Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1971

1971

ጠገ

HONG KONG

22°10-

20

LAOS

120*

HONG KONG, KOWLOON

114° 00'

JAP

EAST

K WAN G T UNG

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

aid THE NEW TERRITORIES

PROVINCE

114° 20'

Yangtze

Nanking

Shanghar CHINA

CHINA

SEA

THAILAND

CAMBO DIA

113° 50'

aprom

MILES

HONG KONG

TAIW

SOUTH CHINA SEA

PHILIPP

500

PACIFIC OCEAN||

DEEP BAY

· 22° 30′

Mong Tserg

Tau fay

Shan

PO

ON

Cowloon-Canton

DI

T.

Sham Chun

Lin MA Hang /

Lo yu

Chun Lok Ma

Sheung Shui

Chap

San

Tin

Mai Po

Fanling

Sham

Ha Tsuen

Ping Shan

Au

PAT HEUNG

Tau

Kam Tin

YuLong

YUEN LONG

Shuc

Wan

Starting

Inlet

Tau

Croakeday *Harbour

Lai Chi

Luk Keng

Tal Mei

Tuk

Tal Po

Tolo Harbour

STRICT

Ma Lif

HPO

FAICT stuk

ASS

HILL

138

Castle Peak

New Town

Lung Kwu Tan

CASTLE PEAK

Tại Chung

TSUEN WAN

DISTRICT

Afee Sha Rarvoir

LUNG KWU CHAU

Castle;

Sham Isong

suen

SHA CHAU

MA WAN

THE BROTHERS

:0

о

TSING

YI LAND

113° 50'

an lau

Tung Chung H

CHEK LAP KOK

Cung. "Chung. LANTAU, ISLAN

SUNSET

PENG CHÂU

Shy Mun

KAU YI CHAU

B

Mui Wo

Silvf Mine Bay

SUNSHINE ISLAND

Lammà Channel

ISLANDS DISTRICTS

HEI LING CHAU

Chi

Ma War

GLUNG CHÂU

Yui O

Shek Pik

LANTAU PEAK,

Tong Fuk

SOKO ISLANDS

SHEK KWU CHAU

114° 00'

Compiled & Drawn by Crown Lands & Survey Office, Hong Kong, 1971 Printed at the Government Press, Hong Kong.

STONE, CUTTERS is

Yung

Wand

Shue Wan

LAMMA ISLAND

HAU

KOWLOON

Derp

Tide Cove

Shui,

Kau Tang

Plover Cove Res.

2305

Sai Kung

KAT

оснат

Tolo Channel

MIRS

BAY

WONG WAN

CHAU

TAP MUN CHAU

Sham Chung

Lai Chi Chong

NG

Tar

Mon

Isa

TaiTan,

Pák Tam chung

Chek Keng

SHARP PEAK

1534

IRYC

Proposed

Reservoir

гра

KAU

HIGH ISLAND

SAI CHAU

Port Shelter

Rocky Harbour

Hang

SHELTER IS

BASALT

BASALT ISLAND

0

BLUFF IS

Harbour

ng

Rennie's MILI

Junk Bay

Chat Wan

ONG

Y

Tai Tam Reservoir

Big Wave Bay Shek O

Bay

Repulse Buy

Lamma'

annel

"14" 10"

'House

Bay

Clear Water Bay

تی

NINEPIN GROUP

PIN

PING CHAU

IES

Tui Tan Bay Stanley

bng Channel

LAM TONG ISLAND

CAPED AGUILAR

New Territories Adminstration Districts

SCALE OF MILES

1

Heights in

2

3

Feet

BEAUFORTE ISLAND

Railway

E

Main Road

PO TOI ISLAND

Village

2000

1000

Built-up Area

River & Stream, Reservoir Ferry Service

200

Sea Level

Crown Copyright Reserved

-22 20

22 30

HONG

ONG

香港中央

圖書館

CENTRAL

*

LIBRARY

HONG KONG 1971

市政局公共圖書館UCPL

3 3288 03034525 2

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE

Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong,

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE

54, Pall Mall, London, SW1Y, 5JH

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1972

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

Frontispiece: The new Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Murray MacLehose and Lady MacLehose, photographed at Govern- ment House shortly after their arrival. Sir Murray was sworn in as the twenty-fifth Governor on November 19.

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year

1971

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1972

Acc. No.

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

160599

Class.

HK 951.25

Author

HON

HKCr

    The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all organisations and private individuals who have contributed to this Report. Particular acknowledge- ment is given to Professor D. J. Dwyer, B.A., Ph.D., of the University of Hong Kong, for the chapter on Geography, and to the late Mr G. B. Endacott, M.A., B.Litt., Dip.Ed., who died during 1971 and whose contributions to the History chapter over a number of years were invaluable to this publication.

    All illustrations in this Report are the work of official departmental photographers, with the excep- tion of the photographs of the Jumbo restaurant fire, taken by Mr Peter Chan, and of a member of the RAF Falcons parachute display team over Causeway Bay, taken by the team's photographer, Flt Sgt Allan Rhind. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustration should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

*

When dollars are quoted in this Report, they are, unless otherwise stated, Hong Kong dollars. The official rate for conversion to pounds sterling is HK$14.55=£1 (HK$1=approx 7p). The official rate for conversion to US dollars is HK$5.58= US$1.

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

1

REVIEW: A Decade of PROGRESS

1

2

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

21

3 FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

42

4

EMPLOYMENT

53

5

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

62

6

EDUCATION

71

7

HEALTH

89

8

LAND AND HOUSING

107

9

SOCIAL WELFARE

128

10

PUBLIC ORDER

136

11

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

146

12

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

150

13

COMMUNICATIONS

160

14

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

178

15

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

185

16

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

190

17

RECREATION

196

18 GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

204

19 POPULATION

213

20

NATURAL HISTORY

219

22

21

HISTORY

224

22

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

235

viii

The New Governor

Events of the Year

Contrasts

ILLUSTRATIONS

CONTENTS

Page

Frontispiece

between X-1

between 8-9

Fiesta

The Princess

Education

In the Swim

between 22-3

between 46-7

between

70-1

between 94-5

Cat Street

between 118-9

Typhoon

between 166-7

Community Relations

between 190-1

Census '71

between 214-5

Spring

between 238-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Hong Kong, Kowloon & adjacent New Territories showing

District Names

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

1

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

2

LEGISLATION

3-9

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: Composition

ix

Page

251

252

Value of

258

Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade-Imports Commodity Pattern

      Pattern Principal Sources Domestic Exports Commodity

-

Pattern

Markets Re-exports - Direction

-

Principal

of Trade.

10

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

11-19

20-23

270

M

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue - Expenditure

Statement of Assets and Liabilities - Compara- tive Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure Public Debt United Kingdom Government Schemes and Grants - Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees - Development Loan Fund-Lotteries Fund- Currency and Banking Statistics, Currency in Circulation and Bank Deposits.

EMPLOYMENT: Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed Factory Registrations and Inspec- tions - Industrial and Occupational Accidents

Consumer Price Indexes.

271

292

24-27

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Marketing Organisation Statistics Co-operative Societies Credit Unions - Production of Minerals.

296

M

28-31

32-35

EDUCATION: Categories of Schools, Enrolments, New Buildings, Classrooms and Places - Educational Statistics - Hong Kong Students Pursuing Further Studies in Britain - Actual Expenditure on Education.

HEALTH: Vital Statistics - Infectious Diseases Notified-Hospital Beds - Professional Medi- cal Personnel.

299

303

X

Appendix

36-38

39-40

CONTENTS

Page

308

LAND AND HOUSING: Resettlement Estate Statistics

Statistics on Housing and Persons Accom- modated - Premiums Received on Sales of Crown Land.

PUBLIC ORDER: Traffic Crime and Narcotic 311

Offences.

41

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES: Electricity and Gas

Distribution and Production.

314

42

COMMUNICATIONS:

Statistics: Marine, Kowloon-

316

Canton Railway, Air Traffic, Vehicles, Postal Traffic, Telegraph and Radio Traffic.

43

RECREATION: Amenities Development.

318

44

WEATHER: Climatological Summary, Normals.

319

45-46

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION: Executive

Council - Legislative Council.

320

47

URBAN COUNCIL

324

48

CASES IN THE COURTS AND WORK IN THE

MAGISTRACIES

325

49

INDEX

SOCIAL WELFARE: Hong Kong Council of Social 326

Service, Member Agencies, The Community Chest.

331

The San Po Kong interchange, one of a number of major road projects completed by the Government dur- ing the year to ease congestion on Hong Kong's roads.

NTS OF EAR

7

W

       The new Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, is introduced to dig- nitaries by Sir Hugh Norman- Walker, on his arrival in Hong

Kong in November.

This group of dancers perform- ed during the public farewell for the retiring Governor, Sir David Trench.

Interior work on the cross harbour tunnel, due to be opened in September, 1972. Below, the Diamond Jubilee of Scouting in Hong Kong was celebrated with a jamboree in the New Territories.

BANGKOK

PUBL

This photograph was taken minutes after a flash fire broke out on the nearly-completed Jumbo floating restaurant in Aberdeen harbour. Thirty-four people died. A Com- mission of Inquiry was set up to investigate the fire.

A group of school children taking part in the Seventh Schools' Dance Festival, organised by the Educa- tion Department.

The former passenger liner, Queen Elizabeth, renamed Seawise Uni- versity, arrived in Hong Kong in July. Refitted as a floating univer- sity and luxury cruise ship, she was nearing her trial run when, despite the combined efforts of the Fire Services, Marine Department and Police, fire reduced her to a cap- sized hulk in early January 1972.

,,

   This experimental desalination plant in Castle Peak is the fore- runner of a major project now un- der way to extract drinking water from the sea.

1

Review

A DECADE OF PROGRESS

     1971 WAS a census year. This of itself would be encouragement to record some of the changes and progress made since the last census was taken in 1961. But it was also the year in which Sir David Trench, GCMG, MC, who had returned in April 1964 as Governor and Commander-in-Chief, relinquished his commission after seven and a half years. Hong Kong's commitment to the economic inter- pretation of historical trends has never interfered with her people's traditional apportionment of credit and blame for fortune to the man visibly at the helm, or their penchant for identifying eras with individuals. This introductory review is also a farewell tribute to the leadership of a Governor who had added to the popular trust and affection shown to him by publicly and humbly insisting that he was simply an administrator.

The information collected in the 1971 census is still being analysed and only a limited indication of some general trends is yet available. These may require modification later. But the basic fact is that the total population of Hong Kong grew from 3,133,131 to 4,064,400 over the decade. An extraordinary early rate of increase was only held down to this final level because of the steady decline in the birth rate, which now stands at just over half the rate recorded for 1961. This is a trend commonly found in communities that are enjoying a rising standard of living.

      There has been a marked shift of the population from the old central slums to new homes in the more outlying areas. The popula- tion of the new towns of Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung in the New Territories alone rose by 185,000. There was a slight drop in the population of Hong Kong Island itself, from 1,004,875 to 996,183; but the crowded Central and Sheung Wan districts now house only half the people who lived there in 1961, while the population of the cramped Western and Wan Chai districts, taken together, is also down by 56,400 or 16 per cent. By contrast, there has been an in- crease of 104,000 (62 per cent) people in Aberdeen and Shau Kei

2

REVIEW

Wan, including Chai Wan. The same pattern can be seen on the peninsula. The population of Kowloon proper has dropped from 725,177 to 716,272 while that of New Kowloon has grown from 852,849 to 1,478,581. The mechanisation of fishing vessels and the removal, both voluntary and compulsory, of fishing families and others from the sea to solid homes on land has also brought the number of 'boat people' down from 136,802 to 79,894.

And the people are more affluent. The answers to the census questions on financial status showed that in 1971, 57.5 per cent of households in Hong Kong had a monthly income of $600 or more; 7.7 per cent earned more than $2,000 a month, and 16.6 per cent less than $400. The 1961 census posed no questions on income but a comparison can be made with the sample survey of household incomes in 1966. At the top of the scale the figures have not changed greatly; in 1966 the percentage of households with a monthly income over $2,000 was, at 6.7 per cent, one per cent less than the number in 1971. At the other levels, however, the differences are striking: 45 per cent then earned less than $400 per month and only 27 per cent had an income of more than $600 a month. The 1966 survey was based on a small sample; the questions were voluntary, replies were received from only about two-thirds of the households selected, and there has also been a rise of some 25 per cent in the cost of living since 1966. Nevertheless, the scale of the change that has been recorded cannot be more than partially explained by these factors. There has been a marked rise in real incomes and a movement towards a greater equality in the distribution of income. A more substantial middle class is emerging in what now looks like a stable and increasingly affluent society, comparable with the developed world in nearly every way.

There has been a striking change also in the physical appearance of the Colony. In 1961 there were few of the tall buildings that now dominate the waterfront, and fewer still of the multi-storey blocks of flats that have since grown up on the surrounding hillsides. There was no City Hall (or government-sponsored culture), and Statue Square was still used as a car park.

The volume of traffic has greatly increased on the streets and roads, and even the main rural communications are heavily used at all times. The hilly topography of Hong Kong and the heavily built-up nature of the urban areas have made road improvements difficult, but a complex system of one-way streets and a massive programme of new roadworks and flyovers are being driven through

REVIEW

3

both the urban centres. Over the past 10 years road mileage in- creased from 500 miles to 618, but motor vehicle registrations in- creased from 47,000 to 164,378. As in other great cities, those who have criticised the subordination of man to motor car have been unable to point to any new invention that will quickly make both wheeled transport and wide concrete highways obsolete. Even so, 266 cars per mile of road, with no great non-urban hinterland to mop them up if need be, are unique, and daunting if the future ownership should approach the per capita figures of Europe or America.

       But technical studies have been made of Hong Kong's traffic problems. These included a full scale passenger transport survey, followed by a 20-year road plan and a complementary study of a mass transit system. The consultants recommended that an under- ground electric railway should be constructed and advised that the system most suitable for the traffic to be expected by 1986 would consist of 47 stations and have a total route length of 32.7 miles. The full scheme proposed development in nine stages, with an initial scheme of four stages, to include the first 20 stations and route length of 12.6 miles.

      Meanwhile a new type of approved public transport came into being in 1969 in the form of minibuses. This evolved from the illegal services which had sprouted up to fill the gaps left in the traditional bus services interrupted by the upheaval of 1967. Surveys were made of these opportunist minibus operations during 1968-9, and the Government admitted that they provided an important, viable and relatively safe service to the public. From September 1969, therefore, two new categories of licensed vehicles were authorised, known as public and private light buses. These carry up to 14 passengers and are free to set their own routes and fares, but there are certain areas or stretches of congested roads where they are not allowed to set down or pick up passengers. By 1971 there were 3,800 minibuses running, and they carried over one million passengers every day.

      The cross-harbour ferry service has been expanded, but a world- wide publicised tunnel is approaching its completion and will provide a direct road link between Kowloon and Hong Kong Island. These aids to speed of movement are not only enjoyed by the Colony's own residents. The number of visiting tourists has increased from 220,884 in 1961 to virtually a million in 1971. There has been a proportionate increase in the number of superior hotels, and travel- lers can now be assured of comfort and service equal to the highest international standards. Indeed it is noticeable that the continuing

4

REVIEW

shortage is of reasonable non-luxurious hotels at economy rates, but although the industry is making some such provision most of the consumers can still obviously afford to pay the going rate for the best.

Increasing internationalisation and aspirations to trendy affluence are therefore reflected in the appearance and way of life of the local people. The dignified traditional men's and women's Chinese dress is now rarely seen on the streets, but air-conditioning and mass- produced lightweight fibres have encouraged the adoption of western fashions that (the girls' miniskirts possibly excepted) would not have been thought 'sensible' in the tropics between the 'twenties and the 'fifties.

European and American styles of entertainment and leisure activi- ties have become popular, although the beginning may be discerned in what is still one of the world's keenest cinema-going populations of the self-defeating spiral of dropping attendances and rising seat prices. And each day crowds of office and factory workers hurry to work during rush hours in the same way as their commuter counter- parts all round the world.

Television and 'hi-fi' may have only supplemented, rather than displaced, mahjong in three quarters of the family evenings spent at home, but in the past few years thorough use has at last been made of the natural amenities of Hong Kong.

       Many beautiful beaches that, except for handfuls of westerners, were deserted in 1961 are now crowded throughout the summer, and the secluded bays and coves of the outlying islands are regularly in- vaded by flotillas of pleasure boats. Walking, picnicking and camp- ing have become increasingly popular with organised groups and spontaneous parties of friends, and at each weekend there is a massive exodus of people jamming the roads into what used to be the unknown country of the New Territories. The people themselves are often as beautiful as the places they frequent, but, unhappily, the rubbish they leave behind is not.

       Select athletes are increasingly representing Hong Kong at inter- national sporting congresses, but for the masses, low level participa- tion as well as spectatorship are good enough. During the long hot days the most popular resorts for town youth are the five Urban Council public swimming pools, the latest of which has, officially, comfortable room for 5,000 swimmers at a time. These pools are essential to the spirited summer youth recreation programmes which have been managed by voluntary agencies, educationists, youth

REVIEW

5

organisations and government officers for several years. In 1971 more than 800,000 children and young people, most of them from the less prosperous sections of the community, took part in the programme.

The second Festival of Hong Kong was held between November 26 and December 6, providing a programme of entertainment for the local community of all ages. This followed a successful festival held in 1969 which had been greatly enjoyed by the general public and, coming after the disturbances in 1967, was believed to have helped to enhance community feeling and confidence in the future of Hong Kong. The 1971 festival was opened by the Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, KCMG, MBE, as his first public engage- ment after being sworn in. Some of the major events were an open air fiesta in Statue Square, a pageant at the Government Stadium and a float procession through the streets of Kowloon which at- tracted tens of thousands of spectators.

The Urban Council, through its executive arm, the Urban Services Department, has increased the number of public gardens in town from 103 to 301. These range in size from the spacious complexes of Victoria Park and Morse Park to tiny rest gardens that form pleasing oases in the dust and roar of the city streets. There are another 59 that the department has developed itself in the New Territories, which would once have been thought to be better left unspoilt by artificial addition. But the New Territories have changed with the times too.

      There has inevitably been growing concern, fed not only by fashionable intellectual crazes but by awareness of legislation in other countries and of the United Nations Conference on Develop- ment and the Environment to be held in Stockholm in 1972, to ensure the best use of the limited space that Hong Kong possesses and to reverse the rapidly deteriorating state of the environment, with its consequential spoiling of the quality of life of the people. An Advisory Committee on Air Pollution was reconstituted in 1970 to keep under review the worsening state of air pollution, and some significant and visible improvements have already been made with the co-operation of industry. However the Urban Council and several government departments have had to continue to battle manfully but almost despairingly with mounting problems of litter and dis- posal of waste matter. They are faced with a general public, certain industries, agriculturalists and others who seem blinded by selfishness or obstinacy to the fact that pollution is unhealthy and expensive, avoidable and invariably at least as much one's own fault as anybody

6

REVIEW

else's. A 'Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign', centred on the Urban Council, is now being organised to try to achieve a fair face for Hong Kong before it is too late. An Advisory Committee on Environ- mental Pollution on Land and Water, which is a long-term and all- embracing committee with access to technology, has just been set up to keep under review the state of the environment as affected by major land and water pollution rather than by litter.

To those who are concerned with public health, environmental improvement and peaceable civic behaviour, hawking on public thoroughfares continues to be a serious problem and the Colony has yet to see any real progress. Statistics of unlicensed hawkers in the past have always been unreliable, but the present numbers of 46,552 licensed and about 11,000 illegal hawkers are greater than the total of 15-20,000 arbitrarily reckoned in the 1950's when the population was smaller-but even if, as some believe, only 30,000 regularly trade they are trying to do it in the same traditional sites. The provision of off-street bazaars and markets has reduced the number of street hawkers in some newer or outlying areas. However in the older parts of Hong Kong and Kowloon it has not yet been possible to provide sufficient sites and many small streets are still choked with hawker stalls, impassable to traffic, insanitary and a source of continuous inconvenience to every local resident in the neighbourhood except at the moment of making a purchase.

The Hawker Control Force, formed in 1960, has proven unattrac- tive to recruits of the kind needed and is only strong enough to operate on the Island where it has so far made a limited impact on the problem. The disturbances in 1967, when the Hawker Control Force was withdrawn and the police were preoccupied with the maintenance of security, led to a grave deterioration in conditions in hawker areas, which has not been recovered. This is the most obvious field in which the events of 1967 could be seen to have reversed Hong Kong's unbroken progress to better living for all, and it may be the only one where most of the ground remains lost.

However, the Urban Council and the Urban Services Department have worked out a new policy, which was endorsed by the Governor in Council in May 1971. It calls for enlarged facilities for hawker control, new procedures for licensing and the provision of off-street sites on a much greater scale. It will be some years before the new policy can be fully implemented, and the 1971 Mallaby Salaries Commission recommendations, important in all departmental con- texts, are very closely relevant to the success of revivifying hawker control staff. In the meantime, the Urban Services Department and

REVIEW

7

the Resettlement Department have had some successful operations in particular areas, and several previously chaotic hawker con- centrations have been brought up from time to time to a reasonable standard of order and cleanliness. But these have been limited

successes.

      Not all the manifestations of change, then, can be regarded as 'progress'. They may appear to be the inescapable growing pains suffered by an overcrowded community that is moving, too rapidly for comfort, away from the established, narrow conventions of the older generation, and towards a freer and more cosmopolitan way of life, perhaps too firmly based in the oversimplified ethos of press and screen as edited for instant and unthinking consumption. 'Permissiveness' of itself may be too easy a target in other countries, where the dangers may come less from what is done than from ignorance of its meaning for others and its consequences for one's own mind and body. But except for a minority in the twilight world between western teenagers and eastern purveyors of entertainment, 'permissiveness' in general is not yet a real problem in Hong Kong. On the other hand, the increase in robberies, accompanied often by violence and committed by healthy and money-earning young against other young or the timid, has given the public at large the greatest cause for concern. This is not a trend confined to Hong Kong alone, but is one that concerns virtually every country. Never- theless the Government, the police and the courts are alerted to the dangers.

Students have staged their first tentative 'demos' and, in common with other communities, Hong Kong has its hippies, largely rather self-conscious about it, and its young people who have the time spare to help other people in their complaints to authority. They

may

at times be affected by hubris and give encouragement to violent protest, but often they are sincere. It is gratifying, if the word does not smack too much of patronage, to note signs of a wider sense of involvement in the community among so many young men and women who are poles apart from the juvenile criminals. This en- couraging trend has, not surprisingly, been paralleled by an increas- ing interest in-and criticism of the machinery of government. The younger generation, as in all urbanised society, has moved away from the traditional view that life is centred on the family, still more the clan, and that 'government' is a remote and impersonal entity whose ways are inherently incomprehensible. Many of them have come to realise that despite family ties elsewhere, Hong Kong is

8

REVIEW

now their home; and this realisation may have been given added definition by the need to decide just how they stood in the events of 1967.

       The administration for its part has taken positive steps to en- courage this trend and to bridge the so-called gap between the Government and the people. There has been a striking increase in the number of advisory and consultative committees, from 64 in 1961 to 132 in 1971; the great majority of these, of which the Execu- tive and Legislative Councils are the most important, have unofficial members, even when supported by officials, and their development provides one means of increasing public participation in the process of Government. In many instances, the time given by the unofficials to the work is quite phenomenal. A White Paper on the future of the Urban Council, proposing to give the elected and appointed coun- cillors a wide measure of financial autonomy within legally defined powers, was published late in 1971 and received some public com- ment before debate in the Legislative Council in the year following. Increased publicity has been given to the policy and indeed the performance of government departments. The more personal system of Government that has always been in force in the New Territories has been applied in modified form to the urban areas, providing since 1968 a network of City District Offices ready to explain the workings of the Government and to advise on the many personal problems that arise from day to day. An equally valuable service is provided by the Unofficial Members of the Urban Council attending at their Ward Offices. At a higher level the Unofficial Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils are ready to act on any complaint that is made against government procedure or policy and to intervene whenever they consider that a complaint is justified.

       To turn to more specific matters, although the initial census returns have given a broad indication of the general increase in prosperity over the last decade, the most specific indications of this are provided by the statistics of wages. The records kept show that average wages in Hong Kong have roughly doubled over the past 10 years. In some sectors of employment, notably in industry, the increases have been even greater, while everyone concerned with craftsmen and artisans has his exceptional stories of workers whose special remuneration and unpublicised fringe-benefits put them on a level with their Western European counterparts. Although Hong Kong has certainly not been untouched by the tide of inflation which has affected many other economies so severely, price rises recorded by the Consumer Price Index have remained within reasonable

Contrasts in progress. In just 10 years the waterfront of Hong Kong Island has changed dramatically.

Progress in the design of resettle- ment estates is evident in these contrasting views of Tai Wo Hau estate, built in 1961, and Castle Peak estate, opened in 1971.

M

M

Π

E E

Π

WOM

REVIEW

9

bounds. It is estimated that local consumer prices have increased by about a half over the past 10 years. The net result has been an increase of around 50 per cent in average real wages and a significant improvement in the standard of living of ordinary people. Evidence of this improvement is clear. Home ownership has more than trebled since 1961. Stalls in the most unlikely areas sell items such as fruit, chewing gum, soft drinks, neckties, and plastic toys. The number of registered private cars has increased from about 35,000 in 1961 to 105,874 at the end of 1971. There is now a television set in at least seven out of every 10 households and less than four per cent of the population is without access to a set at all: 10 years ago, televi- sion was a rarity. One must look far to find many people poorly dressed. Currency in circulation increased from $1,026 million in 1961 to $2,932 million at the end of 1971. But while personal expendi- ture has increased, the traditional virtues of prudence and thrift are reflected in the growth of bank deposits. In 1961 these amounted to $3,367 million. Ten years later deposits had increased nearly sixfold to $18,785 million. To meet the demand for banking services, there were 70 incorporated banks and 431 banking offices operating at the end of 1971.

Indeed another proof of the Colony's growing up has been the emergence of the Hong Kong dollar into adulthood as a currency in its own right. The dollar had been linked to sterling at a fixed rate of 16 to the pound since 1935 and up to the devaluation of the pound in 1967. At that time, Hong Kong was given the option of determining its own parity. As a result, after an initial period of a few days when it stayed with sterling, the Hong Kong dollar was revalued upwards against the British currency by 10 per cent, to a new rate of HK$14.55 to the pound sterling. In December 1971, at the time of the agreement on new parities between the currencies of the major trading countries, Hong Kong was again given the option of deciding its own parity. As a result it was decided to maintain the gold parity of the Hong Kong dollar (and hence its parity with sterling), a move which entailed an upward revaluation in relation to the United States' dollar of 8.57 per cent. The freedom which Hong Kong now has to determine the rate of exchange of its own currency in relation to other currencies represents a considerable accretion of responsibility, and results directly from the growing strength of the Colony's economy. And all this time, the develop- ment of the physical infrastructure necessary to sustain the further economic growth of the community continued.

10

REVIEW

The waterworks had entered the decade with resources of 24,850 acres of catchment and 10,500 million gallons of storage capacity. The final catchwaters of the Tai Lam Chung scheme were almost completed, work was in full swing on the Shek Pik scheme, and pre- liminary work had begun on the Plover Cove scheme. But memories are still vivid of the severe drought of 1963-4, when consumption had to be reduced to 46 million gallons a day, and for almost a year, while water was imported from the Pearl River estuary in a fleet of hired oil tankers, Hong Kong suffered a supply of only four hours every fourth day for all domestic purposes, and industrial users were hurt in varying degrees.

Work continued on Plover Cove and the Chinese authorities com- pleted the impressive and virtually drought-proof East River supply scheme, signing a new agreement to increase the supply from 5,000 million gallons to 15,000 million gallons a year from 1965. Even so, a Water Resources Survey, begun in 1965 and completed in 1968, after analysing demand trends, still showed the need for vast addi- tional resources. Plover Cove reservoir is being enlarged to 50,000 million gallons by raising the level of the dam and a new 60,000- million-gallon reservoir scheme at High Island is in progress. Work began in 1971 on the design of a desalting plant capable of produc- ing 40 million gallons a day and a study and report were completed on future desalting, combined with power generation, offering co- operative economies. Meanwhile storage capacity at the end of the decade amounted to 54,000 million gallons with resources of 70,000 acres of catchment to meet an estimated daily demand of 181 million gallons a day.

Like water, electricity consumption is an infallible indicator of industrial and social advance. Two new major generating stations were commissioned during the same period. Electricity consumption increased from 1,327 million kW hours in 1961 to 4,891 million kW hours in 1971, and this is a compound rate of growth of 11.4 per cent. There has been a dramatic growth in air traffic passing through Hong Kong, which reflects not only the breaking down of the age- old barriers of language, mountain range and water between nations, but Hong Kong's own importance in the new open world. From slightly over 14,000 in 1961, aircraft movements increased three and a half times to almost 49,000 in 1971. The planes also grew in size. About 500,000 passengers passed through the airport at the begin- ning of the decade, by 1971 this figure had increased to 2.4 million. The passenger terminal building, opened in 1962, had to be modified and extended three times during the last six years. The terminal,

REVIEW

11

originally designed for a 'standard busy rate' of 720 passengers, can now cater for a 'standard busy rate' of 2,200. Modifications com- pleted in the summer of 1970 included the complete separation of arrival and departure traffic, the streamlining of passenger process- ing, and nose-in parking facilities for two jumbo' aircraft with direct loading and unloading from airbridges.

Like passenger traffic, air cargo has been increasing very rapidly for some years, as delays by surface transport become unacceptable or relatively too expensive. Only 5,500 metric tons of air cargo were handled in 1961, but this soared to 75,500 metric tons in 1971. The present freight terminal at the airport has a maximum capacity of 70,000 metric tons a year. A new air cargo terminal will therefore be built to replace the existing freight terminal and a consortium, with commercial and government participation, has been formed to build and operate it.

       The present runway has a length of 8,350 feet but it was decided in early 1970 to extend it to a length of 11,130 feet to meet the requirements of the newest aircraft and to further improve its already good safety record.

A significant contribution to the passenger facilities of the port was made by the opening in 1966 of the Ocean Terminal at the tip of Kowloon peninsula. It provides berthing for four ocean-going liners and has a large and popular shopping centre, unified with a hotel, car park, cinema and commercial development, making the whole terminal the most convenient and refined in the world. The western harbour was extended and moorings provided for 20 more ocean-going vessels.

As in other world ports, the impact of the 'container revolution' is being increasingly felt in Hong Kong. Liner companies are gradually developing their capacity to handle containers, and a considerable breakthrough was made in the last year or two. Following the recommendations made by the Container Committee appointed to study this problem, the Government called for tenders in April 1970 for the development of a container terminal at Kwai Chung. As a result, three container berths, each 1,000 feet long with an alongside depth of 40 feet and with considerable back-up areas, should com- mence operations in 1972, and a fourth will also be developed. Self- sustaining and non-self-sustaining container ships are already using container-handling facilities at berths developed by private interests within the port. While waiting for the completion of the Kwai Chung Terminal, three companies have been providing interim facilities to container ships which call at Hong Kong.

12

REVIEW

Growth of activity in the public economic sector has also been impressive. In the financial year 1960-1 government expenditure amounted to $845 million. By 1970-1 this had risen to $2,452 million, which makes an average annual increase of 11.3 per cent. Revenue from Salaries, Profits and Interest Taxes increased in the same period by 424 per cent and this with only one minor increase in tax which, remaining at the 15 per cent standard rate, is still very low by most world standards and a rewarding incentive to both hard work and new investment.

The principal factor accounting for all this economic progress over the decade is easy to identify. It has been a remarkably high and continuing rate of expansion of external trade. In 1971 Hong Kong's domestic exports amounted to $13,750 million, having increased over the period by about 17 per cent annually, a rate of increase matched. by very few developing countries. By 1970, Hong Kong was already counted among the top 10 trading countries of the world in terms of value of exports per head of population, and (which some might think even more remarkable when there are 85 recognisable countries in the world with larger populations) eighteenth in absolute terms. Whilst, as in the past, textiles and clothing are still the major export earners, the trend to diversification of manufactures, first apparent in the late 1950's, has continued at an encouraging rate and Hong Kong has now become a major supplier of such varied visible items as transistor radios, toys, wigs, electric fittings, footwear, stain- less steel flatware and highly sophisticated electronic components.

       Throughout recent years, however, the possibility of protectionist action in overseas markets has been an ever present threat to Hong Kong's export performance. This threat has not materialised to any significant extent outside the world of textiles, largely because of the rules for non-discrimination and fair trading practice embodied in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which are applied to Hong Kong by virtue of United Kingdom membership. The Hong Kong Government, through the Commerce and Industry Department and its offices overseas, has also maintained constant vigilance in defending Hong Kong's trading rights. In the case of textiles, however, the acceptance in 1962 by the world trading com- munity of the Long Term Arrangement regarding International Trade in Cotton Textiles ("LTA') led to a rash of negotiations for the restraint of Hong Kong's exports of cotton textiles to its major markets in North America and Western Europe. A world which had learnt gratefully to stay cool in inexpensive cotton clothing, now began to tolerate some marginal itching and perspiration for the

REVIEW

13

sake of the novel advantages seen in increasingly inexpensive drip- dry and non-crease clothing. But later in the decade some restraints were also placed on certain items of non-cotton textiles in particular markets. 1971, however, witnessed a major retreat into protection- ism by the affluent consumer society, when Hong Kong, together with other major Asian suppliers, was required to restrain its exports of all man-made fibre and wool textiles to its major market, the United States. The possibility of this example spreading to other markets and other products cannot be discounted and the danger of creeping protectionism remains a continuing, if potential, threat to Hong Kong's future prosperity.

The formation and development of new manufacturing industries has contributed largely to the very considerable increase in the numbers both of registered factories and of people employed in manufacturing. In 1961 Hong Kong had 5,987 registered and re- corded manufacturing establishments, which employed 248,888 people. By 1971, these figures had increased to 18,612 and 564,370. In the manufacturing sector alone, therefore, the demand for labour has more than doubled.

      Such rapid expansion inevitably brought about shortage, and during the past few years this demand for both skilled and semi- skilled labour has consistently exceeded the supply. The qualities of flexibility and mobility of the local labour force, which have stood Hong Kong in such good stead in the past, can no longer be depended on to meet the ever-increasing and diversifying demands of industry for specialised labour of every kind. A systematic approach to the problems of industrial training and technical education is required if a serious shortage of labour, and especially skilled labour, is not to act as a brake on the continued expansion of the economy.

       In 1965 the Industrial Training Advisory Committee was set up to examine these needs. The main committee functioned through a network of subsidiary committees dealing with such matters as apprenticeship, vocational training and technical institutes, and its final report in March 1971 made far-reaching recommendations in the whole field of industrial training. A preliminary recommenda- tion of the committee resulted in the first Technical Institute being set up in 1969 to train craftsmen, apprentices and technicians. Further institutes of this type are to be built to supplement the facilities provided by the secondary modern and pre-vocational schools already administered by the Education Department, which will themselves be expanded.

14

REVIEW

      The Hong Kong Government also decided in principle in 1969 to establish a polytechnic. This will be built up from the Technical College (which was established in 1947) and will provide both in- dustrial and commercial courses at levels ranging upwards from technician to fully professional qualifications. A director has been appointed and it is expected that by 1974 the Polytechnic will have a student body of 4,000, with some 20,000 part-time students.

      Along with the increases in industrial wages, there have been progressive and undisruptive changes in industrial legislation, to modernise statutory conditions governing the employment of labour. The full long-term programme of legislation envisaged by Mr David Trench, as he then was when Commissioner of Labour in the late 1950's, has still to be completed, and more items have joined the queue since then. But the main changes already made are significant and include the provision of compulsory holidays, restrictions on the hours of employment of women and young people and increases in the range of benefits payable under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance.

      There has also been a great change in social welfare administra- tion, to provide more adequately for those members of the com- munity who have been unable to share in the general increase in prosperity. The whole system of welfare assistance has been over- hauled and modernised. It now provides for the payment of cash, rather than the issue of rations, and it treats those who are in need more generously. This reflects the great changes that have taken place in social welfare policy generally. In post-war years the official emphasis had been on the provision of basic services only, on provid- ing selective subventive support to case work and institutions through voluntary agencies, and on restricting direct relief work to those affected by fires or floods or other disasters. More recently it has been possible to turn towards more effective planning of the welfare resources of Hong Kong with the aid of research and other studies. Much of this is done conjointly with the voluntary sector's own skills and co-ordination, so that the needs of the community can be identified and dealt with specifically. The tasks are challenging and the problems of the aged and the mentally inadequate in an urban society will particularly call for attention in future.

The Community Chest was established in 1968 as an unofficial joint fund-raising body to bring a professional and convenient approach to finding recurrent revenue for member welfare charities. It has since raised and distributed over $23 million in voluntary

REVIEW

15

contributions to its agencies. But it has been more than matched by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club which since 1961 has donated $151 million in contributions towards a wide variety of public welfare projects and amenities, many of them in the Public Works Programme.

      These various activities, in which voluntary agencies have played such a leading part, have gone some way towards relieving not only those who are in financial need but also the blind, deaf, aged and other handicapped people. More, however, must be done, partic- ularly for handicapped children. There are at present 31 special schools for handicapped children and 30 special classes in govern- ment primary schools for slow learners. But the estimate is that there are some 130,000 handicapped children (including the educa- tionally sub-normal) and plans for developing further school places for them are under consideration.

Facilities for normal education in general have, in contrast, expand- ed considerably. The number of pupils enrolled in primary schools grew from 484,000 in 1961 to 764,313 in 1971 and there is now an aided primary school place for every child of primary school age (in fact by a quirk of imbalance of ages, there are substantially more children in primary classes than there are children of accepted primary age). In the past, a system of fee remission had ensured that any parent in financial need was not required to pay school fees for his children. This was taken a step further in 1971 with the provision of free education in government, and the vast majority of government-aided, Chinese primary schools. The Director of Education has also been empowered to require parents to send their children to a designated primary school, and parents who fail could be committing an offence. Although English speaking schools are still expensive, the new policy virtually amounts to universal free, compulsory primary education and it means that no child need reasonably be deprived of this opportunity.

In 1965 a White Paper on Education recommended the provision of places in government secondary schools, or subsidised places in selected private schools, for 15-20 per cent of all pupils who finished their primary course. In 1971 a fresh target was set, to provide at least three years of post-primary education for all children aged between 12 and 14 years who want it. The first phase of this opera- tion, for half the children in this age group, will be achieved by 1976. At present there are 72,500 government and government-aided places in Forms I-III, so that a further 91,100 aided places will be required by then.

URBAN COLO

ARIES

16

REVIEW

The University of Hong Kong has continued to expand both in the number of students enrolled and the range of courses it provides. Students reading for first and higher degrees had increased from 1,326 and 72 in 1961 to 2,902 and 352 in 1971. The Faculty of Medicine now has an annual intake of 150 students and a total student enrolment of 694, thus ranking as one of the largest medical schools in the Commonwealth. In 1968 a Faculty of Social Sciences was established which, among other subjects, offers a degree course in law leading to the LLB (Honours). Throughout the years in question a number of research centres have been set up in various fields, including the Centre of Asian Studies, and a wide range of research programmes carried out, many with relevance to Hong Kong.

Community leaders had felt for some time that there should be a second university in Hong Kong to provide not only for the advanced needs of a modern community, but also to specialise in Chinese literature and language and so far as possible to teach in that medium. The nucleus already existed in three post-secondary colleges and in October 1963 these federated to form The Chinese University of Hong Kong. One of the colleges, Chung Chi, was already established at Sha Tin, and a magnificent adjacent site is fast being developed to house the two other colleges and the main university complex.

It has often been remarked by visitors to Hong Kong that there is no National Health Service. Quite apart, however, from con- tractual obligations to its own servants as a model employer, the Government has always accepted an obligation to provide low-cost or free medical services for all who are unable to afford private treatment. Any person at all may attend a government clinic on payment of a nominal fee of $1, which includes drugs. Those who are admitted to the public wards of a government hospital pay a maximum maintenance fee of $2 a day which is less than the cost of the food, and even this is waived if the patient cannot afford it. These services are non-contributory and are met from general

revenue.

      The scale of the facilities that should be provided to meet this commitment was assessed in 1964 as 4.25 hospital beds for every 1,000 of the population, and one standard urban clinic for every 100,000. The first of these aims has almost been achieved (the Queen Elizabeth Hospital opened in 1963 is one of the largest of its kind in the Commonwealth) and, once the hospitals now under construc- tion or planned have been completed, it will be passed. There are

REVIEW

17

now 44 government general clinics and more are being planned. In fact, the progress that has been achieved in community health can be measured by the simplest statistics. In spite of the density of the population there has been no major epidemic in the last decade. There was an outbreak of cholera in 1961 which caused 15 deaths, but since that date there have been only 300 cases of this disease, and only nine were fatal. The prevalence of tuberculosis, though reduced by half over the past 10 years, still remains high and it is estimated that about 0.8 per cent of the population is still suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment.

Although the general health of the Colony has therefore improved steadily, addiction to narcotics continues to be a serious problem. There is little hard evidence that it has affected the younger genera- tion to the same dire extent, but it is certainly on the increase; nor is there yet widespread use in Hong Kong of the fashionably 'popular' drugs marijuana or LSD, despite the illicit sale of certain proprietary medications masked by falsely glamorous names. There is, however, considerable and disturbing addiction to heroin, particularly among the labouring classes, and the attempts that have been made to con- trol the import and manufacture of narcotics have not been successful. The volume of seizures, both of raw opium and heroin has steadily increased. During the year a total of 13,651 pounds of narcotics was detected and seized and it is clear that very large quantities are still coming into the Colony undetected.

There are two centres for the treatment of drug addicts: Tai Lam, run by the Prisons Department, which provides a compulsory pro- gramme for people found guilty of criminal offences but whose underlying problem is drug addiction, and a voluntary centre estab- lished by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts on the small island of Shek Kwu Chau. These centres have been successful in that those who have completed the course of treatment are at the time cured of their addiction with, in most cases, a marked improvement in general health as well. But the two centres together can deal with no more than 1,100 patients at a time. The total num- ber of addicts has been estimated at around 80,000. An additional centre for the treatment of criminal addicts is to be opened in 1972 at Tong Fuk. It would be out of place in this general review to rehearse the many difficulties encountered in dealing with these problems, or the many conflicting opinions and criticisms offered about them. The Government is fully aware of its responsibility in this field and stronger and more comprehensive measures are being

18

REVIEW

worked out against drug trafficking, as well as a more effective scale of treatment for those who are addicted.

The shifts in population mentioned in the opening of this chapter were mainly brought about by the development of new government housing estates, and housing is the one major social service that remains to be reviewed. It is a key to so much-health, standards of behaviour, family solidarity, community spirit, distribution of labour, communications needs, to name a few factors only. In 1961 the resettlement programme had been in operation for seven years. There were 11 estates and the number of people housed was 291,431. At the end of 1971 there were 25 resettlement estates with a total population of 1,147,860.

      The primary purpose of the resettlement estates was to provide homes, at very low rents, for squatters who were illegally occupying land that was required for development. This did not provide for the many thousands of people living in overcrowded tenements or substandard accommodation not needed to be cleared for redevelop- ment, and in 1954 the Housing Authority was set up with the task of providing housing of a good standard, at non-commercial rents, for families in this category. The first estate, at Java Road, was completed in 1958; at the end of 1971 there were nine Housing Authority estates with a total population of 218,450.

These estates were designed for what might be called, in Hong Kong terms, lower middle class families, with a maximum income of about $1,000 a month. In 1959 a further category of housing was evolved, known as Government Low-Cost Housing, to provide for families with a maximum monthly income of $500. The standard of accommodation and rents were to be slightly higher than those of the resettlement estates and just as the Housing Authority flats, they were to be allocated to applicants living in overcrowded conditions. Fifteen of these estates have now been built, with a population of 258,373.

      The Hong Kong Housing Society and other private associations have, with subsidies from the Government, provided accommoda- tion for about 130,000 people; and there are 52,000 people living in the old government-controlled cottage areas.

      In all, government and government-subsidised accommodation has been provided for some 44 per cent of the population, compared with about 16 per cent in 1961. There are few governments or com- munities in the world which can boast of such a record of achieve-

ment.

REVIEW

19

      Nonetheless, standards though adequate initially, are now less than satisfactory. In designing the first resettlement estates low cost and speed of construction had been the main criteria; and indeed by those methods a very considerable number of people had been quickly rehoused in simple accommodation with elementary com- munal facilities that were, by the standards of the time, regarded by the occupants as entirely acceptable. In the last 10 years standards have changed. Squatter families have also become comparatively more affluent and they demand and are able to pay for better accommodation. The design of the estates has been progressively improved, with a corresponding increase in rents, until the Mark VI designs are indistinguishable from government low-cost housing, and it is undisputed that the oldest estates are overcrowded and obsolete. They now house some 500,000 people and it will be a very con- siderable task to rehabilitate them all. However, a start is being made on the conversion to more modern standards of Shek Kip Mei, which was the first resettlement estate to be built.

While this massive expansion of public housing was taking place a great deal of old private property was also being redeveloped in the main urban areas, although this was interrupted between 1966 and 1969 by a recession in the building industry, accentuated by the events of 1967. Since 1969, private redevelopment has resumed and the number of dilapidated properties is steadily being reduced. In addition, an Urban Renewal District has been defined on Hong Kong Island, in the Western district which is characterised by its narrow winding streets, unattractively antiquated buildings and lack of light and air. Compulsory acquisition of old properties in part of the district (the pilot scheme area) has begun; most of these properties stand on very small lots which will be combined into larger sites for redevelopment. Together with the acquisition of sites for open space and other public uses, this will ensure an improved environment and be the most noticeable example yet of town plan- ning (apart from reclamations and the new towns like Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung) to progress beyond the outline zoning stage.

The problems of housing and the progress that has been made in dealing with them stand as the principal exemplar of the progress of Hong Kong as a whole. The magnitude of the task of rebuilding a community after World War II and the re-occupation of Hong Kong meant that each problem had to be dealt with urgently as it arose, with little breathing space for concerted planning. This particular form of urgency has now passed and after a period of

20

REVIEW

      consolidation, piecemeal expansion and unco-ordinated enthusiasms have given way to re-examinations of policy in almost every branch of the Government.

       All that has been achieved during the past decade, as much as at any time in the past quarter century, has been the toil of Hong Kong's own people, creating their own wealth with few natural resources and with the minimum of outside aid. The land has been visibly small, the capital substantially generated on the spot upon an original basis of services for exchange of goods, and both devel- oped by an unremitting co-operation of managerial and workmen's labour. It would be impossible to name all those people and organisa- tions in all walks of life who have taken part in this task, nor even their leaders. But much credit must be given to Sir David Trench, under whose administration Hong Kong attained a peak of prosper- ity and opportunity unprecedented in its history. This was achieved despite a temporary setback in 1967 during the confrontation with local communists, which fainthearts exaggerated at the time but which the clear response of the people to his leadership condemned to failure.

         The task that lies ahead now is to ensure that the efforts of both the community and the Government are used in the properly planned and common objective of raising the social benefits and standards of living for all and of making Hong Kong a better place in which to live. The new Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose, has made his hopes known, and the public service has pledged its loyal and total support to ensuring that he is not disappointed.

2

Industry and Trade

DESPITE increasing protectionist action in some of Hong Kong's major markets against the Colony's principal industrial export, textiles, both the industrial and commercial sectors of the economy continued to expand in 1971. The rate of expansion in domestic exports was not as spectacular as that of recent years and eased off to 11 per cent. This compares with 17.4 per cent in 1970 and an average annual growth rate of 13.8 per cent during the decade. Although the current trend indicates a general slowing down in the growth rate-due in part, no doubt, to recent international monetary and trade problems-it is still indicative of the fact that Hong Kong can continue to compete efficiently in world markets and record significant increases in its exports on an ever increasing base figure. There is confidence that Hong Kong's external trade will continue to expand in 1972, although perhaps at a less rapid pace than in the past two or three years.

       Hong Kong's economy is to a large extent dependent upon export-oriented light manufacturing industries and a myriad of servicing industries operating within a free port, free enterprise environment. The industries which have developed in scope, scale and sophistication are those whose products have been able to with- stand international competition without subsidy or protection, and those which are geared to servicing the manufacture of such products. Highly developed banking, insurance and shipping systems inherited from the historical entrepôt era have facilitated and promoted the development of manufacturing industries which are today the main- stay of Hong Kong's economy.

       Preservation of a liberal import regime and a reluctance to meet demands for protection of particular industries or to retaliate against other countries' restrictive actions are key elements in the Govern- ment's commercial policy. Hong Kong has therefore remained true to the traditions established when it was an entrepôt, with no tariffs and few restrictions on the import of commercial goods.

       The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of which Hong Kong is treated as a member by virtue of the United Kingdom's

223

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

status as a contracting party, can be regarded as the corner-stone of Hong Kong's commercial policy. Developments in international commercial policy in and through the GATT are therefore of great importance to Hong Kong because of their possible impact on its external trading environment, which in turn has a direct effect on the shape and magnitude of domestic industry and on employment. The aspirations and activities of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) (of which Hong Kong is an associate member), the Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Develop- ment Programme (UNDP), the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) (the last two of which Hong Kong is a member in its own right) are also of interest to Hong Kong in varying degrees.

       All these matters, in both their external and internal aspects, are the concern of the Economic Branch of the Colonial Secretariat in terms of higher policy and of the Commerce and Industry Depart- ment at the advisory and executive levels. The traditional assistance given by trade and industrial associations has in recent years been augmented by specialised sections of the department or by auton- omous agencies, legislatively sanctioned, with defined objectives.

       On matters of policy affecting trade and industry other than textiles, the Director of Commerce and Industry takes advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board of which he is chairman. This is a body of senior unofficial representatives of commerce, industry, banking etc, nominated by the Governor, which meets once a month. The Textiles Advisory Board, a more specialised board also chaired by the Director, is consulted on matters affecting the textile industry. It met on 39 occasions during 1971.

INDUSTRY

Hong Kong is well known for the competitive price and range of its light industrial products, now universally recognised to be of high quality. Most of the industrialists are Hong Kong residents, with a large share of their capital resources self-generated. With encouragement and assistance from the Commerce and Industry Department, overseas interests have, however, increasingly entered into various forms of industrial activity in Hong Kong in recent years. American and Japanese interests have been the most signifi- cant, followed by British, Australian and Swiss.

R

5

F

FIESTA

K

END

共圖

The 1971 Festival of Hong Kong, providing entertainment on a

paralleled anywhere in terms of scope, participation

and audience, formed the climax to another year of progress for the Colony. The evening of November 26 ushered in the festival with a parade of traditional Chinese dragons, lions, lantern bearers and acrobats. Then, for the next 10 days, many thousands of people were treated to a widely varied programme of non-stop entertain- ment contributed by organisations and individuals from every sector of the community. Daily concerts in Statue Square were given for lunch-time crowds from the commercial centre of Hong Kong Island, while at night much larger crowds were drawn to the brightly lit entertainment centres throughout the Colony. One of the most popular attractions was a festival pageant held on five consecutive nights, which included sky-diving, simulated battle scenes, motor- cycle rough riding, massed bands and horse-riding and jumping. The festival culminated with a grand procession through the streets of Kowloon on the night of December 6, when an estimated 200,000 people turned out to watch. The festival was the second to be held in Hong Kong. The inaugural event, in 1969, broke new ground by placing stress on entertainment for the entire community.

Our photographers were there to capture these highlights of the festival. The picture on the title page was taken during the opening. Opposite, one of the RAF Falcons parachute display team coming down for a perfect landing. Just beyond the parachute can be seen the barge used in the laying of the cross harbour tunnel sections. The pictures on the centre pages depict individual aspects of the festival.

16

'

k

[][]

.

1

Statue Square was one of the focal points for the festival. Below, a complex tableau of dancers at the schools gala.

-་་་་་

A

A soccer match on motor-cycles at the Government Stadium. Below, a floating parade at Aberdeen.

The grand procession along Nathan

Road closes the festival.

咖咖拌

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

23

In view of Hong Kong's heavy dependence on the export of manu- factured products and the changing circumstances of world trade, its continued economic growth rests to a large degree on the greater sophistication of industry and the widening of its range of products. The gathering momentum in these directions is encouraged and assisted by the Government and a number of autonomous organisa- tions. These include the establishment by the Productivity Council of a Low Cost Automation Centre, which has been heavily utilised since its inception, and the establishment of a Health and Safety Committee to advise the Trade and Industry Advisory Board on means of ensuring that Hong Kong manufactured products are able to meet high standards of safety and hygiene.

Textiles and Clothing

       The textile and clothing industry continued to dominate the manu- facturing sector in 1971, accounting for 50 per cent of its domestic exports in terms of value and employing 45 per cent of the manu- facturing labour force. In the spinning section, the 890,798 spindles in operation produced yarn counts ranging from 10's to 60's carded and combed, in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1971 reached 310 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weavers. Within the weaving section, 25,097 looms produced drills, shirtings, poplins, ginghams and canvas, to be bleached or dyed or printed in the finishing sector. About 775 million square yards of cotton piecegoods were produced in 1971 for export as cloth and for the local garment manufacturing industry.

       The use of fibres other than cotton and new processes in the finishing and garment industries have grown in importance. At the end of the year a total of 23 textile mills were producing polyester- cotton and polyester-viscose yarn for weaving into shirting and other fabrics and for the production of knitted fabrics, for which there was a rapid growth in demand. Output in the woollen and worsted spinning sector is largely used as input in the domestic knitting industry. The dyeing, printing and finishing sectors turn out a wide range of multi-colour screen and roller prints, pre-shrunk and permanent-pressed fabrics and polymerised materials with drip-dry characteristics.

       The manufacture of garments continued to be the largest sector of the textile industry, employing 115,151 workers in 2,310 factories. A great variety of garments, ranging from cotton singlets, permanent press slacks and shirts to high fashion dresses, are manufactured for

24

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

export all over the world. Knitting mills produce a wide range of items in cotton, wool and man-made fibres. The export value of garments amounted to $5,464 million in 1971, an increase of 26 per cent by value over the previous year.

      Frequent changes in fashion styles and fabric construction and use pose many problems for the industry, particularly in view of Hong Kong's distance from its principal markets. These problems are, however, being tackled energetically and the industry is engaged in substantial re-equipment of machinery and plant in order to maintain its prominent position in the world textiles field. It is considered that this re-equipment will continue despite the measures outlined later in this chapter to limit exports of textiles to North America, although at a slower pace than would have been achieved in the absence of these export restraints.

Other Light Industries

      In the ever-widening range of Hong Kong's light industry, the plastic industry still holds its position as second in importance only to textiles. Plastic products manufactured by the 68,950 workers in some 3,019 factories include toys, household and industrial articles and components for other industries, such as radio and television cabinets. Skill in the production of moulds and dies, together with the ability to meet short-notice orders, contributed to the rise in ex- ports which amounted to $1,519 million in 1971 a nine per cent increase over 1970.

       The electronics industry continues to widen its range of products. Consumer goods turned out by the industry include tape-recorders, desk calculators, television sets and parts as well as transistor radios. Complete computer memory systems are now manufactured in ad- dition to components such as memory cores, silicon transistors and diodes, magnetic reed switches, integrated circuits, condensers, trans- formers, capacitors, resistors and loudspeakers. The 281 establish- ments in the industry, employing 41,624 workers contributed $1,384 million to exports in 1971.

      These figures represent a slight reduction compared with last year, brought about mainly by the soft market conditions which prevailed in the United States, Hong Kong's principal market, during most of 1971. Despite this, the growth of production and exports continued, although at a slower rate than has been the case in recent years.

The wig industry also suffered from the economic recession in the United States, its major market. Exports during 1971 were valued

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

25

at $527 million, 86 per cent of which derived from the export of wigs of synthetic fibres. Although the majority of the larger, better or- ganised factories continued to expand at a satisfactory rate, a number of the smaller and less efficient factories closed down. The result is a more proficient industry producing higher quality goods with 19,896 workers compared with 30,900 the year before.

Heavy and Service Industries

      Hong Kong's heavy industry is related to port facilities and serv- icing as well as to the construction industry. The former includes ship and aircraft repair or modification and the construction of small and medium sized vessels. The latter embraces the production of reinforcing bars, made either from imported ingots or scrap steel derived from shipbreaking or industrial detritus, and the manufacture of products from locally rolled and extruded aluminium.

      Production by the steel rolling industry for domestic consumption and export was maintained at a satisfactory level during 1971. A boom in the domestic construction market also resulted in a rise in imports of steel. Although in absolute terms imports from China and Japan, the main suppliers, remained constant, their percentage share of the market declined.

      The expansion of light industry has also stimulated the manu- facture of small and medium machine tools, as well as parts and accessories for imported machinery. Of particular significance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines and power

presses.

Industrial Land

      Confidence in Hong Kong's continued economic growth, coupled with the continued expansion of manufacturing industry, have sus- tained the demand for industrial land, substantial areas of which were made available for purchase during the course of the year.

      Increasing numbers of flatted industrial buildings completed for occupation in 1971 and due for completion in 1972, will provide a welcome addition to available factory space and should help to stabilise rent levels in 1972.

Numerous industrial sites were sold in Wong Chuk Hang (Aber- deen) and Kwai Chung, the two industrial townships under current development. Prices obtained exceeded the upset prices and indicated the keen demand for sites in these areas. The construction of the container terminal at Kwai Chung and the Tsing Yi Island Bridge

26

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

(linking Tsuen Wan and Tsing Yi Island), due for completion in 1973, will accelerate the development of the Tsing Yi Island/Tsuen Wan/ Kwai Chung area. Few industrial sites in the industrial townships of Kwun Tong and San Po Kong remain undeveloped, but sites are now becoming available in the new industrial estate at Castle Peak which is expected to become the next centre of intensive industrial development. Plans are also in hand to expand the services required by industry elsewhere in the New Territories, notably at Sha Tin.

EXTERNAL TRADE

        External trade in 1971 advanced to a record level due to substantial rises in both domestic exports and imports of 11 per cent and 15 per cent respectively. Summary trade statistics, including a breakdown by countries and commodities and comparisons with previous years, are contained in Appendices 3 to 9.

Imports were valued at $20,256 million. Domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial but most of Hong Kong's food-stuffs have to be imported and these reached $3,474 million or 17 per cent of all imports. The main food imports were fruit and vegetables, live animals, rice and other cereal, fish and fish prep- arations, meat and meat preparations, and dairy products and eggs. Raw materials and semi-manufactured goods for industry in- cluded textile fibres, yarn and fabrics, base metals, plastic moulding materials, and paper and paperboard. Capital goods imported in- cluded machinery and transport equipment, while consumer goods and mineral fuels were also imported in large quantities.

       The sources of imports are determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and traditional trade relationships. Japan continued to be the principal supplier in 1971, providing 24 per cent of all imports. Of the imports from Japan 33 per cent was textile yarn and fabrics; the rest consisted of electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, non-electrical machinery, photographic goods, watches, plastic ma- terials, iron and steel and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from China, the second largest supplier, accounted for 16 per cent of imports from all sources and 48 per cent of all food imports. Other items imported from China included textile fabrics and made-up articles, non-metallic mineral manufacture, clothing, crude animal and vegetable materials, paper and paperboard and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from the United States registered an increase of $218 million or nine per cent. The principal imports from this source were machinery, diamonds, textile fibres, yarn and fabrics, fruit, tobacco and tobacco manufactures,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

27

      medicinal and pharmaceutical products, photographic and cine- matographic supplies, plastic materials and miscellaneous manu- factured articles.

      The value of domestic exports reached $13,750 million, an increase of 11 per cent over the previous year. Products of the textile and garment manufacturing industries accounted for 50 per cent by value, and miscellaneous manufactured articles, mainly plastic toys and dolls, wigs and artificial flowers, made up a further 21 per cent. Other light industrial products such as transistor radios and elec- tronic components, footwear and manufactures of metal were also important exports.

       The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is nowadays in- fluenced less by such factors as tariff preference in Britain and several other Commonwealth markets, than by economic conditions and commercial policies in principal markets. During the year 56 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to two markets-the United States and Britain. The United States, which remained the largest market, took 42 per cent by value and increased her purchases by $518 million or 10 per cent. The value of all goods sent to Britain was $1,946 million, 14 per cent of all domestic exports. The Federal Republic of Germany, Hong Kong's third largest market, purchased Hong Kong manufactures worth $1,128 million during the year. Other growing markets included Canada, Japan, Australia, Singa- pore, the Netherlands, Sweden and Taiwan, but in fact domestic exports go to nearly every country in the world.

       The entrepôt trade has sustained its role in external trade. The value in 1971 totalled $3,414 million, an increase of 18 per cent over 1970. This was 20 per cent of the total combined value of exports of Hong Kong manufactures and re-exports of imported goods. During 1971 Japan remained the most important re-export market, followed by Singapore, Indonesia, the United States and Taiwan. The prin- cipal commodities in the re-export trade were diamonds, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, watches and clocks, textile fabrics and made-up articles, electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, crude animal and vegetable materials, and coffee, tea and spices.

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

As the United Kingdom has acceded to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on behalf of Hong Kong, the Colony's exports are given most-favoured-nation tariff treatment in the majority of its overseas markets and are accorded a degree of protection against

28

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

discriminatory import restrictions by members of GATT. Neverthe- less difficulties do occur from time to time, and the Commerce and Industry Department is responsible for such action as is necessary and practicable at official level to resolve them.

       The GATT Committee on Trade in Industrial Products completed its first examination of an inventory of non-tariff barriers affecting trade in industrial products. The committee's work during the year concentrated mainly on standards, customs valuation and licensing systems. In addition, a Tariff Study Working Party was formed to undertake an objective analysis of the tariff situation as it will stand when all Kennedy Round concessions have been fully implemented on January 1, 1972. The Commerce and Industry Department followed these deliberations, which were of considerable interest to Hong Kong, and was kept fully informed by its Assistant Director in Geneva who attended the committee meetings.

       The year saw the introduction of a generalised preference scheme for developing countries by the European Economic Community on July 1, Japan on August 1, and Norway on October 1. Hong Kong was included in the EEC scheme and was promised inclusion in the second phase of the Japanese scheme in early 1972. Hong Kong was also included in the schemes due to be introduced on January 1, 1972, of the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Sweden. Norway limited her scheme to the UNCTAD 'Group of 77' developing countries in the first instance, but promised to consider its possible wider exten- sion at a later stage. Most of the other prospective 'donor' countries were expected to introduce their schemes early in 1972. Hong Kong's claim to be considered a beneficiary under the various schemes has been formally stated by Her Majesty's Government and every effort continues to be made to ensure that the Colony's interests are safeguarded.

      Australia: The restraint agreement entered into between the Governments of Australia and Hong Kong on July 29, 1970, regard- ing exports from Hong Kong to Australia of certain cotton drills expired on June 30, 1971, and the Australian Government indicated that it did not wish to seek a renewal. Exports of this item were accordingly covered by an export authorisation arrangement as from July 1, 1971.

In September 1971, the Australian Tariff Board published a report on knitted shirts and outer-garments and woven shirts. As a result, the Australian Government decided that existing quantitative restrictions on knitted shirts and outer-garments and additional duties on woven shirts should be continued for a further period of 18

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

29

months. The Australian Government also indicated that it would shortly be initiating negotiations with low-cost supplying countries with a view to arriving at mutually acceptable arrangements for voluntary restraint.

      Canada: Following consultations in Hong Kong with Canadian officials in August 1971, the Hong Kong/Canada textiles agreement was renewed for a further year, and was extended to cover two new categories, cotton yarns and knitted sweaters of wool and man-made fibre.

      Under legislation passed in May 1971, the Canadian Export and Import Permits Act was amended to enable the introduction of quantitative import restrictions for protective purposes. During the year, the Canadian Textile and Clothing Board concluded a number of investigations, including those on cotton yarns and shirts. As a result of recommendations by the Textile and Clothing Board, the Canadian Government announced that import control on certain woven and knitted shirts would be introduced with effect from November 30, 1971. Following consultations in Ottawa, however, the Canadian authorities agreed that Hong Kong should continue to exercise export control, subject to the ambit of the restraint being extended to certain knitted shirts previously unrestrained.

Denmark: In October, the Danish Government, which faced balance of payments difficulties, introduced a 10 per cent surcharge on all imported goods except raw materials for industrial use, minor quantities of food-stuffs and oil products. The surcharge was applied to imports from all countries without discrimination. In 1971 Hong Kong's domestic exports to Denmark were valued at $107 million of which $83 million or 78 per cent were textile manufactures.

      The European Economic Community: The European Economic Community announced in January 1971 that it would include Hong Kong among the beneficiaries of its generalised scheme of preference for developing countries. The scheme was introduced on July 1.

      The Treaty of Rome establishing the European Economic Com- munity provided that a Common Commercial Policy regarding the external trade of Member States should be achieved by the end of the transitional period, i.e. December 31, 1969. Although for a variety of reasons, this has not yet been implemented, considerable progress has been made and further progress was achieved during the year. The Hong Kong Government continued to watch these developments closely and to examine the implications for Hong

30

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Kong of all new regulations issued regarding the implementation of the Common Commercial Policy.

       Following a series of negotiations with the EEC, a three-year agreement covering the export of all cotton textiles other than yarns to the six Member States was concluded in the latter part of 1970, and went into effect from January 1, 1971. Under the terms of the agreement, Hong Kong undertook to restrain exports of some finished fabrics and made-ups and apparel items to agreed limits. For certain grey and bleached fabrics an arrangement was instituted whereby the limits are determined under agreed conditions following consultations between the EEC and Hong Kong. In September, consultations were held in Brussels at the request of the European Economic Community on exports of grey and bleached fabrics to Italy.

       Japan: Japan introduced phase one of its generalised preference scheme for developing countries on August 1. The scheme provides for limited entry for manufactured goods, either duty-free or at reduced tariffs, and unlimited entry for certain agricultural and fisheries products at reduced tariffs. Hong Kong was not included as a beneficiary under this phase, but the Japanese Government an- nounced its intention to include Hong Kong, subject to certain qualifications, at a later stage, probably from April 1, 1972.

       Norway: On October 1, Norway introduced its generalised pref- erence scheme for developing countries. The Norwegian scheme provides for unlimited duty-free entry for certain agricultural and fisheries products and for manufactures with the exception of most textiles, leather articles, footwear, tableware and glassware. Hong Kong was not included in this scheme at its inception, but representa- tions were made to the Norwegian Government and consideration of the inclusion of further beneficiaries, including Hong Kong, was promised at a later date.

       In September 1970 the Hong Kong Government held consultations with the Norwegian Government at the latter's request and conclud- ed an agreement whereby Hong Kong undertook to restrain exports of six categories of cotton and non-cotton garments in the period November 1, 1970 to June 30, 1972.

       Sweden: Consultations with representatives of the Swedish Gov- ernment on Hong Kong's exports of cotton and non-cotton textiles took place in May. These negotiations resulted in an agreement whereby Hong Kong undertook to restrain exports to Sweden of seven groups of cotton and non-cotton garments in the period May 1, 1971 to June 30, 1972.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

31

United Kingdom: Although outside the ambit of the Cotton Textiles Arrangement, Hong Kong's exports to the United Kingdom of cotton yarn, cotton woven piecegoods, garments and made-up articles are limited under an agreement reached in 1966 and extended to cover exports of these items in 1971.

       The Government, on the advice of the Textiles Advisory Board, made further representations to Her Majesty's Government early in the year regarding its decision, announced in July 1969, to abolish the existing quotas and to impose a tariff on imports of cotton woven textiles into the United Kingdom from Commonwealth countries as from January 1, 1972. However, the British Government decided not to alter its decision to introduce the tariff, although under the Finance Act 1971, it was empowered to grant relief from the new import tariff on Commonwealth textiles in respect of such goods exported under quota on or before December 31, 1971, but not arriving in the United Kingdom until on or after January 1, 1972.

       Details of the new Commonwealth Preference rates of duty on imports of cotton yarn and cotton woven textiles, which will apply from January 1, 1972, and the related changes in the United Kingdom tariff classification of these items were announced towards the end of the year. The new Commonwealth Preference rates of duty are generally 85 per cent of the full rate.

       In December the British Government announced that, although the new tariff would still be introduced on January 1, 1972, the decision to abolish quotas on imports of cotton yarn and cotton woven products as from that date would be reversed and that the existing quotas would remain in 1972. At the end of the year discus- sions on this new policy were being held between the British and Hong Kong Governments.

       In July, the Minister for Trade announced that Her Majesty's Government would introduce a generalised preference scheme for developing countries on January 1, 1972. Hong Kong is a beneficiary under the scheme and full details of the products covered, rates of preferential tariff, origin criteria rules etc were published later in the

year.

The Government, in collaboration with Hong Kong trade and in- dustry, continued to maintain a close watch on the progress of the United Kingdom's negotiations to join the EEC. The inclusion of Hong Kong in the Community's generalised preference scheme for

32

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     developing countries settled definitively the question of Hong Kong in these negotiations.

United States of America: Exports of cotton textiles to the United States continued to be restrained under a three-year agreement which commenced on October 1, 1970. The restraint limit for the textile year 1970-1 represented an increase of five per cent over that of the previous year.

In May 1971 Mr David M. Kennedy, US Ambassador-at-large, visited Hong Kong in the course of a world tour to hold talks with Hong Kong officials on financial and trade matters, including textiles. The tour included the three other major Asian suppliers of textiles to America-Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. Following these talks, further consultations were held between Hong Kong and American officials in June, September, and October, culminating in Hong Kong sending a negotiating team to Washington in October. The team was accompanied by 11 members of the Textiles Advisory Board. A tentative agreement, subject to ratification by the Hong Kong Government, was subsequently initialled on October 15. Under it, Hong Kong agreed to restrain its exports of wool and man-made fibre textiles to the United States for a period of five years. It was expected that the formal agreement would be signed. early in January 1972.

On August 15, President Nixon announced certain economic and fiscal measures designed to curb inflation, reduce unemployment and correct the balance of payments situation in the United States. Of particular concern to Hong Kong was the imposition of the tem- porary 10 per cent import surcharge. Exempted from the surcharge were imports which were currently not subject to import tariff, as well as those already subject to mandatory quotas. Cotton textile imports were therefore exempted from the surcharge. At the same time it was announced that once the restraint agreements reached with Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea were ratified, the surcharge would be lifted retroactively to October 1, on man-made fibre and wool textiles. Following the agreement on exchange rates reached at the Group of Ten meeting on December 18, President Nixon announced the complete lifting of the 10 per cent surcharge.

Beginning on October 1, the United States re-introduced a tariff- rate quota for imports of certain low-price stainless steel flatware. The quarterly tariff-rate quota for Hong Kong was fixed at 1.5 million pieces, with a small annual growth. Whilst there was no quantitative limitation, imports in excess of the quota were subject to rates of duty which were expected to prove prohibitive.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

DOCUMENTATION OF EXPORTS

3333

      Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations. The most complex formalities are those resulting from Hong Kong's obliga- tions to restrain certain exports of textile products. Towards the end of the year, regulations were enacted under which textiles of all fibres destined for all countries are subjected to export licensing.

      With Hong Kong's economic dependence upon the export of manufactured goods, most of them made from imported materials, and the concurrent existence of a substantial re-export trade, the operation of an origin certification system satisfactory to overseas customs authorities is vitally important. The Commerce and In- dustry Department issues certificates of origin and accepts the responsibility for safeguarding the integrity of the entire Hong Kong certification system. To this end, close liaison is maintained with overseas authorities and with the authorised non-government certificate issuing bodies, i.e. the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association. The value of domestic exports covered by certificates of Hong Kong origin issued by the five organisations during the year was $8,260 million. Of this, $4,132 million represented the value of exports supported by departmental certificates of origin.

Britain and a number of other Commonwealth countries grant preferential rates of duty to Hong Kong products. In order to support claims to preference, the department issues Commonwealth preference certificates against legal undertakings given by manu- facturers to use only Commonwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements prepared by accountants authorised for the purpose. The value of goods exported under these certificates during the year was $1,646.7 million.

