Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1970

HONG KONG

1970

120°

114°00'

JAPAN

Nanking

Yangtze

Shanghar EAS

CHINA

CHIN

20 LAOS

THAILAND

Capromje

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

HONG KONG

SOUTH

0

PACIFIC OC

PHILIPPINES

CHINA

SEA ·

CAMBO DIA

MILES

113°50'

HONG KONG AND THE NEW TERRITORIES

K WAN G T U NG

PO

Sho

Mong/seng

Lau Fau San

Sheung Chuk Yuen

O N

PROVINCE

Kowloon-Canton

DIST

LCT

Sham Chun

Lin Hang

Lo Wu

Chu Lok Ma Chau

Sheung Shui

San Tin

Finlif

Ha quen Ping

Shan

Long

1877

PAT MEUNG

DIS

YUEN LONG District

She Kong

SSY HILL

TSUEN WAN .

DISTRICTt!

Sha

Castle Peak

New

own

CASTLE PEAK

Lung Kwu Tầm

1914

LUNG KWU CHAU

SHA CHAU

1660

Tai (am Cifong

Castle Peak Bay

Shing Tseng

A WAN IS.

TSING

YI

THE BROTHERS

CHEK LAP KÖK

ISLAND

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LANTAU ISLAND

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ISLAND

1527

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KAU YI CHAU

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Mine

Bay

SUNSHINE

ISLAND

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ANDS DISTRICTS

Van HEI LING CHAU

CHEUNG CHAU

STONE CUTTERS IS.

GREEN

Yung Shue

Wan

LAMMA ISLAND

nnri

Struen Wan

2102

114°20'

Sha la

KAT O CHAU

Lai

Starling

Luk Keng

Wo Kau Tang Plover Cove Reservoir

Tai M Tak

Tolo Channel

Lai Chi Chong

BAY

WONG WAN GHAU

Tai Po

Tolo Marbour

TAPPO DISTRICT

Tai Tan,

Sham Chung

1578

SHAP

HEUNG

Ma-Liu

Shui

MASHAN

2305

Tide Co

Tai Mong Tsai

Sai Kung

Lienie Bay

Fan Lau

SOKO ISLANDS

SHEK KWU CHAU

Compiled & Drawn by Crown Lands & Survey Office, Hong Kong, 1969 Printed at the Government Press, Hong Kon

HONG

KONG

香港中央

圖書館

LIBRARY

CENTRAL

Họ Chúng

Pak Sha

Κου

Harbour

TAP MUN CHAU

Chek Kens

SHARP PEAK

1534

Keng Taitong

Pak Tam Chung

DISTRICT

HIGH ISLAND

Port Shelter

Sai Rocks

Harbour

PING CHAU

HOWLOON

quet

Harbour

• Rennie's

Mill

Junk Bay

JUNK IS

Chu Wan

ON

Tai Tam Reservoip

Tai Tum

Bay Stanley

Big Wave

Bay Shek O

Hầu

House

Bay

SHELTER IS.

BASALT ISLAND

BLUFF IS.

Clear Water Bay

athong Channel

STEEP ISLAND

f

ANINEPIN GROUP

NINEPIN

LAM TONG ISLAND

CAPE D AGUILAR'

New Territories

Adminstration Districts

BEAUFORT,

ISLAND

SCALE OF MICE:

MILES 1

டட்

Heights in Feet

2

S MILES

REFERR

2000

PO TOI

ISLAND

Railway

Main Road

Village

Built-up Area

River & Stream, Reservoir Ferry Service

1000

200

Sea Level

Crown Copyright Reserved

The cover photo shows a night view of the Hong Kong pavilion at Expo '70, held at Osaka, Japan, during the year.

Cover photo: Courtesy of Ikeda Construction

Price:

HK$12.50

URE

PUBLIS

HON

11.FEB 73 8070

-4.MAY 72 18. MAY 72

-2.MAR73

7431

1997

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8103273

4580

16. JUN 72

3356

4426

11.MAY 73 6958

30. JUN 72

8237

18. JUL 72 72

HBRARIE

600AUG 72

89961

OCT72 6503

22.0CT 72

11.NOV 72 5887

-3.DEC72

6501

21.JANJ3 8685

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Frontispiece: His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales is greeted by the Governor, Sir David Trench, during a brief stop-over in Hong Kong in April.

:

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year

1970

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1971

    The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all organisations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter to this Report. Particular acknowledgement is given to Professor D. J. Dwyer, B.A., Ph.D., of the University of Hong Kong, for the chapter on Geography, to Mr G. B. Endacott, M.A., B.Litt., Dip.Ed., for the History chapter, and to Dr P. M. Marshall, B.Sc., Ph.D., for the section on Wild Life.

Unless otherwise mentioned, all illustrations in this Report are the work of official photographers. United Press International assisted in the provision of pictures for the Expo '70 section. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustration should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

*

When dollars are quoted in this Report, they are, unless otherwise stated, Hong Kong dollars. The official rate for conversion to pounds sterling is HK$14.54=£1 (HK$1=approx 7p). The official rate for conversion to US dollars is HK$6.06= US$1 (based on £1=US$2.40).

CONTENTS

Chapter

1 REVIEW OF the Year

2

3

4

5

EMPLOYMENT: Occupations - Industrial Training - Wages and Conditions of Work-Labour Admin- istration and Industrial Relations Safety, Health and Welfare.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue and Expenditure - Rates Internal Revenue Currency

Duties

――

- Banking - Stock Exchanges.

