards the end of the year the former Hong Kong Island Advisory Committee for Recreational Development and Nature Conservation was merged with that of the New Territories, and reformed under the chairmanship of the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries.

       The main aim of the development plan is to provide a series of country parks to enable large numbers of visitors to enjoy outdoor recreation in a country environ- ment-adjacent to urban areas if possible. Some may be further from the towns, but on main roads already heavily used by holidaymakers. Conservation and forestry staff who manage these parks will also look after adjacent tracts of more open and less heavily used countryside to offer visitors as full a range of recreational oppor- tunities as possible and provide protection for a high proportion of hill country.

        Generally areas to be developed as country parks will have to cater for certain existing uses in addition to recreation. The most common of these are, the collection of fresh water supplies for Hong Kong's reservoirs, or meeting traditional village rights for fodder, grazing and fuel. Recreation itself brings problems of access and control of motor traffic, so in most cases the park planner is faced with a complex situation in which it is not possible to make sudden or dramatic progress.

The proposed park areas are not the only ones popular with visitors and there- fore in need of careful management. Best example of one of these areas is Bride's Pool, north of Plover Cove, which has attracted large and increasing numbers of visitors since it became accessible by road about 10 years ago. Fires and erosion have caused much damage and littering is a big problem. In February 1973 the government agreed that the Agriculture and Fisheries Department's countryside management services should be extended to Bride's Pool and to the surrounding block of countryside. Approval was given for the establishment of two management centres with necessary staff and equipment. An advance party of staff started work in July 1973.

On the recommendation of the New Territories Advisory Committee, Mai Po Marshes was scheduled under the provisions of the Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance on March 23, 1973. This prohibits hunting and the carrying of firearms in that area, which is generally considered one of Hong Kong's most important wetland habitats.

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       The greater part of the countryside is now subject to some form of prohibition regarding bird and wild mammal hunting, and carrying firearms. Enforcement of the Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance is carried out by four full-time game wardens supported by 172 other government officials, who have powers of game wardens in addition to their normal duties, and by 25 honorary game wardens. Also, all Justices of the Peace and police officers have the statutory powers of game wardens.

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Population

HONG KONG's rate of natural increase in population has dropped significantly in the past few years. Natural population increase was 14.7 per thousand in 1973, against 27.5 in 1963. Births dropped from 114,550 (33.5 per thousand) 10 years ago to 82,252 (19.8 per thousand) in 1973.

        The total estimated population at the end of 1973 was 4,219,300, with 2,163,300 males and 2,056,000 females. Compared with the estimated population in 1963 this represents an increase of 757,500 over the last 10 years.

        More than 98 per cent of the population can be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin. Immigration Department records show the number of Commonwealth citizens residing in Hong Kong at the end of 1973 as: British 13,239 (excluding members of armed forces); Indian 6,164; Malaysian 3,830; Australian 3,007; Singaporean 1,991; Canadian 1,571; and other Commonwealth countries 1,772.

Non-Commonwealth alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than six months), based on records kept by the Aliens' Registration Office, totalled 26,825. The largest groups were American (6,875) Japanese (2,971), Portuguese (2,666), Pakistani (2,652), Filipino (2,284), Indonesian (1,387), German (1,074), Korean (704), Dutch (688) and French (652).

Approximately 55 per cent of the urban population is of Hong Kong birth. Most of these, and the greater part of the immigrant population, come from Kwangtung Province. The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest percentage of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are Po On, Tung Kwun, Wai Yeung, Mui Yuen, Chiu Chow, Sze Yap, Nam Hoi, Pun Yue, Shun Tak and Chung Shan. The urban population also includes immigrants from Fukien and Kiangsu, and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

In the New Territories, the indigenous inhabitants consist principally of Can- tonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers, and the Tanka and Hoklo groups boat-dwellers. These people differ from each other physically and in dress and custom. The usual village community consists of a single clan but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan but, intermarriage between land and boat people is rare.

Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Territories, occupying the best parts of the two principal plains in the north-western section and owning much of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages-those of the Tang Clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement

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dating from the late 11th century. Some of the villages on Lantau date back to the late 13th century.

      Hakka people began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. However, the Cantonese were the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, in the foothills, and on generally poorer land.

The Tanka have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal sea- faring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deepsea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the past few years, young men and women of the Tanka community have begun to take factory jobs and thousands have now moved their homes ashore.

Like the Tanka, the Hoklo have been in the area from earliest times. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. They are traditionally boat-dwellers and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations.

      An increasing number of families are moving to the New Territories from Hong Kong Island and Kowloon as a result of urbanisation of certain districts, notably Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung, where large public housing estates have been built. Total population of the New Territories on March 9, 1971, was 693,915 (including 28,215 boat people)-compared to 456,404 (including 46,459 boat people) in 1961. Population movement from the congested urban areas to the satellite towns of the New Territories will increase rapidly in the future with implementation of the govern- ment's 10-year housing plan.

      Total population, excluding transients and boat people, on census day, March 9, 1971, was 3,856,736. The density of population per square mile was 9,562, compared to Singapore's 9,407 in the same year.

The 1971 census also showed that Mong Kok with 400,612 persons per square mile was then Hong Kong's most densely populated district-about 10 times greater than Tokyo (39,629 per square mile in 1971) or Osaka (37,016 per square mile in 1971).

Census and Statistics Department

The department was set up in December 1967 to collect and co-ordinate govern- ment statistics. Besides censuses, the department also collects, compiles and analyses. Hong Kong's trade statistics; calculates the Consumer Price Index; conducts surveys and research of various kinds; and supplies statistical information to commercial concerns and international organisations. Frequent contacts with other statistical organisations, institutes of higher learning and with the specialised agencies of the United Nations, are also maintained.

      Major projects started or continued during 1973 included a new household ex- penditure survey in connection with the revision of the Consumer Price Index; a census of industrial production with a reference year of 1973; the publication of estimates of

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gross domestic product; a programme of economic censuses to cover all sectors of Hong Kong's economy; and a programme to collect the main social statistics recom- mended by the United Nations.

Marriages

       All marriage ceremonies in Hong Kong are governed by the Marriage Ordinance and the Marriage Reform Ordinance. Under the Marriage Ordinance, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days in advance. The Registrar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice al- together, but this is done rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

       Marriages may be conducted either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at any of the 13 full-time marriage registries and 14 part- time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 27,660 marriages were performed in registries and 2,776 at licensed places of worship, a total of 30,436-3,172 more than in 1972. All records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

       The Marriage Reform Ordinance provides that all marriages entered into in Hong Kong on and after October 7, 1971, shall imply the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others and may be contracted only in accordance with the Marriage Ordinance. It declares valid certain customary marriages and validates certain other customary marriages known as modern marriages, pro- vided in each case they have been entered into before October 7, 1971. The ordinance also makes provision for post-registration of these customary and modern marriages and for dissolution of such marriages by mutual consent. During 1973, 45 customary and eight modern marriages were post-registered, including 12 in the New Territories.

Births and Deaths

        Registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout Hong Kong. The General Register Office is situated at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road, Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are maintained. Sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts. In outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

        The statutory period from date of birth during which it should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth a fee of $2 is charged for registration. During the year 80,147 live births and 21,360 deaths were registered, compared with 79,053 and 21,145 respectively in 1972. These figures, when adjusted for under- registration, give a natural increase in population for 1973 of about 61,007. Illegiti- mate births registered during the year totalled 4,111 compared with 1,058 in 1972.

       A birth which has not been registered within one year may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a fee of $15. During the year

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1,634 births were post-registered, including 551 in the New Territories. Principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there continues to be a number of these cases because facilities for registration were not available until 1932. Also some cases relate to births during the war years when there was no registration. However, in most cases last year applications for post-registration were in respect of minors. New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub-registries or by mobile registration teams. All applications for post-registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

The General Register Office is responsible for the collection of vital statistics throughout Hong Kong. The information is recorded on various statistical forms and coding sheets for card punching and data processing by the government computer.

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Natural History

ONE thousand years ago, wild leopards and tigers stalked their prey in what is now Hong Kong's Central District. Thick undergrowth with scores of wild creatures in their natural surroundings-this was the scene that greeted the first Chinese settlers to Kowloon peninsula and Hong Kong Island, during the early Sung Dynasty.

Most of the big game vanished years ago as settlers steadily cut away the great forest replacing it first with paddy fields and villages, and later with skyscrapers and factories.

Rapid development of urban areas has made further inroads into the country- side but, especially in the New Territories, large areas of Hong Kong are still virtually untouched, with wooded hillsides and valleys and green paddy fields.

Wild Life

Even so, many wild animals, particularly mammals, are declining in numbers. Indigenous mammals which can no longer be found are the large Indian civet, the crab-eating mongoose, the wild red dog or dhole, the tiger and the leopard. The last positive record of a tiger was in 1947 and the last recorded sighting of a leopard in 1957. The Eastern Chinese otter, once abundant, is now a rare visitor, and of the carnivores, the South China red fox and the Chinese leopard cat have all but dis- appeared from Hong Kong.

The barking deer and the wild pig, once plentiful, are now rare in the New Territories and the remaining barking deer on Hong Kong Island are confined to a few areas, particularly the forests on Victoria Peak.

Of the larger indigenous mammals, the Chinese pangolin (scaly anteater) which grows to three-and-a-half feet and is protected by horny scales, is seen occasionally. Monkeys are still seen near the Kowloon reservoirs. Although originating from specimens either released or escaped from captivity, there are now small breeding groups of both long-tailed macaques and rhesus monkeys inhabiting the area.

Smaller mammals are common, with the grey shrew and the house shrew being numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in parts of the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island.

The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society holds about 12 field outings each year, there being ample opportunity for either serious study, or simple enjoyment, of bird life. A total of 374 species, representing more than 60 different families, including resident and migrant birds, have so far been recorded.

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       The largest species, the spotted-billed pelican, comes in small numbers as a winter visitor to the Mai Po Marshes. Among the smallest are the insectivorous white-eyes of the wooded areas and the yellow-bellied wren warbler of the reed beds. The Chinese blue magpie, with royal blue plumage and orange beak, and the crow pheasant, which has dark brown plumage with light brown wings, can frequently be seen on the shrubby and wooded hillsides. The crow pheasant is in fact neither crow nor pheasant, but a cuckoo. Its haunting call of descending notes can be heard in spring and early summer. The bulbul and the minute tailor bird with its insistent 'tch tch' call are common birds in urban areas; while the beautiful song of the hwamei delights hikers and residents in the countryside.

       Snakes, lizards and frogs are plentiful in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapins and turtles. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are: The banded krait, with black and yellow bands; the many-banded krait with black and white bands; Macclelland's coral snake, which is coral red with narrow, black transverse bars; the Chinese cobra and the hamadryad or king cobra, both of which are hooded; the rare mountain pit viper and the white- lipped pit viper or bamboo snake. The bamboo snake is bright green and, although less venomous than others, is more often seen and more likely to attack if accidentally disturbed. The hamadryad, kraits and coral snake prey almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snakes, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but have never been known to attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Hong Kong newt, which has not been recorded anywhere else in the region.

       One of the rarest of the 210 recorded species and forms of butterflies in Hong Kong is the colourful tailed judy. This species was first recorded at Pak Ngau Shek in 1973. Of the many local moths the giant silkworm moths are remarkable for their size. These include the Cynthia, the fawn and golden emperor moths, and the moon and atlas moths. The moon species has an average wing span of seven inches and the atlas moth nine inches. Other commonly found insects include many types of dragon and damsel flies, metallic coloured beetles, and solitary wasps. The beautiful lantern fly, closely related to the cicada, has delicately coloured wings and a remarkably long forehead. Shrill calls of several species of cicadas are commonly heard in the country- side during spring and autumn.

       Land molluses include the giant African snail, measuring up to six inches long, which was introduced and has become a crop pest, and a large black slug, Veronicella, a species sufficiently different from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

Aquatic Life

       Being diverse in variety, form and colour, marine life in Hong Kong waters used to sustain a profitable inshore fishery. The yellowtail (Seriola quinquilineata), mackerels (Scomberomorus species), yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena arocea) and a number of other schooling species appeared seasonally in commercially exploitable quantities. However, in the course of development these resources (with the exception of certain

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isospondylous fishes) began to diminish-possibly due to an increasing disturbance of the local marine environment.

        The full extent of Hong Kong's marine fauna is difficult to assess, but the diverse varieties of fish, crustacea, cephalopod, mollusc and seaweed indicate that the number of species involved is certainly high. The discharge of the largest freshwater system in South China to the west, and the prevailing Taiwan Current from the north-east, have created a situation where the westerly sector of Hong Kong has a predominantly brackish water fauna, while the eastern sector has a genuine marine fauna.

A notable marine animal which has been successfully introduced in the Deep Bay area is the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. It is now being cultivated.

        The freshwater fauna of Hong Kong is relatively poor in variety compared with the Chinese mainland. This probably results from the absence of a perpetual system of rivers and lakes. Although there are large bodies of water stored in man-made reservoirs, only a few varieties of fish life have been introduced-primarily for water quality control purposes. The indigenous fauna comprises only limited species of cyprinid, loach and goby, while the African Tilapia has also established itself in local waters, but its initial introduction cannot be traced. Despite its limited size, Hong Kong has now some 2,900 acres of commercial fish ponds, where the grey mullet and seven species of Chinese carp are being produced at a rate of 1.2 tons per acre.

Flora

       Hong Kong possesses a large and diverse flora of vascular plants-estimated at about 2,400 species, native and introduced-for so small an area. Generally Hong Kong offers the northern limit of tropical Asian flora.

       Few high trees are to be found except in the fine fung shui groves preserved around many villages in the New Territories. After centuries of cutting, burning and exposure, the barren hillsides present a dry and arid impression. The ravines, saved from man and fire by their rugged character and more moist winters, contain a dense vegetation particularly rich in low trees, flowering shrubs and ferns. However, many hill slopes, particularly those in the water catchment areas, have been replanted by sowing tree- seeds or planting tree-seedlings raised in nurseries.

        It is to conservation of wooded areas by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department that Hong Kong owes much of its mixed woodland. In a few large ravines, particularly Tai Po Kau and Pok Fu Lam Valley, autumn and spring colorations are particularly noticeable. There are several trees, shrubs and climbers whose leaves change to bril- liant colours in autumn. Plants which show richest autumn coloration continue their colours into February, before spring coloration takes over. Many trees, shrubs and vines help to produce this wonderful effect-Liquidambar formosana, Rhus spp, Sapium spp, Michilus thunbergii, Raphiolepis indica, Rourea microphylla, and Vitis cantoniensis.

        Many plants in Hong Kong are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. The Bauhinia blakeana (Hong Kong orchid tree) was discovered in 1908 at

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     Pok Fu Lam and was named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake. It is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. It is now quite widely planted.

Other plants produce fruits that are pecked at and eaten by birds. A common tree, the Sterculia is an example. The remarkable starlike fruit turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose the jet black seeds. The seeds are eaten by a number of birds including the Chinese blue magpie.

A great variety of wild plants have medicinal and economic values. Parts of a common tree, Schefflera octophylla, are used in herbal medicines for the preparation of 'leung cha', a drink used chiefly for relieving indigestion. Shrubs like Psychotria rubra, Ardisia crispa and Strophantus divaricatus are thought useful for bruises and certain injuries.

Botanical explorations carried out by staff of the Hong Kong Herbarium, staff of the two universities and amateur botanists, have been fruitful. A new and distinct camellia was discovered in 1955 and named Camellia granthamiara in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Two more groups of the plant have now been discovered. Since the publication of the Checklist of Hong Kong Plants (1966) there have been 23 new additions to Hong Kong flora.

More than 80 species of native orchids are recorded. Some ground orchids are beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other species include the white susanna orchid, the yellow buttercup orchid, the pink bamboo orchid and the purple lady's slipper orchid.

Under the Forestry Ordinance, special protection is given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, magnolias, orchids and azaleas.

The Hong Kong Herbarium, founded in 1878, contains a valuable collection of about 31,500 plant specimens, including all the known 1,832 indigenous species and some 2,500 related species from adjacent regions of East and Southeast Asia. The Herbarium, is situated at the headquarters of the Agriculture and Fisheries Depart- ment in the Canton Road Government Offices in Kowloon, and is open to the public.

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History

     THE history of Hong Kong stretches back many centuries with evidence of inhabitation from primitive times. But it is in the last few decades that the territory has emerged as a world centre of trade and industry.

       From the moment of liberation from Japanese occupation at the end of World War II, Hong Kong began a spectacular spiral in industrial, trade and social development.

The Post-War years

       The Chinese returned at almost 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000, rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nation- alist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, Hong Kong received an influx of people unparalleled in its history.

About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. The 1971 census put the population at 4,064,400 and a mid-1973 estimate gave it as 4,159,900.

       After a period of economic stagnation, caused by American trade barriers against China, which applied temporarily to Hong Kong, and further sanctions against China following the Korean War of 1951, Hong Kong entered an era of industrialisation. As an entrepôt port, the territory had earned a livelihood by a service she alone could perform, now she found herself directly competing with other manufacturing centres.

       The immigrants formed a huge reservoir of labour-industrious, trainable for the necessary skills, with no tradition of trade union restrictive practices and all looking for jobs.

From the start, the industrial revolution was based on cotton textiles, gradually adding woollens and, in the late 1960s, man-made fibres and made-up garments. In 1959, 53 per cent of Hong Kong's total domestic exports were textiles and clothing, compared with 50 per cent in 1973, showing the continued dominance of textiles in Hong Kong's economy.

Older light industries expanded, including rattanware, torches and rubber shoes, while new industries developed such as optics, transister radios and television sets, watches and clocks, stainless steel flatware, wigs and plastics, including artificial flowers. All needed labour as a principal factor of production.

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In 1959, the first year they were separated from re-exports, domestic exports were valued at $2,282.13 million-in 1973 they had increased by more than 753 per cent. Re-exports declined in relative importance but remained significant, comprising 30 per cent of total exports in 1959 and 25 per cent in 1973.

At first Hong Kong catered for cheap Asian markets, such as Malaya and Indonesia, but in 1973, 84 per cent of her goods went to developed countries, with the United States and Britain sharing 59 per cent of this. The need for food ensured the dominance of China as a source of imports, accounting for 21 per cent in 1959 and 22 per cent in 1967, after which Japan supplanted China with 20 per cent of the total imports against China's 19 per cent in 1973.