For many years the United States of America required imports of certain Chinese-type goods from Hong Kong to be covered by comprehensive certificates of origin which certified that the goods were not only manufactured in Hong Kong, but also that the raw materials which went into the making of such items had originated from countries other than China, North Korea or North Vietnam. The requirement was dropped following a revision of trade policy announced by the United States on June 10, 1971. Up to the time when comprehensive certificates of origin were no longer required, goods which had been exported in 1971 under the system were valued at $736 million.

34

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The European Economic Community was the first bloc of the developed countries to put into operation the generalised preference scheme for developing countries from July 1, 1971. During the latter half of the year, the department endorsed and issued special certificates of origin to cover exports claiming preference under this system to EEC member states. Between July and December 1971, goods so exported were valued at $191.4 million.

      An estimated 79 per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports were covered by certificates of origin of one type or another; 49 per cent of them by the department's certificates.

ADMINISTRATION

The Commerce and Industry Department's responsibilities include overseas commercial relations, industrial development, origin cer- tification, trade controls and the collection and protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. Its work is complemented by several autonomous institutions either wholly or partly financed by public funds, whose functions and activities are outlined in subsequent sections.

      There are two Commercial Relations Divisions in the department, which collect and disseminate information on trade policy measures by other countries that may affect Hong Kong, and keep in touch with the activities of international organisations. The divisions are also responsible for conducting Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other governments and for implementing the agreements reached. This involves the calculation and allocation of textile quotas and the operation of export control procedures.

The department's three overseas offices in Brussels, Washington and Geneva are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work and provide up-to-date information on international matters which are likely to affect Hong Kong. Similar work is undertaken by the Hong Kong Government Office in London.

       The Industry Division provides a liaison between industry and other government departments, answers industrial enquiries from overseas and deals with specific industrial problems. It also operates the UNCTAD generalised preferences scheme, as well as certificate of origin and Commonwealth preference procedures. A trade in- vestigation service enforces these procedures through the regular inspection of factories and goods and the prosecution of those suspected of contravening the relevant regulations, apart from handling trade complaints.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

35

The Preventive Service, a uniformed and disciplined organisation, whose role in the protection of revenue from dutiable commodities and the control of narcotics traffic is described in Chapter 10, is under the command of an Assistant Commissioner. The service has an establishment of 13 gazetted officers, 268 inspectors and 693 rank and file.

       The General Duties Branch deals with trade licensing (other than for textiles) and the control of certain reserved commodities includ- ing rice.

Trade Development Council

       The Trade Development Council was established by statute in 1966. The council's chairman is appointed by the Governor, while its members comprise representatives of principal commercial and industrial organisations, two senior government officials and four nominated members. The council, which is financed by subvention from the Government's general revenue, has a permanent staff under an executive director. Its head office is in the Ocean Terminal, Kowloon, where it maintains a permanent display of Hong Kong products.

      The council continued to provide an extensive trade service through its 11 offices abroad. During the year a new office was opened in Toronto. In addition, the organisation now maintains offices in London, Stockholm, Frankfurt, Brussels, Vienna, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Tokyo and Sydney. Plans are underway to establish new offices next year in Milan and Manchester.

The programme for overseas promotions was extensive during 1971. In conjunction with its overseas offices, the council organised or arranged participation for Hong Kong manufacturers and exporters in many specialised and general trade fairs. In the past 12 months Hong Kong made products were to be seen at trade fairs in Nuremberg, Frankfurt, London, Gothenberg, Dusseldorf, Milan, Leipzig and Cologne. Hong Kong trade missions also visited Canada, the United States, Britain and Japan, while incoming missions to Hong Kong were organised from Austria and Britain. In addition the council sponsored a store promotion in Sweden and conducted market surveys in Malaysia and Singapore and selected African countries.

       In Hong Kong, the Trade Development Council participated in the 29th CMA Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, and again organised the Hong Kong Ready-to-Wear Festival in March, which attracted several hundred buyers from all major world markets.

36

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       The overseas circulation of the council's trade magazines con- tinued to increase during the year, particularly in the case of 'Hong Kong Enterprise' (monthly), 'Apparel' (bi-annually) and 'Toys' (annually). There was also a marked overseas interest in publications such as 'Hong Kong for the Businessman' and 'Industrial Investment Hong Kong' (produced in collaboration with the Department of Commerce and Industry). 'Hong Kong Enterprise', which is sent to more than 100 countries, increased its monthly circulation to 42,000 copies by the end of the year.

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

       The corporation provides protection to exporters against risks of non-payment of their overseas accounts. The risks covered are those arising from the buyer's insolvency or protracted delay in payment or from the occurrence of economic or political causes outside the control of the buyer and the exporter and which are not commercially insurable. The corporation has now been operating for five years and is currently insuring over 700 exporters. Under the policies of insurance issued to these exporters the corporation has assumed a maximum liability of $800 million. This is within the amount of $1,000 million which the corporation is authorised to accept by an amendment to its ordinance during the year, when this figure was increased from $750 million to meet growing demands for cover.

       Under the ordinance the corporation is charged to pay its way, taking one year with another. The rise in the rate of business failures, including certain companies in the United Kingdom and the United States hitherto considered 'undoubted' for their engagements, is, however, making it most difficult for the credit insurer to break even over a period.

The increase in the corporation's business during the year is attributable to the increase in the Colony's exports and to a universal trend, in prevailing competitive conditions, for credit terms to lengthen. There is also a growing awareness by exporters of the value of credit insurance in maintaining existing outlets and penetrat- ing new markets, and as an aid to obtaining export finance.

Hong Kong Productivity Council

       The Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in January 1967. The council comprises a chairman and 20 members, all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 members represent management, labour, academic and professional interests, while the

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

37

other 10 represent government departments closely associated with productivity matters.

       The council's terms of reference are wide ranging and are aimed at promoting by all means possible increased productivity of in- dustry in Hong Kong. To achieve this, the council works in close co-operation with other organisations active in this field, in partic- ular with the Hong Kong Management Association, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the two universities and the Hong Kong Technical College.

       The executive instrument of the council is the Hong Kong Pro- ductivity Centre which was formally established on April 1, 1967. The centre co-ordinates the activities of persons and organisations engaged in the study and development of productivity techniques in industry; collects and disseminates information relating to pro- ductivity and provides training in productivity techniques. Over 60 professional and administrative officers had been appointed to the staff of the centre by the end of 1971 and recruitment continues. To meet the demand for more services in the field of industrial technology and management techniques, the centre obtained, through the United Nations Development Programme and the International Labour Organisation, the services of two industrial engineering experts to provide advanced training for technical staff.

       The centre's activities are grouped under four main divisions- Manpower Development, Operations (which includes consultancy service for industry), Research and Administration. Its premises in Central district comprise administrative, consultancy and research offices, three lecture rooms and a technical reference library. To bring the centre's services as close to industry as possible, a branch office was opened in Kwun Tong in September. It comprises two lecture rooms, an audio-visual unit, a chemical laboratory and a low cost automation unit. This unit is the first of its kind established in Hong Kong. Its major function is to disseminate knowledge on low cost automation devices and to provide practical assistance, especially to small-scale industry on how, through their use, costs can be reduced and productivity raised.

       Since its establishment in 1967, the Productivity Centre has pro- vided training for more than 4,500 people in commerce and industry and undertaken many consultancy projects. During the initial stages of its development, the centre's training programmes were mainly of the horizontal level in production management techniques

38

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

such as work study, preventive maintenance, quality control, pro- duction planning and control, financial management and personnel management. In 1971, the training courses were expanded to include vertical training in process engineering for sectors of industry such as electronics, wig manufacture, plastics and metal plating.

The National Computer Centre of the United Kingdom has given recognition to the centre's training programmes for System Analysts, and with this important development it has been able to develop an integrated electronic data processing training programme embracing all levels of personnel, from staff requiring training in computer fundamentals to technologists and top management.

For some years Hong Kong has been a member of the Asian Productivity Organisation. The present Deputy Chairman of the Productivity Council has been appointed by the Governor as Hong Kong's Director on the organisation's Governing Body and the Executive Director of the Productivity Centre as Alternate Director. As a member of the organisation, Hong Kong was host to the 11th Workshop Meeting of Directors of National Productivity Centres of the APO in February 1971 and was represented at the 13th Governing Body Meeting in Teheran in May.

Trade and Industrial Organisations

       The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, founded more than a century ago and the oldest trade association in the Colony, now has a membership of nearly 2,000 representing all branches of commerce and industry. The chamber is represented on a number of government boards and committees and is a member of the Interna- tional Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce.

        Other chambers and trade associations include the Indian Cham- ber of Commerce, the American Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Hong Kong Exporters' Association.

      The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by ordinance in 1960, devotes much of its efforts to helping to create an industrial infrastructure to assist Hong Kong industry in its growth. Its mem- bership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. Among the services which it offers to Hong Kong on a community basis are its Standards Centre and its Testing Labora- tories for textile, plastic and electrical products. To encourage the development of better industrial design in Hong Kong, the Industrial

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

39

Design Council of the federation has instituted two awards for Hong Kong designed products: The Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries Award for Good Design. Competitions are held annually. The federation has also set up a Packaging Council and Centre to promote creativity and innovation in the fields of product design and packaging. The Packaging Centre also regularly co-sponsors packaging competi- tions in co-operation with the Chinese Manufacturers' Association.

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 2,000 representing factories of all sizes and industries. The association, a member of the Interna- tional Chamber of Commerce, has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong. Among other things it launched a 'Buy Hong Kong Products' campaign to promote sales of Hong Kong products in the local market, and organised jointly with the Packaging Council, packaging competitions designed to improve marketing techniques through better packaging. Each year the association organises an exhibition of Hong Kong products which attracts an attendance of nearly 2,000,000 visitors.

TRADE MARKS AND PATENTS

      Trade Marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the United Kingdom Trade Marks Act 1938. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in the United Kingdom or any other country, must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 2,490 applications were received and 1,969 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertise- ment. A total of 1,800 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

United States of America... 469

Hong Kong

Japan

United Kingdom

West Germany

Switzerland

450

Italy

244

France

160

Australia

100

...

Belgium

86

39

38

34

23

...

The total number of marks on the register at December 31, 1971, was 26,339.

      Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years

40

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong. A total of 430 patents were registered during the year, compared with 506 in 1970.

COMPANIES

The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies in- corporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. However, the Companies Law Revision Committee which has been considering the revision of the ordinance submitted its first report, dealing with the Protection of Investors, in June 1971. The committee is now considering the remaining aspects of company legislation.

On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1971, 3,847 new companies were incorporated, 428 more than the total incorporated in 1970. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1971 totalled $2,125,930,193, 4.3 per cent less than the corresponding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 56 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. At the end of the year there were 21,622 local companies on the register compared with 18,229 on December 31, 1970.

Companies incorporated outside Hong Kong are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in the Colony. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 107 such companies were registered and 40 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 763 companies registered from 47 countries, including 196 from the United States, 95 from the United Kingdom and 79 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local com- panies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

41

exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Acts 1958-67 in Britain, or-in the case of fire and marine insurance by main- taining similar deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. There are altogether 225 insurance companies, including 63 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partner- ships and money-lenders.

BANKRUPTCIES AND LIQUIDATIONS

        The number of business failures in which recourse is had to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always comparatively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. During the

year

18 petitions in bankruptcy and 38 petitions for the winding up of companies were presented to the court, and the court made 15 receiving orders, one order for the administration in bankruptcy of the estate of a deceased debtor and 26 orders for the winding up of companies. For many years the Official Receiver has become trustee or liquidator in almost every case, and this was so again in 1971, during which the assets realised by the Official Receiver amounted to approximately $18.8 million. In addition to com- pulsory windings up, 140 companies went into voluntary liquida- tion during the year, 135 by members' voluntary winding up and five by creditors' voluntary winding up.

3

Financial Structure

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence, and towards this it makes a substantial contribu- tion. Under an agreement covering the five years from April 1, 1971, to March 31, 1976, Hong Kong will make a contribution in kind and in cash amounting to £40 million. About £28 million of this contribution will be spent in Hong Kong on capital works and on the maintenance of buildings which will revert to Hong Kong if no longer required by the Armed Forces. The work is undertaken by the Public Works Department on behalf of HBM Department of the Environment in Hong Kong.

      Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies similar to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of Hong Kong other than 'below the line' operations of various official funds.

       A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after World War II. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million, respectively, a series of surpluses, some of them substantial, have been accumulated. Figures for the past four years are shown in Appendix 14. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which Hong Kong has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. These annual capital spendings have been as high as $735 million; in 1970-1 they totalled some $551 million.

:

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

43

The principal reason for these results, which appear so favour- able, was that during the earlier years exceptionally rapid increases in population generated economic activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreciable increases in the rates of tax. Revenue expanded from $292 million in 1950-1 to $3,071 million in 1970-1. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been strong and con- tinuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before the Government could develop the public and social services necessary for an increasing population and made possible by economic growth itself. However, as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expendi- ture and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 54 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent. Consequently, in that year the surplus of revenue over expendi- ture could no longer finance all the capital expenditure and an overall deficit of $45 million occurred. Subsequent budgets forecast further and in some cases substantial deficits, but the actual results suggest that the economic strength and resilience of Hong Kong was underestimated, particularly earlier on, for 1965-6 is the only year in which another deficit has been recorded.

      While the export trade remained buoyant, towards the end of 1964-5 the property market turned dull and this, to a degree, affected other sectors. The deficit of 1965-6 reflected this temporary set back.

Revenue and expenditure for the years 1969-70 and 1970-1 together with the estimates for the financial year 1971-2 are detailed and compared in Appendices 11 and 12. There was a return to surplus in 1966-7. The change was assisted by a small increase in taxation, but a more important factor was a falling-off in capital works expenditure as certain major works, particularly the Plover Cove reservoir scheme and certain major land development, neared completion. There was also a fall in construction costs due largely to reduced private development.

      The picture changed again in 1968 when, partly as an aftermath of success in surmounting the political difficulties of 1967, partly under the influence of world inflation on demand for Hong Kong exports, another period of unusually rapid growth began. This caused the growth of revenues at existing tax rates once again to out-distance the substantial rate of growth of expenditure on special

44

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

services and development. A budget forecast of a deficit of $13 million in 1968-9 became an actual surplus of $208 million. The pace of economic growth continued to accelerate in 1969-70 and 1970-1 with estimated surpluses of $53 million and $191 million becoming actual surpluses of $448 million and $619 million, respectively.

       For 1971-2 the budget estimate of revenue is $3,118 million which is $47 million more than actual revenue in 1970-1; two taxes were repealed and water charges, last increased in 1965, were raised to meet the increasing cost of developing Hong Kong's water supply. The estimate of expenditure is $2,862 million which is $410. million more than the actual expenditure in 1970-1. The estimated surplus of $256 million may be exceeded, but, on the other hand, the cost of the Civil Service is expected to rise sharply. In addition, recorded expenditure on capital works for the first four months of 1971-2 was 45 per cent higher than in the same period in 1970-1, as a result partly of the increased cost of labour and of materials and partly of the additional engineering and waterworks projects in hand.

      At March 31, 1971, net available public financial assets were $2,204 million. In accordance with normal government practice, the public debt of the Colony (see Appendix 15) is not included in the statement of assets and liabilities in Appendix 13. The debt as of March 31, 1971, was $60.4 million or the equivalent of ap- proximately $15 per head of population. Indebtedness decreased by $3 million during the year, due mainly to the repayment of £200,000 of the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Hong Kong Airport. This loan is repayable by 15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on October 1, 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; its sinking fund stood at $32.9 million on March 31, 1971.

In addition to the Assets and Liabilities referred to, there exist for special purposes the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund (see Appendix 18). The Development Loan Fund now total- ling $682 million is used to finance social and economic develop- ment projects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes, but during the year 2,342 university students received interest free loans totalling $3.2 million. At March 31, 1971, liquid assets amounted to $36.5 million and outstanding commitments $111.7 million. The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is for the support and development of social

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

45

welfare services. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $27.8 million was credited during the period June 30, 1965, to March 31, 1971 by which date grants and loans amounting to $25.6 million had been approved. A further sum of $1.8 million, being unclaimed prize money as at March 31, 1971, is held in deposit. Details of the United Kingdom Government schemes and grants are shown in Appendix 16.

The audit of all public accounts and certain special funds is carried out by the Director of Audit, whose annual report on the accounts of the Hong Kong Government is presented to the legis- lature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

DUTIES

There is no general tariff, but five groups of commodities- alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table-waters and methyl alcohol-are subject to duty, whether they are manufactured in Hong Kong or imported. In certain cases, preferential rates are charged on local manufactures and imports from other Common- wealth countries.

On liquors, the rates range from $1.60 per gallon on Hong Kong brewed beer to $73 a gallon on non-Commonwealth liquors and spirits. On tobacco, they range from $2.50 a pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $11.25 a pound on non-Commonwealth cigars; and on hydrocarbon oils, from two cents a pound on liquefied petroleum gas to $1.80 a gallon on motor spirits. The rates for table-waters and methyl alcohol are 48 cents and $7.50 a gallon respectively.

       All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed.

RATES

       Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and part of the New Territories. In the first three areas, rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In those parts of the New Ter- ritories which are statutorily subject to rates, the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up to date. The estimated revenue from rates for 1971-2 is $352 million.

46

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

      There are few exemptions from rates. Premises used for educa- tional, charitable and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments are reimbursed in the form of either direct subventions or contributions toward rates.

INTERNAL REVENUE

As a temporary war-time measure, income was first subject to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 and, although the War Revenue Ordinance was not repealed until 1947, no attempt was made to collect tax in the two years following the liberation of the Colony. However, a new source of revenue was by then essential and it was decided that as a permanent measure a direct tax on earnings and profits would be imposed from April 1, 1947. Under the Inland Revenue Ordinance, tax is charged only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside Hong Kong whether remitted here or not.

      The standard rate of tax 1, 1966, having stood at 12 at 10 per cent before that.

was raised to 15 per cent from April per cent for the previous 15 years and

Earnings and profits are classified into four categories each of which is subject to a separate tax-Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. Property Tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building in the Colony, with the exception of land or buildings in the New Territories and land or buildings wholly occupied by the owner as his residence; it is pay- able by the person paying the rates who, if he is not the owner, can then recover from the owner by deduction from rent or any other money due to him. Interest Tax is charged on the recipient of interest arising in or derived from the Colony; but the borrower, when paying or crediting the interest to the lender recipient, is required by law to make a deduction for Interest Tax and pay it to the Government within 30 days. Dividends are regarded as paid out of taxed profits and exempt from further tax. Salaries Tax and Profits Tax are levied by direct assessment.

      Tax is charged at the standard rate except for Salaries Tax, which is subject to personal allowance deduction and a sliding scale of tax; and for property owners for whom, if the rent receivable is controlled by reference to the 1941 rental, the Property Tax charge is reduced to one-half the standard rate. Also, as an alternative to the separate taxes, a resident may elect to have personal assessment.

THE PRINCESS

blending of tradition and progress in Hong Kong provided many

A bonding of tradition an Princess inne when one

visit to the Colony in October. The Princess came in her capacity as Colonel-in-Chief of the 14th/20th King's Hussars currently stationed at Sek Kong, and as President of the Save the Children Fund. In- cluded in her crowded programme of public engagements was the laying of the foundation stone for the new Lai Chi Kok Hospital, the inauguration of the Colony's second satellite earth station and the opening of the new Kwun Tong swimming pool complex. In addition to these public functions, there was a surprise shopping trip to 'Cat Street', horse-riding in the New Territories, an evening har- bour cruise and a ride in a sampan when she visited a family spon- sored by the Save the Children Fund. It was Princess Anne's first visit to Hong Kong and one that she described as 'wonderful'. In a message to the Acting Governor, Sir Hugh Norman-Walker, shortly after she had left the Princess said she had a genuine wish to return before too long. The title page shows the Princess setting out on a riding expedition in the New Territories with members of the 14th/20th King's Hussars, the day before her departure.

NG

བ༽ ག་ས་ག་

Residents of Chai Wan resettle- ment estate crowd the balconies for a glimpse of the Princess on a visit to a tenant family.

HONG KO

DIAMOND

At Hing Wah estate the Princess chatted with a family sponsored by the Save the Children Fund.

A stroll through the fishing village of Hang Hau in Junk Bay.

1

Laying the foundation stone of the new Lai Chi Kok Hospital.

KOM

IBRARIES

||

I

A tour of Hong Kong's second

satellite earth station after the inauguration ceremony.

Opening the Urban Council's Kwun Tong swimming pool complex.

A view of the border . . . and riding

in the New Territories.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

47

A single assessment aggregating his total Hong Kong income, excluding dividends, granting personal allowances, and charging the same sliding scale of tax as for Salaries Tax is then made, with a set-off being allowed of any of the four separate taxes already paid.

The personal allowances at present are: for the taxpayer $7,000; for his wife $7,000; for each of the first two children $2,000; for each of the third to sixth child $1,000 and for each of the seventh to ninth child $500. This makes a maximum allowance for children of $9,500. There is also an allowance for life insurance premia not to exceed 10 per cent of the capital sum insured or one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. Provision was made, with effect from the year of assessment 1970-1, for an allowance of $2,000 for dependent parents resident in the Colony, an allowance of $3,000 for a working wife and additional allowances of up to $3,600 for people in the lower income brackets. The sliding scale of tax starts at 24 per cent on the first $5,000 of net income and increases at each subsequent $5,000 stage until at $45,000 a maximum rate of 30 per cent is reached, with a subsequent limitation that the total Salaries or Personal Tax chargeable cannot exceed 15 per cent of gross income.

       It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1971-2 will be $873 million.

Estate Duty generally follows the lines of the British tax of the same name. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong. Estates valued at less than $200,000 are exempt from duty. The rates of duty range from five per cent on estates valued between $200,000 and $300,000 to 20 per cent on estates over $2 million. Yield for the year ending March 31, 1972, is esti- mated at $22 million.

Stamp Duty is also modelled on the British pattern with fixed duties and ad valorem duty being charged according to the type of document. The lowest fixed duty is 15 cents on bills of lading and receipts and the highest $20. Ad valorem duty ranges from 10 cents on $500 to $2 on $100. For conveyance of land there is a fixed duty of $20 where the sale price does not exceed $20,000, one per cent ad valorem duty where the sale price exceeds $20,000 but does not exceed $40,000 and two per cent where consideration is in excess of $40,000, with provision for marginal relief. There is also an ad valorem duty of two per cent payable on lease premia. The estimated yield from stamp duty during 1971-2 is $198 million.

48

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

Substantial revenue accrues from Entertainments and Bets and Sweeps Taxes and is estimated at $82 million in 1971-2. Entertain- ments Tax is charged on the price of admission to cinemas and race meetings at which totalisator or parimutuel betting is conducted, the rate varies with the amount charged but averages about 22 per cent. Certain cinema shows given for philanthropic, charitable or educa- tional purposes may be exempt. Bets and Sweeps Tax imposes 71⁄2 per cent on totalisator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

      The Hotel Accommodation Tax, introduced in July 1966, provides money for the promotion of tourism. The rate of tax is two per cent of the charge made for accommodation by the proprietor of any hotel containing 10 or more rooms normally available for guests and where the rate of accommodation charge is $15 or more a day. This levy is estimated to yield $5 million in 1971-2.

       Every business carried on in the Colony, except one which is not carried on for the purpose of gain or one which is carried on by a charitable institution, must be registered and pay an annual registration fee of $25. Where the business is very small, the Com- missioner may exempt it from payment. These fees are expected to yield approximately $4.4 million.

CURRENCY

       In the absence of a central bank, Hong Kong's currency notes are issued by three commercial banks, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank and the Mercantile Bank Limited. Coins of one dollar, 50 cents, 10 cents and five cents and notes of one cent denomination are issued by the Government. The total currency in nominal circulation at December 31, 1971

was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins

...

$2,741,631,000 $ 107,079,317

$ 82,853,433 $ 545,240

Government 1 cent note issue The value of the currency issued by the note-issuing banks is regulated by an Exchange Fund, which was set up in 1935 when the Hong Kong dollar ceased to be based on silver. Briefly, the Fund receives sterling from these banks in exchange for Certificates of Indebtedness denominated in Hong Kong dollars. These Certifi- cates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, provide the legal backing for the notes issued by the banks, apart from their small

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

49

'fiduciary' issues. (These are limited to a total of $95 million and are issued against securities, of a kind approved by the Secretary of State, which are held by the banks and deposited with the Crown Agents in London). The Fund's resources are invested in a variety of sterling securities, both long and short-term. Out of the income derived, the Fund bears the cost of the note issue except for a small proportion, equivalent to the proportion borne by the 'fiduciary' issues to the total note issue, which is met by the note-issuing banks. In practice, from 1937 to 1968, the Exchange Fund operated in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards.

Hong Kong has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. The Defence (Finance) Regulations give power to apply exchange controls but a general licence is in force. Certain controls are, how- ever, exercised in co-operation with the authorised exchange banks, and are designed largely to prevent any prejudice to the sterling area arising from the generally free exchange market in Hong Kong.

The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at approximately 1s 3d. On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. The relationship with sterling was, however, not a statutory one, and was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in conjunction with the note-issuing banks. Nevertheless, it came to be generally regarded as a fixed relationship, particularly since Hong Kong, as both a dependent territory and a member of the sterling area, was required in practice to keep its official reserves, and the greater part of the reserves of the banking system, in the form of sterling.

      Thus, when sterling was devalued by 14.3 per cent in November 1967, Hong Kong suffered a substantial loss estimated at £50 million. After an immediate devaluation of the same proportion, the Hong Kong dollar was revalued by 10 per cent four days after the British move, making a final devaluation of 5.7 per cent. This did not reduce in any way the loss to the community; rather it determined where the loss would fall. The cost to the Colony's public funds amounted to $450 million, including compensation paid from the Exchange Fund to commercial banks against their consequential losses.

      These events finally made it clear that the old relationship with the pound was no longer appropriate to Hong Kong's economic situation. On the other hand, it was not possible for Britain to

50

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

allow any significant diversification of Hong Kong's sterling assets (amounting then to £350 million) into other currencies, in view of her own depleted reserves; while at this stage she was not prepared to offer guarantees of the international value of sterling reserves.

Following negotiations in London, however, a novel arrangement was introduced in June 1968, whereby Hong Kong was allowed to use its sterling assets to purchase British Government bonds, of seven years maturity, denominated in Hong Kong dollars. These bonds were purchasable to a value of £100 million or 50 per cent of official reserves, whichever was greater, up to an absolute maximum of £150 million. The arrangement, for which a charge was made, gave limited protection against loss from a further revaluation of the Hong Kong dollar in terms of sterling, but was soon superseded by a wider and greatly improved arrangement.

Under the new deal, which was made possible by the backing of the so-called Basle arrangement, Britain offered all members of the sterling area, including Hong Kong, a free guarantee in terms of US dollar value of all officially held sterling in excess of 10 per cent of each country's total official external reserves. This was in return for their undertaking to maintain a minimum proportion of their reserves in sterling. The guarantee is for five years from September 25, 1968. Hong Kong accepted this new scheme, under- taking to maintain in her reserves a minimum sterling proportion of 99 per cent. This proportion was reduced to 89.1 per cent (or by 10 per cent) in September 1971, when the British Government agreed to a general reduction of the minimum sterling proportions which sterling area countries had undertaken to maintain in their

reserves.

      Because there is no central bank, a substantial part of the Colony's exchange reserves are held by commercial banks. While the sterling assets held by these banks are not in themselves covered by the British guarantee, the UK/HK guarantee arrangement has a unique feature which was carried on from the earlier Hong Kong Dollar Bond Scheme-a provision whereby official sterling deposits with commercial banks in Hong Kong rank as official reserves for the purposes of the guarantee. This enabled arrangements to be made in February 1969, through the mechanism of the Exchange Fund, to bring a substantial part of commercial banks' sterling within the scope of the guarantee.

While the guarantee remains in force, the Hong Kong dollar is automatically protected from the effects of any lowering in the sterling exchange rate vis-à-vis the US dollar so far as its capital

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

51

assets are concerned. This does not mean, however, that the value of the Hong Kong dollar could necessarily be maintained if such an event was followed by substantial devaluations by Hong Kong's trade competitors to the detriment of her trading position.

       Following a meeting of the Group of Ten in Washington towards the end of December, it was announced that the US dollar would be devalued by 7.89 per cent. This was accompanied by a series of adjustments of other major world currencies. However, both sterling and the Hong Kong dollar maintained their gold parity. In effect, this means that the rate of exchange between the Hong Kong dollar and sterling remains unchanged at $14.55 to £1, while the Hong Kong dollar has been revalued against the US dollar by 8.57 per cent. The new official rate is now HK$5.58 to US$1 as against the old rate of HK$6.06 to US$1.

BANKING

       Bank deposits in the Colony increased again during 1971 to reach a new record figure of $18,785 million at the end of the year, rep- resenting a rise of 25.6 per cent over the previous year-end figure.

       Loans and advances increased to $11,836 million and, as a per- centage of bank deposits, amounted to 63 per cent at the end of the year, compared with 64.7 per cent at the end of 1970.

       At the end of 1971 there were 70 incorporated banks in the Colony with a total of 431 banking offices, an increase of 32 offices during the year. In addition, eight representative offices of foreign banks were given approval to open, making a total of 40.

       Fifty-one of the licensed banks are Authorised Banks for the operation of Exchange Control in the Colony. Together with the unauthorised banks, they have branches and correspondents through- out the world and offer a comprehensive banking service of the highest order.

       Monthly bank clearings during the year averaged $12,874 million. The tables at Appendix 19 illustrate the growth of the banking system over the past 16 years.

STOCK EXCHANGES

       At the end of 1971 there were six stock exchanges incorporated in the Colony under the provisions of the Companies Ordinance, but only three of these were engaged in active trading. During the year the total stock exchange turnover was valued at $14,793.39 million, an increase of 150 per cent over the previous year.

52

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

The Companies Ordinance empowers the Governor in Council to recognise stock exchanges for certain limited purposes connected with the offering in writing of shares to any member of the public. Conditions for recognition have been stipulated by the Governor in Council, and by the end of the year all of the three active exchanges had been recognised.

4

Employment

      SIGNIFICANT strides in labour legislation have been made in recent years in line with the policy of improving working conditions to the maximum compatible with Hong Kong's economic progress.

In the last four years no less than 39 items of labour legisla- tion have been passed. These have led, among other things, to a reduction in the number of disputes over non-payment of wages, maternity protection for women and four rest days a month for most employees. This year the scope of the Workmen's Compensa- tion Ordinance has been extended to make employers responsible for the cost of prostheses and surgical appliances. New woodworking safety regulations have been introduced; certain sections of the Employment Bill have been amended in the light of experience; further measures to protect women and young people working in licensed premises have been passed; and the Overseas Employment Ordinance has been amended to allow the Commissioner of Labour to refuse to attest contracts unfair to workers.

Standard working hours for women and young people in industry have been progressively reduced since 1967 to a maximum of 48 hours a week from December 1 this year.

A very low level of unemployment has continued and average industrial wages have increased by 104 per cent since 1964. Mean- while, the cost of living indexes have risen by only 35 per cent. This means that, measured by real wages, the standard of living has risen by about 51 per cent.

A milestone was passed in the second quarter of 1971 when the industrial labour force topped 600,000 for the first time. By December 1971, the Labour Department had 19,402 industrial undertakings on record employing a total of 605,367 workers, an increase of 15,862 over the 1970 figures. The largest section of the labour force, some 257,937 were engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting, and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods. The plastics industry, which also employs many out-workers, remained the second largest employer. The demand for labour in the manufac- turing industries continued to exceed the supply. Fuller details of

54

EMPLOYMENT

the distribution of industrial undertakings and of people employed in them are given in Appendix 20.

      The most recent analysis of Hong Kong's workforce showed that about 47 per cent of the working population was engaged in con- struction, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities; about 24 per cent in various services; 17 per cent in commerce; seven per cent in communications and five per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern, the estimated employment figures at the end of 1971 were: manufacturing 604,200, services 369,670, com- merce 255,710, construction 94,530, agriculture, forestry and fishing 80,050, communications 104,960, public utilities 14,980, mining and quarrying 4,600. Some 5,870 were believed to be employed in other work, making an estimated total of 1,534,570 employed.

The bulk of the industrial population is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon but there is increasing industrial development in the New Territories, partic- ularly in the new township of Tsuen Wan. In December 1971, the Labour Department had on record 2,029 factories in the New Territories, with a labour force of 94,991. Although most workers are engaged in modern manufacturing processes and to a small extent in mining and quarrying, traditional village industries still provide employment.

      The number of workers who went overseas for jobs during the year was 1,310, compared with 2,150 in the previous year and 2,650 in 1969. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industries are piece-rated, although daily rates of pay are also common. Men and women receive the same rates for piece-work but women are generally paid less when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis or on piece rates and are customarily paid twice monthly or weekly.

The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industries at the end of 1971 was $10.80 to $41.00 for skilled workers; $8.00 to $30.20 for semi-skilled; and $7.30 to $19.20 for unskilled. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, sub- sidised meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, and paid rest-days as well as a Lunar New Year bonus of one month's pay.

EMPLOYMENT

55

A Consumer Price Index, intended as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, continued to be published throughout the year. It varied from 126 to 137 (base of 100=period of September 1963 to August 1964). In December 1971, this index stood at 131 (see Appendix 23). A special index based on the ex- penditure of households spending less than $600 a month and known as the Modified Consumer Price Index is also published and used as the basis for monthly adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. A proportion of the wages of all minor staff (Scale 1) in the public service are adjusted quarterly by reference to this index.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance is the basis for the control of hours and conditions of work in industry. On December 1, 1967, amending legislation introduced a phased pro- gramme to reduce the maximum standard hours for women and young people aged 16 and 17 to eight a day and 48 a week by December 1, 1971. The final phase was implemented without dif- ficulty. In addition to establishing maximum daily hours, regulations limit overtime and provide for weekly rest days and rest periods for women and young people.

      Young people aged 14 and 15 may work eight hours a day in industry with a break of one hour after five hours continuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in in- dustry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground. Regulations under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance also provide for pre-employment medical examination of men employed underground or in tunnelling opera- tions and for the periodical medical examination of men under 21 years of age employed underground.

Because of a continuing shortage of labour, a few large factories engaged in cotton spinning were authorised in 1970 to employ women at night. This permission was restricted to concerns able to comply with stringent conditions. This experimental concession was reviewed in 1971 and subsequently extended for another year. It will be reviewed again in early 1972.

       There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work between eight and 10 hours a day. Government employees and those in concerns operating on western lines work eight hours. The restrictions on the hours of work for women, which were first introduced in January 1959, have resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men working

56

EMPLOYMENT

      alongside women in the same concern. By December 1, 1971, 39 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts. Cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 46,767 men and 51,451 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry.

       The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance provides for six annual holidays, generally with pay, to be given to workers in industrial establishments and for sickness allowance up to 12 days a year on half pay.

       Under the Dutiable Commodities (Liquor) Regulations 1970, which came into force on March 1, 1971, children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in licensed premises. The regula- tions also prohibit the employment of girls under the age of 18 on licensed premises between 8.00 p.m. and 6.00 a.m.

      The Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1971, came into opera- tion on August 6. It simplifies certain provisions relating to the notice required to terminate a contract of employment. It also re- moves a previous ambiguity by making clear that an employer may deduct payment in lieu of notice to which he is entitled from sums payable to an employee on termination of contract of employment.

TRADE UNIONS

       With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, most workers' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which are registered as societies and bear allegiance to opposing political groups. Divided politically and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organisations.

       The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports China. Most of the members of its 66 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills, and public utilities. A further 21 unions, nominally independent, are friendly towards the federation and participate in its activities. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathises with the policies of the Taiwan author- ities. Most of the members of its 91 affiliated unions and of the nine nominally independent unions which generally support the Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

EMPLOYMENT

57

       There are 89 independent unions, some of which continued to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are set out in the Trade Union Registration Ordinance which is administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions. The Trade Union Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 was passed on April 7, and comes into operation on a date yet to be appointed by the Governor.

       The 337 unions on the register at the end of 1971 consisted of 276 workers' unions with a total declared membership of 197,529, 49 organisations of merchants or employers with a declared member- ship of 5,345 and 12 mixed organisations with a total declared membership of 6,472.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES

      The year has been one of consolidation for the Labour Depart- ment which now has a staff of 513 and has extended many of its services. A new regional office in Hong Kong and another in Kowloon have helped to centralise these services and facilitate their expansion. A network of branch offices also exists to deal with labour matters in outlying areas.

      The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Governor on labour and industrial relations policies. He is also Commissioner of Mines. All labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which also ensures that Hong Kong's obliga- tions under International Labour Conventions are observed. The organisation of the department now provides for six divisions: Labour Relations, Industry, Employment, Industrial Health, In- dustrial Training and Development.

       The Labour Relations Division dealt with a total of 4,203 dis- putes. Of these 126 were labour disputes (formerly called major disputes) 666 major grievance disputes (large wage claims) and 3,411 minor grievance disputes (minor disputes). The figures for 1970 were 146; 331 and 2,332 respectively. There were 42 strikes and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 25,600 com- pared with 47,243 in 46 strikes and one lockout during 1970. Most labour disputes were due mainly to disagreement over piece rates, redundancy, dismissal and insolvency.

         The staff of five full-time offices of the Labour Relations Service on Hong Kong Island, and in Kowloon (East), Kowloon (West),

58

EMPLOYMENT

Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan was considerably increased during the year. Further progress has been made in the proposal to establish a Summary Civil Court which will be presided over by an officer of the Judiciary. When established this court will settle expeditiously employees' claims of right to money when those rights arise from contracts of employment or certain statutes.

By the end of the year the Labour Department had recorded the existence of 91 formal joint consultative councils and committees set up by 56 establishments. Most were working smoothly and achieving the object of bringing management and employees together to improve relationships and allow each to benefit from the ex- perience of the other. Similar committees established in certain government departments discussed a wide range of administrative, welfare and organisational problems. Two hundred and forty special visits were made during the year to employers who have shown posi- tive interest in introducing joint consultation. Two guides, 'Grievance and Disciplinary Procedures' and 'A Concise Guide to the Employ- ment Ordinance' were produced during the year and free copies in English and Chinese were made available to employers and em- ployees in commerce, industry and services. A comprehensive guide to the Employment Ordinance has also been prepared and is now in print.

      The continuing shortage of labour resulted in wage demands being made by employees in the traditional trades, the manufactur- ing industries, the public utility companies and government services. Altogether, 35 unions have made proposals for wage increases.

      The factory inspectorate of the department's Industry Division is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, for the safety of workers in factories and industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance were given to management on ways and means of guarding dangerous parts of machinery, adopting safe working practices, and the general layout of factories to achieve safe working conditions.

      The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Woodworking Ma- chinery) Regulations 1971 came into operation on November 1. They provide for safety measures in the use of woodworking machinery. A guide to the regulations is being prepared and copies will be distributed to employers and workers in the trade.

       During the year, the Industrial Safety Training Centre moved into larger premises. Its scope and activities continued to expand, with officers of its staff giving lectures to workers and students at technical and vocational training centres. The centre also helps to

EMPLOYMENT

59

organise safety committees and prepares booklets and posters on industrial safety. A major feature of the new premises is a large display and demonstration area with a range of power-driven factory machinery fitted with safety guards. This adds realism to the existing practical instruction in safe working procedures.

The Local Employment Service provides a placement service introducing job seekers to prospective employers and vice versa. During the year, the service registered 16,420 workers, recorded 7,055 employers' orders for workers, and helped to place 3,179 workers in employment.

The Youth Employment Advisory Service produced 33 careers pamphlets in its series 'A Guide to Careers in Hong Kong'. Chinese versions of the pamphlets are being printed and will be made available to schools, organisations and individuals who are in- terested in careers advisory work. The service is now in its second stage of development which involves careers talks to senior pupils in secondary schools and the participation in careers conventions organised by school authorities and other establishments interested in careers for young people. By the end of the year 240 talks had been given in 64 schools and the number of pupils involved is estimated at 11,500.

       The Overseas Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 came into operation on July 23. It exempts manual workers going to the United Kingdom and possessing work permits or labour permits issued by the British Department of Employment from entering into written overseas contracts with their prospective employers before leaving Hong Kong. The amendment stipulates that the employer will be liable for any stamp duty on the documents. It also empowers the Commissioner of Labour to refuse attestation of any overseas employment contract if he is satisfied that its terms are unfair to the workers or do not adequately protect the workers' interests.

Permission to work in Britain is given by the British Department of Employment through the Labour Department. During the year 1,003 permits and vouchers were issued, including five to Common- wealth citizens seeking unspecified employment, 241 to local people of British nationality going to specific jobs, and 757 to local resi- dents of non-British nationality.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

The Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department acts as an advisory service to the Government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. The work of the division is primarily

60

EMPLOYMENT

concerned with preventing occupational diseases and protecting workers against health hazards in their working environment. These hazards are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate, or by officers of the division. Control is achieved by environmental and biological monitoring and health education. The division has a laboratory with technicians trained in industrial hygiene. This laboratory has been designated as a collaborating laboratory on air pollution by the World Health Organisation.

The measurement of many concentrations in the air, such as chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust and sulphur dioxide, and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise, and lighting form a major part of the routine duties of the division. Medical examinations are also under- taken, including X-rays and pathological investigations, of workers exposed to risks of lead, radiation, fluoride toxicity or silica dust.

Under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, the division has responsibilities for the clinical examination, case work, and medical assessment of injured workers. This important service operates prin- cipally from the casualty departments of the Queen Mary Hospital, the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Kwong Wah Hospital, although many visits to homes and work- places are made by the health visitors of the division. The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Bill 1971 which would require em- ployers to meet the cost of prostheses and surgical appliances was presented to the Legislative Council at the end of the year and became law on December 3.

The Air Pollution Control Unit operates under the guidance of the Smoke Abatement Adviser. Seven assistant smoke inspectors, although still under training, are carrying out its field work. There are now 35 monitoring stations. By the end of the year two sets of regulations were in an advanced stage of preparation. These were the Clean Air (Furnaces, Ovens and Chimneys) (Installation and Alteration) Regulations and the Clean Air (Restriction and Measure- ment of Smoke Emission) Regulations.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

In March 1971, after five years investigation, the Industrial Train- ing Advisory Committee (ITAC) completed its final report. This was published in November and is under consideration by the Govern- ment. The ITAC which has operated through a complex of com- mittees, has drawn up a comprehensive picture of the industrial

EMPLOYMENT

61

      manpower needs of 10 major industries. In addition it has prepared and compiled minimum job standards and specifications for the principal jobs in these industries, evaluated the deficiency in technical education and in-plant practical training facilities, and made recom- mendations on how to solve various industrial training problems. Its recommendations could have far-reaching effects on the develop- ment of industrial training in Hong Kong.

In the field of pre-vocational and vocational training, a number of centres offering training in technical, commercial and catering trades are operated by voluntary welfare organisations and the Government. Committees of the ITAC complex have played an active role in co-ordinating and raising the standard of training in these centres.

The Apprenticeship Training Unit of the Labour Department con- tinued its work of encouraging and assisting employers to set up modern organised apprenticeship schemes for training craftsmen and technicians. Firms in the electronics and building industries which began technician apprentice training last year took on further new apprentices this year. Other firms in these industries, as well as in the clothing and textiles industries, have started training. At crafts- men level, firms in the metal working, electrical and motor trades, which started training last year, took on more apprentices this year.

Technical education on a day-release basis forms an essential part of the apprenticeship scheme proposed by the Apprenticeship Train- ing Unit. Part-time day-release courses for both craft and technician apprentices are being provided by either the Hong Kong Technical College or the Morrison Hill Technical Institute. Most of the courses began in 1970 and the demand for places for new apprentices has not abated.

In line with recommendations made by the ITAC, the construc- tion of two more technical institutes to meet the demand for more industrial training has been approved and it is expected that they will be brought into operation by 1976. The need for more institutes will also be assessed at an appropriate time during the construction of these two additional centres.

LO

5

Primary Production

HONG KONG's primary producers tend to be overshadowed by the spectacular successes that have been made in the industrial sphere, but this relatively small group of workers is playing an important role in the development of the territory. Their resourcefullness is amply illustrated by the fact that they have turned their land into intensive farming areas producing a remarkable variety of foodstuffs.

      The farmers have also taken up the challenge posed by the dwindl- ing areas now available for intensive cultivation, by the introduction of new methods and better land management, resulting in higher production from existing or smaller plots.

ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES

      The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilisation and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with the economic, social and technological development of Hong Kong fisheries, especially those aspects which directly involve the fishermen, and the adminis- trative organisation of co-operative societies of all types. The con- servation of water and soil, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is also an important aspect of the department's work. Afforestation is principally undertaken by the department and private afforestation is relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

      Research programmes of the department extend to and include crop and animal husbandry as well as fisheries. On government farms, experiments continue into improving the quality and yield per acre of strains of local vegetables and flowers. Although, results were generally satisfactory, the 1971 crop rotation trials on rice fields were badly affected by typhoons. A summer strain of Chinese kale was selected and multiplied for distribution to farmers. To improve qual- ity in the field of animal husbandry, the department supplies farmers with breeding stock of pigs and poultry and also provides an artificial insemination service for pigs.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

63

Fisheries research is carried on at the main station in Aberdeen, and sub-stations at Kat O and Au Tau. The Aberdeen station is concerned with biological and hydrographical research in local waters in the northern part of the South China Sea and with aquaculture research. At the Kat O sub-station, investigations are continuing into mariculture and at the Au Tau sub-station, experiments relating to induced breeding of carp species are in hand.

      Development and extension services are also provided for the agricultural and fishing industries. The main development in the agricultural industry (due primarily to rising labour costs), is the increasing interest farmers have shown in the use of small farm machines and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of 1971, 183 'Landmaster' cultivators were in use on fields and 158 sprinkler units were established on vegetable farms. With financial and technical assistance from the Government, the fishing industry is in the process of further development and modernisation with the in- troduction of new vessel designs, including the 86-foot wooden pair trawler and long-liner and the 54-foot long-liner. About 200 of these have so far been built, 150 with private funds and 50 with govern- ment financial aid.

The Colony is divided into three districts for agricultural exten- sion. Each district is administered by a District Extension Staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with farming, livestock and co-operative problems. Close contact with the farming community is maintained by means of farm advisers and by liaison with local co-operative societies and rural associations. Both credit. and technical facilities are available through the extension service.

      In the rural extension programme in 1971, over 1,110 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out in which 235 farmers and farmers' sons and daugh- ters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. Over 137,100 visits were made to farmers and co-operative societies by both professional and technical officers and farmers also visited government experimental farms and farming projects.

Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through an extension service, similar in scope to that provided for the agri- cultural industry, and by liaison with fishermen's co-operative socie- ties. A number of these societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which continue to grow in size and effectiveness. The position of registered fishermen's co-operative societies as at Decem- ber 31, 1971, is shown at Appendix 25. Extension work also included

64

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as local masters and engine operators, and the instruction of local fishermen in navigation. As an adjunct to extension work, through the Fish Marketing Organisation, schooling facilities are provided for the children of fishermen. Fourteen schools have so far been established and some 3,800 children were being educated at these at the end of 1971. A further 177 were attending other schools on scholarships provided by the organisation.

Loans are available to the agricultural industry through four separate loan funds: the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organisation Loan Fund, which are all administered through the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. At December 31, 1971, the total loans issued and recovered since the inception of these four funds were in the order of $59,990,215 and $55,733,142 respectively.

The Fisheries Development Loan Fund, administered by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, is allotted specifically for the development of the distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. The World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies, made available in 1954 by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, also assists members of fishermen's co- operative societies. Further credit facilities are available to fishermen through the revolving loan fund of the Fish Marketing Organisation. This fund was established in 1946 and has made loans totalling $36 million; of this, some $32.33 million had been repaid by the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was raised to $4.5 million in 1971. The organisation also administers a revolving loan fund of $110,000 financed by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, specifically for shrimp fishermen.

Co-operative societies operate under a Co-operative Societies Ordinance, which provides for the appointment of a Registrar (currently the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) whose staff supervise and assist co-operative societies and encourage the forma- tion of new ones. Farmers and fishermen have been foremost in accepting the co-operative movement, while local civil servants form another major sector with the establishment of non-terminating co- operative building societies with financial aid from the Government. The versatility of the movement is evidenced by the formation of primary societies with such diverse objects and activities as vegetable marketing, pig raising, agriculture and fisheries credit, better living, thrift loan, housing and the supply of consumer goods. In addition,

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

65

six federations of co-operative societies serve the needs of primary societies formed by farmers and fishermen. A table showing the number and types of co-operative societies at December 31, 1971, with details of membership, share capital and deposits is at Appendix 25.

      In recognition of the needs of lower income groups for thrift and small loans, legislation in the form of the Credit Unions Ordinance was enacted in February, 1970 to incorporate and regulate credit unions and to provide for incidental matters. The ordinance provides for the appointment of a Registrar (currently the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) with powers and duties in regard to the registration of credit unions and their by-laws, the examination of accounts and general supervision. Up to the end of the year 44 credit unions were registered with common bonds falling into the categories of association, common employment and residence. The number and categories of common bonds of credit unions at November 30, 1971, with details of membership, share capital (savings) and reserve funds is shown in Appendix 26.

LAND UTILISATION AND FORESTRY

Of the 403.7 square miles in the Colony, only 13 per cent is used for farming; 76 per cent of the total area is marginal land, in different degrees of sub-grade character, and the built-up areas comprise the remaining 11 per cent. The need to establish new towns and residential areas on plans that provide for adequate open space, wider roads and public facilities of all kinds, inevitably means en- croachment upon agricultural land. The losses, however, are partially offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

Approximate

Percentage

(square miles) of whole

Remarks

Class

area

(i) Built-up (Urban Areas)

45.7

11.3

Includes roads railways.

and

(ii) Woodlands

54.0

13.4

Natural and established woodlands.

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

233.4

57.8

Natural grass and scrub,

including Plover Cove

reservoir.

(iv) Badlands

14.0

3.5

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable

of

regeneration.

(v) Swamp and mangrove

lands

(vi) Arable...

(vii) Fish ponds

5.0

1.2

44

Capable of reclamation.

47.7

11.8

Includes orchards

and

market gardens.

3.9

1.0

Fresh and brackish water

:

:

fish farming.

66

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

      The principal objectives of forestry in Hong Kong are to preserve and improve the vegetative cover on the Colony's steep hillsides, to prevent soil erosion and to assist in the conservation of water supplies, wildlife and the aesthetic and recreational amenities of the countryside. The main problem in implementing this policy is the frequent occurrence, mainly during the dry winter months, of fires which destroy or seriously change both natural vegetation and plantation. The efforts of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department are thus devoted to the prevention, suppression and repair of fire damage, as well as tree-planting and the provision of advisory and conservation education services. During 1971, 174 acres were newly planted with trees and 65 acres replanted. Forestry fire crews were called out to 524 fires. Damage to plantations was approximately 1,683 acres compared with 860 acres in 1970.

AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY

      The policy of the Government is to foster the growth of the agricultural industry in Hong Kong so as to make the territory as self-sufficient in food-stuffs as possible, bearing in mind priorities in land utilisation and the economics of food production in the region.

The principal crops grown are vegetables, rice, flowers, fruit and other field crops. The value of crop production has increased from $75.8 million in 1964-5 to $205 million in 1970-1, a rise of some 170 per cent. Vegetable production presently accounts for over 78 per cent of the total value, having increased from $54 million in 1964-5 to $159 million in 1970-1.

      Rice is the staple food of the southern Chinese. Two crops of rice a year can be grown on land where water is adequate. The normal yield from an acre of two-crop rice land is approximately two tons, but the yield per acre can be increased to over five tons by planting high yielding strains of rice selected from varieties IR8 and Nonsensitive BPI (bicol) together with improved management and high levels of manuring. Since 1954 the acreage of rice land has dropped from 23,353 acres to 11,288 acres in 1971. Rice production continues to give way to very intensive vegetable production which has a far higher return, where there is adequate water and good road

access.

The main vegetable crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish and leaf mustard which grow all the year round. Considerable quantities of string bean, water spinach, cucumber, and many species of Chinese gourd are produced in

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

67

summer and excellent quality tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, celery and watercress in winter. The main types of flowers are chrysanthemum and gladiolus which grow all the year round; dahlia, snapdragon, aster, carnation and rose are grown in winter, and ginger lily and lotus flower in summer. Peach blossom is grown especially for the Lunar New Year. The area of land under vegetables and flowers has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 10,015 acres in 1971.

      A wide range of fruit is grown on the lower hill slopes. The princi- pal crops are lychee, longan, wampei, local lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, banana and pineapple. The acreage under orchards in 1954 was 952 acres. By 1971, it was 1,584 acres.

       Other field crops such as sweet potatoes, groundnut, millet, soy beans and sugar-cane are cultivated in the drier land where water is inadequate for the planting of rice or vegetables. The acreage under the rainfed crops was 3,450 acres in 1954 compared with 1,978 acres in 1971.

       As there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared for food. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming difficult to find. Although locally produced pigs represent only 16 per cent of total pigs killed, their value is some $51 million per annum, and proposals to stimulate and expand production are being implemented.

       The poultry industry, including pigeons and quail, which had an annual production value of $198 million is developing rapidly. Farmers are adopting advanced methods of management and success- fully adapting them to local conditions, taking the process through from locally bred chicks to table birds, using both local breeds and imported hybrids. Duck rearing is also important and steps are being taken to expand this industry. Legislation controlling the slaughter and inspection of Chinese style pressed ducks for export to the United States was passed during 1970.

While local cattle and buffaloes are kept mainly for work, imported Friesians are kept by dairies, the main one on Hong Kong Island and others in smaller groups outside Kowloon and in the New Territories. Regular tuberculin testing is carried out on all dairy animals.

      Sporadic outbreaks of a mild type of foot-and-mouth disease (type O) and swine fever still occur, but these have been kept under control by vaccination. Newcastle disease in poultry has been con- trolled by the use of the Ranikhet and intra-nasal-drop vaccines.

68

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

During 1970, the lapinised rinderpest vaccine formerly used was replaced by a tissue-culture vaccine which gives a prolonged immu- nity against the rinderpest disease in cattle. Investigations to estab- lish the incidence of intercurrent disease in both pigs and poultry are being undertaken at the veterinary laboratory.

      Legislation requires all imported dogs and cats to be quarantined for six months except those from scheduled countries (UK, Australia and New Zealand) to prevent the introduction of rabies. Stray dogs are caught and detained for observation and, if unclaimed, destroyed in pursuance of the rabies control policy.

FISHING INDUSTRY

      As marine fish is one of Hong Kong's main primary products, every effort is made to encourage the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of fishermen.

      The fishing fleet consists of some 5,600 vessels of which about 5,000 are mechanised. The number of fishermen is estimated at 48,000 and the main fishing centres are at Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, Castle Peak, Tai Po and Sai Kung. The larger part of the fleet is owner-operated, while the remainder is directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

      Fish ponds totalling 2,500 acres are mainly located in the Yuen Long area. The most important species is the grey mullet, the fry of which are collected along the coastal waters in spring. Other impor- tant species for cultivation include silver carp, grass carp, big-head and mud-carp; a total of 15.1 million of these fry were imported from China and Taiwan during 1971. Total fish pond production in 1971 amounted to 2,257.32 metric tons, representing 8.4 per cent of the local freshwater fish consumption; this quantity is valued at $14.9 million.

      Edible oysters are cultivated in Deep Bay. Production amounted to 85.57 metric tons of oyster meat, valued at approximately $942,500. Part of this quantity was dried for export.

MARKETING

      There are two principal wholesale marketing organisations serving the agricultural and fishing industries. These are the Vegetable Marketing Organisation and the Fish Marketing Organisation.

      The Vegetable Marketing Organisation operates under the Agri- culture Products (Marketing) Ordinance, which provides for a board

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

69

to advise the Director of Marketing (currently the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). Its main objective is to provide for orderly transportation of locally-produced vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, and the super- vision of sales and financial transactions in the market. Revenue is obtained from a 10 per cent commission on sales of vegetables. The organisation is a non-profit-making concern and seeks to obtain maximum returns for growers by minimising their marketing costs. During 1971, 83,222 metric tons of vegetables, valued at $65,116,921 were sold through the organisation.

The Fish Marketing Organisation operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance, which likewise provides for a board to advise the Director of Marketing. The organisation grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War, with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. It provides orderly marketing and transportation facilities for the primary producer and the retailer of marine fish, at the organisation's seven wholesale markets. Revenue is obtained from a six per cent commission on sales of fish. As a non-profit-making body, surplus earnings are ploughed back into the primary sector of the fishing industry through low-interest loans for productive pur- poses. In 1971, landings marketed through wholesale fish markets totalled 75,463 metric tons valued at $141.78 million.

      As part of the forward planning of marketing facilities in 1971, the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries carried out a pre- construction survey with a view to obtaining information and data relating to future improved wholesale marketing facilities for im- ported vegetables, fruit and poultry. Similar surveys have been carried out in connection with locally-produced fish and vegetables.

MINING

      Iron ore and, at times, graphite are mined underground and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron ore concen- trate (magnetite) is exported to Japan, graphite principally to the United States and kaolin to Japan and Taiwan. Most of the feldspar and about 30 per cent of the kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

      Under the Mining Ordinance, the ownership and control of minerals is vested in the Crown. The Land Officer is empowered to grant mining leases and the Commissioner of Mines to grant mining and prospecting licences. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of

70

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

    1971 there were three mining leases, 19 mining licences, and six prospecting licences valid for different areas in the territory.

Staff of the Mines Department deal with applications for pros- pecting and mining licences, the issue of mine blasting certificates, inspection of mining and prospecting areas for the enforcement of mining legislation, inspection of stone quarries for the enforcement of safety regulations, inspections for the enforcement of explosives legislation and the delivery of explosives from government depots to blasting sites. Under the Dangerous Goods (Amendment) Ordinance 1971, which came into effect on May 1, the Commissioner of Mines is responsible for the control and management of government explosives depots which provide bulk storage facilities for all ex- plosives imported into Hong Kong.

EDUCATION

کوکار

共圖

香港公主

A

RE

turning point in the field of education in Hong Kong was reached in 1971 with the implementation of certain major decisions. These included the abolition of fees in all Chinese language government primary schools and the majority of aided primary schools, and a form of compulsory primary education. Also an- nounced was a post-primary extension programme, aimed at pro- viding three years of aided secondary education for all who seek it, with half of this target to be achieved by 1976. In the sphere of technical education, the Hong Kong Polytechnic is under active planning after the appointment of the first Director, and two more technical institutes, similar to the existing one at Morrison Hill, are also being planned. Another important advancement was the open- ing of the Educational Television Service, providing programmes to third year primary school children in the basic areas of Chinese language, English language, mathematics and social studies. The picture on the previous page shows a group of children being entertained by Tai Ying Mo, 'Big Parrot', at the ETV studios. Big Parrot, actually played by a nine year old boy, appears in the programme series on social studies. Opposite, a cautious bid to answer a question.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Learning through the medium of television.

BAC

LIBRAR

One of the new primary schools built in Hong Kong's housing

estates.

SAUSAGE, TAMNESTIRAN

火雞

Study time for pupils at a school

in Chai Wan.

Island School is one of the few catering for children from abroad.

י

L.

Development of creative talents is an essential part of education.

The Morrison Hill Technical In- stitute helps provide Hong Kong with the expertise needed in a progressive community.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong near Sha Tin, the Colony's second university, will be fully occupied by the end of 1972.

RIES

6

Education

A MILESTONE in the development of education in Hong Kong was reached in 1971 with the introduction of free primary education in all government schools (except the five English language schools) and the majority of aided primary schools; a new post-primary education policy which aims at giving three years of aided education to all children in the 12 to 14 age group; educational television; and a form of compulsory primary education.

This last provision is embodied in the Education Ordinance 1971 which came into operation on September 30. It gives the Director of Education powers to order parents to send their children to school where it appears to him that they are withholding their children from primary school without reasonable excuse. Provision exists for parents to appeal, if they wish, to a specially constituted board of review. The ordinance also revises, in some respects, the procedures to be followed for the registration of managers and schools to reflect the development and changes which have taken place in education in Hong Kong since the enactment of the previous Education Ordin- ance in 1952.

Under the Education Ordinance, the Director of Education is responsible for all matters relating to education in Hong Kong. He directly controls all government schools, while all other schools with very few exceptions are required to be registered under the ordinance. This provides the Director with the necessary powers to ensure that acceptable standards are maintained. The Director is also chairman of the Board of Education which advises the Governor on educational matters.

One of the main features of education continues to be its steady expansion. Detailed figures are given in Appendix 28. At the end of September, enrolment in primary schools was 764,313 and in secondary schools it was 295,820, compared with 765,397 and 279,318 respectively in 1970. Altogether 1,268,660 pupils were enrolled in 2,861 schools, colleges and education centres, 28,120 more than last year. The slight drop in primary school enrolments has been attributed to the decline in the annual birth rate in the Colony over the past eight years.

72

EDUCATION

In May it was announced that, with effect from September, the fees charged in government junior English-speaking schools would be raised from $600 to $1,500 a year and in King George V School from $1,500 to $3,000 a year. These increases were necessary to give effect to government policy that the subsidy paid to English-speaking schools should not exceed the subsidy for other aided primary and secondary schools. However, in August the introduction of the new fees was postponed until January 1, 1972 to allow the Government further time to study recommendations made by the Salaries Com- mission on education allowances and to finalise details of a new fee remission scheme. In November it was announced that the proposed increases had been further postponed until September 1, 1972 so that a Select Committee of the Legislative Council could examine in detail the operating costs of English-speaking schools.

PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION

Private kindergartens, which are not maintained or run by the Government but are registered with the Education Department and supervised by the inspectorate, fell from 863 in 1970 to 841 in September 1971 and enrolment rose from 123,218 to 132,900. The Government gives assistance in the form of grants of Crown land to reliable bodies, the provision of accommodation in government low- cost housing estates, the waiving of rents in resettlement estates, and the provision of teacher training and further education facilities. It also makes freely available professional advice which is greatly sought after by teachers and managers.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

The great majority of primary schools use Cantonese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Seven primary schools, including five operated by the Government, cater for children whose first language is English.

The total primary day school enrolment in September was 744,219, compared with 741,476 in the previous year. In addition, 20,094 pupils attended primary night schools and a limited number of special afternoon classes. During the year 39,170 new primary places were provided, compared with 37,443 in the previous year. The target of providing a government or subsidised primary place for every child of primary school age has already been reached. Further provision of school places will be geared mainly to the needs of developing areas.

EDUCATION

73

From September 1, 1971, free primary education was introduced in all government Chinese language schools and in the majority of aided primary schools. Included in the policy is the abolition of tuition fees in government primary schools, both the tuition fees and the subscription (tong fai) in aided primary schools and the $5 annual contribution which is charged in government schools to meet the cost of extra-curricular activities such as sports and school picnics. In addition, all aided primary schools which have not fully repaid their government interest-free loans for building and equip- ment will have their loans waived. The new scheme benefits about three-quarters of the total primary school enrolment.

       The textbook and stationery grant of $20 per annum which was introduced in 1969 continues to be available to 20 per cent of pupils in government and aided primary schools. This serves further to lighten the burden of needy parents.

        The Education Ordinance 1971 gives the Director of Education powers to enforce school attendance where parents appear to be unnecessarily withholding their children of suitable age from attend- ing primary school. These powers will be exercised by the Director only after a careful investigation of the family's circumstances and the needs of the child. When an attendance order is made, parents have the right of appeal to a specially constituted board of review. The decision of the board is final.

SPECIAL EDUCATION

       Thirty-one special schools cater for more than 4,000 blind, deaf, physically handicapped, mentally handicapped and maladjusted children. In addition, there are 30 special classes for 600 slow- learning children in 16 government primary schools, four special classes for 40 partially hearing children in two government primary schools, and two special classes for 30 partially sighted children in one government primary school. Over 350 mildly physically handi- capped children have been placed in ordinary classes in government primary schools and government subsidised schools. These children are supervised regularly by the Special Education Section.

       The Special Education Section provides diagnostic services which include audiologic testing, psychological testing, speech screening, and educational assessment, as well as remedial services in auditory training and speech therapy. It also runs an audiometric screening programme and a speech screening programme in government primary schools. During the year these services were made available to over 17,000 children. The section also runs in-service training

74

EDUCATION

courses for teachers of special schools and special classes. In addition, short courses on teaching of physically handicapped children and seminars on speech therapy in the classroom are given to teachers in ordinary schools, and lectures on the education of handicapped children are given to teachers under training in the colleges of educa- tion. The section directs a braille printing press which is operated by the Government Printer. This press prints all the Cantonese braille textbooks and supplies them to schools for the blind under government subsidy at one-tenth the actual cost. As a result schools for the blind can purchase braille books at almost the same cost as standard textbooks.

Plans to expand the facilities for handicapped children in special and ordinary schools are now being considered.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

There are five types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools, second- ary modern schools and pre-vocational schools. The 233 Anglo- Chinese grammar day schools have an enrolment of 184,651 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination. Instruction is in English, and Chinese is taught as a second language. Successful certificate of education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare themselves for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or The Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition there are 33,269 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level sub- jects, mainly English language, is offered.

The 108 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 51,142 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) examination. Instruction is in Chinese, and English is taught as a second language. A number of Chinese middle schools also offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who pass the certificate of education in English or Chinese, higher education is available at the colleges of education and the Technical College.

      There are 13 secondary technical schools 12 of which offer a five- year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Eight of the schools are government, three are subsidised and two are private. Their total enrolment is 7,905. Like the Anglo-Chinese

EDUCATION

75

grammar schools they prepare their pupils for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination and suitable candidates can continue their studies either in Form VI or at the Technical College. Five subsidised secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,701 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also 10 private and four subsidised secondary schools with a total enrolment of 4,064 which offer some form of technical or trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education examina- tion. Plans have been approved to provide 6,000 places in three- year courses in subsidised pre-vocational schools and three such schools are already in operation.

There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools operated during the day. In Septem- ber there were 251,463 such students compared with 235,406 in the previous year. During the school year 10,760 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings.

      The Government's declared aim is to provide three years of aided secondary education for all children in the 12-14 age group seeking it. This will require a substantial programme of expansion, and every effort is being made to provide places for 50 per cent of the age group by 1976. Within this figure, provision will be made for 18-20 per cent of the 12-16 age group to proceed to aided courses leading to a certificate of education.

The extra school places to be found in Forms I-III under this new policy will be provided either directly in government or aided schools, or in private non-profit-making schools which will be assisted for the purpose, or by buying places in suitable private profit-making schools. For 1971-2 over 6,000 pupils have been awarded three-year assisted places on the results of the Secondary School Entrance examination to be taken up in various private non-profit-making and private profit-making secondary schools. New schools will also have to be built to make up the balance of the required number of places in Forms I-III.

HIGHER EDUCATION

       A scheme of student financing, under which public funds are made available for outright grants and interest-free loans to needy students at the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese Univer- sity of Hong Kong was introduced by the Government in 1969-70. The administration of grants totalling $2.7 million and loans totalling $3.4 million for 1971-2 is in the hands of a Joint Universities Com- mittee. This scheme represents a substantial increase in the amount

76

EDUCATION

of public funds available for student financing. It is intended to enable the Government to achieve the aim of ensuring that students offered a place in either of the two universities should not be pre- vented, through lack of means, from accepting places.

Both the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong have financial resources of their own, but are largely financed by the Government. Because of the importance of university development and the sums of public money involved, the Govern- ment needs impartial and expert advice both on the assessment of the amount of grant required to sustain any level of university activity and on developments necessary to meet the community's requirements for graduates. The Government also needs advice on the allocation of funds between the universities. To carry out these functions there is a University Grants Committee appointed by the Governor. It also acts as the formal channel between the universities and the Government.

The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the Government and endowments which have since been increased. Substantial government grants are also made towards the university's annual recurrent and non-recurrent expenditure.

The number of undergraduate places in each faculty in 1971-2 were as follows: arts 684; science 447; medicine 669; engineering and architecture 564; and social sciences, including law 498. Of these, a total of 885 places were available for new undergraduate entrants. There were also 474 places for postgraduate students, comprising 307 reading for higher degrees and 167 reading for diplomas and certificates, 32 students at the Chinese Language School and nine external students. The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstratorships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year was 436. All the degrees and other professional qualifications conferred by the university are on the same footing as those of the universities in Great Britain.

      The university's Department of Education offers graduates a one- year full-time course leading to a Diploma in Education and a two- year part-time course leading to a Certificate in Education. The department also offers the MPhil following a qualifying examination, either as a six-term part-time period of study spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time candidature. As in other departments, the PhD is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

The Department of Extra-mural Studies provided over 216 evening and day-time courses for adult students in 1970-1. During the period

EDUCATION

77

July 1970 to June 1971, 5,548 attended regular courses and 372 attend- ed public lectures, seminars and conferences. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from oriental studies through a full range of liberal arts and language courses to economics, law and commerce, and include a rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including a Diploma in Management Studies which is recognised by the British Institute of Management.

       The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level. Entry to the university is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination. In May, 4,135 candidates entered for the examination, of whom 2,357 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry.

       The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in October 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It comprises Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. The university is situated on 330 acres of land on the Tai Po Road near Sha Tin. It is anticipated that by December 1972, New Asia College and United College, which are now located in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island, will be on the new

campus.

The Chinese University at present has three faculties and the total undergraduate enrolment in September 1971 was 2,412. The enrol- ment in each faculty is: arts 685, science 709, commerce and social science 1,018. During the year 488 students graduated from the university-16 Masters of Arts, one Master of Science, eight Masters of Business Administration, 146 Bachelors of Arts, 68 Bachelors of Business Administration, 127 Bachelors of Social Science, and 122 Bachelors of Science. In the matriculation examination held in the summer of 1971, a total of 6,519 candidates sat and 2,127 passed. The total number of freshmen for the academic year 1971-2 was 647.

       The Graduate School of the university was established in Septem- ber 1966, and admits students for two years of postgraduate studies in arts, science, business administration, and social science leading to a Master's degree. Up to October 1971, 109 students had been awarded Master's degrees. In the current academic year, there are 100 students in the school.

The School of Education, inaugurated in September 1965, offers a one-year full-time and a two-year part-time postgraduate course

78

EDUCATION

of professional training leading to a Diploma in Education. A total of 43 students obtained the Diploma in 1971.

      The Lingnan Institute of Business Administration was inaugurated in September 1966. The institute provides facilities for graduate study and research in the broad area of business administration, and offers a two-year curriculum leading to the degree of Master of Business Administration.

       The Department of Extra-mural Studies of The Chinese University of Hong Kong offered over 400 courses and had an enrolment of 12,478 during 1970-1. In addition to general courses, the department has so far provided certificate programmes in hotel management, hotel operation, social welfare, the promotion and techniques of tourism, tourist guiding, applied design, transistor technology, com- puter fundamentals and programming, Chinese history, Chinese literature, general banking administration, basic systems analysis, librarianship, advanced translation and the teaching of modern mathematics in secondary schools. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin. The department also offers correspondence courses in English and Chinese writing, English and Chinese language and literature, business administration, design and other subjects.

THE POLYTECHNIC

      The Polytechnic Planning Committee, established by the Govern- ment in 1969 with the intention of expanding higher technical and vocational education in Hong Kong by setting up a polytechnic based on the existing Technical College, completed its recommenda- tions to the Governor in July 1971. In the same month the Hong Kong Polytechnic Ordinance was enacted and the first Director of the Polytechnic appointed. At the end of the year plans were in hand for the development of the new Polytechnic aimed at provid- ing 4,000 full-time and 20,000 part-time places by 1974-5.

THE TECHNICAL COLLEGE

The college, a post-secondary institution operated by the Govern- ment, had a total enrolment of 11,853 students in 395 classes, comprising 1,820 full-time students in 64 classes, 662 part-time day-release students in 27 classes and 9,371 evening students in 304 classes distributed over 10 centres. It has eight departments: build- ing, surveying and structural engineering; commerce and manage- ment studies; electrical engineering; mechanical, production and

EDUCATION

79

marine engineering; textile industries; nautical studies; mathematics and science; and industrial and commercial design. These provide full-time courses leading to the college's own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the membership examinations of many British professional institutions, a number of which have granted exemption from certain parts of their examinations to students in the higher diploma courses. These include, among others, exemption from the Council of Engineering Institutions Part I examinations in structural engineering, mechanical engineering, production engineering, elec- trical engineering and electronic engineering; and from the first part of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors examinations for holders of the Technical College higher diploma in the relevant departments.

      In addition to the two-year and three-year diploma courses, the electrical engineering department also offers courses for first and second-class radio officers, and a three-month course in radar main- tenance which gives training to qualified sea-going officers and technicians. With effect from September 1971, the radio officers' courses have been replaced by a two-year marine electronic officers' course leading to the Telecommunication Authority's Radio Com- munication General Certificate. The department of nautical studies operates courses for deck officer cadets. These are approved by the British Department of Trade and Industry as preparatory courses for navigating officers and remission of qualifying sea service is granted. The department also offers up-grading courses for masters and mates of foreign-going vessels and radar observer courses for junior officers. The department of mechanical, production and marine engineering also operates a number of productivity courses. Full- time courses at craftsman level are also offered in radio and television servicing. The department of textile industries is now offering courses covering all aspects of textiles. In the near future, some full-time students will undertake a specialised course in clothing technology. The college will liaise with the United Kingdom Clothing Institute in regard to students becoming professionally qualified in this field.

The eight departments also provide part-time day-release and evening courses. These lead to qualifications in a range of technical and commercial subjects at professional and technician levels. When- ever there is a need for courses on specific subjects of current interest to local industry or to a sufficient number of individuals, the college offers short courses to meet the demand, so far as its resources permit. During the year, a number of short courses of this nature were offered by all departments.

80

THE MORRISON HILL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

EDUCATION

      The Morrison Hill Technical Institute, established in 1969, consists of six departments: business studies, construction, electrical engineer- ing, mechanical engineering, preliminary and general studies, and technical teacher and workshop instructor training. It runs courses on a full-time, block-release, part-time day-release and part-time evening basis. Short courses in specialised technical/commercial sub- jects are also provided. Entry requirements for each course vary greatly, ranging from a general educational background of Primary 6 level to Form V. During the 1970-1 session, student enrolment for a total of 85 courses exceeded 10,600. Of these, 82 per cent attended courses with entry requirements below Form V level, and 18 per cent with entry requirements of at least the completion of Form V standard or equivalent. Some 500 teachers were employed during the session, about 400 of whom were part-time lecturers.

      The institute maintains close links with industry, commerce, and the apprenticeship training unit of the Labour Department to gauge local manpower requirements and plan courses directly relevant to community needs. Sponsorship of students by industrial employers is a special feature. In the preceding session, 635 registered appren- tices attended part-time day-release courses at both craft and techni- cian levels, while some firms sponsored students for block-release or full-time basic craft courses. The institute also plays an important role in providing technical teacher training, which gives qualified status. The department of technical teacher and workshop instructor training offers both a one-year as well as a two-year full-time training course. It also provides training for in-service technical teachers, as well as training for workshop instructors on a part- time day and a part-time evening basis. Short courses in printing instructor training and elementary printing technology were also offered during the session.

As a large number of students were on a part-time evening basis, the Technical Institute made use of 15 external evening centres on both sides of the harbour to provide part-time evening courses for over 7,000 students. In November 1971 the Government approved in principle the financial implications of providing two additional technical institutes.

PRE-VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

Plans have been approved for a total of approximately 6,000 subsidised places for primary school leavers in a number of three- year pre-vocational schools.

EDUCATION

81

       Pre-vocational education is a three-year post-primary course based on roughly 50 per cent general education and 50 per cent basic practical training in at least three of the major fields of Hong Kong's industrial development. This is to avoid specialisation which is inappropriate at this level. The aim of pre-vocational education is not to provide complete skills and knowledge of a specific trade or occupation but to help young people to choose a suitable field of employment.

The students from such schools basically are given a general education together with training in manipulative skills to suit them for employment in industry. An opportunity for further training is provided in the Technical Institute.

At present, there are three pre-vocational schools. Practical subjects taught include metalwork, basic electrical engineering, automobile servicing, printing (type-setting), building trades and commercial subjects (mainly for girls). These schools provide 1,240 places and six new ones are under active planning to provide an additional 5,000 places.

ADVISORY INSPECTORATE

The Assistant Director (Chief Inspector of Schools) is responsible for the inspection of all schools, curriculum development, and the maintenance or improvement of teaching standards. He is helped by the Assistant to the Chief Inspector, whose duty is to co-ordinate the work of advisory inspectors. The Chief Inspector, with the assistance of a Senior Education Officer, is also responsible for the Research, Testing and Guidance Centre. The centre, established in 1965, con- tinued to provide locally-constructed tests of attainment in mathe- matics, Chinese language and English language and administered them to pupils in Primary 3 to Primary 6. The service has been extended to cover some 702 primary schools with more than 196,000 pupils participating. The test results provide cumulative information for the educational guidance of pupils and valuable data on the effec- tiveness of courses and syllabuses.

       Also under the supervision of the Advisory Inspectorate is the English Language Teaching Centre. The centre, also set up in 1965, has a sub-unit in Kowloon and during 1971 was mainly concerned with the provision of refresher courses for teachers and the produc- tion of teaching materials, especially tapes to improve the teaching of spoken English.

82

EDUCATION

VISUAL EDUCATION CENTRE

      The Audio-Visual Education Centre of the Education Department provides on loan to all schools a large range of audio-visual materials. The centre, whose facilities are extensively used by teachers, houses a wide range of modern equipment as well as dark-room and pho- tographic facilities.

During the year slide sets, filmstrips, loop films and photographs on topics of interest to schools were produced. The centre also pub- lished quarterly news bulletins in English and Chinese which con- tained information about additions to the film library as well as reviews of new equipment and material. Over 1,600 copies of a new primary school catalogue of audio-visual materials were issued. Audio-visual workshops for secondary school teachers were held during the summer holiday.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER EDUCATION

      In March there were 34,451 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools, of whom 8,148 were university graduates and 15,694 were non-graduates qualified for the teaching profession. Other teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 212 were in special schools. At the end of the 1970-1 school year, the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of primary and secondary day schools was 32.2.

Teacher training is provided at the Education Department's three colleges of education-Northcote, Grantham and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges offer full-time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers qualified to teach in primary schools and the lower forms of secondary schools. A special one-year course is offered at Northcote for diploma holders from certain post-secondary in- stitutions. Special third-year courses are offered to prepare non- graduate teachers to be specialists in domestic science or mathematics (at Northcote), art (at Grantham) and music (at Sir Robert Black) for teaching these subjects in the higher forms in secondary schools.

      The colleges also provide in-service courses of training for unqual- ified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, in either Chinese or English, of two years' duration. They lead to the award of a certificate granting qualified teacher status. Since September 1969, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute has been co-operating with the colleges of education in offering special full-time one-year and two-year courses for the training of technical teachers.

EDUCATION

83

In September 1971, there were 1,117 students in the two-year courses, 15 in the special one-year course, 41 in the specialist third year course, 1,094 trainees in the in-service training courses, and nine in the one-year and 37 in the two-year course for special full-time training of technical teachers.

ADULT EDUCATION

Adult education is provided by the Education Department in the Evening Institute, the Technical College and the Technical Institute Evening Departments, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and 14 adult education and recreation centres.

The Evening Institute offers English courses from elementary to post-certificate level; teachers' classes for art, music, handwork, woodwork, physical education, modern educational dance, modern mathematics and the teaching of English; and secondary school courses leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, both English and Chinese. A three-year post-primary extension course providing additional training with a practical bias is also available for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level. Rural literacy classes and general background classes provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical background education classes give adults an opportunity to learn woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. Adults have a complete educational ladder from the literacy level to post-secondary studies. The total number of classes provided by the Evening Institute is 754 in 79 locations in both urban and rural areas.

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers a three-year course in general arts leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. Subjects taught include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology and English language and literature. Most of the students are primary school teachers. There are 14 classes in two centres.

At the 14 adult education and recreation centres, education and recreation are combined in activities ranging from music apprecia- tion and physical education to group study of art, photography and dramatics. These activities are expressly designed to stimulate crea- tive ability and develop individual talents and are aimed at fostering a community spirit.

Apart from its regular activities, the Adult Education Section has from time to time designed various schemes which aim at serving the community at large. In conjunction with the Prisons Department, several classes giving instruction in general subjects with a moral and

84

EDUCATION

civic emphasis, and also in subjects of a practical nature, are or- ganised for inmates at different prisons. Classes are also held at the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION DIVISION

The Education Television (ETV) Centre was opened by the Governor, Sir David Trench, on September 6. Immediately after the opening, the service began broadcasting ETV programmes via the two commercial television networks, HK-TVB and RTV, to third year primary school children in the four basic areas of Chinese lan- guage, English language, mathematics and social studies. Initially, one programme a week in each of these subjects for a 30-week trans- mission year will be broadcast during school hours, to be repeated in both morning and afternoon sessions. The programmes are based on syllabuses in actual use in primary schools in Hong Kong and will complement and support the work of teachers in classrooms. ETV lessons are accompanied by detailed notes for teachers and pupils and presume careful preparation and application. Evaluation is supplied by teachers, school inspectors and ETV producers.

     Approximately 1,000 television receivers have been installed in schools and over 100,000 third year primary school children are receiving ETV programmes.

EXAMINATIONS

In 1971 there were five local public examinations for schools, one conducted by the Education Department, one each by the Boards of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, English and Chinese, one by the Advanced Level Examination Board of the University of Hong Kong and one by The Chinese University of Hong Kong Matricula- tion Board.

The Secondary School Entrance examination is a competitive ex- amination to select pupils for places in government and aided second- ary schools, and for assisted places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to give advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate and may enter all their Primary 6 pupils for the examination. Moreover, schools that do participate are asked to send a minimum of 50 per cent of their Primary 6 enrol- ment. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

EDUCATION

85

       Until 1971 examinations for the Hong Kong Certificate of Educa- tion (English) and the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) were each conducted by separate boards. Commencing with the 1972 examination, both will be conducted by the newly-constituted Hong Kong Certificate of Education Board. As in the former case, the new board comprises members representing participating secondary schools, the University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the Education Department. The University of Hong Kong, the University of London, Cambridge University and a number of other overseas universities recognise Grade C and above in individual subjects as equivalent to ordinary level passes in the General Certificate of Education. The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) examination is similar to the Hong Kong Certif- icate of Education (English) examination, but is of course conducted in Chinese. The new board has been formed for the specific purpose of combining the two examinations and creating a new Certificate of Education in which subjects can be taken either in English or in Chinese.

       The two Certificate of Education examinations and the Secondary School Entrance examination are processed with the help of the gov- ernment computer which also marks such papers in these examina- tions as are set in the multiple-choice format. The computer also allocates secondary school places to pupils in accordance with their results and their stated preferences.

       The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations at standards comparable with those in Britain. Of these examinations, the General Certificate of Education is open to both school and private candidates who hold a local Certificate of Education of the required standard, and to private candidates of 23 years of age or over. The University of London degree examinations are also conducted annually in May and June. Appendix 29 shows the more important examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

MUSIC AND ART IN SCHOOLS

       The 23rd Hong Kong Schools Music and Speech Festival attracted 8,662 entries and an estimated 45,000 competitors took part in the 401 available classes.

       The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra with an average of 90 members presented 10 concerts including one for the Festival of Hong Kong. The increase in the number of performances over the previous year

86

EDUCATION

is part of a campaign to gain financial support for a proposed visit to Switzerland in 1973 where the orchestra hopes to take part in an international festival for youth orchestras. Seven visiting examiners conducted the practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Entries reached a total of 5,628 thus ena- bling Hong Kong to retain its position as the second largest centre among the 36 countries served by the board. Entries for the Associ- ated Board theory examinations totalled 2,193 and 98 candidates entered for the Trinity College of Music examinations. The annual Children's Examination of the Royal Academy of Dancing attracted 573 entries and the biennial major examinations for senior students and teachers 63 entries.

      A major event for schools during the year was the Children's Art Exhibition organised by the City Museum and Art Gallery. Over 10,000 entries were received and the quality of these was higher than in previous years.

RECREATION

       The recreational activities programme of the Physical Education Section of the department continues to increase in scope and in the number of participants. The year-round programme for schools in- cludes games competitions in all major sports, gymnastics and dance competitions, sailing and a comprehensive outdoor programme of canoeing and camping.

      The promotion of physical recreation activities for the physically handicapped is now pursued throughout the year in training and coaching programmes culminating in an annual paraplegic sports day. Two camps for the physically handicapped were organised in the summer vacation.

The department has become an operating authority for the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme in Hong Kong and promotes the scheme in various schools.

       The summer vacation programme continues to cater for over half a million children. Two new features this year were a series of camps for 700 girls held at Wu Kwai Sha Youth Village and the promotion of the Education Department's 'learn-to-swim' campaign. This campaign provided a series of six one-hour swimming lessons for over 4,000 children and was an extremely popular and successful programme. As new government swimming complexes open the 'learn-to-swim' scheme will be expanded to operate in all complexes in the summer vacation.

EDUCATION

87

EDUCATION OVERSEAS

       The Students Section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London is responsible for keeping records of all officially rec- ommended students in the United Kingdom and for assisting them in finding places in universities and institutions of higher education. The same services are provided for nurses undergoing training in hospitals in the United Kingdom. The section also makes arrange- ments for students including nurses, to be met and accommodated on arrival. Thereafter, it helps them with personal and educational problems during their stay. The section maintains close relations with the Education Department in Hong Kong, the Overseas Depart- ment Administration and other British Government Departments, the British Council, and educational establishments and hospitals where Hong Kong students are receiving training.

       There are 4,530 students recorded by the Student Adviser, exclud- ing government servants but including apprentices on sandwich courses and nurse trainees, undergoing a wide range of courses in the United Kingdom.

During the year the Student Adviser made a total of 61 visits to universities, institutions of higher education and to hospitals in various parts of Britain. The Student Adviser is also Secretary of the United Kingdom Selection Board which interviews those students who wish to return to Hong Kong after graduation or on completion of training. The board recommends for appointment those students who are found suitable for administrative, professional and executive officer posts. The work of this board has increased considerably over the past year. The number of inquiries doubled those of last year and resulted in over 50 applicants being interviewed, of whom 32 were recommended for appointment.

       The Government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain. It accommodates some 75 students and serves as a focal and meeting place for many more. The Administrative Commissioner in London is responsible for the administration of Hong Kong House and is assisted in this work by an Advisory Board which includes two student representatives among its members.

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

A wide range of research programmes is conducted by both uni- versities each year and the following depicts some of those completed or in progress during 1971, which have particular relevance to the Hong Kong community.

88

EDUCATION

In the University of Hong Kong, the Centre of Asian Studies sponsored a number of projects including studies of urban squatters in Hong Kong, trade unions, attitudes of youth towards modernisa- tion and industrialisation, locational preferences and characteristics of Hong Kong street hawkers, traditional Chinese medicine, schools of painters in South China, the development of exchange banking in the Far East, the writing of a concise Cantonese-English dictionary, and a statistical study of the local population. In arts and social sciences, research continued on external trade and economic devel- opment in Hong Kong, and a new project on the purpose and plan- ning of new towns in developing countries was started. A study on technological change and industrial development in Hong Kong was undertaken and work was also done on linguistic philosophy, and the analysis of free associations in Chinese. In the medical faculty, the study of the growth and development of Chinese children entered its fifth year. Other projects included studies of neonatal jaundice, homotransplantation of liver in dogs, homologous joint transplanta- tion and biochemical differentiation. In science, engineering and architecture, high building research continued as did research on the characteristics and properties of Hong Kong soils. Other projects included studies on building economics, plant products, ionospheric data, the development of the rice plant, thermodynamics and solid state physics.

       In The Chinese University of Hong Kong, research centres have been set up under the university's three Research Institutes (the In- stitute of Social Studies and the Humanities, the Institute of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Chinese Studies). These provide wide-ranging research and training opportunities for staff and stu- dents of the university.

Among the many projects in the social studies and humanities field, there were studies on the impact of urban industrialism on a Chinese village; the various aspects of Hong Kong's hawkers; the Kwun Tong health services; the industrial community of Kwun Tong; the Tung Tau Tsuen resettlement estate; the foster parents plans; teacher education; juvenile violence; and family planning. Science and technology projects included physiological studies on the mudskipper fish; pollution studies in Tolo Harbour; and marine ecology of Tolo Harbour. Chinese studies included Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong; the compilation of a Chinese-English dic- tionary of modern usage; and a Dictionary of Spoken Chiu Chow Dialect.

7

Health

HONG KONG'S geographical and environmental circumstances make it vulnerable to infectious diseases, but in spite of this the Colony has been free from any major epidemic in recent years. Considerable improvements have been made in the control of communicable diseases with the result that very few cases are reported, although precautionary measures against the re-appearance of cholera were maintained throughout the year. Diphtheria and poliomyelitis have been brought under control due largely to the prevention programme, while the incidence of measles has remained at a low level in recent

years.

       Where once communicable diseases were responsible for the greater number of deaths, the position has now reversed and there are more deaths from diseases of later life and from accidents. The leading causes of death in Hong Kong are cancer, heart and hyper- tensive diseases, pneumonia, cerebrovascular diseases and tuber- culosis.

During the year, the development programme of the Medical and Health Department continued to make steady progress with the completion of two projects-the David Trench Rehabilitation Centre at Sai Ying Pun, opened in March, and a standard urban clinic at Kwai Chung north, which was opened in November. The rehabili- tation centre provides special services for the physically disabled, as well as psychiatric day-patient and outpatient services in the Hong Kong Psychiatric Centre, and maternal and child health services in the Western Maternal and Child Health Centre. Work also began on the Tang Chi Ngong Specialist Clinic on Hong Kong Island east and the new Lai Chi Kok Hospital. Other projects under construction included the new vaccine institute at Pok Fu Lam; stage one of the Kwai Chung south polyclinic; a new clinical building at Queen Mary Hospital; and the Siu Lam Hospital for the mentally subnormal.

ADMINISTRATION

The Medical and Health Department provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal

90

HEALTH

and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease.

The estimated expenditure of the department for the financial year 1971-2 is $197,269,700. To this should be added subventions totalling an estimated $88,881,900 to many non-government medical institutions and organisations. The estimated capital expenditure on hospital and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $40,757,000.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Cholera has not appeared in Hong Kong since the notification of the last case in October 1969 and up to the time of this report in November 1971. Routine sampling of nightsoil for cholera vibrio was carried out on a year-round basis as part of the surveillance programme. All the samples were negative for cholera vibrio. As the disease has become endemic in this part of the world, special preventive measures were continued. Emphasis was placed on the importance of personal, environmental and food hygiene as safe- guards against the enteric group of communicable diseases, and quarantine restrictions were maintained in respect of neighbouring countries declared infected.

Tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem. It is believed from the figures available that approximately 0.8 per cent of the population is suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment. Males are affected at least twice as commonly as females, the disease being especially common in elderly men, while drug addicts are a group particularly prone. Tuberculosis in the young is now relatively uncommon and the former large numbers of acute and often fatal cases of tuberculosis in infants are no longer seen.

The Government either by subvention or directly through the Government Chest Service spends more than $21 million annually on control measures. The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, while certain other organisations, including the Tung Wah Group and the Caritas Medical Centre also provide treatment facilities, maintained mainly with the aid of substantial government subventions. The Government Chest Service operates six full-time clinics equipped with radiological facilities and 15 subsidiary centres throughout the Colony. The seventh full- time clinic to serve the Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung area is scheduled

HEALTH

91

to be opened in 1972. In addition it maintains the BCG vaccination programme and during the year 96 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. It is believed that the widespread use of this prophylactic measure has led to the precipitate fall in tuberculosis in the very young in Hong Kong.

       The cornerstone of treatment in Hong Kong is ambulatory chemo- therapy on an outpatient basis. The position with regard to the treatment of tuberculosis in the last 15 years has changed completely, and the disease can now nearly always be cured provided the patient is co-operative and takes his treatment regularly. The previous monthly issue of PAS/Isoniazid tablets has now, in a large proportion of cases, been replaced by a regimen of twice weekly Streptomycin injections and high dosage Isoniazid tablets. This has the advantage that it is a completely supervised regimen, whereas it is known that some patients did not take their drugs regularly when issued on a monthly basis.

       A large scale trial with the Medical Research Council to evaluate the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy in Hong Kong has now been completed. Preliminary results have indicated that six months of three drugs daily (PAS, Isoniazid and Streptomycin), with which treatment is usually initiated, can be reduced to three months. It also indicates the paramount need for supervision in the taking of drugs and has led to a simplification in the management of the cases. The study to evaluate the most effective drugs for the treatment of resistant cases is progressing smoothly. A close examination of the actual functioning of the Chest Service, known as the Hong Kong Treatment Survey, is now more than half-way completed, while a study to examine in depth all young children who develop tuberculosis began in June and the results should be beneficial to the BCG programme. The results of these investigations should, within the next few years, revolutionise the approach to the treatment of tuberculosis and be of international interest.

       As a result of improved facilities and treatment it has been possible during the past two years to reduce the number of tuberculosis beds by 185. The Colony has now 1,667 beds available specifically for the treatment of tuberculosis. The Government provides 104 beds in Kowloon Hospital, but the majority are in government-assisted hospitals, notably those managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tubercu- losis and Thoracic Diseases Association. This association offers a total of 770 beds distributed between Grantham Hospital, Rutton- jee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home. In addition the Junk

92

HEALTH

Bay Medical Relief Council has 310 beds at its Haven of Hope Sanatorium. The Tung Wah Group plays an important role in the treatment of tuberculosis and the Chest Unit at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary has 185 beds in spacious accommodation.

      Venereal disease is diagnosed and treated free at social hygiene clinics. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis continued to remain low in 1971, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. Latent and late syphilis and gonorrhoea have stayed comparatively unchanged and the incidence of chancroid and lym- phogranuloma remained very low. The maintenance of this satis- factory position is due, at least in part, to energetic epidemic control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine ante-natal blood tests.

Leprosy remains a comparatively minor public health problem. Twenty outpatient sessions are held weekly for diagnosis and treat- ment of the disease, while other sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. The Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary, with the aid of a government subvention, maintains the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium for the treatment of infectious cases and a small number of patients requiring reconstructive operations. Due to the decreasing incidence of the disease, the number of new cases admitted to the leprosarium has shown a notable reduction in recent years. The decision was taken in June 1971 to phase out and eventually close the leprosarium. Future leprosy cases requiring hospital treatment will be accommo- dated in the special infectious disease unit of the new Lai Chi Kok Hospital, scheduled for completion at the end of 1973.

Malaria is reported only in certain rural areas of the Colony. Of the few cases recorded in recent years most were either imported or recurrent cases. Malaria prevention in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures, consisting of draining and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. In the greater part of the New Terri- tories, where the background is essentially rural, screening of build- ings, use of mosquito nets and chemoprophylaxis constitute the main protection against malaria. All anti-mosquito measures for the prevention of malaria are carried out by the Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department. Clinical aspects of malaria control such as malaria surveys and chemotherapy are the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department.

      Diphtheria continued to occur mainly among children under 10 years of age, predominantly within the pre-school age-group. The

HEALTH

93

annual inoculation drive which has been in progress since 1959 continued to give encouraging results, and it is gratifying to record that there has been a steady decline in the number of cases notified annually; in 1971 only 25 cases were recorded compared with 43 cases in 1970 and 2,087 cases in 1959.

Measles is most prevalent among children under the age of five years and epidemics are characteristically biennial. In Hong Kong during epidemics the disease is usually associated with high mortality due mainly to complicated bronchopneumonia encountered too late for treatment to be effective. A Colony-wide immunisation campaign began in December 1967 and is continuing. The vaccine is now regularly available at government maternal and child health centres. Health education efforts at health centres are continued and parents are informed of the importance of early treatment of the disease. The disease incidence and its mortality have remained satisfactorily low in the past four years. These results were partly due to the immunisation campaign and the continuing health education pro- grammes.

Influenza occurred only sporadically after the appearance of the epidemic in the summer of 1968. Hong Kong has been collabo- rating with the World Health Organisation in its surveillance programme of influenza disease, and epidemiological and laboratory information is transmitted overseas so that early preventive measures may be taken to meet the threat of new epidemics. During the summer months there was an increase in the number of influenza- like cases attending the outpatient clinics. Some strains of A2/Hong Kong/68 and B influenza virus were isolated.

Japanese B encephalitis among humans is encountered occasional- ly in Hong Kong. The disease is transmitted by a mosquito vector and the important species known to transmit the disease is Culex tritaenio-rhynchus. The mosquito generally breeds in abandoned paddy fields, marshy ground, water hyacinth plots, and in irrigation ditches. Such conditions are found in the rural areas of the New Territories and it is here that this particular mosquito vector has been detected. Humans and horses are only incidental hosts to the Japanese encephalitis virus but pigs are considered important reservoirs. In June several horses at the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club stables at Beas River, New Territories, were found to be in- fected by the virus. The situation was investigated on the spot by health officers and mosquito control measures were stepped up following a mosquito survey, and advice was given to the resident

94

HEALTH

population on personal anti-mosquito measures. While investiga- tions and control measures were undertaken, the horses were re- moved from the Beas River stables and isolated at the stables at Shan Kwong Road, Happy Valley. Five horses were affected, but all contracted the disease while at Beas River. There was no report of any human infection.

      Acute Kerato-Conjunctivitis is a disease of worldwide distribution. It occurs as sporadic cases but epidemics are often reported. Its onset is acute causing redness and soreness of the eyes, hence locally known as 'red eye' disease. It tends to spread among families and in public places such as swimming pools. In early August the num- ber of patients attending the three government ophthalmic clinics for treatment of acute conjunctivitis increased suddenly. Between August 5 and 7 a total of 1,571 cases was seen. In the following week the number of cases rose to 4,909. The peak period was the 9th and 10th during which about 1,300 cases were seen on one day. After the 16th the outbreak began to decline and by the end of August the number of cases seen at the three ophthalmic clinics had returned to normal. Laboratory examinations were carried out on conjunc- tival and throat swabs taken from patients and preliminary findings suggested that the disease was of viral origin. Further investiga- tions to identify the aetiological agent were continued. Prior to the occurrence of the outbreak in Hong Kong there were reports of an infectious eye disease affecting the people in Canton and Macau. Strict quarantine measures were carried out at the points of entry, the public was given full warning on the importance of personal hygiene and other measures were taken to prevent the disease spreading. However it was self-limiting and there was no evidence of further outbreaks after the peak in August.

Other communicable diseases remain at a low level, and do not constitute a major public health problem. The number of cases of infectious diseases notified in 1971 is shown in Appendix 33.

PORT HEALTH SERVICE

      The Port Health Service is responsible for the enforcement of the International Health Regulations as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance and the sanitary control of the port and airport areas. It provides facilities for the vaccination and the issue of International Vaccination Certificates to travellers, and for the inspection, deratting and the issue of International Deratting or Deratting Exemption Certificates to ships on international voy- age. It also gives medical assistance to ships in the harbour and

IN THE SWIM

ess than two decades have passed since Hong Kong's excellent

Less thans were decades bed mainly by small groups of foreigners

and the occasional Chinese family. But as the Colony developed the beginnings of an affluent society, with a greater amount of leisure time on its hands, the pendulum swung the other way. Today the Colony's natural swimming facilities are virtually stretched to the limit, but its man-made facilities are expanding rapidly. Swimming in Hong Kong is now regarded as perhaps the most popular outdoor summer activity and to keep pace with this trend, the Government has embarked on an ambitious programme to provide swimming pool complexes in the most densely populated areas. There are already five such complexes-three of them completed in a period of just over 12 months. These pools are capable of accommodating up to 5,000 people at a time, and illustrate how big a small place like Hong Kong can think when confronted with a problem. Four additional swim- ming pools are either under construction or in the planning stage. The beaches, too, are being improved and new ones developed to ease the overcrowding on the more popular ones and to increase the facilities for this swimming 'explosion'.

E

7

H

F

週1

12

1

The tens of thousands of residents in the vast housing estates of Kowloon can relax in these new pool com- plexes at Morse Park (above) and Kwun Tong (below).

PU

HONG

The concentration on the faces of the children vividly conveys the importance of learning to swim.

LITTER

With the increasing popularity of swimming in recent years steps were taken during the summer to em- phasise the importance of beach

cleanliness (top) and safety in the water (bottom).

不可到水

 过.过飢及太疲倦的時候都不一 不要在指定泳原,以保

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

  due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

PHI

LI

The beach at Repulse Bay.

HEALTH

95

       transmits free medical advice to ships at sea. A 24-hour service for the inspection of in-coming passengers arriving by sea and air and the granting of radio pratique to ships from clean ports on request is maintained throughout the year. Epidemiological information is regularly exchanged with the World Health Organisation and several neighbouring health administrations.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

There is increasing public understanding of the value of Hong Kong's maternal and child health facilities. Almost all babies are born either in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes, and confinements at home attended by private midwives now represent less than one per cent of the total deliveries. The Government District Midwifery Service has 28 centres, and the total number of maternity beds available for deliveries in these health centres is 502. There are 80 registered midwives practising privately in 54 mater- nity and nursing homes, which are regularly inspected by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff.

The Government Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 34 centres, 19 of which are full-time. Four new subsidiary centres were established in the clinics on outlying islands during the year, thus extending the service to the remote parts of the New Territories. A full-time centre in north Kwai Chung became operational in autumn 1971. Clinics are held. for infants and for children between two and five years old, and ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also conducted. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinic are visited at home, and health visitors go to the homes of newborn infants whose names appear on the monthly birth returns. Health education forms an important part of this work and there is close liaison with the Family Planning Association, which conducts an increasing number of sessions in all the centres.

SCHOOL HEALTH

The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Essentially the scheme offers a service whereby participating school children receive medical treatment from private medical practitioners for $7 a year. This per capita fee does not meet the cost of the service and the Government contributes an equal sum, as well as the cost of administrative expenses. At the end of the year 37,589 students attending schools were enrolled in the service and 178 private medical practitioners were participating.

96

HEALTH

       The School Health Service continues as a government respon- sibility and is concerned with the environmental health and sanitary condition of school premises and the control of communicable diseases in schools. Routine inspection of schools is undertaken by school health inspectors, while immunisation of school children against the major infectious diseases is arranged by health officers.

MENTAL HEALTH

       Psychiatric cases are admitted to the Castle Peak Hospital, mostly as voluntary patients. Outpatient treatment is available in the urban area and in the New Territories, and day-patients are treated in the Psychiatric Day Centre on Hong Kong Island as well as the Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre in Kowloon. The latter centre also provides special facilities for the observation of disturbed children. The Hong Kong Psychiatric Centre moved into its new premises in the David Trench Rehabilitation Centre in March, which also provides occupa- tional therapy for the psychiatric patients. The acute Psychiatric Unit in the Kowloon Hospital New Wing became operational in July. It has 67 beds and is equipped with facilities for the treatment of day-patients. A Psychiatric Observation Unit is operated in the Victoria Reception Centre for remand prisoners, and there is one ward for very low-grade mentally subnormal children in the Tung Wah Hospital. Other cases of mental subnormality are in the care of the Social Welfare Department where they receive occupational training. Certain voluntary agencies, working in close co-operation with the Mental Health Service, assist in the rehabilitation of patients before their return to full social and economic activities in the community.

DRUG DEPENDENCE

       Drug addicts who volunteer for treatment and rehabilitation are treated in a drug-free environment at a rehabilitation centre on Shek Kwu Chau Island; their stay varies from four to six months. This institution is run by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts, a voluntary organisation receiving a substantial government subvention. The society maintains an office in the urban area where addicts can apply voluntarily for admission to the centre and, after a medical examination and socio-economic investigation, are admitted for treatment and rehabilitation. Following their dis- charge the society provides further assistance in their rehabilitation. The centre in the urban area also provides accommodation facilities for the treatment of female drug addicts. [A description of the Tai

HEALTH

97

Lam treatment centre operated by the Prisons Department is con- tained in the chapter on Public Order].

The Medical and Health Department and other government departments maintain close liaison with the Action Committee Against Narcotics and other voluntary agencies connected with the work on drug addiction. A notable event of the year was the holding of the International Symposium on Drug Dependence, the first ever to be held in Hong Kong. More than 100 delegates from 17 countries and over 200 representatives of local organisations met for five days to discuss matters associated with drug dependence and the various possible approaches to this worldwide problem.

HOSPITALS

There are now 16,689 hospital beds available in Hong Kong representing 4.13 beds per thousand of the population (see Appendix 34). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes, but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds, 14,513 are in government hospitals and institutions and in government- assisted hospitals, while the remaining 2,176 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and for the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases there are 13,448 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity, giving a ratio of 3.32 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the hospitals, but in some cases the actual occupancy is much higher as temporary beds are used whenever the need arises.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as the main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories, with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. It has a capacity of 1,596 beds, but the pressure for admission necessitates the extensive use of temporary beds bringing the total number to 1,901. The Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hos- pital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. Apart from the psychiatric unit, the newly completed west wing contains a paraplegic unit of 50 beds and 469 convalescent beds.

On Hong Kong Island the Government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary Hospital of 1,128 beds, which performs the same functions for the Island as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital does for Kowloon, and is also the teaching hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of Hong Kong. Construction work on a new pathology building, virus laboratory and mortuary

98

HEALTH

was continued and work on a new clinical building also commenced during the year. These projects are to provide additional teaching facilities for an increased intake of medical students and also im- proved pathological services for the hospital.

Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialised purposes. Apart from the Castle Peak Hospital, they include two infectious diseases hospitals and a maternity hospital of 301 beds, where the teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out. The Tang Shiu Kin Hospital provides casualty service as well as facilities for maternal and child health, social hygiene and maternity services. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau. Small hospitals are also established in the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries.

The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, a long-established charitable organisation, operates three general hospitals, the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah with a total of 2,325 beds, and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. It also pro- vides subsidiary beds for long-term patients at Wong Tai Sin In- firmary. These hospitals, whose recurrent expenditure is met mainly by a large subvention from the Government, provide a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernised and expanded.

The Pok Oi Hospital, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, is another long-established charitable organisation operating with the assistance of a government subvention. It has been modernised and expanded.

      A number of general hospitals are maintained by missionary and other charitable organisations such as the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre at So Uk, Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital, the Duchess of Kent Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home, the Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital and the Fanling Hospital. Several receive substantial government subventions.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

      In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in various medical fields. There are also specialised clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, together with specialist services offered by the Govern- ment Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory.

HEALTH

99

The Medical and Health Department Institute of Pathology main- tains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals maintain blood banks, and the Hong Kong Red Cross Society operates a blood-collecting service for voluntary blood donation; laboratory work for these blood banks is carried out by the Institute of Pathology.

       Open heart surgery for the treatment of various types of congenital and acquired heart diseases by the pulmonary by-pass technique using the heart-lung machine is available in Hong Kong. The service is jointly provided by the staff of the Medical and Health Depart- ment, the University of Hong Kong, and the Anti-tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association. Patients are admitted to the Queen Mary Hospital for preliminary investigation and, if indicated, trans- ferred to the Grantham Hospital for operation.

A ward-unit for organ transplantation has been established in Queen Mary Hospital. The unit has accommodation for four pati- ents and is provided with facilities to ensure a sterile environment for such cases.

OUTPATIENT CLINICS

To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services, provided mainly by the Govern- ment, and also by subsidised organisations and private agencies, are developing steadily. The Government now maintains 44 clinics for general outpatients, and specialist facilities are available in the major centres of the urban areas; similar specialist facilities are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, while other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service. In accordance with the Medical Clinics Ordinance, all clinics are required to be re-registered annually. On December 31, 1971, there were 76 registered static clinics and three registered mobile clinics under the control of registered medical practitioners, and 354 clinics registered with exemption, making a total of 433. The Low Cost Medical Care Scheme under which static clinics are set up in reset- tlement and housing estates continued to operate during the year, and in allocating these premises, registered doctors are given priority.

MEDICAL FEES

At government general outpatient clinics there is a nominal charge of $1 a visit, including medicine and such things as X-rays and

100

HEALTH

laboratory tests. Consultation at a specialist clinic also costs $1. There are no charges for patients at tuberculosis, social hygiene, and leprosy clinics or for patients suffering from quarantinable diseases. Similarly, no charges are made at certain remote institutions located in outlying areas or on the floating clinics. The infant welfare and ante-natal and post-natal clinics are also free.

       For patients admitted in the general wards of government hospitals the daily maintenance and treatment fee ranges from $2 to $6 according to the diet supplied. A limited number of private rooms and small semi-private wards are provided at major hospitals. The charges for these are much higher than those for general class wards, and in addition all treatment is chargeable.

       Where a patient is unable to pay the medical fees, provision has been made for the charges to be either waived or reduced at the discretion of the Director of Medical and Health Services.

DENTAL SERVICES

       The Government Dental Service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families, and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 30 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

       Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated (under strict control) with sodium fluoride or sodium silico- fluoride. It appears from clinical observation that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will become more marked in the future.

       Many voluntary bodies and welfare organisations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Society and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped static and mobile dental clinics.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

      Based on three full-time outpatient centres, equipped with operat- ing, investigation and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the

HEALTH

101

New Territories. Additionally, ophthalmic surgery is performed in two government hospitals in which 31 beds are reserved for ophthalmic cases. The staff of the Ophthalmic Service also deal with ophthalmic emergencies at three casualty departments situated at the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Kwong Wah Hospitals.

TRAINING

The degrees of MB, BS, conferred by the University of Hong Kong, have been recognised for registration by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. During recent years the Medical Faculty has expanded to meet the increasing needs of the Colony for doctors. Post-graduate clinical training is available and the Government maintains a programme for the training of its doctors for post-graduate qualifications. Suitable candidates, when selected, are given training under the supervision of the clinical specialists for a period of about four years. A local officer who has completed four years continuous resident service and has been con- firmed to the pensionable establishment, may be granted paid study leave to attend a course outside the Colony.

       Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry, but a government dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from Hong Kong to go overseas each year to study dentistry. This scheme commenced in 1954 and 85 scholarships have since been awarded.

There are three government hospital schools of nursing, two in general nursing and one in psychiatric nursing. Training at govern- ment schools and at the Caritas Hospital school is in English, but there are also approved schools at Tung Wah Hospital, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, where instruction is in Cantonese. Examinations are held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board and there is full reciprocity of registration between the Hong Kong Board and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales.

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital (and to a limited extent other approved hospitals) has one-year courses in obstetric nursing for registered nurses with tuition in English. These courses qualify the entrants to sit for the Hong Kong Midwives Board examination. The Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital runs two-year obstetric courses in Cantonese for student midwives who are not trained nurses. These courses are also accepted by the board for entry into its examinations. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate practical

102

HEALTH

training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of regis- tration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is not possible at present.

Two training courses, one in general nursing, the other in psy- chiatric nursing, for Nursing Auxiliaries, each of two years' duration, are run at the Kowloon Hospital and Castle Peak Hospital respec- tively.

       A nine-month course for Health Visitors is held at the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital and this prepares its entrants to sit for the examination of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Health Auxiliaries, who supplement the Health Visitor Service, continue to have a two- year training course in health education and basic public health nursing, at the same hospital.

      The Government conducts a continuous post-graduate overseas training programme for graduate nurses. Subjects studied during 1971 were nursing administration, nursing education, dietetics, orthopaedic nursing, intensive-care therapy, special operating theatre service and ophthalmic nursing.

       The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appointments, the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors and the Certificate for Health Visitors and School Nurses. Training for these diplomas, apart from the certificate qualification, is carried out within the Urban Services Department.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

      Responsibility for environmental health services and for the dis- posal of the dead in the urban area rests with the Urban Council working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories, the Director of Urban Services is responsible.

      About 7,800 employees of the department are engaged in street cleansing, removal of refuse and nightsoil and attending public conveniences and bathhouses. An average of 2,580 tons of refuse is collected and disposed of daily. Two large oil-fired incinerators operated by the Public Works Department dispose of abont half the total tonnage collected. A further 1,040 tons collected in Kowloon and Tsuen Wan each day are taken to the controlled tip at Gin Drinker's Bay, Tsuen Wan. Construction of a second in- cinerator for Kowloon has begun and a third one is being planned.

HEALTH

103

The composting plant installed at Lai Chi Kok converts 45 tons of refuse into compost weekly.

Efforts have been made for many years to secure public co- operation towards reducing the problem of litter through education and prosecution, and a major campaign using many new techniques is now being planned. 'Dogs' latrines' are set up at suitable sites in the urban area to minimise the extent of fouling of streets by dogs.

The free nightsoil collection service continued to diminish as pre-war property is replaced by modern buildings with waterborne sanitation, and the number of nightsoil pans serviced is now less than half what it used to be a decade ago. In urban areas, about 14,200 gallons of nightsoil were collected daily from 14,300 floors with dry latrines, and from 1,930 temporary latrine structures on building sites and squatter or licensed resettlement areas. Thirty-five specialised vehicles and three tanker-barges are employed on this service and, since a former maturation plant was closed down, all of the nightsoil collected has been disposed of by dumping into deep sea outside harbour limits where currents are favourable.

The hygiene staff, consisting mainly of the health inspectorate, is responsible for the maintenance of environmental sanitation and for the hygienic control of all types of food business and food and drink. Regular inspection of domestic premises is carried out by health inspectors, who are also responsible for investigating com- plaints of sanitary nuisances and for the prevention of fly and mos- quito breeding. Investigation into food poisoning cases and control of infectious diseases are carried out in close liaison with the Medical and Health Department. All applications for licences in the urban areas (other than hawker licences) under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance and its subsidiary legislation are dealt with by a central licensing unit which ensures that only premises that comply with the statutory standard of hygiene are granted licences. During the year, 8,609 licensed premises (this figure includes the New Territories) were regularly inspected by the health staff.

The Food Inspection and Certification Unit continued to exercise inspection and control of imported foods and meat products. The inspection and certification of food for export, and the inspection of animal products and human hair for export under veterinary certification are also the responsibilities of this unit, which maintains close liaison with other government departments. Suitable amend- ments were made during the year to the Food Business By-laws to facilitate better control over cold-stores, where large quantities

104

HEALTH

     of imported meat and poultry are stored for inspection. Frozen meat and poultry are imported in ever-increasing quantity and at present, 20 countries have become approved sources for this supply. The sale of food and drink for local consumption, including milk and ice- cream, is controlled by systematic surveys and sampling which check on quality and purity through bacteriological and chemical analysis.

       A pest control section advises and carries out measures for the control of rodents, cockroaches, fleas, bed-bugs, wasps, biting midges and other pests throughout the Colony. In the New Territories, the scope of this work is extended to include the control of culicine (nuisance) mosquitoes and flies. Weekly larvicidal oiling of streams to prevent the breeding of malarial mosquitoes on Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon peninsula, and in the New Territories at Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill Village and Cheung Chau, is also a pest control function.

The health education unit continued to organise or participate in publicity campaigns on various aspects of health and hygiene. Public health training courses were held for specific groups of the public such as food handlers, scouts and cadets of the Hong Kong Red Cross and St John Ambulance Brigade Association. Various activities in the form of school children's competitions and contests were organised jointly with the Education Department and voluntary organisations.

       There are 63 public retail markets in Hong Kong, 40 in the urban areas and 23 in the New Territories. Markets are convenient centres where meat, fish, poultry, vegetables and fruit may be bought at reasonable prices and under hygienic conditions. The Urban Council has launched an extensive programme for the reconstruction of the older and more outmoded markets, as well as the construction of new ones in areas of growing population. The new markets are built to modern standards with larger, brighter stalls and improved facili- ties. Particular attention is being paid to the setting up of market facilities in resettlement estates where lack of these has resulted in a considerable hawker problem. A new type of market specifically designed for high density housing estates is being built in all new resettlement and low-cost housing estates and will also be introduced into existing resettlement estates.

      Although the implementation of the Urban Council's policy on hawkers has been hampered by lack of manpower for control and law enforcement, a number of major hawker operations has been carried out and continuous containing action has been taken with

HEALTH

105

the resources available. The policy has now been endorsed by the Governor in Council and, as a result, it is expected that substantial increases in staff and resources will be available in 1972. The hawker liaison section has continued to consolidate its position and has built up satisfactory relationships with government departments. Work on the collection and classification of data relating to hawkers also continued. The section is now involved with an in-depth survey which is being conducted by the Social Research Centre of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, with funds provided by the Government.

       The Hawker Control Force has a total strength of about 350 officers and men, and they are all deployed on hawker control work on Hong Kong Island; (in Kowloon, the police still remain the sole authority for hawker control). The Government intends to build up the force by a phased programme of expansion which will enable it to extend its coverage to all the hawker areas in Hong Kong and Kowloon and eventually the New Territories, but this will take a few years. Plans to improve the conditions of service and so enhance its recruiting attractions are still under consideration.

Two modern abattoirs are in operation: one at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island, and the other at Cheung Sha Wan, Kowloon. Each complex, including a wholesale livestock market and quarantine service, can handle 3,000 pigs and 300 cattle in an eight-hour work- ing day.

       The New Territories Division of the Urban Services Department is fully and directly responsible for environmental hygiene, cleansing, hawkers and markets. It is headed by an administrative officer who works in close liaison with the Medical and Health Department and the various District Officers of the New Territories Administration. He has a total staff strength of over 1,800 in the five political districts of Tsuen Wan, Tai Po, Yuen Long, Sai Kung and Islands, and their duties are divided geographically rather than regionally.

Eleven public cemeteries (of which two are closed) and three public crematoria are directly controlled by the Urban Services Department, and 28 private cemeteries and one private crematorium are under its general supervision. Three funeral parlours and 31 undertakers are licensed by the Urban Council to arrange funeral services. In addition, the Government provides two funeral depots which are open 24-hours a day for the holding of reposing services and last rites. These also arrange for the transportation of deceased persons in coffins to a public cemetery or crematorium for interment or cremation; such services are free of charge.

106

HEALTH

RESEARCH

      A study of shigellosis, its epidemiology and typing is now being carried out by the Medical and Health Department Institute of Pathology in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong. The virus unit is investigating the problem of neonatal jaundice and the role of viruses in its aetiology. The histological typing of salivary gland tumours, carried out in col- laboration with the World Health Organisation, has been completed and further work is now directed on the histochemistry and precise mode of origin of these tumours. This is a joint study with the University Surgical Department. Typing and incidence of a typical mycobacteria are now being investigated.

A study of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Hong Kong continues. Interim results of the study have been reported to two international symposiums. As part of this research, the second phase, which is to study by sero-epidemiological methods the natural history of Epstein-Barr virus infection is continuing. This multi- national study is financed by the International Agency of Research on Cancer based in Lyon, France. The laboratory part of the work is being carried out by the Medical and Health Department Institute of Radiology, and the field survey and blood specimens collection are supervised by the Health Service of the University of Hong Kong. Another multi-national study, also involving the department's Institute of Radiology, deals with the oestrogen profiles of Asian and North American women who have been found to have signifi- cantly different risks of cancer of the breast. The preliminary part of the study has just been completed.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Now, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

       Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the respon- sibility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon foot-hills, called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All leases of Crown land and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories are mostly located in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them, with a few exceptions, are recorded in the Registrar General's Department. The principal laws relating to the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

       The Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction. All land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. The realised premium is payable by a percentage of the upset price on the fall of the hammer and the balance within a short period after the sale, except in the case of industrial lots where it can be paid by instalments. In 1969 a change was introduced in respect of sites of high value in central areas when the upset price of the site was $10 million or more, providing for payment by annual instalments over 10 years free of interest; during the year this was further amended to provide for payment by instalments

108

LAND AND HOUSING

with 10 per cent of the realised price being payable within one month of the auction, the balance being payable by 10 equal annual instalments bearing interest at 10 per cent a year. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools up to the full market value and payment by instalments for public utilities.

To assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, there is a concession which, subject to certain con- ditions, permits the sub-letting of parts of the building without having to pay the outstanding balance of premium.

      In recent years the terms of considerable numbers of 75-year Crown leases have expired. Many of these are non-renewable leases but unless the land is required for a public purpose, it is government policy to negotiate a new lease term with the former lessee. The premium payable represents the full market value of the land less the buildings. However the lessee of undeveloped land with pre- war property, if he does not wish to pay the premium and redevelop the property, may also hold-over his land for a period of five years from 1968 paying instead an annual rental equivalent to the net income arising from the property, while retaining his right to apply for re-grant at a premium based on the value of the land at the end of the hold-over.

       In the past difficulties have arisen over re-grants of land formerly held on expired non-renewable leases in multi-ownership, where the owners collectively have been unable to agree with the Government's terms of re-grant. The enactment of the Crown Rent and Premium (Apportionment) Ordinance of 1970 will however enable the Government, when a collective agreement between the owners is not possible, to grant the new lease to the Colonial Treasurer Incorporated for subsequent apportionment of the interests under the ordinance and assignment of the individual interests to the previous owners. These negotiations and the necessary procedure are extremely complex, and a trial run on one re-grant was still in process at the end of the year.

The number of 75-year renewable leases falling due for renewal is increasing and a Consolidated Statement of the terms and condi- tions for renewal of these leases has been issued. The statement divides lots into two groups: the first group being lots in the New Territories including those Survey District Lots in New Kowloon

LAND AND HOUSING

109

registered in a District Land Office. The second group comprises the lots on Hong Kong Island in Kowloon and New Kowloon together with the new grant lots in the New Territories registered in the Victoria Land Office.

        Renewal of the leases of the first group of lots will be effected by means of legislation as from the expiration of the first term in 1973, without change in Crown rent. In the case of the second group, renewal may be effected under the legal option contained in the Crown lease or by means of one of four other ways offered by the Government. The legal option contained in the 75-year renewable Crown leases gives right of renewal for a further period at a re- assessed Crown rent which is normally 'such rent as shall be fairly and impartially fixed as the fair and reasonable rental value of the ground at the date of renewal'.

       The first way of effecting renewal other than by the legal option is for the lessee to apply for renewal at the expiry of the original lease term but, in lieu of paying an annual re-assessed Crown rent, to pay in a lump sum the capitalised value of such re-assessed rent. The second and third ways are designed specifically to meet the needs of lessees who wish to renew lots, the leases of which have less than 20 years to run, and provide alternative methods for the surrender of the existing lease and the grant of a new lease for a non-renewable term plus the tag-end of the original term. Under the first method, the premium is calculated in the same way as if the lease were for a 75-year non-renewable term and is payable in a lump sum or by three equal annual instalments including interest at 10 per cent. By the second method the premium is replaced by a re-assessed Crown rent which is payable throughout the new term. Allowance is made in each case for the value of the tag-end of the original term.

The fourth way caters for the lessee of an under-developed lot who does not wish to redevelop and allows him to renew his lease at a Crown rent lower than the full rental value of the land if he is prepared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal. The covenant can be modified at any time redevelopment is required subject to the payment of an appropriate fee.

The demand for land continues unabated and future expansion must be in the New Territories. Outline development plans have therefore been prepared, or are under preparation, for building new towns and expanding existing market towns in areas best suited to industry and high-density housing. These are Tsuen Wan, Kwai

110

LAND AND HOUSING

Chung, Castle Peak, Sha Tin where entirely new towns are being built, and Yuen Long, Tai Po and Shek Wu Hui where development is based on the existing townships.

Most of these development areas contain a high proportion of leased agricultural and village building land, which must be sur- rendered or acquired before new development may proceed. As an incentive to surrender the lands required an exchange system has been developed whereby old building land may be exchanged on a foot for foot basis for new building land or five square feet of agricultural land for two square feet of building land, the lessee paying the difference in value between the surrendered lands and his new building lot. In layout areas where development is imminent, exchanges of land may be applied for by the lessee. Where land must be resumed for government development an offer is made to the lessee, during the period of resumption, of an exchange of land in any layout in the New Territories, to be taken up at such time as lands become available. This offer, if accepted, replaces his statutory rights to cash compensation under the Crown Lands Resumption Ordinance. The letters of offer (which are known as letters 'A' and 'B') are freely assignable and the system has generally proved acceptable to landowners, at the same time reducing the Govern- ment's cash commitment for compensation.

LAND SALES

       During the year, the interest in land development continued with the emphasis on land for non-industrial use. The system of selling land regularly in accordance with a planned programme was main- tained and as the year progressed price levels continued to rise and higher prices than those previously recorded were realised for lots in new development areas, particularly the Broadcast Drive area of Kowloon. In addition high prices were realised for numerous small lots (of approximately 1,000 square feet in area) in the older developed districts of Kowloon such as Yau Ma Tei. The numbers of applications received for modifications, re-grants of 75-year non-renewable leases and renewals of 75-year renewable leases, as well as the number of private transactions, increased still further.

Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1970-1 totalled approx- imately $214.9 million made up as follows: about $149.6 million from 53 sales by auction and tender; $8 million from private treaty sales; $17.9 million from modifications of lease conditions, exten- sions and exchanges; and $39.4 million from re-grants of expired

LAND AND HOUSING

111

75-year leases. Revenue from land transactions in the New Ter- ritories during the same period was $60.1 million. These figures are two to three times higher than for the previous financial year.

Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant but may be occupied either on temporary annual permit or on short term tenancy. The 1970-1 revenue from this type of tenure was approximately $7.9 million in the urban area and $3.3 million in the New Territories (the last figure includes modifica- tion of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, permits are cancelled and the number decreases year by year; short term tenancies however are increasing. Revenue derived in rent from the leasing of government-owned buildings in whole or part totalled $6.5 million.

URBAN RENEWAL

Acquisition of property by negotiations with owners in both the Urban Renewal Pilot Scheme area and in the Urban Renewal District as a whole generally increased. Almost 90 properties have so far been acquired at a cost of about $9 million and negotiations are continuing for the acquisition of a further 150. The resumption of property within the pilot scheme area commenced during the year and some 25 properties have already reverted to the Crown. An inter-departmental co-ordinating committee has been set up to ensure the even progress of urban renewal and with a view to speeding up property acquisition and clearance of sites for redevelop- ment in the pilot scheme area.

The Urban Renewal District comprises some 250 acres in the Western and Sai Ying Pun districts of Hong Kong Island. The Town Planning Board amended the draft outline zoning plan for this area and heard objections to the amendments. The draft plan has been submitted for consideration by the Governor in Council.

SURVEY

       Land surveys in Hong Kong serve two main purposes; first the delineation of town planning layouts which includes the setting out of public works and the boundaries of private lots and government sites, i.e. cadastral survey; and second the production of plans and maps. The demand for cadastral surveys and plans continued to rise during the year with the increased interest in private develop- ment. Surveys for government sites and the setting out of building works also showed a steady increase.

112

LAND AND HOUSING

      Control surveys carried out included the laying down of a precise triangulation network over the urban areas of Kowloon and Hong Kong as a sound basis for future general mapping and engineering development. The network was designed to be of a sufficiently high standard to be suitable as control for the proposed mass transit underground railway system. A number of special detailed surveys were carried out in connection with the planned mass transit routes where redevelopment of sites over or abutting the routes threatened to frustrate their construction. In critical areas these involved the exact design of the alignment which in turn required precise surveys of land sections of the routes and of the affected lot boundaries, buildings, etc. Electronic distance-measurement equipment was used extensively on this project and on other survey tasks, significantly speeding up the field work in all cases.

      Progress on a programme for 'cyclic' revision of large-scale plans has been impeded by lack of staff. The total number of plans of the Colony now approaches 1,950 nearly 700 at 1:600 scale of the urban areas and about 1,250 at 1:1,200 scale of the New Territories. Ideally all plans of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon should be revised at one, two or three yearly intervals, depending on the rate of change in the areas they cover. Most of the plans of the New Territories cover remote and hilly areas where little change occurs and these need checking every five years or so. But to main- tain the plans of the Colony in a reasonably up-to-date condition, several hundred plans must be revised annually and the lack of sufficient survey and cartographic staff has caused a back-log of out-of-date plans.

      The original large-scale air survey contract has now been com- pleted but at the request of the District Commissioner, New Ter- ritories it was extended for another year to map number of areas above the 600-foot contour where the boundaries of cultivated areas are raising land administration problems. It is expected that mapping of these areas will be completed during 1972.

      The majority of the urban area is now covered by the new edition of the 1:2,400 plan series. Progress on the production of a parallel 1:4,800 series, which is compiled by direct reduction of the 1:2,400 series, is also well advanced. Both series are expected to be completed in early 1972. The Survey Branch of the Crown Lands Office is undertaking revision of the 1:10,000 map series (L884), its conversion to dual-language form and the publication of a second edition. Printing is being carried out locally. Twelve sheets, covering mainly the urban areas and adjoining districts, have been revised and second

LAND AND HOUSING

113

editions published, and another eight sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1972. These sheets are being sold at a price less than half that charged for the first edition (published by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys in the United Kingdom) and demand from the public has been good.

       All 20 sheets covering the Colony at 1:25,000 scale (Series L882) have now been published by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys; these were produced by reduction of the 1:10,000 maps. Sub- sequent editions, however, will be published by the Directorate of Military Surveys in Britain. After each 'block' of four sheets at 1:10,000 scale has been revised by the Survey Branch, copies of the amended sheets are sent to the Directorate to be used in the prep- aration of second edition maps at 1:25,000 scale. The sheet in the second edition (covering Kowloon and the north-west portion of Hong Kong Island) has now been published and two more sheets should be available in 1972.

Other new maps published in 1971 included a 1:50,000 scale multi-coloured map of the Colony in two sheets. This map has proved to be very useful to the public in general and to motorists in particular. The first sheet of a new 'countryside series' covering Hong Kong Island and showing scenic walks, picnic areas and recreational facilities was well received and the first edition was sold out in a few months. A revised second edition has been published and is also selling well. Preparation for the second sheet in this series, which covers the New Territories mainland east, is under way and will be completed in 1972. The popular folded 'tourist' map of Hong Kong, which has been reprinted several times in the past, has now been completely redesigned and will be printed in bilingual form in early 1972.

The aerial camera was damaged last year and it has not been possible for the Survey Branch to carry out vertical aerial photog- raphy. However, funds were approved in September for the purchase of a twin-engined 'Islander' aircraft for the RHKAAF and a modern aerial survey camera. The new camera is expected to be delivered in early 1972 and it is planned to use aerial photog- raphy to speed up the revision of large-scale plans.

As the Public Works Department is committed to a policy of metrication, intensive investigations are now going on in the Survey Branch to ascertain the best methods of implementing this policy in the quickest possible time and with minimum disruption to current output. The Government Land Surveyor is co-ordinating

114

LAND AND HOUSING

the metrication programme, in respect of land matters, with all branches of the Crown Lands and Survey Office and with the Registrar General (Land Office) and the New Territories Adminis- tration.

      An exhibition of 'The Mapping of Hong Kong' was held at the City Hall in February 1971. It lasted for six days and was extremely successful. Some 25,000 people, mainly students, visited the exhibi- tion and all available stocks of maps and plans put on sale were bought. As a result of the interest created the demand for maps and plans has continued to be heavy. Since April, the Director of Lands and Survey has taken over from the Government Printer the responsibility for providing, distributing and selling all official maps and plans of the Colony and a sales office set up on the 19th floor of Murray Building is kept busy.

TOWN PLANNING

      Since 1953 plans have been prepared for the 39 planning areas which make up the main urbanised portion of Hong Kong and for 13 towns of various sizes in the New Territories. These plans are of two types; statutory plans prepared under the Town Planning Ordinance; and outline development and detailed layout plans which are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the re- development of private land but which have no statutory effect.

The Town Planning Board, constituted under the Town Planning Ordinance, comprises eight official and five unofficial members. Plans of areas where development is likely to affect private land or interests are prepared on the instructions of the Governor under the board's direction. Statutory plans for 21 planning areas have been approved; of these nine have been referred back to the Town Planning Board for amendment or replacement; a further 15 draft plans are under preparation.

In 1970, work was completed on the preparation of a draft Colony Outline Plan based on the deliberations of six inter-departmental working committees. The plan provides guidelines for a more balanced approach to the preparation of statutory, outline develop- ment and detailed layout plans. It also provides a basis for the formulation of land development programmes and the reappraisal of transportation proposals. The plan is a conceptual document, and as such, will require periodic reviews to maintain its effectiveness as a guide. Work has begun on updating data as a result of the 1971 census.

LAND AND HOUSING

115

LAND OFFICE

       The Land Office, a branch of the Registrar General's Department, is responsible for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases; the granting of mining leases; and advice to the Government generally on matters relating to land.

       The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any sub- sequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable considera- tion. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it.

       The number of instruments registered during the year rose by 5.2 per cent from last year's total of 70,278 to 73,946. The figure included 1,727 assignments of whole buildings or sites (against 1,546 in 1970), 22,695 assignments of flats and other units in multi- storey buildings (against 24,866), 13,007 agreements for sale of such flats and units (against 10,252), and 17,440 mortgages (against 16,343). As a result of the continuing high rate of new building projects, the number of building mortgages registered during the year remained at 145, the same as in 1970, and the number of orders excluding premises from the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which usually have to be obtained prior to redevelopment of the sites of old buildings, increased by 143 to 224. Orders requiring redevelopment of the sites of demolished buildings totalled 108 (against 72). The number of searches, which provides a good index to the state of the property market, rose by 8.8 per cent from 99,891 to 108,632. Compared with 1970 the total of considerations recorded in all instruments registered rose by $1,128 million, or 22.2 per cent, to $6,206 million.

        The volume of work in several other sections of the Land Office was influenced by the prevailing market conditions. During the year, 292 conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc were registered compared with 201 in 1970. Consents granted to forward sales of flats in those cases where the conditions under which the land is

MBAN COUNCIL 15

PARIES

116

LAND AND HOUSING

held give the necessary power of control, increased by five to 202. The number of modifications and deeds of variation of lease condi- tions often a prelude to multi-storey development-increased by 27 to 62; 209 Crown leases were issued compared with 354 in 1970.

There were 175 determinations of Crown rent and premium under the Crown Rent and Premium (Apportionment) Ordinance, and 214 corporations were registered under the Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) Ordinance. At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners contained the names of 200,820 people (an increase of 12,013 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being merely owners or part owners of small individual flats.

PRIVATE BUILDING

At no time during the year was there any indication of an end to the building boom; the number of new building projects pro- cessed for approval were 1,067 compared with 978 in 1970. The upsurge in the private sector of the building industry, which became evident in 1969 and 1970, was reflected in the total cost of new buildings completed. Their cost is reported by architects to the Building Authority and in 1971 amounted to $880,851,884.88, an increase of 70.5 per cent over 1970.

During the year work continued on the 52-storey office building which is being erected on the waterfront adjoining the Star Ferry concourse. Until recently, it was claimed that this would be the tallest building in the Far East. Noteworthy private buildings completed during the year included a 32-storey circular residential building (currently the tallest building in the Colony) in the mid- levels of Hong Kong Island, a 350-bed hospital at Lo Fu Ngam, a container terminal at Kwun Tong, the first of two power generating stations on Tsing Yi Island and a 'jumbo' jet hangar at Hong Kong International Airport.

The activities of the Dangerous Buildings Division of the Build- ings Ordinance Office continued, and some 190 buildings were closed and demolished (three of which partially collapsed during typhoon Rose) compared with 124 buildings in 1970. This resulted in 12,191 people being dispossessed against 5,608 during the previous year. During the year 571 repair notices were served, compared with 455 in 1970. The most noteworthy closure and demolition event

LAND AND HOUSING

117

occurred at the beginning of the year when it became necessary to declare as dangerous the Chong Hing Mansion, a terrace of 10- storey post-war domestic buildings on Hong Kong Island, because of irreparable decay of the structural frame.

       It transpired that no occupation permit had ever been issued in respect of these buildings and a Committee of Inquiry, presided over by a District Judge, was appointed to investigate the matter. The Committee considered whether the circumstances warranted any further official help being given to those affected by the closure (in addition to the offer of resettlement accommodation), and also whether any change should be made in the administrative procedures or legislative provisions relating to occupation permits. The Com- mittee's report was being considered by the Government at the end of the year.

The Chong Hing Mansion case was followed by a number of reports of alleged sub-standard workmanship and materials, which required protracted investigation by the staff of the Buildings Ordinance Office. Several of the reports proved to be of substance; for example, in one case the top nine storeys of a 14-storey domestic development had to be demolished and in another a five-storey garage building had to be demolished to the floor level of the first floor.

       Because of the time-consuming nature of the investigations and the increasing pressure of work there was delay in the processing of plans submitted by authorised architects to the Buildings Ordin- ance Office for approval. To overcome this back-log, relaxed checking procedures were introduced on a temporary basis in the latter part of the year although there was provision for this measure to be withdrawn immediately if it was found that the comprehensive checking of plans could not be dispensed with. The department recognised there was a risk of irregularity arising but it was con- sidered that, in the general interests of the community, this was acceptable under the circumstances.

At the same time, action in respect of reports of unauthorised building works had to be substantially curtailed. Some 1,033 com- plaints were received, an increase of 51 per cent over 1970 but it was not possible to investigate more than 53 per cent of these. Of the reports which were investigated statutory notices were restricted to only the most serious cases. A total of 565 notices were served compared with 2,184 in 1970.

118

LAND AND HOUSING

RENT CONTROL

      Legislation controlling rents and providing security of tenure was instituted by proclamation immediately after the war and was later embodied in 1947 in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. It applied to both domestic and business premises and restricted rents by refer- ence to pre-war levels, while excluding new and substantially re- constructed buildings from control. Following an amendment in 1953, permitted increases in standard rents were raised to 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises, at which level they have remained ever since.

There is provision in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance for the exclusion of premises where redevelopment is intended. Such exclusions are made on the recommendation of a tenancy tribunal by order of the Governor or the Governor in Council in the case of an appeal. The payment of compensation to tenants dispossessed is almost invariably a condition to the grant of an exclusion order. Two hundred and sixteen such orders were approved during 1971, involving 545 buildings. An amendment in 1968 provided that, sub- ject to the agreement being certified by the Secretariat for Home Affairs, a tenant may accept compensation from his landlord in return for delivering up vacant possession of his premises; 634 agreements under this provision were certified during 1971.

The 1953 amending legislation also provided for the establishment as part of the Secretariat for Home Affairs of two tenancy inquiry bureaux, one in Hong Kong and one in Kowloon, to assist in the working of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. Their principal task is to provide factual information to tenancy tribunals in respect of exclusion proceedings, and where premises are declared dangerous by the Building Authority, which may also involve the payment of compensation. They also provide general advice and assistance on tenancy matters.

In respect of post-war premises, legislation dates back to 1952 and the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance which gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants who had entered into oral tenancy agreements involving the payment of key money or premia. In 1963 the three-year security provided by this ordinance was extended to five years. However, the payment of key money etc in such circumstances is no longer so prevalent in Hong Kong. In- creases in rent in 1961 and the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance which generally requires landlords seeking possession to give six months' notice of termination.

E

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

557

I

+

·

|||

||

11

||

-共圖書館

香港公

HO

= 1

ts survival since the early days of the Colony earns Cat Street the

 Its survival si street with nine lives. Soon this quaint thoroughfare will embark on another of those lives when it figures in Hong Kong's first organised scheme of urban renewal. Cat Street's whereabouts are often as puzzling to local residents as to new arrivals, because the name does not exist on the official city map. In fact, it is a com- bination of Upper Lascar Row and Lower Lascar Row, linked by Ladder Street. This is the area that has been frequented by genera- tions of antique buyers and, in a roundabout way, it is these shops which gave the street its name-as a good place to 'catch' a bargain. There was also another alias at one time-'Thieves Market'. It was said of Cat Street in those days that you could lose your watch at one end and, still ignorant of the loss, discover it on sale at the other. Now as part of the Government's urban renewal scheme, many of the old shops and stall-lined alleyways are to disappear to make way for better living accommodation for the residents there. But there are plans to preserve, as much as possible, the charm and atmosphere of Cat Street so that it will continue to provide a link with the past. Opposite, the area contained in the white lines forms part of the urban renewal scheme.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Decorative porcelain and gilded wood carving form the main stock- in-trade of the antique dealers.

1

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

PU

!

Public Works Department planners

check the model of the urban re-

newal scheme as it will appear on

completion.

Surveyors carry out the detailed groundwork for the scheme.

LAND AND HOUSING

119

       The first comprehensive legislation affecting post-war domestic premises was the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordin- ance 1963 which was enacted primarily to control increases in rents and provide a measure of security of tenure. With an increase in the supply of newly completed buildings in 1963 through to 1966 the housing position eased and rents stabilised. As a result, this ordinance was allowed to expire on June 30, 1966. For the next three years the situation remained fairly quiet but, with a return of confidence following the disturbances in 1967 and a continuing demand for accommodation, rents by the end of 1969 had taken a sharp upward trend. While the situation was being considered a temporary measure was enacted in January 1970 to 'freeze' rents and this was followed in June by the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1970.

       This ordinance, which follows very closely the provisions of the 1963 ordinance, provides security of tenure for tenants of post-war domestic premises for the life of the ordinance-two years-or for a period of two years from the date of any increase in rent. There are a number of exclusions, in particular larger flats and houses, and new lettings are not controlled. Landlords and tenants are free to agree on an increase in rent but such agreements must be endorsed by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. Where an increase in rent is not agreed, a landlord may apply to the Commissioner for his certificate as to what may be considered a fair increase. The Commissioner has wide powers under the ordinance and also issues certificates to assist in disputes as to whether or not particular premises are excluded from its provisions. Where landlords, and in certain cases tenants, are dissatisfied with the increase in rent certi- fied by the Commissioner there is a right of review and also appeal to the District Court. Reviews are carried out by the Commissioner or one of his more senior officers in consultation with an appointed panel known as the Rent Increases Advisory Panel. From its enact- ment in June 1970 to the end of 1971 the Commissioner had received 6,637 rental agreements for endorsement, 17,221 applications for increases in rent and 654 applications for reviews of rental increase certificates issued. This ordinance was originally due to expire on May 31, 1972, but has been extended for a further two years. Legislation providing for further increases in rent during the exten- sion will be introduced into the legislature early in 1972.

MULTI-STOREY BUILDING MANAGEMENT

       The problems caused by the multiple ownership of large multi- storey buildings led to the enactment of the Multi-storey Buildings

120

LAND AND HOUSING

(Owners Incorporation) Ordinance in June 1970. By the end of 1971, 282 owners' associations had been formed under the ordinance. This is a satisfactory start and has been accompanied by the forma- tion of federations of these associations in several city districts with the object of improving their efficiency. Training courses for the secretaries of these associations have now been started by the Secre- tariat for Home Affairs.

       Multi-storey building associations are based on a physical and social entity, the law-abiding members of which have a common purpose in seeking to improve both their physical environment and communal relations. Moreover, these bodies cut across all boundaries of dialect, occupation and to a certain extent-class and offer a strong potential for community development.

HOUSING

The problem of housing the four million people of Hong Kong within its very limited urban and suburban areas has been solved to a great extent by the provision of multi-storey blocks of govern- ment or government-aided housing which at present accommodate 1,749,460 people. In spite of this accomplishment, statistics show that the demand for public housing by the middle and lower income groups is still very strong. Housing in outlying districts, which did not seem very attractive to the public two years ago, has now been over-subscribed several times the number of flats expected to be completed in the next few years. At the end of 1971, domestic accommodation in the urban areas, owned by private landlords, comprised 198,200 tenement floors, 64,600 small flats, 25,100 large flats and 1,050 houses.

A Housing Board was set up in 1965 to keep under review the building progress in all types of housing, assess the present and future housing needs and the balance between types of housing, and advise on administrative measures to improve co-ordination between housing agencies. The main recommendations of the board in 1970 were that the management practice in resettlement estates should be brought more into line with that of the Housing Authority in manag- ing government low-cost housing estates, and that the Government should aim at providing housing for a further 700,000 people (including 30,000 at Castle Peak and 30,000 at Sha Tin) between April 1, 1970 and March 31, 1976. These recommendations have been accepted by the Governor in Council.

LAND AND HOUSING

Government Housing

121

Hong Kong's resettlement estates have attracted worldwide atten- tion. Hundreds of thousands of people are being provided with homes by a building programme which, for speed and size has few, if any, parallels. By the end of 1971 the Hong Kong Government had become, through this programme, the landlord of about 1.2 million people or 30 per cent of the population.