       Hong Kong's trade has been assisted and developed by the Trade Development Council, formed in 1966, the Productivity Council in 1968 and a Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation in 1966. With few natural resources, Hong Kong has had to import all its raw materials and export finished products, and the import-export machinery of the old entrepôt days has continued to serve the new industrialism.

During these years government public works have necessarily been on a grand scale to keep pace with industrial growth. The 8,340-foot long airport runway, built up from the sea-bed in Kowloon Bay, has been extended to 11,130 feet. New reservoirs were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957 and Shek Pik, on Lantau Island, in 1963. The unique Plover Cove scheme of 1967 has been expanded to hold 50,000 million gallons and work began in 1970 on the High Island scheme, with a planned storage capacity of 60,000 million gallons.

In 1964 China agreed to raise to 15,000 million gallons the amount of water purchased annually since 1960. Cuts in water supply, which in 1963 was reduced to four hours every four days, are unlikely to recur.

Road development, including flyovers, has been remarkable. In 1967 the Lion Rock Tunnel opened to provide a high-speed road link between the New Territories and urban Kowloon; a twin tunnel is now under construction. A new era in Hong Kong's internal communications came with the opening of the cross-harbour tunnel in August 1972. Built by private enterprise with government participation, it was completed several months ahead of schedule and is now one of the longest underwater road tunnels in Asia.

In February 1973, the government decided to go ahead immediately with a sophisticated mass transit system to be operational by 1977.

The Financial Secretary, Mr Philip Haddon-Cave, announced the decision to proceed immediately with construction of the first four of nine stages. The final decision to build the system followed an eight-month probe by a special steering group set up by the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose.

Not all developments have been in the economic field and considerable social advances have also taken place. Local recruitment into the public service has been expanded and local candidates are given preference if suitably qualified. This has given

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more opportunity in the government service for local personnel, including doctors, architects, administrators and teachers, and they have shown themselves well able to compete in professional and higher degree examinations overseas.

The Urban Council underwent an overall reorganisation on April 1, 1973. This followed the publication of the White Paper on the future of the Urban Council in October 1971 and its acceptance by the legislature in February 1972, giving the council substantial financial autonomy. The number of unofficial members was increased by four while all official members stood down, leaving 12 elected and 12 appointed members.

      In the Legislative Council unofficial membership was increased to 15 by the end of 1972. Official membership, including the Governor, remained at 15. The Executive Council consists of six official members, including five ex-officio, and eight unofficial members.

      An office of the Unofficial Members of the Executive Council and Legislative Council (UMELCO) was set up in 1963 to assist the public to resolve problems arising from their dealings with the government; and with the appointment in 1970 of an administrative secretary, the office is handling an increasing volume of complaints.

       The machinery of central government was examined by a team of management consultants in 1972-3. In their final report, tabled in the Legislative Council on May 23, 1973, they recommended the creation of six policy and two resource branches in the Colonial Secretariat.

The policy branches are to deal with programme areas covering economic services, the environment, home affairs and information, housing, security, and social services. The two resource branches are responsible for the civil service, and for finance.

Recommendations in the report were generally accepted by the government, and the appointments of eight Secretaries to head the new branches were announced during the summer of 1973.

Economic expansion has enabled the government to increase its social services to match Hong Kong's all-round growth. Total enrolment in all types of schools and educational centres increased from 120,000 in 1948, to 1,290,000 in 1973. A govern- ment or subsidised primary school place is now available for every child of primary school age. Free primary education was introduced in September 1971 for the vernac- ular schools and at the same time a form of compulsory education for all primary schools came into force. A new policy for secondary education was also announced. Under this, three years of post primary education will be provided for all children in the age group 12-14 and it is hoped that half of the places required can be provided by 1976.

The University of Hong Kong re-opened in 1946 with a total of 109 students and, by 1973, had expanded to 3,146 under-graduates, 391 higher degree students and 238 students reading for post-graduate diplomas or certificates. The Chinese University of Hong Kong opened in October 1963 comprising three student colleges, Chung Chi, New Asia and United and enrolment had risen to 2,790 by September

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     1973. A polytechnic, run by its own board with its first principal appointed in 1971, assumed responsibility for the work of the Hong Kong Technical College in August 1972.

       The Social Welfare Office was set up in 1946 and became an independent govern- ment department in 1958 with branches dealing with community services, the prob- lems of the handicapped, family welfare, probation and public assistance. These services are provided both directly and also by grants to voluntary agencies, partic- ularly the 93 organisations affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, which was founded in 1946. A wider scheme of public relief, inaugurated in 1970, gives needy families cash grants in lieu of assistance in kind.

       The rapid industrialisation of Hong Kong has demanded special attention to labour legislation. Hours of work for women and young people were regulated in 1959 and by the end of 1971 were reduced to eight a day and 48 a week. Industrial workers are guaranteed six days paid holiday annually and 12 days sick leave on half pay. All manual workers and non-manual workers earning less than $1,500 a month must be given four rest days each month. In addition, the Labour Department has conciliation machinery to deal with industrial disputes and great progress has been made with industrial health and safety measures. The development of an effective trade union movement has been relatively slow and local trade unions retain strong political affiliations.

The first public housing estate was built in 1953, after 50,000 squatters lost their homes in a Christmas day fire at Shek Kip Mei. These housing blocks had only basic facilities with the intention of providing quickly a large number of homes for victims and other squatters at rents they could afford.

       Housing blocks have now been improved and standards of accommodation have been progressively raised in new housing estates. To meet the constant need for more and better public housing, the government has drawn up a massive programme with a target of providing self-contained homes for 1.5 million people in the next 10 years.

A new unified Housing Authority was formed on April 5, 1972, with the respon- sibility of planning, building and managing all public housing estates in Hong Kong. It is served by the Housing Department-the result of amalgamating the former Resettlement Department and the housing division of Urban Services Department. In the past 20 years, the government has provided homes for more than 1.7 million people in its 51 public housing estates, representing more than 43 per cent of Hong Kong's population. Apart from public housing, another 128,000 people enjoy sub- sidised housing provided by the Hong Kong Housing Society, the largest of govern- ment-aided voluntary housing societies.

Post-war Hong Kong has developed into a dynamic industrial and commercial centre and its growth has been truly remarkable. Economic expansion has brought with it a rising standard of living and has made possible more comprehensive social services, although much still remains to be done. Life in Hong Kong has not always been peaceful and the civil disturbances in 1947, 1956, 1966 and 1967 have revealed some of the strains to which the local community is subject.

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However, these disturbances, with their associated outbreaks of violence have not impeded the continued development for long and appear to have done little to weaken public confidence in the future prosperity of Hong Kong.

Founding Hong Kong as a British Colony 1841-2

Although archaeological finds have shown habitation since primitive times, Hong Kong's rise as a centre of commerce and industry dates only from its founding as a British colony in 1842. By the end of the 18th century, the British dominated the foreign trade at Canton but found conditions unsatisfactory, mainly because of the conflicting viewpoints of two quite dissimilar civilisations.

The Chinese regarded themselves as the only civilised people and treated all others as barbarians. Foreigners trading at Canton were subject to humiliating personal restrictions. Confined to the factory area, they were allowed to reside only for the trading season, during which they had to leave their families at Macau. They were forbidden to enter the city and to learn the Chinese language. Shipping dues were arbitrarily varied and generally much bickering resulted between British and Chinese. Yet there was mutual trust and the spoken word alone was sufficient for even the largest transactions.

Trade had been in China's favour, and silver flowed in until the growth of the opium trade from 1800 onwards reversed this trend. The outflow of silver became more marked after 1834, when the East India Company lost its monopoly of the China trade and the foreign free traders. The company, hoping to get rich quickly, joined the lucrative opium trade, which the Chinese had made illegal in 1799.

This led to the appointment of Lin Tse-hsu in March 1839 as special Commis- sioner in Canton, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. A week later he surround- ed the foreign factories with troops, stopped food supplies and refused to allow anyone to leave until all stocks of opium had been surrendered and dealers and ships' masters had signed a bond not to import opium on pain of execution. Captain Charles Elliot, RN, the British Government's representative as Superintendent of Trade, was shut up with the rest and authorised the surrender of 20,283 chests of opium after a siege of six weeks.

But he would not allow normal trade to resume until he had reported fully to the British Government and received instructions. The British community retired to Macau and, when warned by the Portuguese Governor that he could not be respon- sible for their safety, took refuge on board ship in Hong Kong harbour in the summer of 1839.

       Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, decided that the time had come for a settlement of Sino-British commercial relations. Arguing that, in surrendering the opium, the British in Canton had been forced to ransom their lives-though in fact their lives had never been in danger-he demanded either a commercial treaty which would put trade relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British could live free from threats under their own flag.

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[HISTORY

      An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 to back these demands and thus began the so-called First Opium War, 1840-2. Hostilities alternated with negotiations until agreement was reached between Elliot and Keshen, the Manchu Commissioner. Lin had been replaced by Keshen after his exile in disgrace over the preliminaries of a treaty.

Under the convention of Chuenpi, January 20, 1841, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain. A naval landing party hoisted the flag at Possession Point on January 26, 1841 and Elliot proclaimed Hong Kong a British colony-in June he sold plots of land and settlement began.

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of a part of China aroused shame and anger among the Chinese, and the unfortunate Keshen was ordered to Peking in chains. Palmerston was equally dissatisfied with Hong Kong which he contemptuously described as 'a barren island with hardly a house upon it' and refused to accept it as the island station which had been demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty.

'You have treated my instructions as if they were waste paper,' he told Elliot in a magisterial rebuke, and replaced him by Sir Henry Pottinger who arrived in August 1841. The latter conducted hostilities with determination. Twelve months later, August 1842, after pushing up the Yangtze River and threatening to assault Nanking, he brought the hostilities to an end by the Treaty of Nanking, August 29, 1842.

In the meantime, the Whig Government in England had fallen and in 1841 the new Tory Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen, issued revised instructions to Pottinger, dropping the demand for an island.

Pottinger, who had returned to Hong Kong during the winter lull in the cam- paign, was pleased with the progress of the new settlement and, in the Treaty of Nanking, deviated from his instructions by successfully demanding both a treaty and an island, thus securing Hong Kong. In addition five Chinese ports, including Canton, were opened for trade. The commercial treaty was embodied in the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, October 1843, by which the Chinese were allowed free access to Hong Kong Island for trading purposes.

Extensions to the Colony 1860-99

The Second Anglo-Chinese War, 1856-8, arose out of disputes over the inter- pretation of the earlier treaties and over the boarding of a British lorcha the 'Arrow', by Chinese in search of suspected pirates. The Treaty of Tientsin 1858, which ended the war, gave the British the privilege of diplomatic representation in China. The first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had been the first Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong, was fired on at Taku Bar on his way to Peking to present his credentials, and hostilities were renewed from 1859-60.

       The troops serving on this second expedition camped on Kowloon peninsula, as the earliest colony photographs show. Finding it healthy, they wished to retain it as a military cantonment, with the result that Sir Harry Parkes, Consul at Canton, secured

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from the Viceroy the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking, 1860, which ended the hostilities, provided for its outright cession.

       Other European countries and Japan were now demanding concessions from China, particularly after Germany, France and Russia had rescued her from the worst consequences of her defeat by Japan in 1895. In the ensuing tension Britain felt that efficient defence of Hong Kong harbour demanded control of the land around it.

       By the Convention of Peking on June 9, 1898, the New Territories, comprising the area north of Kowloon up to the Shum Chun River, and 235 islands, were leased for 99 years. The move was directed against France and Russia, not against China, whose warships were allowed to use the wharf at Kowloon City, where Chinese authority was permitted to continue 'except in so far as may be inconsistent with the military requirements for the defence of Hong Kong'. An Order in Council of December 27, 1898 invoked this clause and the British thus unilaterally took over Kowloon City. Some desultory opposition, when the British took over the New Territories in March 1899, soon disappeared. The area was declared part of the colony but was administered separately from the urban area.

Growth of Hong Kong 1841-1941

       The new colony was a great disappointment at first. It attracted unruly elements; fever and typhoons threatened life and property and crime was rife. The Chinese influx was unexpected as it was not anticipated they would choose to live under a foreign flag. The population rose from 32,983 (31,463 Chinese) in 1851 to 878,947 (859,425 Chinese) in 1931.

        The Chinese asked only to be left alone, and thrived under a liberal British colonial rule. Hong Kong became a centre of Chinese emigration and of trade with Chinese communities abroad. Ocean-going shipping using the port increased from 2,889 ships of 1.5 million tons in 1860 to 23,881 of 29.1 million tons in 1939. The dominance of the China trade forced Hong Kong to conform to Chinese usage and to adopt the silver dollar in 1862 as the currency unit. In 1935, when China went off silver, Hong Kong had to follow suit with an equivalent 'managed' dollar.

       Hong Kong's administration followed the normal Crown Colony pattern, with a governor nominated by Whitehall and nominated Executive and Legislative Coun- cils with official majorities. The first unofficial members of the Legislative Council were nominated in 1850, and the first Chinese in 1880; the first unofficial members of the Executive Council appeared in 1896, and the first Chinese in 1926. Two electoral bodies, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, and the Unofficial Justices of the Peace, were each allowed from 1885 onwards to nominate a member of the Legislative Council.

       The British residents on a number of occasions strongly pressed for self-govern- ment, but the home government steadily refused to allow the Chinese majority to be subject to the control of a small European minority.

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A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883, became partly elected in 1887, and developed into an Urban Council in 1936. The intention at first was to govern the Chinese through Chinese magistrates seconded from the mainland, but this system of two parallel administrations was only half-heartedly applied and broke down mainly because of the weight of crime. It was completely abandoned in 1865 in favour of the principle of equality of all races before the law. In that year the Governor's instruc- tions were significantly amended to forbid him to assent to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected'. Government policy was laissez-faire, treating Hong Kong as a market place where all were free to come and go and where government held the scales impartially.

Public and utility services developed; the Hong Kong and China Gas Company in 1861, the Peak Tram in 1885, the Hong Kong Electric Company 1889, China Light and Power 1903, the electric Tramways in 1904 and the government-owned Kowloon- Canton Railway, completed in 1910. There were successive reclamations dating from 1851, notably one completed in 1904 in Central District, which produced Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road, and another in Wanchai between 1921-9.

A system of public education began in 1847 with grants to the Chinese vernacular schools, and the voluntary schools, mainly run by missionaries, were brought in by a grant scheme in 1873. The College of Medicine for the Chinese, founded in 1887, developed into the University of Hong Kong in 1911 with arts, engineering and medical faculties.

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in World War I was followed by strong nationalist and anti-foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappoint- ment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German con- cessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang.

The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before causing considerable disruption to life in Hong Kong. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

Japanese Attack and Occupation 1941-5

Japanese plans for political aggrandisement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of World War I to present her 'twenty-one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in

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1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of World War II to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and Southeast Asia, and the position of Hong Kong became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and sub- sequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island.

The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yu Mun on the night of December 18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, including the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley under harsh conditions, while prisoners of war fared even worse. The Chinese population and neutrals also suffered under steadily deteriorating conditions. Trade virtually disappeared, currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many residents moved to Macau, the Portuguese colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the latter part of the occupation, the Japanese sought to ease the food problems by organising mass deportations.

In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Territories and escaping allied personnel were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after news of the Japanese surrender was received on August 14, 1945, a provisional government was set up by Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) Frank Gimson. Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived on August 30 with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

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Constitution and Administration

HONG KONG, as a British Crown Colony, is administered by the Hong Kong Govern- ment, of which the office of Governor is the central feature. The British Government's policy towards Hong Kong is that there shall be no major constitutional change- nor is there much popular pressure for it.

The Governor

       The Governor is the representative of the Queen and, as head of the government, presides at meetings of the Executive Council, whose advice he must seek on im- portant policy matters. He is also the President of the Legislative Council, where he possesses both an original and a casting vote. All bills passed by the Legislative Council must have his assent before they become law. With strictly defined exceptions, he is responsible for every executive act of the government.

After appointment by the Queen the Governor derives his authority from the Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom. These Letters Patent create the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Hong Kong, and require him to observe its laws and such instructions as may be given him by the Queen or Secretary of State. Among the more important of these are the Royal Instructions and Colonial Regulations.

Executive Council

       The composition of the Executive Council is determined by the Royal Instruc- tions, which provide that it shall consist of five ex-officio members (the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs and the Financial Secretary) together with such other persons as are appointed by the Queen, or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State. At the present time, one official member and eight unofficial members have been appoint- ed in addition to the five ex-officio members.

       The Executive Council usually meets once a week throughout the year but addi- tional meetings are held if necessary. The Governor presides at meetings, although he is not a member of the council. Its function is to advise the Governor, who is required by the Royal Instructions to consult it on all important matters of policy subject to certain exceptions such as matters of extreme urgency as the appointment, disciplinary control or dismissal of public officers.

Meetings of the Executive Council are called by the Governor, who alone decides in accordance with the Royal Instructions which matters to submit for it advices.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

203

     However, should the Governor not submit a matter for the council's advice when requested by a member to do so, a record of the request and refusal must be entered in the minutes of the council if the requesting member so requires.

      The decision on any question which comes before the council is that of the Governor. If he decides to act in opposition to the advice given by the majority of members, he is requested to report his reasons to the Secretary of State.

       The Governor in Council (the Governor acting after receiving the advice of the Executive Council) is also the statutory authority for making regulations, rules and orders under a number of ordinances. The Governor in Council also considers appeals, petitions, and objections under ordinances which confer such a statutory right of appeal.

Legislative Council

This council comprises the Governor, who is both a member and president, four ex-officio members (the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Financial Secretary), 10 official members and 15 unofficial members. With the exception of the ex-officio members, all members are appointed by the Queen or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State.

The primary functions of the Legislative Council are to enact legislation and to control the expenditure of public funds. The Queen has the power to disallow laws. passed by the council and assented to by the Governor. In addition, laws having effect within Hong Kong may also be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and by the Queen by Order in Council in exercise either of prerogative powers or of powers conferred by an English Act of Parliament.

The procedure in the Legislative Council has provision for public debates and questions. There is a debate on financial and economic affairs in February-March of each year during the second reading of the Appropriation Bill. A wider-ranging debate on social progress and government policy in general, takes place at the opening of the new session of the council in October each year. The council meets in public once every two weeks throughout the year except for approximately a two-month recess which takes place during August-October.