The categories of people eligible for resettlement were laid down in order of priority in the 1964 White Paper 'Review of Policies for Squatter Control, Resettlement and Government Low-Cost Housing' and have been subsequently revised on the recommendation of the Housing Board. These categories and the number of people resettled (or re-accommodated in the case of the relief of overcrowding category) during the year are:

Category 1: (a) Victims of fires and natural disasters, subject

to availability of accommodation 7,598

(b) All other cases recommended for compassionate resettlement by the Director of Social Welfare 4,502

Category 2: Occupants of squatter huts declared to be dan-

gerous 586

Category 3: Former domestic tenants of buildings demolished as dangerous and subject to the Demolished Buildings (Redevelopment of Sites) Ordinance 8,379

Category 4: Present occupants of cottage, licensed or resite areas or occupying tolerated structures on Crown land required for development 23,572

Category 5: Re-use of licensed areas 3,667

Category 6: Tenants of overcrowded resettlement rooms 2,143 Category 7: Pavement dwellers occupying tolerated struc-

tures nil

In 1964 the original seven-storey resettlement block design intro- duced 10 years before was abandoned in favour of a new design. At first the new blocks were of eight storeys and then 16, and differ fundamentally from the older ones in that access is from a central corridor on each floor instead of from external common balconies. This makes it possible to give each room a private balcony. Other improvements include refuse chutes, electric power and light points in domestic rooms (which had been the tenant's responsibility in the older designs), lifts in the 16-storey blocks and private lavatories

122

LAND AND HOUSING

     and water taps in place of the former communal latrines and wash- houses. The latest blocks are being built to a larger room-grid to give effect to a Housing Board recommendation that families should be allocated 35 square feet of space for each adult on occupation. By the end of 1971, the total number of blocks of all types adminis- tered by the Resettlement Department was 506. Between them these blocks housed 1,147,860 people, some 53.3 per cent of them in the newer types.

In 1970 work was completed on converting a block in an old estate into self-contained flats, each with its own lavatory and water supply and some with their own balconies. As a result of the success- ful completion of this pilot project, a decision has now been taken to redevelop Shek Kip Mei estate, which is the oldest multi-storey resettlement estate. This scheme involves the conversion of 21 out of 29 blocks into self-contained units, and the demolition of the remainder to make way for new commercial, social and community facilities.

Rents have been fixed at the lowest possible level with a view to covering reimbursement of the capital cost over 40 years (at 31 per cent interest), plus all annually recurrent expenditure including the cost of administration and maintenance. In practice, rising costs have led to a shortfall between outgoings and income. Where appro- priate, an element for water charges and rates is included in the rent. Rents vary according to the design of the block and the size of the room: the all-in rent of a standard room of 120 square feet in the oldest type of block is $18 a month (having been raised, for the first time, from $14 in 1965), while the rent for a standard room of 140 square feet in a new block is $38 (exclusive of water charges). Despite the large population and the wide variety of rents charged, the number of tenants failing to pay is still extremely small. Of the total of $80.8 million due in rents for the year, only about 0.03 per cent had to be written off as irrecoverable arrears.

The resettlement estates are virtually townships (the population of Tsz Wan Shan estate, for instance, is around 139,200) and a wide range of community facilities must be provided. Some ground floor rooms are let as shops or workshops, while others are used by government departments or private welfare organisations as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops in the older blocks are put to use. Most of them have been allocated to voluntary agencies who operate primary schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. In the newer estates, separate six-storey buildings (each with 24 classrooms) are

LAND AND HOUSING

123

provided for primary school accommodation and in the latest blocks provision has been made for self-contained kindergarten accommo- dation. Some estates have community centres and, in the new ones, the tendency is to concentrate ancillary services into separate build- ings for welfare services, restaurants and administration.

Provision is also made for the small factories which are often found in squatter areas or in areas under annual Crown land permits. To enable the operators of these factories to continue earning a livelihood when these areas are cleared for permanent development, multi-storey resettlement factory blocks have been built. Because of the need to use a simple design to keep construction costs, and there- fore rents, as low as possible, a number of trades are not allowed in the multi-storey factory blocks and consequently some factories can be resettled only if the owners are willing to change their trades.

The latest factory blocks are seven storeys high and have units of 256 square feet. At the end of the year there were 22 resettlement flatted factory blocks, containing a total of 1,860,000 square feet of net working space, most situated in or near existing resettlement estates. Rents are calculated to cover administrative costs and a return on capital within 21 years at five per cent interest. In the latest factories these rents vary from 55 cents a square foot a month for a ground floor unit to 25 cents for one on the top floor, all rents being inclusive of rates.

        Fourteen cottage resettlement areas still remain in various parts of the urban area and the New Territories. The population of these areas has diminished as clearance for development continues and the occupants are resettled in multi-storey estates. However, cottage areas still house 51,953 people. Several of these areas contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types largely established by voluntary agencies which generously continue to maintain these facilities.

The Housing Authority manages government low-cost housing estates on behalf of the Government. These estates are built by the Public Works Department, and all capital and recurrent expenditure is met from government revenue. The first of these was completed and taken over for management early in 1963. At the end of 1971, 15 estates accommodating 258,373 people were under manage- ment. Seven projects are under development and, on completion, 127,538 people will be added to the population of government low- cost housing estates.

The authority is also to manage the new Pak Tin government estate which in essence will be a resettlement estate brought up to

124

LAND AND HOUSING

the standard of government low-cost housing. The estate is to be managed on the same standard as for Housing Authority and low- cost housing estates.

Government-aided housing

The Hong Kong Housing Authority, a statutory body created in 1954 by the Housing Ordinance (Chapter 283), aims to provide, manage and maintain suitable housing and amenities for as many as possible of those people who are living in overcrowded or other- wise unsatisfactory conditions and cannot afford to pay the rent charged by private landlords for comparable accommodation. At the end of the year, the authority had provided accommodation for 218,455 people in 34,894 domestic flats in nine housing estates. There were 323 shops, 29 kindergartens and 138 market stalls. Three estates are on Hong Kong Island, five in Kowloon and one in the New Territories. The largest, the Wah Fu estate, comprising 7,793 flats for 53,950 people, was completed during the year. Another estate containing 6,205 flats for 46,125 people is under construction at Ho Man Tin.

      Domestic flats built by the authority are self-contained, and apart from the living space, include a private verandah, kitchen, toilet with a water closet and shower. At present allocations are made at a minimum of 35 square feet of living space for each person. Site layouts are planned in such a way that the buildings occupy 25 to 27 per cent of the site but provide a total floor area equivalent to three to four times the site area, representing a density of about 2,000 people to the gross acre. External and internal finishings are simple, and the cost of the structure represents a high percentage of the cost of the building. Lifts are provided in buildings higher than eight storeys. These estates are also provided with such ameni- ties as shops, market stalls, primary schools, kindergartens, clinics, community rooms, garages and play areas.

The total capital assets of the Housing Authority at December 31, 1971, amounted to $341 million of which $252 million was from government loans and grants and $89 million from internal re- sources. The Government provides land at one-third of the estimated market value. The policy of the authority has always been to fix rents for new estates as low as possible, well below the market value for comparable accommodation in the same district, covering only direct annual expenditure including a charge for amortisation of the capital cost and a small budgeted surplus to finance future schemes. To accelerate its building programme to house more people on the

LAND AND HOUSING

125

waiting list, the authority has adopted a schedule of rent adjustments which entails a rent increase of about 10 per cent at intervals of not less than two years for old estates and within four years for new estates.

       The Housing Authority maintains a combined waiting list from which to find tenants to fill vacancies in both Housing Authority and government low-cost housing estates, present or future. At the end of the year, 31,583 applications had been passed for allocation, 71,841 rejected or withdrawn and 94,758 were still waiting for investi- gation. To be eligible for registration on that list, the applicant must have a family of at least four people with a family income, as assessed in accordance with the rules of the authority, of $400 to $1,250 per month for Housing Authority flats and not exceeding $500 per month for government low-cost housing flats. Government low-cost housing estates at Kwai Chung also cater for families of at least three people including a married couple, or four people of any approved combination, with a family income not exceeding $600 per month. 'Family income' is defined for this purpose as the total of the main or permanent emoluments accruing to the principal wage earner, together with 50 per cent or such higher proportion as the authority might from time to time decide, of his casual earnings and of earnings of other members of the family.

The Housing Authority also manages for a fee government officers' housing schemes, financed by the Government, planned by the archi- tectural staff of the authority, and built for sale to local government officers. The first of these estates, Lung Cheung Court, consisting of 296 flats, is under management. Another estate at Kwun Tong is under construction. The staff of the Housing Authority are all government servants working under the direction of the Commis- sioner for Housing. The authority reimburses all staff salaries to the Government plus a percentage surcharge to meet such costs as pensions and medical treatment.

The Government also provides its staff with housing accommoda- tion. Apart from staff quarters provided in accordance with the terms of service, 15 per cent of the accommodation in government low-cost housing estates is offered to junior staff on the same tenancy terms as for the public. Government loans were also made available to co-operative building societies formed to promote home-owner- ship. At the end of 1971 there were 231 societies with 4,859 members. The largest voluntary housing agency is the Hong Kong Housing Society formed in 1948. The society was the pioneer of public housing in Hong Kong. The first flats were built at Sheung Li Uk in 1952.

126

LAND AND HOUSING

Up to the end of 1971, the society had provided 20,013 flats for 124,777 people in 15 estates. During the year, 1,223 flats were com- pleted, providing homes for 8,358 people. Other voluntary bodies in the housing field include the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Cor- poration Ltd, the Hong Kong Model Housing Society and the Hong Kong Economic Housing Society.

       The Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited, established in 1964, provides long-term loans for the purchase of domestic flats. In 1971, the agency had approved 57 developments for loan purposes. It also considers loan applications for flats in new buildings as well as secondhand flats of reasonable standards. During the year, 2,368 Ioan applications amounting to $83.3 million were approved, compared with $51.2 million for the previous year.

SQUATTER CONTROL AND CLEARANCE

       All squatting on Crown land is by definition unlawful, but illegal structures are 'tolerated' if they were included in squatter surveys made from time to time, the latest being in 1964. When the land on which they stand is needed for development they are then cleared and their occupants resettled into the estates. 'Untolerated' structures are demolished, as are extensions to tolerated huts. People who are genuinely homeless may apply for a site in one of the Resettlement Department's licensed areas, on which they can build a hut on payment of a small licence fee.

       Industrial undertakings, operated in tolerated structures but also requiring open storage space and thus unsuitable for operation in resettlement flatted factories, may be offered sites in Class III licensed areas provided the trade falls within certain approved categories. A licence fee is charged at the rate of $1.80 per square foot per annum.

The squatter population continues to decrease gradually and at the end of 1971 was estimated to be about 407,836 compared with 463,000 in April 1965. Some 12,784 people were admitted to licensed areas during the year, and at the end of December the population of these areas stood at 35,458. Liaison officers of the Resettlement Department maintain close contact with squatters and, where neces- sary, arrange for minor public works.

       The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettlement Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non-pro- hibited areas. In prohibited areas, such as the margins of roads,

LAND AND HOUSING

127

      development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with the permission of the District Office.

        Clearances undertaken during the year freed 290.79 acres of land for development. A total of $734,694.45 was paid as ex-gratia com- pensation to people who had opened up land for cultivation without legal tenure before October 1954 and to pigbreeders and poultry farmers. Two hundred and eighteen shops were cleared, of which 176 qualified for ex-gratia cash payments and were paid $1,537,620.72 while 42 were found to be ineligible for such payments. In addition, 309 factories/workshops were cleared. Of these, 213 were resettled into resettlement factory estates, while 96 were not eligible for resettlement.

9

Social Welfare

THROUGHOUT the world, governments are faced with the increasing task of providing welfare services for those people who are not capable, without special consideration, of being fully independent and contributing members of the community. In Hong Kong the Government, principally through its Social Welfare Department, is endeavouring to solve the problem through an expanding services programme that aims at bringing the less fortunate people into the mainstream of life.

Social welfare activities may be divided into six groups:

(i) services for the family including family and individual counselling, child welfare services, such as day care, residen- tial homes, adoption of children both locally and overseas, counselling service for unwed mothers, and services for the aged;

(ii) services to deal with material needs which aim at helping people by providing financial assistance, compassionate resettlement in public housing, school meals programmes and assistance with school fees;

(iii) services for the physically and mentally disabled to assist them in making full use of their residual abilities in gaining employment and social adjustment through rehabilitation; (iv) probation services for offenders and residential treatment

programmes for delinquents up to the age of 18;

(v) community services to foster neighbourliness and encourage co-operative effort and self-help programmes, provided by neighbourhood associations and councils, district community officers and community centres, particularly for those in the newer housing schemes;

(vi) services for groups which provide holiday camps, youth clubs and centres for recreational, social and cultural activi- ties to develop civic consciousness and individual poten- tialities.

The Social Welfare Department maintains close contact and co-operation with many voluntary organisations, which generally

SOCIAL WELFARE

129

play a significant supplementary role in the overall provision of social welfare services. Appendix 49 lists 91 voluntary welfare organisations which are affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Many of these organisations receive a government subvention but they also attract considerable financial support for their activities both locally and overseas. Local support may be gauged by the donations made to the Community Chest, which in 1971 exceeded its target of $8 million, to be distributed to 64 member organisations.

A Social Welfare Advisory Committee advises the Government on all matters of social welfare policy and on applications for subventions from voluntary welfare organisations. The committee is appointed by the Governor and consists of leading unofficials; the chairman is the Director of Social Welfare.

       Social welfare services continue to grow and expand to meet changing needs and expectations in Hong Kong. The establishment of the department increased during the year from 1,427 posts to 1,519. Total government expenditure on social welfare including depart- mental costs, direct welfare services, subventions and allocations from the Lotteries Fund was $42,915,323, an increase of 27 per cent over 1970.

GROUP AND COMMUNITY WORK

Community development implies a process by which the people of an area are encouraged to acquire a better appreciation of their needs and problems and through mutual co-operation to promote their own well-being.

The Social Welfare Department plays a leading role in this and is responsible for the operation of eight community, social and youth centres. These centres provide facilities such as day nurseries, libraries, clubs for all ages, and a communal hall as well as casework services and various forms of vocational training. In this way they help develop social consciousness among the people in the com- munities and encourage the formation of groups sharing common interests. This inspires residents to develop a sense of responsibility to the group and eventually to the community to which they belong.

Group and community work is not confined only to community and social centres. District Community Officers have been appointed on an experimental basis to extend their work outside the limits of community and social centres. Their main task is to foster the

130

SOCIAL WELFARE

growth of responsible attitudes towards citizenship and to en- courage people to take a more active part in the furthering of local objectives and activities which are beneficial to their districts. Consideration is being given to their appointment on a permanent basis. Special emphasis is now being placed on the training of young volunteers and the development of voluntary service teams as a direct result of the summer youth programmes.

The Social Welfare Department works in close co-operation with voluntary welfare organisations such as the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, the Scouts Association, the Girl Guides Association, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the YMCA and YWCA, the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme, Caritas and many others in a variety of programmes.

FAMILY SERVICES

The family services of the department consist of a regionalised network of 12 casework offices and supporting specialised services for the welfare of children and women and the rehabilitation of the disabled.

Casework services provided include: counselling on problems involving interpersonal relationships, adjustment to disabilities, training and employment; recommendations for day or residential care; resettlement accommodation, and hawker licences; assistance in schooling and in providing medical attention; rehabilitation of the physically disabled and mentally retarded; protection of children and young people in need of care; and social investigations in cases of Workmen's Compensation, proposed marriage of minors and non-attendance at primary schools. The number of families and individuals receiving such services continued to increase and at the end of the year amounted to 11,967.

      The child care services of the department are responsible for adoptions and for liaison with voluntary welfare organisations operating children's homes, nurseries/creches, play centres and babies' homes. During the year more than 11,770 places were available in some 73 non-profit-making nurseries/creches and 14 play centres. The majority of these are assisted by a re- current subvention from the Government. The department is also in close touch with the Child Care Institutions and Day Nursery Committees of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service as well as with UNICEF. Legal adoptions of children made in accordance with the provisions of the Adoption Ordinance require investigation by the department in the first instance as to the

SOCIAL WELFARE

131

suitability of the adoptive parents. The majority of adoptions are now arranged between families; the number for abandoned children and orphans, for whom the department is responsible for finding suitable homes either locally or overseas, has decreased considera- bly. This is probably due to the decrease in the number of babies being abandoned and the improvement of day care facilities which in turn assist the parents to keep their own children. A total of 47 proposed adoptions were investigated during the year.

        Children and women in moral danger are assisted through counselling and guidance for the individual and his or her family, as well as through the relief of such immediate anxieties as care and accommodation for unmarried mothers, and through voca- tional training. This work is done by three reputable voluntary welfare organisations, the Congregation of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Po Leung Kuk and the Salvation Army, in addition to the department's two day-training centres.

In the field of rehabilitation, the aim of the department is to provide disabled people, where possible, with the opportunity of becoming independent and productive members of the community. This generally involves three phases: treatment to help the disabled to adjust to their disabilities; vocational training to encourage them to make the fullest possible use of their residual skills; and their restoration to society through appropriate training or place- ment in remunerative employment. Rehabilitation services are provided at 17 centres and institutions, and are supplemented by the work of more than a dozen voluntary welfare organisations. The continuing expansion of these services was marked by the opening during the year of the recreation centre for the deaf run by the Y's Men's Club of Victoria and the Chai Wan training centre for the mentally retarded run by the Save the Children Fund. Various improvements were also made to existing rehabili- tation institutions. Success in rehabilitating the disabled is illus- trated by the fact that the department was able to find suitable employment for 267 people out of 436 applying for jobs in 1971. The department is continuing with its programme of providing estate welfare buildings. One at Sau Mau Ping will be opened in 1972 and another two buildings at Lam Tin and Tsz Wan Shan are under construction; a third at Pak Tin is being planned. The provision of these centres is based on a ratio of one to every 50,000 residents. They are each of six storeys and provide accommodation for non-profit-making day nurseries, libraries, group and communal

132

SOCIAL WELFARE

activity areas, family planning clinics, general outpatient clinics, pre-vocational training centres and departmental family casework offices.

PROBATION AND CORRECTION

The probation and correctional services of the department are concerned with the supervision of offenders on probation and the operation of correctional institutions. The Probation Service has a staff of 81 trained officers working with the courts, an increase of 53 per cent over the previous year. At the end of the year, 2,985 people were under supervision on probation and 7,955 social investigations had been carried out at the request of the courts, including cases referred for welfare assistance of some kind. The Correctional Service operates five institutions: the Castle Peak Boys' Home is a reformatory school for 150 boys, aged between 14 and 16; the O Pui Shan Boys' Home accommodates 140 boys, aged 13 and below; the Begonia Road Boys' Home accommodating 164 boys, combines a remand home, a probation home and a place of refuge for boys who need care and protection under the Protec- tion of Women and Juveniles Ordinance; and the Ma Tau Wei Girls' Home, another such combined home which provides accom- modation for 60 girls. The capacity of this home is inadequate since the number of cases referred by the courts is continually increasing and plans are already advanced to build a new home at Broadcast Drive, Kowloon. The fifth institution is a probation hostel at Kwun Tong for young men aged between 16 and 21 who are ordered to reside there as a condition of their probation order. Most of the young men go to work daily and are required to pay a nominal sum of $20 a month as contribution towards their upkeep. This payment is intended primarily to instil a sense of self- dependency. Voluntary welfare organisations which take a leading part in helping to prevent the spread of juvenile delinquency are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys Centres, which give residential training to those in need of special help.

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE

The expanded public assistance scheme was implemented in two stages in 1971. From January 1, cash assistance has been provided instead of assistance in kind. Those eligible are given a book of orders or vouchers which they cash each month at a specified post office (or, in the New Territories, a Treasury sub-office or District Office). New eligibility criteria were brought into effect from April 1. A single person who has been resident in Hong Kong for

SOCIAL WELFARE

133

more than a year and is beyond the working age (55), unfit or not available for work and has less than $70 a month after allowing for rent and essential travelling expenses is, in general, eligible for assistance. Thus $70 a month plus an allowance for rent and essential travelling expenses represents the guaranteed level of income. For families, the equivalent level after allowing for rent, school expenses and essential travelling expenses is $50 for each of the first three members, $40 each for the next three and $30 thereafter. In addition, the Director of Social Welfare has dis- cretionary power to meet special needs such as a special diet or to preserve incentives. These, when exercised, can vary the level of assistance up or down. The way in which the scheme works is by comparing actual income with the guaranteed level; and where the former is less than the latter, the difference is made up by a monthly cash payment.

The effect of the expanded scheme has been to increase expendi- ture on public assistance payments in the nine months from April 1, to $8,524,542, compared with $6 million for the financial year 1970-1. The number of public assistance cases at the end of the year had risen to 12,553, compared with 7,010 last year. In 1971, 9,636 applications were received, resulting in 8,477 awards of assistance. Over 44,439 people were visited in their own homes and there were over 25,803 callers at field units. At the start of the expanded scheme, the number of new applications was lower than expected, but a vigorous publicity campaign to ensure that those eligible did apply for assistance, resulted in a continuous increase in applications up to the end of the year.

The scheme is administered on a decentralised basis and field units throughout the Colony deal with cases within their respective areas. Whenever an application is received, an officer from the unit visits the applicant at home to ensure that all the facts of the case are obtained and that any special needs are identified. When it has been decided if, and how much, assistance is payable a formal notification of the decision is sent to the applicant. Payment is then made by the cash order book. To cope with the regular increase in cases, five new field units-one each in Hong Kong and the New Territories and three in Kowloon-were set up during the year, making a total of 13.

EMERGENCY RELIEF

The worst natural disaster of the year was typhoon Rose in August. The total number of people killed during the typhoon was

134

SOCIAL WELFARE

125 and the majority of the deaths occurred when two ferries, the Fat Shan and the Lee Hong capsized and sank with their crews on board. The total number of people registered by the Social Welfare Department for assistance was 9,853. Apart from provid- ing temporary accommodation to those in need, the department also distributed hot meals, eating utensils, blankets and clothing. Payment from the Community Relief Trust Fund for burial, re- accommodation, damage to crops, the replacement of vessels, etc, amounted to over $4 million, most of which came from general

revenue.

Another major tragedy was a fire which took place in October on board the Jumbo floating restaurant which was under construc- tion in Aberdeen harbour. Thirty-four people were killed and 42 injured in the fire. Cash assistance paid from the Community Relief Trust Fund amounted to $165,100.

       There were 106 minor natural disasters during the year which rendered 5,931 people homeless. Like the typhoon victims, they were given material and financial assistance by the Social Welfare Department and the Community Relief Trust Fund.

TRAINING

While the two universities continue to provide academic training in social work, the Training Section of the Social Welfare Depart- ment has expanded its programme of short term in-service training courses, seminars and workshops, to full-time and part-time courses lasting one academic year or more. Among the latter are the 12-month training course for youth workers, the 10-month train- ing course for people working with pre-school children, and the 13-month field teachers course. In 1971, a total of 830 people from both government and non-government welfare organisations attended the various training courses.

The expansion of the training programme was made possible partly by the increase of training staff and partly by the availability of modern facilities at the Lady Trench Day Nursery and Training Centre. The demonstration nursery, which provides day care for 100 children aged between two and five, represents a cross-section. of family income groups. It has continued to operate successfully, and has been extensively used as a training ground and laboratory for child study by trainees of the nursery workers course and social science students from the universities.

Among the highlights of the year for the Training Section were the visits of four outstanding social work personalities. These

SOCIAL WELFARE

135

were Dame Eileen Younghusband, an internationally known social work expert; Miss Pearl Jephcott, researcher and consultant from UNICEF; Mr Davies Jones, an expert in residential care; and Dr Irving A. Spergel, UN adviser on youth work. Dame Eileen's mission in Hong Kong was connected with the assessment of the development of social work education since her last visit in 1961. Dr Spergel, who remained for 11 months, made a considerable contribution towards the training of youth workers-a long-felt need by those who are concerned with the development of youth services and the training of appropriate personnel for Hong Kong.

Professionally trained social workers are continuously in demand. To enable potential candidates to obtain training at the university level, funds through scholarships and bursaries are provided by the Social Work Training Fund, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the American Women's Association and the Government.

10

Public Order

POLICE

NOTHING happened seriously to threaten the peace and stability of Hong Kong during the year. However the Royal Hong Kong Police Force had to deal with a serious increase in crimes of robbery and violence, a minor simulated bomb campaign, a number of demon- strations and the Colony's first aircraft hijacking.

      In the early part of the year, a small bomb placed outside the Central Government Offices exploded while being dismantled, caus- ing Mr Norman Hill, the Police Ballistics Officer, the loss of his right hand. This incident was followed by simulated bombs being placed in other parts of the Colony over a period of some weeks. Wrapping paper used in association with these objects indicated that the campaign was in protest against the increase in water charges.

At the end of March, Hong Kong had its first experience of a hijacked aircraft when a BAC 1-11 of Philippine Airlines, on an internal flight, was forcibly diverted to refuel in Hong Kong before flying on to Canton. The hijackers allowed some passengers to disembark, but detained others on board as hostages. After an overnight stop in Canton, the aircraft returned to Hong Kong with the crew and remaining passengers, but without the hijackers.

       A number of demonstrations took place, principally in connection with the Tiao Yu Tai (Senkaku) Islands issue. One which took place without permission in Victoria Park on July 7 led to some disorder, as a result of which 22 people were arrested and later appeared in court. All were found guilty of unlawful assembly but were given an absolute discharge. However nine defendants were fined sums ranging from $75 to $400 for additional charges which arose out of their appearance in court.

The increase in crime, though still far less than in major cities in other countries, caused much public concern, many people calling for sterner measures to be taken against criminals. Sir David Trench in his final speech to the Legislative Council on October 1, referred to the 'disturbing and continuously rising incidence of

PUBLIC ORDER

137

robberies and crimes committed against the person'. The number of murders committed totalled 98; an increase of 27 over 1970. Another worrying trend was the increasing numbers of juveniles and young people involved in crimes of violence.

The first of a series of police posts in resettlement estates was opened at Tsz Wan Shan in May. Other posts are planned for Lam Tin, Lo Fu Ngam, Ngau Tau Kok, Sau Mau Ping and Shek Lei. Building projects completed in 1971 included a block of 48 flats for married inspectors on Hong Kong Island, and alterations to the Harbour Police Station at Tsim Sha Tsui. Construction work and planning for a number of other new buildings continued. At the end of the year there were 48 police projects in the Public Works Programme.

A new Marine Police Division, covering Lantau and the neigh- bouring islands of Cheung Chau, Peng Chau, Lamma, Shek Kwu Chau and the Sokos, was formed in November and named Islands Division. The Marine Police brought into service three new 40-foot boats towards the end of the year and orders were also placed for seven 78-foot boats which are to be delivered during 1972.

In 1971 the Police Public Information Bureau, operating on a 24-hour basis, handled thousands of press enquiries, arranged a number of conferences and facilities for the press and answered 296 letters which appeared in both English and Chinese news- papers. Releases concerning crime prevention and road safety advice were also issued regularly.

       The total number of crimes reported to the police was 32,461, an increase of 3,409 or 11.7 per cent, over 1970. Of these, 24,840 were detected, giving an overall detection rate of 76.5 per cent compared with 76.6 per cent in 1970. The number of adult offend- ers (16 years and over) was 15,294 people and the number of juvenile offenders (under 16 years) was 1,645. Compared with last year's figures, the number of adults prosecuted increased from 13,901 to 15,294, and the number of juveniles fell from 1,652 to 1,645.

        A total of 429 juvenile first offenders were treated as discretion cases and referred to the Juvenile Protection Office for follow up action. Of these, only 23 were subsequently found to have commit- ted further offences. This compared favourably with results achieved in 1970.

        The Commercial Crime Office, besides investigating a number of complicated long-term frauds, increased its efforts and modernised its techniques to cope with the marked improvement in the quality

138

PUBLIC ORDER

     of counterfeit banknotes appearing in South-East Asia. It prose- cuted three important cases in which large quantities of counter- feit Indonesian, Thai, Philippine and United States currency were seized. In addition, a man was prosecuted for possessing 117 forged Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation $100 banknotes. Offences committed by criminals arriving as tourists continued to increase.

      The strength of the General Investigation Office was doubled in April 1, to deal with increased work arising from organised gambling, prostitution and other protracted and complicated cases. On the same date, investigations into the misuse of cannabis, amphet- amines and barbiturates were taken over by the Narcotics Bureau, thereby centralising investigations into all drug matters. The General Investigation Office placed some emphasis on the investiga- tion and prosecution of unregistered doctors and unlicensed clinics. during the year. A total of 66 cases, ranging from practising surgery to possession of antibiotics, was heard by the courts.

The serious drug problem in Hong Kong, with its international ramifications, continued to give cause for concern and no solution. is yet in sight. However, the Narcotics Bureau made a number of large seizures totalling 659 lbs of morphine, 120 lbs of heroin, 12,291 lbs of opium and 113 lbs of cannabis. There were four big seizures of raw opium, three consisting of complete consignments involving a total of 9,104 lbs. The total retail value of all drugs seized during 1971 exceeded $60 million, almost seven times the value of those seized in 1970.

      Triad elements remained suppressed and there were strong in- dications of a gradual decline in the conventional triad movement. Violent, quasi-triad youth gangs, however, continued to pose prob- lems to law and order. During the year, a total of 1,034 triad offences involving 874 people were dealt with, against 960 offences involving 875 people in the preceding year. Apart from triad offences, many of the offenders were also convicted of other crimes and special attention has been directed by the Triad Society Bureau to the activities of people between the ages of 16 and 21. In this age group, the number of people arrested rose from 497 in 1970 to 579 this year.

As part of the Government's drive to root out corruption, con- currently with the introduction of the new Prevention of Bribery Ordinance in May 1971, the Anti-Corruption Office was reorganised and expanded, and a new sub-office was opened in Kowloon. The new Target Committee on Corruption was appointed by the Governor

PUBLIC ORDER

139

containing for the first time unofficial members. The Committee is responsible for instructing the Director of the Anti-Corruption Office on which complaints are to be investigated and the priorities allocated to these investigations. Under the old Anti-Corruption Ordinance, 140 people were taken to court and 90 were dealt with by government departments in the six years from 1963 to 1968; in the following two years, 138 people were taken to court and 89 were dealt with by government departments.

Traffic

       Congestion on the roads increases each year and traffic control continues to be one of the Colony's major problems. The number of vehicles on our 618 miles of road at the end of 1971 was 164,378, giving a density of 266 vehicles per mile. New roads and car parks are being constructed, but vehicle registration is increasing at the rate of 14 per cent per year and new projects cannot match this pace.

The Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) Ordinance was in- troduced in September. Under this ordinance parking and other such traffic violations are no longer regarded as criminal offences, but when a motorist contravenes any of its provisions, he becomes liable for a fixed penalty of $30. This sum may be paid by post or in person at various centres listed on the parking ticket; if not paid, be recovered through the courts as a civil debt to the Crown. The person liable to pay the fixed penalty is the registered owner of the vehicle, regardless of who was in charge of it at the time. This simplified procedure appears to be appreciated by the motoring public.

it

may

       Radar continued to be used actively in the detection of speeding offenders. During the year a total of 12,449 speeding cases were reported, of which 7,467 ended in court.

As part of its safety drive the Road Safety Section distributed 142,400 leaflets and delivered lectures to an estimated 840,000 school children besides conducting a number of campaigns in conjunction with Kaifong Associations and other organisations.

Administration

In June it was announced that the term of office of the Commis- sioner, Mr C. P. Sutcliffe, had been extended for a further two years until May 1974.

       During 1971 the Royal Hong Kong Police made steady progress in planning, initiating and completing a number of important

140

PUBLIC ORDER

projects. These were concerned with manpower, training, equip- ment, transport, and building.

       However recruitment difficulties have been experienced. Recruit- ing the right type of man in sufficient numbers is one of the force's biggest problems. The number of constables recruited during the year was consistently below target, although the situation improved momentarily in the latter part of the year after the Salaries Com- mission report was published. Recruitment of local and overseas inspectorate officers compared favourably with last year, although the number of officers from abroad who resigned has caused concern.

       The strength of the regular force (excluding women police) at the end of the year was: 181 gazetted officers, 979 junior officers, 10,377 non-commissioned officers and constables. There were 565 women police of all ranks.

      The strength of the auxiliary police was 3,260 and there were 1,948 civilian staff employed in the force.

       A total of 83 officers (comprising 51 recruited locally and 32 from overseas) and 695 constables were accepted for training. Sixty- nine officers and 926 constables completed their training and were posted to police formations for duty.

       The extended interview scheme, introduced last year for the selection of local inspectorate officers, continued satisfactorily. It involves a three-day non-residential selection course at the Police Training School which enables selection staff to assess more ac- curately the suitability of candidates as potential recruits.

       A new-style rank and file winter uniform was introduced and the style of summer uniforms for all members of the force is being studied.

       The Police Tactical Unit is the crowd control and internal security training establishment of the force. Highly trained riot control com- panies, based at Fanling as well as in the three land districts, provide an immediate reserve of manpower for use in any cir- cumstances. The unit is now familiarly known to the public as the 'blue berets' because of the distinctive dark blue beret worn by the

men.

       The Tactical Unit is recognised as one of the leading centres in the world for crowd control and anti-riot training. During the year, officers from the Philippines, the United States, Papua and New Guinea, Brunei and Nauru attended courses there, and a number of shorter visits were made by representatives of several other countries.

PUBLIC ORDER

141

An increase in the women police establishment, approved in June, resulted in an increase of all ranks, with the two main land districts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon having a gazetted officer responsible to the District Commander for women police. matters. This expansion led to the first local woman officer being promoted to gazetted officer rank. Since July, all women police have been required to undergo training in crowd control duties at the Police Tactical Unit. Over the past few years, the work of police- women has become more varied with far wider scope in the opera- tional field.

       Members of the auxiliary police force come from all walks of life and voluntarily devote eight hours a month and 14 days a year to constabulary duties and training. Three recruiting centres were opened in September. Auxiliary police are deployed whenever necessary to support the regular force.

PRISONS

       When the Colony was founded one of the first two buildings to be constructed of durable materials was a prison. Today the site still serves its original purpose, and on it stands a reception and classification centre. The Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the overall administration of 10 institutions. These include maximum security prisons, an open prison, training centres for young offenders, and drug addiction treatment centres. In addition, there is a 'half-way' house and a staff training institute.

All convicted male prisoners are received at Victoria Reception Centre where they undergo a thorough medical examination and appear before a classification board for assignment to an institution best suited to their needs. The centre also contains a psychiatric observation unit manned by trained staff under a consultant psy- chiatrist. This unit will be rehoused in 1972 in a new psychiatric centre of 120 beds at Siu Lam in the New Territories.

       Stanley Prison, Hong Kong's largest maximum security establish- ment, was completed in 1936 with accommodation for 1,600 pris- oners. During 1971 the prison had an average daily muster of 2,398. It is the main industrial centre and the activities include tailoring, carpentry, metalwork, shoemaking, basketwork, silk screening, fibreglass moulding, and laundry work. Unskilled pris- oners benefit from involvement in these industrial pursuits and are taught by qualified technical instructors.

142

PUBLIC ORDER

       The open system has proved to be a useful method of handling suitable prisoners serving sentences under three years. The prison at Chi Ma Wan continued to take part in an afforestation programme and under the direction of the New Territories Administration has done much to assist the local population over the years. The institu- tion has a young prisoners section with separate dormitory accom- modation and a daily routine of half day study, half day labour.

Training centres provide an alternative to imprisonment for con- victed male offenders between the ages of 14 and 21. These centres are located at Stanley and Cape Collinson on Hong Kong Island, Shek Pik on Lantau and Lai Chi Kok in Kowloon and have a combined holding capacity of 666. Lai Chi Kok has facilities for both remands and recalls. These highly disciplined institutions provide a full programme of school and vocational training, rounded off with sporting activities. There is a thorough and successful system of statutory aftercare and all inmates are found employment before release.

       The open system brings with it an increased risk of escape, and during the year there were 53 escapes (17 from open prisons) com- pared with 68 in 1970; 45 had been recaptured by the end of the year. During the second half of the year, five escapes occurred in or near the courts, compared with two in 1970 and four in 1969. Meas- ures are being taken to tighten up and improve security generally.

A large percentage of convicted prisoners are found to be drug dependent. The addiction treatment centre at Tai Lam, with accom- modation for 508 males, provides a comprehensive medical and psychological treatment programme, aided by individual and group counselling. Those who are found suitable to undergo this treatment are detained for a period of six to 18 months, followed by a 12- month compulsory period of aftercare. To increase the amount of accommodation available for males within the treatment programme, Tong Fuk Prison will be redesignated the Ma Po Ping addiction treatment centre from January 1, 1972, providing a further 600 places for the care and rehabilitation of convicted people found to be dependent on narcotics.

The 'New Life House' is a supporting facility for the treatment centres and acts as a bridge between the centre and society.

Following a disturbance in Tong Fuk Prison on December 22, 1970, a three-man board of inquiry was appointed to investigate the incident. The report, submitted on January 18, 1971, indicated that there had been some difficulties in administering the prison.

PUBLIC ORDER

143

Remedial action was immediately taken and no further incident occurred during the year.

The Tai Lam Centre for Women accommodates remand and convicted women prisoners and also houses a training centre for young women offenders between the ages of 14 and 21, and a treatment centre for female drug dependents.

In the early part of the year a regrading exercise commenced whereby the old rank of warder will be phased out and replaced by a new rank of assistant officer having higher entry qualifications. However, because of the difficulty of meeting staff requirements many institutions have operated with less than the approved establishment.

       For the first time in the history of the Prisons Department, a prison industries exhibition was held at the City Hall from June 3-9. The main theme of the exhibition was prison industries, but it also included an historical section and a comprehensive pictorial display showing the present day activities of the department.

FIRE SERVICES

       It is an unfortunate fact that each year in Hong Kong the number of emergency calls or fire assistance calls increases. Despite the slight increase in calls in 1970 there was a drop of some 40 per cent in the total monetary loss resulting directly from fire. For 1971, however, there could be no satisfaction. An all time record of 95,495 calls were dealt with by the Fire Services Department resulting in the loss of 102 lives, while another 521 were injured; 1,434 people were physically rescued from perilous situations by firemen and many hundreds more led to safety. Between 1965-70, the average yearly monetary loss from fire was $18.7 million. This year the figure rose dramatically to about $54 million. The increase was mainly due to the serious fire involving a major construction site at Ap Lei Chau in January, the Jumbo floating restaurant fire at Aberdeen in October while the restaurant was under construc- tion, and the number of large factory fires throughout the year.

       In the constant struggle to prevent fires, the Fire Prevention Bureau's staff of 120 officers this year carried out a total of 242,167 inspections of all types of premises. One of the main targets was the abatement of fire hazards created by factories in domestic premises. Action was taken throughout the latter part of the year and the success of the operation could not be gauged till early 1972.

144

PUBLIC ORDER

After many years of campaigning to educate the public on fire precautions it appears that some success is now being achieved. It is pleasing to note that people are coming forward to seek advice and to complain of fire hazards. One unfortunate aspect is that in the past many hazards were created through ignorance, whereas now many appear to be deliberately created for various reasons, including financial gain. The most common one is the storage of goods on staircases and corridors in industrial premises. The majority of fire hazards are abated by request or persuasion but where this has no effect, it is necessary to resort to the law. During the year 1,442 cases were prosecuted resulting in a total of $379,370 being imposed in fines.

       An increase of 35.6 per cent in special service calls (emergencies other than fires, where Fire Services assistance is required) was recorded this year. People trapped in lifts, crashed vehicles, land- slides, collapsed houses and similar incidents all require the prompt response of Fire Service personnel, specialised equipment and techniques. Figures for this type of incident show that in 1971 149 people died, 824 were injured and 4,062 were rescued. Scuba divers made 23 operational dives in the harbour or reservoirs.

During typhoon Rose in August firemen and ambulancemen throughout the Colony carried out their tasks with commendable courage. Over 800 calls were received and dealt with and the firemen often worked at considerable risk to themselves to bring relief to those in distress. Nine members of the service were injured, and 23 fire appliances and 43 ambulances were damaged, two of the ambu- lances being blown off the road by high winds.

       Ambulance calls for the year were a record 85,305; of these 53,093 were for accidents and emergencies. This increase was anticipated and the trend is expected to continue. The ambulance service has been the subject of a survey in depth and its future needs have been catered for in a development report which is at present being con- sidered by the Government.

PREVENTIVE SERVICE

       The Preventive Service, comprising almost 1,000 officers, is a uniformed and disciplined division of the Commerce and Industry Department. It is generally responsible for the protection of revenue collected on the five categories of goods which are dutiable-alcohol, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol. Physical controls over the import, export, manufacture, storage and sale of these goods are administered by the service. The success of their

PUBLIC ORDER

145

      action against illicit distilling, the misuse of industrial diesel oil, etc, in 1971 was reflected by the large numbers of seizures and arrests made, and by the increased revenue collected on the dutiable commodities.

       The service also fulfils an important role in the prevention and detection of illegal trafficking in dangerous drugs such as opium and heroin. Action on this front was stepped up during 1971. In addition to the normal ship and aircraft searching, the service was also involved in the raiding of drug outlets throughout the Colony. One hundred and twelve establishments found to be used for traffick- ing, storage, manufacture or smoking of dangerous drugs were successfully raided, resulting in the arrest of 695 people. A total of 468 lbs of dangerous drugs of all forms was seized; this was almost four times as much as the total quantity seized in 1970.

11

Immigration and Tourism

IMMIGRATION

RECORDED movements of travellers in 1971 totalled 6,223,797, an increase of seven per cent over 1970. Lacking the fillip given by Expo '70 the previous year, movements by air fell three per cent but this was offset by an increase in travel by sea and land. In particular, traffic on the Hong Kong-Macau route increased 10 per cent, despite the disastrous effects of typhoon Rose which hit Hong Kong in August and sank the SS Fat Shan, beached the SS Macau and damaged most of the hydrofoils employed on the service.

Immigration control policies remained unchanged. To encourage tourism and ensure the freest possible movement of visitors, every effort was made to reduce immigration formalities to the minimum. Unfortunately, disturbed conditions in several nearby territories necessitated the tightening of some visa controls. The policy govern- ing entry for residence and employment continued to be selective. Applications for entry by close relatives of residents and by former residents were dealt with liberally. Applications for entry for em- ployment were generally approved provided the person possessed special skill, knowledge or experience of value to, and not readily available in Hong Kong, or that the applicant was able to make a substantial contribution to the economy of the Colony.

During the year there were indications of shortages of semi-skilled and unskilled labour in certain industries and it was suggested that overseas recruitment should be allowed to meet these shortages. However it was not considered timely to change the current policy although the Government undertook to keep the suggestion in view.

Hong Kong continued to attract illegal immigrants, mainly from China, Macau, and the countries of South-East Asia. The total number detected was 12,607, a decrease of just over five per cent on the preceding year. However, there was a large increase in illegal entry from Macau and China and a noticeable rise in the number of travellers from Vietnam and the Khmer Republic who entered Hong Kong ostensibly in transit but remained illegally.

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

147

Accentuating previously noted trends, the demand for travel documents increased dramatically. The issue of British passports reached a record 28,018, an increase of 55.5 per cent over 1970. This was partly due to a more simplified application procedure. Issues of travel documents to stateless people and people of undeter- mined nationality also set new records. Applications for naturalisa- tion totalled 1,122, an increase of 7.5 per cent. Most applicants were influenced by the improved travel facilities which British nationality gives.

The Immigration Department continued to act as the agent in immigration and passport matters on behalf of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries not otherwise represented in Hong Kong. The United Kingdom's Commonwealth immigration control legislation, particularly that relating to appeals, placed a heavy burden on the department. Applications for entry to Britain increased considerably, mainly as a result of the enactment of the new Immigration Act in October which will put a tighter curb on emigration to the country when it is brought into force.

       Following a survey of the department in 1970, a number of proposals on staffing were approved and implemented. These in- cluded the creation of an additional post of Assistant Director; expansion of the Chinese, Investigation and Training sections; the setting up of a ship-searching team in the Harbour section; and additional staff for the Airport section.

The Immigration Bill 1971, designed to consolidate and replace the existing legislation on immigration control and deportation, received the Governor's assent on October 14. It is expected to come into force in early 1972 and preparations for its implementation were well in hand at the end of the year.

TOURISM

        The effects of the recession in the United States economy com- pounded by worldwide currency uncertainty has this year tested the resilience of Hong Kong's tourist industry, and has brought some changes in the pattern of tourism in the Colony.

The total number of visitors for the year was 907,295. This was 2.2 per cent less than the exceptional year of Expo '70 and was expected. Using 1969 as a more reasonable base, the figures showed an increase of 18.6 per cent. The Hong Kong Tourist Association estimated that the total visitor expenditure, including service visitors, amounted to a minimum of $1,765 million.

148

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

       The most significant fact revealed by a study of these figures is the emergence of the Japanese as the largest national group of visitors. Numbering 237,950, the Japanese made up 26.2 per cent of the total, a dramatic increase of eight per cent over 1970. The number of American tourists fell to 217,695, a decrease of 13.5 per cent from last year and only 2.7 per cent more than 1969. Visitors from Australia and New Zealand were fewer than the pre- vious year but 30.8 per cent more than in 1969. Europeans con- tributed only seven per cent of the total. The end of rest and recreation visits in the autumn by American servicemen had a minimal effect on overall tourism, although shops, bars and restau- rants in a few areas suffered considerably.

       The trend to regional as opposed to transpacific tourism has been accompanied by another important shift in emphasis. Of all the visitors for the year, 42.5 per cent were under 35 years old. This was 52 per cent more than last year. One reason for this development was the steady increase in passenger charter flights, and the growing number of tourists especially from Japan who arrive in groups. Such a rapid increase in the number of younger travellers presents a challenge to the local industry. With less money for spending in de luxe hotels and on shopping and more adventurous ideas on touring, these visitors seek medium-priced accommodation and a variety of excursions, which in general Hong Kong lacks.

       Despite fewer visitors, some difficulty was experienced in finding sufficient hotel rooms during the spring and autumn. With 9,047 rooms available the average room occupancy for the year was 84 per cent, but more hotels are being built and planned. Three hotels with a total of 2,000 rooms will be opened in Causeway Bay and Wan Chai in 1972. All are situated close to the Island entrance to the cross harbour tunnel, and two are designed primarily for group travel. In Kowloon a leading hotel will open a new 180-room wing. Another 1,500 rooms in two hotels on Hong Kong Island are scheduled to open in 1973. The cross harbour tunnel should help ease the growing problem of transport between the airport and hotels on the Island. The need for rapid transit in this area is proved by the popularity of the helicopter service at present operating between the airport and Harcourt Road.

The number of visitors to Hong Kong en route to China has increased this year, although such visitors still account for only a small percentage of all arrivals.

       The average length of stay of tourists has declined marginally from 3.8 days in 1970 to 3.6 days in 1971. To encourage people to stay

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

149

longer and see different aspects of Hong Kong, various resort projects are being planned in the rural areas. The most advanced are on Lantau which is becoming a popular destination for half-day and day tours.

        Overseas the offices of the Hong Kong Tourist Association and Cathay Pacific Airways continued to promote tourism with seminars for travel agents, film shows, store promotions and presentations in co-operation with airlines serving Hong Kong. A new office was opened in Paris.

12

Public Works and Utilities

     THE Government's biggest single financial commitment is the pro- gramme of public works, which ranges from the formation and reclamation of land, the building of resettlement and low-cost hous- ing estates, schools and hospitals to the construction of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs. Capital expenditure on the programme for the financial year 1971-2 is estimated at $508 million, or about 17 per cent of the total expenditure envisaged in the annual estimates. Of this sum $110 million is to be spent on resettlement and govern- ment low-cost housing, $68 million on roads and $95 million on water supplies.

WATER SUPPLIES

For the fourth year in succession Hong Kong enjoyed a continuous water supply, but with demand continuing to grow at a high rate, the risk of having to impose restrictions during periods of drought is increasing to an undesirably high level.

On January 1, 47,014 million gallons of water were held in storage, compared with 37,903 million gallons in January 1970. Rainfall over the Colony was considerably below average (1,903.8 mm compared with 2168.8 mm) and rainfall in waterworks catchment areas was lower still, resulting in only 35,317 million gallons being held in storage at the end of the year.

At the beginning of the year, 34,685 million gallons were stored in Plover Cove, and during the summer months the inflow reduced the salinity of the impounded water from 430 parts per million to 260 parts per million by November-well below the normal taste threshold of 330. For the second year running, marked chemical and thermal stratification occurred during the summer months, but although there was complete overturn and mixing during typhoon Rose in August, the quality of the water remained good.

The Chinese Authorities continued the supply from the Shum Chun reservoir and during the period from October 1970 to June 1971, 14,791 million gallons were obtained. The supply was resumed on October 1, 1971, in accordance with the agreement with the Peoples Council of Kwangtung Province.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

151

        The demand for water reached a new peak of 214.9 million gallons a day, an increase of 5.2 per cent over the 1970 peak. The average consumption throughout the year was 181.1 million gallons a day, an increase of 8.5 per cent over the 1970 average. A total of 66,100 million gallons of drinkable water were consumed compared with 60,917 million gallons in 1970. In addition, 13,938 million gallons of salt water for flushing were supplied, 18 per cent more than in 1970.

        To meet future increases in demand, work continued on raising the Plover Cove dam by 12 feet, to increase the reservoir capacity by 13,000 million gallons to 50,000 million gallons. Additional pumping and filtration capacity is being provided simultaneously by exten- sions to the Tai Mei Tuk, Tai Po Tau and Sha Tin pumping stations and the Sha Tin treatment works. The output of the treatment works has already been increased from 80 to 110 million gallons a day, and will be increased to 175 million gallons a day by 1973.

        Construction work began on the High Island water scheme---the last major conventional water supply project economically viable. This scheme will intercept water from the Sai Kung Peninsula and lead it through a system of stream intakes and tunnels to a 60,000 million gallon reservoir. The reservoir will be formed by the con- struction of two rockfill dams, each rising 200 feet above sea level, and linking High Island with the mainland at its eastern and western extremities. There will be about 24 miles of tunnels, from seven to 13 feet in diameter, 18 stream intakes to intercept water on the hill- sides at about 290 feet above sea level, eight flood pumping stations to collect water from low-lying land and pump it into the tunnel system, and there will be a major pumping station, treatment works, service reservoirs and pipelines to bring the water to the public. The cost will be over $1,000 million. The scheme is scheduled for com- pletion in 1978 but it is hoped to begin drawing water into the supply in 1976.

Since conventional water supplies cannot keep pace with the rate of increase in demand, and no more projects of colony wide signifi- cance are possible, large-scale desalting will eventually be necessary. This year a 50,000 gallon a day experimental desalting plant was commissioned to confirm the suitability of sites selected for large- scale desalting, to test materials for the construction of desalting plants, and to determine the treatment necessary to make such water suitable for injection into the distribution network. Work also began on the design of a 40 million gallon a day multi-stage flash desalter due for completion in 1974. This plant will cost about $200 million

152

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

and will be one of the largest in the world. A report was completed on the possibilities of even larger desalters for the end of the decade, operating conjointly with plant for the production of electricity.

Along with these plans for new and different sources of water, work continued on new service reservoirs, pumping stations and pipelines to provide for growing demand in existing and new areas of development.

At Castle Peak a fully filtered supply system for up to six million gallons a day was completed, and the capacity of the supply system for the nearby township of Yuen Long was increased from two to four million gallons a day. In the eastern New Territories, a new filtered water supply of up to 1.3 million gallons a day was completed for the Sai Kung area, where previously supplies were either non- existent or from simple stream intakes. In other parts of the New Territories, improvements were made in the supply system feeding Cheung Chau Island, and work was in hand on improving supplies to the islands of Kat O and Tsing Yi and to the Lantau townships of Tai O and Mui Wo.

BUILDINGS

Building costs continued to rise during 1971 but not as sharply as during the latter half of 1969 and in 1970. It is estimated that the general rise in costs over the year was about 28 per cent. Material prices levelled off during the second quarter of the year and although fairly small fluctuations were noticeable, wage rates (with minor exceptions) continued to increase steadily from two to six per cent per month with a consequent rise in building costs. The cause of these wage increases has been attributed to the continued resurgence of private building in Hong Kong and a general shortage of skilled labour in the industry.

Due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient experienced labour and the continued rise in wages (which in turn seems to have led to reduced productivity on site) the construction of many government buildings was somewhat slower than programmed and the construc- tion and maintenance of new and existing buildings for HBM Depart- ment of the Environment suffered in the same way. Private architects, quantity surveyors and consultants continued to assist the Public Works Department in implementing the public building programme. During the year expenditure on resettlement estates and associated buildings amounted to approximately $42 million; on government low-cost housing $59.21 million; and on all other projects $102.93 million.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

153

Fourteen resettlement blocks and 13 government low-cost housing blocks were completed during the year, providing accommodation for some 104,000 people. Twelve 24-classroom primary schools, eight two-storey restaurants and nine kindergartens were also com- pleted in resettlement and government low-cost housing estates. At the end of the year work was continuing on 15 resettlement and 37 low-cost housing blocks which will provide accommodation for 194,000 people. In addition, 14 estate schools providing a total of 336 primary classrooms, three two-storey restaurants and 18 kinder- gartens were in the course of construction.

Improvements to the electrical wiring in Mark I and II resettle- ment blocks continued. This work was completed at the Lei Cheng Uk estate and was in hand at the Wong Tai Sin estate. The construction of modular markets was completed at three resettlement estates and similar facilities will be provided in all estates now under construc- tion and in future ones. The provision of restaurant facilities in government low-cost housing estates was also approved during the year and the first restaurant building was completed at Lei Muk Shue estate in conjunction with the modular market complex.

At the end of the year planning and preparatory works were in hand on several resettlement and low-cost housing estates which will provide accommodation for a further 350,000 people.

Projects completed on Hong Kong Island included the David Trench Rehabilitation Centre for the physically handicapped, two blocks of police inspectorate quarters and a number of non-depart- mental quarters. Several playgrounds and public amenity areas were also finished and others were under construction.

Amongst the many buildings completed in Kowloon were a secondary technical school at North Kowloon, a fire station at King's Park, a block of government offices and a magistracy at Wong Tai Sin, sports grounds at King's Park and Cheung Sha Wan, and educational television studios at Broadcast Drive.

In the New Territories the projects completed included a play- ground at Tsuen Wan, a beach building at Cheung Chau, a magistracy at Tsuen Wan, a standard clinic at Kwai Chung, and a mental hospital for the Prisons Department at Tai Lam.

Projects under construction at the end of the year included swim- ming pool complexes at Morrison Hill and at Kennedy Town, a secondary school at Sha Tin, fire stations at Cheung Sha Wan, Yau Tong and Kwai Chung, an ambulance depot at King's Park, a multi- storey car park at Murray Road, the new Lai Chi Kok Hospital,

154

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

a vaccine institute at Pok Fu Lam, and a new clinical building at Queen Mary Hospital, where work on another new building to house a mortuary, virus laboratory and clinical pathology service was also progressing. Also under construction were a polyclinic at Tsuen Wan, a block of senior departmental quarters at Tsuen Wan, police stations at Ngau Tau Kok and Shing Wo Road, Stage I of Hoi Sham Park at To Kwa Wan, a market at Wong Tai Sin, a columbarium at Wo Hop Shek cemetery and a beach building at Clear Water Bay beach. Several playgrounds, amenity areas, latrines, hawker bazaars and flood-lighting schemes were also in hand.

      At the end of the year, design, working drawings and contract documents were in preparation for more than 200 projects including Stage IV of the Kai Tak Terminal Building modifications, the second stage of the multi-storey car park in Yau Ma Tei, a training school for the Preventive Service, a second block of government offices in Garden Road, a mental hospital and staff quarters at Lai Chi Kok, 12 police stations, a prison at Pik Uk, and a maximum security training centre. Design work was also in hand on an outdoor stadium at Ho Man Tin and the Hung Hom development complex which includes the new railway terminal building, an indoor stadium for 15,000 spectators and a multi-storey car park for 900 cars.

DRAINAGE

      All the urban areas and the newly developing townships have been provided with waterborne sewerage systems, although in a few areas there are still some old buildings which are not yet connected to the public sewers. The hydraulic and physical conditions of exist- ing sewers were under constant observation. Sewers found to be unable to cope with the flow or structurally unsound due to ageing were enlarged or replaced. In accordance with these arrangements some of the pre-war sewers in Sham Shui Po, Lai Chi Kok and Wan Chai districts were relaid or enlarged.

      The hydrological survey to investigate the dispersal characteristics of the waters of Tolo Harbour, Victoria Harbour and the associated tidal water past Tsuen Wan to Castle Peak was completed and the report finalised by the consulting engineers who were working in association with the staff of the Public Works Department. The report recommended the degree of treatment to be given to sewage from each sewerage district prior to discharge into the sea. It also covered the siting and design of submarine outfalls to carry the discharge into the main tidal currents. This is to achieve adequate dilution and dispersion to avoid pollution of the Colony's marine

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

155

environment. With this aim, construction of submarine outfalls in Wan Chai and Lai Chi Kok was completed.

       Sewerage systems are an integral part of the new towns being developed in the New Territories. A sewage screening plant is under construction for Castle Peak new town and consulting engineers have completed the design of the Shek Wu Hui pilot sewage treat- ment plant. When commissioned, the plant will improve the sanitary conditions in that area as well as providing information on the best form of sewage treatment to suit local conditions.

The extension of stormwater culverts in Central reclamation was completed, but is still in progress on the reclamation at Wan Chai. Remedial work to landslide areas in the Shau Kei Wan district and construction of the main culvert at Kwai Chung were completed. Work continued on three other projects, namely the river training at Sha Tin, the extension of two large culverts in the Kai Tak area and the intercepting sewer extension around Pillar Island.

PORT WORKS

       With work well under way on three container berths at Kwai Chung, the construction of the necessary access roads and flyover was started so that these would be ready for the arrival of the first ships in the latter half of 1972. A contract for dredging the sea approaches to the berths was also let and this, when finished, will enable the largest container ships to tie up even at low tide. The planning of two further container-terminal lots was finalised together with the investigations required for selecting suitable borrow areas. to provide filling material for the reclamation involved. Other work completed during the year included a pier at Aberdeen to serve both the Fisheries Office and the Marine Licensing Station, a passenger- ferry pier at Kwun Tong and a further 600 feet of seawall in Kowloon Bay and 250 feet at Cha Kwo Ling, both to retain reclamations.

        In the New Territories, work was completed on improvements to the existing breakwater at Three Fathoms Cove, a new pier at Shek Pik on Lantau, a roof to the existing public pier at Tai O and a new spring-fendering system for Tsing Yi public pier. A reclamation to form land for new departmental quarters at Tai Po and naviga- tional beacons at Tai A Chau, Pun Shan Shek, Pak Kok Tsui, Gau Tau, Fan Lau and Yuen Kok were also completed. Dredging was carried out to deepen the approach channel to Tai O Creek and to improve and enlarge the anchorages at Chek Keng, Long Harbour and Sai Kung.

156

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

Among the projects under construction are seawalls at Wan Chai, four salt-water pumphouses also at Wan Chai, a navigational beacon on the rock outcrop at Lo Shu Pai near Chai Wan, a seawall and reclamation inside the Yau Ma Tei typhoon shelter and a new spring fender system for the Lai Chi Kok incinerator pier. The main civil engineering and building works for a second refuse incinerator at Lai Chi Kok began in October.

LAND DEVELOPMENT

       Progress at the two new towns at Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan included the formation of 28.8 acres of land and 26.9 acres of reclamation. Another 12 acres were reclaimed privately for a con- tainer terminal. At Kwun Tong 14 acres were reclaimed from Kowloon Bay for industrial development. At Tsuen Wan - Kwai Chung, 41.7 acres of land were formed, comprising 28.8 acres of formed hillside sites and adjacent roads for government low-cost housing and industry and 12.9 acres of reclamation at Gin Drinker's Bay.

In Kowloon, development of land for low-cost housing, schools, government and institutional uses included about 5.2 acres of terraced sites at Ho Man Tin and 2.25 acres at Pak Tin: 0.3 acres were formed at Tai Kok Tsui for a ferry and bus concourse, 7.2 acres at Tong Mi Road, 3.1 acres at Cha Kwo Ling for road extensions and 7.2 acres at Kai Tak for the extension of airport facilities.

       On Hong Kong Island, reclamation continued with the formation of 2.2 acres of land at Wan Chai, 9 acres at Chai Wan and 0.3 acres at Sandy Bay. At Hing Wah 1.8 acres of terraced sites were formed for a resettlement estate.

       In the first stage of the new town at Castle Peak, a further 25 acres of land were formed by cutting and filling. Seven thousand feet of new roads were constructed and 5,000 feet of internal storm- water drains and 5,500 feet of sewers were laid. The sewage pump- ing station at Pak Kok Tsui was also completed and work continued on the remaining site formation, roads and drains.

       In the first stage of the new town at Sha Tin, a further 2.8 acres of land were reclaimed for government housing and roads, 4,700 feet of which were constructed.

QUARRYING

       Private quarries are operated in accordance with the Government's policy of concentrating stone production in large quarries let under

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

157

long-term contracts. There are now six such quarries in full produc- tion, and the site for a seventh is being cleared. Only six private quarries are still operating under the old system of Crown land permits but these are on sites which are not suitable for large-scale digging. It is planned that most of these will cease operating before the end of 1972 as new quarries under government contracts replace them.

The rate of production of aggregate has been increased con- siderably and, while there was a shortage in the first quarter, supplies were adequate to meet demand for most of the year. Towards the end of 1971 there were signs that demand was again increasing, indicating a possible need for additional sources of supply. The two government quarries at Diamond Hill in Kowloon and Mount Butler on Hong Kong Island, which produce aggregate and road-surfacing materials for government projects, also increased production to meet growing demands from the expanding construction programmes. Preparations were being made at the end of the year for installation of new machinery to provide additional production capacity and to improve efficiency.

The materials-testing laboratories operated by the Civil Engineer- ing Office of the Public Works Department carried out 93,162 tests on building materials; of these 10,240 were for private firms.

Electricity

PUBLIC UTILITIES

       Three private power companies serve Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, in addition to minor enterprises such as that on Tap Mun and a few village co-operatives. These companies do not operate under any franchise, but the Government worked out a scheme of financial control with the Hongkong Electric Co Ltd and China Light and Power Co Ltd in 1964-5. Safety aspects are covered by the Electricity Supply Ordinance.

The voltage is normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three- phase, four-wire, 50 cycle alternating current. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 11 kV and, in some locations, 6.6 kV.

       The total generating capacity of the three main companies is 1,571.7 MW, of which China Light (Kowloon and the New Terri- tories) accounts for 1,114 MW, Hongkong Electric (Hong Kong Island) 455 MW and Cheung Chau Electric 2.7 MW. Electricity consumption increased considerably during the year and amounted to 4,891 GWh for the three companies. China Light sold a total

158

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

of 3,576 GWh, an increase of 10.5 per cent; Hongkong Electric 1,310.9 GWh, up 8.3 per cent; and Cheung Chau 3.9 GWh, an increase of 13 per cent.

       In Kowloon and the New Territories the sales of electricity were made up of: general tariff 1,891 GWh; bulk tariff 1,670 GWh; and public lighting 15 GWh. The breakdown for Hong Kong Island is: domestic and residential 352.5 GWh; commercial 694.1 GWh; indus- trial 257.6 GWh; and street lighting 6.7 GWh. On Cheung Chau, the consumers are not classified in categories, but 0.06 GWh was used for street lighting.

The maximum demand on the companies' generating plants again showed substantial increases over 1970. For China Light it was 804 MW, an increase of 13.4 per cent; and Hongkong Electric 342 MW, or 12.4 per cent higher.

        Consumers in Kowloon and the New Territories, totalled 570,566 at the end of 1971, 5.9 per cent more than last year and total electricity generated was 4,077 GWh, a rise of 10 per cent. On Hong Kong Island, the number of consumers increased by 4.1 per cent to a total of 203,240 and the output was 1,492.8 GWh a rise of eight per cent. On Cheung Chau, the power generation was 3.6 GWh and there are 3,480 consumers, an increase of 3.5 per cent. The per capita consumption under China Light's distribution was 1,220 kWh, an increase of eight per cent over 1970 and for Hongkong Electric it was 1,307 kWh, up 8.2 per cent.

The generation of electricity in Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of outlying islands, is carried out by China Light and Power and Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd, an enterprise owned and financed by Esso and China Light. The generat- ing station at Hok Yuen, Kowloon Bay, has a capacity of 630 MW, while the power station on Tsing Yi now has four 120 MW units operating. Another two 120 MW units are due to be installed by the middle of 1973, followed by two 200 MW units.

During typhoon Rose, an explosion in Tsun Yip Lane substation, Kwun Tong, led to an extensive power failure, affecting all districts in Kowloon and the New Territories for a short time, and the Kwun Tong area for several days. Steps were taken to prevent any similar incident resulting in a loss of load on such a large scale.

Hongkong Electric is responsible for supplying power to Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma. Its main generating plant at North Point has an installed capacity of 335 MW. The station on Ap Lei Chau has a capacity

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

159

of 120 MW, but three 125 MW units have been ordered and are due to be commissioned during 1972, 1973 and 1975 to keep pace with expanding consumer demands.

The Cheung Chau Electric Company, which was founded in 1913 as a community project and is now operated by commercial in- terests, is also planning the installation of an additional 1 MW unit, probably in 1973.

Gas

The Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd supplies Towngas to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. The supply is available throughout the urban areas, including Repulse Bay on the Island and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong, Kwai Chung and Tsuen Wan. Liquefied petroleum gas is offered to customers outside the reach of the town gas supply.

Towngas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon, and the Island is supplied by two submarine gas mains across the harbour. The total installed production capacity of the station is approximately 14 million cubic feet per day. Tsuen Wan is supplied by an in- dependent station with a capacity of 900,000 cubic feet per day.

Gas is sold on a thermal basis (one therm=100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of Towngas in the urban area is 455 British thermal units per cubic foot and in the Tsuen Wan area it is 650 BTU per cubic foot.

The total quantity of gas sold in 1971 was 9.8 million therms compared with 9.1 million in 1970, an increase of eight per cent.

13

Communications

      FOR its size Hong Kong has probably the most sophisticated com- munications system in Asia-a system that is continuing to expand to keep pace with advances in technology. Satellite earth stations, computers, highly complex electronic equipment have all been a part of the Colony's communications network for some years. Com- plementing these are the older-established systems making Hong Kong a centre of communications in the region.

SHIPPING

       The port of Victoria, the principal port of the Colony, has a worldwide reputation for catering to the requirements of modern shipping. The magnificent natural harbour which lies between the island of Hong Kong and the city of Kowloon, has an area of 23 square miles varying in width from one to six miles.

       The administration of the port is one of the responsibilities of the Director of Marine. To ensure that port facilities and services keep abreast of developments and the changing needs of Hong Kong and the ships of all nations which use the port, the Director is advised on its administration by the Port Executive Committee through which the closest liaison with the shipping and commercial interests of the Colony is maintained. With the exception of the Hong Kong- Macau ferry terminal wharf, the department neither controls nor operates any of the alongside berths of the port nor the transit sheds or warehouses associated with them. It does, however, operate and maintain 73 moorings for ocean-going vessels within the harbour. Of these, 43 are classified as being suitable for use by ships up to 600 feet in length and 30 for ships up to 450 feet in length. Special typhoon mooring buoys are provided for vessels wishing to remain in the port during the passage of a tropical storm. In addition, the largest and deepest draught vessels afloat can be afforded a safe anchorage. The commercial wharves can accommodate vessels of up to 1,000 feet in length with draughts not exceeding 36 feet.

       The comprehensive system of navigational aids in the harbour and approaches provides safe entry to the port by day and night

COMMUNICATIONS

161

and improvements are continually being made. Certain fairway light buoys and navigational beacons are fitted with radar reflecting devices. The department operates a network of signal stations at Waglan Island, Green Island, North Point and at the Marine Depart- ment Port Communications Centre, which are all inter-connected by telephone and teleprinter circuits. A modified Hague Plan VHF Port Operations Service is also operated by the department. Al- though pilotage in the port and in Hong Kong waters is not com- pulsory, it is generally recommended because of the density of marine traffic and the scale of harbour works continuously being under- taken. During the year, work continued on the construction of the cross harbour tunnel between Kellett Island and Hung Hom. This major civil engineering enterprise entailed certain alterations being made to the Hung Hom fairway joining Kowloon Bay with the cen- tral and western areas of the port. As a result, the Marine Depart- ment recommended that whenever the draught of a vessel allowed, it should use the western entrance to the harbour rather than the

eastern one.

Quarantine and immigration facilities are available on a 24-hour basis at the Western quarantine anchorage and from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the Eastern quarantine anchorage. This change in times of availa- bility of the 24-hour clearance from the Eastern to the Western an- chorages reflects the emphasis now being placed upon the arrival and departure of vessels via the western approaches to the harbour. Ships are normally cleared on arrival and large passenger vessels are processed en route to their alongside berth or mooring buoy. Advance immigration clearance may be obtained by certain vessels on applica- tion.

The harbour is patrolled by Marine Department launches to ensure effective control of fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo working areas. The launches are in continuous contact by radio with the Port Control Office which is thus able to initiate and control action required in any unusual circumstances. A fleet of modern fire fighting vessels, operated by the Fire Services Depart- ment, is kept in continuous readiness and units are stationed on either side of the harbour. These and other government vessels are equipped with emulsifier sprays for dispersing oil pollution. The Pollution Control Unit of the department is responsible for the detection and combating of oil pollution within the waters of Hong Kong. The Harbour Cleansing Unit removes some 6,000 tons of floating refuse from the main harbour each year.

162

COMMUNICATIONS

The proximity of Hong Kong to the Portuguese Colony of Macau attracts both tourists and residents to Macau. The facilities of the Hong Kong-Macau ferry terminal wharf have been further improved since regulations were implemented in January giving control of this terminal to the Director of Marine and additional alterations are planned to ensure greater ease of passenger processing and movement. The volume of passenger traffic on this route has in- creased from just over one million in 1962 to 3.19 million in 1971. Passenger services to Macau were disrupted for some weeks follow- ing typhoon Rose in August.

At present a large percentage of the cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage transported by lighters. Over two thousand lighters and junks are now used for this purpose and nearly a thousand of these are mechanised. Ships' own cargo gear is normally used for loading or discharging cargo alongside wharves or in the stream, but floating heavy lifting equipment is available in the port when required. Wharf and godown companies are fully aware of the advantages and increased productivity which can result from mech- anisation and adequate modern equipment is therefore available to speed the rapid and safe movement of goods between godowns, ships and lighters.

The development of container handling facilities within the port continued during the year. New equipment ordered for the handling of containers was delivered and is currently in use by the North Point Wharves Ltd and a Portainer crane was brought into use by the Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Co Ltd. Work proceeded at Kowloon Docks on the development of the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company's facilities for the reception of con- tainer ships and the handling of containers. The three container terminals now being developed in the Rambler Channel area at Kwai Chung, are going ahead on schedule. At the end of the year, tenders were called for the development of a further container berth and back-up area. Dredging began during the year to prepare for the reception of container vessels when the Kwai Chung container terminals are brought into operation. Container ships and other vessels of deep draught and higher speed are likely to make greater use of the West Lamma Channel in future and the Marine Depart- ment is considering further improvements in the provision of navi- gational aids for ships which will be proceeding to the Kwai Chung berths.

Good bunkering facilities are provided in the port and vessels may be supplied with fuel oil either at the wharves of oil terminals

COMMUNICATIONS

163

or from a fleet of harbour oilers owned and operated by the major oil companies. Fresh water is similarly available at commercial wharves or from waterboats which service vessels at anchor or at government moorings.

Hong Kong has a long history of shipbuilding and its ship repair facilities are extremely efficient. Whilst the Colony's major shipyards are able to build dry cargo vessels, tankers, and general purpose passenger and cargo vessels up to 500 feet in length, their work is now increasingly directed towards ship repairing and major modi- fications.

       Two major shipyards are the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co Ltd and the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co Ltd. Both companies have extensive facilities for the repair, maintenance and dry docking or slipping of all class and types of vessels up to 35,000 deadweight tons in the case of bulk oil tankers, or 750 feet in length and 88 feet beam in the case of passenger liners and dry cargo vessels. Minor shipyards in Hong Kong, with over 170 slipways, are well equipped to undertake repairs to small vessels and have developed a capacity for the building of specialised craft, particularly pleasure craft and yachts.

Hong Kong continues to play an important role as a centre of recruitment for seamen and over 25,000 seamen, out of a total of 64,351 locally registered men, are serving on board some 1,258 British and foreign flag vessels. The Seamen's Recruiting Office and the Mercantile Marine Office combine to register and supervise the employment of seamen on board vessels of all flags. The Mariner's Club in Kowloon provides recreational and welfare facilities of a high standard for seamen of all nationalities.

Hong Kong is situated in an area which is frequently affected by tropical cyclones in the summer months. In August 1971, typhoon Rose, although relatively small in area was probably one of the most intense and violent tropical storms ever to have affected the port. Twenty-six vessels ran aground at some stage during the typhoon mostly on north-east Lantau. In addition, two vessels, the Fat Shan, a Hong Kong-Macau ferry, and the Lee Hong, a laid-up ferry vessel, sank with considerable loss of life. Three hydrofoils were severely damaged and about three hundred local craft, including one hundred pleasure craft, were sunk or damaged as a result of the storm.

CIVIL AVIATION

The responsibility for the operation of Hong Kong Airport and the supervision of all aspects of civil aviation in the Colony and the

164

COMMUNICATIONS

100,000 square-mile Hong Kong Flight Information Region, rests with the Civil Aviation Department.

      The airport, situated three miles from the busy commercial and hotel centre of Kowloon, is a major link on the air routes of the Far East. It has been designed and developed to provide facilities for passengers and cargo of a standard second to none in the Orient. The airport is linked to all parts of the world by 28 airlines, providing each week a total of more than 800 scheduled passenger services to and from Hong Kong, of which some 72 services are by Boeing 747 'jumbo' jet aircraft, and about 90 scheduled freight services. In addition many non-scheduled passenger and cargo flights are also operated. During the year 2,369,704 passengers passed through the airport, 75,464 metric tons of cargo were handled and the total num- ber of civil international aircraft arrivals and departures amounted to 48,873; showing increases over the previous year of two per cent, 23 per cent and four per cent respectively.

      Operational services provided at the airport include air traffic control, telecommunications, air/sea rescue, the airport fire, crash and rescue service, aeronautical information and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an aeronautical meteorological service.

       The passenger terminal building provides shops, restaurants, bars, an observation terrace, a post office, as well as telegraph and banking facilities. The terminal operates on a 'two level' system of passenger movement, speeding the flow of passengers by utilising the first floor for all departures and the ground floor for arrivals, with a mechanised baggage handling and distribution system on each floor. Customs, immigration and port health facilities work to an 'open front' system of passenger processing to reduce long queues and waiting periods. A separate channel is now provided for aircrew and staff.

      To meet the anticipated demand beyond 1972, further expansion of the terminal is planned to increase the passenger handling capacity to more than 3,200 passengers per hour, compared with the present 2,200. The expansion forms Stage IV of the terminal development programme, the first two phases of which are planned to increase the airside waiting areas, provide three more aircraft parking bays with airbridges, a new restaurant and additional departure hall public area, and extend the arrivals hall and provide a multi-storey car park.

       Construction and modification of other airport facilities continued throughout the year. A new outer taxiway and nullah bridge capable of supporting aircraft of 1.5 million pounds weight was completed. Enlargement of the terminal apron continued while an extension of

COMMUNICATIONS

165

the 747 pier to include a third aircraft parking bay fitted with air- bridges was nearing completion at the end of the year. Two other bays were also modified to accommodate 747 aircraft. The long-term parking apron, an area of approximately 45,000 square yards, was completed and brought into use for aircraft requiring maintenance, loading freight or for stop-over in Hong Kong. Additional office space of 8,162 square feet was provided on the second floor over the departure hall. The entire length of the runway was grooved, result- ing in a significant improvement in the frictional characteristic of the runway surface during wet weather conditions, and thus reducing the risk of aquaplaning and skidding. Work continued on the recla- mation for the runway extension but progress has been delayed due to bad weather and other difficulties.

       A consortium of local companies, with the Government as a part- ner, has been formed to build and operate a consolidated air cargo terminal on reclaimed land near the long-term parking area. Design details are now under consideration. As an interim measure, until the proposed cargo terminal becomes available, provision has been made for additional temporary cargo facilities on open land at the airport to cater for the increasing amount of cargo being handled.

As part of the expansion and improvements to the Air Traffic Con- trol system, the Terminal Area Radar was resited on Mount Parker. The new position improves the radar coverage of areas previously obstructed by terrain thus increasing the efficiency of Air Traffic Con- trol. A site on Beacon Hill is expected to be ready in the near future for the installation of the new Approach Surveillance Radar, sched- uled to be commissioned in 1972.

Two private flying clubs operate at the airport, the Aero Club of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Flying Club, flying a total of some 2,600 hours annually. The Far East Flying Training School conducts full-time day courses and evening classes in aeronautical engineering and electronics, training some 350 students each year. A total of 36,705 passengers were carried during the year on scheduled cross- harbour helicopter services, sight-seeing and charter flights by Hong Kong Air International Ltd, using a 13-seat twin-engine Bell 212, a three-seat Bell 47 and two six-seat Alouette III helicopters.

Cathay Pacific Airways Limited, the Hong Kong based airline, has added a Boeing 707 to its fleet of eight Convair 880 aircraft, and provides frequent services to Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sabah and Taipei.

166

COMMUNICATIONS

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

       The British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the Tsim Sha Tsui station to Lo Wu on the Chinese frontier where it joins the Chinese railway system. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains and walk from Lo Wu station to Sham Chun on the other side. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads, however, travel through without transhipment.

There are 17 daily passenger trains each way operating on the British Section and an average of five goods trains per day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at weekends and public holidays, especially in winter, and special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and the Sha Tin station. The running time between Tsim Sha Tsui and Lo Wu, including stops at seven intermediate stations, is about one hour.

The greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year was 100,013 on April 5, 1971-the Ching Ming Festival day -when Hong Kong residents paid their respects to their ancestors in the cemeteries at Wo Hop Shek and Sandy Ridge in the New Territories.

A new power signalling system has been installed between the University and Tai Po stations and international tenders are being invited to replace 28 old passenger carriages with more modern rolling stock. Construction of a new terminal railway station at Hung Hom has started. It will replace the existing terminus at Tsim Sha Tsui. Proposals to double track a section of the railway line, including the re-modelling of Mong Kok and Sha Tin stations, and to purchase an additional locomotive and 12 passenger carriages, are under consideration.

ROADS

The planning and design of new roads as well as improvements to the existing road network continued in accordance with a programme of priorities which is reviewed annually. During the year $51.7 million was spent on major projects and $15.5 million on road improvements and maintenance.

There are 618.21 miles of roads in the Colony maintained by the Government, of which 204.10 miles are on Hong Kong Island, 182.06 in Kowloon, and 232.05 in the New Territories.

       On Hong Kong Island, the construction of the Garden Road com- plex continued. Traffic flow between the central business district and mid-levels improved following completion of Cotton Tree Drive

HONG K

港公共圖

T

BLIC LIBRAR

TYPHOON

"yphoon Rose will be remembered in Hong Kong as one of the

Typhoon Rost wise code World War, and probably the worst ever

"

to affect the harbour. The full impact of the storm came to light in the early hours of Tuesday, August 17, after the Colony had been battered by wind gusts of up to 150 knots and drenched by con- tinuous torrential rain. The Hong Kong-Macau ferry, Fat Shan, capsized with a crew of 92 on board; there were only four survivors. An older ferry, the Lee Hong, which had been laid up at the Sham Shui Po anchorage for the past 10 years, sank with the loss of all her crew of nine, including the captain. In addition, 26 ocean-going ships were grounded in various parts of the harbour or just outside it, as a result of which some had later to be sold for scrap, and numerous other smaller craft were lost or damaged. Of the fleet of 14 hydrofoils operating between Hong Kong and Macau, only two were not affected. On land, the casualties and losses were not as great. During the storm and in the days immediately following, the Government gave top priority to distributing relief to those affected and to repairing the wreckage. At the height of the typhoon, the anemometer on Tai Mo Shan was broken shortly after recording a wind gust of 150 knots.

The picture on the title page shows the capsized Fat Shan in a bay on the north-east coast of Lantau Island. Opposite, the scene in Kowloon Bay beside the airport runway where a number of ferries and hydrofoils were blown ashore.

1+

BBD8

Inad

....

   Among the ships which fell victim to the typhoon were the refrigerator stores ship, Regulus, aground on Kau Yi Chau. Below, seven vessels, including the Fat Shan and a tug, came to grief in this bay on Lantau.

Despair is mirrored in this girl's face as she surveys the wreckage at Sam Ka Tsuen near Kwun Tong. But new accommodation was provided.

An explosion and fire in this power sub-station at Kwun Tong plunged most of Kowloon peninsula and the New Territories into darkness for several hours.

F2

Fortunately no one was around when this sign came crashing down, one of many wrecked during the hurricane-force winds.

Government departments were quick to provide relief to those who suffered.

COMMUNICATIONS

167

which now forms a parallel up-route with Garden Road, the latter becoming a one-way down-route. Work began in April on another two flyovers on Garden Road to link Kennedy Road and Upper Albert Road. Most ground-level works for the Waterfront Road project, designed to provide a high capacity route linking the central business district with the cross harbour tunnel and North Point were opened to traffic. The three completed flyovers at the junctions of Arsenal Street, Fleming Road and at Causeway Bay provide grade separation to cross-road traffic. Several footbridges at various inter- vals along the route offer safe pedestrian crossings. Remaining works on the network linking Waterfront Road with the tunnel and on the Tsing Fung Street flyover linking Waterfront Road with King's Road were near completion.

       New roads were constructed in conjunction with building develop- ments in Morrison Hill, Chai Wan, Wan Chai reclamation, Jardines Lookout and Tin Hau Temple Road. A number of existing roads were also widened to meet the increasing traffic demand, including Connaught Road Central, Kennedy Road, Wongneichong Gap Road, Mount Parker and Plunkett's Road. Major improvements also commenced at the junction of Pok Fu Lam Road/Bonham Road/Hill Road.

       In Kowloon, three of the five flyovers for the $40 million complex at the Kowloon City and San Po Kong interchanges were opened to traffic and good progress was maintained on the remaining two, which, when completed, will permit free-flow traffic conditions through these heavily congested junctions. New roads were built in connection with the government low-cost housing estate at Ko Chiu Road and the resettlement estate at Pak Tin. Two ferry con- courses with bus and public light bus terminals at Kwun Tong and Tai Kok Tsui were near completion. The planning of the primary distributor road along the western waterfront of Kowloon peninsula, now known as the West Kowloon Corridor, continued. The ground- level road linking Canton Road with Tong Mi Road and involving reclamation of part of the Yau Ma Tei typhoon shelter progressed with the construction of sea walls and the placing of fill. Consulting engineers were engaged on the planning of the route linking the Kwai Chung container terminal (now under construction) to Kwun Tong, and work on some sections of this route has already been put in hand.

In the New Territories a road to the top of Beacon Hill was com- pleted, giving access to the proposed new Civil Aviation Surveillance Radar station. The section of the road linking Tai Wan to Kei Ling Ha Lo Wai was near completion. Work continued on widening the

168

COMMUNICATIONS

remaining single-lane part of Tai Mong Tsai Road, and on the con- struction of the new road between Tai Mei Tuk and Luk Keng. On Lantau a new road was completed linking Tai O, the largest urban centre, to the rest of the island.

Traffic management techniques were again applied to make the best use of the existing road network. Good progress was made in the installation of traffic light signals at road intersections and pedestrian crossings, and 220 sets of traffic signals were in opera- tion by the end of 1971. A feasibility report on the introduction of Area Traffic Control proposes the control of 73 intersections in Kowloon by a computer located in a central control room.

Among the transportation surveys carried out were trends in vehicle registrations, journey-times on the major urban routes on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon and the effects on road traffic of 'clearway' regulations along Shanghai Street and Reclamation Street. A major study of goods vehicle operations was undertaken with the assistance of university students. The first of the detailed studies of bus operations on a route-by-route basis was completed. The infor- mation on journeys to work and school collected during the 1971 Population and Housing Census was coded to facilitate computer processing and observations were made of passenger movements across the harbour and other barriers to check the results obtained from the census.

A government working group was set up to consider in detail the Hong Kong Mass Transit Further Studies Final Report and, ulti- mately, to prepare an official view of the proposed mass transit railway scheme for submission to the Governor in Council. In the meantime, all public and private development proposals which af- fected the proposed railway scheme were examined to prevent any conflict and to protect the suggested route.

CROSS HARBOUR TUNNEL

The Cross Harbour Tunnel Company, in which the Government has a 25 per cent interest, reported continued progress in the con- struction of the tunnel. Fabrication and launching of the 15 tube units was completed by the end of the year and all but two of these had been placed in position on the sea bed. The heavy civil engineering work associated with the approach ramps and ventila- tion buildings at either end was almost complete, leaving the instal- lation of plant, equipment and fitting out as the major work still to be done. The road connections at either end of the tunnel, which

COMMUNICATIONS

169

      are the Government's direct responsibility, were nearing comple- tion at the end of 1971. Detailed consideration is being given to various aspects of operations through the tunnel, such as cross- harbour bus services.

PARKING

There are six government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 3,599 cars. Another is under construction and is expected to be completed in 1972. In addition, 938 car and 60 motor-cycle parking spaces in two temporary open air car parks, also managed by the Urban Council, have been established on Crown land awaiting development. A total of 7,492 parking meters are installed in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

       With the exception of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, public transport is operated by private enterprise. There are five major public transport companies operating scheduled services under ordinances which grant monopoly rights but require the provision of adequate services. These are: the China Motor Bus Co Ltd and the Hongkong Tramways Ltd, which operate scheduled services on Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd, which has the exclusive scheduled bus franchise in Kowloon and the mainland portion of the New Territories and the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co and the Star Ferry Co which operate ferry services on specific routes across the harbour. Appendix 42 lists the traffic carried annually by each of the public transport undertakings between the years 1960 and 1971.

       At the end of 1971 the Kowloon Motor Bus Company's fleet totalled 1,122 vehicles, comprising 755 double-deck buses and 367 single-deck buses. On order were 151 double-deck buses which will be added to the fleet during 1972. The fleet's total passenger- carrying capacity at the end of the year was 102,122. During the year 547.57 million passengers were carried and 40.48 million miles were covered. At the end of 1971 a total of 77 routes (61 in Kowloon and 16 in the New Territories) were operating.

With effect from September 15, 1971, a flat fare of 30 cents on 47 urban bus routes, 40 cents on two urban routes and a minimum 20 cents sectional fare on New Territories bus routes were introduced. On nine urban bus routes (three miles or less) the fare remained a flat 20 cents.

170

COMMUNICATIONS

       From October 1, adult monthly tickets and free travel for members of the police force, the auxiliary police, the Preventive Service, the District Watch Force and postmen were abolished. On October 15, the company withdrew a large proportion of its subsidy for student monthly tickets thus increasing the price of the ticket from $6 to $18. However, as part of its general education policy, the Govern- ment introduced a form of subsidy which means that students only have to pay $9 per ticket.

As a way of reducing overhead costs, the company introduced a number of one-conductor buses to replace two-conductor buses. At present 34 per cent of the fleet is operating under the new system and it is planned to extend this.

Bus services on Hong Kong Island are operated by the China Motor Bus Company Limited which has 198 double-deck and 285 single-deck buses. The total passenger-carrying capacity at the end of the year was 35,304, an increase of 1.29 per cent over 1970. The company has embarked on an extensive two-year programme to increase its carrying capacity by replacing all its single-deck buses with high capacity double-deck vehicles, and at the end of the year almost every bus route on the Island had been at least partially converted to double-deck bus operation.

As part of this expansion plan, the company introduced the first one-conductor double-deck buses in Asia and soon followed this up with one-man, pay-as-you-enter, double-deck buses on busy routes. These buses replaced the three-man operated buses and already 35 per cent of the fleet is operating on the no conductor system. Fares remained unchanged during the year, thus continuing 25 years of stability. The company operates over 29 routes and in 1971 carried 175.1 million passengers and covered 15.3 million miles.

The Hongkong Tramways Limited operates an electric tramway service on Hong Kong Island. The fleet comprises 162 double-deck tramcars and 22 single-deck trailers. The minimum frequency of the service through the city centre is a tramcar approximately every 30 seconds in each direction. In 1971 each vehicle carried an average of 906,360 passengers, the highest annual utilisation of any form of public transport.

Since 1888 the Peak Tramways Company Limited has operated a funicular railway service up the Peak. The present haulage system has been in use since 1925 and cars are drawn along the track by

COMMUNICATIONS

171

      nearly two miles of steel cable. During the year 2.3 million pas- sengers were carried. The Peak Tram has been accident-free since it was opened.

        In addition to the franchised transport companies, there are categories of licensed vehicles known as public and private light buses. By the end of the year 3,813 public light buses and 1,567 private light buses were registered. Public light buses (minibuses), which ply for hire, are free to set their own routes and fares but there are certain areas or stretches of congested roads where they are not allowed to operate or where they are forbidden to set down or pick up passengers. Private light buses are not allowed to carry fare-paying passengers unless the buses are owned and operated by schools or other educational establishments.

        Taxis are licensed for use on either Hong Kong Island, or in Kowloon. At the end of the year there were 3,406 licensed taxis; 2,235 in Kowloon and 1,171 on Hong Kong Island. A system of radio-operated taxis is also in operation. It has had some success but its full potential in serving outlying districts has not yet been realised because of an apparent reluctance on the part of the public to use it. There is no additional charge for this service.

        Public cars are also licensed for use on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. Some of these are used as private hire cars while others provide a service to the public in general by carrying passengers on specified and pre-arranged routes. These cars are not allowed to ply for hire in the streets and all their trips must be pre-arranged. Some public cars are also radio-operated. By December 31, 884 public cars were licensed.

       Public and private omnibuses operate bus services other than those provided by the major bus companies and light buses. Such services include sight-seeing tours, limousine services provided by hotels and school-bus services. At the end of the year there were 1,028 public omnibuses and 386 private omnibuses. Public omnibuses are hired for the carriage of passengers under a contract or at a distinct fare for a predetermined route in accordance with the licence granted. Private omnibuses are not allowed to carry passengers for hire or reward.

FERRY SERVICES

       The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited operates a fleet of 60 diesel-engined ferries, 14 of which are vehicle ferries. The company maintains 10 routes in the harbour between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, as well as services to the New Territories.

172

COMMUNICATIONS

The number of vehicles and passengers carried by the company across the harbour during the year totalled 6,800,000 and 190,500,000 respectively. The company also operates two dual-purpose triple- deck ferries with air-conditioned top decks. Besides serving as a cross-harbour ferry, the Man Ping is used on harbour cruises in the evenings operating as a floating nightclub with restaurant facilities, and on excursion trips to outlying islands at weekends. Her sister ship the Man Shing is available for hire by private parties for evening cruises.

The Star Ferry Company Limited runs a passenger ferry service across the harbour between Central district and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of Kowloon peninsula. The company uses 10 vessels on this service with a total passenger-carrying capacity of 5,643. Supplementary services are operated to cope with the daily peak hour traffic and to relieve congestion at the ferry concourses. During 1971 55.6 million passengers were carried.

ADMINISTRATION

       The Transport Advisory Committee, formed in 1965, has a membership of four official members and six unofficial members, with one of the latter as its chairman. It advises the Governor or the statutory authority (who in most cases is the Commissioner for Transport) on all aspects of transport and traffic policy, with the exception of external sea and air communications.

The Transport Department provides a secretariat for the Transport Advisory Committee and carries out a wide range of executive func- tions including vehicle licensing, driving tests and vehicle inspection. As the statutory authority, the Commissioner for Transport is also responsible for regulating public transport services and co-ordinating action between other departments in the transport field.

The number of registered motor vehicles at the end of 1971 was 164,378, an increase of 14 per cent over the previous year. The demand for driving licences continued to rise and during the year 225,677 driving tests were conducted and 45,954 driving licences were issued. (Vehicle statistics are given in Appendix 42 and driv- ing licence statistics in Appendix 39).

A Kowloon Branch of the Licensing Office was opened at Pui Ching Road on August 31. At present it only offers limited services but should be fully operational early in 1972.

       A system of compulsory annual inspection of taxis, public cars, public light buses first registered before January 1, 1969, and

COMMUNICATIONS

173

      omnibuses first registered before 1962 is operated to ensure that these vehicles comply with basic safety requirements.

The 4,677-foot Lion Rock Tunnel, opened in 1967 to provide a shorter alternative route between Kowloon and Sha Tin, is managed and operated by the Transport Department. The tunnel is the first and only toll road in the Colony. During the year, a total of 3,396,257 vehicles used the tunnel and $1,942,673.55 was collected in tolls, an increase of 25.2 per cent over the previous year.

CONGESTION

       As Hong Kong's economic growth increases and the Colony becomes more prosperous, so does demand for adequate, depend- able means of transport. Public transport vehicles are obliged to increase in number, but at the same time there is a continuous rise in the number of private cars. The consequent demands on road space have resulted in increasing road congestion, particularly in commercial and industrial centres during peak hours.

       Additional road capacity in heavily built up areas cannot be achieved without demolition of property. Traffic engineering and management methods, such as one-way systems, flyovers and clear- ways, provide a certain amount of increased capacity and better use of existing road space. But these alone will not solve the problem of road congestion, and it may be necessary to restrict the use of vehicles to achieve the maximum and most economic use of road space, and to allocate priorities between public and private transport.

In deciding these priorities it is essential to ensure that the various means of public transport provide an adequate, reliable service as a satisfactory alternative to private transport. At the same time it is essential that all forms of public transport make the maximum, economical use of road space. To this end action is in hand to im- prove the services offered by franchised buses, public light buses, hire-cars and taxis.

       Public light buses, although filling a need in the public transport sphere, are a major source of congestion as they are continually stopping to set down or pick up passengers. It may become necessary to impose further routing and stopping restrictions or, more prob- ably, to change radically their mode of operation in congested areas by designating specified stops and not permitting them to stop other than at these places.

As far as taxis are concerned, action is being taken to encourage the expansion of radio-operated taxis to reduce the numbers plying

174

COMMUNICATIONS

for hire, particularly at peak hours. The problem encountered at present is that taxis, for economic reasons, flock to congested areas during the busiest times.

To provide areas where pedestrians can walk freely with no fear of traffic, an experiment in pedestrian precincts was started in December 1971. The Statue Square area in Central district, namely the section of Chater Road running through Statue Square Garden, is closed to traffic every week from 7 p.m. on Saturday to midnight on Sunday and also on public holidays. This is an area much used by pedestrians at weekends and holidays and the absence of motor vehicles adds to their enjoyment.

POSTAL SERVICES

The volume of mail continued to increase during 1971 but not at the same high rate experienced in 1969 and 1970. About 204 million postal articles were posted to all destinations-an increase of two per cent over the previous year. Over 174 million items were delivered and about 1.9 million were handled in transit. Some changes in the postal tariff structure were introduced in July as a result of agreements reached at the Tokyo Congress of the Universal Postal Union.

Counter business at all post offices includes the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels, and the issue and payment of money orders and postal orders. Special services, used mainly by the business community, such as business reply facilities, cash on delivery parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for bulk postings, are available. There are two postal deliveries a day, excluding Sundays, in most areas.

       The arrangements for the despatch of mail for abroad are kept under constant review. Suitable changes were made where justified by the availability of new routes and the volume of mail. Direct despatches are made up for more than 200 different places overseas. The train services between Kowloon and Lo Wu form the main link for the conveyance of mail to and from China.

Four new post offices were opened during the year, bringing the total number to 63. Nineteen are on Hong Kong Island, 22 in Kowloon and New Kowloon, and 22 in the New Territories, in- cluding a mobile post office. Of the four new post offices, one is in Canton Road, one in the Ngau Tau Kok resettlement estate adminis- tration building and two in the Tsuen Wan district. Two other post offices were resited to cope with increased business. Temporary

COMMUNICATIONS

175

      offices were provided for special events, including the Scout Associa- tion Diamond Jubilee Jamboree, the 24th Annual Meeting of the World Federation of Mental Health, the Festival of Hong Kong Stamp Exhibition and the 29th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products. The Kowloon inward parcel section moved from the Kowloon Parcel Office into premises which were formerly used as the Tsim Sha Tsui Fire Station. The transfer will enable improvements to be carried out at the parcel office in 1972.

During the year the British Postal Consultancy Services were commissioned to assist in the preparation of plans for two major new offices, the Colony Transit and Sorting Office at Hung Hom and the new General Post Office on Hong Kong Island. To enable postal operations to proceed in the meantime temporary accommodation is being provided on the Central Reclamation which will house the inward and outward parcel sections of the GPO. Completion of this work and a new conveyor system linking the complex with the GPO across Connaught Road is expected early in 1972.

Three postage stamp issues were made during the year. As part of a series of stamps to commemorate Lunar New Year, two stamps in values of 10 cents and $1.30 were issued in January to com- memorate the 'Year of the Pig'. In July there was a further issue of three stamps to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Scouting in Hong Kong. These stamps were in 10 cents, 50 cents and $2.00 denomina- tions. To publicise the Festival of Hong Kong three stamps- 10 cents, 50 cents and $1.00-were issued in November. First Day Covers were sold on each occasion. The popular pictorial Christmas aerogrammes were again placed on sale this year.

TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES

The Postmaster General, as the Telecommunication Authority, administers the Telecommunication Ordinance and is responsible for the control and supervision of all such services operating within and from the Colony. The Telecommunication Division of the Post Office licenses and inspects installations operating under the ordin- ance, monitors radio transmissions, and investigates cases of inter- ference. The division also provides an advisory service to the Government and co-ordinates the communication requirements of departments.

Overseas communication facilities are provided by Cable and Wireless Ltd. A total of 234 telephone and 400 telegraph circuits to all parts of the world are provided by submarine cable, HF radio,

176

COMMUNICATIONS

satellite and tropospheric scatter systems. A submarine cable with a capacity of 80 telephone channels extends westwards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam where it is extended by other cable systems to Japan and the United States. In November, the existing earth station operating to the Intelsat III satellite and providing circuits to Japan, America, Thailand, South Korea and Australia, was extended by the provision of an additional antenna. This facility, which was inaugurated by HRH, the Princess Anne, provides direct communication by way of the Indian Ocean satellite westwards to other countries, including the United Kingdom. HF radio systems continue to play a useful role and provide communication facilities to 12 countries.

A fifth computer and additional information storage facilities have been added to the electronic data-processing Message Switching Centre operated by Cable and Wireless. This system, which handles the traffic of the public telegram service, airline operations and other commercial organisations, is one of the largest installations of its type in the world. It currently handles 11,000 messages an hour and has a capacity of half a million per day.

A computerised telex exchange is being installed and is planned to become operational in January 1972. This exchange will provide many fully automatic facilities, including connection to telex sub- scribers in most parts of the world and internal connection to other subscribers in the Colony. A marine telex service providing ships at sea with facilities for world wide telex connection through Hong Kong is also operative.

The facilities available to Hong Kong by satellite include the international transmission and reception of television programmes. A specially equipped telecine studio has been established to provide facilities for news agencies to transmit news items in colour to other agencies throughout the world.

The recent introduction of classified telephone services to the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada now means that the public can make calls to these destinations at lower costs.

Telephone services in the Colony are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd, which is a public company operating under a franchise from the Government. The telephone system is fully automatic and consists of 42 exchanges serving some 680,000 telephones, resulting in a penetration factor of 17 telephones per 100 people. Telephones are provided on an annual rental basis and no separate charge is made for calls within the Colony. Connection

COMMUNICATIONS

177

to most overseas countries and to ships at sea is available through the external facilities operated by Cable and Wireless.

A high standard of efficiency and reliability of service has been achieved by the progressive incorporation of modern techniques, such as the use of pressurised cables and pulse code modulation carrier systems. Operation of the first electronically controlled exchange used in the network has been successful and the company is now planning to install a system of microwave junction circuits to supplement the cable network.

The demand for telephone services has continued at a high rate and the growth is still in the region of 20 per cent per year. Some 90,000 new lines were installed during the year compared with 75,126 in 1970.

14

Press, Broadcasting and Cinema

      THE news and entertainment media in Hong Kong once again demonstrated that they can easily adapt to meet the increasing demands of a more complex and better educated society. The Colony now supports 275 periodicals and publications, thus allowing for a broad range of political expression, intellectual content, and editorial style.

Providing a comprehensive outlet for government news is the Information Services Department which continued to supply press releases, radio bulletins, films and photographs informing the people of the Government's actions, views, and intentions. The department maintains a 24-hour service and provides news coverage of all major public events. This is in addition to the media's usual sources of news, both local and international.

Among the major events of the year which found staff of the department heavily committed were the change of governorship, the visit of Princess Anne and typhoon Rose.

PRESS

The Chinese and English language press in Hong Kong currently produce 275 publications, including 63 Chinese and four English daily newspapers. It is estimated that between them the newspapers have an overall circulation of some one-and-a-half-million copies a day. This clearly illustrates that the people of Hong Kong are among the most news-conscious of any in the world today.

Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 19 members and three associate members. The society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in matters affecting the interests of all the Colony's newspapers, the society or its members.

Hong Kong is the base of South-East Asian operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies represented include the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Kyodo, Reuters and United Press International.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

179

The growth of Hong Kong as a high quality book and magazine production centre during the past three years has been little short of spectacular, and it is still growing. The Colony produces well over 50 per cent of books published in Australia, and is now begin- ning to make significant inroads into the Canadian and American markets.

The Asian editions of Newsweek, Time and Readers' Digest are produced in Hong Kong together with several quality monthly colour magazines for Australia and the Pacific region. The two largest Japanese printing firms, Toppan and Dai Nippon, have a large investment here and concentrate on magazine production, although between them they produced some 300 book titles for export during the year.

The largest book printer specialising in colour printing is Lee Fung, which alone produced about 600 titles in 1971. There are several other significant producers of quality books and magazines and one company, Serasia Limited, which has sales offices in Europe and North America, specialises in assisting overseas publishers to make the best use of available capacity here.

      The publishing industry has also made significant progress. Oxford University Press and Longman are both well established in Hong Kong and originate and produce books designed specially for local needs and also several for export. One of the busiest printing works in Hong Kong is that of the Government Printer, which handles an extremely wide variety of publications, ranging from examination papers to this Report.

The development of the publishing and printing industry is such that it is fast becoming a sector of some significance to the economy.

TELEVISION

Hong Kong had the distinction of being the first British Colony to operate a television service when, in December 1957, Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd (RTV) pioneered a wired television service. The company began operating on one channel which produced 28 hours of television a week to about 63,000 viewers.

A second television service came into operation in November 1967, with the first wireless transmissions from Television Broadcasts Ltd (HK-TVB). Television viewership has increased from 63,000 in 1957 to well over two million. At the end of August it was estimated that 72 per cent of households possessed television receivers. Viewers

180

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

may now watch some 366 hours of television a week-193 hours a week being transmitted by Rediffusion and 173 by HK-TVB. Of the total, 23 hours a week are taken up with the transmission of the Government's educational television service.

RTV operates, under an exclusive franchise which expires in April 1973, the wired television service in Hong Kong and provides a 405-line, two channel service, one in English and one in Chinese. The company's multi-studio centre at Television House, Broadcast Drive, Kowloon, is a modern production complex equipped with 19 studios.

       HK-TVB, operating under an exclusive licence for its first five years, broadcasts two wireless channels, the Jade (Chinese) and the Pearl (English). The company employs the UHF, 625-line PAL colour system with its main transmitters on Temple Hill. There are now 11 auxiliary transmitters throughout the Colony giving complete coverage to both urban and, with the exception of minor isolated pockets, rural Hong Kong.

       The Educational Television Division (ETV) of the Education Department began production in September 1971. The division, operating from the ETV centre in Broadcast Drive, produces 15-minute programmes for primary schools which are transmitted five days a week via RTV and HK-TVB.

SOUND BROADCASTING

       Hong Kong is served by three broadcasting organisations all operating both English and Chinese sound channels. Two of the three organisations are commercial and the other is a government station.

Radio Hong Kong broadcasts separate Chinese and English pro- gramme services on AM and FM. It is financed from general revenue and carries no advertising. The aim of the government broadcasting service is to provide balanced programmes with the emphasis on information and public affairs. It also plays an important role in assisting the development and better mutual understanding of the problems and attitudes of the different communities.

During the year, the installation of equipment for Radio Hong Kong's new television unit was also completed and staff training and limited production got under way. RHKTV will be producing public affairs programmes and short films to support government publicity campaigns for broadcast by the Colony's commercial television companies.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

181

Commercial Radio services comprise two in Chinese and one in English broadcast on AM from its new studios in Broadcast Drive. The move to the new site was delayed for seven days due to typhoon Rose which damaged the transmitter on Peng Chau and put the station off the air for about six days. The studios were opened by the Governor, Sir David Trench, on August 26, the 12th anniversary of the opening of Commercial Radio.

The opening of the studios marked a further stage in establishing Broadcast Drive as the centre for all Hong Kong's radio and tele- vision stations. The complex now houses the headquarters of all the Colony's broadcasting and television media.

       Both Commercial Radio and Radio Hong Kong operate between 6 a.m. and 1 a.m. and broadcast a wide variety of programmes including comprehensive news and weather services throughout the day.

The wired sound service of Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd is dis- tributed throughout the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon and to many outlying areas in the New Territories by more than 1,500 miles of trunk lines and another 4,000 miles of installation cabling. At the end of the year there were 40,000 loudspeakers connected to these sound services offering a choice of three pro- grammes.

FILM INDUSTRY

The film industry in Hong Kong again maintained the output which has won it a place among the world's leading film producing

centres.

       In 1965, the Hong Kong movie industry was practically monop- olised by Cantonese films and more than 500 feature length films were made a year. The Colony was then rated as one of the top three production centres in the world in terms of volume. However, Cantonese films were intended mainly for the local market. Gradually the two leading studios in Hong Kong, Shaw Brothers and the Cathay Organisation, developed a different kind of motion picture which won widespread public appeal. This was the quality Mandarin picture in colour and widescreen, and with box office takings favour- ing the new cinema trend, the Cantonese picture industry collapsed. Today not a single Cantonese picture is produced in Hong Kong.

The principal Hong Kong company following the closure of the Cathay Organisation is now Shaw Brothers, and a number of smaller independent companies also have studios. Shaw Brothers,

182

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

which operates its own highly automated colour laboratories, produces about 40 pictures a year and is aiming to increase its output to 50.

      Hong Kong films are popular throughout Asia and have become increasingly well received in other countries. Today Mandarin pictures produced here are exhibited all over the world including North and South America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

Costs for location shooting in Hong Kong are still considerably lower than in other leading international centres such as Spain, Italy and Mexico. Labour costs are economical, yet international standards in service are consistently maintained. These advantages, combined with Hong Kong's unique story possibilities and some distinctive scenery, are drawing an increasing number of overseas producers to the Colony. "The Yin and the Yang of Mr Go' with James Mason was made at Shaw Brothers' studios in Hong Kong and other producers have announced firm plans to film all or part of coming productions here.

      There are 97 cinemas in the Colony, with a total seating capacity of 118,355. Attendance figures are among the highest in the world per head of population and amounted to 74 million in 1971.

       Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censorship in accordance with the law and must be viewed by the film censors panel. A total of 7,592 films were submitted for censor- ship during the year including 126 local productions.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

       The Government Information Services is given the responsibility of keeping the people of Hong Kong and the rest of the world accurately informed of the Government's policies and achievements. The department is linked by teleprinter to 67 newspapers, news agencies, broadcasting and television stations as well as City District Offices.

       It is separated into three divisions-news, technical services and public relations, with certain services common to all three. The news division operates in two main sections-press and radio news. The press section channels information to newspapers and deals with press enquiries 24 hours a day, while the radio news section specialises in the preparation of world and local news bulletins for the Colony's sound broadcasting stations and Rediffusion television. Thirty-three radio news bulletins in English and Chinese are prepared daily, ranging in length from full 10-minute bulletins to two-minute

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

183

      summaries. The radio news room is located in 'broadcasting city' in northern Kowloon. It is in constant touch with the press section in Beaconsfield House, Hong Kong, through teleprinter, facsimile and telephone links.

The public relations division aims at improving understanding between Government and the people and to maintain contact with Hong Kong people living overseas, especially those in Britain. The former function involves keeping the Government informed of the current state of public opinion, explaining government's activities and intentions to the people, and sorting out situations which may provide potential sources of misunderstanding. Much of this work is done through the news media and generally through the Chinese language press. Continuous liaison is also maintained with other departments which are themselves in daily contact with the public. A civilian information team, consisting of two separate units, was set up in June and has begun operating in the New Territories. Its main function is to put on film shows in the remote areas, not only as entertainment but also to keep the villagers informed of events of public interest.

A special Chinese newspaper for Hong Kong residents abroad, Hong Kong News Digest, is produced by the division along with film and sound-tape information and entertainment for the Hong Kong people in Britain.

        The technical services division has local and overseas commit- ments, and it produces magazine and newspaper feature articles, photographs, newsreels, booklets and posters. Locally, the division is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all government departments. The editorial section provides written material for a worldwide press syndication service and for most booklets and leaf- lets produced in the department.

       The division continued to produce a weekly digest of events in the Colony, widely circulated to readers overseas. Other publications produced during the year included booklets on training centres, town planning, the Royal Hong Kong Police and typhoons. 'An Introduction to Hong Kong' and 'The Port of Hong Kong' were published in new and completely revised editions. The range of fact sheets, in 'kit' form, was expanded to include such subjects as housing, social welfare, press and broadcasting, the preventive service, industrial employment, education and narcotics.

       The film unit continued to concentrate on the production of the monthly film 'Hong Kong Today' which is distributed to more than

184

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

        60 local cinemas and shown on local television channels. The three- minute newsreel-type film in colour is usually devoted to three separate but topical subjects. Other projects included a short colour film for Chinese New Year.

The output of the design and display section again increased during the year as new publicity campaigns were launched. Exhibi- tions and displays were designed for various government depart- ments, but the main body of the art work comprised posters, leaflets and CDO window displays.

       The marketing section carries out continuous research to ensure the most effective local and worldwide distribution of the publica- tions and news and documentary films produced by the department. It is also responsible for the placement in Hong Kong of a variety of publications and films supplied by the Central Office of Information in Britain. The section operates a mobile cinema to give open-air film shows five days a week in the large housing and resettlement estates. Its film lending library, stocked with informative films of Hong Kong and Britain, is well patronised. A variety of photographs and colour transparencies is supplied to the local and overseas press, publishing concerns and individuals. Colour slides on various subjects are available on loan to speakers and lecturers wishing to illustrate their talks with visual material.

The information section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London works in close collaboration with the Government In- formation Services. Press relations form an important part of the work, and releases for the British press are prepared from informa- tion bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. The section also acts as a distributing agency in Britain for photo-features prepared by the department and these, together with press releases, play a major role in informing the British public about Hong Kong through the medium of newspapers and magazines.

15

The Armed Services and Auxiliary Services

THE British Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the Hong Kong Government in maintaining security and stability in the Colony. All three Services are represented and are under the command of the Commander British Forces, who is responsible to the Chief of the Defence Staff in London. The Commander British Forces is the Governor's adviser on matters affecting the Colony's security.

       Army units predominate in Hong Kong, and are under the direct command of the Commander British Forces, who has the additional appointment of General Officer Commanding, Land Forces. Royal Navy ships in Hong Kong are under the direct operational control of the Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong (who has his head- quarters in HMS Tamar). The Commander Royal Air Force controls the RAF station at Kai Tak and associated units including No. 28 Squadron equipped with Whirlwind helicopters.

       With the Naval withdrawal from Singapore, HMS Tamar's role as the one remaining Naval Shore Establishment in the Far East has become even more important. It provides essential services to the 6th Mine Countermeasures Squadron, the duty guardship which is usually a frigate, to all the RN ships stationed in the Far East and to Commonwealth Navies visiting Hong Kong for maintenance and recreation. During the year HM Ships Bossington, Hubberston and Maxton of the 6th Mine Countermeasures Squadron stationed in Hong Kong were replaced by the Beachampton and Yarnton. Major warships which visited the Colony in 1971 included the Assault Ship HMS Intrepid; the Aircraft Carrier HMS Eagle, the Commando Ship HMS Albion, and the Guided Missile Destroyer HMS Glamorgan.

         HMS Tamar recruits and trains Chinese cooks and stewards who serve on the larger ships, as well as employing Chinese Naval Ratings for service in HMS Tamar itself. The Shore Establishment is also the agency for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary Service and operates a licensed crew department for the recruitment of Hong Kong Chinese seamen for service in Royal Fleet Auxiliary vessels throughout the world.

186

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

       Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island and has under its command, 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, stationed at Sek Kong in the New Territories and 51 Infantry Brigade with its headquarters in Kowloon.

       Units stationed in Hong Kong for some or all of 1971 were B Squadron the 14th/20th King's Hussars, 47th Light Regiment Royal Artillery, 1st Battalion the Irish Guards, 1st Battalion the Royal Welch Fusiliers, 1st and 2nd Battalions the 2nd King Edward VII Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles), the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles and the 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles. In addition, there was a wide range of units from the supporting arms and services providing assistance to all three Services.

       Throughout the year units of the Army manned security positions in the border area, and in conjunction with the Royal Hong Kong Police provided joint police/military patrols in the border area and in the more remote regions of the Colony.

       The Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak is a separate enclave adjacent to the civil airport and uses the airport's runway and control services. The RAF has its own radar and signal facilities for the long distance control of military aircraft approaching Hong Kong. These facilities are shared by the Director of Civil Aviation to ensure the safety of civil aircraft operating with the Hong Kong Flight Information Region.

No. 28 Squadron, based permanently at Kai Tak, is equipped with 10 Whirlwind helicopters. It is established primarily for the rapid movement of troops and supplies and in one lift can transport a complete platoon. In addition it provides a standby aircraft for search and rescue in the Colony and the near waters, and assists in the evacuation of casualties from outlying parts of the New Territories. Vulcan strike aircraft continued their training flights from the United Kingdom, supplemented by detachments of Phantom fighter bombers and Victor tanker aircraft. RAF transport aircraft activity has maintained the established regular pattern.

       The continuing secure and stable situation in Hong Kong in 1971 enabled the Armed Forces to extend their contribution in providing help of all kinds to the local community. These varied in scope from the provision of recreational activities on a large scale for the young to the undertaking of construction projects. The former included the use of Service sporting facilities, provision of Service instructors and coaches in all forms of sport, and a major

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

187

contribution to the Summer Youth Programme. Other projects included engineering tasks such as the completion of the first part of a road from Luk Keng to Plover Cove, the rebuilding and exten- sion of the pier at Hang Hau, and the installation of electrical generators and wiring of all houses in six remote villages of the New Territories. Linked to this work are the numerous patrols which the Services carry out with the police to the isolated parts of the Colony. These visits help the Government to keep in touch with the areas and engender confidence amongst the residents.

       The Armed Forces played a prominent part in two major events of the year, namely the visit of HRH the Princess Anne in October and the Festival of Hong Kong in November/December. Princess Anne is Colonel-in-Chief of the 14th/20th King's Hussars and part of her visit was spent with B Squadron stationed at Sek Kong. She also paid short visits to the RN and RAF. During the Hong Kong Festival the Armed Services contributed to the large number of displays held throughout the Colony with exhibitions of military equipment and military band performances. One of the highlights was the performance of the Falcons, the RAF's free-fall parachuting team, who descended daily from helicopters to the delight of watching crowds.

      The primary task of the British Armed Forces in Hong Kong remains, however, to be ready at all times to give instant support to the Hong Kong Government and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, should this be necessary. To this end, the Services have maintained a high standard of training and alertness and jointly, with the New Territories Administration and the police, have steadily improved the arrangements for the security of the border and other critical areas of Hong Kong and its waters should an emergency arise.

LOCAL AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

      In addition to the regular forces, Hong Kong has two Auxiliary Defence Units, the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. These are administered by the Hong Kong Government, but would come under command of the Commander British Forces, and his appro- priate single-service subordinate commanders for operations, if called out.

       The Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) has a strength of about 600, and is based on Hong Kong Island. It is a light recon- naissance regiment which includes four reconnaissance squadrons, · a headquarters squadron and a Home Guard squadron. A fifth

188

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

reconnaissance squadron, to be based in Kowloon, is in the process of being formed. The regiment is fully mobile, and its role is to operate in support of the regular Army battalions stationed in Hong Kong, with tasks which make special use of the Volunteers' detailed knowledge of the Colony and its people. There is also a Junior Leaders Squadron which is a non-military organisation aiming to provide a further outlet for the energies of young people in Hong Kong and so develop self-confidence and community respon- sibility. It has a current strength of 135 boys between the ages of 14 and 17.

      The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force has a strength of 92 volunteer members and operates three Alouette helicopters. The four Auster aircraft operated in recent years were replaced in 1971 by two Beechcraft Musketeer primary trainers. In addition, a Britten-Norman Islander twin-engined aircraft has been acquired, which will be used for advanced flying training, aerial photography, mapping, and other tasks. The main functions of the unit are internal security, search and rescue, casualty evacuation, aero- medical services and conveyance of government officers to remote areas. A 24-hour emergency call service is also provided and over 100 casualty evacuation flights were carried out during the year.

ESSENTIAL SERVICES CORPS

       The Essential Services Corps comprises four autonomous services -the units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Services and the Auxiliary Fire Service.

       The Essential Services Corps proper is made up of 69 units which can be mobilised during civil disorder to maintain public utilities and other essential services under circumstances in which the security of the Colony or the health of the population might be seriously endangered. It provides an integral and essential part of defence planning. About half the 11,000 strong Corps is formed from government departments and the other half from commercial organisations. Each unit is principally staffed by a restricted number of volunteers employed by the departments or organisations con- cerned. On the call-out of units, members of the Corps undertake, under a disciplinary code, special obligations in return for which they are entitled to substantial benefits appropriate to the abnormal conditions of service. Comprehensive plans for the operation of each essential service in times of civil disorder are constantly under review in co-ordination with the police and military.

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

189

       The Auxiliary Medical Service has a strength of over 5,400 volunteers of whom more than 1,000 are professionally qualified in medicine, nursing, pharmacy or hospital administration. The remainder are trained as auxiliary nurses and dressers or as ambulance drivers and attendants, first-aid workers for disaster relief and for certain public functions, and in the New Territories as light rescue workers. A large proportion of the membership comprises young people under 24 years of age and the Service experiences no difficulty in recruiting. At weekends and on public holidays, members of the Service man units in support of the regular ambulance services and others reinforce Urban Services Department lifeguards on beaches and at public swimming pools during the summer months.

1971 was the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Civil Aid Services. This is a volunteer organisation trained and equipped to deal with all kinds of civil emergencies, and has the Colony's only trained mountain rescue teams. The Service is divided into two main sections. The adult section numbers some 3,600 officers and members are posted to the warden service, rescue units, command units, the pay and records unit or the stores sub-section according to interest or ability. Each recruit is required to undergo a series of training courses including fire-fighting, first aid, light rescue, footdrill and general warden duties. The junior section (Cadets Corps) at present has a total of 20 units, each with an establishment of 100 boys whose ages range from 14 to 17. The Corps aims at training the boys in citizenship, community activities and the help of others through a wide-ranging programme of activities such as camping, canoeing, folk-dancing, and elementary training in first aid, life-saving and casualty-handling.

The Auxiliary Fire Service provides a reserve of manpower to augment the professional officers and men of the Fire Services Department. Members carry out integrated training with their regular counterparts, and under the supervision of regular officers. The strength of the Service was reduced during the year from 590 to 480, as a step towards relating its establishment more closely to the ability to recruit people who have the time to spare to become trained to the high standard required in the fire-fighting field. The unit continues to play an important role, particularly on the outlying islands. The Auxiliary Fire Service Band is a popular attraction and gives regular public concerts.

16

Religion and Custom

A BRIEF account of religious practices in Hong Kong must embrace such diverse subjects as Taoism, the religious aspects of Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and the broad spectrum of Christianity. It is easy to be misled by the entirely different appearances of religious observance, particularly between the traditional Chinese practices and those of the Christian churches, and even to assume a relative lack of religion in Chinese life. It is true that Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are churches in the City of London, but there are likely to be at least as many signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, as in its Western counterpart. Almost every Chinese shop has its 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines, while the traditional religious rites associated with birth, marriage and death are still widely observed.

        There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years, mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people.

Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries, nunneries and hermitages. Because of their accessibility, those at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, some of the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and unspoilt parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is regularly visited at week-ends and holidays.

       Sightseers as well as devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories, such as Ching Shan Tsz and Tsing Chung Koon at Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor and Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen near Tsuen Wan and Sai Lam at Sha Tin. At Tao Fong Shan, near Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture, where the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on for many years. To meet

COMMUNITY RELATIONS

********

* * * Bar

doors before Baby to ex

૯ & ૧૩,

* * *

K

3

#prote

*

૨૦૦૨-૨૨

+

* 33

- 3

#

线

**** B* ** *** **

dononanaoj kon

公共圖

X

whatspecte

333

da te u okay

X

.:: X.

338

% १४%

2%

33

#

IX OORWAY

܀܀

*

>>>

>>

绐 >>>

چار سا ہے

X

X

A

X

Ithough the British Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the Government in maintaining security and stability, they, like everyone else, are members of the community and as such play an important role, along with many organisations, --in helping develop community relations. Their work varies from the efforts of individuals to sizeable tasks undertaken by complete units. During 1971, Army engineers built 24 miles of road through a remote area of the New Territories, buil area of the New Territories, and erected two piers for isolated vil- lages. The Royal Navy assisted with the rescue of survivors from merchant ships during and after typhoons, while the Royal Air Force was always on hand to carry out emergency helicopter evacuations from remote areas for expectant mothers and people seriously ill. Other community relations projects included the construction of playgrounds, swimming pools and village electrification schemes.

X.

The title page pictures the new road under construction by the Army to link the previously isolated village of Wu Kau Tang to the rest of the New Territories. Opposite, a Royal Navy helicopter air-lifting building materials for a fire lookout hut in the Castle ** Peak area of the New Territories.

3

(0)

>

..

.X

X

001 X

..

::

X

ROYAL NAVY 043

   A Naval crew exercises for its role in providing valuable assistance during disasters, such as typhoons.

LIBRA

The crew of a visiting British Naval vessel helps brighten up a temple in a small village in Sai Kung.

The Army workshops at Sham Shui

Po train apprentices in various

trades.

A film show follows the installation by the Army of an electrical plant in a New Territories village.

!

The Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) carries out med- ical patrols to remote areas.

Royal Air Force helicopters are frequently used for casualty evacua-

tions from isolated areas.

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

191

      the demands of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may often be found in the same temple. Many of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port. Except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been traditionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of righteousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau) and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors). Many Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Other Tin Hau temples which were originally established close to the shore are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations.

       Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, which is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. Other popular temples of Taoist origin include the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin in New Kowloon and the Che Kung temple at Sha Tin.

With the rapid growth of the population in new resettlement and other public housing estates, steps are being taken to provide them with proper temples and other facilities for worship and the celebra- tion of religious festivals.

In the New Territories, where traditional clan organisation has been preserved to a great extent, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular life. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also to be found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

192

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high moun- tain. Visits to the graves of the family ancestors are also paid on this day as well as during the Ching Ming Festival.

The fact that Chinese may follow one or other of these ways or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, has often made Christianity, with its exclusive aims, seem uncongenial to the Chinese spirit. Nevertheless, Christianity is rooted deeply and growing steadily in Hong Kong.

      It dates back to the earliest days of the Colony, the first church being founded in 1842. Since that time, the Christian church has grown until today there are close to 500 churches and chapels, grouped together in some 60 denominations and sect groups. The number of Christians in Hong Kong is estimated at about 420,000 -slightly over 10 per cent of the total population. There is an annual increase in church membership of about four per cent. New churches and chapels are being established in new housing estates and satellite towns.

      The great majority of the congregations in the Colony are Chinese speaking, mostly Cantonese and a few Mandarin, but about 16 churches hold services in English, German and Japanese to minister to the needs of the various communities. The major world denomina- tions are represented in the Adventists, Anglicans, Alliance, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists, Pentecostals and Roman Catholics, while churches of a Presbyterian type are joined in the Church of Christ in China. In addition, there are a number of non-denominational churches.

The Protestant Churches are responsible for more than 225 primary schools, and over 100 middle schools and colleges in the Colony and the number is increasing nearly every year. They also sponsor a variety of service programmes, including hospitals,

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

193

clinics, orphanages, family case work centres, vocational training centres, aid for the handicapped and many others. In the past, a large percentage of these projects was financed almost entirely from overseas sources, but this is decreasing and local support must now take over.

Churches which are affiliated to the World Council of Churches come together with other Christian organisations, such as the YMCA, the YWCA, the Bible Society, in the Hong Kong Christian Council. The council's headquarters, known as the Christian Centre, houses the offices of the Hong Kong Christian Service, Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee, Chinese Christian Literature Council and the Audio Visual Evangelism Committee. The facilities include an Ecumenical Library and a conference room.

In the same building is the old-established Chinese Churches Union, in which churches are linked on a congregational basis. The union now numbers 145 congregations in its membership.

The Hong Kong Christian Council was established in 1954. Its membership is by denomination or association, and it now covers 22 major church bodies and Christian organisations. Hong Kong Christian Council members represent 77 per cent of the total Protestant Church membership in the Colony.

       The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong dates back to the beginning of the Colony when British Army chaplains were among the first to arrive here. On April 23, 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first prefect. He built a matshed church at what is now the intersection of Wellington and Pottinger Streets, established a seminary for the training of Chinese priests, and per- suaded religious sisters to voyage out here to start schools, hospitals, creches and other welfare work.

       The first Chinese Bishop of the 130 year old Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong, the Most Rev Francis Chen-ping Hsu, was formally installed on October 26, 1969. Almost two years later, September 8, 1971, the Most Rev Peter Wang-kei Lei was con- secrated Auxiliary Bishop of Hong Kong.

       Health, education and diversified social service work have been extended and developed during the past year. The extent of the work was generally dictated by the needs of the people.

       In the field of education, expansion continued and there are at present 178 Catholic primary and secondary schools with a total enrolment of 235,123 students.

194

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

Social services include six vocational centres, six social centres, 13 hostels for students and working people; six hospitals, one mater- nity home, 20 general clinics, five dental clinics, two mobile clinics; four residential homes for children and 18 day nurseries; two homes for the aged and two for the blind and two training centres for the disabled.

In their Christian social commitment, the Catholic clergy and laity have, during the past year, increasingly engaged in joint activ- ities related to contemporary conditions in Hong Kong with other Christian groups with whom they share an awareness of respon- sibility for their fellow men.

      Today, church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 355 priests, 125 religious brothers and 804 religious sisters, 33 religious orders and con- gregations representing 32 nationalities. Catholics, as in September 1971, numbered 252,803, over 90 per cent of them Chinese, spread out in 53 parishes on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and in 15 rural districts of the New Territories.

      Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at a synagogue in Robinson Road constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory of his mother Leah and it is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 500 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States, South Africa and Israel.

There are more than 10,000 followers of Islam in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese who have come to the Colony during the past two decades. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Iran and from neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street and Wongneichong Road Mosques, on Hong Kong Island and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

      The co-ordinating body for all religious affairs is the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community of Hong Kong. The board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is also responsible for the mosques and ceme- teries. Much charitable work among the Muslim community, in- cluding financial help to the needy, hospitalisation and assisted education, is done through a welfare committee working under the direction of the board of trustees.

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

195

      The Hindu community numbers more than 8,000 and their re- ligious and social activities centre round a temple in Happy Valley. The community has been associated with Hong Kong since earliest times and the temple itself is considered to be one of the finest in the Far East. In addition to visits by saints, swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holi Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Diwali. The Hindu Associa- tion of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes open to all communities, and for the teaching of Hindi to the Indian com- munity.

17

Recreation

LEISURE is precious in a crowded and busy city like Hong Kong, and this, coupled with the traditional Chinese enthusiasm for nature, results in a community which appreciates its open spaces. The variety of Hong Kong's leisure pastimes and the energy with which they are pursued is quite remarkable. Tai Chi Chuan (shadow boxing), a system of physical fitness derived from ancient Chinese martial arts, is one of the more popular recreational exercises. People of all ages are up before sunrise performing its slow, graceful movements in the open air. During the day, playgrounds, parks, and in summer, the pools and beaches are thronged with children. And when night falls, the lights come on over outdoor playgrounds and parks, while the less active gather around the familiar mahjong table, watch television, listen to the radio or go out to sample the endless range of entertainment that Hong Kong offers. At weekends there is a 'mass exodus' to the countryside, as families travel to the New Territories or outlying parts of Hong Kong Island for picnics and as hikers set off to find some new and difficult hill to climb.

To assist the development of outdoor activity, the Government is carrying out an energetic programme to provide recreation facilities of all kinds. This programme has been gathering momentum in recent years as the existing facilities become fully utilised. Every effort is made to develop even the smallest plot of spare land into something that will benefit the people, with the result that amenities vary from small playgrounds and gardens serving an immediate locality, to large parks incorporating a wide range of facilities. A good example of the latter is the 48-acre Victoria Park, built on reclaimed land on Hong Kong Island. Besides a large swimming pool and extensive areas for strolling, it contains two children's playgrounds, three grass games pitches and five hard-surfaced mini- soccer pitches, six basketball or volleyball courts, 14 tennis and two squash courts, a children's library, a model-boat pool, bowling and putting greens, and a roller-skating rink.

A number of major projects were completed during the year, in- cluding the 14-acre Aberdeen sports ground, the largest of its kind,

RECREATION

197

which was opened in July, and the 11-acre Kwun Tong swimming pool and recreation ground opened by HRH the Princess Anne in October. The Aberdeen sports ground mainly serves the rapidly increasing population of the Aberdeen area and to some extent part of the Western district of Hong Kong Island, where open space is very limited. Kwun Tong, in Kowloon, is another area developed beyond recognition in the past few years, and its swimming pool and recreation ground will be one of the main recreational outlets for the half a million people living in the district.

       Other projects completed during the year were the Lei Cheng Uk swimming pool, King's Park sports ground (6 acres), Hoi Sum park (3.3 acres), Kai Tak East playground (34 acres), Cheung Sha Wan playground (4 acres), and Anchor Street playground (2 acres), all in Kowloon. There are many projects in the planning stage, perhaps the most impressive of which are the Kowloon Indoor Stadium which will hold 15,000 spectators and is to be built on top of a podium over the new railway terminus complex, and a large new football stadium in central Kowloon which will hold 35,000 people.

The Government also promotes sports by giving free land at nominal rents to sports clubs and making substantial loans to various sports associations. In addition financial assistance is given in the form of recurrent subventions to the Schools Sports Associa- tions and grants made towards the cost of Hong Kong's participation in overseas games such as the Olympic, Commonwealth and Asian Games. For the past three years the Government has met the full cost of the annual festival of sport and just over a year ago, removed the entertainment tax on sporting events.

       The Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Depart- ment, builds and administers recreation facilities in the urban area. In the New Territories, this responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services working closely with the District Commissioner. The Recreation and Amenities Division of the Urban Services Depart- ment now manages a total of 1,472 acres of public open space.

       During the year, 215,849 trees, shrubs and seasonal flowers were planted in parks, playgrounds, along roadsides and in other public places. But in some cases these were extensively damaged during typhoon Rose, and older trees in particular suffered heavily.

In addition to its own planting programme, the Urban Council also encourages horticulture in Hong Kong by its annual flower show held each spring. This year it attracted more than 177,000 people.

198

RECREATION

The most popular outdoor summer activity was again swimming, and a survey of the 38 officially administered beaches carried out in August 1970, revealed that they were used by some 130,000 people on a Sunday. The worst outbreak of Red Tide for many years affected a large number of beaches for a week or so following a typhoon in June. Fortunately the organisms were of low toxicity and little or no harm was done, although bathers were advised to stay out of the water. Short beach safety and cleansing campaigns were held during the summer: with what permanent result it is difficult to say. The year's typhoons played havoc with beach rafts and one beach was denuded of all its sand.

As already mentioned, two large new swimming pool complexes were opened to the public during the year (again built with funds donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club), bringing to five the number of public pools in the Colony, compared with two up to December 1970. Three of the pools are of the new type, consisting of one main and one secondary pool, a diving pool, three teaching pools, a children's pool and a paddling pool. Four of the complexes are in Kowloon, but work has started on two new and smaller pools on the Island and others, including two in the New Territories, are included in the Public Works Programme. During the year 1,909,091 people used the pools.

The Urban Council and the Urban Services Department played an important role in organising public entertainment and their efforts were well supported by the public. Some of the activities formed part of the summer recreation programme referred to be- low, but, outside that programme, many Cantonese operas, variety shows, film shows, band concerts, 'pop-ins' and 'swim-ins' were organised. New ground was also broken with the staging of Chinese puppet shows and Peking operas. In drawing up the programme, particular (but by no means exclusive) emphasis was placed upon the needs of young people and those living in resettlement estates. Attendance at these functions exceeded 517,000.

SUMMER RECREATION PROGRAMME

The biggest project undertaken during the summer of 1971 was again the Summer Recreation Programme, which aimed to provide purposeful and stimulating activities for the young people of Hong Kong. It is estimated that 800,000 youngsters took part in the vast range of activities, while over 30,000 volunteers helped make it a success. Whenever possible, agencies, schools, district groups and departments provided more opportunities than in previous years

RECREATION

199

for young people to mix together and to develop their potential qualities of leadership. Special efforts were made to attract young workers and unattached young people.

      Expenditure on the community programme amounted to well over $2 million, excluding staff and other administrative costs. The money came from many sources-from generous grants totalling almost $900,000 from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, from public funds and from numerous community and individual donations.

The recreation programme included outdoor excursions, visits and tours, sports contests, service and holiday camps, and other social and cultural activities. Among the new projects were two youth leadership training camps lasting two weeks each and run by the British Armed Forces in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department. They were designed to train young people to become leaders in an outdoor environment. The Education Department also successfully conducted an extensive learn-to-swim campaign which gave swimming instruction to about 4,000 children from 150 schools. In conjunction with the YWCA and 30 secondary schools, the department also held its first camps for girls at Wu Kwai Sha.

The organisation of such a programme was again made possible only through the joint efforts and ready co-operation of the com- munity at large. The overall co-ordination of the planning, and particularly the financing, was undertaken by the ad hoc Central Co-ordinating Committee for Youth Recreation. This committee was first set up in 1969 and comprises representatives from the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and major government departments concerned with youth recreation. In city and New Territories districts, local committees, working closely with City and New Territories District Offices and the Social Welfare Department, continued to provide focal points for planning and co-ordination at the grass-roots level.

ENTERTAINMENT AND THE ARTS

The cultural life of Hong Kong, in which the performing arts are now playing an increasingly important role, centres on the City Hall administered under policies laid down by the Urban Council.

      Opened in 1962, the facilities include a concert hall with 1,500 seats, that can be quickly converted for use for theatrical pro- ductions, an intimate 470-seat theatre that is also used for film shows, a museum and art gallery, rooms for exhibitions, lectures

200

RECREATION

and conferences and two public restaurants with bars. Local per- formers and overseas artists are presented regularly in the two auditoria. Unfortunately the demand for use of the City Hall facilities is far greater than can be satisfied, and, once again, a considerable number of performances had to be given in other localities.

       The City Hall, often in association with national cultural organi- sations such as the British Council, the Goethe Institute and the Alliance Francaise, engages artists to give performances of music, ballet and drama. In 1971, a total of 60 such performances were given. The Urban Council also arranged 19 concerts of recorded music using sophisticated equipment in the Concert Hall where the acoustics are exceptionally good. In planning these 'hi-fi' concerts, attempts are made to include works which are unlikely to be heard 'live' in Hong Kong, and these have been particularly well received by the public. A new project for 1971, and one which proved popular with students, was the presentation of recorded chamber music in one of the lecture rooms in the City Hall. The admission price for students at all Urban Council cultural presentations was $1, and there were full houses at the vast majority of the 115 performances.

Local impresarios also arranged visits of internationally renowned artists. In the City Hall they presented 17 artists and groups with a total of 33 performances.

       In addition to participating in the Urban Council's own pres- entations, local musical groups and soloists gave 109 concerts in the City Hall during the year. In drama, three active English amateur groups and many Chinese dramatic groups, amateur and profes- sional, presented 47 productions with 123 performances in the City Hall.

CITY MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY

       The collections in the City Museum and Art Gallery cover several different fields: Chinese antiquities, historical pictures, and local and contemporary art.

The Chinese antiquities collection embraces ceramics, bronze, lacquerware, jade, cloisonne, and embroidery. Although ceramics form the major part, recent acquisitions have expanded the collection of jade into some significance. A collection of Kwangtung paintings has also been developed, based on a bequest made by a Hong Kong painter, the late Mr Wong Po-yeh.

The historical pictures section consists of the Chater, Ho Tung, Law and Sayer Collections. This has been augmented steadily over

RECREATION

201

the past years by purchase and, occasionally, by gift. At present, there are more than 700 items, including paintings, watercolours, drawings, lithographs and engravings. They form a unique pictorial record of Sino-British contacts in the 18th and early 19th centuries. These are supplemented by about 1,400 old photographs which vividly portray the development of Hong Kong since 1870.

Works by contemporary Hong Kong artists, as well as prints by artists in other parts of Asia, make up the collection of local and contemporary art.

The limited space of the City Museum and Art Gallery does not allow a permanent display of all the available material. Selections from the Chinese antiquities collection form the permanent display in the museum section, while temporary exhibitions from the other collections are arranged on a regular basis in a section of the Art Gallery. The displays include small educational exhibits which are specially prepared by the City Museum and Art Gallery staff to be made available for wider circulation, on loan, among local schools. The City Museum and Art Gallery also presents about 10 tem- porary exhibitions each year. These cover a wide field of interest, reflecting the complex cultural background of the people of Hong Kong. Among the most popular exhibitions organised in 1971 was that of Kwangtung, Macau and Hong Kong currency held in November during the second Festival of Hong Kong. The exhibition, representing a comprehensive survey of the subject, consisted of old coins and banknotes, mainly drawn from the Museum's own col- lection, but with some interesting material on loan from other local sources. Some Kwangtung coins dated as far back as the Tang Dynasty (AD 620-907). Another popular exhibition of the year was the sixth Children's Art Exhibition which is held every two years. During the year, one special exhibition came from abroad and one was sent overseas. The former was an exhibition of Madhubani folk paintings from India, and the latter an exhibition of contem- porary Hong Kong art selected from the City Museum and Art Gallery's collections. This was shipped to Britain for special display in the Commonwealth Institute of London and Edinburgh and the City Art Galleries of Manchester and Bristol, where it received favourable comments.

The City Museum and Art Gallery continued to present a monthly programme of art documentary films, usually relating to exhibitions currently on display.

The Lei Cheng Uk Museum, which is a site museum of a Han tomb discovered in 1955 and preserved in situ, came under the

202

RECREATION

     administration of the City Museum and Art Gallery in 1969. Relics from the tomb are on public display, providing a glimpse of the life in southern China 2,000 years ago.

       The total attendance at the Museum and Art Gallery at the City Hall for 1971 was 175,450, representing an average of 579 people on each day that it was open. The corresponding figures for 1970 were 272,440 and 870. At the Lei Cheng Uk Museum, where an admission charge of 30 cents for adults and 10 cents for children is made, the total attendance was 17,140 averaging 56 per opening day. In 1970 the figures were 15,225 and 50.

       Apart from the formal exhibitions organised by the Museum and Art Gallery, 147 exhibitions were held in the City Hall's general exhibition hall and exhibition gallery which are available for hire. These were arranged and mounted by various commercial and non- commercial groups and ranged from exhibitions of paintings to displays of commercial appliances. Photography as an art form, in which Hong Kong residents have gained international recognition, was again amongst the most interesting of these exhibitions.

LIBRARIES

      The Urban Council public libraries offer free lending, reference and study room facilities to all residents of Hong Kong. There is a comprehensive range of 385,443 volumes in both English and Chinese, 756 current newspapers and periodicals from all over the world, 2,729 reels of microfilm and 966 seats in the reading rooms. Two hundred and eighty-two of these seats are provided in the separate students' study room in Kowloon Park, opened late in 1970 as a pilot scheme.

       During the year, a new library at Yau Ma Tei was opened. This is now the main library for Kowloon peninsula, and like its island counterpart, the City Hall library, consists of adult lending, junior and reference sections, a newspaper and periodical section and a students' reading room. The branch libraries at Cambridge Court in Kowloon and at the Wah Fu Estate on the Island concentrate on lending facilities for adult and junior readers, but each has a news- paper and periodical section and a reading room for students.

The libraries continue to be well used and since 1962 when the first library (at the City Hall) was opened, 294,504 people have reg- istered as borrowers. An average of 5,008 books are borrowed and 4,443 books are consulted each day in the lending and reference libraries. Various extension activities in the form of book exhibitions, children's story-hours, a Christmas card competition and organised

RECREATION

203

      school visits have been a regular feature at the libraries and all have proved successful.

THE BRITISH COUNCIL

       Throughout the year the British Council continued its cultural and educational work in Hong Kong. A highlight of the cultural programme was the visit in May of the London Symphony Orchestra which gave three concerts under the direction of Andre Previn.

The Council's two libraries at Gloucester Building and Star House were even busier than last year and lent almost 100,000 books to their 8,400 members. These readers, mainly students, also made full use of the reading rooms which are provided with more than 200 British newspapers and magazines covering a wide range of subjects. On any one day of the year some 3,700 books, out of a total of 32,000, were on loan to members.

Another book presentation was made to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Since the scheme was first started in 1962, the British Council has donated books worth $360,000 to numerous educational institutions.

Visits to various organisations in Britain were arranged for staff of the two universities and of the City Museum and City Hall. The Council also sponsored a tour of Latin American cities by the Professor of Geography and Geology at the University of Hong Kong, who lectured on problems of urbanisation. Fourteen scholar- ships were awarded to students undertaking advanced studies in Britain, nine of these by the British Council (seven for training in the teaching of English as a second language) and five by the Sino- British Fellowship Trust.

The Council made arrangements for specialists from Britain to visit Hong Kong for consultations with government departments and the universities and to give lectures to professional socie- ties. Subjects included computer education, football, dermatology, medical physics, bio-chemical engineering and science teaching in secondary schools. On this latter subject, a one-week symposium for teachers was arranged in conjunction with Chung Chi College and the Hong Kong Science Teachers Association. A specialist was also brought out to advise the Medical and Health Department on the setting up of a paraplegic service in Hong Kong.

The Council again provided the venue for the English section of the Hong Kong Schools Music Festival, while educational and specialist films from locally held prints and those brought from London were lent or shown to schools and other institutions.

18

Geography and Climate

      THE Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The Colony consists of a small part of the Chinese mainland and a scattering of offshore islands, the most important of which is Hong Kong Island. Its economic heart is the magnificent natural harbour which lies between Hong Kong Island and the tip of the Kowloon peninsula on the mainland. The twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon overlook the harbour on either side, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The shortest air route between Hong Kong and London is almost 6,000 miles, but the jet age has brought the Colony to within less than 24 hours of Britain.

The total land area of the Colony is 403.7 square miles (including recent reclamations) of which Hong Kong Island itself, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprise 29.2 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another 4.1 square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 370.4 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

       Hong Kong is situated on the edge of an eroded mountain chain which extends along the south coast of China. The chain is largely composed of folded and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks with younger intrusions of granitic rocks mostly of the Jurassic Period. The oldest sedimentary rocks in the Colony are those of the Tolo Harbour Formation. This formation is exposed at Ma Shi Chau and contains fossils that have been dated as most probably Permian in age. However, its stratigraphic relationships are somewhat uncertain. Mineralisation, associated with the intru- sion of the granitic rocks, has been of limited economic benefit to the Colony. Lead, zinc, tungsten, beryl and graphite have been mined but only in small quantities. Iron ore mining has been of

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

205

greater importance and there is currently an active mine at Ma On Shan, which exports concentrated ore to Japan.