       The Finance Committee of the council, which consists of the Colonial Secretary (chairman), the Financial Secretary, the Director of Public Works and all the un- official members of the Legislative Council, considers requests for the supplementary provision of funds, and meets in private.

Judiciary

       Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Supreme Court Ordinance, the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge and the puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent issued under the Public Seal by the Governor on instructions from the Queen given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State. District judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by

204

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

instrument under the Public Seal or by warrant. The qualifications of puisne judges are prescribed in the Supreme Court Ordinance and those of district judges in the District Court Ordinance.

       The function of the Judiciary is to try all prosecutions and to determine civil disputes, whether between individuals or between individuals and the government. The principle of English constitutional law that, in the performance of their judicial acts, members of the Judiciary are completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the government is fundamental in Hong Kong. The English common law and the rules of equity are in force in Hong Kong, so far as they may be applicable to local circumstances. English Acts of Parliament are in force in Hong Kong only if applied by the Legislative Council or by their own terms or by an Order in Council. Locally enacted laws of Hong Kong are consolidated and revised peri- odically the last edition was published in loose-leaf form in 1967.

The courts of justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Coroners Courts, the Tenancy Tribunal, and the Labour Tribunal. In 1973, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, eight puisne judges, 10 district judges, 46 magistrates, three presidents of the Tenancy Tribunal, and one presiding officer, Labour Tribunal.

       Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. However, in indictable offences, their powers of punish- ment are restricted to a maximum of two years imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may impose some higher penalty. Cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by magistrates when trying two or more offences together may not exceed three years. Magistrates also hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial to the Supreme Court. They also transfer criminal cases to the District Court for trial, on the application of the Attorney General.

A Justice of the Peace Court, consisting of two Justices of the Peace, and having the same jurisdiction as a special magistrate, also sits several times a week. There is a Coroners Court on Hong Kong Island and one in Kowloon.

        The District Court, established in 1953, provides a simple method of trial of civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter is under $20,000, or $15,000 in the case of land, and also tries criminal cases transferred to it by the magistrates. It exercises appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals and in Tenancy Tribunal matters, and ordinary jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by a judge sitting alone; he may not award more than five years imprisonment.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

205

     Court sitting with a jury of seven. A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1971-3 will be found in Appendix 31.

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court, which sits when required and is composed of two or three judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal in England. Appeals may be brought from the Full Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

Legal Aid

       There were major developments for the Legal Aid Department during 1973. These included the formation and opening of the department's own litigation unit, the Legal Aid (Assessment of Contributions) (Amendment) Regulations 1973 were enacted by the Governor in Council on September 7, and the department moved to a new premises in the Sincere Company Building, placing all sections under the same roof.

The litigation unit started operation early in 1973 and has since taken over a high proportion of legal aid cases (confined to the solicitors' side of the conduct of cases). Members of the Bar are still briefed, as before, in all cases in which barristers would normally be briefed. The litigation unit deals with many different types of cases, such as winding-up, running-down actions, workmen's compensation and divorce cases on the civil side. It also briefs counsel direct in many types of criminal cases heard in the Supreme Court, the Full Court and the District Court. The effect of this has been to cut substantially expenditure previously made to private practitioners. The operation has also brought a great saving in time in the conduct of legal aid cases, which are now being handled much faster than before.

        The effect of the new regulations concerning the assessment of contributions is to make many persons eligible for legal aid who previously would have been in- eligible on the means test. Further, the effect generally will diminish the number of contributions previously payable by aided persons.

       Possibly more important is the provision that new rates of personal allowances correspond to the rates of public assistance currently in force. Whereas previously an aided person received no personal allowance, he does now; and this is taken into account in assessing disposable income. Aided persons with a large family will find it much easier to qualify for legal aid and will, on doing so, have to pay much lower contributions than before. The same regulations also improve the situation for aided persons on the question of disposable capital.

        Under rule 15 of the Legal Aid in Criminal Cases Rules the new rates of allow- ances in respect of civil cases will also apply to applications for legal aid in criminal

cases.

The centralisation of all branches of the Legal Aid Department under one roof makes the overall administration of the department more efficient and more flexible.

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Further, the new premises provide much better accommodation, both for members of the public and for members of the department.

Urban Council

       The new Urban Council Ordinance came into effect on April 1, 1973 whereby the council became a body corporate, responsible for handling its own finances under a chairman and vice-chairman elected by and from its own members. By that date, all officials had been withdrawn from membership of the council, and the non- government membership increased from 20 to 24-12 appointed by the Governor and 12 elected by residents eligible to vote under the ordinance. Their terms of office are normally four years.

       The council continued to hold its public meetings once monthly, but most of its business is decided by the standing committee of the whole council and 13 select committees which meet regularly and frequently. The select committees co-opt such officials as are necessary, and each select committee is chaired by an urban councillor.

>

The Urban Council's responsibilities are restricted to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, which hold the majority of the population (3.3867 million of a total 4.159 million at July 1973). Its main duties are: public sanitation and cleansing; the licensing and hygienic control of all food premises, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries; and management and control of markets, abattoirs, hawkers, cemeteries, crematoria, and funeral parlours. They also include manage- ment of the City Hall, museum, public libraries, government car parks, places of public recreation (bathing beaches, swimming pools, tennis and squash courts, foot- ball stadia, games halls, sports grounds, playgrounds and parks); provision and patronage of cultural services and outdoor entertainment for the people in their own neighbourhoods; licensing places of public entertainment; and the Liquor Licensing Board. In all of these fields, the Urban Council's policies and decisions are carried out by the Urban Services Department. The Director is the principal executive officer of the council under the ordinance.

        Most of the cost for this work is met with income from the Urban Council's share (40 per cent) of the yield from rates in the urban area-but fees and charges provide other sources of income. In the fiscal year 1973-4 this income amounted to approximately $266 million, including a once-for-all grant of $20 million from the government.

Foreign Relations

       The foreign relations of the Hong Kong Government are the responsibility of the British Government, but with external trade a considerable degree of latitude is permitted to Hong Kong. The territory's dependence on trade makes it necessary for the Hong Kong Government to maintain offices in London, Washington, Geneva and Brussels to maintain and improve commercial relations with other countries.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Colonial Secretariat

207

      The Colonial Secretary is the Governor's principal adviser on policy, the chief executive of the government, the head of the civil service and the chief government spokesman. His office, the Colonial Secretariat, is under the general direction of the Deputy Colonial Secretary and co-ordinates and supervises the work of all govern- ment departments.

The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and for overall supervision, through his Deputy Financial Secretary and the Secretary for Economic Services, of departments primarily involved in this field.

       Following a major reorganisation of the central government machinery under- taken in 1972-3, the Colonial Secretariat is now organised into six policy and two resource branches, each headed by a Secretary. The policy branches are based on programme areas-environment, economic services, home affairs and information, housing, security, and social services. The two resource branches (civil service and finance) deal with the government's personnel and finances. A Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, advises on the external political aspects of government policies.

London Office

      The London Office, at 6 Grafton Street, Mayfair, is a projection of the Hong Kong Government in London, and as such forms part of the Colonial Secretariat, with the Commissioner directly responsible to the Colonial Secretary. The Commis- sioner provides a point of direct contact in London between Hong Kong and various ministries and departments of the British Government.

       The London Office keeps British commercial, economic and industrial develop- ments and official thinking on worldwide trade policies under review and advises the Hong Kong Government of the likely repercussions of these developments on Hong Kong. It is concerned with the welfare of Hong Kong residents in Britain, maintains contact with them and assists them over problems arising from their residence in Britain or relating to their families and interests in Hong Kong. It operates well- developed publicity services aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image to the British public and the Chinese community in Britain. It also has special sections to look after the interests of Hong Kong students, including nurses and government trainees, resident in Britain. An appointments section was set up in 1973 to recruit persons of Hong Kong origin in the United Kingdom to the public service and to liaise with various official agencies in Britain concerned with recruiting expatriate staff.

Government Departments

       The administrative functions of the government are discharged by more than 30 departments, most of which are organised on a functional basis and have responsibili- ties covering all Hong Kong. This form of organisation, rather than one based on authorities with responsibilities in a limited geographical area, is suitable for this

208

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

small, compact territory and has enabled the government to provide services without regard to the capacity of residents of various districts to pay taxes.

Home Affairs Department and New Territories Administration

The two government departments most closely concerned with the reactions of the people to government policies and plans are the Home Affairs Department and the New Territories Administration. The Home Affairs Department was formerly known as the Secretariat for Home Affairs but as a result of the major reorganisation of the Colonial Secretariat, the Secretary for Home Affairs is now the head of the Home Affairs and Information Branch of the Secretariat, and the department is headed by the Director of Home Affairs. The Home Affairs Department controls the 10 City District Officers in the urban areas while the New Territories Administration is in charge of the five District Officers stationed in the New Territories. A primary function of both departments is to assess the impact of contemplated new policies on the population and, when they are adopted, to explain these policies to the public. They also report on trends of public opinion in the districts. In this general connec- tion it has long been the practice of these two departments to foster links with a variety of private organisations including, in the urban areas, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, Po Leung Kuk, kaifong associations, district and clansmen's associa- tions, multi-storey building associations and religious organisations and youth groups.

The City District Office scheme, modelled on the long-established District Officer system, was introduced during 1968. The 10 City District Officers (six in Kowloon and four in Hong Kong) are charged with the three-fold duty of rendering services on behalf of the government, services for the community and services for the in- dividual. They exercise a local co-ordinating function, test public opinion, watch for sources of grievance and tension, and in general try to interpret to the man in the street the measures adopted by a specialised and sophisticated administration. They also deal with individual complaints, answer enquiries, provide information and mediate in a variety of disputes.

During 1973 the City District Officers devoted a great deal of time and effort to mobilising the community in active involvement in the Fight Violent Crime Campaign and the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign. In particular, a special effort was made to form large numbers of mutual aid committees, with the aim of improving manage- ment, security and cleanliness in multi-storey buildings in both private and public sectors. By the end of 1973 a total of 1,214 mutual aid committees had been formed.

       At the City District Offices and sub-offices, almost all of which are located in shop-type premises easily accessible to the public, enquiry service counters are com- bined with the reception facilities. The primary objects of the enquiry services are to give the man in the street information and guidance on the services provided and functions performed by government departments, to explain rules and procedures, and to supplement broadcast information during tropical storms and other emer- gencies. During the year, the Home Affairs Department handled a total of about 1.5 million enquiries of all kinds.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

209

In the New Territories the District Commissioner and his five District Officers also exercise political and co-ordinating responsibilities, and in addition perform certain executive functions, principally in relation to land administration. The arrangements for consultation with the people are more formalised to the extent that there is a village representative system. More than 900 village representatives are chosen from over 600 villages. Villages are grouped under 27 rural committees, each of which has an executive committee. With one exception, all the executive committees of the rural committees are selected by secret ballot every two years by village rep- resentatives. The rural committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the government, receiving a small monthly subvention to cover part of their expenses. Within its own area the rural committee acts as spokesman for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Administration and the people.

The chairman and vice-chairman of the 27 rural committees, with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 special councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as 'rural consultative council'. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, the Kuk has an executive committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of rural committees, the un- official New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

Use of the Chinese Language

The year saw significant developments towards bilingualism on the initiative of the government. Following financial approval of the abitious expansion plans put up by the Secretary for Home Affairs in his capacity as the Chinese Language Authority--- including considerably enhanced career prospects in the translation-interpretation field-recruitment drives were simultaneously launched at three separate levels. After encouraging results from these recruitment drives, two senior scholars were recruited to head the translation services division and the translation development, training and research division. Most of the vacancies at the rank of senior interpreter- translators were filled by direct recruitment of mature scholars and promotion of serving officers. Two other consecutive drives were launched in an all-out effort to recruit qualified candidates to fill the much expanded basic rank of interpreter- translator II. Nearly all vacancies were filled by the end of the year.

        As more highly qualified translators began to staff the translation service, efforts were made, through specialisation, to concentrate on translation work at a high level covering the full spectrum of government business. During the year, simultaneous interpretation facilities were extended to regular meetings of the Urban Council and to its standing committee and 13 select committees. While it is necessary to expand government translation services at a rapid pace, the need to raise the standard of translation to an internationally accepted level is also fully recognised. To this end,

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

     a year-round in-service training programme for all officers within the interpreter- translator class was being planned to bring about further improvements to general proficiency in both Chinese and English. Special study tours abroad to other bilingual communities were also being planned to expose serving officers to problems faced and efforts made by these communities. An English-Chinese glossary project of applied legal terms undertaken by the special translation project team of the Chinese University of Hong Kong under the sponsorship of the government was completed during the year. The glossary, containing some 16,000 entries, will provide a major work of reference for all government departments, as well as for the public.

Advisory Committees

One important feature of the administration system in Hong Kong is the com- prehensive network of more than one hundred advisory bodies on which government officers and members of the public sit together to formulate advice to the government on matters of major importance. Examples are such bodies as the Board of Education, Medical Advisory Board, Social Welfare Advisory Committee, Labour Advisory Board, Trade and Industry Advisory Board, Transport Advisory Committee, the Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN) and many others.

Grievances

In Hong Kong there are several well-developed channels for the examination of complaints from members of the public and for helping people who have difficulty in their dealings with government departments. Probably the most commonly used channel is an appeal or complaint to the department concerned, which will ensure a review, at a higher level. Another method is a letter to the Governor or the Colonial Secretary, which will also ensure that the matter is reconsidered. Complaints and representations are also dealt with by the office run by unofficial members of the Executive Council and Legislative Council-commonly referred to as the UMELCO office. City District Officers and District Officers in the New Territories also receive and investigate complaints. The absence of any statutory powers of investigation is offset by a lack of restriction on the type of complaint which UMELCO and the District Officers can receive and investigate. Both systems deal effectively with many grievances.

In addition, members of the Urban Council operate a ward system through which they receive complaints from members of the public and bring them to the attention of the appropriate government department or raise them formally in the Urban Council.

Public Service

The public service provides the staff for all government departments, sub- departments and other units of the administration. As at April 1, 1973, the total number of posts in the public service (or its establishment as it is generally called) was 104,896. The strength on January 1, 1973 was 90,026 officers of whom 88,121 were local officers and 1,905 were overseas officers.

1

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

211

This indicates that about one person in every 40 in Hong Kong is employed by the government. There is a large proportion of labouring staff, and nearly 37,078 of the total establishment of the public service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind of another. The public service of the Hong Kong Government is somewhat unusual in that it includes the staff for certain activities which in other territories and administrations are carried out by people who do not belong to the civil service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central government. In Hong Kong, the establishments of the Medical and Health Department (13,282), the Public Works Department (15,300), the Urban Services Department (17,366) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (17,823) account for a total of 63,771 posts, or about 61 per cent, of the total establishment of the service.

The service has grown from a little more than 17,500 in 1949 to about 45,000 in 1959 and to its present strength of more than 90,000. This reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population.

The cost of the public service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emolu- ments. For the financial year 1973-4 the estimated expenditure on personal emolu- ments, excluding pensions, is about $1,371 million. This represents approximately 31 per cent of the estimated total expenditure included in the Budget.

The establishment of each post in the public service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its establishment sub-committee, which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilised and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

       Recruitment and promotions to the public service are, with a few exceptions, subject to the advice of the Public Services Commission, which was set up in 1950 and is independent of the government. The commission also advises the government on discipline cases. Sir Ronald Holmes, is the full-time chairman of the commission, and leading citizens are appointed as members on a part-time voluntary basis.

       Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training and conditions of service in the public service is exercised by the Civil Service Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

Conclusion

        The system of public administration described in this chapter is an unusual one for a sophisticated community such as Hong Kong, but it is well suited to local conditions and the economic and social progress made since the war indicates that it works with a substantial degree of efficiency. The government, though prevented

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

by its peculiar situation from following a normal pattern of constitutional develop- ment, nevertheless attaches the greatest possible importance to ascertaining and, as far as practicable, meeting public aspirations and needs.

The structure of the government is by no means static, and institutional and organisational developments still continue on a pragmatic basis to meet the needs of an exceptionally resilient and robust community.

APPENDICES

Appendices

Appendix

Page

1

Units of Measurement

217

2

Overseas Representation

218

3

Hong Kong's External Trade by Major Countries

219

4

Hong Kong's External Trade by SITC Commodity Section/

Division

220

5

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Current Market

223

Prices

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Constant Market

Prices of 1966

223

6

Government Revenue by Source

224

7 Government Expenditure by Function

225

8 Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and

226

Expenditure

9

Revenue from Duties

228

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

228

228

=2

10 Currency in Circulation

11 Banking Statistics: Liabilities and Assets

229

229

12

Number of Establishments and Employment in Manufacturing

Industry Analysed by Main Industrial Groups

230

13

Number of Establishments and Employment in Selected Manu-

facturing Industries

231

14

Reported Occupational Accidents

232

15

General Consumer Price Index

232

Modified Consumer Price Index

232

16

Estimated Local Production of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

233

17

Local Production and Imports of Ores and Minerals

233

18

Imports of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

234

19

Categories of Schools

235

School Enrolment

235

21

25

2 2 2 2 2 2

20

Overseas Examinations

235

Hong Kong Students in the United Kingdom

236

22

Expenditure on Education

236

23

Vital Statistics

237

24

Causes of Death

237

Hospital Beds

238

216

Appendix

26

Professional Medical Personnel

Page

238

27 Domestic Units and Estimated Persons Accommodated as at

239

March 31, 1973

28

Land Office Statistics

240

Considerations in Instruments Registered in Land Office

240

229

29

Traffic Accidents

241

Traffic Casualties

241

30

Crime

241

Narcotic Offences

242

31

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court, Tenancy Tribunal and

243

Labour Tribunal

Work in the Magistracies

243

3 333

32

Anti-Corruption Statistics

244

33 Electricity Statistics, 1973

245

Electricity Production and Distribution

245

Gas Production and Distribution

245

Water Consumption

245

34

International Movements of Aircraft and Vessels

246

International Movements of Passengers

246

International Movements of Commercial Cargo by Different Means

246

35

36

37

3 333

of Transport

Registered Motor Vehicles

Public Transport: Passenger Journeys by Undertaking

Public Transport: Daily Average Number of Passenger Journeys

by Different Means of Transport

Public Transport: Passenger Journeys by Area

Communication Statistics

Recreational Facilities Provided by the Urban Council and Urban

Services Department

Climatological Summary, 1973

247

248

248

F F F F Z Z Z

247

247

247

38

249

Climatological Normals

249

39

The Executive Council

250

40

The Legislative Council

251

41

Urban Council

252

42

The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

253

The Community Chest of Hong Kong

254

217

Appendix I

Units of Measurement

         Chinese, metric and British Imperial units are all in common use in Hong Kong. The Chinese units in the table below are those which have statutory equivalents in Hong Kong.