       Due to the hilly topography, agricultural land is extremely re- stricted. The most important area is the flat alluvium around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area. Outside the alluvial areas, soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acidic and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. Given intensive labour input, however, water supply rather than soil condi- tion tends to be the controlling factor in farming. The predominantly crystalline character of the rock formations unfortunately makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface run-off for all water supplies. The highly variable rainfall of the area has led to periodic water shortages. Most of the Colony's surface water supply has now been captured through the construction of catch- ments and reservoirs, and with the completion of the High Island reservoir scheme, desalination processes on a large scale will prob- ably become necessary.

       Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia, but more profitable crops have increasingly displaced rice during the past 25 years and it is now grown on only 40 per cent of the area being used for agriculture. Intensive market garden- ing, principally for vegetables and with associated pig and poultry raising, is the most important agricultural activity. Vegetables are grown throughout the year-as many as eight or 10 crops from a single patch-but most particularly during the cooler months. Fish ponds are also an important form of rural land use. The upland areas are mostly grass-covered and in several places, as in the Castle Peak area, severely eroded. Afforestation has been developed since 1945 but the area covered is still relatively small. The most important function of the uplands is for water catchment areas. To some extent this is now conflicting with the needs of the crowded urban areas for recreational space, and problems of rural conservation in this and other respects are becoming pressing.

CLIMATE

      Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it enjoys seasonal weather conditions, which is unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of

206

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

year when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight it is often fairly persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north- easterlies.

         The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and can occur from mid-April until September, but it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm in 1963 and 3040.7 mm in 1889 but the mean value is 2168.8 mm.

       The mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever recorded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean rela- tive humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to over seven hours in mid-July and late October.

       Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force, endangering life and property.

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY

       The Royal Observatory is directly concerned with all matters relating to meteorology and geophysics. Weather forecasts and trop- ical cyclone warnings are prepared in the general forecasting office, while services for aviation are provided at the airport meteorological office.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

207

       Close liaison is maintained with all ships visiting Hong Kong and about 50 selected ships are provided with instruments by the Observatory to encourage them to transmit weather reports which are used for locating tropical cyclones and in the preparation of forecasts. About 65 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two coastal radio stations in Hong Kong. All reports received are disseminated to other centres through the World Weather Watch telecommunication network. In addition, about 5,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received each day from other countries. They are decoded, plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and for fishermen, and all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are given briefings, written forecasts and weather charts.

One of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical depres- sion, tropical storm or typhoon is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly non-local warnings are issued. These provide information on the maximum winds, the position and movement of the centre and the forecast position 24 hours ahead. Reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the Royal Observatory direct from meteorological satellites are used to locate the centre and evaluate the intensity of the tropical cyclone. When the Colony itself is threatened, warnings are widely dis- tributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Statements and recommended precautions are broadcast at frequent intervals whenever local signals are displayed. The Royal Observ- atory also issues thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings, grass fire warnings and frost and low temperature warnings whenever necessary.

       The Observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a three centimetre radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms and a 10 centimetre radar for locating larger trop- ical disturbances up to 240 nautical miles away. The latter radar can also be used to estimate the intensity of rainfall and provides valuable information for forecasting as well as for local hydrological

purposes.

A new pressure-sensitive wave recorder was installed in deep water off Waglan Island in June 1971 to obtain information on the heights and periods of waves. This information is required for the construction of the High Island reservoir and is also useful for the prediction of storm surges during typhoon conditions.

208

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

      The Observatory is also responsible for the Colony's time service. Six pip signals from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95MHz and are relayed by the various broadcasting and television stations.

      Twelve seismometers are operated by the Observatory, and it prepares bulletins of all earthquake tremors recorded, and partici- pates in the Pacific Tsunami Warning Service. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum-Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However, an average of two to three tremors may be felt each year by residents in certain locations such as on balconies of high buildings. No such tremors occurred in 1971.

      Geomagnetic measurements, which ceased in 1941, resumed in Hong Kong in April 1971, when recording of magnetic variation began in the new geomagnetic station near Tate's Cairn. This was made possible with a donation from the Nuffield Foundation for a joint project by the University of Hong Kong and the Royal Observatory.

      To provide warnings of any possible health hazards due to radio- active fallout from nuclear explosions, regular measurements of beta and gamma activity in the atmosphere and in rainfall are carried out at King's Park meteorological station. The radioactivity of filtered water samples from several reservoirs in the Colony is also regularly monitored.

      The Observatory answers requests for climatological and mete- orological information from various government departments, firms and the general public and issues certificates for litigation purposes and for insurance claims. The department also acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of many projects in the Colony that may be affected by meteorological conditions. Technical notes and memoirs are published on various aspects of the weather of Hong Kong and on a wide variety of related subjects.

       In 1971, the Royal Observatory co-operated with the Organisa- tional Surveys Unit in a project to produce climatological and statistical summaries using equipment of the Government Computer Centre. Plans were also made to improve the existing weather services by using a computer to process all incoming meteorological data received through communication networks so that the informa- tion can be more fully utilised, particularly for the preparation of tropical cyclone forecasts under operational conditions.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

RESEARCH

209

Investigations were carried out on various aspects of geophysics and meteorology to meet the planning and design requirements for development projects in the Colony. These included a detailed analysis of surface winds over Hong Kong in connection with the construction of the container terminal at Kwai Chung and a study of meteorological factors that affect the operation of the Instrumental Landing System and Precision Approach Radar at Hong Kong International Airport. A comparison was made between winds from Waglan Island and Cape D'Aguilar for the planning of the new Cable and Wireless satellite ground station.

Many early statistical analyses of tropical cyclones were revised and updated and tracks of all tropical cyclones which occurred in the western Pacific and China Seas area during the period 1884- 1969 were compiled for each standard five-day period of the year. Considerable efforts were also devoted to the improvement of existing techniques of forecasting rainfall amount and new methods were being developed for predicting the movement of tropical cyclones for more than 24 hours.

      Time lapse pictures of radar echoes taken during several severe rainstorms were analysed for the purpose of studying the fine struc- ture of rainfall distribution associated with these disturbances.

      The Royal Observatory co-operated with several overseas scien- tific institutes in various special studies in seismology, radioactivity, marine climatology and atmospheric chemistry. The first marine climatological summary to be published by any country in the world was completed during the year.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

      1971 will probably be remembered for typhoon Rose which caused the highest fatalities and heaviest damage to property in Hong Kong since typhoon Wanda in 1962. The year was also notable for the unusually high number of tropical cyclones which affected the Colony. Out of 36 tropical cyclones which formed over the western Pacific and South China Sea, nine came sufficiently close to Hong Kong to necessitate the hoisting of storm signals. The weather for the year was generally warmer, drier and sunnier than usual with the second lowest mean relative humidity on record.

      January to May were typical of winter and spring months in Hong Kong with outbreaks of cold and dry northerly air alternating with periods of dull and humid weather. The Strong Monsoon Signal

210

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

was displayed four times during this period to warn of strong easterly or northerly winds. The minimum temperature of the year, 5.5°C, was recorded at the Royal Observatory on January 31. However, during the last three days of that month, snow flakes, sleet, ice and frost were reported at Tai Mo Shan, where the temperature fell to -3°C.

       Rainfall was below normal during the first five months of the year and there was only one day in this period, May 19, when heavy continuous rain was reported. The accumulated total rainfall amounted to less than 40 per cent of the average value. The approach of typhoon Dinah on May 28 marked the beginning of a succession of tropical cyclones which threatened the Colony. Dinah passed about 270 miles south-west of Hong Kong but did not cause any damage.

       During June and July, five tropical cyclones threatened Hong Kong but only two, typhoon Freda and typhoon Lucy caused gales in the Colony. Typhoon Freda formed about 350 miles east of Manila on June 14 and took a north-westerly course. It passed about 22 miles south-west of Hong Kong and produced 187.6 mm of rainfall at the Royal Observatory. The maximum gust recorded was 103 knots at Tate's Cairn. Two people were killed and 30 injured. Five ships broke adrift and some flooding was reported. The damage to property was, however, slight.

Typhoon Gilda passed about 260 miles south-west of Hong Kong and produced strong winds for a short period on June 27. Typhoon Harriet came within 400 miles of Hong Kong for only a few hours on July 5 and moved steadily west-north-west towards North Vietnam without causing strong winds over the Colony.

       On July 20, typhoon Lucy moved on a north-westerly course through the Balintang Channel into the South China Sea. The typhoon crossed the south China coast about 23 miles north-north- east of Hong Kong on July 23, leaving 38 people injured and causing flooding at many locations. Heavy losses to crops and live- stock were also reported in low-lying areas of the New Territories. Persistent gales were experienced at practically all observing stations and the maximum gust was 80 knots at Tate's Cairn and Waglan Island.

       Typhoon Nadine crossed southern Taiwan on July 26 on a westerly track and for a while appeared to be heading directly towards Hong Kong. However, it suddenly turned away in a more northerly direc- tion when it was about 300 miles from the Colony and crossed the

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

211

coast of Fukien near Amoy. Hong Kong experienced several hours of strong south-westerly winds and a few patches of light rain.

      From August 4-9 the south-west monsoon prevailed over the South China Sea and the rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory during this period totalled 139.8 mm.

       Typhoon Rose formed over the western Pacific to the west of Guam on August 10 and moved westward across northern Luzon and entered the South China Sea on August 14. The typhoon slowed down and turned to a north-westerly course on August 15, when it was centred about 250 miles south-south-east of Hong Kong. Early on August 16, Rose began to move northwards and headed almost directly towards the Colony. The Strong Wind Signal, No. 3, was hoisted at 5.05 a.m. and the Royal Observatory warned that winds over the Colony might increase very rapidly. The North-east Gale or Storm Signal, No. 7, was hoisted at 9.50 a.m. and was replaced by the South-east Gale or Storm Signal, No. 8, at 12.25 p.m. to warn of a change in the direction of the gales. The Increasing Gale or Storm Signal, No. 9, was hoisted at 9.10 p.m. and was followed by the Hurricane Signal, No. 10, at 10.50 p.m. By this time, Hong Kong was ready for a direct hit by an intense typhoon.

      The eye of typhoon Rose passed close to the west of Cheung Chau early on August 17 and moved away from the Colony north-north- westwards towards Canton. A minimum sea-level pressure of 963.2 mb was recorded at the Cheung Chau Aeronautical Meteorological Station and 982.8 mb at the Royal Observatory. The maximum gust peak speeds recorded were 121 knots at the Royal Observatory, 120 knots at Tate's Cairn, 114 knots at Hong Kong Airport, 105 knots at Cheung Chau and 150 knots at Tai Mo Shan where the anemometer was broken shortly after recording this extremely high speed. The rainfall of 288.1 mm on August 17 was the highest recorded in any calendar day in August since 1884. On the same day, the trace of the 'Jardi' rate-of-rainfall recorder at Tate's Cairn also rose to above the upper limit of the chart. The maximum in- stantaneous rate which occurred around 8.30 a.m. was estimated to be 513 mm per hour, the highest on record in the Colony.

      Because of the relatively small size of Rose, heavier damage was reported over the western than the eastern side of the Colony. Over 100 people were killed, hundreds were injured, and thousands were made homeless. Twenty-eight ocean-going vessels were sunk or went aground, 300 small craft were sunk or damaged, and several hydro- foils and cross-harbour ferries were put out of action. The most

212

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

tragic event was, however, the capsize of the Hong Kong-Macau ferry, SS Fat Shan, near the north-eastern tip of Lantau with the loss of all but four of her crew of 92.

During the first half of September, troughs of low pressure domi- nated the south China coastal area and a total of 120 mm of rainfall was recorded at the Royal Observatory. On September 19, an early arrival of the winter monsoon brought strong northerly winds and cooler weather to the Colony. Temperatures at the Royal Observa- tory fell to a minimum of 21.6°C on September 21. Typhoon Delia passed about 190 miles south of Hong Kong on a westerly course on September 28 and caused a few hours of strong winds.

During October, a persistent anticyclone was centred over China and, with only a few interruptions, maintained a steady winter monsoon along the south China coast. The Strong Monsoon Signal was hoisted on three occasions during the month. The last tropical cyclone to affect Hong Kong in 1971 was typhoon Elaine, which came within 300 miles of the Colony on October 7 and produced strong winds in exposed places.

Abnormally high tides were experienced from October 5-10 and some flooding occurred at Tai O, Victoria and Quarry Bay during the night of October 7-8. The tide level was generally about one metre higher than normal. Local fishermen reported that they had not observed such a phenomenon in the past 20 years. This was probably caused by an unusual movement of ocean currents in the Pacific as high tides were also recorded in Japan around the same time.

November was exceptionally dry with only a trace of rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory. Only on one previous occasion, in 1924, had such a small amount of rainfall been recorded in November. The mean relative humidity of the month, 58 per cent, and the minimum hourly relative humidity of 17 per cent at 3 p.m. on November 17 were both the lowest on record for November. The Strong Monsoon Signal was hoisted on two occasions.

The fine and dry weather persisted into mid-December and there were long periods of sunshine on almost every day. However, an active upper-air disturbance developed over west China on December 16 and caused widespread heavy rain. Weather in Hong Kong became dull and rainy during the next 10 days and, as a result, the month became the wettest December since 1884. The rainfall of 97.8 mm on December 18 was a new daily record for the month.

19

Population

      THE total estimated population of the Colony at the end of 1971 was 4,064,400. This estimate is based on the Population and Hous- ing Census taken in March of this year, adjusted by births, deaths and migration. The population on census day March 9, 1971, including 11,549 transients was 3,948,179 of which 2,010,204 were males and 1,937,975 females. Compared with the population in 1961, this represents an increase of 815,048 over the past 10 years.

The 1961 census showed the total population to be 3,133,131, including 3,483 transients, and the 1966 by-census put the total at 3,716,400, including 3,787 transients. The growth in the past few years has not been as fast as in the early 1960's and this can be attributed chiefly to the continued decline in the number of births since 1962. The crude birth rate dropped from 35 births per 1,000 of the population in 1962 to 19.7 in 1971.

       The 1971 census figures showed that the population of Hong Kong Island fell from 1,004,875 in 1961 to 996,183. A decrease was also recorded for the Kowloon area from 725,177 in 1961 to 716,272. In New Kowloon, however, the population increased from 852,849 in 1961 to 1,478,581, with the biggest increases occurring in Kai Tak, Ngau Tau Kok and Lei Yue Mun districts. These three new districts, which include the industrial town of Kwun Tong, now contain one million people, compared with less than a third of that number 10 years ago. The population in the New Territories increased from 409,945 in 1961 to 665,700, owing mainly to the development of Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung, which together showed an increase of 185,348 over the 10 years.

       The sex ratio has become slightly more balanced since 1961, with 1,037 men to 1,000 women, compared with 1,058 to 1,000 women in 1961. This suggests that Hong Kong is taking on increasingly the characteristics of a settled community.

      Density: Hong Kong with a total land area of only 400 square miles is one of the most densely populated areas in the world and its population is comparable to that of Norway or Niger (both

214

POPULATION

      3.9 million in 1969) or Zambia (4.2 million in 1969). The popula- tion density per square kilometre for the whole Colony is almost 3,800, which is higher than that of Singapore (3,471 in 1969) and East Berlin (2,695 in 1969). The 1971 census revealed that Mong Kok with over 160,340 persons per square kilometre was then the most densely populated district. This is about 10 times greater than Tokyo city proper (15,754/sq km in 1969) or Osaka city proper (15,158/sq km in 1969).

Population Composition: Of the total population, over 98 per cent can be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin. At the time of the 1971 census, 44,635 persons claimed to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong. Those from non-Commonwealth countries, other than China, totalled 20,248, of whom the largest groups were: American (5,837), Portuguese (2,559), Japanese (2,253), Filipino (1,210), Indonesian (1,119), German (911), Dutch (589), Korean (554), French (542).

Approximately 55 per cent of the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most of these and the greater part of the immigrant population come from Kwangtung Province. The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest percentage of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are Po On and Tung Kwun, Wai Yeung and Mui Yuen, Chiuchow, Sze Yap, Nam Hoi, Pun Yue, Shun Tak and Chung Shan. The urban population also includes immigrants from Fukien and Kiangsu and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

       In the New Territories, the indigenous inhabitants consist principally of Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers, whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. These people differ from each other in physical appearance, dress and custom. The usual village community consists of a single clan, but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan, but as far as is known intermarriage between land and boat-dwellers is rare.

       The Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Terri- tories. They occupy the best parts of the two principal plains in the north-western section and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages-those of the Tang Clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of

CENSUS 71

1.

ון

港公共圖

 major task for the Government during the year was the popula- tion and housing census-an operation involving about 21,000

people and more than three years of preparation. Field work began with a marine census, from January 23-26, when some 700 enumera- tors visited boats in all anchorages around Hong Kong. One month later, February 27, more than 17,000 young enumerators moved out into the urban areas and the countryside to begin the land census. By March 9, the enumeration was complete, but this was followed up by a sample census from April 3-5 to measure the accuracy of the census taking. Prior to the main count, an intensive campaign was launched through all the mass media to publicise the event and to gain the co-operation of the public. Six-and-a-half million census forms were printed to ensure there would be no shortage. To speed up the dissemination of the information arising from the census, reports were published in stages dealing with the different aspects. of the count. The Government's computer was used for the first time to analyse and tabulate results. It took about four months to actually load the data into the computer and a further three months to compile the results. Despite this seemingly long time, the method employed was much faster than those of former census undertakings. The population on census day, March 9, was 3,948,179.

The photograph on the previous page and those on the following pages show how the team of young enumerators helped make the census a successful operation.

THE

il

I.

1

CENSUS

BRARIES

1

11

1

1

POPULATION

215

      continuous settlement dating from the late 11th century. Some of the villages on Lantau date back to the late 13th century.

       The Hakka people began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. The latter were, however, the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, along foothills, and generally on poorer land.

       The Tanka people have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the past few years, young men and women of the Tanka community have begun to take factory jobs and thousands have now moved their homes ashore.

      The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. They are tradi- tionally boat-dwellers and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations.

      With rapid urbanisation of certain districts in the New Territories, notably Tsuen Wan where large resettlement and low-cost housing estates have been built, an increasing number of families have moved to these satellite towns from Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. The total population of the New Territories on census day was 693,915 including 28,215 boat people. The principal centres of population are Tsuen Wan (267,670), Shap Pat Heung (49,029), Tuen Mun (46,361), Tai Po (44,040), Sheung Shui (36,480) and Fan Ling (33,640).

THE CENSUS AND STATISTICS DEPARTMENT

1

      The department was set up in December 1967 to collect and co-ordinate government statistics. The planning and execution of the 1971 Population and Housing Census overshadowed all other work of the department during the year. The census of the floating population was taken during the Lunar New Year period when the fishing people traditionally return to port for the festival; January 23 was census day. The land census was taken some six weeks later on March 9.

       For the 1971 census, over 21,000 people were employed on enumeration duties, most of them being school teachers and

BẠN C

VARIES

216

POPULATION

students. To ensure a high degree of uniformity in the census data collected, considerable emphasis was placed on training and standardisation of instruction. Before the census, all field staff took an oath not to divulge census information improperly and a specially designed census identity card was issued to each of them.

       Several innovations were introduced for the census. For the first time in Hong Kong a computer was used with a document reader to speed up production of the results. To economise on staff and time the enumerators took with them the forms which were to be used in finally recording the census data. The forms were completed by the enumerators and read directly by the com- puter without transcription.

      The department also conducted a Census of Manufacturing Establishments from July 26 to August 29, 1971. During the five- week period, teams of specially trained enumerators visited about 30,000 manufacturing establishments to obtain information on such subjects as type of ownership, number of workers employed, principal products, value of sales and work done for export and local consumption. The census was the first of its kind in Hong Kong and produced useful information and basic data on the structure of this important sector of the Colony's economy.

Besides censuses, the department collects, compiles and analyses the Colony's trade statistics; calculates the Consumer Price Index; conducts surveys and research of various kinds; and supplies statistical information to commercial concerns and international organisations. It also maintains frequent contacts with other statistical organisations, institutions of higher learning and with the specialised agencies of the United Nations.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout the Colony. The General Register Office is in Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are maintained. Sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts, while in outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

The statutory period during which a birth should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days from the date of birth. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one

POPULATION

217

year from the date of birth, the birth may be registered on payment of a fee of $2. During the year 76,818 live births and 20,253 deaths were registered, compared with 77,465 and 20,763 respectively in 1970. These figures, when adjusted for under-registration, give a natural increase in population for 1971 of about 59,520. Only 111 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry.

       A birth which has not been registered within one year after the date of birth may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a fee of $15. During the year 1,799 such births were post-registered, including 551 in the New Terri- tories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there continues to be a number of cases where non-registration was due to the fact that facilities for registration were not available until 1932, and also some cases relating to births in the war years when there was no registration of births. However, in most cases during the last year applications for post-registration were in respect of minors. All applications for post-registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

      The General Register Office is responsible for the collection of vital statistics for the Colony. The information is recorded on various statistical forms and coding sheets for card punching and data processing by computer.

MARRIAGES

      All marriages are governed by the Marriage Ordinance and the Marriage Reform Ordinance. Under the Marriage Ordinance, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circum- stances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dis- pensing with notice altogether, but this is done very rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

      Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at any of the 11 full- time marriage registries and 15 part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 24,505 marriages were performed in the registries and 2,399 at licensed places of worship. The total was 26,904; 6,473 more than in 1970. All marriage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

218

POPULATION

      The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian cus- tomary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not have to be registered under that Ordinance. No statistics of such marriages are therefore available, but it is believed that the number has steadily decreased in recent years as a result of registered marriages becoming more and more popular.

      The Marriage Reform Ordinance provides that all marriages entered into in Hong Kong on and after October 7, 1971, shall imply the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others and may be contracted only in accordance with the Marriage Ordinance. It declares valid certain customary marriages and validates certain others, known as modern marriages, provided in each case they have been entered into before October 7, 1971. The ordinance also makes provision for post-registration of these customary and modern marriages and for dissolution of such marriages by mutual consent. During the year 438 customary and 61 modern marriages were post-registered, including 25 in the New Territories.

20

Natural History

THE rapid development of the urban areas in the past decade or so has made further inroads into the countryside but, in spite of this, large areas of the Colony, especially in the New Territories, are still virtually untouched with wooded hillsides and valleys and green fields. It is here that the animal and plant life of Hong Kong can be found.

       The Government's increasing concern with the protection of the environment has been demonstrated both by legislation and by the activities of its conservation staff. The two Advisory Committees for Recreational Development and Nature Conservation, which were created in September 1970, met frequently during the year and have each submitted preliminary reports. One deals with Hong Kong Island and the other the New Territories. The law was also amended to provide greater protection of local fauna. Among other measures, the number and areas of protected localities were increased. The hunting of birds and wild mammals, other than rodents, is prohibited in these areas and in certain localities there are additional restric- tions on the carrying of firearms.

WILD LIFE

      With increased urbanisation and greater use of the countryside by an urban population many wild animals, particularly mammals, are declining in numbers. Indigenous mammals which no longer occur are the Crab-Eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, the Tiger and the Leopard. The last definite record of a Tiger was in 1947 and the last recorded sighting of a Leopard in 1957. The Eastern Chinese Otter, once abundant, is now a rare visitor, and of the carnivores, the South China Red Fox and the Chinese Leopard Cat have all but disappeared from the Colony.

       The Barking Deer and the Wild Pig were once plentiful all over the Colony. Both are now rare in the New Territories and the remaining Barking Deer on Hong Kong Island are confined to a few areas, particularly the forests about the Peak.

       Of the larger indigenous mammals, the Chinese Pangolin (Scaly Anteater) which grows to three-and-a-half feet and is protected by

220

NATURAL HISTORY

horny scales, may occasionally be seen. Monkeys are to be seen on the hillslopes and the more daring ones on the motor roads near the Kowloon reservoirs.

Smaller mammals are abundant in the Colony, and the Woodland Shrew and the House Shrew are fairly numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in some areas of the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island.

There is ample opportunity in Hong Kong for either serious study, or simple enjoyment, of bird life and the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society holds about 12 field outings each year. Over 360 species, representing more than 60 different families, including resident and migrant birds, have so far been recorded in the Colony.

The largest species is undoubtedly the Spotted-billed Pelican which comes in small numbers as a winter visitor to the Mai Po Marshes. Among the smallest are the insectivorous White-eyes, of the wooded areas, and the Yellow-bellied Wren Warbler of the reed beds. The Chinese Blue Magpie, with royal blue plumage and orange beak, and the Crow Pheasant of dark brown plumage with light brown wings, can frequently be seen on the shrubby and wooded hillsides. The Crow Pheasant is neither crow nor pheasant, but a cuckoo and has a haunting call of descending notes which can be heard in spring and early summer. The bulbuls and the minute Tailor Bird, with its insistent 'tch tch' call, are common birds in urban areas, and the beautiful song of the Hwamei delights hikers and residents in the countryside.

      Snakes, lizards and frogs are well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapin and turtle. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are: the Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait with black and white bands; Mac- clelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black trans- verse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the very rare Mountain Pit Viper and the White-lipped Pit Viper or Bamboo Snake. The Bamboo Snake is bright green, and although less venomous than the others, is more often seen and is more likely to attack if accidentally disturbed. The Hamadryad preys almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snake, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but, fortunately, have never been known to attack bathers. An amphibian

NATURAL HISTORY

221

of special interest is the Hong Kong newt, which has not been record- ed anywhere else in China.

      There are just over 200 species of butterfly in the Colony. Of the many moths two are outstanding for their size. These are the Atlas and Moon moths with wing spans of nine and six inches respectively. Apart from butterflies and moths there is a great variety of insects, many brilliantly coloured. They include many species of dragon fly and damsel fly and metallic-coloured beetles and solitary wasps. The beautiful Candle Fly or Lantern Fly has delicately coloured wings like those of a butterfly, but is more closely related to the cicada. It lives on lychee trees and is remarkable in that its forehead is almost as long as its body, hence the Chinese name which trans- lated means the elephant-nosed bug. The adults of several species of cicada emerge during spring and summer. They range from the rare three-and-a-half inches Tacua to the small grass cicadas less than half an inch long.

       Land molluscs of note are the Giant African Snail, measuring about five inches long, which was introduced (and is now a con- siderable pest), and a large black slug, Veronicella, a species suffi- ciently distinct from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

MARINE LIFE

       Marine life in Hong Kong waters is exceedingly diverse in variety, form and colour. It used to sustain a profitable inshore fishery, as the Yellowtail (Seriola quinquilineata), Mackerels (Scomberomorus species), Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena arocea) and a number of other schooling species appeared seasonally in commercially ex- ploitable quantities. In the course of fisheries development, however, the abundance of these resources (with the exception of certain isospondylous fishes) began to diminish-possibly due to an in- creasing disturbance of the local marine environment. The full extent of Hong Kong's marine fauna is difficult to assess, but the diverse varieties of fish, crustacea, cephalopod, mollusc and seaweed in- dicate that the number of species involved is certainly very high. The discharge of the largest freshwater system in South China to the west, and the prevailing Taiwan Current from the north-east, have created a situation where the westerly sector of Hong Kong has a predominantly brackish water fauna, while the eastern sector has a genuine marine fauna. A notable marine animal which has been successfully introduced in the Deep Bay area is the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. It is now being cultivated.

222

NATURAL HISTORY

FLORA

The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. After centuries of cutting and burning most of the original arborescent vegetation on the mountainsides has been replaced by herbaceous cover, but in the ravines and on sheltered northern slopes a flora rich in flowering shrubs, low trees and ferns persists. Few high trees are to be found except in the fine fung shui groves preserved around many villages in the New Territories. A great variety of plants in Hong Kong bear flowers of exceptional beauty or fragrance.

The Bauhinia Blakeana, which grows on a medium-sized ever- green tree known as the Hong Kong orchid tree, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. Named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, it was discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

There are several species of camellia growing wild on the island. and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia Hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct camellia was dis- covered in 1955 and named Camellia Granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee reser- voir, bearing handsome white flowers five-and-a-half inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been distributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

NATURAL HISTORY

223

More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

By regulations, made under the Forestry Ordinance, special pro- tection is given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, magnolias, orchids, and azaleas.

The Hong Kong Herbarium, which was founded in 1878, contains a valuable collection of over 30,000 plant specimens including all the known 2,346 indigenous species and some 2,500 related species from adjacent regions of East and South East Asia. The Herbarium, situated in the headquarters of the Agriculture and Fisheries De- partment in the Canton Road government offices, is open to the public.

21

History

Hong Kong-a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

THE FOUNDING OF HONG KONG AS A BRITISH COLONY 1841-2

ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the 19th century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

      The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung

* The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public

park near the original site.

HISTORY

225

Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge on Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

       Trade relations between Britain and China originally centred on Canton. The first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese was the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699. By the end of the 18th century, the British dominated the foreign trade at Canton but found conditions unsatisfactory, mainly because of the conflicting viewpoints of two quite dissimilar civilisations. The Chinese regarded themselves as the only civilised people and treated all others as barbarians. Foreigners trading at Canton were subjected to humiliating personal restrictions. Confined to the factory area, they were allowed to reside only for the trading season, during which they had to leave their families at Macau. They were forbidden to enter the city and to learn the Chinese language. Shipping dues were arbitrarily varied and generally much bickering resulted be- tween British and Chinese. Yet there was mutual trust and the spoken word alone was sufficient for even the largest transactions.

       Trade had been in China's favour, and silver flowed in until the growth of the opium trade from 1800 onwards reversed this trend. The outflow of silver became more marked after 1834, when the East India Company lost its monopoly of the China trade and the foreign free traders, hoping to get rich quickly, joined in the lucrative opium trade, which the Chinese had made illegal in 1799. This led to the appointment of Lin Tse-hsu in March 1839 as special Commissioner in Canton, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. A week later he surrounded the foreign factories with troops, stopped food supplies and refused to allow anyone to leave until all stocks of opium had been surrendered and dealers and ships' masters had signed a bond not to import opium on pain of execution. Captain Charles Elliot, RN, the British Government's Representative as Superintendent of Trade, was shut up with the rest and authorised the surrender of 20,283 chests of opium after a siege of six weeks. But he would not allow normal trade to resume until he had reported fully to the British Government and received instructions. The British community retired to Macau and, when warned by the Portuguese Governor that he could not be responsible for their

226

HISTORY

safety, took refuge on board ship in Hong Kong harbour in the summer of 1839.

      Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, decided that the time had come for a settlement of Sino-British commercial relations. Arguing that, in surrendering the opium, the British in Canton had been forced to ransom their lives, he demanded either a commercial treaty which would put trade relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British could live free from threats under their own flag. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 to back these demands and thus began the so-called First Opium War, 1840-2. Hostilities alternated with negotiations until agreement was reached between Elliot and Keshen, the new Manchu Commissioner who had replaced Lin after the latter's exile in dis- grace, over the preliminaries of a treaty. Under the convention of Chuenpi, on January 20, 1841, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain. A naval landing party hoisted the flag at Possession Point on January 26, 1841, and Elliot proclaimed Hong Kong a British Colony; in June he sold plots of land and settlement began.

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of a part of China aroused shame and anger among the Chinese, and the unfortunate Keshen was ordered to Peking in chains. Palmerston was equally dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as 'a barren island with hardly a house upon it' and refused to accept it as the island station which had been demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. 'You have treated my instructions as if they were waste paper' he told Elliot in a magisterial rebuke, and replaced him by Sir Henry Pottinger who arrived in August 1841. The latter conducted hostilities with determination. Twelve months later, in August 1842, after pushing up the Yangtze River and threatening to assault Nanking, he brought the hostilities to an end by the Treaty of Nanking on August 29, 1842. In the mean- time, the Whig Government in England had fallen and in 1841 the new Tory Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen, issued revised instruc- tions to Pottinger, dropping the demand for an island. Pottinger, who had returned to Hong Kong during the winter lull in the campaign, was pleased with the progress of the new settlement and, in the Treaty of Nanking, deviated from his instructions by success- fully demanding both a treaty and an island, thus securing Hong Kong. In addition, five Chinese ports, including Canton, were opened for trade. The commercial treaty was embodied in the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 by which the Chinese were allowed free access to the island for trading purposes.

HISTORY

227

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY 1860-99

The Second Anglo-Chinese War of 1856-8, arose out of disputes over the interpretation of the earlier treaties and over the boarding of a British lorcha, the Arrow, by Chinese in search of suspected pirates. The Treaty of Tientsin in 1858, which ended the war, gave the British the privilege of diplomatic representation in China. The first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had been the first Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong, was fired on at Taku Bar on his way to Peking to present his credentials, and hostilities were renewed from 1859-60. The troops serving on this second expedition camped on Kowloon peninsula, as the earliest Colony photographs show. Finding it healthy, they wished to retain it as a military cantonment, with the result that Sir Harry Parkes, Consul at Canton, secured from the Viceroy the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking in 1860 which ended the hostilities, provided for its outright cession.

       Other European countries and Japan were now demanding con- cessions from China, particularly after Germany, France and Russia had rescued her from the worst consequences of her defeat by Japan in 1895. In the ensuing tension Britain felt that efficient defence of Hong Kong harbour demanded control of the land around it.

       By the Convention of Peking on June 9, 1898, the New Territories, comprising the area north of Kowloon up to the Shum Chun River, and 235 islands, were leased for 99 years. Some desultory opposition when the British first took over the New Territories in March 1889, soon disappeared. The area was declared part of the Colony, but was administered separately from the urban area.

GROWTH OF THE COLONY 1841-1941

       The new Colony was a great disappointment at first. It attracted unruly elements; fever and typhoons threatened life and property and crime was rife. The Chinese influx was unexpected as it had not been anticipated they would choose to live under a foreign flag. The population rose from 32,983 (31,463 Chinese) in 1851 to 878,947 (859,425 Chinese) in 1931.

       The Chinese asked only to be left alone, and thrived under a liberal British colonial rule. Hong Kong became a centre of Chinese emigration and of trade with Chinese communities abroad. Ocean- going shipping using the port increased from 2,889 ships of 1,555,645 tons in 1860 to 23,881 of 29,196,466 tons in 1939. The dominance of

228

HISTORY

the China trade forced Hong Kong to conform to Chinese usage and to adopt the silver dollar in 1862 as the currency unit. In 1935, when China went off silver, the Colony had to follow suit with an equivalent 'managed' dollar.

      Hong Kong's administration followed the normal Crown Colony pattern, with a governor nominated by Whitehall and nominated Executive and Legislative Councils with official majorities. The first unofficial members of the Legislative Council were nominated in 1850, and the first Chinese in 1880; the first unofficial members of the Executive Council appeared in 1896, and the first Chinese in 1926. Two electoral bodies, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, and the Unofficial Justices of the Peace, were each allowed from 1885 onwards to nominate a member of the Legislative Council. The British residents on a number of occasions strongly pressed for self-government, but the Home Government steadily refused to allow the Chinese majority to be subject to the control of a small European minority. A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883, became partly elected in 1887, and developed into an Urban Council in 1935. The intention at first was to govern the Chinese through Chinese magistrates seconded from the mainland, but this system of two parallel administrations was only half-heartedly applied and broke down mainly because of the weight of crime. It was completely abandoned in 1865 in favour of the principle of equality of all races before the law, and in that year the Governor's Instructions were significantly amended to forbid him to assent to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected'. Government policy was laissez- faire, treating Hong Kong as a market place where all were free to come and go and where Government held the scales impartially.

Public and utility services developed; the Hong Kong and China Gas Company in 1861, the Peak Tram in 1885, the Hongkong Electric Company 1889, China Light and Power 1903, the electric tramways in 1904 and the government-owned Kowloon-Canton Railway, completed in 1910. There were successive reclamations from 1851, notably one completed in 1904 in Central District, which produced Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road, and another in Wan Chai between 1921 and 1929.

A system of public education began in 1847 with grants to the Chinese vernacular schools, and the voluntary schools, mainly run by missionaries were brought in by a grant scheme in 1873. The College of Medicine for the Chinese, founded in 1887, developed

HISTORY

229

into the University of Hong Kong in 1911 with arts, engineering and medical faculties.

       The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the First World War was followed by strong nationalist and anti- foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before causing considerable disruption to the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

THE JAPANESE ATTACK AND OCCUPATION 1941-5

Japanese plans for political aggrandisement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the First World War to present her 'twenty-one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's north- ern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

       The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and South-East Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Terri- tories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December 18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and the

230

HISTORY

Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley under harsh conditions, while prisoners of war fared even worse. The Chinese population and neutrals also suffered under steadily deteriorating conditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the latter part of the occupation, the Japanese sought to ease the food problems by organising mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause: Chinese guerillas operated in the New Territories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender on August 14, 1945, was received a provisional government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived on August 30 with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

From the moment of liberation, Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000, rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwang- tung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. The 1971 census put the population at 3,948,179.

After a period of economic stagnation, caused by American trade barriers against China which applied temporarily to Hong Kong, and by further sanctions against China resulting from the Korean War of 1951, Hong Kong entered an era of industrialisation. As an entrepôt, the Colony had earned a livelihood by a service she alone could perform: now she found herself directly competing with other manufacturing centres.

HISTORY

231

      The immigrants formed a huge reservoir of labour, industrious, trainable for the necessary skills, with no tradition of trade union restrictive practices and all looking for jobs.

From the start, the industrial revolution was based on cotton textiles, gradually adding woollens and, in the late 1960's, man- made fibres and made-up garments. In 1959, 42 per cent of Hong Kong's total domestic exports were textiles and clothing, compared with 50 per cent in 1971, showing the continued dominance of textiles in Hong Kong's economy. Older light industries expanded, including rattanware, torches and rubber shoes, while new industries develop- ed such as optics, transistor radios and television sets, watches and clocks, stainless steel flatware, wigs and plastics, including artificial flowers. All needed labour as a principal factor of production.

In 1959, the first year they were separated from re-exports, domestic exports were valued at $3,277.54 million. In 1971 they had increased by 500 per cent. Re-exports declined in relative im- portance but remained significant, comprising 30 per cent of total exports in 1959 and 20 per cent in 1971.

       At first Hong Kong catered for cheap Asian markets, such as Malaya and Indonesia, but in 1971, about 80 per cent of her goods went to industrialised countries, with the United States and Britain sharing about 70 per cent of this. The need for food ensured the dominance of China as a source of the Colony's imports, accounting for 21 per cent in 1959 and 22 per cent in 1967, after which Japan supplanted China with 24 per cent of the total imports, mainly in consumer products, against China's 16 per cent in 1971.

      Government public works have necessarily been on the grand scale to keep pace with industrial growth. The 8,340-foot long airport runway, built up from the sea-bed in Kowloon Bay, is being extended to 11,130 feet. New reservoirs were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957 and Shek Pik, on Lantau Island, in 1963; the unique Plover Cove scheme of 1967 is being expanded to hold 50,000 million gallons; work began in 1970 on the High Island scheme, with a planned storage capacity of 60,000 million gallons; former cuts in water supply, which in 1963 were four hours every four days, are unlikely to recur. In 1964 China agreed to raise to 15,000 million gallons the amount of water purchased annually since 1960. Road development, including flyovers, has been remarkable. A tunnel, built by the Government, carries a new road to Sha Tin and communi- cations between Kowloon and Hong Kong will enter a new era with the completion of the cross harbour tunnel, now being built by private enterprise with government participation, in late 1972.

232

HISTORY

Not all developments have been in the economic field and consid- erable social advances have also taken place. Local recruitment into the public service has been expanded and local candidates are given preference if suitably qualified. This has given more opportunity in the government service for local doctors, architects, administrators and teachers, among others, and they have shown themselves well able to compete in professional and higher degree examinations overseas. The unofficial membership of the Legislative Council was increased to 13 in 1964, of whom 11 were Chinese, as against 12 official members, leaving only two Europeans nominated by the five nominating bodies. The Executive Council was given an unofficial majority of eight to six in 1966. The Urban Council has been grad- ually reconstituted to give it six official and 20 unofficial members, 10 of the latter being nominated and 10 elected. However, the percentage of eligible persons who actually vote in Urban Council elections, and indeed the percentage of those qualified who take the trouble to register, have been disappointing. An office of the Unofficial Members of the Executive Council and Legislative Council (UMELCO) was set up in 1963 to assist the public to resolve problems arising from their dealings with the Government and with the appointment in 1970 of an administrative secretary, the office was able to handle an increasing volume of complaints.

      Economic expansion has enabled the Government to increase its social services to match the Colony's all-round-growth. Total enrol- ment in all types of schools and educational centres increased from 120,000 in 1948 to 1,268,660 in 1971. A government or subsidised primary school place is now available for every child of primary school age. In the field of primary education, free education was introduced in September 1971 for the vernacular schools and at the same time a form of compulsory education for all primary schools came into force. During the year a new policy for secondary educa- tion was announced. Under this, three years of post primary educa- tion will be provided for all children in the age group 12-14 and it is hoped that half of the places required can be provided by 1976. The University of Hong Kong re-opened in 1946 with a total of 109 students and, by 1971, had expanded to 2,902 under-graduates, 352 higher degree students and 150 students reading for post-graduate diplomas or certificates. The Chinese University of Hong Kong opened in October 1963 comprising three student colleges, Chung Chi, New Asia and United and enrolment had risen to 2,412 by September 1971. A Polytechnic, to be run by its own board, is in the planning stage and its first principal was appointed during 1971.

HISTORY

233

      The Social Welfare Office was set up in 1946 and became an independent government department in 1958 with branches dealing with community services, the problems of the handicapped, family welfare, probation and public assistance. These services are provided both directly and also by grants to voluntary agencies, particularly the 91 organisations affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, which was founded in 1946. A wider scheme of public relief, inaugurated in 1970, gives needy families cash grants in lieu of assist- ance in kind.

       The rapid industrialisation of Hong Kong has demanded special attention to labour legislation. Hours of work for women and young people were regulated in 1959 and by the end of 1971 were reduced to eight a day and 48 a week. Industrial workers are guaranteed six days paid holiday annually and 12 days sick leave on half pay. All manual workers and non-manual workers earning less than $1,500 a month must be given four rest days each month. In addition, the Labour Department has conciliation machinery to deal with indus- trial disputes and great progress has been made with industrial health and safety measures. The development of an effective trade union movement has been relatively slow and local trade unions retain strong political affiliations.

Huge housing estates bear spectacular witness to the Government's interest in this field. It has been the policy to integrate refugees into the local community and after 50,000 squatters lost their flimsy homes in a Christmas day fire in 1953, it was decided to resettle them in multi-storey blocks built to minimum standards of accom- modation. These resettlement blocks have been gradually improved and standards of accommodation have been progressively raised as new housing estates have been constructed. Resettlement Estates housed 1,147,860 persons at the end of 1971. Low-cost housing estates have also been built for those with monthly incomes up to $500 and these accommodated 258,373 people at the end of 1971. The Government Housing Authority was set up in 1954 and had built nine estates housing 218,450 persons by the end of 1971, these estates being intended for those with a family income of $400 to $1,250 per month. Of government-aided voluntary housing societies, the Hong Kong Housing Society is the largest. Altogether about 43 per cent of the entire population lived in government built or aided housing at the end of 1971.

       Post-war Hong Kong has developed into a dynamic industrial and commercial centre and its growth has been truly remarkable. Economic expansion has brought with it a rising standard of living

234

HISTORY

and has made possible more comprehensive social services although much still remains to be done. Life in Hong Kong has not always been peaceful and the civil disturbances in 1947, 1956, 1966 and 1967 have revealed some of the strains to which the local community is subject. However, these disturbances, with their associated outbreaks of violence have not impeded the continued development of the Colony for very long and appear to have done little to weaken public confidence in the future prosperity of Hong Kong.

22

Constitution and Administration

      HONG KONG is a British Crown Colony, and this chapter describes the way in which the Hong Kong Government is organised to administer the Colony. The policy of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom is that there shall be no major constitu- tional change; nor is there much popular pressure for it.

THE GOVERNOR

        The office of Governor is the central feature of the Government of Hong Kong. The Governor is the representative of the Queen and is in a real sense the head of the Government. He presides at meetings of the Executive Council, whose advice he must seek on important policy matters. He is also the President of the Legislative Council, where he possesses both an original and a casting vote. All bills passed by the Legislative Council must have his assent before they become law. With strictly defined exceptions, he is responsible for every executive act of the Government.

The Governor is appointed by the Queen and derives his authority from the Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom. These Letters Patent create the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hong Kong, and require him to observe the laws of the Colony and such Instructions as may be given him by the Queen or Secretary of State. Among the more im- portant of these are the Royal Instructions and Colonial Regulations.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

       The composition of the Executive Council is determined by the Royal Instructions, which provide that it shall consist of five ex officio members (the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Financial Secretary) together with such other persons as are appointed by the Queen, or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State. At the present time, one official member and eight unofficial members have been appointed in addition to the five ex officio members.

236

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      The Executive Council usually meets once a week throughout the year but additional meetings are held if necessary. The Governor presides at meetings of the Council, although he is not a member of it. The Council's function is to advise the Governor, who is required by the Royal Instructions to consult it on all important matters of policy except:

(a) those of such immediate urgency as to preclude prior con- sultation (in which case the Governor must inform the Council as early as practicable of the measures adopted and the reasons for them);

(b) where such consultation could prejudice the interests of the

Colony;

(c) where the appointment, disciplinary control, or removal

from office of a public officer is involved.

Meetings of the Council are called by the Governor, who alone decides in accordance with the Royal Instructions which matters to submit for its advice. However, should the Governor not submit a matter for the Council's advice when requested by a member to do so, a record of the request and refusal must be entered in the minutes of the Council.

The decision on any question which comes before the Council is that of the Governor. If he decides to act in opposition to the advice given by the majority of members, he is requested to report his reasons to the Secretary of State.

      The Governor in Council (that is, the Governor acting after receiving the advice of the Executive Council) is also the statutory authority for making regulations, rules and orders under a number of ordinances. The Governor in Council also considers appeals, petitions, and objections under ordinances which confer such a statutory right of appeal.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

This Council comprises the Governor, who is both a member and president, four ex officio members (the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Finan- cial Secretary), eight official members and 13 unofficial members. With the exception of the ex officio members, all members are appointed by the Queen or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State.

The primary functions of the Council are to enact legislation and to control the expenditure of public funds. The Queen has the

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

237

power to disallow laws passed by the Legislative Council and assented to by the Governor. In addition, laws having effect within the Colony may also be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and by the Queen by Order in Council in exercise either of prerogative powers or of powers conferred by an English Act of Parliament.

       The procedure in the Legislative Council is broadly similar to that of the House of Commons, with provisions for public debates and for questions. There is a debate on financial and economic affairs in February/March of each year during the second reading of the Appropriation Bill. A wider-ranging debate on social prog- ress and government policy in general normally takes place at the opening of the new session of the Council in October of each year.

       The Finance Committee of the Council, which consists of the Colonial Secretary (Chairman), the Financial Secretary, the Director of Public Works and all the unofficial members of the Legislative Council, considers requests for the supplementary provision of funds, and meets in private once a fortnight on average.

JUDICIARY

       Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Supreme Court Ordinance, the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge and the puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent issued under the Public Seal by the Governor on instruc- tions from the Queen given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State; district judges and magistrates are ap- pointed by the Governor by instrument under the Public Seal or by warrant. The qualifications of puisne judges are prescribed in the Supreme Court Ordinance and those of district judges in the Dis- trict Court Ordinance.

       The function of the Judiciary is to try all prosecutions and to determine civil disputes, whether between individuals or between individuals and the Government. The principle of English con- stitutional law that, in the performance of their judicial acts, members of the Judiciary are completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the Government is fundamental in Hong Kong. The English common law and the rules of equity are in force in Hong Kong, so far as they may be applicable to local circumstances. English Acts of Parliament are in force in the Colony only if applied to Hong Kong by the Legislative Council or by their own terms or by an Order in Council. The locally enacted laws of the Colony are

238

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

consolidated and revised periodically; the last edition of them was published in loose leaf form in 1967.

The courts of justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Coroners Courts and the Tenancy Tribunal. In 1971, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, six puisne judges, eight district judges, 48 magistrates, and three presidents of the Tenancy Tribunal.

      Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. In the case of indictable offences, however, their powers of punishment are re- stricted to a maximum of two years' imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may impose some higher penalty. Cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by magistrates when trying two or more offences together may not exceed three years. Magistrates also hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether people accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer criminal cases to the District Court for trial, on the applica- tion of the Attorney General.

A Justice of the Peace Court, consisting of two Justices of the Peace, and having the same jurisdiction as a special magistrate, also sits several times a week. There is a Coroners Court on Hong Kong Island and one in Kowloon. The work of the Tenancy Tribunal is described in Chapter 8.

      The District Court, established in 1953, provides a simple method of trial of civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter is under $10,000 or $5,000 in the case of land, and also tries criminal cases transferred to it by the magistrates. It exercises appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals and in tenancy tribunal matters, and ordinary jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by a judge sitting alone; he may not award more than five years im- prisonment.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bank- ruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1967-71 will be found in Appendix 48).

SPRING

H

香港公:

-共圖書館

RIES

Ha

Fong Kong's natural charm came alive this year with a vivid display of colours as the early spring rains brought with them some of the finest blossoms seen for years. Situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, the Colony is fortunate from the botanical point of view in enjoying the best of two climates-temperate and tropical. This contrast has resulted in an extremely broad range of plants from the hardy winter trees to fragrant tropical blooms. For so small an area, the variety of flora is remarkable. Nowhere is this more evident than in the parks and gardens maintained by the Urban Services Department throughout Hong Kong, a service to the public that is expanding, despite the ever encroaching urban areas. The picture on the previous page shows yellow jasmine growing on an embankment just above Central District. Opposite, one of the rarest trees in Hong Kong is the cassia nodosa. Only two or three exist in the Colony, all of them on Hong Kong Island.

பு

The cotton tree (bombax mala- baricum) from which Cotton Tree Drive on Hong Kong Island derives its name.

The centre of the vehicle turning loop at the Star Ferry concourse in Kowloon provides a welcome con- trast to its concrete surroundings.

   Once a year the public is admitted to the gardens of Government House, where some fine examples of blossoms can be seen.

Repulse Bay is turned into a blaze of colour by the flame of the forest (delonix regia) trees in early

summer.

The red azalea (rhododendron simsii) thrives in Hong Kong's climate.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

239

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court, which sits when required and is composed of two or three judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal in England. Appeals may be brought from the Full Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

LEGAL AID

The Legal Aid scheme in civil cases in its present form first came into operation on January 12, 1967, and provided for the giving of legal aid to litigants of limited means in cases in which these litigants appeared to have reasonable grounds for taking, defending or continuing civil actions. At the outset, the scheme was administered by a sub-department of the Judiciary under the Director of Legal Aid.

The scheme provided for legal aid to be given in almost all types of proceedings heard in the District Court, the Supreme Court and in the Full Court. Its scope was increased in July 1969 by reason of the transfer to the District Court of the civil jurisdiction hitherto exercised by the magistrates.

       On January 1, 1970, the Director of Legal Aid also took over the administration of legal aid in criminal cases. Such legal aid is available for accused persons of limited means in all cases tried in the Supreme Court, and in all appeals heard in the Supreme Court and the Full Court. The Legal Aid Department was established as a separate department, independent of the Judiciary, on July 1, 1970.

Out of a total number of 2,721 applications for legal aid in civil cases during the year ending December 31, 1971, 1,259 were granted. In the same period, legal aid was given for 142 criminal trials and 61 criminal appeals as against 146 and 132 applications respectively.

URBAN COUNCIL

The Urban Council consists of a maximum of 26 members, six ex officio, 10 elected unofficial members and not more than 10 unofficial members appointed by the Governor. The term of office of an unofficial member (which term includes both elected and appointed members) is four years. Of the ex officio members, the chairman (who is appointed by the Governor) is the Director of the Urban Services Department, while the vice-chairman is the

240

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services in charge of the health division of that department. The other ex officio members are the Secretary for Home Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Social Welfare and the Commissioner for Resettlement.

       The Council meets monthly, though most of its business is conducted by 17 select committees which meet at frequent intervals. Unofficial members of the Council are in the majority on all select committees, and the chairman of each committee is an unofficial member.

       The main responsibilities of the Council are sanitation and hygiene, licensing and inspection of food premises and factories, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries, running of markets and abattoirs, licensing and control of hawkers, management of cemeteries and crematoria, and control of funeral parlours, licensing of advertisement signs, management of the City Hall and public libraries, management of government car parks and the control and maintenance of places of public recreation, such as bathing beaches, swimming pools, tennis courts, squash courts and parks and playgrounds in the urban areas. The Urban Council is also the competent authority for the management of resettlement cottage areas and estates and resettlement factories in the urban areas. Policies and decisions of the Council are carried out by the Urban Services Department and, in the case of resettlement estate manage- ment, by the Resettlement Department.

       On October 13, a White Paper was tabled in the Legislative Council and published for general information, outlining proposals for significant changes in the organisation of the Urban Council. These include a substantial degree of financial autonomy, the removal of all official members and an increase in the number of unofficial members, the changes to take effect from April 1, 1973.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

        The foreign relations of the Government of Hong Kong are the responsibility of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, but in the sphere of external trade a considerable degree of latitude is in practice permitted to the Hong Kong Government. Hong Kong's dependence on trade makes it necessary for the Hong Kong Government to maintain offices in London, Washington, Geneva and Brussels to maintain and improve commercial relations with other countries.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

COLONIAL SECRETARIAT

241

The Colonial Secretary is the Governor's principal adviser on policy, the chief executive of the Government, the head of the civil service and the chief Government spokesman. His office (known as the Colonial Secretariat) is under the general direction of the Deputy Colonial Secretary and co-ordinates and supervises the work of all government departments.

The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and for the overall supervision through his Deputy Financial Secretary and Deputy Economic Secretary of departments primarily involved in this field. The Establishment Secretary deals with personnel matters; the Defence Secretary advises on defence and internal security, co-ordinates the work of the local forces and auxiliary services and maintains liaison with the police and Her Majesty's armed forces stationed in the Colony.

       A Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office advises on the external political aspects of government policies.

Principal Assistant or Assistant Colonial Secretaries head the other main branches of the Secretariat, dealing with general matters, social services, buildings and lands, Councils and legal matters.

LONDON OFFICE

The London Office, situated at 53-54 Pall Mall, is a projection of the Hong Kong Government in London and as such it forms part of the Colonial Secretariat and the Administrative Commis- sioner is directly responsible to the Colonial Secretary. The Administrative Commissioner provides a point of direct contact in London between Hong Kong and various ministries and depart- ments of the British Government.

The London Office keeps British commercial, economic and industrial developments and official thinking on worldwide trade policies under review and advises the Hong Kong Government of the likely repercussions of these developments on Hong Kong. It also keeps under review the needs of Hong Kong residents in Britain, maintains contact with them and assists them over problems arising from their residence in Britain or relating to their families and interests in Hong Kong.

?

       The London Office also operates well-developed publicity services aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image to the British public and

242

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

the Chinese community in Britain. It has special sections to look after the interests of Hong Kong students, including nurses and government trainees, resident in Britain.

GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

       The administrative functions of the Government are discharged by about 40 departments, most of which are organised on a func- tional basis and have responsibilities covering the whole Colony. This form of organisation, rather than one based on authorities with responsibilities in a limited geographical area only, is suitable for this small, compact territory and has enabled the Government to provide services without regard to the capacity of residents of various districts to pay taxes.

SECRETARIAT FOR HOME AFFAIRS AND

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The two government departments most closely concerned with the reactions of the people to government policies and plans are the Secretariat for Home Affairs, which controls the City District Officers in the urban areas, and the New Territories Administration under which come the District Officers stationed in the New Territories. Hong Kong Island has four districts, Kowloon six and the New Territories five. A primary function of both departments is to assess the impact of contemplated new policies upon the population and, when they are adopted, to explain these policies to the public. They also report on trends of public opinion in the districts. In this general connection it has long been the practice of these two departments to foster links with a variety of private organisations including, in the urban areas, the Tung Wah Hospitals, Po Leung Kuk, Kaifong Associations, district and clansmen's asso- ciations, multi-storey building associations and religious organisa- tions and youth groups.

The City District Office scheme, modelled on the long-established District Officer system, was introduced during 1968. The 10 City District Officers who are located in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, are charged with the threefold duty of rendering services on behalf of the Government, services for the community and services for the individual. They exercise a local co-ordinating function, test public opinion, watch for sources of grievance and tension, and in general try to interpret to the man in the street the measures adopted by a specialised and

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

243

sophisticated administration; they also deal with individual com- plaints, answer enquiries, provide information and mediate in a variety of disputes.

At the City District offices and sub-offices, almost all of which are located in shop-type premises easily accessible to the public, enquiry service counters are combined with the reception facilities. The primary objects of the enquiry services are to give the man in the street information and guidance on the services provided and functions performed by government departments, to explain rules and procedures, and to supplement broadcast information during tropical storms and other emergencies. During the year the enquiry services handled a total of about 1.2 million enquiries of all kinds.

In the New Territories the District Commissioner and his five District Officers also exercise political and co-ordinating responsi- bilities, and in addition perform certain executive functions, principally in relation to land administration. The arrangements for consultation with the people are formalised to the extent that there is a village representative system. More than 900 Village Representatives are chosen from over 600 villages. Villages are grouped under 27 Rural Committees, each of which has an executive committee. With the exception of one, all the executive committees of the Rural Committees are elected by secret ballot every two years by Village Representatives. The Rural Committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the Govern- ment, receiving a small monthly subvention to cover part of their expenses. Within its own area the Rural Committee acts as spokes- man for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Admin- istration and the people.

The chairman and vice-chairman of the 27 Rural Committees, with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 Special Councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the Heung Yee Kuk whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum of New Territories opinion from which the Government seeks advice on New Territories affairs. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, the Kuk has an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Com- mittees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen

244

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      of the Kuk, through whom close contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

ADVISORY COMMITTEES

       Such bodies as the Board of Education, the Medical Advisory Board, the Social Welfare Advisory Committee, the Labour Advisory Board, the Trade and Industry Advisory Board, the Housing Board, the Transport Advisory Committee, and many others of a similar nature, constitute effective consultative and advisory machinery which enables unofficial opinion to be brought to bear on policy formation. In addition to unofficial members of both Executive and Legislative Councils, members of the public are appointed to many boards, councils and committees.

The Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN) is a standing committee designed to meet the need for practical co-ordination and direct co-operation between the various voluntary and govern- ment organisations engaged in the suppression of the narcotics trade, the medical and social rehabilitation of addicts and public education and propaganda. It has five specialist sub-committees, each handling a particular aspect of the narcotics problem. Established in 1965, the committee now consists of representatives of 10 government departments and eight voluntary agencies under the chairmanship of Dr the Honourable Sir Albert Rodrigues.

GRIEVANCES

In Hong Kong there are several well-developed channels for the examination of complaints from members of the public and for helping people who have difficulty in their dealings with govern- ment departments. Probably the most commonly used channel is an appeal or complaint to the department concerned, which will ensure a review, at a higher level, of the decision taken. Another method is a letter to the Governor or the Colonial Secretary, which will also ensure that the matter is reconsidered. Complaints and representations are also dealt with by the office run by unofficial members of the Executive and Legislative Councils- commonly referred to as the UMELCO office. City District Officers and District Officers in the New Territories also receive and investigate complaints. The absence of any statutory powers of investigation is offset by a lack of restriction on the type of complaint which UMELCO and the District Officers can receive and investigate. Both systems deal effectively with many grievances.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

245

In addition members of the Urban Council have a ward system through which the urban councillors receive complaints from members of the public and bring them to the attention of the appropriate government department or raise them formally in the Urban Council.

PUBLIC SERVICE

The Public Service provides the staff for all government depart- ments, sub-departments and other units of the administration. As at April 1, 1971, the total number of posts in the Public Service (or its establishment as it is generally called) was 86,268. The strength on January 1, 1971, was 81,511 officers of whom 79,637 were local officers and 1,874 were overseas officers.

This indicates that about one person in every 50 in Hong Kong is employed by the Government. There is a large proportion of labouring staff, and nearly 34,110 of the total establishment of the Public Service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Public Service of the Hong Kong Government is somewhat unusual in that it includes the staff for certain activities which in other territories and administrations are carried out by people who do not belong to the Civil Service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central government. In Hong Kong, the establishments of the Medical and Health Department (11,271 posts), the Public Works Department (11,618 posts), the Urban Services Department (14,491 posts) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (15,330 posts) account for a total of 52,710 posts or about 61 per cent of the total establishment of the Service.

       The growth in the size of the Service from just over 17,500 in 1949 to about 45,000 in 1959 and now to its present total strength of over 81,500 reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population. Although, in recent years, there has been some slowing down in the rate of expansion to about three per cent per annum, in the 1971-2 Estimates the increase in the number of permanent posts in the Public Service is just under eight per cent. This expansion is explained, on the one hand, by an increase in the demands upon the Public Service and, on the other, by a determined effort to deal with an accumulation of departmental requests for extra staff and the completion of

246

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

reviews of the establishments of certain major departments which had been under consideration for some time.

       The cost of the Public Service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1971-2 the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, excluding pensions, is about $999 million. This represents approximately 35 per cent of the estimated total expenditure included in the Budget.

       The establishment of each post in the Public Service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its Establishment Sub-Committee, which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilised and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

       Recruitment and promotions to the Public Service are, with certain exceptions, subject to the advice and overall scrutiny of the Public Services Commission, a body independent of the Govern- ment, set up in 1950. Sir Charles Hartwell, the full-time chairman of the Commission since May 1967, retired on November 14, 1971, and was succeeded by Mr D. R. Holmes. Local leading citizens are appointed as members of the Commission on a part-time voluntary basis.

       Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training and conditions of service in the Public Service is exercised by the Establishment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

       In 1971, the Government set up a Salaries Commission with wide terms of reference covering the general structure of salaries and levels of remuneration of those members of the Public Service on Model Salary Scales 2-10; conditions of service and fringe benefits covering leave, passages, housing arrangements and education allowances; and the general principles governing hours of work and overtime. The Chairman was Sir George Mallaby, KCMG, OBE, and the memders were the Honourable Lo Kwee- seong, OBE, JP, Mr A. G. H. Gardner-Brown, CMG, Mr C. J. Hall, MBE, and Mr Li Fook-wo, OBE, JP, with Mr James Morgan, CMG as adviser. The Commission reported in July.

       Another event of considerable importance for the Public Service which occurred on May 14, 1971, was the bringing into force of the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance. This new enactment replaces the Prevention of Corruption Ordinance (Cap 215) and contains

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

247

a number of provisions which are far more stringent than those contained in the previous legislation dealing with bribery and corruption.

       Also in May, revised and simplified colonial and government regulations were introduced to deal with disciplinary proceedings in the Public Service. At the same time, the Public Services Com- mission took over from the Executive Council the function of advising the Governor in specified discipline cases.

CONCLUSION

       It will be seen that this system of public administration is unusual in a sophisticated community such as Hong Kong, but it is well suited to local conditions and the economic and social progress made since the war indicates that it works with a substantial degree of efficiency. The Government, though prevented by its peculiar situation from following a normal pattern of constitu- tional development, nevertheless attaches the greatest possible importance to ascertaining and, as far as practicable, meeting public aspirations and needs.

The structure of the Government is by no means static, and institutional and organisational developments still continue on a pragmatic basis to meet the needs of an exceptionally resilient and robust community.

The government of a colony unique in the 20th century poses problems to which neither history nor practice elsewhere provide solutions, but which will continue to be tackled in a vigorous and imaginative way.

Appendices

Appendix 1

Units of Measurement

251

Chinese, metric and British Imperial units are all in common use in the Colony. The Chinese units in the table below are those which have statutory equivalents in Hong Kong.

In China the standard size of the chek (Chinese foot) increased through the three millennia from the Chou period, and in practice the size also varied according to locality and the trade in which the unit was used. In Hong Kong the variation with usage still persists but the tabulated values are based on the statutory equivalent for the chek of 14 inches.

In the past, the values used in China for the units of mass have varied according to locality. The tabulated values are those in general use in Hong Kong and are in accord with the present statutory equivalent for the leung (tael) of 14 ounce.

CHINESE UNITS

EQUIVALENTS

Metric (SI)

British (Imperial)

Length

10 fan

=1 tsün (Chinese inch)

37.147 5 mm

1.462 5 in

10 tsün

-1 chek (Chinese foot)

0.371 475 m

1.218 75 ft

Mass

10 fan (candareen)-1 tsin (mace)

3.779 94 g

58.333 3 gr

10 tsin

=1 leung (tael)

37.799 4 g

1.333 33 oz

16 leung

-1 kan (catty)

0.604 790 kg

1.333 33 lb

100 kan

1 tam (picul)

60.479 0

kg

1.190 48 cwt

The conversion factors are printed in bold type when they are expressed exactly. Not more than six significant figures are used.

252

ORDINANCES

Appendix &

Legislation

Adoption (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Affiliation Proceedings Ordinance 1971

Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance 1971

Application of English Law (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Appropriation Ordinance 1971

Army Legal Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Audit Ordinance 1971

Banking (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Clean Air (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Consular Relations (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Contracts for Overseas Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Coroners (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Coroners (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1971

Corporal Punishment (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Crimes Ordinance 1971

Criminal Law (Miscellaneous Amendments) Ordinance 1971

Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Criminal Procedure (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1971 Criminal Procedure (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1971

Criminal Procedure (Amendment) (No 4) Ordinance 1971

Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Dangerous Goods (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Deceased's Family Maintenance Ordinance 1971

Education Ordinance 1971

Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Exchange Fund (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Fire Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Legislation

253

Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited (By-laws)

(Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Hong Kong Polytechnic Ordinance 1971

Immigration Ordinance 1971

Inland Revenue (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Inland Revenue (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1971

Inland Revenue (Validation of Forms) Ordinance 1971

Interpretation and General Clauses (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Intestates' Estates Ordinance 1971

Intestates' Estates (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Jury (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Law Amendment (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Law of Property Amendment (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Law Reform (Unclaimed Moneys) Ordinance 1971

Law Revision (Miscellaneous Amendments) Ordinance 1971 Legitimacy Ordinance 1971

Life Insurance Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Lion Rock Tunnel (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Marriage Reform (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Married Persons Status Ordinance 1971 Matrimonial Causes (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Medical Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Museums Ordinance 1971

Pilotage Ordinance 1971

Post Office (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Probate and Administration Ordinance 1971

Probation of Offenders (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

254

Appendix 2

Contd

255

Legislation

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1971

Public Transport Services (Kowloon and New Territories) (Amendment)

Ordinance 1971

Quarantine and Prevention of Disease (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Rating (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Revised Edition of the Laws (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Sunday Cargo Working (Repeal) Ordinance 1971

Trade Union Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Tramway (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Ordinance 1971

Widows and Orphans Pension (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

Widows and Orphans Pension (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1971 Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection (Amendment) Ordinance 1971 Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance 1971

SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Acceptance of Advantages Regulations 1971

*Air Transport (Licensing of Air Services) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Allowances to Jurors Order 1971

Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Forms) (Amendment) Order 1971 Building (Administration) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Building (Law Revision) (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 1971 Building (Ventilating Systems) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Census Orders 1971

Charges for Radiotelegrams Order 1971

Coroners (Fees) Rules 1971

Coroners (Witnesses' Allowances) Rules 1971

Cremation and Gardens of Remembrance (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Criminal Appeal (Amendment) Rules 1971

Criminal Procedure (Witnesses' Allowances) Rules 1971

Dangerous Goods (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Legislation

Dangerous Goods (Government Explosives Depots) Regulations 1971 Dangerous Goods (Shipping) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Defence Regulations (Revocation) Order 1971

Drug Addiction Treatment Centres (Amendment) Regulations 1971 Education (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Education (Exemption) (Amendment) Order 1971

Education Regulations 1971

Emergency (General Holiday) Regulations 1971

Emergency Regulations (Repeal) Order 1971

Exportation (Certificates of Origin and Commonwealth Preference Certificates)

(Amendment) Regulations 1971

Exportation (Cotton Manufactures) (Amendment of Schedule) Order 1971

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Woodworking Machinery) Regulations

1971

Film Censorship (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Fire Service (Installation Contractors) Regulations 1971

Fire Service (Installations and Equipment) Regulations 1971

Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1971

Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1971

Frontier Closed Area (Amendment) Order 1971

†Fugitive Offenders (Designated Commonwealth Countries) (Amendment)

Order 1971

Hong Kong Airport (Control of Obstructions) (Amendment) Order 1971 Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company (Services) Ordinance-Legislative

Council Resolution amending the Schedule

Hong Kong Stadium By-laws 1971

Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Import and Export (General) Regulations 1971

Importation and Exportation (Registration of Imports and Exports) (Amend-

ment) Regulations 1971

Importation and Exportation (Strategic Commodities) (Amendment of

Schedule) Order 1971

256

Appendix 2

Contd

257

Legislation

Importation (Coffee) Regulations (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 1971

Inland Revenue (Amendment) Rules 1971

Inland Revenue (Retirement Scheme) (Amendment) Rules 1971

Labourers' Lines (New Territories) (Revocation) Regulations 1971

Legal Officers Ordinance (Amendment of Schedule) Order 1971

Magistrates (Forms) (Amendment) Rules 1971

Ma Po Ping Addiction Treatment Centre Order 1971

Marriage Reform (Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Marriage Reform (Forms) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Marriage Reform Regulations 1971

Medical Practitioners (Fees) (Amendment) Order 1971

Medical Practitioners (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment)

Regulations 1971

Medical Practitioners (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment)

(No 2) Regulations 1971

Merchant Shipping (Control of Ports) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Merchant Shipping (Explosives) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Merchant Shipping (Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Merchant Shipping (Marine Courts) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Merchant Shipping (Typhoon Shelters) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Merchant Shipping (Typhoon Shelters) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1971

Milk (Amendment) By-laws 1971

Milk (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Mining (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Mining (Miscellaneous Amendment) Regulations 1971

Museums (Urban Areas) By-laws 1971

Non-Contentious Probate Rules 1971

Pensionable Offices Order 1971

Pilotage (Disciplinary Procedure) Regulations 1971 Pilotage Regulations 1971

Pilots (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Pleasure Grounds (Amendment) By-laws 1971

Legislation

Pleasure Grounds (New Territories) Regulations 1971

Post Office (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Prisons (Discontinuance of Tong Fuk Prison) Order 1971

Prohibition of Importation of Animals (Cancellation) Order 1971 Protection of Women and Juveniles (Places of Refuge) (Amendment) Order

1971

Public Conveniences (Charges) (Amendment) Order 1971

Public Conveniences (New Territories) Regulations 1971

Recognised Stock Exchanges Orders 1971

Resettlement (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1971

Revised Edition of the Laws (Correction of Error) Order 1971

Road Traffic (Registration and Licensing of Vehicles) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1971

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) Rules 1971

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1971

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 3) Rules 1971

Slaughter-houses (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Stamp Duties Management (Franking Machines) (Amendment) Regulations

1971

Stamping and Denoting of Documents (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Statutes of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Statutes

1971

Statutes of the University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Statutes 1971

Telecommunication (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Telecommunication (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1971

Telecommunication (Cable and Wireless Limited) (Amendment of Licence)

Order 1971

Telecommunication (Rediffusion Licence) (Amendment) Order 1971

Trade Union Registration (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Waterworks (Amendment) Regulations 1971

Workmen's Compensation (Rules of Court) (Amendment) Rules 1971

*Made under the Civil Aviation Act 1949.

† Made under the Fugitive Offenders Act 1967.

258

Appendix 3

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections and Divisions of the Standard International Trade Classification: 1969, 1970 and 1971

259

1969

Food

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

$

IMPORTS 1970 $

1971

1969

EXPORTS 1970

1971

1969

RE-EXPORTS 1970

1971

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

460,255,037

495,135,333

283,967,836

338,904,334

Dairy products and eggs

238,029,453

249,622,337

363,279,583

639,480,514

724,949

10,450

14,168

3,110,059

1,398,003

2,972,689

3,396,078

1,223,100

846,540

4,442,918

5,684,279

7,562,131

Fish and fish preparations

273,014,534

335,714,598

Cereals and cereal preparations

597,707,218

556,219,714

406,156,572

289,916,396

355,025

311,835

352,912

9,291,735

11,647,563

11,722,194

104,377,772

88,837,707

121,326,005

Fruits and vegetables

553,637,328

671,074,470

545,995,725

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

95,543,669

102,286,071

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures

132,311,572

759,698,604

23,963,688

27,862,734

34,394,958

22,574,280

26,800,967

20,939,557

22,278,838

25,787,469

21,585,760

18,594,347

24,422,302

24,224,902

95,456,494

99,044,723

15,943,615

123,014,105

16,923,726

22,370,558

22,411,574

12,038,975

20,622,112

thereof

175,921,532

156,868,488

Feeding stuff for animals (not including

152,114,369

1,272,531

1,427,123

2,659,615

102,732,128

121,326,112

113,848,503

unmilled cereals)

41,497,997

59,660,211

Miscellaneous food preparations

84,430,432

85,178,962

81,432,211

2,231,442

2,594,610

2,995,864

2,525,630

3,089,584

3,299,049

103,698,822

31,180,799

37,379,184

41,475,535

7,470,571

5,822,838

6,497,345

2,804,005,036

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

3,050,664,518 3,474,084,368

209,310,558

194,069,594

238,544,937

307,623,536

305,786,803

335,356,831

119,676,277

157,324,179

237,256,347

3,196,206

3,931,305

4,034,124

10,086,133

12,402,580

18,756,953

150,662,386

171,386,262

205,306,698

35,323,963

45,058,980

44,951,154

7,905,323

13,883,080

15,299,255

270,338,663

328,710,441

442,563,045

38,520,169

48,990,285

48,985,278

17,991,456

26,285,660

34,056,208

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

20,888,928

29,743,949

15,753,754 3,008,765

2,931,614

2,164,796

4,270,394

3,595,950

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

3,837,308

35,874,195

47,298,247

38,990,888

16,485,407

15,916,905

12,003,155

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

37,504,322

28,915,480

28,209,945

1,575,857

187,897

529,589

Wood, lumber and cork

71,962,607

81,691,768

107,713,025

15,284,924

14,823,723

8,971,076

7,986,705

9,063,695

Pulp and waste paper

146,605

Textile fibres and waste

717,699,283

17,840 795,976,809

6,980

15,248,763

20,408,511

18,993,694

60,418

828,832,876

$2,037,825

11,641,856

13,927,389

12,292,804

44,811 11,087,232

11,623,405 43,867 18,715,410

Crude fertilisers and crude minerals, excluding

coal, petroleum and precious stones

25,959,882

31,495,935

54,461,347

2,043,037

2,043,837

2,372,349

4,260,305

4,939,376

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

5,097,805

36,821,010

64,212,597

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible,

not elsewhere specified

222,025,302

248,722,287

62,737,491

321,710,506 31,099,763

94,835,754

151,155,807

83,589,874

8,935,229

4,382,370

3,058,498

30,217,147

32,023,250

101,566,255

120,797,225

154,190,797

1,168,882,134

1,328,074,912

1,458,416,812 173,558,831

233,222,495

162,042,428

157,433,374

170,015,461

209,099,834

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Coal, coke and briquettes

Petroleum and petroleum products

Gas, natural and manufactured

6,075,872 463,745,163 10,655,508

4,649,808

6,261,251

497,820,500

626,193,996

12,655,349

20,352,110

153,448 40,379,109 610,450

126,406 41,271,799 747,756

44,800

45,161,749

1,061,844

Electric energy

480,476,543

515,125,666

652,807,357

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Animal oils and fats

864,814

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

84,175,037

1,712,282 96,521,876

3,363,403 114,277,410

410,772

3,926,598

456,530 3,842,784

Animal and vegetable oils and fats, processed,

and waxes of animal or vegetable origin

1,150,397

1,227,703

1,249,813

16,405

--

86,190,248

99,461,861

118,890,626

,353,775

4,299,314

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal,

206,884,475

234,080,148

243,693,061

3,985,594

4,231,619

428,740 3,900,099

2,280

4,331,119

4,864,581

41,143,007

29,142 7,369,263

137,805

7,536,210

38,071,659

42,145,961

46,268,393

32,105 9,045,473

55,883

8,985,260

92,871

9,170,449

48,064,703

53,634

9,094,777

49,895,192

petroleum and natural gas

156,965

303,851

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Medicinal and pharmaceutical products Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet,

158,747,461

198,409,662

218,852,269

243,235

238,471,103

315,851,746

319,475,820

23,857,966

32,570,502

25,929,653

28,980,889

32,636,537

36,950,422

5,638 59,012,810 210,383,227

5,066 67,219,540 253,334,314

52,022

93,010,941 298,579,933

polishing and cleansing preparations..

125,720,478

137,733,659

153,363,595

Fertilisers, manufactured

3,680,008

3,791,997

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

26,768,544

34,966,273

42,359,258

5,022,961

20,567,553

27,238,512

37,424,408

25,655,339

33,873,232

11,241

34,379,582 7,100

34,914,025

40,563,924

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and

artificial resins

370,575,485

421,463,964

453,610,722

38,698,262

17,459,058

11,646,814

12,701,969

23,277,752

18,241,698

Chemical materials and products, not elsewhere

specified

64,769,654

76,199,542

80,465,416

28,078,193

1,195,774,173

1,422,800,842

1,517,086,337

2,500,175

0,940,848

2,425,376

104,108,511

2,029,780

28,564,007

31,363,798

28,408,697

122,952,049

419,884,457

492,677,516

571,109,922

260

Appendix 3- Contd

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections and Divisions of the Standard International Trade Classification: 1969, 1970 and 1971

IMPORTS

1969

$

1970 $

1971

1969

EXPORTS 1970

$

$

$

1971 $

1969 $

RE-EXPORTS 1970

1971

$

$

261

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere

specified, and dressed furs

59,479,189

85,025,828

104,106,350

6,451,006

6,380,374

8,319,427

3,594,749

3,477,164

5,494,311

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified Wood and cork manufactures (excluding

furniture)

46,906,267

48,125,370

62,703,895

4,100,499

3,872,391

4,877,306

6,733,845

4,798,856

8,241,440

54,960,801

67,029,224

88,596,276

17,590,794

19,402,982

20,999,142

5,598,332

3,753,155

5,440,809

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related

products

355,609,723

438,921,378

498,496,488

14,378,963

17,224,270

21,466,133

28,953,880

29,445,986

38,575,496

2,555,682,908

3,012,265,944 3,450,049,057 1,126,205,105

1,276,676,737

1,397,617,150

402,820,956

387,273,652

441,384,564

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not else-

where specified

1,161,592,251

1,235,359,531 1,437,287,243 91,410,853

96,190,476

114,932,029

608,311,711

704,684,878

757,093,933

Iron and steel

315,528,502

464,193,583

441,772,769

45,900,309

53,219,144

17,712,345

16,385,567

17,135,166

16,668,406

Non-ferrous metals

218,446,239

270,276,653

Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified

144,198,911

203,650,390

285,628,760

26,509,062 259,494,603 291,657,494

27,679,213

24,589,563

27,032,803

22,763,816

15,477,208

4,912,404,791

5,824,847,901 6,628,135,44 1,624,204,085

344,894,139

1,845,539,726

344,846,096

22,895,362

22,887,087

41,414,396

1,955,359,191

1,122,327,205

1,196,219,760

1,329,790,563

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

647,966,779

969,215,624 1,224,639,187

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliance Transport equipment

1,310,029,208

1,508,387,593

1,744,348,924

279,629,270

419,426,105

2,237,625,257

2,897,029,322

497.820,589

3,466,808,700

60,846,812 1,058,312,032 54,363,011

1,173,521,855

93,083,715 1,292,651,299

85,984,317 1,540,523,886

98,305,667

138,372,057

146,365,800

113,679,709

106,255,815

190,823,223

68,987,571

1,454,722,585

57,952,877

26,731,926

32,095,908

41,977,974

1,684,461,080

238,717,302

276,723,780

379,166,997

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures

and fittings

32,852,033

43,900,793

62,567,859

Furniture

30,058,800

39,176,809

60,363,921

156,984,573 70,319,643

175,379,279

187,418,557

3,142,879

3,519,576

5,849,988

87,071,904

84,098,459

3,890,528

3,903,567

5,638,199

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

24,165,707

30,630,198

32,894,447

143,481,070

174,790,708

227,899,364

1,851,096

1,618,471

Clothing

231,258,674

278,054,564

364,037,242

2,280,654

3,827,579,952

4,336,577,724

5,464,262,724

46,538,294

53,419,619

Footwear

53,602,753

52,509,148

60,829,631

71,895,098

295,174,502

302,282,256

350,834,292

9,190,856

4,784,054

5,914,833

Professional, scientific and controlling instru-

ments; photographic and optical goods, watches and clocks

715,986,471

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not else-

where specified

623,419,164

1,711,343,602

875,462,916 983,539,560

791,148,196

885,570,082 2,110,882,624 2,449,802,742

183,433,112

215,788,732

272,951,096

147,580,127

190,010,674

270,741,321

2,495,215,554

1,172,188,406

3,141,563,491

8,433,454,094

2,902,128,030

9,489,592,522

140,480,454

352,674,234

101,007,790

118,309,588

358,263,751

480,629,681

Commodities and transactions not classified according

to kind and transactions in gold and coin Commodities and transactions not classified

according to kind

25,977,260

29,116,464

Transactions in gold and current coin

448,359,588

306,723,619 373,194,835

47,635,910

21,429,616

28,095,031

474,336,848

335,840,083

420,830,745

21,429,616

28,095,031

43,580,195 15,000

43,595,195

13,799,847

14,279,877

183,731,062

197,530,909

192,438,019

19,814,902 249,023,236

206,717,896

268,838,138

Total Merchandise

14,893,017,707

17,606,714,551

GRAND TOTAL

15,341,377,295 17,913,438,170

20,256,231,338 20,629,426,173

10,518,028,143 1518,028,143

12,346,501,635 13,749,848,799

2,679,130,628 2,891,569,018 3,414,388,108

12,346,501,635

13,749,863,799

2,862,861,690 3,084,007,037 3,663,411,344

262

Imports Exports. Re-exports Total trade

1971 1970

Appendix 4

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

% increase or decrease

1971

$ million

1970

$ million

20,256

17,607

13,750

12,347

3,414

2,892

+ 18

37,420

32,845

+14%

+ 15% +11

Cargo Tonnages

Appendix 5

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Commodity Pattern

1971 total value $20,256 million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Chemicals

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Iron and steel

Non-ferrous metals

15.8 million tons

14.3 million tons

% of total imports in 1971 33%

17°

17%

12%

7%

7%

1971

1970

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

6,628

5,825

+ 14%

3,450

3,012

15

1,437

1,235

+169

498

439

442

464

5%

286

270

Manufactures of matal, n.e.s.

259

204

Food and live animals

3,474

3,051

Fruit and vegetables

760

671

Live animals

639

495

Cereals and cereal preparations

546

556

Fish and fish preparations

406

336

Meat and meat preparations

363

339

Dairy products and eggs

290

250

16%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

152

157

3%

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

132

102

Miscellaneous food preparations

104

85

Machinery and transport equipment

3,467

2,897

Electrical machinery

1,744

1,508

Non-electric machinery

1,225

969

Transport equipment

498

419

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

2,450

2,111

+ 16%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

984

875

+ 12%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

886

791

129

Clothing

364

...

278

+

31%

Sanitary plumbing heating and lighting fixtures and

fittings

63

44

Chemicals

1,517

1,423

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

454

421

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

319

316

Chemical elements and compounds

244

234

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

219

198

Essential oils and perfume materials Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Textile fibres

153

138

1,458

1,328

829

796

Crude animal and vegetable materials

322

249

Wood, lumber and cork

108

82

+++++++++++

29%

+32

Matalliferous ores and metal scrap

63

64

2%

Crude fertilisers and crude minerals (excluding coal

petroleum and precious stones)

54

31

+ 73%

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

39

47

18%

263

Appendix 6

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1971 total value $20,256 million

% of total imports in 1971

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of total imports in

By Country

Japan

24

Commonwealth Countries

China

16

Asia

1971

19%

57%

USA

13°

United Kingdom

8

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom)

Taiwan

North America

Federal Republic of Germany

1971

1970

21%

13%

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Japan

4,926

4,188

+18%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

1,628

1,411

+15%

Electrical machinery

482

415

+ 16%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

376

347

Non-electric machinery

360

255

+ 41%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

259

217

+19

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Iron and steel

247

228

241

224

8%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

208

178

+ 17%

China

3,330

2,830

Live animals

534

394

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

502

486

+189

+36 +3%

Fruit and vegetables

Fish and fish preparations

Meat and meat preparations

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Clothing

Dairy products and eggs

Cereals and cereal preparations

Crude animal and vegetable materials

318

303

+ 50

215

173

+243

211

190

+11

154

104

153

130

144

128

144

140

41

124

100

+ 24%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

105

102

+ 3%

USA

2,535

2,317

+ 9%

Electrical machinery

528

493

+ 7%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

291

256

+ 13%

Non-electric machinery

223

243

8%

Textile fibres (not manufactured into yarn, thread

fabrics) and their waste

173

52

+235%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

168

151

+11

Fruit and vegetables

157

152

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

134

109

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

107

118

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

92

96

United Kingdom

1,593

1,517

Electrical machinery

253

230

Non-electric machinery

232

162

Transport equipment

170

181

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

140

174

19

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

123

136

10

Taiwan

991

820

+201

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

386

326

+18

Electrical machinery

157

96

+ 64

Fruit and vegetables

66

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

56

57

Wood and cork manufactures (excluding furniture)

36

31

Iron and steel

Federal Republic of Germany

732

Non-electric machinery

153

Electrical machinery

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Transport equipment

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

Chemical elements and compounds

Da gagaw N

58

657

125

91

62

62

65

75

62

56

+12

o\o\o\o\0\0\0\0\0\0\ 124

45

45

1%

42

46

10%

264

Commodity Pattern

1971 total value $13,750 million

Appendix 1

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade) Domestic Exports

% of all exports in

1971

409

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Electrical machinery

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Footwear

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

21

11

10

3

3%

265

By Country

% of all exports in 1971

USA

Principal Markets

1971 total value $13,750 million

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of all exports in

1971

United Kingdom...

42%

Japan

Federal Republic of Germany

140

Commonwealth Countries

86

North America

28%

Canada

46

Australia

469

United Kingdom)

Western Europe (including

45%

Singapore Netherlands Taiwan

Asia Australasia

31%

11

5%

1971

1970

% increase

or decrease

$ million

Clothing

5,464

$ million

4,337

+ 26%

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers,

knitted

1971

1970

% increase

or decrease

863

761

+ 13%

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

$ million

$ million

other than knitted

848

589

+ 44%

USA

5,708

5,190

Shirts, other than knitted

+ 10%

678

539

+ 26

Outer garments, knitted

358

267

+ 34

Suits, jackets, uniforms and overcoats, other than knitted Gloves and mittens of all materials

290

293

1

264

238

+ 11

Shirts, knitted

251

197

+ 27

Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

177

160

+10

Underwear and nightwear, knitted

171

127

+ 35%

1010101010101

Clothing

2,152

1,657

+ 30

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Electrical machinery

1,669

1,885

11

998

848

+ 18

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

316

258

+ 23%

United Kingdom

1,946

1,481

+ 31%

Skirts, dresses, frocks, gowns and house-coats, other than

knitted

Clothing

955

639

+50°

166

150

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

363

262

+ 39

+10

Outer garments, other than knitted

160

108

+49

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

231

266

13

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not embroidered

151

169

10%

Footwear

146

111

+ 31

Electrical machinery

112

80

39%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

2,902

3,142

8%

Plastic toys and dolls

1,031

872

Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc

527

937

+18%

44

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit (plastic)

353

416

15

Toys and dolls (not plastic)

153

173

11

Metal watch bands

87

73

+ 20

Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)

55

90

39

0\0\0\0\0\0\0`

Federal Republic of Germany

1,128

985

+ 15%

Clothing

800

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Electrical machinery

Footwear

Japan

484

***

Electrical machinery

1,541

1,293

+ 19%

Clothing

Transistorised radio receiving sets

712

549

+ 30%

Transistors and thermionic and electronic tubes and

valves

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Fish and fish preparations ...

***

225

259

13%

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

1,398

1,277

+ 9%

Canada

484

Cotton grey sheeting

...

151

136

+ 11%

Clothing

Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered

114

103

+11%

Cotton yarn

88

101

13

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Electrical machinery

Cotton canvas and ducks, grey

76

64

+ 18

Cotton grey twill and sateen

70

61

+14

Australia

402

Cotton grey drills

68

56

+21

Cotton flannels, other than grey

46

55

16%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Clothing

132

Footwear

351

302

+ 16%

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles

121

122

1%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Singapore

332

Plastic footwear

104

73

+ 43%

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s....

345

345

Domestic utensils of other metals

82

73

+ 11%

Locks, padlocks and keys and key chains

71

61

+17

Domestic utensils of iron and steel, enamelled

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Electrical machinery

Netherlands

19

32

41%

Clothing

Other

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

8 I 227 228 2200 250

628

+ 27%

137

195

30%

56

+19

35

+33

492

2%

103

+ 27

68

+ 50

62

+ 48

34

82

58%

389

+ 24%

165

+ 36%

132 17

4 +134%

359

+ 12%

120

+10%

70

+329

89

98

280

+ 19%

79

75

+

6

65

55

+ 19

36

20

+ 790%

216

+ 16%

154

120

+ 29

33

40

19

Handbags, wallets, purses and similar articles

164

124

+32%

Watches, complete

114

90

+ 26

Prawns and shrimps, fresh or frozen

92

64

+45

Electric torches

71

68

4

\\0\0\0\0\

Taiwan

213

147

+ 44%

Electrical machinery

76

47

+ 62

Textiles

61

38

+ 58

266

267

Commodity Pattern

1971 total value $3,414 million

Appendix

(Chapter 2: Industry and Trade)

Re-exports

% of all re-exports in

By country

1971

Principal Markets

1971 total value $3,414 million

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

39%

17%

14%

10%

11%

Japan Singapore. Indonesia

USA Taiwan

Macau

6%

% of all re-exports in

% of all re-exports in

1971

1971

19%

Commonwealth Countries

25%

12%

Asia

65%

***

9%

Western Europe (including

9%

United Kingdom)

10%

6%

North America

10%

4%

Africa

4%

% increase

% increase

1971

1970

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

1,330

1,196

+ 11%

Japan

757

705

+ 7%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

441

387

+ 14%

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

41

23

+ 81%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

39

29

+ 31%

Iron and steel

17

17

3%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products Fruit and vegetables

Crude animal and vegetable materials

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Non-ferrous metals...

15

23

32%

Chemicals

571

493

+ 16%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

299

253

+ 18%

Scientific and controlling instruments; photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

Singapore

397

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

93

67

Chemical elements and compounds

50

48

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

39

41

Essential oil and perfume materials

Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

2222

34

34

+ + +

+ 38%

4%

5%

1%

28

31

9%

Scientific and controlling instruments; photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks Electrical machinery

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Fruit and vegetables

...

28

18

+ 54%

Crude animal and vegetable materials

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

481

358

+ 34%

Scientific and controlling instruments; photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

271

190

+ 42%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

118

101

+ 17%

Clothing

72

53

+ 35%

Machinery and transport equipment

379

277

+ 37%

Electrical machinery

191

106

+ 80%

Non-electrical machinery

146

138

+ 6%

Transport equipment

42

32

+ 31%

Food and live animals

335

306

+ 10%

Fruit and vegetables

123

99

+ 24%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

114

121

6%

Fish and fish preparations ...

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

Cereals and cereal preparations

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Crude animal and vegetable materials Textile fibres

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels Wood, lumber and cork

མཁའ སྨ་འབ

27

23

+ 19%

21

12

+ 71%

19

22

14%

209

170

+ 23%

154

121

+ 28%

19

11

+ 69%

12

16

25%

12

9

+ 28%

Indonesia

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-electric machinery

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

Transport equipment

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

USA

Non-metallic mineral manufactures Electrical machinery

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

Taiwan

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s.

Macau

...

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Petroleum and petroleum products

Transport equipment

Non-electric machinery

32 2 2 278 278 22 8222 2

1971

1970

or decrease

$ million

$ million

644

584

+ 10%

278

209

+ 33%

117

122

4%

39

22

+74

38

35

100088

36

48

28%

28

27%

11

+ 76%

337

+ 18%

78

22

+ 20% +138%

61

19%

44

+ 3%

17

+ 42%

16

--34%

312

202

+ 54%

40

+ 55%

27

+13%

7

+335%

16

+ 46%

17

+ 18%

8

+150%

303

244

167

26

+ 24% + 6% +108%

25

-

12%

200

154

23

+ 30% + 43%

20

19

17

+18%

19%

84

+ 45%

12

+ 98%

15

14

+ 12%

10

6

+ 73%

3

+126%

268

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past two years:

Appendix

(Chapter 2:

Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade

Domestic Exports

The principal markets for the Colony's exports during the past two years

were as follows:

269

Re-exports

The principal markets for the Colony's re-exports during the past two years were as follows:

512,549,940 540,787,194 358,402,886 537,859,892

222,992,744 366,252,816

324,460,389 358,989,711 205,364,896 287,654,221

255,875,878 276,425,011

236,728,396 263,534,848

Taiwan

Sweden

Japan

China

USA

United Kingdom

Taiwan

Federal Republic of Germany...

1970

1971

$

$

4,188,422,425 4,926,460,838

2,830,366,755 3,330,371,161

2,316,823,853 2,534,536,946 1,517,339,751 1,592,698,252

819,760,073 991,499,033

656,622,298 732,385,901

USA

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany... Japan

Canada

Australia...

430,141,569

611,296,041

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

Australia...

Singapore

Netherlands

Singapore

Pakistan

Thailand

France

Belgium and Luxembourg

Netherlands

Republic of Korea (South

Korea)...

Italy

Republic of South Africa

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

New Zealand

Denmark and Greenland

Italy

Nigeria

Indonesia

Israel

Saudi Arabia

Indonesia

Republic of South Africa

India

Canada

Macau

Brazil

Tanzania (Tanganyika)...

Philippines

Denmark and Greenland

USSR

Iran

Malaysia (Malaya)

Other countries

155,691,601 253,239,122 259,506,777 233,100,207

153,564,620 196,639,687

129,944,953 161,385,380

157,909,376 158,846,756

147,006,919 151,809,700

117,507,718 129,876,151

123,093,685 129,302,709 86,053,585 114,374,074

183,808,944 104,197,731

100,777,187 98,258,017

71,497,051 92,707,484

64,090,043 75,856,495

36,808,540 74,672,171

88,692,435 72,250,595

57,847,348 69,627,469

797,061,916 789,335,725

Total

17,606,714,551 20,256,231,338

Thailand

Norway

France

Belgium and Luxembourg

Malaysia (Malaya) Republic of Vietnam (South

Vietnam)

1970

1971

$

$

5,190,291,226 5,708,329,837 1,481,399,275 1,946,246,780 984.668,861 1,128,061,460 491.729,030 484,320,476 389,329,391 483,785,360 358.682,183 401,570,721 280,260,916 332,331,601

215,801,685 249,637,978

147,121,015 212,522,774

242,452,024 195,265,734

141.529,369 154,824,138

118,309,631 131,730,312

106,298,337 126,142,666 109.198,041 107,066,982 105,343,427 102,228,561

66,945,349 87,963,956

77,125,242 78,070,356

86,922,683 77,324,379

77,325,117 74,532,855

$9,421,217 72,296,504

63,971,357 72,045,706 70,608,106 64,283,317

Japan

Singapore

Indonesia

USA

Taiwan

Macau

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

Belgium and Luxembourg

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

Australia

Philippines

Republic of Vietnam (South

Vietnam)

US Oceania

Thailand

Nigeria

1970

1971

$

584,495,964 644,050,083

$

336,818,730 397,140,953

202,461,175 312,219,502

244,252,013 303,376,547

153,759,289 200,327,581

84,302,861 122,625,505

99,661,085 98,008,395

91,449,853 94,922,706 81,872,992 84,205,132

64,667,953 82,732,963

65,110,352 74,126,130

48,161,931 73,049,916

52,374,385 70,643,995

59,614,381

68,508,412

76,850,785

61,584,256

74,666,568 61,039,470

United Kingdom

Israel

56,547,445 58,712,748

Malaysia (Malaya)

47,596,914

52,945,448

China

33,772,766 43,059,882

Canada

27,066,563 35,557,884

Federal Republic of Germany...

Malaysia (Sabah)

29,610,753

34,970,492

26,149,361 30,237,633

31,912,337

1,048,309,323

107,900,189 63,420,620 51,433,152 56,958,561 58,779,000 54,106,254 44,165,068 52,747,041

49,577,666 50,659,631 57,093,746 49,844,166 41,597,672 49,682,429

44,906,406

1,036,941,238

Ghana

34,564,427

28,299,348

Khmer Republic (Cambodia)

Pakistan

13,405,371

27,747,410

12,138,857

25,748,931

Netherlands

15,422,156

18,720,728

Republic of South Africa

12,479,320

18,356,031

India

Panama

Burma

8,304,389

18,049,726

21,392,815

17,699,137

16,688,416

17,501,008

Other countries

215,909,148 238,220,156

Total

12,346,501,635 13,749,848,799

Total

2,891,569,018 3,414,388,108

US Oceania

Panama

Austria

Venezuela

Kuwait

Libya

Philippines

Other countries

270

Canada

India

Malaysia

New Zealand

Singapore

Australia

Britain

Pakistan

Countries

Appendix 10

Overseas Representation

I. Commonwealth Countries

Represented by

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner

II.

Foreign Countries

Countries

Argentina

Represented by

Consul General

Austria

Consul General

Belgium

Consul General

Brazil

Consul General

Burma

Consul General

Cuba

Consul General

Dominican Republic

Consul General

Ecuador

Consul General

Egypt, Arab Republic of

Consul General

France

Consul General

Germany

Consul General

Indonesia

Consul General

Italy

Consul General

Japan

Consul General

Khmer Republic

Consul General

Korea

Consul General

Mexico

Consul General

Netherlands

Consul General

Norway

Consul General

Panama

Consul General

Peru

Consul General

Philippines

Consul General

Portugal

Consul General

Republic of South Africa

Consul General

Spain

Consul General

Sweden

Consul General

Switzerland

Consul General

Thailand

Consul General

United States of America

Consul General

Uruguay

Consul General

Vietnam

Consul General

Venezuela

Denmark

Greece

Israel

Consul

Honorary Consul General

Honorary Consul General

Honorary Consul General

Bolivia

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Finland

Guatemala

Honduras

Irish Republic

Lebanon

Nicaragua

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland and Turkey are resident in London and

have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, Denmark, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade

Commissioners.

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Appendix 11

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue

271

1969-70

1970-1

1971-2

Actual

Estimated

$

Actual

Estimated

$

$

1. Duties

2. Rates

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences and Franchises

5. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties

6. Fees of Court or Office...

7. Water Revenue

8. Post Office

9. Kai Tak Airport and Air Services

10. Kowloon-Canton Railway

11. Revenue from Interest, Lands,

Rents, etc

374,345,101 392,650,000 412,614,435 439,600,000

316,201,686 327,000,000 335,666,033 352,000,000

835,663,532 893,500,000 1,047,733,689 1,080,400,000

109,438,954 114,528,000 113,725,226 108,811,000

11,661,255 10,435,000 23,807,382 21,867,000

155,968,524 166,486,000 211,727,435 219,993,000

90,543,475 93,392,000 93,262,877 123,362,000

143,651,882 146,393,000 160,370,098 188,146,000

58,231,140 60,915,000 81,753,585 85,869,000

15,532,848 16,622,000 15,983,275 17,427,000

235,147,900 246,239,000 289,118,434 319,482,000

2,346,386,297 2,468,160,000 2,785,762,469 2,956,957,000

12. Land Sales

13. World Refugee Year Grants

14. Contributions towards Projects...

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

121,179,405 101,885,000 271,766,036 149,398,000

31,023

68,000

19,398

22,000

12,333,390 14,091,000 13,308,573 11,582,000

727,273

2,951

Total Revenue

2,480,657,388 2,584,204,000 3,070,859,427 3,117,959,000

272

Appendix 12 (Chapter 3: Financial

Structure)

273

Expenditure

Expenditure

Head of Expenditure

1969-70

Actual

1970-1

Estimated

$

$

Actual

$

1971-2 Estimated $

1969-70

Head of Expenditure

1970-1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

21. HE the Governor's Establishment

22.

Agriculture and Fisheries

Department

23. Audit Department

881,145

988,900

973,203

1,098,100

55.

24. Census and Statistics Department

25. Civil Aviation Department

26.

Colonial Secretariat

17,768,059

27.

Colonial Secretariat; London

Office

28. Commerce and Industry

Department

19,653,786

14,572,289 16,642,400 15,514,319 18,139,500 2,144,229 2,264,500 2,324,694 2,563,800 3,459,870 12,819,400 7,287,215 9,372,200 9,542,996 12,583,100 12,715,939 13,572,000 23,392,500 21,690,735 25,705,800

2,070,900

2,682,200 2,149,123

21,514,100 20,413,431 23,231,100

54. Pensions

Police: Royal Hong Kong

Police Force

1971-2 Actual Estimated Actual Estimated

$

$

$

$

55,653,371 63,788,000 69,903,857 71,329,000

156,745,204 176,571,600 169,683,035 193,219,000

56. Police: Royal Hong Kong

Auxiliary Police Force 57. Post Office 58. Printing Department 59. Prisons Department 60. Public Debt

61. Public Services Commission 62. Public Works Department

29.

Defence: Royal Hong Kong

Regiment (The Volunteers).

2,188,087

30. Defence: Royal Hong Kong

Auxiliary Air Force

1,892,481

32.

31. Defence: Essential Services Corps and Directorate of Manpower Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service

223,971 314,714

358,300 382,000

33.

Defence: Auxiliary Medical

Service ...

34.

Defence: Civil Aid Services

35. Defence: Registration of Persons

Office

36. Defence: Miscellaneous

Measures

...

37.

38.

39.

Education Department Fire Services Department Government Supplies

Department

2,145,000 2,127,736 2,678,900

2,284,600 3,636,052 2,800,100

304,274 398,600 334,600 243,464

1,450,972 1,683,600 1,645,883 1,826,900 2,797,987 2,848,100 2,978,082 3,626,000

1,806,282 2,019,200 1,970,232 2,176,800

77,250,989 93,344,500 90,080,497 23,268,600 326,815,770 383,451,500 397,996,092 471,258,100 33,937,290 40,024,300 34,669,343 40,265,300

63.

64.

Public Works Recurrent Public Works Non-recurrent:

Headquarters

95,554,545

3,502,493 4,530,500 3,393,093 4,139,500 80,705,869 84,467,200 93,579,287 93,720,600 8,635,739 10,070,600 10,346,965 12,151,600 20,869,303 24,727,700 22,802,084 26,499,100 5,015,206 5,015,220 5,015,206 5,015,220

204,881

226,000 213,894 243,600 122,098,376 136,650,800 138,832,163 153,042,500 107,957,900 104,855,738 143,337,500

65. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Buildings

66. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Engineering

67. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Waterworks

68.

Radio Hong Kong

10,700,824 13,111,000 13,754,586 21,562,700

170,616,681 188,909,700 184,407,284 227,390,600

72,022,715 96,592,000 125,750,573 186,173,600

30,373,421 52,015,000 72,808,780 94,939,000 5,117,827 6,134,800 5,677,180 6,441,600

69.

Rating and Valuation

Department

70. Registrar General's Department 71. Registry of Trade Unions 72. Resettlement Department 73. Royal Observatory

4,144,674 4,998,200 4,639,752 5,888,556 6,498,400 6,292,079

5,531,200

7,481,100

453,989

45,441,566

3,845,917

74.

40. Immigration Department

41. Information Services Department

42. Inland Revenue Department

43. Judiciary

44. Kowloon-Canton Railway

45. Labour Department: Labour

Division

6,427,867

46. Labour Department: Mines

Division

47. Legal Department

472,105

4,176,853

48. Legal Aid Department

51.

52.

53.

34

49. Marine Department

50. Medical and Health Department

Miscellaneous Services

New Territories Administration

Office of Unofficial Members of

Executive and Legislative Councils

20,911,870 19,083,500 30,091,172 11,753,700 9,070,995 10,237,900 11,000,742 13,043,700 11,689,594 11,111,800 9,652,632 9,466,800 13,149,581 15,657,300 15,377,283

18,948,700 12,299,871 15,401,300 12,363,404 14,046,000

9,873,038 10,817,100 10,780,678

11,317,600

7,716,300 7,516,652 9,121,400

650,600 665,603

2,738,000 4,329,665 4,522,700

5,203,300 1,543,206

2,453,700 22,665,881 27,060,500 25,608,302 45,111,100 148,239,041 170,534,500 177,874,176 197,269,700 49,941,278 52,431,000 60,084,170 61,748,100 14,990,674 17,657,600 16,369,065

18,956,800

75.

76.

Secretariat for Home Affairs

Social Welfare Department Subventions: Medical

77. Subventions: Social Welfare

78. Subventions: Miscellaneous

79. Transport Department 80. Treasury

...

81. Universities

82.

Urban Services Department and

Urban Council

83. Urban Services Department:

Housing Division

445,700 55,731,800

4,524,700 4,232,658 6,931,832 7,933,900 7,550,365 8,804,200 19,204,686 22,498,800 23,205,929 40,324,000 57,732,380 64,023,600 63,146,736 88,881,900 11,068,813 12,741,400 12,424,957 16,166,700 25,724,826 30,071,800 29,898,781 35,632,000 3,381,234 3,604,200 3,486,140 4,124,200 5,555,875 9,646,900 9,420,877 7,131,700 63,406,214 93,614,500 93,587,818 131,413,100

76,965,759 91,980,600 91,179,997 122,588,500

14,420,400 11,058,206

13,339,132 19,537,100

453,929

50,951,786

446,900 63,137,100

4,762,100

572,900

Urban Services Department:

Cultural Services Division Urban Services Department: New Territories Division

84. World Refugee Year Schemes

Total Expenditure

3,319,416 4,236,200 4,290,310

9,602,402 11,555,100 11,071,399

2,032,152,365 2,392,993,220 2,452,173,434 2,861,917,020

31,023

88,000

19,398

31,000

2,032,183,388 2,393,081,220 2,452,192,832 2,861,948,020

274

DEPOSITS:

Unspent Grants

Public Works Department:

Contract Retentions

Private Works

Water Deposits ...

Other Deposits:

Control of Publications

Government Servants

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

SPECIAL FUNDS:

:

LIABILITIES

Appendix 13 (Chapter 3: Financial structure)

Statement of Assets and Liabilities

as at March 31, 1971

761,069.29

CASH:

ASSETS

In Treasuries, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong With the Crown Agents

$10,445,469.98

6,500,729.59

35,201,609.94

FIXED DEPOSITS:

52,147,809.51

1,320,000.00

969,213.94

Local

Sterling

INVESTMENTS: (1)

Malayan

73,092.02

Sterling

24,463,586.87

26,825,892.83

79,734,771.63

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies

REVENUE EQUALISATION FUND

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE: (2)

As at April 1, 1970

Add:

1,425,763,975.95

390,701.41

:

$113,801,878.23

275

34,526,108.95 $ 148,327,987.18

946,285,000.00

221,090,909.09 1,167,375,909.09

22,394,831.31

911,271,146.47

933,665,977.78

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies--Deposits

ADVANCES:

138,024,760.94

Personal-Imprests

Surplus from April 1, 1970 to March 31, 1971

Appreciation on Investments

618,666,595.15

21,963,539.37

2,066,394,110.47

$2,284,544,344.45

Personal-General

Post Office ...

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

:

:

:

:

265,173.49

10,389,321.14

459,399.20

310,797.77

23,499,778.80

Notes: (1) Does not include 16,290 shares of a nominal value of

(2) There are contingent liabilities in respect of:

(a) The Colony's Asian Development Bank capital (b) A guarantee on notes issued by the Hong Kong (c) The contracts of the Hong Kong Export Credit (d) Outstanding currency notes demonetised under the (e) A guarantee to pay 25% of sums made available

Limited and Lloyds Bank Limited.

(f) One cent notes issued under Section 4(1) of the to the value of $513,270 were in circulation at

each held in Associated Properties Limited.

cription.

ding and Loan Agency Limited.

arance Corporation.

Jar and Subsidiary Currency Notes Ordinance 1969.

an Agreement between the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company

and Subsidiary Currency Notes Ordinance, 1969. Notes 31, 1971.

250,000.00

34,924,470.40

$2,284,544,344.45

276

Recurrent Revenue

Appendix 14 (Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital

Recurrent

Actual 1967-8

Actual 1968-9 $

Actual 1969-70 $

Actual 1970-1 $

Estimate

1971-2 $

.. 1,794,823,131 1,997,208,521 2,325,275,731 2,743,563,546 2,921,776,000 personal Emoluments

Pensions

1,794,823,131 1,997,208,521 2,325,275,731 2,743,563,546 2,921,776,000

Income and Expenditure

277

Actual 1967-8

Actual 1968-9

$

$

Actual 1969-70 $

Actual

Estimate

1970-1

1971-2

$

$

625,243,893 722,600,313 801,347,610 907,488,261 999,208,000

46,657,149 53,267,385 55,653,371 69,903,857 71,329,000

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (Excluding Unallocated Stores) Recurrent Subventions

Public Works Recurrent Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

186,682,062 222,236,251 244,437,566

258,446,702 301,057,356 355,767,831

85,922,654 92,588,718 95,554,545

102,183,738

1,305,136,198

284,517,707 320,921,600

421,364,070 493,917,800

104,855,738 143,337,500

104,250,912 107,235,635 112,896,633 50,272,820

1,496,000,935 1,659,996,558 1,901,026,266 2,078,986,720

Transfer to Capital Revenue 356,181,474 293,064,116 216,805,173 223,870,685 586,778,300

Surplus

133,505,459 208,143,470 448,474,000 618,666,595 256,010,980

1,794,823,131 1,997,208,521 2,325,275,731 2,743,563,546 2,921,776,000

Capital

Estate Duty

18,327,217

15,401,589 13,949,232 24,889,529

18,000,000 Departmental Special

Expenditure

Excess Stamp Duty (3%

on Assignments)

7,778,047

9,308,096

120,034

Private Contributions

towards Government Schemes

3,079,983

Loan Repayments.

7,081,291

Land Sales

42,445,806

4,562,720

6,664,749

39,915,655

12,333,390 13,308,573

2,767,349 2,779,852

121,179,405 271,766,036

current

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

11,582,000 3,881,000 149,398,000 onial Development and

Welfare Schemes

Capital Subventions Public Debt (excluding

interest)

26,587,538

18,110,809

28,049,617 33,824,686 45,318,060 87,170,500

31,257,244 25,157,432 58,815,260 123,934,800

3,700,000

3,409,091

3,409,091

3,409,091

3,409,100

Public Works Non-

...

360,799,811

292,445,082 283,713,642

396,721,222 530,065,900

12,937

World Refugee Year Grants

Taxi concessions

13,307

401,688

25,577,029

Services Capital Works

Contribution from

Recurrent Revenue

Deficit

244

7,986

6,568,026

1,480,839

104,704,368 83,909,904

356,181,474 293,064,116

727,273

31,023

2,951

19,398

22,000

Mcellaneous Capital

Expenditure

52,058,373 18,351,335 21,562,747

38,874,149 36,350,000

4,273,951 14,529,542

155,381,657 327,295,881

216,805,173 223,870,685

3,000,000 10,300,000 196,183,000 586,778,300

ld Refugee Year Schemes

60,424

11,510

31,023

19,398

31,000

allocated Stores Accounts...

Cr. 444,050

3,450,141

4,488,209 8,009,386 2,000,000

460,885,842 376,974,020

372,186,830 551,166,566

782,961,300

460,885,842

376,974,020

372,186,830 551,166,566 782,961,300

278

Appendix 15

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Public Debt of the Colony at March 31, 1971

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8 ...

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

:

$

45,889,000.00

14,545,454.54

60,434,454.54

Appendix 16

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

United Kingdom Government Schemes and Grants

Details of locally administered schemes in progress during 1971 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme/Grant No.

Estimated expenditure

UK

Title

Maximum Government

grant

Share available of approved expenditure

up to December 31, 1971

Total

UK Government

Share

%

Colonial Development and Welfare

R 1817A

R 1817B TB in the Tropics Research

R 1817C

£8,600

100

£7,750

£7,750

Chinese University of Hong Kong

-Science Centre

£250,000

26.55 £470,828 £125,000

British Development Aid

HK1

Appendix 17

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees*

279

1968-9

1969-70

1970-1

1971-2

Actual

Revenue

Actual Revenue

Actual Revenue

Estimate

$

1. Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils ... 117,337,293 135,753,460 156,102,105 175,000,000

2. Import Duty on Intoxicating Liquor...

3. Import Duty on Liquor other than

Intoxicating Liquor...

4. Import Duty on Tobacco

3. Duty on Locally Manufactured

Liquor

6. Duty on Table Waters

69,379,458 81,522,312 100,038,913 105,000,000

2,097,809 2,327,222 2,409,298 2,600,000

118,784,951 125,474,767 125,021,578 126,000,000

19,960,586 19,307,643 18,895,345 20,000,000

8,190,099 9,959,697 10,147,196 11,000,000

335,750,196 374,345,101 412,614,435 439,600,000

• These figures represent net revenue collected, i.e. after deducting refunds and drawbacks of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

1. Hydrocarbon Oils

2. Liquor

3. Tobacco

4. Miscellaneous

1. Denaturing

194,900

198,007

200,963

200,000

3,323,900 3,488,846

884,000

32,800

3,538,816 3,640,000

861,525 842,921

895,000

35,387

34,115

36,000

4,435,600 4,583,765 4,616,815 4,771,000

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

2. Factory Inspection and Supervision...

405,300

383,594 420,429 330,000

3. Anti-narcotic Smuggling Guards

1,400

4. Bonded Warehouse Supervision

326,600

359,565

447,118

474,000

733,300

743,159

867,547

804,000

280

Appendix 18 (Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Development Loan Fund

Statement of Approved Loans and Projects

LOANS/PROJECTS

as at March 31, 1971

Allocation of Funds $

Total Expenditure to 31.3.71 $

A

Housing Loans:

1.

Housing Authority (1)

2.

Hong Kong Housing Society:

Completed Schemes

3.

Local Government Officers {

(a)

(b)

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans (2)

5.

Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited

6.

Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited:

B

(a) Share Capital

(b) Initial Loan Fund

· Educational Loans

Total Repayments

281

Balances at

to 31.3.71 $

31.3.71

$

260,000,000

250,145,974.03

250,145,974.03

146,018,214

176,000,000

146,018,212.04 143,397,294.90

12,182,290.45

133,835,921.59

42,745,736.16

100,651,558.74

27,500,000

18,030,346.50

2,656,870.84

15,373,475.66

210,000

210,000.00

179,967.91

30,032.09

10,000,000

9,500,000.00

9,500,000.00

1,350,000 6,904,000

1,350,000.00

1,350,000.00

6,904,000.00

6,904,000.00

627,982,214

575,555,827.47

57,764,865.36

517,790,962.11

140,000,000

102,182,289.80

45,080,131.45

57,102,158.35

C

Medical Loans:

1.

The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

3,750,000

3,750,000.00

1,388,900.00

2,361,100.00

2.

The Mother Superior of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

1,001,655.61

998,344.39

5,750,000

5,750,000.00

2,390,555.61

3,359,444.39

D

Miscellaneous Loans:

1.

Hong Kong Football Club

2.

South China Athletic Association

3.

Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company, Limited:

Ocean Terminal

550,000 600,000

550,000.00

600,000.00

4. University of Hong Kong

5. Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund

26,900,000 220,000 500,000

26,900,000.00

496,268.42 428,099.13

5,380,000.00

53,731.58 171,900.87

21,520,000.00

500,000.00

28,770,000

28,550,000.00

6,304,367.55

E

Fisheries Loans (1)

5,000,000

2,868,371.00

500,000.00

22,245,632.45

2,868,371.00

F

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

GThe Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Limited

:

:

10,000,000

10,000,000.00

27,500,000

17,212,500.00

15,000,000

6,223,159.50

I

10,000,000.00

17,212,500.00

6,223,159.50

111,539,919.97

636,802,227.80

H

- Universities: Loans to Students (1) ...

860,002,214

748,342,147.77

Grand Total (3)

Notes: (1) These loans constitute revolving funds and are therefore

shown

1, 1959.

(2) Includes balances of loans originally made from General Revenue but taken over by the Development Loan Fund on October

(3) Projects totalling $9,272,934.69 have been finalised and

net.

are

not included in this statement.

282

Appendix 18 (Chapter 3: Financial

Contd

Structure)

Development Loan Fund

as at March 31, 1971

ASSETS

283

In Treasuries, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong

Fixed Deposits

Investments:

Kwun Tong Reclamation:

Outstanding premia (1)

Outstanding Loans and Capital Projects for:

Housing (2)

Educational

$517,790,962.11

$ 3,539,899.88 33,000,000.00

2,132,500.00

6,687,582.21

Statement of Assets

and

Liabilities

LIABILITIES

Development Loan Fund:

As at April 1, 1970

Add: (a) Recurrent Receipts from April 1, 1970 to March

31, 1971

(b) Kwun Tong Reclamation Land Sales, 1970-1 (c) Loan stock received in lieu of interest (Cross-Harbour

Tunnel)...

Cash:

$654,114,736.5

$26,578,023.31 225,000.00

1,245,000.00

28,048,023.31

Local

Less: Loss due to irrecoverable loans

550.00

28,047,473.3:

University Students

Medical

Fisheries

$682,162,209.

Export Credit Insurance (2)

Cross-Harbour Tunnel (3)

Miscellaneous purposes

57,102,158.35

6,223,159.50

3,359,444,39

2,868,371.00

10,000,000,00

17,212,500.00

Notes:

Does not include the value of 6 unsold Kwun Ton. (2) The Capital Projects comprise 13,500 shares of $10 Limited and $10,000,000 in the Hong Kong Expo (3) This figure is made up as follows:

(b)

(a) $13,770,000 10 per cent Convertible Unsecured

3,442,500 Fully paid up Ordinary Shares.

$17,212,500

Reclamation lots.

each fully paid in the Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Credit Insurance Corporation.

Loan Stock.

Statement of Receipts and Payments for the year ended March 31, 1971

DETAILS

RECEIPTS

Recurrent:

Interest on Loans

Interest on Investments and balances

Interest on Land sales premia

Kwun Tong Reclamation-Premia Adjustment

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities...

Non-Recurrent:

Loan repayments

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong Reclamation

Non-Recurrent:

Loans

Deposits-Hong Kong Government

Total Receipts

PAYMENTS

Total Payments

:

:

:

F..

:

:

22,245,632.45 636,802,227.80

$682,162,209.89

Approved Estimate

$

Actual Receipts/ Payments $

25,810,000

24,801,079.76

281,000 539,000

912,325.40

476,090.15

388,528.00

26,630,000

26,578,023,31

17,046,000 1,169,000

16,889,725.47

2,787,489.49

18,215,000

19,677,214.96

44,845,000

46,255,238.27

38,443,000

22,559,002.16 996.56

38,443,000

22,559,998.72

284

A.

Contd

Appendix 18 (Chapter 3: Financial structure)

Lotteries Fund

Statement of Approved Grants and Loans as at March 31, 1971

DETAILS

Allocation of

Funds

$

Total Expenditure to 31.3.71 $

Total Repayments to 31.3.71

$

(a) Capital expenditure

(b) Recurrent expenditure

GRANTS:

1. Yuen Long Community Centre:

2. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals-Home for the Aged, Aberdeen

1,044,000

863,009.59

250,000

400,000

3.

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts--Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

for Female Drug Addicts

724,407

382,060.45

4.

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Expansion of Shek Kwu Chau Trea

ment and Rehabilitation Centre

2,000,000

1,516,998.75

5.

Poh Yeh Ching Shea-Home for the Aged, Tai Po

200,000

6.

7.

Children's Playground Association--Repairs and improvements at MacPherson Stadium Boy Scouts Association:

45,000

14,216.00

8.

(a) Gilwell Projects, Phase B

(b) Tai Tam Project

...

Po Leung Kuk--Annexe to main building

100,000

73,719.88

300,000

239,788.00

400,000

400,000.00

9.

YWCA Anne Black Centre, Stage 2 ...

750,000

449,178.37

10.

Chinese Anglican Church Body-Kwai Chung Workers' Recreation Centre

530,000

11. Capital assistance to Voluntary Agencies

600,000

340,453.68

12. Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups-Alterations to and equipment for existing youth

centres

16,800

15,386.00

13.

Director of Medical and Health Services-Campaign to assist the disabled travelling by public

transport

4,000

4,000.00

14.

Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Gymnasium at Pelletier Hall

309,000

309,000.00

15. The Lady Trench Nursing and Training Centre

1,250,000

966,021.41

17.

25.

26.

Action Committee against Narcotics-a main survey

16. Maryknoll Fathers-Social Service Centre, Ngau Tau Kok

18. Children's Playground Association-Silver Mine Bay Holiday Camp

19.

20. Tung Lam Nien Fah Tong Limited-Home for the Aged, Tsuen Wan

22. Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council-Diocesan Youth Centre

23. Salvation Army-Tai Hang Tung Social Centre

24. Canossian Missions-Ling Yuet Sin Infants' Home

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

27. Cheung Chau Rural Committee-Home for the Aged

28. Caritas--Equipment for Youth Sections at two Social Centres

340,000

340,000.00

Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Two additional storeys on the Rotary Centre for the Blind

140,000

137,185.57

30,000

30,000.00

St Christopher's Home-Replacement of dilapidated accommodation

60,000

60,000.00

220,000

220,000.00

21. Hong Kong Christian Service-Housing for the elderly at Wah Fu Estate

32,750

32,750.00

25,000

25,000.00

50,000

50,000.00

40,725

40,724.71

42,000

42,000.00

110,000

98,582.09

32,563

32,563.00

300,000

300,000.00

29.

Good Shepherd Sisters-The Mary Stanton Centre, Stage 2

600,000

30. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Three Libraries

91,200

91,200.00

31.

YWCA Youth Centre at Ngau Tau Kok

25,500

25,500.00

33.

34.

32. Social Welfare Department--Two printing machines for the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre...

Children's Playground Association-Portland Street Playground Renovation Cheung Chau Rural Committee-Youth Centre

26,770

26,770.00

34,450

34,450.00

80,000

35. The Outward Bound Trust of Hong Kong School

224,190

224,190.00

36.

Chinese Anglican Church Body-Retreat House at Sha Tin Gap

Centre

37. Social Welfare Department-Offset printing machine for the World Rehabilitation Fund D

18,000

12,000.00

33,000

33,000.00

39.

38. Social Welfare Department-Playground for the World Rehabilitation Fund Day Centre

Chinese YMCA-Community Recreation Project at Wu Kwai Sha

23,700

18,000.00

88,000

74,488.30

285

Balances

at 31.3.71

$

11

111

286

18- Contd

Appendix 18 (Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Lotteries Fund

Statement of Approved Grants and Loans as at March 31, 1971

DETAILS

Allocation of

Total Expenditure to 31.3.71 $

60,000,00

Total Repayments

to 31.3.71

$

Funds

$

43.

44.

Ching Chung Sin Kwoon-Home for the Aged

46.

48.

St Christopher's Home-Water supply system

40. Cheung Chau Rural Committee-Day Nursery

41. Hong Kong Red Cross Society-Sandy Bay Hospital School

42. Hong Kong Association for Mentally Handicapped Children and Young Persons---Training

centre in Wah Fu Estate

International Rescue Committee-Nursery at Un Chau Street

45. Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Visiting Consultant

Paediatrics Department, University of Hong Kong-Child Development Survey

47. Hong Kong Family Welfare Society-Un Chau Street and Ngau Tau Kok Centres

49. Salvation Army Norway Hostel

50. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Two clubs and a library

51. Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Home for the Aged Blind, Yuen Long

52. Social Welfare Department-Clinical Psychology Unit

60,000

120,000

410,000

48,500.00

38,000

38,000.00

...

300,000

2,000

2,000.00

306,329

58,530

58,530.00

60,000

75,000

65,285

65,284.93

95,538

35,720.69

21,220

2,775.00

53.

Po Leung Kuk-Major renovations

328,581

44,718.23

54.

Social Welfare Department-Mobile Library Van

35,728

55. Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Machinery for the To Kwa Wan Factory

50,000

3,400.00

56. Yang Social Service Centre-Motor vehicle and equipment

17,380

11,200.00

57. Society for the Relief of Disabled Children-Motor vehicle for Sandy Bay Children's Cen

valescent Home

10,000

10,000.00

58.

Buddhist Po Ching Home for the Aged Women

25,000

25,000.00

59. Lutheran World Federation-Kwun Tong Day Nursery

24,555

24,555.00

60.

St Christopher's Home-New cottages

***

1,300,900

61.

Yuen Yuen Home for the Aged, Tsuen Wan

250,000

62. Society of Boys' Centres-Residential centre near Lung Cheung Road

63. Little Sisters of the Poor-St Mary's Home for the Aged, Aberdeen

64. Tang King Po School

1,422,000

31,744

164,728

65.

66.

67.

Victoria Park School for the Deaf

131,600

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Children's Playground Association-Play Leadership Programme

68. Family Planning Association-Branch office and Clinic in Yuen Long

140,000

27,415

321,100

Total Grants

:

17,483,688

7,951,919,65

LOANS:

B.

1.

2.

Chinese YMCA-Youth Centre

YWCA-Anne Black Centre

3. Hong Kong Resettlement Estates Loan Association-Loan Capital

Total Loans

Grand Total

Balances at

31.3.71

$

287

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

530,000.00

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

100,000

100,000.00

25,000.00

1,470,000.00 2,000,000.00 75,000.00

4,100,000

4,100,000.00

555,000.00

3,545,000.00

21,583,688

12,051,919.65

555,000.00

3,545,000.00

Note: Projects totalling $3,984,514.59 have been,

finalised and are not included in this statement.

288

Unclaimed Prize Money-1970 Lotteries

Lotteries Fund:

1969 Lotteries

As at April 1, 1970

Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Recurrent Payments

A

Appendix 18 (Chapter 3: Financial

Contd

Structure)

Lotteries Fund

Statement of Assets

and

Liabilities

LIABILITIES

$ 841,850.00 909,636.00

Cash at Bank

$ 1,751,486.

18,866,500,78

Fixed Deposits Loans*

. $7,033,798.65

...

2,638,781.10 4,395,017.55 23,261,518.33

as at March 31, 1971

ASSETS

:

:

:

$25,013,004,33

* In addition grants totalling $11,936,434.24 have been made.

Statement of Receipts and Payments for the year ended March 31, 1971

Recurrent:

Proceeds of Government Lotteries:

Gross receipts

Less: (a) Prize money...

(b) Running expenses

DETAILS

RECEIPTS

Interest on balances

Unclaimed prize money forfeited

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities

Non-Recurrent:

Loan repayments

:

Total Receipts

PAYMENTS

Recurrent:

Grants

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities

Non-Recurrent:

Loans

Total Payments

:

:

:

:

:

A

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

289

$ 468,004.33

21,000,000.00

3,545,000.00

$25,013,004.33

Approved Estimate

$

Actual Receipts/ Payments $

11,000,000

16,296,000.00

6,600,000

9,777,600.00

750,000

1,142,962.64

3,650,000

5,375,437.36

1,036,000

1,235,249.29

423,000

423,112.00

5,109,000

7,033,798.65

222,000

5,331,000

222,500.00

7,256,298.65

2,257,000

2,257,000

2,638,781.10

2,638,781.10

216,000

2,473,000

779,660.00

3,418,441.10

290

Date

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Currency and Currency in Circulation

Number of reporting banks

Notes and coins in circulation (HK$ million)

19 Structure)

Banking Statistics and Bank Deposits

Deposits (HK$ million)

291

Index of Deposits

December 31, 1955-100

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

31.12.1955

31.12.1956

34

771.7

1,137

852

152

133

100

100

100

100

34

783.3

1,267

928

173

166

111

109

114

125

31.12.1957

35

812.6

1,412

955

267

190

124

112

176

143

31.12.1958

36

827.6

1,583

988

351

244

139

116

231

183

31.12.1959

41

896.2

2,056

1,205

482

369

181

141

317

31.12.1960

277

47

984.0

2,682

1,393

752

537

236

163

495

31.12.1961

404

59

1,026.7

3,367

1,470

1,234

663

296

173

812

498

31.12.1962

63

1,123.7

4,311

1,664

1,768

879

379

195

1,163

661

31.12.1963

67

1,229.8

5,425

1,997

2,283

1,145

477

234

1,502

861

31.12.1964

69

1,399.5

6,568

2,237

2,810

1,521

578

263

1,849

31.12.1965

1,144

78

1,739.8

7,251

2,532

3,099

1,620

638

297

2,039

31.12.1966

1,218

76

1,852.4

8,405

2,681

3,742

1,982

739

315

2,462

1,490

31.12.1967

75

2,307.7

8,162

2,658

3,324

2,180

718

312

2,187

1,639

31.12.1968

75

2,130.5

10,367

3,144

4,432

2,791

912

369

2,916

2,098

31.12.1969

73

2,260.9

12,297

3,714

5,216

3,367

1,082

436

3,432

2,532

31.12.1970

73

2,577.7

14,955

4,326

6,407

4,222

1,315

508

4,215

3,174

31.12.1971

73

2,932.1

18,785

5,317

7,395

6,073

1,652

624

4,865

4,566

Date

Number of reporting banks

Cash (i.e. legal tender notes and coins in hand) (HK$ million)

Banking Assets

NET balances with

other banks (including Head Offices or Branches outside Hong Kong

& other short

Loans and Advances

(HK$ million)

Investments (HK$ million)

Index of Loans and Advances December 31, 1955-100

'Liquidity Ratio' (i.e. cash and net balances with other banks expressed as

percentage of total deposits)

term claims

(HK$ million:

632

31.12.1955

34

144

12.7%

459

40.4

55.6%

96

8.4%

100

53.3%

769

31.12.1956

34

97

7.7%

541

42.7

60.7%

98

7.7%

122

50.4%

865

31.12.1957

35

118

8.4%

578

40.9

61.3%

101

7.2%

137

49.3%

31.12.1958

36

84

5.3%

730

46.1°

919

58.1%

121

7.6%

145

51.4%

31.12.1959

41

86

4.2%

775

37.7

1,373

66.8%

133

6.5%

217

41.9%

31.12.1960

47

136

5.1%

930

34.6°

1,720

64.1%

166

6.2%

272

39.7%

31.12.1961

59

114

3.4%

1,041

30.9°

2,334

69.3%

232

6.9%

369

34.3%

31.12.1962

63

162

3.8%

1,482

34.4

2,849

66.1%

191

4.4%

451

38.1%

31.12.1963

67

210

3.7%

1,831

33.8"

3,642

67.1%

187

3.4%

576

37.5%

31.12.1964

69

238

3.6%

1,577

24.0

4,586

69.8%

271

4.1%

726

27.6%

31.12.1965

78

221

3.0%

2,133

29.4

$,038

69.5%

527

7.3%

797

32.5%

31.12.1966

76

232

2.8%

2,862

34.1%

3,380

64.0%

537

6.4%

851

36.8%

31.12.1967

75

333

4.1%

2,347

28.8%

5,343

65.5%

590

7.2%

845

32.8%

31.12.1968

75

310

3.0%

3,860

37.2

6,038

58.2%

636

6.1%

955

40.2%

31.12.1969

73

333

2.7%

3,927

31.9

7,884

64.1%

670

5.4%

1,247

34.6%

31.12.1970 31.12.1971

73

356

2.4%

4,895

32.7%

9,670

:

73

358

1.9%

6,408

34.1%

11,836

64.7%

856

5.7%

1,530

35.1%

63.0%

1,081

5.8%

1,873

36.0%

Figures in Italics

percentage

of total deposits.

292

293

Appendix 20

Industrial undertakings and persons employed

United Nations standard

industrial

classification

in main industrial groups

Industry

Industrial undertakings

(Chapter 4, Employment)

4:

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

United Nations

standard

industrial

classification

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

Persons employed

numbers

numbers

(revised)

1970

1971

1970

1971

(revised)

1970

1971

1970

1971

230

Metal ore mining

1

1

333

282

321

Manufacture of textiles

290

Other mining

39

37

807

993

Cordage, rope and twine

25

26

386

311-312

Food manufacturing

656

689

11,106

11,117

Cotton knitting

414

252

Cotton spinning

269

8,821

9,585

313

Beverage industries

24

23

2,629

2,883

36

33

Cotton weaving

21,957 20,685

252

314

Tobacco manufactures

3

3

1,022

1,034

Finishing

256 29,547

31,049

290

321

Manufacture of textiles

2,540

2,924

127,466

126,502

Made-up textile goods except

319 10,381

10,931

wearing apparel

126

322

Wearing apparel except footwear

2,299

2,929

110,974 131,435

Wool spinning

127

1,930

1,629

12

16

323

Leather and leather products except

Woollen knitting

4,416

3,360

1,020

1,269

39,186

36,250

footwear

61

69

790

1,356

322

Wearing apparel except footwear

324

Footwear except vulcanised, moulded

Garments

1,802

2,310

95,978 115,151

rubber or plastic footwear

198

252

3,888

4,819

Gloves

185

211

324

8,748 8,509

331

Wood, and wood and cork products

Footwear except vulcanised, moulded

except furniture

504

542

6,059

6,138

rubber or plastic footwear

Shoes

162

332

Furniture and fixtures except primarily

351

of metal

347

421

3,631

4,166

Industrial chemicals

Chemicals

341

Paper and paper products

411

458

6,269

6,191

352

Other chemical products

342

Printing and publishing .

1,078

1,138

18,484

19,112

Matches

351

Industrial chemicals

30

30

694

613

Medicines

352

Other chemical products

122

131

3,676

3,373

356

353

Petroleum refineries

1

1

8

7

Plastic products

Paints and lacquers

Plastic flowers

8-89

210

3,151

4,182

17

16

513

435

1

1

109

102

50

55

1,175

1,150

10

11

874

897

516

355

Rubber products...

337

346

12,042

10,908

356

Plastic products

2,756

3,019

70,958

68,950

Plastic products (miscellaneous) Plastic toys

501

14,690

12,264

1,208 1,366

19,582 19,900

1,032 1,152 36,686 36,786

371

361

Pottery, china and earthenware

16

18

227

287

Iron and steel basic industries

Rolling mills

16

362

Glass and glass products

75

74

2,047

2,040

15

1,279

1,206

381

Fabricated metal products

369

Other non-metallic mineral products

36

37

942

857

Aluminium ware

41

53

2,116

2,135

371

Iron and steel basic industries

72

66

2,014

1,777

Electro-plating..

216

233

2,161

2,099

Enamelware

372

Non-ferrous metal basic industries

75

81

869

1,029

22

24

1,456

1,097

Hand torch cases

48

45

381

Fabricated metal products

2,586

2,934

46,673

45,850

3,474

Metal toys

3,332

68

71

1,836

2,226

382

Manufacture of machinery

732

775

7,454

8,406

Pressure stoves and lanterns

31

34

2,028

1,804

Tin cans

53

383

Electrical machinery, apparatus,

51

1,181

1,077

appliances and supplies

446

511

48,829

52,538

Vacuum flasks

7

6

1,106

968

Wrist watch bands

127

127

384

Transport equipment

59

74

13,493

15,723

5,730

5,377

383

Electrical machinery, apparatus,

385

Professional and scientific, and measur-

appliances and supplies

ing and controlling equipment, and

Electronics

223

photographic and optical goods

146

149

7,155

7,577

Hand torch bulbs

390

Other manufacturing industries

897

918

39,779

29,680

384

Transport equipment

28

281

63

410

Electricity, gas and steam

12

12

6,665

6,404

Aircraft repair

2

610

Wholesale trade

13

13

644

600

Shipbuilding and repairing

39

88 20

38,362

41,624

68

4,150 4,158

2,045 2,009

50 9,803 11,880

385

711

Land transport

8

9

10,421

9,455

Professional and scientific, and measur-

ing and controlling equipment, and

719

Services allied to transport

54

73

4,708 4,890

photographic and optical goods

720

Communication

2

2 6,531 7,240

Cameras

16

19

Manufacture of watches and clocks...

2,322

2,651

102

106

941

Motion picture and other entertainment

4,043

4,187

services

16

21

...

951

Repair services

295

326

952

Laundry and dry cleaning

287

291

2,172 2.220 5,313

6,269 2,694 2,605

390

Other manufacturing industries

Bakelite ware

42

54

1,232

1,158

Wigs

422

342

30,990

19,896

711

Land transport

959

Miscellaneous personal services

5

5

39

39

Motor buses

7

Tramways

1

72

8,846

7,863

Totals

17,239

19,402 589,505 605,367

1,575

1,592

951

Repair services

Repair of motor vehicles

217

236

3,598

4,265

294

Appendix 21

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections

1970

1971

Applications received for registration ...

3,170

3,576

Registration Certificates issued

1,454

1,720

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

17

Applications withdrawn

310

509

:

Factories closed and Registration Certificates surrendered

572

788

*Places of employment registered at December 31

10,793 11,678

...

Factories 'recorded' at December 31 ...

Routine visits by inspectorate for enforcement of safety,

health and welfare provisions

Inspections in connection with industrial or occupational

accidents and workmen's compensation

Visits for wage enquiries

Visits about employment of women and young persons Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and

young persons at prohibited hours ...

Visits in connection with enforcement of the Industrial Em- ployment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance

20,467 42,946

3,292 4,013

* Undertakings which are in the course of registration and those which are not registrable but

are inspected by the Labour Department staff.

8,630 7,724

62,113 54,003

...

2,278

2,878

540

506

37,706 42,117

Appendix 22

(Chapter 4: Employment)

Industrial and occupational accidents

Persons involved

Deaths

Persons injured in registrable workplaces

Deaths in registrable workplaces

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

:

:

:

1970

1971

24,610

27,192

259 379

9,561

15,057

39

40

16.46

24.89

0.067

0.066

Year Month

Appendix 23

(Chapter 4: Employment)

General Consumer Price Index (September 1963 - August 1964 - 100)

All Items

Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and Light

Alcoholic Drink and Tobacco

Clothing and Footwear

Durable Goods

Miscellaneous Goods

Transport and Vehicles

Services

Weights Attached

100.0

48.3

15.2 3.0 3.3

Monthly Average

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

4.2 3.2

102.0 103.5 101.0 100.0 100.0 100.4 100.3 99.9 100.0 100.8 104.7 107.7 102.0 99.3 104.5 98.0 101.6 101.7 101.5 104.2 111.2 119.7 102.0 101.6 106.0 99.8 102.7 103.0 102.0 106.3 114.0 124.1 102.0 101.4 106.0 103.1 108.3 106.6 102.0 108.0 118.1 131.1 102.0 96.9 107.0 102.5 111.0 109.3 102.0 112.6 126.5 145.1 106.0 99.5 108.3 103.3 117.6 114.3 104.3 117.0

6.2

2.1

14.5

1971: January

131

151 107

102 110 103 121

117 106 121

February

128

147

107

102

110

104 122

117 106 119

March

129

147

109

103

111

104 122

117

106

119

April

126 141

109

103

111

104 121

117

106

119

May

128 144

109

103

111

104 121

117

106

119

June

132 154

109

103

111

104

121

117

106

120

July

132

153

109

103

111

104

122

117

106

120

August

137

162

109

103

111

105

122 117

106 121

September

134

157

109

103

111

104

122

118

114 121

October

132

151

109 103

111

104

123

118

123 123

November

130

147

109 105 111

105 124 118

123

123

December

131

149 109

105

111 106 125

118

123

123

Year Month

Modified Consumer Price Index

(September 1963 - August 1964 = 100)

All Items

Foodstuffs

Housing

Fuel and Light

Alcoholic Drink

and Tobacco

Clothing and Footwear

Durable Goods

Miscellaneous

Goods

Transport and Vehicles

Services

Weights Attached

Monthly Average

1965 1966

:

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971: January

February

131

March

132

April

128

May

130

145

June

136

155 109 105 111

100.0

55.6 12.9

3.0

4.2

4.9 1.5

4.1

2.8

11.0

102.3 103.5 101.0 100.8 100.0 100.5 100.5 99.8 100.0 100.8 105.6 108.3 102.0 100.2 104.5 98.0 102.6 101.6 100.0 103.7 112.8 120.6 102.0 103.5 106.0 100.1 103.7 103.0 100.0 105.2 116.0 125.1 102.0 103.6 106.0 103.3 108.7 106.4 100.0 106.3 120.3 132.5 102.0 98.3 107.0 103.2 111.5 108.8 100.0 109.2 129.8 146.6 106.8 100.8 108.3 104.3 119.8 114.4 102.3 113.3 134 153 107 103 110 104 124 117 104 119 148 107 104 110 105 125 117 104 116 149 109 105 111 105 125 117 104 116 142 109

105 111 105 125 117 104 116 109 105 111 105 125 117

104 116 117 104 116

105

125

July

135 155 109

105

111

105

125 117 104 116

August

141 164 109

105

111

September

October

November

December

117 138 159 109 105 111 105 126 118 115 117 135 152 110 105 111 105 126 118 127 119 133 148 110 107 111 106 127 118 127 120 134 150 110 107 111 107 129 118 127 120

106

126 117 104

Note: For the General Index the weights are derived from the pattern of the households whose monthly expenditure ranges from HK$100 to HK$1,999 and for the Modified Index ranges from HK$100 to HK$599.

295

296

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

Appendix 24

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Marketing Organisation Statistics

Fisheries Products sold through the Wholesale Markets

Quantities and Values

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

958,241

57,956

72,864,447

1,178,974

71,306

91,052,177

1,269,800

76,799

111,295,765

1,288,779

77,944

136,773,261

...

1,247,748

75,463

141,780,367

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(per catty)

Fresh Fish

$0.76

.77

.87

1.05

1.12

Vegetables sold through the Wholesale Markets

Quantities and Values

Salt/Dried Fish

$0.85

.90

1.25

1.48

1.89

Locally-produced

1967

1968

1969

1970

...

1971

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

1,305,015

78,929

39,588,234

1,298,481

78,534

40,006,788

1,213,756

73,410

45,920,730

1,031,942

62,413

54,072,619

1,081,098

65,384

52,048,611

Imported

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

296,157

17,912

7,870,360

296,653

17,942

8,388,743

322,841

19,526

10,706,192

284,548

17,210

12,328,272

294,950

17,838

13,068,311

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(per catty)

Locally-produced

Imported

$0.30

$0.27

.31

.28

.38

.33

.56

.44

.48

.44

Appendix 25

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

as at December 31, 1971

297

Mem- Paid-up

Num-

Societies

ber-

ber

Share ship Capital

Loans granted

Loans repaid*

Deposits

$

$

$

$

Rural Societies:

Federation of Vegetable

Marketing Societies...

1

†29

5,700

500

Vegetable Marketing

31

8,793

113,536

622,785

577,608

166,975

Federation of Pig

Raising Societies

1

†+35

875

79,500

60,336

Pig Raising

31

1,528

118,665

957,350

974,045

65,596

Agricultural Credit

12 311

39,410

574,700

469,638

53,679

Better Living

13 1,065

19,040

12,000

5,700

21,378

Farmers' Irrigation

1

68

340

-

Thrift and Loan

3

96

2,230

11,500

11,740

23,407

Sub-total

93 11,925

299,796

2,257,835

2,099,567

331,035

Fishermen's Societies:

Federation of Fisher-

men's Credit Societies

4 +56

5,400

Credit

62

1,491

31,670

5,039,753

4,621,414

3,622,506

Consumers

1

45

2,300

Better Living

10

715

11,480

A

868

227,186

Credit and Housing

2

114

660

26,034

48,577

46,384

Fish Pond

1

118

590

Sub-total

80 2,539

52,100

5,065,787

4,670,859

3,896,076

Urban Societies:

Apartment Owners'

Building/Housing

2 156

236 5,042

...

Consumers

9 2,458

10,786

1,381,960

14,020

$4,279,109 5,751,349

Salaried Workers'

Thrift and Loan

4 728

9,150

448,720

414,242

218,412

Sub-total

251 8,384 1,415,916 4,727,829

6,165,591

218,412

TOTAL

424 22,848 1,767,812

12,051,451

12,936,071

4,445,523

*Including repayment of loans issued during previous years.