         In China the standard size of the chek (Chinese foot) increased through the three millennia from the Chou period, and in practice the size also varied according to locality and the trade in which the unit was used. In Hong Kong the variation with usage still persists but the tabulated values are based on the statutory equivalent for the chek of 14 inches.

        In the past, the values used in China for the units of mass have varied according to locality. The tabulated values are those in general use in Hong Kong and are in accord with the present statutory equivalent for the leung (tael) of 14 ounce.

Length

10 fan

Chinese Units

Equivalents

Metric (SI)

British (Imperial)

1 tsün (Chinese inch)

37.147 5 mm

1.462 5 in

10 tsün

= 1 chek (Chinese foot)

0.371 475 m

1.218 75 ft

Mass

10 fan (candareen)

1 tsin (mace)

3.779 94 g

58.333 3 gr

10 tsin

1 leung (tael)

37.799 4

g

1.333 33 oz

16 leung

1 kan (catty)

0.604 790 kg

1.333 33 lb

100 kan

1 tam (picul)

60.479 0

kg

1.190 48 cwt

The conversion factors are printed in bold type when they are expressed exactly. Not more than six significant figures are used.

218

Countries

Australia

Britain

Canada

India

Malaysia

New Zealand

Nigeria

Singapore

Argentina

Austria

Belgium

Bolivia

Brazil

Burma

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Countries

Appendix 2

Overseas Representation

I. Commonwealth Countries

Represented by

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

II. Foreign Countries

Commissioner

Represented by

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Denmark

Dominican Republic Ecuador

Egypt, Arab Republic of

El Salvador..

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Indonesia

Iran

Irish Republic

Israel

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul-General Consul-General Consul-General

Honorary Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Italy

Japan

Khmer Republic

Korea

Lebanon

Liberia

Mexico

Netherlands

Nicaragua

Norway

Pakistan

Panama

Peru...

Philippines

Portugal

Republic of South Africa

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Thailand

United States of America

Uruguay

Venezuela

Vietnam

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland and Turkey are resident in London and have jurisdiction extending

to Hong Kong. Finland also has an Honorary Consul-General resident in Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, Denmark, France and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

Appendix 3

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Hong Kong's External Trade by Major Countries

Imports

219

1971

1972

1973

1973/72

Change

Per

Country

$ million

$ million

Per

Per

in

$ million

cent

cent

cent

per-

centage

Japan

4,926

24.3

5,045

23.2

5,853

20.2

+16.0

China

3,330

16.4

3,847

17.7

5,634

19.4

+46.5

United States

2,535

12.5

2,595

11.9

3,702

12.8

+42.7

United Kingdom

1,593

7.9

1,437

6.6

1,716

5.9

+19.4

Taiwan

991

4.9

1,309

6.0

1,686

5.8

+28.8

Germany, Federal Republic

732

3.6

748

3.4

1,114

3.8

+49.1

Singapore

538

2.7

668

3.1

958

3.3

+43.3

...

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

541

2.7

640

2.9

910

3.1

+42.2

Australia

611

3.0

557

2.6

697

2.4

+25.2

...

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

253

1.2

409

1.9

602

2.1

+47.0

Other countries

4,206

20.8

4,509

20.7

6,134

21.1

+36.0

Merchandise total

20,256

100.0

21.764

100.0

29,005

100.0

+33.3

United States

United Kingdom

Germany, Federal Republic

Japan

Australia

Singapore

...

Canada

Netherlands

Taiwan

Sweden

Other countries

Merchandise total

:

:

Exports

5,708

41.5

6,125

40.2

6,825

35.0

+11.4

1,946

14.2

2,195

14.4

2,814

14.5

+28.2

1,128

8.2

1,525

10.0

1,902

9.8

+24.7

484

3.5

480

3.1

1,065

5.5

+122.0

402

2.9

445

2.9

771

4.0

+ 73.2

332

2.4

350

2.3

536

2.7

+ 52.8

484

3.5

501

3.3

512

2.6

+ 2.2

250

1.8

295

1.9

411

2.1

+ 39.7

213

1.6

233

1.5

390

2.0

+ 67.0

195

1.4

254

1.7

324

1.7

+ 27.8

2,608

19.0

2,843

18.6

3,924

20.1

+ 38.0

13,750

100.0

15,245

100.0

19,474

100.0

+ 27.7

Re-exports

Japan Singapore

644

18.9

834

20.1

1,429

21.9

+ 71.3

397

11.6

435

10.5

737

11.3

+ 69.4

Taiwan

200

5.9

351

8.4

673

10.3

+ 91.7

Indonesia

312

9.1

326

7.9

528

8.1

+ 61.6

United States

303

8.9

364

8.8

461

7.1

+ 26.6

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

84

2.5

142

3.4

278

4.3

+ 96.5

China

43

1.3

82

2.0

222

3.4

+172.4

Macau

123

3.6

125

3.0

214

3.3

+ 71.5

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

98

2.9

108

2.6

158

2.4

+ 46.1

Australia

83

2.4

86

2.1

131

...

2.0

+ 53.4

Other countries

Merchandise total

1,127

32.0

1,302

31.2

1,693

25.9

+ 30.1

:

3,414

100.0

4,154

100.0

6,525

100.0

+ 57.1

220

Appendix 4

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Hong Kong's External Trade by SITC Commodity

Section/Division

Imports

$ Million

Section/Division

1971

1972

1973

Food

Live animals

639

717

832

Meat and meat preparations

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

363

378

521

406

470

632

546

583

1,101

760

818

961

760

713

867

***

3,474

3,679

4,914

Beverages

237

244

354

Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Wood, lumber and cork

206

230

225

443

474

579

108

83

130

Textile fibres and their waste

829

841

1,223

Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s.

322

341

533

Others

199

153

216

Sub-total

1,458

1,417

2,101

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Petroleum and petroleum products

Others

Sub-total

Animals and vegetable oils and fats

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

Others

Sub-total

Chemicals

626

642

757

27

26

34

653

668

791

114

111

132

5

2

3

119

113

134

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

219

283

372

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

319

317

377

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Others

454

478

751

525

-

559

704

Sub-total

1,517

1,637

2,204

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

498

531

720

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products

3,450

3,632

4,856

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.

1,437

1,624

2,298

Iron and steel

442

482

682

Others

...

Sub-total

Machinery and transport equipment

801

972

1,223

6,628

7,240

9,779

Machinery, other than electric

1,225

*.

1,237

1,455

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances

1,744

2,088

2,737

Others

498

531

734

Sub-total

3,467

3,857

4,925

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Clothing

364

487

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks...

984

1,089

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

886

797

Others

216

259

Sub-total

2,450

2,632

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold and

coin

421

...

Total

20,629

253

21,971

19

ཙཽཎྜིཏི།ཐཱ། ༄།

617

1,443

1,086

Food

Section/Division

Appendix 4-Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Exports

221

$ Million

1971

1972

1973

121

122

150

24

25

32

41

48

72

53

41

48

239

236

301

Fish and fish preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Miscellaneous food preparations

Others

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Pulp and waste paper

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s. Others ...

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Chemicals

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

:

:

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilets, polishing and cleansing preparations

Others

---

Sub-total

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.

Iron and steel...

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

Others

Sub-total

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances

Others

Sub-total

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

:

:

:

45

47

26

4

5

5

49

52

32

19

84

103

32

27

3032

32

51

146

32

42

25

29

162

192

267

| 10

5

2558

29

31

30

37

37

48

37

46

71

20

17

22

123

131

171

1,398

1,552

2,352

115

124

170

18

17

51

345

415

521

79

82

119

1,955

2,191

3,213

86

1,541 57

104 1,963

214 2,622

58

61

1,684

2,125

2,898

        Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures and fittings Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

187

200

257

228

302

405

Clothing

5,464

6,113

7,454

Footwear

351

304

266

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks

273

330

483

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

2,902

2,920

3,524

Others

85

104

151

Sub-total

9,490

10,272

12,540

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold

and coin

44

41

47

Total

:

13,750

15,245

19,474

222

Food

Section/Division

Appendix 4-Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Re-exports

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

Others.

Sub-total

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Others

Sub-total

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Wood, lumber and cork

Textile fibres and their waste

Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s. Others

Sub-total

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Petroleum and petroleum products Others

...

Sub-total

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

:

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Others

Sub-total

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

Others ...

Sub-total

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery, other than electric

Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances

Others

Sub-total

:

:

:

:

$ Million

1971

1972

1973

27

19

123

129

114

52

48287

43

80

66

109

146

83

104

54

335

368

493

:

19

18

27

15

18

23

34

36

50

12

16

35

19

42

74

154

208

358

25

40

59

209

306

527

45

43

52

1

1

4

46

44

57

a

10

15

ཨཀྐམྨསཊྛི།

60

121

299

237

38

102

101

571

558

ཨཔྤཔྤནོ།ཝོ

93

189

235

96

133

746

39

26

72

441

587

1,081

757

1,025

1,382

41

48

67

52

79

151

1,330

1,765

2,752

ཝོནཱཝ །Ê

146

185

312

191

216

382

42

49

81

379

450

776

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Clothing

72

103

187

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods;

watches and clocks...

271

318

517

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

118

148

326

Others

20

29

53

Sub-total

481

597

1,084

Commodities and transactions not classified according to kind and transactions in gold and

coin

269

196

231

Total

3,663

4,330

6,730

:

Appendix 5

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product at Current Market Prices

Private consumption expenditure

:

:

:

:

223

$ Million

1970

1971

1972

Preliminary

13,516.2

15,473.0

16,717.5

1,150.0

1,215.0

1,512.8

3,685,4

4,781.0

5,546.4

-139.7 -1,149.5

- 120.1

18,211.9

20,319.5

23,656.6

1,092.0

1,259.8

1,586.6

17,119.9

19,059.7 22,070.0

Government consumption expenditure

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Exports less imports of goods and services

Gross domestic product at current market prices

Less indirect taxes less subsidies

Gross domestic product at current factor cost

:

:

:

Expenditure on the Gross Domestic Product

at Constant Market Prices of 1966

:

:

Private consumption expenditure

Government consumption expenditure

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Exports less imports of goods and services

Gross domestic product at constant market prices

:

:

:

11,897.5 13,181.9 13,725.2

958.4

980.2

1,064.4

3,402.1

3,790.8

3,988.6

- 1,083.5 -2,504.9

-2,095.9

15,174.5

15,448.0

16,682.3

224

Appendix 6

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Government Revenue by Source

$ Million

Estimate*

1973-4

Actual 1971-2

Actual 1972-3

Item

Recur- rent

Capital Total

Recur- rent

Recur-

Capital Total

rent

Capital Total

Direct taxes

Earnings and profits tax

Estate duty

Sub-total

:

929.4

929.4 1,082.8

26.7

929.4 26.7 956.1

26.7

1,082.8 40.3 40.3

1,248.2

1,248.2

25.0 25.0

1,082.8

40.3 1,123.1

1,248.2

25.0 1,273.2

Indirect taxes

Rates

367.3

367.3

388.7

388.7

335.6

335.6

Excise duties

451.3

451.3

471.5

471.5

436.2

436.2

Royalties and concessions

46.0

46.0

71.4

38.7

110.1

77.2 85.0

162.2

Stamp duties

213.7

213.7

713.2

713.2

724.0

-

724.0

Other taxes

131.5

131.5

149.0

www

149.0

114.6

114.6

Sub-total

1,209.8

1,209.8

1,793.8

38.7 1,832.5

1,687.6

85.0 1,772.6

Other revenue

Fines, forfeitures and penalties

Licences

26.9

26.9

42.3

42.3

38.1

38.1

96.6

96.6

104.3

104.3

128.6

128.6

Provision of goods and services

550.8

550.8

662.6

662.6

704.7

704.7

Income from properties and investments...

375.2 269.3

644.5

439.7

669.5 1,109.2

357.9

322.8 680.7

Sub-total

Reimbursements, contributions and loan

1,049.5

269.3 1,318.8

1,248.9

669.5 1,918.4

1,229.3

322.8 1,552.1

repayments

Reimbursements

Contributions

Loan repayments

Sub-total

Total

Development loan fund receipts

20.7 -0.5 20.2 17.3 14.9 32.2

4.2 4.2

28.5

28.5

288.8

288.8

21.1

5.1 26.2

7.6 7.6

20.9

9.8 30.7

4.2 4.2

38.0

3,226.7

18.6 56.6

314.6 3,541.3

49.6

4,175.1

12.7 62.3

309.7

14.0 323.7

761.2 4,936.3

4,474.8 446.8 4,921.6

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong

reclamation

Loan repayments

7.5 15.6 15.6

7.5

2.0 2.0 15.1 15.1

-

12.9 12.9

17.0 17.0

Interest on investments and loans

27.9

27.9

28.1

28.1

32.0

-

32.0

Sub-total

27.9

23.1

51.0

28.1

17.1 45.2

32.0 29.9 61.9

Lotteries fund receipts

Net proceeds from Government lotteries...

5.3

5.3

4.9

4.9

3.9

Loan repayments

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Interest

2.3

2.3

1.3

1.3

2.1

0.5

Others

Sub-total

7.6

0.3

7.9

6.2

0.3

6.5

6.5

131 13

3.9

0.3 0.3

2.1

0.5

0.3

6.8

Grand total

3,262.2 338.0 3,600.2

4,209.4

778.6 4,988.0

4,513.3 477.0 4,990.3

* Figures specified are Approved Estimates made earlier for 1973-4 financial year and they may vary from the

relevant figures made recently under Revised Estimates appearing elsewhere in the text.

Appendix 7

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Government Expenditure by Function

225

Actual 1971-2

Actual 1972-3

$ Million

Estimate 1973-4

Item

Recur-

rent

Capital Total

Recur- rent

Capital Total

Recur- rent

Capital

Total

General services

Administration

53.9

8.9 62.8

67.4 13.0 80.4

86.3 12.2 98.5

Law and order

263.0 21.9 284.9

314.0

34.5 348.5

340.1 44.9

385.0

Defence

66.8

49.2

116.0

69.9

59.6 129.5

74.5

51.2 125.7

Public relations

14.7

1.8

16.5

18.7

0.8

19.5

21.3

3.5 24.8

Revenue collection and financial

control

43.4

3.5 46.9

55.7

3.4 59.1

66.1

5.6 71.7

-

Sub-total

441.8

85.3 527.1

525.7

111.3 637.0

588.3

117.4 705.7

Economic services

Primary products

16.6

1.6 18.2

21.5

1.8

23.3

23.2

3.6

26.8

Airport and harbour

26.5

64.7

91.2

29.8

74.6

104.4

34.4

77.8

112.2

Commerce and industry

12.7

0.1

12.8

13.7

13.7

15.0

0,2

15.2

Communications

116.7

3.5

120.2

130.0

17.8

147.8

138.5

43.4

181.9

Other ...

61.1

17.3 78.4

70.4 12.9

83.3

78.1

16.6

94.7

Sub-total

233.6

87.2 320.8

265.4 107.1

372.5

289.2 141.6

430.8

Community services

Transport, roads and civil engineering

99.1

143.7

242.8

Water

81.1

120.0

201.1

Fire services

38.6

8.4

47.0

Urban services and amenities

117.2

31.9

149.1

Sub-total

336.0 304.0 640.0

146.7 711.0

98.6 267.0 365.6 46.7 5.7 52.4 155.5 41.5 197.0 447.5 1,025.2 1,472.7

857.7

150.6

335.7

486.3

106.9 342.8

449.7

51.2 11.2 62.4

165.3

42.3 207,6

474.0

732.0 1,206.0

Social services

Education

488.4 98.5 586.9

622.8 71.2 694.0

729.8

86.7 816.5

Medical and health

267.2

37.5 304.7

333.3 45.6 378.9

370.8

71.6 442.4

Housing

78.4

100.2 178.6

112.2

79.0 191.2

134.1

144.1

278.2

Social welfare

50.9

4.2 55.1

80.6

1.8 82.4

99.6

2.3

101.9

Labour

8.6

0.4

9.0

10.6

0.1 10.7

11.7

0.1

11.8

Sub-total

893.5

240.8 1,134.3

1,159.5

197.7 1,357.2

1,346.0

304.8 1,650.8

Common supporting services

Government launches and dockyard

16.0

Government printing

12.6

8.9 24.9 0.7 13.3

19.9

12.4 32.3

22.5

8.1 30.6

14.6

Government supplies

7.7

1.7

9.4

11.7

0.4 15.0 8.9 20.6

16.8 4.2 21.0

12.4

2.1 14.5

Architectural and electrical and

mechanical engineering offices

96.8 15.2 112.0

Sub-total

133.1

26.5 159.6

115.9

162.1

16.7 132.6

129.4

24.0 153.4

38.4

200.5

181.1

38.4

219.5

Unallocable expenditure

Government quarters

11.5

10.1

21.6

18.3

4.0

22.3

33.9

24.5

58.4

Passages, telephones, telegrams, etc.

21.6

21.6

22.6

7.0

29.6

24.0

9.7

33.7

Extraordinary expenditure

0.3

0.3

109.2

109.2

0.1

0.1

Sub-total

33.1

10.4

43.5

40.9

120.2

161.1

57.9

34.3

92.2

***

Other financial obligations

Public debt

Pensions and gratuities

Sub-total

Total

1.6

1.6

1.6

74.5

74.5

97.0

76.1

76.1

98.6

2,147.2

754.2 2,901.4

1.6

3.2

0.5

3.7

97.0

99.8

99.8

98.6

103.0

0.5 103.5

2,699.7 1,599.9 4,299.6

3,039.5 1,369.0 4,408.5

Development loan fund expenditure

Economic services

Social services

Community services

Sub-total

Lotteries fund expenditure

5.8

5.8

0.8

0.8

3.2

3.2

26.6

26.6

34.4

34.4

46.8

46.8

0.5

0.5

32.4

32.4

35.2

35.2

50.5

50.5

Social welfare grants and loans Grand total

5.3

5.3

5.3

5.3

4.7

4.7

...