† Members Societies.

Including 9 Agricultural Credit Societies.

§ Loans made by Treasury direct.

298

Appendix 26

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Credit Unions

as at November 30, 1971

Share Capital

Common Bond

Number Membership

Reserve Fund

(Savings)

$

$

Total

44

6,642

1,173,414

17,731

Church

Associational ...

Benevolent Association

Social Centres/Service

Factory Owners

25

19

22

3,675

854,393

12,006

3,110

776,065

10,686

...

1

85

19,648

543

4

378

29,472

300

1

102

29,208

477

Employment

14

2,535

269,049

4,522

Civil Servants

8

1,489

159,108

1,601

Industrial Employees

1

211

77,169

1,833

Company Employees

2

141

7,843

167

Hotel Employees ...

2

619

22,579

846

Association Employees

1

75

2,350

75

Residential

5

432

49,972

1,202

Resettlement Estates

3

230

32,669

988

Housing Authority Estates. 2

202

17,303

214

Appendix 27

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Production of Minerals 1971

Mineral

Feldspar

...

Graphite 72-80% fixed carbon...

50% fixed carbon...

Iron ore 50% Fe...

Kaolin

...

Quartz

Production in tons

Value in $

1,126.96

45,078.40

160,168.70

6,510,857.66

2,500.32

358,589.18

5,059.64

96,588.53

Government...

Appendix 28

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

Number of Schools (As at September 1971)

Total Enrolment (As at September 1971)

299

Number of Teachers (As at March 1971)

5,781

137

135,269

Grant

22

22,007

867

Subsidised

711

541,118

14,533

Private

1,960

567,313

19,240

Special Afternoon

Classes

238

12

Special Education

31

2,715

212

2,861

1,268,660

40,645

Kindergarten

Primary

Secondary

Post-Secondary

Enrolments

(Figures are shown as at September 30, 1971, with the previous year's figures in brackets)

Adult Education

Special Education

:

:

:

Enrolment

132,900

( 123,218)

764,313

( 765,397)

295,820

( 279,318)

11,799

(11,739)

61,113

( 58,196)

2,715

(

1,268,660

2,672)

(1,240,540)

New Buildings, Classrooms and Places

October 1, 1970-September 30, 1971

Number of Schools and Extensions

Increase in Number of Classrooms Primary Secondary

Increase in Number of Places

Primary Secondary

Government

42

1,840

Aided

28

447

119

39,170

4,580

Private

3

65

4,340

33

447

226

39,170

10,760

:

300

Appendix 29

(Chapter 6: Education) Educational Statistics

Overseas Examinations 1971

Examinations

University of London, General Certificate of Education

Entries

1969

1970

1971

12,980

13,025

13,695

Associated Examining Board, General Certificate of Education.....

1,570

555

University of London External Degree

99

124

143

London Chamber of Commerce

10,529

13,285

16,281

Pitman Shorthand

1,326

1,780

1,258*

Pitman Typewriting

520

639

519*

Pitman single-subject

164

44

70

Cambridge Diploma in English Studies

1

1

1

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English

140

273

102*

Cambridge Lower Certificate in English

88

175

141*

Institute of Bookkeepers

59

34

6*

Chartered Institute of Secretaries

278

430

301*

Association of International Accountants

1,126

1,266

594*

Association of Certified and Corporate Accountants

560

758

383*

Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers

10

11

12

Institute of Fire Engineers

71

College of Preceptors

9

Gemmological Association

2

British Federation of Master Printers

Society of Engineers (Graduateship)

Institute of Export

11

3

The Australian Institute of Cartographers

Royal Society of Arts

95

63

Institute of Company Accountants

1

12-aawwal

120

Institute of Public Cleansing

10

10

6

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)

7,043

8,025

8,328*

The School of Mines and Industries Annual Examination

1

Canadian Scholastic Aptitute Test...

1,206

560

198

Canadian English Language Achievement Test ...

1,206

560

198

Indian School Certificate Re-examination

1

Sydney University Deferred Examination...

1

Diploma in Marketing Examination

3

The Cost Accountants' Association

Institute of Public Relations

Corporation of Secretaries Examination

Victorian University Matriculation English Express Examination

The Institute of Structural Engineers

University of Reading BSc (Estate Management)

University of Oxford General Certificate of Education

University of Cambridge General Certificate of Education

The Royal Aeronautical Society

Institute of Cost and Works Accountants

Institute of Electronic and Radio Engineers

Institute of Business Administration

The Mathematics Association

Institute of Structural Engineers

The British Computer Society

University of London, School Economics and Political Science

Royal Australian Planning Institute

United Commercial Travellers' Association

University of Lancaster

Communication Advertising and Marketing (CAM)

Institute of Work Managers

University of Essex

Diploma in Management, Polytechnic

American Dental Association (Dental Education)

Total

* As at September 30, 1971.

274

483

1

1

16

38

5

1

1

1

51

51

1

21-1181° 1

37,823

43,321

43,052

* Indicates 'new examination'.

Type

New Awards made by the Government during 1971

Tenable at

Number Total Value Awards ($ per annum)

Maintenance Grants

fAnglo-Chinese Secondary Schools {Chinese Middle Schools

838

243,750

175

52,000

Commonwealth Scholarships

University of Hong Kong

:::

2

47,760

301

Appendix 30

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Further Studies in the United Kingdom

Number of Hong Kong Students arriving in the United Kingdom:

1962-3

1963-4

1964-5

1965-6

1966-7

...

1967-8

1968-9

1969-70

1970-1 (1.10.70-30.9.71)

:

Distribution of Courses by Hong Kong Students in United Kingdom:

568

750

889

1,161

1,248

1,176

938

551

789

Course

Accountancy

Architecture

Arts

Business Studies

Dentistry

September

September

December

1969

1970

1971

98

83

81

27

27

30

43

12

Economics

Education

Engineering

General Certificate of Education

Law

Medicine

31

33

4-12118

44

43

82

20

27

21

454

457

399

1,329

1,468

1,154

:

:

120

122

86

121

108

92

Meteorology

Music

Nursing

Science

Secretarial

Social Science

Textiles

Others

3

1

19

19

25

967

1,111

1,050

197

170

131

104

90

111

17

23

18

25

21

33

292

135

282

3,945

3,978

3,686

School Children

578

695

493

4,523

4,673

4,179

302

Appendix 31

(Chapter 6: Education)

Actual Expenditure on Education

for period August 1, 1970-July 31, 1971

Total $

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

$102,835,786 19,594,906

(3) Maintenance and Repairs of School

Buildings (Public Works Department)

2,588,909 125,019,601

(B) Capital Expenditure:

(1) Equipment and furniture for Government

Schools and Headquarters

$

708,010

4,664,564

5,372,574

(2) New School Buildings, including Furniture

and Equipment (Public Works

Department)

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

(1) Grant Schools:

(i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(2) Subsidised Schools: (i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(3) Private Schools:

(i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(D) Grants to University of Hong Kong and the

Chinese University of Hong Kong:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(E) University Grants Committee:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Capital

$ 23,870,244

453,353 24,323,597

$235,920,082

24,584,525 260,504,607

$ 11,041,841 365,209

$ 53,801,829

11,407,050

52,275,197 106,077,026

$

231,849

68,210

83,240

383,299

$533,087,754

$ 4,409,619

(F) Expenditure by Other Departments:

(1) Medical and Health Department (2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(3) Agriculture and Fisheries Department

356,675 175,627

$ 4,941,921

Appendix 32

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics - Hong Kong

1962-1971

303

BIRTHS

DEATHS

Crude

Crude

Infant

birth

Estimated

Regis- tered

death rate Regis- rate

mortality

Neo-natal Maternal mortality mortality

rate

Year

   mid-year live population

births

(per 1,000

tered

deaths

(per 1,000

(per 1,000

rate (per 1,000

rate

(per 1,000

live

live

popula-

popula-

tion)

tion)

births)

births)

total births)

1962

3,305,200 111,905

33.9

20,324

6.1

36.9

21.2

0.48

1963

3,420,900 115,263

33.7

19,748 5.8

32.9

18.9

0.29

1964

3,504,600 108,519 31.0

18,113

5.2

26.4

16.6

0.38

1965

3,597,900 102,195 28.4

17,621 4.9

23.7

15.2

0.33

1966

:

3,629,900 92,476 25.5

18,700 5.2

522

24.9

15.3

0.43

1967

3,722,800 88,171 23.7

19,644 5.3

33

25.6

15.9

0.30

1968

3,802,700 82,992 21.8

19,319 5.1

23.0

15.0

0.14

1969

3,863,900 79,329 20.5

18,730 4.8

21.8

14.9

0.15

1970

3,959,000 77,465 19.6

20,763

5.2

19.6

12.7

0.19

1971

4,045,300 76,818 19.0 20,253 5.0

18.4

12.6

0.14

Tuberculosis Statistics

TB death

Estimated

Year

mid-year

rate (per

% TB deaths

% TB

population

100,000 population)

deaths of total

under 5

years

deaths registered

Total number of TB

Under treatment Government

beds

clinics

1960

...

3,075,300

67.80

10.55

10.89

1,879

28,679

1970

3,959,000

36.27

0.63

6.92

1,788

24,481

1971

:

4,045,300

30.90

0.64

6.17

1,667

22,110

304

Appendix 33

(Chapter 7: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths, 1967-1971

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

Cholera...

9

Amoebic

Dysentery

154

21

117

12

85

7

68

4

66

4

Bacillary

Dysentery

829*

7* 869*

6*

736

5

609

7

543

3

Cerebro-spinal

Meningitis

55

16

32

14

23

4

10

4

5

1

Chickenpox

1,257

10

900

1

445

959

2

443

Diphtheria

226

18

113

10

62

10

43

25

2

Enteric Fever

(Typhoid &

Para-typhoid)

728

11

552

8

546

7

438

5

515

6

Leprosy...

148

4

164

127

135

117

Malaria ...

65

2

19

11

B

I

3

1† 9

1

Measles...

4,726

654 1,138

46

1965

994

21 1,011

13

591

Ophthalmia

Neonatorum...

191

203

I

76

84

56

Poliomyelitis

5

3

15

2

16

3

27

3

2

Puerperal Fever

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

64

-

8

1

4

3

1

5

Scarlet Fever

Tuberculosis

Typhus (Mite-

borne)

15,253 1,493 9,792 1,483 11,072 1,470 10,077 1,436 9,028 1,250

2

Whooping

Cough

Total

40

88

3

5

2

23,742 2,240 14,011 1,583 14,210 1,528 13,473 1,481 11,410 1,271

*Influenza

4,923

25 8,493 45 3,232

14 5,814

16 7,397

34

Remarks: * Including unspecified dysentery.

† Case reported in 1969.

Voluntary notifications.

The above table omits rabies, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever--no case of any of which was reported during the year.

305

Appendix 34

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong 1971

Institutions

Number of Hospital Beds

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

A. Hospitals Castle Peak Hospital

Kowloon Hospital

-

Lai Chi Kok Hospital

Queen Elizabeth Hospital Queen Mary Hospital Sai Ying Pun Hospital South Lantau Hospital St John Hospital

Tang Shiu Kin Hospital

Tsan Yuk Hospital ... 6 Prison Hospitals

B. Dispensaries Aberdeen

Anne Black

Castle Peak

Chai Wan

...

Cheung Sha Wan

Ho Tung

Hung Hom

Kam Tin

***

Kennedy Town

::

:

1,242

1,043

492

1,596

1,128

88

15

100

76

301

283

6,364

25

11

24

24

24

6

14

8

Kwun Tong ...

25

25

Lady Trench Polyclinic

6

Li Po Chun Health Centre

28

Lions Club Government MCH Centre

20

Maurine Grantham MCH Centre

25

North Lamma

6

Peng Chau

7

Robert Black Health Centre

26

Sai Kung

Sha Tin

Shau Kei Wan

Shek Wu Hui

Silver Mine Bay

Stanley

Tai O

Tai Po

Wang Tau Hom

Yuen Long

7

24

26

31

6

6

17

27

:

223

24

485

306

Appendix 34- Contd

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds

Institutions

GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED HOSPITALS

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital

Caritas Medical Centre

Duchess of Kent Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home

Fanling Hospital...

Grantham Hospital

356

898

...

200

54

612

322*

540

187

1,552

80

:

120

264

162

360

503

435

338

:

:

681

7,664

:

:

:

Haven of Hope TB Sanatorium

Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium

Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital...

Kwong Wah Hospital

Margaret Trench Medical Rehabilitation Centre

Nam Long Hospital

Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital

Pok Oi Hospital

Ruttonjee Sanatorium

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital

Tung Wah Hospital

Tung Wah Eastern Hospital

Wong Tai Sin Infirmary...

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Adventist Sanitarium (Hong Kong)

Adventist Sanitarium (Tsuen Wan)

Baptist Hospital

Canossa Hospital

Evangel Medical Centre...

Hong Kong Central Hospital

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

Matilda and War Memorial Hospital .

Precious Blood Hospital

St Paul's Hospital

St Teresa's Hospital

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

PRIVATE NURSING|MATERNITY HOMES

:

* Including 12 beds in Rennie's Mill Church Clinic.

:

B

72

114

112

180

50

120

390

52

115

283

400 1,888

246

:

42

16,689

GRAND TOTAL

:

:

307

2,161

181

480

186

747

5,472

3,763

1,709

173

Appendix 35

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

as at December 31, 1971

(A) Registered Professional Medical Personnel

Medical practitioners

Provisionally registered medical practitioners (House Officers)

Dentists

Pharmacists

Midwives (without nursing qualifications)

Nurses* (general, male and female)

(a) with midwifery qualifications

(b) without midwifery qualifications

Nurses (psychiatric, male and female)

(B) Government Professional Medical Personnel

Medical Officers

---

Provisionally registered medical practitioners (House Officers)

Dental Officers

Pharmacists

Midwives (without nursing qualifications)

Nurses* (general, male and female)

(a) with midwifery qualifications

Nurses* (psychiatric, male and female)

(b) without midwifery qualifications

* Excluding student nurses.

† Including unregistrable Assistant Medical Officers.

Students or Probationers in Training

as at December 31, 1971

Student Radiographer:

(Diagnostic)

(Therapy)

Student Dispenser

Student Physiotherapist

Student Laboratory Assistant

Student Medical Laboratory Technician

Student Nurse (General):

Male

Female

Student Nurse (Psychiatry):

Male

Female

Student Midwife:

Registered Nurse

Non-registered Nurse

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General):

Male

Female

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry):

Male

Female

Student Health Visitor

Student Health Auxiliary:

Male

Female

Medical Social Worker (In-training) Student Prosthetist

639+

109

67

22

232

2,064

1,365 699

241

Length 1st 2nd 3rd

Course

year

year year

Number who successfully completed training during year

WWNWW IN C

3

6

6

13

16

20

10

13

16

19

3

37 39 29 188 177

ww

3

12

13

3

11

* **

2

ORE

10

10

5

3

11

12

9

11

4

2

17

18

27

112

152

8

49

15

16

1

63

2

45

22

13 20

44

221

22-3

3

4

10

3

4

1

26

4.

5

2

12 22 mm IN

101

20

| I

1 | | 111

6

14

4

15

3

308

Appendix 36

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Statistics on Resettlement

A. Authorised Population

Cottage Areas (one-storey

buildings)

31.12.1970

31.12.1971

57,506

51,953

Multi-storey Estates (6, 7, 8 and

16-storey buildings)

1,094,376

1,147,860

1,151,882

1,199,813

B. Premises of various types

Cottage Areas

Multi-storey Estates

31.12.70 31.12.71

31.12.70 31.12.71

Domestic cottages and huts

8,987

8,697

Domestic rooms...

208,203 224,530

Shops of various kinds

261

272

8,833

8,376

Restaurants (general and light

refreshment)

6

6

534*

534+

Workshops

62

64

1,428

1,614

Factories ...

14

14

2,026

2,154

Schools and Kindergartens

35

26

330

347

Clinics and Welfare Centres

30

27

223

249

* Including 8 annexe restaurants.

† Including 18 annexe restaurants.

309

Appendix 37

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Number of Domestic Units and Estimated Number of Persons Accommodated

Domestic Units-

Departmental or

Agency figure as

at March 31, 1971

Increase/ Decrease

Persons Accommodated- Census Figure as at March 9, 1971

Number

Urban Areas

Permanent

in year

Government Quarters(A)

10,800

Resettlement Estates

177,700

++

300

700

56,400(B) 804,300

Resettlement Cottage Areas

6,700

500

41,000

Government Low-Cost Housing

27,000

153,500

Housing Authority

***

31,800

+ 6,700

Housing Society

17,000 + 1,100

} 253,500

New Territories

Total ...

Government Quarters(A) Resettlement Estates

Resettlement Cottage Areas

Government Low-Cost Housing

Housing Authority

271,000 + 8,300

2,300

1,311,200

32,700 + 1,100

11,700(B) 139,600

2,300 + 100

7,600

8,300 + 4,000

34,600

3,100

Housing Society

2,100

}

30,400

Total

50,800

+ 5,200

223,900

Residual Mainly Private

Urban Areas ...

281,900

+ 8,300

1,688,500

New Territories

64,500

+ 7,300

287,600

Total Permanent

668,200

+29,100

3,531,200

Non-Permanent

Squatters, occupants

of licensed/resite

Urban Area

areas and in-

New

habitants of non-

domestic premises

Colony Land Total

Territories...

Total Non-permanent

Marine

Colony Population

Notes:

165,400

160,100

325,500

3,856,700

79,900 3,936,600

         (i) All figures have been rounded off to the nearest hundred. (ii) For departmental or agency figure, NT figures include those for Tsuen Wan District of the New Territories Administration; for Census figure, Urban Areas figures include those for Kau Wah Keng and Butterfly Valley.

(A) Population figures include officers living in barrack type accommodation (12,400 in the urban areas, 4,100 in the New Territories) but this type of accommodation is not included in the domestic unit figure.

(B) Census figure is not available for this item and the departmental figure as at March 31,

1971, is used.

310

Appendix 38

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Premiums received on sales of Crown Land from 1851 to 1971

The system of disposing of leasehold land by public auction for a premium began in 1851 in accordance with the Secretary of State's Despatch No. 222 of January 2, 1851. Where premiums are payable by instalments, only the amounts actually received have been included in the annual totals.

Total

$

4,223,058.44

5,655,048.87

29,989,868.03

67,617,711.64

177,375,655.35

107,225,301.38

234,402,780.18

207,157,985.13

143,295,983.24

75,859,685.12

50,623,349.27

43,785,984.08

43,757,254.32

120,392,786.28

214,927,259.93

$1,526,189,711.26

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

E

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

· 1900 (50 years)

Period

1851

-

1901

- 1920 (20 years)

1921 1941 (25.12.41)

1946-7 1955-6 (10 years)

-

1956-7 - 1960-1 (5 years)

1961-2 (1 year)

1962-3 (1 year)

1963-4 (1 year)

1964-5 (1 year)

1965-6 (1 year)

1966-7 (1 year)

1967-8 (1 year)

1968-9 (1 year)

1969-70 (1 year)

1970-1 (1 year)

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Appendix 39

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic

Comparative figures for the past six calendar years are as follows:

:

Fatal ...

Serious injury

Slight injury ...

Total

:

Accidents

311

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

264

284

333

314

367

362

3,065

3,556 3,759 3,970

4,098

4,346

5,732

6,108

5,843

5,891

6,555

7,572

9,061 9,948 9,935 10,175 11,020

12,280

Number of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

Number of registered vehicles

1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971

92,966 99,444 109,736 125,596 143,995 164,710*

197,180 227,093 250,948 291,486 338,503 359,519

Number of licensed drivers

Provisional (Learner) Licences

issued

Driving Tests conducted

29,664 48,286 55,274 63,178 84,646 111,386

126,147 160,146 178,265 207,966† 246,766† 225,677†

* This number includes 332 trailers and does not include 110 rickshaws, and 53 pedal tricycles.

† This number includes written test, the number of practical tests conducted is 166,451.

312

313

Number of Cases

Reported

Crime

1971

1970

Appendix 40

(Chapter 10:

Public Order)

Crime and Narcotic Offences in 1971

Number of Persons

Prosecuted

1971

Number of Cases Number of Persons

Reported

Crime

1971

1970

Prosecuted 1971

Under

16 years

Under

16 years

16 years

and over

16 years

and over

Against Public Order

150

72

49

461

Forgery and Coinage

233

281

1

59

Perjury

44

71

3

24

Bribery and Corruption

80

38

35

Escape and Rescue

84

123

48

Possession of Arms and Ammunition...

41

66

2

29

Unlawful Society

1,034

960

95

779

Conspiracy

19

39

6

60

...

Other Offences Against Lawful

Breach of Deportation

15

9

8

Authority

74

50

37

Other Crime

239

207

98

Total

1,386

1,276

148

1,349

Total ...

627

640

9

289

Rape and Indecent Assault

Other Sexual Offences

377

378

24

Serious Narcotic Offence

143

1,221

1,191

2

1,304

464

397

7

222

Grand Total

32,461 29,052

1,645

15,294

Total

:

841

775

31

365

(Percentage of Crime Detected: 1970-76.6%; 1971-76.5%)

NARCOTIC OFFENCES

Murder and Manslaughter

Attempted Murder

98

71

9

106

*Manufacturing (Section 6)

7

3

19

4

5

3

*Trafficking (Section 4-Importing)

1

Serious Assaults

1,598

1,337

90

1,122

*Other Trafficking (Section 4)

12

34

14

Abortion

3

4

3

*Possession for Purpose of Trafficking

Kidnapping

2

(Section 7)

1,201

1,154

2

1,271

Criminal Intimidation

38

33

48

Opium

Other Offences Against the Person

239

167

79

Possession of Opium

3,123

1,974

2,643

Possession of Equipment

217

145

18

Total

1,982

1,617

100

1,361

Keeping a Divan

72

7

72

Smoking Opium ...

3,320

2,279

3,255

Robbery with Firearms

14

13

Other Opium Offences

37

25

1

Other Robberies

5,132

3,002

540

2,239

Heroin

All Burglaries

3,789

2,522

69

1,111

Possession of Heroin

Going Equipped for Stealing, etc

940

292

12

317

6,707

8,262

8 6,302

Blackmail ...

327

349

33

116

Possession of Equipment

81

118

51

Keeping a Divan

4

3

Theft from Person

1,705

1,500

46

732

4

Smoking Heroin ...

1,056

Other Thefts

10,363

10,247

495

3,535

1,169

1

1,002

Other Heroin Offences

17

79

All Frauds...

619

497

1

147

4

Handling Stolen Goods

45

62

5

24

Other Dangerous Drugs

Malicious Injuries to Property

257

275

17

102

Possession

740

488

623

Unlawful Possession

674

726

44

508

Smoking

53

9

42

Possession of Unlawful Instrument

1,381

1,834

74

705

Other Offences

26

2

9

Loitering and Trespass

Total ...

26,404

1,158 2,243

23,553

19 1,077

1,355 10,626

Total

16,674

15,751

11

15,330

*These offences are classified as Crime and are also shown under Serious Narcotic Offences.

314

Appendix 41

(Chapter 12: Public Works and Utilities)

Electricity Production and Distribution

Million kW Hrs

Year Month

Domestic Industrial Commercial

Street Lighting

Total

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

14.51

2,385.69

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

15.01

2,710.46

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

16.37

3,023.56

:

:

:

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

18.01

3,449.47

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

19.27

3,962.12

:

927.29

1,830.12

1,673.25

20.10

4,450.77

:

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970 ...

1971: January

71.07

130.74

112.58

1.90

316.27

February

84.40

133.67

117.63

1.84

337.54

March...

70.50

163.83

114.46

1.78

350.58

April

73.59

167.54

135.09

1.70

377.92

May

73.59

171.42

146.30

1.68

393.00

June

:

97.76

183.76

171.76

1.67

454.95

July

115.12

191.17

184.19

1.76

492.25

August

113.69

177.60

178.01

1.61

470.91

September

111.73

193.24

183.55

1.83

490.34

October

94.87

173.18

160.33

1.83

430.20

November

74.98

173.80

142.69

2.00

393.47

December

77.48

171.22

133.26

1.89

383.85

Total

1,058.77

2,031.17

1,779.85

21.48

4,891.27

N.A.: Not available.

Appendix 41

Contd

(Chapter 12: Public Works and Utilities)

Gas Production and Distribution

Therms

315

Year Month

Domestic

Industrial

Commercial

Total

1965

3,704,778

332,541

1,639,693

5,677,012

1966

:

1967

1968

1969

1970

:.

:

:

3,783,067

466,486

2,059,434

6,308,987

3,858,816

649,641

2,277,621

6,786,078

3,988,391

794,907

2,468,942

7,252,240

4,050,367

956,252

2,906,788

7,913,407

4,684,504

1,009,639

3,383,672

9,077,815

1971: January

506,380

68,830

323,894

899,104

February

555,566

61,428

323,469

940,463

March...

498,814

79,902

325,716

904,432

April

471,409

78,097

325,757

875,263

May

:

378,249

75,398

285,582

739,229

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

392,906

82,093

299,052

774,051

:

:

354,427

87,341

288,621

730,389

340,877

83,009

285,159

709,045

:

:

:

342,993

78,610

284,043

705,646

380,973

81,132

310,991

773,096

422,818

88,536

327,002

838,356

504,152

81,681

338,405

924,238

Total

5,149,564

946,057

3,717,691

9,813,312

316

Marine

Ocean-

Appendix (Chapter 13:

Communication for the year ending

Mechanised vessels under

42

Communications) Statistics December 31, 1971

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas (Millions)

River

going

Junks

steamers

vessels

300 tons

1960+

Vessels entered

7,714

Tonnage entered

24,260,765

12,410 2,703,997

7,493 1,204,277

5,331

1961

504,791

1962

Passengers disembarked

26,097

1,590,678

1963

Cargo tons discharged

Vessels cleared

Tonnage cleared

Passengers embarked

Cargo tons loaded

Length of line

7,586 7,714

12,413 24,163,340 2,699,177

26,124 1,603,177

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section*

Main points of call

Main line-22 miles (36 km.)

Total length of line-38 miles (61 km.) New Territories (Hong Kong)

10,210,310

712,038 7,485

540,054

1964†

5,340

1965

1,215,720

499,133

1966

1967

2,969,058

7,112

177,042

1,001

1968+

1969

1970

1971

317

Urban Total

Area 809.447 772.756 890.716 840.066 974.777 913.101 1,032.576 961.483 1,090.195 1,007.695

HK Island 281.620

Kowloon

Cross New§

Harbour Territories

353.155

137.981

36.691

300.705

394.500

144.861

50.650

323.196 430.678 159.227 333.946 456.698 340.663

61.676

170.839

71.093

478.123 188.909

82.500

1,162.710 1,072.985

351.023

518.924

203.038

89.725

1,237.516 1,147.206

368.150

568.817

210.239

90.310

1,054.590 986.046 323.268 1,196.631 1,119.582 359.102 549.892 210.588 1,225.837 1,146.340 374.931 548.705 1,160.849 1,093.936 344.329 518.883 1,138,280 1,083.324 331.870 511.560

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas

(Index Numbers: Base 1959-100)

462.559 200.219

68.544

77.049

222.704 230.725

79.497 66.913 239.894 54.956

Passengers carried

Passenger kilometres

10,954,058

193,779,985

( 10,318,789

(177,191,083

Freight carried (in metric tons)

Total revenue

1,007,046

$18,459,051.63

859,998 ($16,089,247,37)

Urban

Total

HK

Area

Kowloon

Island

Net operating revenue

$ 3,844,211.04

($ 2,156,808,15)

1959

Cross

New§ Harbour Territories

100

100

100

Capital expenditure

$

998,790.89

100

($ 8,360,494.85)

1960

100

100

112

112

(*)=Figures for 1970 are shown in brackets.

106

118

105

1961

117

123

122

116

132

110

1962

161

135

132

124

144

Air Traffic

121

1963

196

143

139

128

153

130

% increase

1964

226

In

Out

Total

151

146

131

160

over 1970

143

1965

263

161

156

Aircraft

Passengers

Freight (Kilogrammes)

Mail (Kilogrammes)

24,432 1,161,038

24,441 1,208,666

48,873

4.34°/

135

174

154

1966

286

172

166

142

2,369,704

1.93

191

0

1967

160

288

146

143

124

155

23,833,139

51,631,312

1,540,530

2,539,087

75,464,451 4,079,617

23.33

152

1968

218

166

162

138

184

160

7.84

1969

245

170

166

144

184

169

1970

253

161

159

132

174

Vehicles

175

1971

213

158

157

128

171

182

175

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on December 31, 1971 was 164,378. This represented an overall increase of 14% over 1970. There is now a density of about 278 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Source: Transport Department.

*

Private Cars

Motor Cycles

Motor Tricycles

Taxis

Buses

Public Light Buses

Private Light Buses

Goods Vehicles

Public Cars

Crown Vehicles

Rickshaws

Pedal Tricycles...

Trailers ...

Total

105,874

16,592

100

3,406

3,075

3,813

1,567

25,790

884

3,277

Notes: Passenger journeys represent the number of tickets sold or fares collect for single

journeys and estimates of journeys made by holders of season tickets. February figure is adjusted to 28 days.

Kowloon-Canton Railway (British Section) excludes passengers to and from Lo Wu. New Territories--The sum of Kowloon Motor Bus routes 16 and upwards and all suffixes; Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry, other than services between Hong Kong and Kowloon or New Kowloon; and Kowloon-Canton Railways excluding passengers to and from Lo Wu. KMB Tsuen Wan routes were grouped into Urban routes w.e.f. July 1, 1970.

Postal Traffic

110

Number of Post Offices

༢༣

Total Revenue

332

164,873

Tons of mail despatched by air

Value of Remittance Business (Money Order and Postal Orders issued

and paid)

1970

59 $160.02 m

1971

63

$ 82.64 m

$161.97 m

84.30 m

Passenger Journeys* by Public Transport: Annual

Traffic by Undertakings (Millions)

Bags conveyed by Kowloon-Canton Railway

2,313 426,424

1,872 255,298

1960+

Total 809.447

1961

890.716

1962

974.777

1963

1964†

1965

1966

1967

1968†

KMB CMB HKT HYF 380.712 106.288 175.332 101.983 435.515 120.120 180.585 106.765 481.569 134.196 189.000 515.172 1,032.576

143.026 190.920 126.990 546.579 1,090.195

158.209 182.454 144.611 1,162.710 593.221 169.256 181.767 155.499 1,237.516 643.120 186,561 181.589 161.180 1,054.590 515.539 169.151 154.117 1,196.631 610.752 201.107

Telecommunication Traffic

SFC

KCR

39.394

5.748

41.864

5.867

Telegrams accepted for transmission

1970

1971

Telegrams received

117.228

46.630

5.154

Telegrams handled in transit

49.196

7.272

50.460

7.882

Telex calls-outward minutes

1,458,013 1,476,703 1,743,628 1,713,980 1,252,174 1,298,689

54.491

8.476

Telex calls-inward minutes

1,418,938 1,947,432

56.332

8.734

158.524

48.625

8.634

Pictures transmitted

International telephone calls-inward minutes

International telephone calls--outward minutes

1,377,008

1,871,292

4,078,224

5,098,557

4,947,055

157.995

166.830

50.986

8.961

5,762,700

Pictures received

2,836

1969

1,225.837 611.463 212.879

162,052

174.407

55.819

9.217

4,453

1970

1971

1,160.849 568.014 185.795 1,138.280 547.571 175,110 156.760 190.531

158.533

182.201

56.646

9.660

Press broadcasts and reception services-number of hours

18,922

58.216

10.092

Meteorological broadcasts and reception services-number of hours Inland telegrams

13,800

19,968

20,807

92,381

122,248

7,032

7,197

318

Appendix 43

(Chapter 17: Recreation)

Some Trends in Recreation and Amenities

Development

Number of recreational facilities managed by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department in Hong Kong, Kowloon "and the New Territories as at:

30.9.55 30.9.60 30.9.64 | 30.9.66 31.12.68 31.12.70 31.12.71

31.12.68 31.12.70 31.

Number of acres of public open

space administered by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department

Facilities

Children's playgrounds

176

562

846

1,099

1,252 1,388 1,471.92

26

55555

101

185

233 255

Parks and gardens

10

78

164

220

283

336

360

Grass games pitches

Hardsurface mini-soccer pitches...

12

18

21

P

24

24

29

37

42

19

31

42

54

73

86

Basketball/volleyball courts

6

36

97

136

233

303

326

Tennis courts

Running tracks

Beaches

Swimming pools

:

Service and recreational facilities

not otherwise stated

Nil

18

223

25

30

30

30

36

Nil

2

2

2

6

7 9

a

30

30

36

38

38

38

Nil

1

2

2

2

3

5

64

211

286

338

323

506

563

Appendix 44

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate) Climatological Summary 1971

Air Temperature

319

Wind

Pres-

Rela-

sure at

Amount

Pre-

Dew❘ tive

Sun-

Rain-

Mean

Abs Mean

Mean Abs

Point Hu-

of

vail-

shine

Sea Level

Max Max

Mean

Cloud

fall

Mean

ing

Min Min

midity

direc-

Speed

tion

mb °C °C ос

ос °C

°C %

%

hours

mm points knots

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1020.6 21.7 17.3 14.2

               15.7 13.6 17.7 25.5 18.9 17.5 27.2 21.9 28.4 16.1 12.8 30.3 26.4 23.1 21.0 09.7 31.9 28.7 25.9 23.9 05.8 33.7 31.2 28.5 26.3 24.3 04.6 33.7 31.5 28.8 26.5 23.7 07.1 33.7 31.2 28.1 25.7 22.3 07.5 33.2 30.9 27.9 14.6 31.3 27.4 24.2 19.1 27.7 24.5 20.8 19.8 25.1 20.4 17.3

11.7

5.5

6.1

61

9.0 10.5

73

12.5 13.8

75

19.1

79 18.2

18.8

22.3

24.8

25.0

24.4 81

25.6 21.6 21.8 18.1

22.9 75

17.5 17.3 67

11.7

11.5 58

PRO

40

202.5

18.0 NNE

6.2

73

108.9

14.1 E

7.7

61

149.2

1.1 E

6.3

62

138.6

17.9 E

5.4

81

76

132.1

172.7 E

5.3

81

70

193.8 434.5

S

5.7

80

64

216.8 324.4 ESE

6.9

57

224.4 525.5.

E

3.8

61

180.8

194.5

W

4.8

55

196.8 26.0

E

6.4

34

236.3 Trace

E

6.5

15.1

72 9.8 11.9

60

136.4 175.1

E

5.2

Mean,

total or

extreme

for year 1013.1

33.7 25.9 22.7 20.5

5.5 17.5 74

59

2116.6 1903.8) E

5.9

(Jun

(Jan

16

31)

Jul 21

Aug 31)

Climatological Normals

(1884-1939; 1947-1960)

mb

°C*

°C °C °C °C* °C % %

hours

mm points knots

January

1019.9 26.9

18.2 15.4

13.3

0.0 11.1 75

64

145.4

31.7 E

7.7

February

March

April

May

18.4 27.8 17.7 15.2 29.7 19.9 16.1 12.7 33.4 23.9 09.2 35.5 27.8 25.2 23.3

13.2

2.4 11.7 79

75

17.5

15.6

6,2 14.8 83

82

100.2 46.9

94.7

E

8.9

72.2

E

9.4

21.3

19.5 9.9 18.8 85

80

114.6 135.8

8.7

15.4 22.4 85

76

156.1 292.7

8.3

June

July August

September October November December

05.9 35.6 29.8 27.3 25.4 19.2 24.2 04.9 35.7 30.7 27.9 25.8 04.9 36.1 30.4 27.7 25.5 08.4 35.2 29.8 27.1 24.9 13.8 34.3 27.3 24.6 22.5 17.5 31.8 23.7 20.9 18.6 17.3 14.9 19.7 28.7 20.1

84

78

159.9 401.2

7.6

22.2 24.7

83

69

213.7 371.7

6.8

21.7 24.6 84

67

200.9 370.8

6.5

18.4 23.1

79

61

197.5 278.8

7.8

14.1 19.3 72

51

218.9

99.2

8.5

6.5

15.1 4.8 11.9

69

53

187.9

43.1

7.8

70

55

172.6

24.9

7.2

Mean,

total or

extreme

for year 1012.6 36.1 24.9 22.3 20.2

(1900

Aug

19)

0.0 18.5 79 (1893

68

1963.1 2168.8

E

7.9

Jan 18)

* 1884-1939; 1947-1971.

320

Type of appointment

Name of Members on January 1, 1972

Appendix 45

(Chapter 22: Constitution

and Administration)

The Executive Council

Remarks

Type of appointment

Name of Members

Remarks

on January 1, 1972

321

Ex Officio

(Presided over by His Excellency the Governor)

"

Nominated

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander British

Forces

Lieutenant-General Sir Richard

WARD, KCB, DSO*, MC

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary Sir Hugh Selby NORMAN-WALKER,

KCMG, OBĚ, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS,

CBE, QC, JP

Sir David Clive Crosbie TRENCH. GCMG, MC, was Governor until 19.10.71.

Sir Hugh

Sir

Selby NORMAN-WALKER, KCMG, OBE, JP, was Acting Gover- nor from 3.6.71 to 2.7.71 and from 19.10.71 to 18.11.71.

Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, MBE, assumed the office of Governor on 19.11.71.

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated The Honourable Sir Albert RODRIGUES, Mr Herbert John Charles BROWNE, OBE,

CBE, ED, JP

""

The

Honourable Sir John Douglas CLAGUE, CBE, MC, QPM, TD, JP

JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Sir Albert RODRIGUES from 7.6.71 to 23.7.71.

Mr Gerald Mordaunt Broome SALMON, JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Sir Douglas CLAGUE from 31.5.71 to 25.7.71.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Sir Douglas CLAGUE from 1.8.71 to 17.9.71.

The Honourable Sir Kenneth Ping-fan Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed

FUNG, CBE, JP

"

The Honourable Sir Sidney Samuel

GORDON, CBE, JP

temporarily during the absence of Sir Kenneth FUNG from 4.6.71 to 24.7.71.

Mr Herbert John Charles BROWNE, OBE, JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Sir Sidney GORDON from 1.9.71 to 3.10.71.

Major General Derek Gordon Thomond HORSFORD, CBE, DSO, appointed to act as Commander British Forces from 3.8.71 to 7.8.71, from 14.8.71 to 26.8.71, from 15.9.71 to 22.9.71 and from 2.10.71 to 10.10.71.

Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON, CMG, GM*, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 3.6.71 to 2.7.71, from 20.9.71 to 26.9.71 and from 19.10.71 to 18.11.71.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General up to 10.1.71 and from 5.7.71 to 4.9.71.

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Succeeded Mr David Ronald HOLMES,

Affairs

Mr Donald Collin Cumyn

LUDDINGTON, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, JP

The Honourable George Tippett Rowe,

CBE, JP

(Director of Social Welfare)

CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, on 18.5.71.

Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 1.8.71 to 16.9.71 and from 20.11.71 to 27.11.71.

Succeeded Sir John James COWPERTH-

WAITE, KBE, CMG, on 1.7.71.

Mr David Harold JORDAN, MBE, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 20.9.71 to 30.9.71, from 8.11.71 to 10.11.71 and from 5.12.71 to 9.12.71.

Dr Gerald Hugh CHOA, JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Mr G. T. ROWE from 12.7.71 to 20.8.71.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Sir Sidney GORDON from 12.11.71 to 17.11.71.

The Honourable Sir Yuet-keung KAN, Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed

CBE, JP

The Honourable John Anthony Holt

SAUNDERS, CBE, DSO, MC, JP

temporarily during the absence of Sir Yuet-keung KAN from 13.3.71 to 30.3.71, from 2.8.71 to 16.9.71 and from 13.11.71 to 17.11.71.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed temporarily during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 10.5.71 to 30.7.71.

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, Appointed to be temporarily an Un-

JP

The Honourable SZETO Wai, OBE, JP

official Member from 13.12.71.

Appointed to be temporarily an Un-

official Member from 13.12.71.

322

Type of appointment

Name of Members

on January 1, 1972

Appendix 46

(Chapter 22: Constitution

and Administration)

The Legislative Council

Remarks

Type of appointment

Name of Members

on January 1, 1972

Remarks

323

Ex Officio

"

"

Nominated

33

"

"

"

PRESIDENT:

His Excellency the Governor

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE,

KCMG, MBE

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Sir Hugh Selby NORMAN-Walker,

KCMG, OBE, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS, CBE,

QC, JP

Sir David Clive Grosbie TRENCH, GCMG,

MC, was Governor until 19.10.71. Sir Hugh Selby NORMAN-WALKER, KCMG, OBE, JP, was Acting Gover- nor from 3.6.71 to 2.7.71 and from 19.10.71 to 18.11.71.

Sir Crawford Murray MACLEHOSE, KCMG, MBE assumed the office of Governor on 19.11.71.

Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON, CMG, GM*, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 3.6.71 to 2.7.71, from 20.9.71 to 26.9.71 and from 19.10.71 to 18.11.71.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General up to 10.1.71 and from 5.7.71 to 4.9.71.

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Succeeded Mr David Ronald HOLMES,

Affairs

Mr Donald Collin Cumyn

LUDDINGTON, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, JP

The Honourable David Richard Watson

ALEXANDER, CBE, JP

(Director of Urban Services)

The Honourable James Jeavons ROBSON,

JP

(Director of Public Works)

The Honourable John CANNING, JP

(Director of Education)

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh CHOA,

JP

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

The Honourable Jack CATER, MBE, JP

(Director of Commerce and Industry)

CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, on 18.5.71. Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 1.8.71 to 16.9.71 and from 20.11.71 to 27.11.71. Succeeded Sir John James COWPERTH-

WAITE, KBE, CMG, on 1.7.71.

Mr David Harold JORDAN, MBE, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 20.9.71 to 30.9.71, from 8.11.71 to 10.11.71 and from 5.12.71 to 9.12.71. Mr Alastair Trevor CLARK, JP, appoint- ed provisionally during the absence of Mr ALEXANDER from 17.7.71 to 5.9.71.

Mr Ho Nga-ming, JP, appointed provi- sionally during the absence of Mr CANNING from 9.2.71 to 20.2.71.

The Honourable Denis Campbell BRAY, Succeeded Mr Donald Collin Cumyn

JP

(District Commissioner, New

Territories)

The Honourable Paul Tsui Ka-cheung,

OBE, JP

(Commissioner of Labour)

The Honourable Ian MacDonald

LIGHTBODY, JP

(Commissioner for Resettlement)

LUDDINGTON, JP, on 1.4.71.

Succeeded Mr Robert Marshall HETHER-

INGTON, DFC, on 4.9.71.

W.e.f. 8.9.71 (Mr John Charles Creasey WALDEN, JP, appointed as an Official Member in a provisional capacity from 7.7.71 to 7.9.71).

Nominated

35

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The_Honourable Sir Yuet-keung KAN, Mr Li Fook-wo, OBE, JP, appointed

CBE, JP

provisionally during the absence of Sir Yuet-keung KAN from 2.8.71 to 16.9.71.

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, OBE,

JP

The Honourable SZETO Wai, OBE, JP

The Honourable Wilfred WONG Sien-

bing, OBE, JP

The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui, OBE,

JP

The Honourable Wilson WANG Tze-sam,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Herbert John Charles Mr John Louis MARDEN, JP, appointed

BROWNE, OBE, JP

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen,

OBE, JP

The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, OBE, JP

The Honourable Oswald Victor CHEUNG,

OBE, QC, JP

The

""

Honourable Gerald Mordaunt Broome SALMON, JP

provisionally during the absence of Mr BROWNE from 29.7.71 to 29.8.71.

The Honourable ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP Mr Li Fook-wo, OBE, JP, appointed

The Honourable Lo Kwee-seong, OBE,

JP

provisionally during the absence of Mr ANN from 22.6.71 to 24.7.71.

324

Type of appointment

Appendix 47

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1972

CHAIRMAN:

By Governor The Honourable David Richard Watson

ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

Director of Urban Services

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Vice-Chairman

Ex officio

Deputy Director of Medical and

Health Services

Remarks

,,

Dr James Kenneth CRAIG, MBE

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Succeeded Mr David Ronald HOLMES,

Affairs

Mr Donald Collin Cumyn

LUDDINGTON, JP

CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, on 18.5.71. Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP, acted as Secretary for Home Affairs from 1.1.71 to 3.1.71.

Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, acted as Secretary for Home Affairs from 1.8.71 to 16.9.71.

""

Elected

""

The Director of Public Works

The Honourable James Jeavons

ROBSON, JP

The Director of Social Welfare

The Honourable George Tippett

Rowe, JP

The Commissioner for Resettlement

The Honourable Ian MacDonald

LIGHTBODY, JP

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE,

QC, JP

Mr Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, JP

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick

""

"

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa

32

Appointed

Mr Raymond KAN Yat-kum

Mr Peter CHAN Chi-kwan

Mr Henry WONG

Mr Charles Sin Cho-chiu

Miss Cecilia YEUNG Lai-yin

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira Sales, OBE, JP

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, JP

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE, JP

Mr Lawrence Edwin Arthur HOLT- KENTWELL, MBE, JP, acted as Director of Social Welfare from 12.7.71 to 20.8.71.

Succeeded Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung,

OBE, JP, on 8.9.71.

Mr John Charles Creasey WALDEN, JP, acted as Commissioner for Resettle- ment from 7.7.71 to 7.9.71.

25

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, JP

"

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP

"

Mr James Wu Man-hon, JP

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun, JP

"

Mrs Catherine Joyce SYMONS, OBE, JP

Mr Lo Tak-shing, JP

Mr John MACKENZIE

Succeeded Mr Derek John Renshaw

BLAKER, JP, resigned on 26.3.71.

Appendix 48

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal 1967-71

325

Supreme Court

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

Civil appeals

52

36

47

51

50

Criminal appeals

711

758

912

735

1,026

Original jurisdiction

1,983

1,651

1,642

2,210

3,097

Miscellaneous proceedings

316

296

246

237

308

Adoptions

134

224

292

271

320

Divorce

164

144

222

257

388

Criminal sessions

64

51

53

72

90

Admiralty jurisdiction

Probate grants

Lunacy

Bankruptcy

Company winding-up

Total

62

31

30

40

38

1,080

1,101

1,240

1,449

1,562

I

2

21727

11

10

:

39

39

26

21

199

10

15

10

38

4,632

4,331

4,715

5,342

6,932

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

383

123

305

Civil jurisdiction

16,717

18,892

15,444

216 15,690

247

13,965

Workmen's compensation

223

158

175

201

306

Distress for rent

1,730

1,314

1,255

1,214

1,309

Rent increase application

856

Total

:

19,053

20,487

17,179

17,321

16,683

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

580

702

759

719

679

Exemption cases

18

13

62

289

267

Demolished building cases

173

164

132

110

103

Total

771

879

953

1,118

1,049

Work in the Magistracies for the Years 1967-71

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

Total number of summary matters (charges, summonses and appli- cations, etc)

316,177

441,461 478,711

528,363

575,697

Total number of adult defendants

342,101

435,120

486,753

541,247

606,060

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

310,668

399,685

445,211

490,146

537,487

Total number of juvenile defendants

9,368

12,711

9,587

5,111

4,458

Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

9,111

12,539

9,077

4,682

4,240

Total number of charge sheets

issued

113,451 161,785

175,498

199,414

209,592

Total number of summonses issued

199,136

274,332

295,915

321,387

359,947

Total number of miscellaneous pro-

ceedings issued

3,590

5,344

7,298

7,562

6,152

326

Appendix 49

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(A) The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Member Agencies

American Women's Association of Hong Kong Hong Kong Housing Society

        Association of Volunteers for Service Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services) Caritas--Hong Kong

Catholic Relief Services-USCC Catholic Women's League

Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong Red Swastika

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement Hong Kong Society for the Protection of

Association

The Cheshire Home

Children's Meals Society

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Children's Playground Association Child Care Centre-Walled City Christian Children's Fund, Inc Christian Family Service Centre Church of Christ in China, Hong Kong

Council, Social Welfare Department Conference Board of Christian Social Concerns of the Methodist Church Convent of Good Shepherd

Department of Social Work, University of

Hong Kong

Diocesan Welfare Council of the Diocese of

Hong Kong and Macau

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

        Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind The Endeavourers

Epworth Village Community Centre

(The Chinese Methodist Church)

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong Five District Business Welfare Association Foster Parents' Plan, Inc Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club

Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel and Centre Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic

Disease Association

Hong Kong Catholic Conference of Social

Service

Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of the Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Women

Children

Hong Kong Society for Rahabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group International Rescue Committee International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council The Leprosy Mission

Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters

Marycove

Mennonite Central Committee

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern, Inc

Rennies Mill Student Aid Project

Resettlement Estates Loan Association

The Salvation Army

Save the Children Fund

Scouts' Association

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese

Methodist Church

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Student Christian Centre

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

World Council of Churches

World Vision, Inc

YMCA (Chinese speaking)

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society YMCA (English speaking)

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

YWCA

Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

Appendix 49- Contd

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(B) The Community Chest of Hong Kong

Member Organisations

Buddhist Po Ching Home for the Aged Women

Calvary Social Service Centre

Canossian Mission Welfare Services

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council

Catholic Women's League

Child Care Centre-Kowloon Walled City

Children's Meals Society

Chinese YMCA

Christian Family Service Centre

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

Epworth Village Community Centre

Family Planning Association

Foster Parents Plan

Hans Andersen Club

Happy Home for the Aged

Heep Hong Club for Handicapped Children

Holy Carpenter Youth Centre

Holy Nativity Social Service Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Council of the Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

Kei Oi Youth Centre

Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Lutheran World Federation

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong

Neighbourhood Advice Council

327

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

North Point Estate Residents Association

Practical Training Centre of the Churches

Project Concern-Hong Kong

Rennies' Mill Student Aid Project

St Christopher's Home

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

St Thomas' Day Nursery

Salvation Army-Hong Kong Command

Save the Children Fund

Shaukiwan Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

Sisters of the Good Shepherd (Pelletier Hall)

Society for Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts

Society of Boys' Centres

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Workers Tours and Travel Service

Yang Memorial Social Service Centre

YWCA

Youth Centre St Barnabas'

Index

Abattoirs, 105

Aberdeen, 25, 224

Index

Bus services, 169-70, 171 Business registration, 39-41

Action Committee Against Narcotics, Butterflies, 221

97

      Administration, Government, 235-47 Adoption, 128, 131

Advisory Committees, 8, 244 Aero Club of Hong Kong, 165 Agriculture-

administration and policy, 62-5 extension services, 63 industry, 66-8

Air Traffic, 10-11, 164-5

Aircraft hijacking, 136

Airport, 10-11, 163, 165

loan, 44

Ambulance service, 144

American Women's Association, 135

Animal industries, 62, 67-8

Apprentices, 61

Armed Services, 185-8

Art Collections, 200-2

Arts, the, 199-200

Asian Development Bank, 22 Asian Productivity Organisation,

22, 38

Assets & liabilities, 44, 274-5 Auxiliary Fire Service, 189 Auxiliary Medical Service, 189 Auxiliary Services, 187-9

Banknotes, 48, 290-1

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 41 Banks, 50, 51, 290-1 Bauhinia Blakeana, 222

Bets and Sweeps Tax, 48 Birds, 220

Birth and death registration, 216-7 Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 130 Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association,

130 British-

Council, 203 Government, 235

Broadcasting, 180-1

Buddhism, 190-1

Budget, 42, 45

Building(s)-

Authority, 107

dangerous, 116-7

development, 116, 152-4

multi-storey, 119-20

Cable and Wireless Ltd, 175-6 Cantonese, 214 Cargo handling, 11, 162, 164

Air Cargo Terminal, 165 Caritas Medical Centre, 90 Castle Peak, new town, 26, 156 Castle Peak Hospital, 96

Cathay Pacific Airways, 149, 165 Cattle, 67

Cemeteries, 105

Census, 1, 213, 215-6

Statistics, Department of, 215-6

Certificates of Origin, 33

Chartered Bank, 48

Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 157-9 Chi Ma Wan Prison, 142 Child welfare, 130-1 China, 26, 146, 224, 225

China Light and Power Co Ltd, 157-8

China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 169, 170 Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

33, 39

Chinese University, 16, 75, 76, 77, 78, 88 Cholera, 89, 90

Christians, 192-4

Churches, 190-5

Cinemas, 182

City District Offices, 8, 242-3

City Hall, 199-202

Civil-

Aid Services, 189

Aviation, 163-5

Service, see Public Service

Climate, 205-6

Coinage, 48

Colonial Secretariat, 241

Commerce and Industry Department,

22, 33, 34

Commercial crime, 137-8

Commercial wharves, 162-3

Commonwealth preference, 31, 33

Communicable diseases, 90-4

Communications, 160-77

Community centres, 129

Community Chest, 14-15, 129, 327

Community involvement, 7-8

Community Relief Trust Fund, 134

Companies Registry, 40-1

332

Computers, 160, 176, 208 Confucius, 190

Conjunctivitis, 94

Conservation, 219

Constitution, 235-7

Consumer Price Index, 55, 295 Container facilities, 11, 155, 162 Convention of Chuenpi, 226 Convention of Peking, 227 Co-operative societies, 64-5, 297 Cotton, see Textiles Courts, 238-9, 325

Credit Unions, 65, 298

Crime, 7, 136-9

Crops, 66-7

Cross Harbour Tunnel, 3, 161, 168-9 Crown Rent and Premium Ordinance,

108

Currency, 9, 48-51

Deaths, 216-7

Defence, 185-9

Defence expenditure, 42

Dental services, 100

Desalination, 151-2

Design-

Governor's Award, 39

Federation Award, 39

Devaluation, 49

     Development Loan Fund, 44, 280-9 Diphtheria, 92-3

Diseases, 90-4

District Community Offices, 129-130 Dockyards, 163

Dollar coins, 48 Drainage, 154-5

Drug addiction, 17, 96-7, 138, 145

(see Narcotics)

Drug seizures, 17, 138, 145 Ducks, 67

Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme,

130

Dutiable commodities, 45

Earnings and profits tax, 46-7 East India Company, 225 ECAFE, 22

Education, 71-88

Adult, 83-4

educational television, 84 English school fees, 72

enrolments, 15, 71

examinations, 84-5

higher, 16, 75-8

loans and grants, 75, 76

music and art, 85-6

Ordinance, 71

overseas, 87

polytechnic, 78

Education, 71-88-(Contd)

pre-primary, 72 pre-vocational, 80-1 primary, 15, 72-3 research, 87-8 secondary, 74-5 special, 73-4

technical, 74-5, 78-80 White Paper, 15 Electricity, 10, 157-9, 314 Electronics industry, 24 Elliot, Capt C, 225, 226 Emergency relief, 133-4 Employment, 53-61

advisory service, 59 holidays, 56

migration for, 54 Ordinance, 56 overseas, 59

safety, health and welfare, 58-60 wages and conditions of, 54-6 working hours, 53, 55

Encephalitis, Japanese B, 93-4 Entertainment, 4, 198-200

Entertainment Tax, 48 Entrepôt trade, 27

Essential Services Corps, 188-9 Estate Duty, 47

European Economic Community, 28,

29-30, 34

Exchange control, 48-51

Executive Council, 228, 235-6, 320-1 Exhibitions, 201

Expenditure and revenue, 42-5, 271-89 Explosives, 70

Export Credit Insurance Corporation,

36 Exports, 21, 23, 24-5, 27-36, 258-62

Factories and industrial undertakings,

13, 53, 292-3

Ordinance, 55

Far East Flying Training School, 165 Farming, 62-4

Fauna, 219-221

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

33, 38-9

Ferry services, 171-2

Festivals, Chinese, 192

Festival of Hong Kong, 5

Film Censorship, 182

Film industry, 181-2

Finance Committee, 237, 246 Finances, public, 42-5, 271-291 Financial status, 2

Fire-

losses from, 143

prevention, 66, 143-4

Services, 143-4, 161

Fish-

HK Christian Council, 193

Marketing Organisation, 64, 68-9 HK Council of Social Service, 129, ponds, 68

Fisheries-

     Development Loan Fund, 64 research, 63

Fishing fleet, 63, 68 industry, 68

       Flatted factories, 123 Flora, 222-3

Flying doctor service, 99 Food inspection, 103-4 Foreign Relations, 240 Forestry, 65-6 Fruit, 67

Garden Road Complex, 166

Garment industry, 23-4

Gas, 159, 315

GATT, 12, 21-2, 27-8

Geography, 204

Geology, 204-5

Government Chest Service, 90

Government Information Services, see Information Services Department Governor in Council, 236 Governor, office of, 235

Grievances, 8, 244-5

Hakka, 215

Handicapped, the, 15, 131

Harbour facilities, 160-3

Hawker Control Force, 6, 105

Hawkers, 6-7, 104-5

Health, 16-17, 89-106

dental services, 100

education, 104

environmental, 102-5

inspectors, 103-4

     maternal and child, 95 mental, 96

ophthalmic services, 100-1 outpatient services, 99 port services, 94-5

     specialist services, 98-9 statistics, 303

training, 101-2

Heavy industries, 25

Herbarium, 223

Heung Yee Kuk, 243-4

High Island Water Scheme, 10, 151

Hindu Community, 195

History, 224-234

Hoklo, 215

HK Air International Ltd, 165

HK Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic

Diseases Association, 90, 91

HK Building and Loan Agency, 126 HK and China Gas Co Ltd, 159

130, 326

HK Enterprise, 36

333

HK Federation of Trade Unions, 56 HK Federation of Youth Groups, 130 HK Flying Club, 165

HK General Chamber of Commerce,

33, 38, 228

HK Housing Authority, 123-5 HK Housing Society, 18, 125-6 HK and Kowloon Trades Union

Council, 56

HK Telephone Co Ltd, 176-7 HK Tourist Association, 147, 149 Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 157-9 Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and

Godown Co Ltd, 162

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 48, 135

Hongkong Tramways Ltd, 169, 170 Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co

Ltd, 162, 163

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co Ltd,

169, 171-2 Hospitals, 97-8 Hotel tax, 48

Hotels, 3-4, 148

Housing, 18-20, 120-7

Authority, 18, 123-5

Board, 120

co-operatives, 125

low-cost scheme, 18, 123, 125, 153

Society, 18, 125-6

Hygiene, 102-5

Immigration, 146-7

Bill, 147

illegal, 146 (see also refugees)

Imports, 26-7

Incinerators, 102

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 33 Industrial-

Employment, 13, 53-61 health, 59-60

land, 25-6

relations, 57-9

safety, 58-60

training, 13-14, 60-1

undertakings, 292-3

wages, 54-5

Industry and trade, 21-41, 258-69

Influenza, 93

Information Services Department, 178,

182-4

Interest tax, 46

Internal revenue, 46-8

International Confederation of Free

Trade Unions, 56

334

International economic relations,

21-2, 27-32

Iron ore, 69

Islamic community, 194

Japanese occupation, 229-230 Jewish community, 194

Joseph Trust Fund, 64

Judiciary, 237-9

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, 90,

92

Junks, 162

Juvenile crime, 137

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 64

Khmer Republic, 146 Kowloon-Canton Railway, 166 Kowloon Hospital, 96

Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

169, 170

Kwai Chung, 11, 25-6, 155, 162 Kwangtung, 214

Kwun Tong, 26, 156

Labour-

Department, 53, 57-61 disputes and stoppages, 57 hours of work, 53, 55 legislation, 14, 53, 55-6, 57 shortages, 13, 146

Land-

administration, 107-110 agricultural, 65-6, 205

area, 204

auctions, 107, 110

Crown, 107

development, 109-10, 111, 156

for industry, 25-6

Office, 115-6

registration, 115-6

revenue, 110-1

sales, 110-1

surveys, 111-4

tenure, 107-10

utilisation, 65, 205

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance,

118

Lantau Island, 225

Law courts, 238-9

Leases, Crown, 107-10

Legal Aid, 239

Legislative Council, 228, 236-7,

322-3

Lei Cheng Uk, Tomb, 201-2 Leprosy, 92

Libraries, 202-3

Light industries, 24-5

Lion Rock tunnel, 173

Liquidations, 41 Lo Wu, 166

London Office, Hong Kong

Government, 241-2 Long-Term Cotton Textile

Arrangement, 12

Lotteries Fund, 44-5, 280-9

Low Cost Automation Centre, 23 Low-cost housing, 18, 121-6

Macau, 146, 162

ferries, 162

Magistracies, 238

Malaria, 92

Manufacturing industry, 21, 22-5

Mapping, 111-4

Marine Department, 160-3

Marine Fauna, 221

Market gardening, 66-7

Markets, retail, 104

Marriages, 217-8

Mass transit, 168

Maternal and child health, 95 Measles, 93

Medical-

and Health Department, 89, 90 Clinics Ordinance, 99

fees, 99-100 finance, 90

research, 91, 106 training, 101-2

Mercantile Bank, 48

Meteorology, 206-212

Metrication, 113-4

Minibuses, see public light buses

Mining, 69-70

Monasteries, 190-1

Mong Kok, 214

Morrison Hill Technical Institute, 80

Multi-storey buildings, 119-20

Museum, 200-2

Muslim Community, 194

Narcotics, 17, 138, 145 Natural history, 219-223 Navigation, 160-1 New Territories-

Administration, 242-3 employment, 54 health services, 99 Heung Yee Kuk, 243 land development, 109-10 population, 215

News agencies, 178

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong,

178

Newspapers, 178

North Point Wharves Ltd, 162 Nurses, 101-2

335

Ocean Terminal, 11

OECD, 22

Opium, 225

Orchids, 222, 223

Overseas representation, 270

Oyster farming, 68

Palmerston, Lord, 226

Parking, 169

Parks and playgrounds, 5, 153-4,

196-8

Patents, 39-40

Peak tramways, 170-1

Peking, Convention of, 227

Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd, 158

Personal assessment, 47 Pest control, 92, 104 Pig-raising, 67

Plastics, 24

Plover Cove Scheme, 10, 150, 151

Po Leung Kuk, 131

Police, 136-41

administration, 139-41 anti-corruption, 138-9 Auxiliaries, 141 building projects, 137 Marine, 137

      Narcotics Bureau, 138 recruiting, 140

Tactical Unit, 140-1 Traffic, 139

women, 140

Pollution-

air, 5, 60

environmental, 5-6

litter, 103

port control, 161

Polytechnic, 14, 78

Population, 1-2, 213, 227, 229-230

Composition, 214

New Territories, 215

Port, 160-3

Communication Centre, 161

Executive Committee, 160

health, 94-5

Pollution Control, 161

works, 155-6

Postal services, 174-5

Pottinger, Sir Henry, 226

Poultry, 67

Press, 178

Prevention of Bribery Ordinance,

138-9, 246-7

Preventive Service, 35, 144-5

Primary Production, 62-70

Printing and Publishing, 179 Prisons, 141-3

       Privy Council, 239 Probation, 128, 132

Productivity, 36-8

Centre, 37-8

Council, 36-7

Profits Tax, 46

Property Tax, 46

Protestant Churches, 192-3

Psychiatric services, 96

Public-

administration, 235-47

assistance, 14, 132-3

cars, 171 debt, 44, 278

light buses, 3, 171 Order, 136-45

service, 232, 245-7

Services Commission, 246, 247

transport, 169-72, 316-7 utilities, 157-9, 228

works, 150-7

Public Relations, 183

Quarantine, 94-5, 161 Quarrying, 156-7

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 97, 99, 101 Queen Mary Hospital, 97-8, 99

Rabies, 68

Radio, Commercial, 181 Radio Hong Kong, 180-1 Radio News, 182-3

Radioactivity, measurements, 208 Railway, 166

Rainfall, 206, 209-12, 319 Rates, 45-6

Reclamations, 156

Recreation, 196-203, 318 Red Cross, 99

'Red Eye' disease, 94

Refugees, 229, 230

Refuse collection, 102-3 Rehabilitation Loan, 44 Religion and Custom, 190-5 Rent Control, 118-9 Research-

agricultural, 62

Chinese University, the, 87-8

fisheries, 63

Medical and Health, 106

meteorology, 209

University of Hong Kong, 87-8

Reservoirs, 150-2

Resettlement, 18, 19, 121-3, 126

Buildings, 121-3, 153

cottage area, 123 flatted factories, 123

rents, 122

schools, 122-3, 153 statistics, 308

welfare buildings, 131-2

336

Revaluation, 9, 49, 51

Revenue and expenditure, 42-5,

271-89 Rice, 62, 66, 205

Roads, 2-3, 166-8

Roman Catholic- church, 193-4

schools, 193

RHK Jockey Club, 15, 93, 198 Royal Observatory, 206-9 Rural Committees, 243

Salaries Commission, 246 Salaries tax, 46-7

San Po Kong Interchange, 167 Sanitary services, 102-3

Satellite earth stations, 160, 176

School(s)-

Anglo-Chinese grammar, Chinese middle, 74

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co

Ltd, 163

Tanka, 215 Taoism, 190 Taxation, 46-8

Taxis, 171

Teachers and teacher training, 82-3 Technical College, 78-9

Telecommunications, 175, 177, 317 Telephones, 176-7

Television, 179-180

Broadcasts Ltd, 179-80

Educational, 84, 180

Rediffusion, 179-80, 181

Telex, 176, 317

Temperatures, 206, 319

Temples, 191

Tenancy Tribunal, 238

Textiles Advisory Board, 22 Tientsin, 227

Tin Hau, 191

74

Textiles, 12-3, 23-4

fishermen's children, 64

Health Services, 96

Medical Services, 95

pre-vocational, 80-1

secondary, 74-5

special, 73

primary, 72

technical, 78-80

Seamen's recruiting, 163

Secretariat for Home Affairs, 242-4

Seismology, 208

Sewerage, 154-5

Sha Tin, new town, 26, 156

Shipbuilding, 163

Shipping, 160-3

Silver currency, 228

Snakes, 220-1

Social Welfare, 14-15, 128-35

Training, 134-5

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

of Drug Addicts, 17, 96

Sports and recreation, 4-5, 196-9 Squatters, 126-7

Stamp duty, 47

Stanley Prison, 141

Star Ferry, 169, 172

Steel, 25

Sterling, 48-51

Stock Exchanges, 51-2

Strikes and stoppages, 57

199

Supreme Court, 237-9

Survey, 111-4

Swimming, 198

Tong Fuk Prison, 142

Topography, 204-5

Tourism, 3-4, 147-9

Town Planning, 114

Town Planning Board, 107, 114

Toys, 24

Trade-

administration, 34

agreements, 28-32

and industrial organisations, 38-9 and Industry Advisory Board, 22 Commissioners, 270

Development Council, 35-6 external, 12, 26-7

history, 230-1

international, 27-32

Marks and Patents, 39-40 policy, 22

promotion, 35-6

restrictions, 12-3, 28-32

statistics, 258-69

Trade Unions, 56-7

Traffic, 2-3, 139, 166-8, 173-4, 316-7 Training-

health, 101-2

industrial, 60-1

social welfare, 134-5

teachers, 82-3

Summer Recreation Programme, 198, Tramways, 170-1

Swimming pools, 197, 198

Tai Lam Treatment Centre, 17, 142,

143

Transport, public, 169-72

Transport Advisory Committee, 172

Transport Department, 172-3

Treaty of Nanking, 226

Treaty of Tientsin, 227 Trench, Sir David, 1, 20 Tsing Yi Island, 25-6 Tsuen Wan, 26, 156, 215

337

Tuberculosis, 90-2

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 90,

92, 98

Typhoons and tropical storms,

206-12

Typhoon Rose, 144, 146, 163,

211-2

UMELCO, 8, 244

UNCTAD, 22, 28

Underground Railway, 3, 168 UNDP, 22

University of Hong Kong, 16, 75-7,

88, 101, 228-9

University, The Chinese, 16, 75-8, 88 Unofficial Justices of the Peace, 228 Urban-

Council, 5, 169, 197-202, 228,

239-40, 324 renewal, 19, 111

Urban Council White Paper, 8, 240 Urban Services Department, 105, 197,

198

Utilities, public, 157-9, 228

Vegetable(s)

cultivation, 66-7 marketing, 68-9, 296 Vehicle ferries, 171-2, 174 Vehicle inspection, 172-3

Vehicles and drivers' licences, 3, 172 Venereal diseases, 92

Vital Statistics, 89, 303

Vietnam, 146

Voluntary agencies, 15, 125-6, 129,

130, 131, 326-7

Wages, 2, 8-9, 53, 54 Water-

consumption, 151 from China, 150 schemes, 151-2

supplies, 10, 150-2

Waterfront Road Complex, 167 Weather, 209-12, 319

forecast, 206-8

Weights and measures, 251

Welfare of Women and Children, 131 West Kowloon corridor, 167 Wigs, 24-5

Wild life, 219-21

Workmen's compensation, 60 World Refugee Year Loan Fund, 64

X-ray examinations, 60, 90-1

YMCA, YWCA, 130

Y's Men's Club, 131

Zoning of land, 114

HONG KONG BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Bibliography last appeared in this Report in 1963. A revised edition, 'A Hong Kong Bibliography 1965' by J. M. Braga, is available as a separate publication priced at HK$1.00 per copy, obtainable from the Printing Department, 81-115 Java Road, North Point, and the Government Publications Centre, Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong.

URBAN

Printed and Published by J. R. Lee, Government Printer, at the Government Press Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1972

Jubilee Reservoir

WA

TUEN

KWAI CHUNG

W.N

DISTRICT

Lower Shing Hun Reservoir

RAMBLER CHANNEL

NEW TERRITORIES

NEW KOWLOON

LẠI CHI

KOK

Shah Lei Pui

Rotor voir

Reeration

STOWE

154

Kowloon Reservoir

MONG FU SHER

CAMAN ROCE )

CHEUNGAN A

NEW KOWLOON KOWLOON

DON ROCK

SHA TIN

WONG

SINA

JUNCTION

SHEK KIP ME KOWLOON

TRONG

YAU YAT

TSUE"

KOWICON TSAI

-

C

TSZ WAN SHAN

BianonD HELL

PO KONG

HAMMER HILL

NGAU CHI WAN

NONG LONG_ ALAPORT.

TAK

MAKOWLOON

CITY

ΚΟΥ

WAI

MONG

KOK

HQ}MAN

TIN

KOB

TOKWA

WAN

SUNW

AKING

PARK

KOWLOON

BAY

YAU

MA

HUNG HOM

THE PEAK

City District Office Boundary

Locality

ΤΕΙ

SULPHUR CHANNEL

MOUNT DAVIS

ENNEDY TOWN,

WESTERNI

ROK FU LAM

EN

TSIM SHA

11

TSUI

Future

Road Tunnel

M

11

"

R

AMWA

GABORN 10

MAGAZINE

ACAD

WANCHAT

THE PEAK

PLAK

Pak ♬ Lom

Resort

MY ABLLETY

TATI CALAN

KOTLOON

NGAU

TAU KOK

MI KURS

DISTRICT.

HUN TONG

NERE

HAVEN

RENNIES MILE VILLAGE

JUNK

BAY

YAU

TONG

AUSEWAY BAY

Bravener Reservoir

WAN HO

SO KON

PO

HANG

NT CAMERON

RT NICHOLSON

WAH

(KAI LUNG WAND

ABERDEEN

Aberdeen Reserver23

WESTERN

MONG CHMS HANG

BOAD

WONG CHUK

HANG

EAST LAMMA CHANNEL

ISLANDS DIS

LAMMA ISLAND

Отст

PICNIC

BAY

Crown Lands & Survey Office. Hong Kong. 1971

AP LEU CHAU

DEEP WATER

DAY

MIDDLE +SLAND

HGAN

CHAU

MT PARULA

NT BUTLER

JARDINE'S LOCKOUT

REPULSE

BAY

CHUNG HOM

WAN

For Tom

intermediate

HONG KONG, KOWLOON

AND ADJACENT NEW TERRITORIES

Scale in Miles

0

,

I

14

2

To Tam

Reservoir

EASTERN

YUE HUN

SHAU KE

WAN

Reservoir

||TAI TAM HARBOUR

TAI TAM DAY

STANLEY

BAY STANLEY

CHA WAN

ES

BIG WAVE BAY

SHER

D AGUILAR

REAL

CAPE COLLINSON

1

一九七一年

MIDLA