:

2,147.2 791.9 2,939.1

2,699.7 1,640.4 4,340.1

3,039.5 1,424.2 4,463.7

226

Recurrent revenue

:

Appendix 8

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure

:

:

Recurrent

Actual 1971-2 $

Actual 1972-3

$

Estimate 1973-4 $

3,226,687,739 4,175,105,554

4,474,803,000 Personal emoluments

Pensions

:

Estate duty

Private contribution towards Government schemes

Loan repayments

Land sales

...

World Refugee Year grants

Taxi concessions

...

Services capital works

:

:

Contribution from recurrent revenue

:

:

Departmental recurrent expenditure (excluding

unallocated stores)

Recurrent subventions

Public works recurrent

Miscellaneous recurrent expenditure

Transfer to capital revenue

3,226,687,739 4,175,105,554 4,474,803,000

Surplus

227

Actual 1971-2

Actual

1972-3

$

$

1,014,334,601

1,242,883,674

74,489,105

96,997,026

Estimate 1973-4

$

1,370,739,000

99,799,000

310,662,477 396,024,704 461,979,200

496,512,675

145,539,633 198,272,468 207,079,000

162,747,600

643,741,965 737,192,800

105,621,286 121,793,259

2,147,159,777 2,699,713,096 3,039,536,600

439,622,294 838,679,587 922,207,300

639,905,668 636,712,871

3,226,687,739

4,175,105,554

513,059,100

4,474,803,000

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Capital

26,701,585

40,309,239 25,000,000

Departmental special expenditure

14,858,435

4,231,131

269,332,420

5,094,901 9,802,000

7,553,520 4,195,000

669,478,146 322,800,000

Capital subventions

Public debt (excluding interest)

Public works non-recurrent

9,023

22,139

38,705,446

Miscellaneous capital expenditure

85,000,000

Dr. 539,090

World Refugee Year schemes

314,593,504 761,163,391

439,622,294 838,679,587 922,207,300

754,215,798 1,599,842,978 1,369,004,300

446,797,000

Unallocated stores accounts

Contribution to Mass Transit Fund

:

:

:

:

:

58,109,271

61,943,782

76,003,200

95,792,133

2,909,091

533,382,988

2,646,460

70,585,756 106,601,100

3,200,000

773,348,151 1,050,035,000

64,506,285

182,627,677

131,165,000

9,023

Cr.

492,993

754,215,798

22,139

8,669,013

500,000,000

1,599,842,978 1,369,004,300

2,000,000

:

:

:

228

Appendix 9

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties*

Actual

Actual

Estimate

Item

1971-2 $

1972-3

1973-4

$

$

Imported hydrocarbon oils

:

172,438,061

167,490,219 138,500,000

Imported intoxicating liquor

...

113,726,231

133,049,696

140,600,000

Imported liquor other than intoxicating liquor ...

2,342,862

2,456,651

2,600,000

Imported tobacco...

135,456,323

139,549,311

136,000,000

Locally manufactured liquor

Table waters

Total

:

:

:

:

:

18,368,885

18,150,974

18,500,000

8,945,370

10,742,825

451,277,732

471,439,676

436,200,000

* These figures represent net revenue collected, i.e. after deducting refunds and drawbacks of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

Hydrocarbon oils ...

Liquor

Tobacco

Miscellaneous

Total

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

203,801

201,934

205,000

...

3,729,731

4,072,938

4,038,000

818,093

812,102

830,000

37,475

46,662

41,000

4,789,100

5,133,636

5,114,000

:

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

Denaturing

Bonded warehouse supervision

Total

...

:

313,217

450,961

360,000

511,193

854,979

952,000

824,410

1,305,940

1,312,000

Appendix 10

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Currency in Circulation

229

$ Million

As at end of year

1971

1972

1973

Commercial bank issues:

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

2,333.30

2,697.30

2,924.00

The Chartered Bank

379.97

424.90

494.86

Mercantile Bank

28.36

28.43

29.45

Government issues

190.48

227.57

264.10

Total

...

:

2,932.11

3,378.19

3,712.41

Note: The three banks mentioned above are responsible for the issue of notes. Government issues include one-cent

notes only and coins of all denominations.

Appendix II

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Banking Statistics: Liabilities and Assets

Number of reporting banks

Liabilities

Notes in circulation

Deposits:

Demand

Time

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

$ Million

As at end of year

1971

1972

1973

73

73

74

2,742

3,151

3,448

5,317

8,500

8,623

7,395

7,807

9,958

6,073

8,306

7,610

1,980

3,103

3,723

3,000

5,428

8,911

2,978

4,030

5,056

29,485

40,325

47,329

:

:

:

:

:

Savings

Balance due to:

Other banks in Hong Kong

Banks abroad

Other liabilities

Total liabilities

Assets

Cash (legal tender notes and coins) Balance due from:

Other banks in Hong Kong

Banks abroad

Loans and advances

Investments:

Local Other

Other assets

Total assets

:

:

:

:

358

466

574

2,004

3,104

3,843

9,384

10,616

10,201

11,836

17,726

23,263

1,051

1,491

1,923

30

59

62

4,822

6,863

7,463

29,485

40,325

47,329

230

Appendix 12

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Number of Establishments and Employment in Manufacturing Industry Analysed by Main Industrial Groups

Establishments

Persons employed

Industry

Food products

1971

1972

1973

1971

1972

1973

689

755

1,118

11,117

11,821 14,352

Beverages

Tobacco

Textiles

:

:

23

24

33

2,883

2,957 3,213

3

3

4

1,034

947

831

2,924

3,110

3,600

126,502

120,900 107,223

Wearing apparel except footwear

2,929

3,364

6,135

131,435

143,189 181,179

Leather and leather products except footwear

69

69

68

123

1,356

1,295

1,768

Footwear except rubber, plastic and wooden

footwear

252

258

512

4,819

4,491

4,747

Wood and cork products except furniture

542

636

1,128

6,138

6,357

7,553

Furniture and fixtures except primarily of metal

421

553

1,092

4,166

4,725

7,855

Paper and paper products

458

543

846

6,191

6,786

8,103

Printing and publishing

1,138

1,201

1,369

19,112

18,989

19,285

Chemicals and chemical products

161

191

347

3,988

5,077

6,007

Products of petroleum and coal

1

2

2

7

12

15

Rubber products

346

351

388

10,908

8,398

7,277

Plastic products ...

3,019

3,235

3,631

68,950

72,124 70,560

Non-metallic mineral products

129

148

302

3,184

3,325 4,238

Basic metal industries

147

159

242

2,806

2,853 3,058

Fabricated metal products except machinery and

equipment

2,934

3,350

4,393

45,850

49,690

54,431

Machinery except electrical

775

844

1,149

8,406

9,329

10,997

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and

supplies

511

570

794

52,538

62,405 70,345

Transport equipment

74

82

218

15,723

14,485 13,942

Professional and scientific, measuring and

controlling equipment, and photographic and optical goods

149

179

218

7,577

7,902

9,872

Gther manufacturing industries

918

848

1,461 29,680 20,798 19,541

Total

18,612

20,474

29,105

564,370 578,855 626,392

Note:

The figures for 1971 and 1972 refer to employment in manufacturing establishments which have been registered with or recorded by the Labour Department.

Appendix 13

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Number of Establishments and Employment in Selected

Manufacturing Industries

231

Establishments

Industry

1971

1972

1973

1971

Persons employed

1972

1973

Textiles

Bleaching, dyeing and finishing

319

370

454

10,931

13,558 16,614

Cotton knitting

269

248

213

9,585

7,694

5,129

Cotton spinning

33

31

32

20,685

19,191

20,423

Cotton weaving

256

258

297

31,049

28,441

29,125

Made-up textile goods except wearing apparel

127

144

308

1,629

1,873

3,252

Wool spinning

16

11

10

3,360

3,396

3,065

Woollen knitting

1,269

1,332

1,467

36,250

32,916

15,313

Wearing apparel except footwear

Garments

2,310

2,687

4,591

115,151

124,496

137,932

Gloves ...

211

193

279

8,509

7,687

11,039

Footwear except rubber, plastic and wooden footwear

Shoes

210

Furniture and fixtures except primarily of metal

Wooden furniture

333

Paper and paper products

Paper boxes

389

Printing and publishing

Job printing

Newspaper printing

Rubber products

Rubber footwear

Plastic products

Plastic flowers and foliage

Plastic toys

Plastic products (miscellaneous)

Fabricated metal products

Aluminium ware

Electroplating

Metal toys

973

1,008

24

209

སྤྱི རྒྱུ རྒྱུ ཛྫིཾསི ནི

469

4,182

3,991

4,303

774

3,142

3,612

5,496

624

5,397

5,783

6,362

1,068

14,010

13,842

13,515

25

25

3,340

3,238

3,168

199

213

9,323

7,239

6,088

:

501

476

550

12,264 12,877

10,867

1,152

1,246

1,316

36,786 37,046

35,723

1,366

1,512

1,754

19,900

22,194

23,919

53

67

89

2,135

2,236

2,912

233

253

315

2,099

2,347

2,960

71

73

91

2,226

2,403

2,284

Padlocks and bolts

Pressure stoves and lanterns

Tools and dies

Torch cases

..

Wrist watch bands

72

93

112

1,746

2,018

2,126

34

33

39

1,804

1,674

1,672

365

434

504

2,057

2,214

2,407

45

45

45

3,332

2,912

2,411

127

151

195

5,377

5,551

5,938

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and

supplies

Dry batteries

Electric bulbs

Electronics

27

68

281

22285

27

74

305

888888

10

2,776

2,493

2,213

98

4,158

4,307

4,752

390 41,624

49,772

56,070

Transport equipment

Aircraft repairing

2

Ship building and repairing

50

53

3333333

2

288

2,009

2,028

2,341

59

11,880

10,279

8,463

Professional and scientific, measuring and

controlling equipment, and photographic and

optical goods

Cameras

19

22

22

2,651

2,617

2,796

Watches and clocks

106

126

144

4,187

4,574

5,887

Other manufacturing industries

Jewellery and related articles

187

216

468

2,676

3,251

5,228

Wigs

342

194

131

19,896

9,433

2,871

Note: The figures for 1971 and 1972 refer to employment in manufacturing establishments which have been registered

with or recorded by the Labour Department.

232

Appendix 14

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Reported Occupational Accidents*

1971

1972

1973

Cause

Machinery: power driven

Non-

Non-

Non-

Fatal

fatal

Total Fatal

Total Fatal

Total

fatal

fatal

12

7,475

...

7,487

2

4,599

4,601

11

5,424

5,435

Machinery: other

1

277

278

1

616

617

3

477

480

Transport

5

431

436

9

318

327

70

1,015

1,085

Explosions or fires

30

234

264

14

205

219

17

283

300

Hot or corrosive substances

1

696

697

592

592

1,424

1,424

Gassing, poisoning and other

toxic substances

6

6

5

11

16

...

Electricity

2

43

45

2

44

46

Falls of persons

27

747

774

35

780

815

N°8

2

14

16

88

96

60

2,718

2,778

Stepping on or striking

against objects

33

4,194

4,227

1

4,349

4,350

6

3,416

3,422

Falling objects

14

1,631

1,645

13

1,770

1,783

10

1,970

1,980

Falls of grounds

3

3

9

13

22

4

10

14

Handling without machinery

3,380

3,380

4

2,614

2,618

2

4,965

4,967

Hand tools

1,588

1,588

1,712

1,712

3

2,991

2,994

Miscellaneous

14

83

97

26

1,369

1,395

75 1,586

1,661

Causes not yet ascertained

33 3,833 3,866

Total

139

20,788 20,927

121

18,992

19,113

304

30,214 30,518

* Figures for 1971 and 1972 include only those accidents occurring in industrial undertakings but exclude those in

other places of work.

All items Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drink and tobacco

Clothing and footwear

Durable goods

Miscellaneous goods

Transport and vehicles

Services

All items

Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and light

Alcoholic drink and tobacco Clothing and footwear

Durable goods

       Miscellaneous goods Transport and vehicles Services

Appendix 15

(Chapter 4: Employment)

General Consumer Price Index

(September 1963 - August 1964-100)

Item

Monthly average

Weight

1971

1972

1973

100.0

130.8

138.8

164.0

48.3

150.3

161.0

200.1

15.2

108.7

115.0

124.3

3.0

103.2

104.2

111.4

3.3

110.8

112.7

120.5

6.2

104.3

107.7

119.4

2.1

122.2

127.3

147.8

3.2

117.3

122.6

139.9

3.2

110.9

127.4

133.5

14.5

120.7

126.2

141.7

Modified Consumer Price Index

(September 1963 - August 1964-100)

100.0

133.9

142,8

170.1

55.6

151.7

162.6

203.2

12.9

108.9

115.3

124.3

3.0

105.1

106.3

114.8

4.2

110.8

112.6

119.6

4.9

105.3

108.7

120.4

1.5

125.7

131.5

154.6

4.1

117.3

122.3

138.9

2.8

110.7

132.1

138.0

:

:

:

11.0

117.3

122.3

135.3

Appendix 16

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Estimated Local Production of Crops, Livestock,

Poultry and Fish

Item

Crops

Rice (paddy)

Cereal straw and husks

Other field crops

...

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or simply preserved)

Fresh fruits and nuts

Flowers

Livestock and poultry

Cattle

Sheep, lambs and goats

Pigs

Chicken

Other poultry

Dairy products and eggs

Milk (fresh)

Eggs (fresh)

Fish and fish preparations

Fish (fresh, chilled or frozen)

Marine water fish

Fresh water fish

Fish (dried, salted or smoked)

Marine water fish

Crustaceans and molluscs (fresh, frozen, dried, salted, etc.)

Fish products and preparations

Crustacean and mollusc products and preparations

Oil and fats (crude or refined)

233

Unit

1971

1972

1973

metric tons

10,651

7,819

7,001

metric tons

10,651

7,819

7,001

metric tons

17,612

16,317

12,144

metric tons

183,260

172,855

169,021

metric tons

3,353

3,072

2,500

$ thousand

16,093

18,710

23,769

head

3,169

2,883

2,868

head

10

31

thousand head

450

435

352

metric tons

22,360

23,492

16,444

metric tons

8,589

7,177

5,352

metric tons

6,706

6,739

6,115

thousand gross

1,136

1,196

838

metric tons

99,127

104,278

91,759

metric tons

2,121

2,682

3,054

metric tons

2,511

2,929

5,028

metric tons

18,435

20,306

15,493

metric tons

676

751

427

metric tons

552

517

308

...

metric tons

metric tons

3,713

3,368

4,716

Meals (animal feeding-stuffs)

Note:

Local production of cereal straw and husks refers to paddy straw only. Other field crops include yam, millet, peanut, soybean, sugar cane, sweet potato and water chestnut.

Iron ore

Quartz Feldspar

Graphite

Appendix 17

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Local Production and Imports of Ores and Minerals

Clay and kaolin

Item

Metric tons

1971

Production

1972

Imports

1973

1971

1972

1973

162,739

162,283

150,713

5,141

3,631

1,015

3,436

3,172

1,031

1,145

1,149

1,340

904

2,469

1,355

270

1,046

1,650

2,540

3,162

6,759

8,723

7,190

7,648

234

Appendix 18

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Imports of Crops, Livestock, Poultry and Fish

Item

Unit

1971

1972

1973

Crops

Rice (paddy)

Wheat

metric tons

metric tons

370,912

458,148 425,915

131,376 119,455 113,803

...

Other cereals and cereal preparations

metric tons

278,924

251,523

284,325

Cereal straw and husks

metric tons

180

1,297

1,757

Other field crops

metric tons

43,757

45,072

41,194

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or simply preserved) .

metric tons

398,965

442,766 251,848

Vegetables (preserved or prepared)

metric tons

56,891

57,302 67,135

Fresh fruits and nuts

Dried fruits and fruit preparations

Flowers

Sugar and honey

Coffee

metric tons

305,588

317,412

327,907

metric tons

29,334

30,962 32,434

$ thousand

1,225

2,647 2,866

metric tons

132,824

85,018

89,236

metric tons

16,448

9,174

25,687

Cocca

metric tons

104

210

54

metric tons

8,829

7,623

7,788

:

Tea and mate

Livestock and poultry

Cattle

Sheep, lambs and goats

Pigs

Chicken

Other poultry

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

Dairy products and eggs

Milk (fresh)

Cream (fresh)

:

::

:

head

head

184,286 22,134

229,394

204,615

21,783 20,584

thousand head

2,301

2,538

2,548

metric tons

9,961

12,369

15,623

metric tons

15,492

15,839

13,861

metric tons

352

347

408

metric tons

86,322

87,157

97,058

metric tons

metric tons

2,524

2,702

3,555

158

260

334

Milk and cream (evaporated, condensed, powdered, etc.)

Butter, cheese and curd

metric tons

31,316

27,417

30,194

metric tons

4,497

2,972

5,267

Eggs (fresh)

thousand gross

6,340

5,913

6,356

thousand gross

461

492

532

Eggs (preserved)

Fish and fish preparations

Fish (fresh, chilled or frozen)

Marine water fish

Fresh water fish ...

metric tons

metric tons

7,452 31,937

7,426 11,490

32,214

33,412

Fish (dried, salted or smoked)

Marine water fish

metric tons

6,853

7,042

7,249

Fresh water fish

metric tons

84

157

32

Crustaceans and molluscs (fresh, frozen, dried, salted, etc.)

metric tons

18,915

18,594

20,972

Fish products and preparations

metric tons

1,900

2,880

2,311

Crustacean and mollusc products and preparations

metric tons

2,760

2,596

1,733

Oil and fats (crude or refined)

metric tons

405

319

265

Meals (animal feeding-stuffs)

metric tons

2,705

2,726

3,994

Government Grant Subsidised Private

Special education

Total

Kindergarten

Private

r

Primary

:

Government and aided

Private

Sub-total

:

Secondary

Government and aided

Assisted private

Other private

Sub-total

Post-secondary

Government

Private

Sub-total

-

Adult education

Government

Private

Sub-total

Special education

Government and aided

Private

Sub-total

Total ...

Appendix 19

(Chapter 6: Education) Categories of Schools

School Enrolment

:

:

:

:

235

As at September 30

1971

1972

1973

137

136

131

22

22

22

711

719

737

1,960

1,987

1,941

31

31

35

2,861

2,895

2,866

132,900

130,894

132,335

573,684

579,113 576,890

190,629

169,178

146,689

764,313

748,291

723,579

83,354

89,914

99,314

45,688

46,802

1

48,526

166,778

186,374

197,123

295,820

323,090

344,963

4,087

4,387

5,410

7,712

8,206

8,197

11,799

12,593

13,607

37,269

37,893

41,723

23,844

28,159

33,938

61,113

66,052

75,661

2,483

3,193

3,696

232

280

212

2,715

1,268,660

3,473 1,284,393

3,908

1,294,053

Appendix 20

(Chapter 6: Education)

Overseas Examinations

Entries

Examination

1971

1972

1973

London Chamber of Commerce

University of London, General Certificate of Education

16,281

19,981

26,217

13,695

17,173

18,583

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Association of International Accountants

11,279

9,237

10,522

1,428

2,957

2,618

Pitman Examinations Institute, shorthand

1,696

1,662

1,962

Association of Certified Accountants

970

1,162

1,679

Chartered Institute of Secretaries and Administrators

680

845

1,299

Pitman Examinations Institute, typewriting

605

611

1,061

Associated Examining Board, General Certificate of Education

794

510

536

Institute of Cost and Management Accountants

168

281

298

University of London, external degree

143

189

251

Canadian English Language Achievement Test

370

236

247

Canadian Scholastic Aptitude Test

370

236

247

Cambridge University Certificate of Proficiency in English

224

326

220

Cambridge University Lower Certificate in English

233

306

151

Royal Society of Arts

126

132

Others

204

315

730

Total

49,266

56,159

66,621

Note: Examinations listed are those conducted by the Education Department in Hong Kong.

236

Appendix 21

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students in the United Kingdom

Course attending

Professional courses

Nursing

Engineering

Secretarial

Science

Management and business studies

Medicine

Law

...

Accountancy

.Textiles...

Arts

Education

English language Music

Architecture

Art and design

Computer science Pharmacy

Social science

Hotel and catering

Dentistry

Economics

Others

Sub-total

General Certificate of Education

School children

Total

Arrivals of students in the United Kingdom

(from October to September)

As at December

1971

1972

1973

1,050

1,123

726

399

425

319

111

128

181

131

138

100

82

87

80

92

86

75

86

83

60

81

78

54

33

41

42

43

45

37

21

23

28

27

25

24

25

30

28

23

13

12

10

18

15

5

...

20

18

27

28

283

268

272

2,532

2,638

2,098

1,154

1,273

1,755

493

431

480

4,179

4,342

4,333

1970-1789 1971-2-913 1972-31,310

Appendix 22

(Chapter 6: Education)

Expenditure on Education

1970-1 (Aug.-July)

1971-2 (Aug.-July)

Recurrent expenditure Capital expenditure .....

Grants and subsidies

Grants to universities

125,020 5,373

126,558 9,373

$ Thousand

1972-3 (Aug.-July)

152,313

12,266

296,235

332,678

529,618

106,077

125,463

150,896

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee

Total

383*

533,088

760*

799

594,832

845,892

Education expenditure by other departments

4,942

6,373

6,513

* Funds from the former University Grants Committee to the universities.

Estimated mid-year population

Births:

Known live births

Appendix 23

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics

       Crude birth rate (per 1,000 population) Deaths:

Known deaths

       Crude death rate (per 1,000 population) Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Neo-natal mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality rate (per 1,000 total births)

...

Appendix 24

237

1971 4,045,300

1972 4,078,400

1973

4,159,900

79,789 19.7

80,344

81,851

19.7

19.8

20,269

22,135

21,184

5.0

5.4

5.1

18.4

17.5

16.8

12.6

11.6

11.0

0.14

0.20

0.10

(Chapter 7: Health)

Causes of Death

1970

1971

1972

Infective and parasitic

1,633

1,459

1,469

Tuberculosis, all forms

1,436

1,250

1,312

Neoplasms

...

3,976

4,256

4,388

Malignant, including neoplasms of lymphatic and

haematopoietic tissues

3,964

4,237

4,375

Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic and blood

311

235

276

Diabetes mellitus

167

159

179

Nervous system, sense organs and mental disorders

228

162

143

Circulatory system

5,224

5,129

5,157

Heart diseases, including hypertensive diseases

3,121

2,952

3,035

Cerebrovascular diseases

1,806

1,956

1,892

Respiratory system

3,108

3,369

3,645

Pneumonia, all forms

1,985

2,263

2,359

Bronchitis, emphysema and asthma

926

888

1,012

Digestive system

1,093

1,033

1,043

Peptic ulcer

182

163

165

Cirrhosis of liver

370

363

309

Genito-urinary system .

455

440

454

      Complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Skin, subcutaneous tissues, musculoskeletal system and

15

11

16

connective tissues

50

34

50

Congenital anomalies

Certain causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality

Symptoms and ill-defined conditions

Accidents, poisonings and violence

All accidents

Suicide and self-inflicted injuries

320

283

350

669

620

576

1,964

1,784

1,813

1,717

1,438

1,765

1,050

925

1,192

540

388

463

Total

+

:

:

:

:

20,763

20,253

21,145

238

Category of hospitals

Appendix 25

(Chapter 7: Health)

Hospital Beds

Government hospitals

Government dispensaries

Government-assisted hospitals

Private hospitals

Private maternity homes

Private nursing/maternity homes

Total

:

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

:

:

As at end of year

1971

1972

1973

6,364

6,534

6,507

485

503

420

7,664

7,621

7,868

1,888

1,838

1,849

246

195

162

42

42

42

16,689

16,733

16,848

Appendix 26

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

As at end of year

In Government service

1971

1972 1973

1971

Total registered 1972

1973

Medical doctors

639*

670*

:

715* 2,161

2,333 2,533

Provisionally registered medical doctors

(house officers)

109

128

115

181

194

163

Dentists

67

61

63

480

485 496

Pharmacists

22

24

25

186

198

209

Midwives (with nursing qualifications)

232

258

277

747

776

862

Nurses (general, male and female, excluding

student nurses)

2,064

with midwifery qualifications

2,160 2,269

1,365 1,450 1,582

5,472 5,851 6,366

3,763

3,969 4,169

without midwifery qualifications

699

710

687

1,709

1,882 2,197

Nurses (psychiatric, male and female,

excluding student nurses)

241

218

222

173

184

204

* Including unregistrable assistant medical officers.

239

Appendix 27

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Domestic Units and Estimated Persons Accommodated

as at March 31, 1973

Domestic Units

Category

:

:

:

Government quarters ...

Public

Group A estates

Group B estates

Group B cottage areas Housing Society estates

Sub-total

Private

Total permanent

:

:

Urban

Rest of

Tsuen

New

Total

areas

Wan

Territories

11,432

200

2,105

13,737

65,153

27,723

92,876

194,184

31,333

5,597

231,114

6,245

123

2,033

8,401

17,850

2,100

19,950

283,432

61,279

7,630

352,341

290,360

9,666

54,049

354,075

585,224

71,145

63,784

720,153

:

:

:

4:

:

Estimated Persons Accommodated

Hong

Kowloon

Rest of

Tsuen

Category

Kong

and New

New

Total

Wan

Island

Kowloon

Territories

Government quarters ...

30,200

29,200

1,200

10,100

70,700

Public

Group A estates

68,500

294,800

126,400

489,700

Group B estates

105,000

757,900

139,100

13,500

1,015,500

Group B cottage areas

12,600

26,600

500

8,400

48,100

Housing Society estates

49,600

54,400

12,600

116,600

Sub-total

235,700

1,133,700

278,600

21,900

1,669,900

Private

Total permanent

Temporary

Marine ...

Total population

:

:

:

769,600 1,031,500

1,035,500

59,600

2,194,400 339,400

224,100

2,084,800

256,100 3,825,400

268,700

70,000

:

4,164,100

Note: Group A estates refer

to the former Government low-cost housing and the former Housing Authority estates.

Group B estates refer to the former resettlement estates.

240

Item

Appendix 28

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Land Office Statistics

1971

1972

1973

Instruments registered

Assignments of whole buildings or sites ...

1,727

1,798

1,715

Assignments of flats or other units

22,695

28,491

32,685

Agreements for sale and purchase of flats or other units

13,007

14,760

6,251

Building mortgages

145

196

96

Other mortgages

17,440

23,902

31,712

Reassignments and certificates of satisfaction

:

10,947

12,087

14,310

Exclusion orders

Re-development orders

Miscellaneous

Total ...

224

195

138

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

108

127

105

7,653

9,501

9,354

73,946

91,057

96,366

Conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc registered

292

258

204

Consents granted to entering into agreements for sale and

purchase

202

169

83

Modifications and variations of lease conditions

62

60

42

Crown leases issued

209

157

168

Determinations of Crown rent and premium

123

139

141

Multi-storey building owners corporations registered

Public searches in Land Office records

:

214

147

153

108,632

122,139

106,743

Considerations in Instruments Registered in Land Office

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Assignments of whole buildings or sites Assignments of flats or other units

Building mortgages

Other mortgages

Reassignments

Miscellaneous instruments

Total

:

$ Thousand

1,344,210

1,836,122

1,874,883 3,793,849

208,233 472,745

1,839,092

2,804,768 3,865,829

343,843

2,621,986 4,978,584

973,981

1,369,344

1,670,438

4,584

37,659

33,241

6,206,222 9,181,385 14,685,784

Hong Kong Island

Kowloon

New Territories Marine

Total

Appendix 29

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic Accidents

Hong Kong Island

Fatal

Serious

Slight

Kowloon

Fatal

Serious

Slight

New Territories

Fatal

Serious

Slight

Marine

Fatal Serious Slight

Total

241

1971

1972

1973

3,675

3,726

3,954

6,041

6,156

6,004

2,564

2,916

2,835

21

12,280

12,798

12,814

Traffic Casualties

89

102

123

1,241

1,300

2,999

3,079

1,493 3,160

162

177

2,520

2,808

4,382

4,568

185 2,706 4,473

132

162

157

1,360

2,078

1,383 2,836

1,318

2,669

17

30

24

14,963

16,415

16,355

Appendix 30

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime

Number of cases reported

Number of persons prosecuted

1971

1972

1973

1971

1972

1973

Against lawful authority

Against public order ...

150

179

647

510

579

845

Perjury

44

59

86

27

39

66

Escape and rescue

84

75

162

48

48

102

Unlawful society

1,034

1,014

1,319

874

836

1,146

Other offences

74

97

231

38

48

138

Sub-total

1,386

1,424

2,445

1,497

1,550

2,297

Against public morality

Rape and indecent assault

377

538

549

167

205

211

Other sexual offences

464

580

780

229

290

306

Sub-total

841

1,118

1,329

396

495

517

Against the

person

Murder and manslaughter Attempted murder

Serious assaults Abortion Kidnapping

Criminal intimidation

Other offences

Sub-total

:

:

98

115

110

115

123

118

4

12

10

3

10

2

1,598

1,726

2,237

1,212

1,181

1,456

3

1

1

8

2

2

2

2

4

38

59

53

49

36

36

239

193

112

79

64

54

1,982

2,108

2,533

1,461

1,417

1,678

242

Appendix 30-Contd

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime

Number of cases reported 1972

1971

1973

1971

Number of persons prosecuted 1972

1973

Against property

Robbery with firearms

14

25

21

13

19

11

Other robberies

5,132

7,379

8,696

2,779

2,180

1,833

All burglaries

3,789

3,688

4,740

1,180

750

487

Going equipped for stealing, etc.

940

756

573

329

220

208

Blackmail

327

399

515

149

223

246

Theft from person

1,705

1,551

1,183

778

446

278

Other thefts

10,363

9,208

12,104

4,030

3,073

3,299

All frauds

619

847

1,001

148

194

262

Handling stolen goods

45

48

91

29

37

57

Malicious damage to property

257

305

552

119

154

201

Unlawful possession

674

573

424

552

445

351

Possession of an unlawful instrument

1,381

1,303

420

779

936

228

Loitering and trespass

1,158

970

739

1,096

920

693

Sub-total

26,404

27,052

31,059

11,981

9,597

8,154

Other crimes

Forgery and coinage

233

514

599

Bribery and corruption

80

81

45

Possession of arms and ammunition

41

84

45

Conspiracy

19

33

22

Breach of deportation

15

9

13

Other crimes

Sub-total

Serious narcotic offences

Total

Crime detection rate

239

199

215

98

80600000

49

35

31

66

95208

62

47

33

53

21

25

12

112

627

920

939

298

330

265

1,221

1,377

1,473

1,306

1,593

1,569

:

:

32,461

33.999

39,778

16,939

14,982

14,480

1972-59.3 per cent

1973-46.9 per cent

1971-76.5 per cent

Narcotic Offences

Serious offences

Manufacturing

Trafficking (importing) Other trafficking

Possession for purpose of trafficking

Sub-total

Opium

Possession of opium

Possession of equipment

Keeping a divan

:

7

15

8

19

37

10

1

1

12

3

1

14

1

1,201

1,358

1,464

1,273

1,548

1,558

1,221

1,377

1,473

1,306

1,593

1,569

3,123

2,833

2,253

2,643

2,395

1,998

217

265

170

18

52

88

72

229

370

72

228

374

Smoking opium

3,320

6,219

9,530

3,255

6,113

9,500

Other opium offences

37

20

20

1

2

Sub-total

6,769

9,566

12,343

5,989

8,788

11,962

Heroin

Possession of heroin ...

6,707

5,408

5,102

6,310

4,764

Possession of equipment

81

239

314

51

107

4,793 171

Keeping a divan

4

5

5

4

5

4

Smoking heroin

1,056

1,384

1,420

1,003

1,218

1,250

Other heroin offences

17

11

18

4

2

Sub-total

7,865

7,047

6,859

7,372

6,095

6,220

Other dangerous drugs.

Possession

740

248

159

623

196

149

Smoking

53

38

32

42

38

28

Other offences

26

8

20

9

6

11

Sub-total

819

294

211

674

240

188

Total

16,674

18,284

20,886

15,341

16,716

19,939

243

Supreme Court

Appendix 31

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court,

Tenancy Tribunal and Labour Tribunal

Civil appeals

Criminal appeals

Original jurisdiction

Miscellaneous proceedings

Adoptions

Divorce

:

:

:

1971

1972

1973

50

58

53

1,026

900

964

3,097

3,345

4,023

308

366

458

320

398

364

388

126

45

90

104

124

38

56

181

1,562

1,614

1,585

15

27

26

38

62

42

6,932

7,056

7,865

247

470

527

13,965

16,826

17,503

306

258

341

1,309

1,620

1,829

856

1,181

1,302

532

793

16,683

20,887

22,295

679

687

735

267

390

383

103

172

149

1,049

1,249

1,267

:.

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

:

Criminal sessions

Admiralty jurisdiction

Probate grants Bankruptcy

Company winding-up

Total ...

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction Civil jurisdiction

:.

Workmen's compensation .. Distress for rent

     Rent increase application Divorce jurisdiction

Total ...

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

Exemption cases

Demolished building cases

Total ...

Labour Tribunal

Claims dealt with

:

:

:

:

I

805

Work in the Magistracies

Summary matters (charges, summonses and applications,

etc.)

Adult defendants

Adult defendants convicted

Juvenile defendants

Juvenile defendants convicted

Charge sheets issued

Summonses issued

Miscellaneous proceedings issued

575,697

517,339

615,228

606,060

601,693

667,246

537,487

539,066

608,482

4,458

3,297

3,060

4,240

3,137

2,900

209,592

213,806

221,912

359,947

290,662

365,203

:

6,152

12,874

27,962

244

Appendix 32

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Anti-Corruption Statistics

1971

1972

1973

137

164

718

153

166

527

83

71

212

373

401

1,457

:.

:

:

:

:

9

25

16

6

17

11

3

8

2

Police officers investigated resulting in resignation or

retirement shortly afterwards

23

5

5

Complaints of corruption against

Police officers

Government servants

Members of the public

Total ...

:

:

:

:

:

:

Police officers before courts for corrupt practices

Charged

:

:

1

1

1

I m

3

8

7

19

6

4

14

2

3

+3

3

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

Government servants before courts for corrupt practices

Charged

Convicted

Acquitted

Absconded

Pending

Convicted

Acquitted

Absconded

:

:

1

2

21

2 2 2

I

23

18

32

18

29

I

3

Pending

Members of the public before courts for corrupt practices

Charged

Convicted

Acquitted

Absconded

Pending

:

F:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

1

Appendix 33

(Chapter 12: Public Works and Utilities)

Electricity Statistics, 1973

245

Maximum demand

Sales

Consumers

Sales per head of population

MW

GWh*

hundreds

kWh

China Light and Power Company

961

4,369

6,433

1,430

(869)

(3,944)

(6,054)

(1,315)

The Hong Kong Electric Company ...

423

1,637

2,229

1,602

(370)

(1,463)

(2,128)

(1,446)

Cheung Chau Electric Company

5

40

263

(5)

(37)

(357)

Total

6,011

8,702

1,445

(5,412)

(8,219)

(1,327)

Note: Figures in brackets refer to 1972.

Electricity Production and Distribution

Domestic

Industrial

Commercial

GWh*

1971

1972

1973

1,058.77

1,193.37

1,322.29

2,031.17

2,211.41

2,419.89

1,779.85

1,984.57

2,243.96

21.48

22.99

24.45

4,891.28

5,412.34

6,010.59

Street lighting

Total

* 1 GWh 1,000,000 kWh.

:

Gas Production and Distribution

Domestic

Industrial

Commercial

Total

:

Fresh water

Salt water (flushing purposes)

Therms

1971

1972

1973

5,149,564

5,567,203

6,572,427

946,057

1,012,551

982,652

3,717,691

4,179,161

4,554,073

:

:

9,813,312

10,758,915

12,109,152

Water Consumption

Million gallons

1971

1972

1973

66,100

71,563

78,780

13,938

12,829

13,961

246

Appendix 34

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

International Movements of Aircraft and Vessels

1971

1972

1973

Aircraft

Arrivals

24,432

24,548

26,915

Departures

24,441

24,546

26,907

Total

48,873

49,094

53,822

Ocean-going vessels

Arrivals

7,714

7,827

7,358

Departures

7,714

7,880

7,437

Total

15,428

15,707

14,795

River steamers, hydrofoil vessels, junks and launches

Arrivals

25,234

28,384

31,174

Departures

25,238

28,380

31,111

Total

50,472

56,764

62,285

Arrivals Air

Sea

International Movements of Passengers

(Immigration figures)

Rail

Total

Departures

Air

Sea

Rail

Total

Note:

All figures quoted here exclude:--

i. Passengers in transit.

Air

Imports Exports

Total

Sea

Imports Exports

Total

Rail

Imports

Exports

Total

Thousands

1,056

1,335

1,662

1,612

1,912

2,245

445

730

937

3,113

3,977

4,844

1,055

1,367

1,700

1,609

1,924

2,213

447

719

895

3,111

4,010

4,808

ii. Passengers refused permission to land.

iii. Military passengers.

International Movements of Commercial Cargo by

Different

Means of Transport

Metric tons

23,833

26,235

37,179

51,631

55,024

59,163

:

75,464

81,259

96,342

11,654,061 3,204,829

12,292,079

13,341,873

3,821,129

4,465,228

:

:

:

14,858,890

16,113,208

17,807,101

997,838 650

998,488

:

1,160,106 1,362

1,161,468

1,233,541 3,351

1,236,892

Appendix 35

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

Registered Motor Vehicles

247

Public vehicles

Public omnibuses:

China Motor Bus Company

     Kowloon Motor Bus Company Lantau bus companies

Others

Taxis

Public hire cars

Public light buses

Hongkong Tramways Company

Tramcars

Trailers

Private vehicles

Motor cycles

Motor tricycles

Private cars

Private omnibuses

Private light buses

Goods vehicles

Crown vehicles (excluding vehicles of H.M. Forces)

Motor vehicles

Motor cycles

Total

...

::

::

1971

1972

1973

528

496

565

1,133

1,272

1,324

39

46

43

989

1,067

1,179

3,406

3,448

4,754

884

1,063

1,106

3,813

3,828

3,943

162

22

162

162

22

22

22

16,592 100 105,874

19,833

23,283

82

58

120,725

129,309

386

367

340

1,567

1,684

1,743

25,790

28,794

31,534

2,462 815

2,645

2,751

843

843

164,562

186,377

202,959

Public Transport: Passenger Journeys by Undertaking

China Motor Bus Company

Hongkong Tramways Company

Kowloon Motor Bus Company

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company

The Star Ferry Company

Kowloon-Canton Railway

Peak Tramways Company Lantau bus companies

Total

Thousand trips

1971

1972

1973

547,571

501,188

493,691

175,110

166,721

150,586

156,760

148,464

145,672

190,531

179,496

155,532

58,216

58,108

52,566

10,092

10,972

11,808

2,303

2,260

1,964

1,151

1,358

1,753

1,141,734

1,068,567

1,013,572

Public Transport: Daily Average Number of Passenger Journeys by Different Means of Transport

Public light bus Taxi

Public hire car

Total

Thousand trips

1,045

1,050

1,050

637

637

806

38

59

60

1,720

1,746

1,916

Public Transport: Passenger Journeys by Area

(excluding public light buses, taxis and public hire cars)

Hong Kong Island Kowloon

Cross harbour

Ferry

Tunnel

New Territories

Urban

Rural

Ferry

Total

Thousand trips

334,173

311,989

276,874

475,405

422,076

387,039

239,894

227,965

196,349

12,320

46,641

36,155

39,766

49,461

47,254

44,812

45,459

8,853

9,639

11,749

1,141,734

1,068,567

1,013,572

248

Appendix 36

(Chapter 13: Communications and Transport)

Communication Statistics

1971

1972

1973

Postal traffic:

Estimated

Letter mails (million articles)

posted to destinations abroad

posted for local delivery

81.7

80.1

80.6

106.2

112.9

119.4

received from abroad for local delivery in transit

46.7

51.2

55.5

2.2

2.2

2.4

Parcels (thousands)

posted to destinations abroad

2,431

2,517

2,477

posted for local delivery

38

35

63

received from abroad for local delivery

554

518

555

in transit

31

53

38

Telecommunication traffic:

1971

1972

1973

Telegrams (thousands)

accepted for transmission received

1,477

1,484

1,446

1,714

1,726

1,796

in transit

Telex calls (thousand minutes)

outward

inward

International telephone calls (thousand minutes)

outward

inward

Radio pictures

transmitted

received

Broadcast and reception services (thousand hours)

press

meteorological

1,299

1,336

1,374

1,947

2,803

4,779

1,871

2,254

5,592

5,099

6,355

8,639

5,763

7,165

10,210

::

::

4,453

6,270

9,172

13,800

6,766

8,163

21

23

27

122

140

140

Appendix 37

(Chapter 17: Recreation)

Recreational Facilities Provided by the Urban Council and

Urban Services Department

Facilities

1971

1972

1973

Children's playgrounds

255

272

298

Parks and gardens

360

396

454

Grass games pitches

42

50

51

Hardsurface mini soccer pitches

86

94

99

Basketball/volleyball/badminton courts

326

363

411

Tennis courts

36

36

36

Running tracks

9

9

9

Beaches

38

37

37

Swimming pools...

5

6

6

Indoor games hall (multi-purpose)

1

...

Obstacle golf course, squash courts, practice tennis courts, bowling and putting greens, soil surfaced mini soccer pitches, roller skating rinks and table tennis

41

49

57

Aviaries and mammal exhibits, concrete chess tables, model boat pools,

television sets and open air theatre

102

102

111

Bandstand, barbecue pits, composite beach buildings, car parks, changing rooms, fountains, dog's gardens, refreshment kiosks, public lavatories, public libraries, pavilions/shelters and spectators stands...

420

452

481

Total acreage of public open space administered

1,472

1,529

1,568

Appendix 38

(Chapter 18: The Environment)

Climatological Summary, 1973

249

Month

Mean

pressure at mean

sea level

Maxi-

mum air temper- ature

Mini-

Mean air temper- ature

mum Mean Mean Mean Total

air dew

relative amount bright temper- point humidity of cloud sunshine

Prevail- Total ing rainfall wind

direction

Mean

wind

speed

ature

mb

°C

°C

°C

°C

per cent per cent hours mm points

knots

January

1,019.0

21.8

16.0

9.7

12.0

78

76

100.9

57.8

E

6.9

February

1,017.5

27.8

19.2

14.3

16.3

84

71

109.1

21.7

E

6.2

March

1,016.6

30.1

20.8

15.7

17.3

81

78

113.6

13.3

E

7.0.

April

1,010.9 31.3

24.0

15.2

21.5

87

83

86.1

104.3

E

6.0

May ...

1,009.2 32.4

26.8

21.6

24.5

88

81

132.0

516.6

E

6.1

June

...

1,005.5 33.1

27.5

22.8

25.0

87

80

138.9

373.7

E

5.6

July

1,004.4 33.1

27.9

23.5

25.4

87

75

152.8

696.6

E

5.4

August

1,005.1 32.9

27.6

23.6

25.0

86

77

149.9

826.4 E

5.7

September

1,011.1 33.0

27.3

22.8

24.2

84

October

1,013.0

32.0

24.8

18.5

18.7

70

25

72

142.2 476.0

E

5.2

57

184.1

4.7

E

7.1

November

1,017.7

28.0

20.9

15.5

14.2

67

56

172.9

9.3

E

5.0

December

1,021.2 25.1

16.6

7.0

5.5

51

23

268.4 Trace

NNE

6.9

Mean

Total

::

1,012.6

23.3

19.1

79

69

E

6.1

|

1,750.9 3,100.4

|

1

Climatological Normals

(1884-1939; 1947-1960)

°C per cent per cent hours mm points knots

Month

mb

°C*

°C

°C*

January

1,019.9 26.9

15.4

0.0

11.1

75

64

145.4 31.7 E

7.7

February

1,018.4 27.8

15.2

2.4

11.7

March

1,016.1 30.1

17.5

6.2

14.8

888

79

75

100.2

46.9

E

8.9

83

82

94.7

72.2

E

9.4

April

1,012.7 33.4

21.3

9.9

18.8

85

80

May

1,009.2 35.5

25.2

15.4

22.4

85

280

114.6

135.8

E

8.7

76

156.1

292.7

E

8.3

June...

1,005.9 35.6

27.3

19.2

24.2

84

78

159.9

401.2

E

7.6

July

1,004.9 35.7 27.9

22.2

24.7

83

69

213.7

371.7

E

6.8

August

...

1,004.9 36.1

27.7

21.6

24.6

84

67

200.9

370.8

E

6.5

September

1,008.4 35.2

27.1

18.4

23.1

79

61

197.5 278.8

E

7.8

October

1,013.8 34.3

24.6

14.1

19.3

November

1,017.5 31.8

20.9

6.5

15.1

28

72

51

218.9

99.2

E

8.5

69

53

187.9

43.1

E

7.8

December

1,019.7 28.7

17.3

4.8

11.9

Mean

1,012.6

22.3

18.5

120

70

55

172.6

24.9

E

7.2

79

68

E

7.9

Total

|

I

1,963.1 2,168,8

1

* 1884-1939; 1947-1973.

250

Type of appointment

Appendix 39

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

The Executive Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1974

Presided over by His Excellency the Governor,

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Ex-officio

23

:

"

Nominated

His Excellency the Commander British Forces

Lieutenant General Sir Edwin Noel Westby BRAMALL, KCB, OBE, MC

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS, CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, CMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr John William Dixon HOBLEY, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Affairs

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA, CBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

Nominated

"

"

""

:

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable Sir Albert RODRIGUES, CBE, ED, JP

The Honourable Sir John Douglas CLAGUE, CBE, MC, QPM, CPM, TD, JP

The Honourable Sir Sidney Samuel GORDON, CBE, JP

The Honourable Sir Yuet-keung KAN, CBE, JP

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, CBE, JP

The Honourable SZETO Wai, CBE, JP

The Honourable George Ronald Ross, CBE, JP

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, JP

Type of appointment

Appendix 40

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Legislative Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1974

Ex-officio

His Excellency the Governor

21

Nominated

"

PRESIDENT:

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS, CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, CMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr John William Dixon HOBLEY, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Affairs

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP

The Honourable David Richard Watson ALEXANDER, CBE, JP

(Director of Urban Services)

The Honourable James Jeavons ROBSON, CBE, JP

(Secretary for the Environment)

The Honourable John CANNING, JP

(Director of Education)

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA, CBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

The Honourable Ian MacDonald LIGHTBODY, CMG, JP

(Secretary for Housing)

The Honourable David Harold JORDAN, MBE, JP

(Director of Commerce and Industry)

The Honourable Li Fook-kow, JP

(Secretary for Social Services)

The Honourable George Peter LLOYD, CMG, JP

(Secretary for Security)

The Honourable David AKERS-JONES, JP

(District Commissioner, New Territories)

The Honourable Alexander Stuart ROBERTSON, JP

(Director of Public Works) (Acting)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, CBE, JP

Nominated

22

The Honourable SZETO Wai, CBE, JP

""

The Honourable Wilfred WONG Sien-bing, OBE, JP The Honourable Wilson WANG Tze-sam, OBE, JP

"

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, JP

""

The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, OBE, JP

The Honourable Oswald Victor CHEUNG, OBE, QC, JP

The Honourable ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP

The Honourable Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, OBE, JP The Honourable Mrs Catherine Joyce SYMONS, OBE, JP

The Honourable Peter Gordon WILLIAMS, JP

The Honourable James Wu Man-hon, JP

The Honourable Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, OBE, JP

The Honourable Guy Mowbray SAYER, JP

The Honourable Li Fook-wo, OBE, JP

251

252

Type of appointment

Elected by Urban Council

Appendix 41

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1974

CHAIRMAN:

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira SALES, OBE, JP (A)

VICE-CHAIRMAN:

The Honourable Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, OBE, JP (E)

MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE, QC, JP (E)

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT (E)

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick (E)

The Honourable Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, OBE, JP (A)

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE, JP (A)

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, JP (A)

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP (A)

Dr. Denny HUANG Mong-hwa (E)

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun, JP (A)

Mr Peter CHAN Chi-kwan (E)

Mr Lo Tak-shing, JP (A)

Mr John MACKENZIE (A)

Mr Charles Sin Cho-chiu (E)

Miss Cecilia YEUNG Lai-yin (E)

Mrs KWAN Ko Siu-wah, MBE, JP (A)

Mr TSIN Sai-nin (E)

Mr Edmund Cнow Wai-hung (E)

Mr Ambrose CнOI Kwok-ching (E)

Dr WONG Pun-cheuk (E)

Mr Hu Fa-kuang (A)

Mr Alex Wu Shu-chih, OBE (A)

Mr WONG Shiu-cheuck, MBE, JP (A)

Note:

(E) = Elected.

(A)= Appointed.

253

Appendix 42

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(A) The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

American Women's Association of Hong Kong

Association of Volunteers for Service

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services)

Caritas-Hong Kong

Catholic Relief Services-USCC

Catholic Women's League

Member Agencies

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

Chai Wan Area Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

(Hong Kong)

Children's Meals Society

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council

Children's Playground Association

Child Care Centre-Walled City

Christian Children's Fund

Christian Family Service Centre

Church of Christ in China, Hong Kong Council, Social

Welfare Department

Community Development Committee, The Church of the

Good Shepherd

Conference Board of Christian Social Concerns of the

Methodist Church

Convent of Good Shepherd

Department of Social Work, University of Hong Kong

Diocesan Welfare Council of the Diocese of Hong Kong

and Macau

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

The Endeavourers

Epworth Village Community Centre (The Chinese

Methodist Church)

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

Five District Business Welfare Association

Foster Parents' Plan

Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club

Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel and Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-TB and Thoracic Disease Association

Hong Kong Baptist College

Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council

Hong Kong Cheshire Home

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Women

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Housing Society

Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong Red Swastika

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Deaf

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

The Leprosy Mission

Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters

Marycove

Mennonite Central Committee

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

Resettlement Estates Loan Association

The Salvation Army

Save the Children Fund

Scout Association

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese Methodist

Church

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Student Christian Centre

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

United Christian Hospital

World Council of Churches

World Vision

Young Men's Christian Association Young Women's Christian Association Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

254

Appendix 42-Contd

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(B) The Community Chest of Hong Kong

Buddhist Po Ching Home for the Aged Women

Calvary Social Service Centre

Canossian Mission Welfare Services

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council

Catholic Women's League

Child Care Centre-Kowloon Walled City

Children's Meals Society

Chinese Young Men's Christian Association

Christian Family Service Centre

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

Epworth Village Community Centre

Family Planning Association

Foster Parents Plan

Hans Andersen Club

Happy Home for the Aged

Heep Hong Club for Handicapped Children

Holy Carpenter Youth Centre

Holy Nativity Social Service Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Council of the Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Member Agencies

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

Kei Oi Youth Centre

Leprosy Mission--Hong Kong Auxiliary

Lutheran World Federation

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

North Point Estate Residents Association

Practical Training Centre of the Churches

Project Concern-Hong Kong

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

St Christopher's Home

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

St Thomas' Day Nursery

Salvation Army-Hong Kong Command

Save the Children Fund

Shaukiwan Kaifong Welfare Advancement Association

Sisters of the Good Shepherd (Pelletier Hall)

Society for Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Workers Tours and Travel Service

Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

Young Women's Christian Association

Youth Centre of St Barnabas'

Abattoirs, 85, 206

Index

Action Committee Against Narcotics, 76, 152,

210

Administration, Government, 202-12 Adoption, 103

Advisory committees, 1, 2, 180, 181, 210 Agriculture-

administration and policy, 46-9, 182 extension services, 46-9 industry, 38, 46-52

Air traffic, 122, 135-6

Air freight, 135

Aircraft engineering, 14

Airport, 11, 30, 119, 127, 129, 135-6, 138, 194 Ambulance service, 118

American Women's Association, 106 Animal industries, 46-49

Anti-Corruption Commission, 9, 110 Apprentices, 63 Aquatic life, 190-1 Archaeology, 169-70, 197

Armed Services, 28, 77, 154-8, 167 Art collections, 169-70 Arts, the, 122, 123, 168-9

Asian Productivity Organisation, 24 Assets and liabilities, 229 Auxiliary Fire Services, 156, 158 Auxiliary Medical Service, 156, 157 Auxiliary Services, 156-8

Banknotes, 33, 229

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 27, 204 Banks, 33, 36

Bets and Sweeps Tax, 33 Birds, 189-90

Birth and death registration, 187-8 Blair-Kerr Commission of Enquiry, 9 Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 103

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, 103 British-

Council, 69, 168, 171-2

Government, 19, 35-6, 69, 197-8, 202

Broadcasting, 149-51

Buddhism, 159-60

Budget, 28-30, 203, 211

Building(s)-

Authority, 87, 94-5, 96 development, 94-7, 124, 125-8 multi-storey, 97

Bus services, 139-40, 141, 247 Business registration, 25-6

Cable and Wireless, 145-6

Cantonese, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60, 161, 185-6 Cargo handling, 132, 133, 135, 246

Caritas Medical Centre, 72, 78, 80, 81

Castle Peak (Tuen Mun), new town, 15, 51, 93,

174

Castle Peak Hospital, 76, 78, 81 Cathay Pacific Airways, 135 Cattle, 50, 85

Cemeteries, 86, 206

Census, 38, 46, 186, 193

Statistics, Department of, 186-7 Certificates of Origin, 20 Chartered Bank, 33, 108, 229 Cheung Chau Electric Co, 131, 245 Chi Ma Wan Prison, 116

Child welfare, 103

China, 60, 159, 163, 173, 175-7, 191

trade with, 17, 18, 51, 129, 138, 193-4 movement between, 46, 120, 138, 144 water supplies, 124, 194

history, 87, 169, 197-9

China Light and Power Co, 131, 180-1, 200, 245 China Motor Bus Co, 139-40, 247

Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, 20 Chinese language, 207-8, 209-10

Chinese Manufacturers' Association, 20, 22, 25,

43, 152

Christians, 159, 160-1

Churches, 159-62 Cinemas, 151

City District Offices, 5, 6, 8, 97, 167, 208, 210 City Hall, 168-71, 187, 206 Civil--

Aid Services, 156, 157-8 Aviation, 135-6, 155

Service, see Public Service

Clean Hong Kong Campaign, 8, 68, 83, 152, 165 Climate, 174-7, 249

Coinage, 33

Colonial Secretariat, 4, 5, 114, 180, 202, 207, 211 Commerce and Industry Department, 12, 15,

18, 20-22, 118

Commercial crime, 109-10

Commercial wharves, 133-4

Commonwealth preference, 20, 21

Communicable diseases, 71, 72-4, 76

Communications, 38, 132-46, 246-8

Community work, 102-3

Community Chest, 102, 254

Community Relief Trust Fund (see Emergency

Relief Fund)

Companies Registry, 26-7

Computers, 14, 132

Confucius, 159

Congregation of the Sisters of the Good

Shepherd, 103

Conservation, (see also Environment), 46, 182-4 Constitution, 202-3

Consumer Price Index, 39, 186, 232

256

Container facilities, 129 (see also Kwai Chung

container terminal)

Convention of Chuenpi, 198

Convention of Peking, 199

Co-operative societies, 47-8

Cotton, see Textiles

Council for Recreation and Sport, 2, 164

Courts, 203-5, 243

Crime, 107, 108-10, 115, 241-2

Credit unions, 48-9

Crops, 49-50

Cross-harbour

tunnel, 140, 141, 194

CTA, 18

Currency, 33-6, 229

Deaths, 71, 187, 237 Defence, 28, 154-6 Defence expenditure, 28 Dental services, 79-80 Desalination, 125, 174 Design-

Governor's Award, 25 Federation Award, 25

Devaluation, 34-6

Development Loan Fund, 28, 30

Diseases, 72-4, 76, 77, 79, 83 District Community Offices, 102 Dockyards, 14, 134

Dollar coins, 33, 229

Drainage, 128

Drug addiction, 76-7, 115-7, 210 (see also

Narcotics)

Drug seizures, 110, 118-9

Employment, 38-45, 230-2

advisory service, 43

Ordinance, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43 wages and conditions of, 39-40 Entertainment, 168-9

Entertainment tax, 33

Environment, 92, 173-84, 249

Essential Services Corps, 156-8

Estate Duty, 32

European Economic Community, 17, 19, 20 Exchange Fund, 34-6

Executive Council, 6, 195, 199, 202-3, 250 Exhibitions, 43, 169-70

Explosives, 52

Exports, 20, 29, 219, 221, 246

Factories and industrial undertakings, 12-4,

39-40, 42, 100, 193-4, 230-1

Ordinance, 39, 42

Family Planning Association, 75

Family welfare services, 103

Farming, 46-52

Fauna, 191

Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of

Commerce, 25

Federation of Hong Kong Industries, 20, 25

Ferry services, 141-2

Festival of Hong Kong, 68

Fight Violent Crime Campaign, 8-9, 68, 97,

152, 158, 165

Film censorship, 151

Film industry, 151

Finance, 28-37

Ducks, 50

Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme, 68, 103 Dutiable commodities, 11, 21-22, 30-1, 118-9

Earnings and Profits Tax, 31-2

Fire-

prevention, 181

Services, 85, 107, 118, 133

Fish-

Marketing Organisation, 48, 51, 52

Eastgate, 134

East India Company, 197

Economy, 195, 196

Education, 53-70, 195-6, 235-6

adult, 66, 235

Advisory Inspectorate, 64 educational television, 66-7 enrolments, 235

examinations, 57, 67-8, 235 higher, 57-61 overseas, 69-70, 236

polytechnic, 45, 56, 61-2, 196 pre-primary, 54 prevocational, 63-4 primary, 54-5, 57, 235

research, 59-61

secondary, 53, 56-7, 235

special, 55-6, 235

technical, 56

Visual Education Centre, 64-5

Electricity, 130-1

Electronics industry, 13

Elliot, Capt C, 197

Emergency Relief Fund, 105-6

Emergency Regulations, 12

ponds, 49, 51, 174

Fisheries-

Development Loan Fund, 48

research, 47

Fishing-fleet, 51

industry, 38, 46-52

Flora, 181, 191-2

Foreign Relations, 206-7

Foreign investment, 12, 15 Forestry, 38

Fruit, 49, 50, 52

Garment industry, 12-13, 193 Gas, 131, 245

GATT, 18

Geography, 173

Geology, 173-4

Government Chest Service, 72

Government Information Services, see

Information Services Department

Governor in Council, 44, 91, 92, 95, 205 Governor, office of, 202

Green Papers, 4 Grievances, 210

257

Hakka, 185-6

Harbour facilities, 75, 132-5 Hawkers, 85, 206 Health, 71-86, 237-8

    dental services, 79-80 environmental, 82-6 maternal and child, 75 mental, 76

ophthalmic services, 80 outpatient services, 79 port services, 75 schools, 75-6

specialist services, 78-9

statistics, 237-8

training, 80-2

Heavy industries, 14-15

High Island Water Scheme, 113, 125, 174, 194

Hindu community, 159, 162

History, 169-70, 193-201

Hoklo, 185-6

Home Affairs Department, 4, 5, 6, 208

HK Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases

Association, 72, 73

HK and China Gas Co, 131, 200 HK Christian Council, 161

HK Council of Social Service, 101, 102, 104,

168, 196, 253

HK Enterprise magazine, 22

HK Export Credit Insurance Corp, 23, 194 HK Federation of Trade Unions, 40 HK Federation of Youth Groups, 103

HK General Chamber of Commerce, 20, 199 HK Housing Authority, 28

HK Journalists Association, 147-8

HK and Kowloon Trades Union Council,

40-1

HK Telephone Co, 146

HK Tourist Association, 122

Hongkong Electric Co, 130-1, 200, 245

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation,

33, 106, 229

Hongkong Tramways, 139-40, 200, 247

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co, 139, 141,

247

Hospitals, 71-86, 238

Hotel Tax, 33

Housing, 87-100, 239-40

Authority, 97, 98-100, 196

Board, 97

Department, 98, 99

estates, 99-100

low-cost scheme, 30, 98, 126

private, 94-7

public estates, 98-100, 102, 196, 239 Society, 196

Immigration, 46, 120-1, 185

illegal, 121

Imports, 20, 219, 220, 246

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 20

Industrial--

design, 25

Industrial (Contd)

investment promotion, 15 land, 15

safety, 42, 43

training, 44-5

Industry and trade, 11-27

Information Services Department, 4, 147, 151-3

Interest Tax, 32

Internal revenue, 31-3

International Chamber of Commerce, 25 International Confederation of Free Trade

Unions, 41

International Monetary Fund, 34

Islamic community, 159, 163

Japanese occupation, 193, 200-1

Jewish community, 159, 163 Joseph Trust Fund, 48 Judiciary, 203-5

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, 48 Kaifongs, 5, 6

Kowloon-Canton Railway, 138, 139, 200, 247 Kowloon Motor Bus Co, 139-40, 247

Kwai Chung Container Terminal, 129, 133

Labour-

Department, 38-45, 62, 63 legislation, 38-45

Tribunal, 38, 41, 204, 243

Land, 87-100, 239-40

area, 46, 49, 87, 173

development, 47, 90-1, 129-30 Office, 89

resumption, 92

utilisation, 49

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, 89, 95, 96 Legal Aid, 205-6

Legislative Council, 6, 23, 28, 53, 54, 101, 134,

195, 199, 203, 251 Libraries, 102, 170-1, 206 Light industries, 13-14

Lion Rock tunnel, 138, 194 Liquidations, 27

Loans, 15, 24, 30, 36, 47-8 Lo Wu, 138

London Office, Hong Kong Government, 69,

153, 207

Lotteries Fund, 30, 77, 102

MacLehose, Sir Murray, 154, 164

Mapping, 89-90

Marine Department, 132-5

Marriages, 187

Mass transit railway, 90, 143-4

Maternal and child health, 75 Media, 147-53

Medical-

and Health Department, 71-86, 104, 211 fees, 79

training, 80-2

Mercantile Bank, 33

Meteorology, 179-80

258

Mining, 38, 52

Morrison Hill Technical Institute, 45, 62-3

Multi-storey buildings, 97

Museum, 169-70

Mutual Aid Committees, 9, 83

Muslim community, 163

Narcotics, 76-7, 242

Natural history, 189-92

New Territories-

Administration, 47, 87-8, 100, 208-9

employment, 38

health services, 79, 80 Heung Yee Kuk, 209

land development, 15-6, 87-8, 92-3 population, 185-6 New towns, 92-3

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, 147 Newspapers, 4, 147-53 Nurses, 69

Oil Distribution Committee, 12

Oil Policy Committee, 11

Oil supplies, 11

Overseas representation, 218

Oyster farming, 51

Palmerston, Lord, 197

Parking, 138-9

Peak tramways, 132, 139-41, 200, 247

Peking, Convention of, 199

Peninsula Electric Power Co, 131 Pig-raising, 46, 47, 48, 50

Plastics, 14, 38, 45

     Plover Cove, 29, 124, 194 Po Leung Kuk, 5, 103 Police, 85, 107-15, 155

administration, 113-4 anti-corruption, 110 Auxiliaries, 107, 112

communication and transport, 111

Criminal Intelligence Unit, 108

establishment, 113

Narcotics Bureau, 110

newspaper,

115

recruiting, 107-8, 114-5 Tactical Unit, 111

traffic, 112-3

Training School, 111-2, 115

Pollution, 128, 180-2

Polytechnic, 45, 56, 61-2, 196 Population, 185-8 Port, 132-5, 152

Executive Committee, 132 health, 75

Pollutation Control, 181-2 works, 129

Postal services, 144-5, 248

Poultry, 46, 52

Press, 147-53

Club, 148

Preventive Service, 21-2, 110

Primary Production, 46-52, 233-4 Printing Department, 4, 56

Printing and publishing, 45, 148-9 Prisons, 107, 115-8

Probation, 104

Productivity Council, 23-4, 194 Profits Tax, 32

Property Tax, 31-2

Protestant churches, 161

Psychiatric services, 76

Public-

assistance, 104-5, 196

cars, 141

Order, 107-19, 241-4 service, 210-1

Services Commission, 211 transport, 38, 132-44 utilities, 38, 88, 124-31, 245 works, 124-31, 245

Works Department, 28, 82, 85, 98, 124-30

Quarantine, 51, 75, 132 Quarrying, 38, 42, 130

Radio, Commercial, 150-1 Radio Hong Kong, 3, 4, 150 Rates, 31

Reclamations, 129-30

Recreation, 68, 164-72, 248 Red Cross, 77

Registrar General, 5, 25-7, 87, 89, 188 Rehabilitation, 103, 104

Religion and Custom, 159-63 Rent control, 95-7 Research-

agricultural, 47

fisheries, 47

meteorology, 178-9, 179-80

Social, 106

universities, 59-61

Reservoirs, 29, 49, 124-5, 173-4, 187, 194

Resettlement estates, 98, 99, 100, 126

Revenue and expenditure, 29, 30, 223-8 Rice, 46-52

Roads, 136-8

Road Safety Campaign, 68 Roman Catholic-

church, 161-2

schools, 161-2

RHK Auxiliary Air Force, 156 RHK Jockey Club, 33, 93, 168 RHK Regiment, 156 Royal Observatory, 177-82

Salaries Tax, 32 Salvation Army, 103 School(s)--

fishermen's children, 48 health services, 75-6 prevocational, 63-4

primary, 54-5, 57, 126, 235 secondary, 53, 56-7, 235 special, 55-6, 235

technical, 56

259

Shipbuilding and repairing, 45 Shipping, 132-5, 178 Social-

Welfare, 66, 76, 101-6, 196 Department, 101-6, 104 security, 105-6

training, 106

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts, 76

Sports and recreation, 164-72

Squatters, 100

Stamp Duty, 33

Stanley Prison, 116

Star Ferry, 139, 142, 247

Stock exchanges, 26-7, 36-7

Stock market, 26-7, 29

Strikes and stoppages, 41-2

Summertime, 12

Summer Youth Activities Programme, 2, 103,

155, 167-8

Supreme Court, 205

Swimming, 165-6, 248

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co, 61 Tanka, 185-6

Taoism, 159

Taxis, 141

Teachers and teacher training, 65

Telecommunications, 145-6

Telephones, 146

Television, 3, 4, 149-50

Broadcasts, 149-50

Educational, 66-7

Rediffusion, 149-50

Telex, 146, 248

Tenancy Tribunal, 95, 204, 243

Textiles, 12, 38

Textiles Advisory Board, 21 Topography, 173-4

Tourism, 121-3

Town planning, 90-1

Town Planning Board, 87, 91 Trade-

administration, 21-2

and industrial organisations, 24 and Industry Advisory Board, 21 Commissioners, 218 Development Council, 22, 194 external, 11, 16-8, 219 fairs, 22

history, 196

international, 18-9, 20

Marks and Patents, 25-6

Trade unions, 40-1

Traffic, 132-43, 241 Training-

Council, 2 health, 80-2 industrial, 2

social welfare, 106

Transport, 246-7

public, 38, 132-44

Advisory Committee, 142 Department, 85, 104

Treaty of Accession, 19 Treaty of Nanking, 198 Treaty of Tientsin, 198

Tsing Yi Island, 16

Tuen Mun (see Castle Peak, new town)

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 5, 86

Typhoons, tropical storms and rainstorms, 174-80

UMELCO, 6, 210

UNCTAD, 20, 21

Universities, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 67, 106, 179,

195-6

University and Polytechnic Grants Committee, 58 Urban-

Council, 6, 28, 31, 82, 84, 86, 97, 164-71,

195, 206, 248, 252

renewal, 91-2

Services Department, 28, 82, 85, 86

Vegetables, 46-52

Vegetable Marketing Organisation, 48, 51

Wages, 39-40

Water-

consumption, 124, 245 from China, 124

schemes, 124-5

supplies, 124-5

Weather, 174-80, 249

Weights and measures,

Wigs, 14

Wild life, 189-90

217

Workmen's compensation, 44

World Health Organisation, 44, 75

World Refugee Year Loan Fund, 48

X-ray examinations, 44, 79

YMCA, YWCA, 103, 161

Youth Employment Advisory Service, 2 Youth Officers, 102

Zoning of land, 90-1

Printed and Published by J. R. Lee, Government Printer, at the Government Press Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1974

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE

Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong,

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE

6, Grafton Street, London, W1X, 3LB

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1974

ROU

TWISK

SHING

MUN

ROAD

Jubilee Reservoir

CASTLE

JSUEN WAN

PEAK

ROAD

TSUEN WAN CHUNG

DISTRICT

HUNG

Dower Shing Mun

Reservoir

Shek Let Pur

Reservoir

Kowloon Reservoir

RAMBLER CHANNEL

THE PEAK

GREEN

SULPHUR CHANNEL

KWAI

NEW KOWLOON

ROAD

LION

ROCK

SHA TIN

TUNNEL

MONG FU SHEK IAMAH ROCK)

ROAD

PO ROAD

SHA TIN HOI (TIDE COVE›

TAI PO

DISTRICT

SMA

TIN

PASS ROAD

TATE'S CAIRN

SAI KUNG DISTRICT

Reception Byewash

Reservoir Reservoir

PEAK

ROAD

CHING

CHEUNG RO

CASTLE

LUNG

SO UK SHEK

PEAD

CHEUNG

LAI

WAN

KOK

STONECUTTERS

NSLAND

NEW KOWLOON

ROAD

KOWLOON

KIP MEI

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TUNNEL

LION ROCK

11

ROAD

WONG

11

SIN

JUNCTION

KOWLOO

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RO YAU YAR

RD

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GESUE KOWLOON TUNG

TSZ WAN SHAN

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"AB

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TSUEN RD

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RD

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EDWARD

RD

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NGAU CHN WAN

HONG KONG AIRPORT

TSAKAI TAK

EI KOWLOON ATAUSCITY

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PRINCE

TAI KOK TSUN

MONG

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DWARD ROAD

MTREET

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KING

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RD

TIN

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KOK

TØY KYVA WAN

UNG HOM

RUN

WAY

KOWLOON

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CLEAR

WATER

BAY

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NGAU TAU KOK

TSUI

OKWUN TONG

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CWAIYIP ST

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YUE

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YAU

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New Territories District Boundary

District Office Boundary

City

Locality.

MA JORDAN ΤΕΙ

TSIPI SHA

TSUI

SAI YING PUN

SHEUNG WAN

RD

WEST

ECONDO

QUEENS

RD

AUSON RO

VICTORIA

SHEK TONGI SUL

KENNEDY ROADTOWN

MOUNT DAVIS

MT

DAVIS RD

WESTERN

QUFE

MID LEVE

VICTORIA PEAK

ENTR

THE PEAK

POK FU LAM

FEAK

PEAK

GARDEN RO

MAGAZINE

ROAD

POK

LAM

Pok Fu Lam

Reservoir

MT KELLETT

PEAK

11

CROSS HARBOUR

TUNNEL

HARBOUR

QUCESTER ROAD

HENNESSY ROAD

JAVA

KING'S ROAD

NORTIT POINT

CAUSEWAY

WANCHASO KON

KENNEDY ROAD

ROAD

PO

ΤΑΙ SHANG

HAPPY

NEY

ROAD

WONG NAI

MT CAMERON

GAP ROAD

MT NICHOLSON

QUARRY BAY

Braemar Reservoir

KING'S

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0

JARDINE'S LOOKOUT

SAI WAN HO

SHAUKI

WAN

MT PARKER

MT BUTLER

Wong Noi Chung Reservoir

To Tam

Reservoir

EASTERN

WAH FU

ABERDEEN

(KAI LUNG WAN SHEK PAI WAN RO

WONG

Aberdeen Reservoirs

CHUK

WESTERN

HANG

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WONG CHUK;

HANG

BAY RỒI

DEEP WATER

EAST LAMMA CHANNEL

ISLANDS DISTRICT

LAMMA ISLAND

PICNIC BAY

AP LEI CHAU

Crown Lands & Survey Office. Hong Kong. 1972

BAY

MIDDLE VSLAND

NGAN

CHAU

REPULSE BAY ROAD

RIPULSE

BAY

To Tam Intermediate Reservoir

STANLEY GAP

Tai Tom Tuk Reservoir

CHUNG HOM

WAN

STANLEY BAY

STANLEY

HONG KONG. KOWLOON

AND ADJACENT NEW TERRITORIES

Scale in Kilometres

0

2

3

4

LEI YUE MUN

SHEK O ROAD

TAI TAM HARBOUR

TAI TAM BAY

CHAI

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CAPE

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7