Page

.1

16

27

"--

-

Industry -

39

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: General Review

Textiles and Clothing - Other Light Industries - Heavy and Service Industries - Industrial Land External Trade-International Economic Relations - Documentation of Exports - Admin- istration -- Trade Development Council - Export Credit Insurance Corporation - Productivity Council -- Trade and Industrial Organisations Trade Marks and Patents Companies Bankruptcies and Liquidations.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Introduction - Land Utilisa- tion Administration Agricultural Extension and Development - Principal Crops -- Vegetable Marketing Organisation - Animal Industries - Forestry Fisheries- Fish Marketing Organi- sation Co-operative Societies and Credit

-

Unions - Mining.

6 EDUCATION: Pattern of Education - Pre-primary, Primary, Special, Secondary and Higher Education -The Technical College-Technical Institute- Inspectorate - Visual Education Centre Teachers and Teacher Training Adult Education Educational Television Unit

Examinations Music and Art in Schools Recreation Education Overseas University Research.

M

-

60

70

vi

Chapter

CONTENTS

Page

7 HEALTH: General Situation-Administration-Com-

municable Diseases Port Health Service Maternal and Child Health · School Health Mental Health - Drug Dependency Hospitals - Specialist Services - Clinics - Medical fees Dental Services Ophthalmic Service

Environmental Health Research.

8

9

10

11

12

Training

LAND AND HOUSING: Land Tenure and Development-

Land Sales Urban Renewal

Survey

Town Planning Land Office Private Building Rent Control - Multi-Storey Build-

ings -

Housing

Mandandon.com

Squatters.

SOCIAL WELFARE: Organisation-Group and Com- munity Work-Family Services - Probation and Correction - Public Assistance - Training.

·

PUBLIC ORDER: Police-Crime-Traffic-Training Prisons Fire Services Preventive Service.

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM: Immigration - Tourism.

-

88

106

128

136

146

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES: Water Supplies 150

Buildings - Drainage Port Works Land

Development - Quarrying

-Quarrying- Public Utilities.

13

COMMUNICATIONS: Shipping

Civil Aviation

Kowloon-Canton Railway Roads - Parking ---

Public Transport - Ferry Services - Administra- tion Cross-harbour Tunnel

Telecommunications.

Postal Services

162

14

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA:

Introduction

179

Press

Television Radio

A

Films

Govern-

15

ment Information Services.

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES: The Armed Services Local Auxiliary Defence Services - Essential Services Corps.

187

CONTENTS

Chapter

16 RELIGION AND CUSTOM: Chinese Beliefs and Practices

vii

Page

193

Christian Churches

www.dic

Jewish, Islamic and

Hindu Communities.

17

RECREATION:

gramme

Exhibitions

Facilities Summer Recreation Pro-

Entertainment and

and the Arts Libraries - British Council.

199

-

18

19

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE: Topography and Geology

  Climate Royal Observatory - Research The Year's Weather.

POPULATION: Population Statistics and Groupings- Census and Statistics Department Births and Deaths Marriages.

20 NATURAL HISTORY: Wild Life Marine Life

Flora.

208

217

-

222

21

2 23

HISTORY

22

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION: Introduction - The Governor-Executive Council-Legisla- tive Council - Judiciary

-

              Legal Aid Urban Council Foreign Relations Colonial Secre- tariat - London Office Departments Secretariat for Home Affairs and New Terri-

tories Administration

Grievances

Public

-

Advisory Committees

Service

Conclusion.

227

238

viii

ILLUSTRATIONS

CONTENTS

Page

The Prince of Wales

Events of the Year

The Governor

Jewellery

Underwater

Festival

Immigration

Expo '70

Frontispiece

between x-1

between 8-9

between 46-7

between 70-1

between 118-9

between 142-3

between 166-7

Religions

between 190-1

Hong Kong's Other Island

between 214-5

Cultural Centre

between 238-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Hong Kong, Kowloon & adjacent New Territories showing District Names

2

CONTENTS

Appendix

1

2

3-5

6-14

15-21

ix

APPENDICES

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

LEGISLATION

·

EMPLOYMENT: Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed-Factory Registrations and Inspec- tions - Industrial and Occupational Accidents. FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue - Expenditure - Statement of Assets and Liabilities - Compara- tive Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure Public Debt Colonial Development and Welfare Revenue from

――

Duties and Licence Fees - Development Loan Fund Lotteries Fund - Currency and Bank-

-

ing Statistics, Currency in Circulation and Bank Deposits.

Page

253

254

260

263

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: Composition - Value of 282

Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade- Imports Commodity Pattern - Principal Sources

Domestic Exports

Principal Markets

Commodity Pattern

Re-exports Direction

of Trade.

22

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

294

23-25

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Marketing Organisation Statistics Co-operative Societies Produc- tion of Minerals.

295

26-29

297

EDUCATION: Categories of Schools, Enrolments, New Buildings, Classrooms and Places - Educational Statistics - Hong Kong Students Pursuing Further Studies in Britain - Actual Expenditure on Education.

·

30-33

HEALTH: Vital Statistics Infectious Diseases

301

Notified - Hospital Beds

w

Professional

Medical Personnel.

34-35

LAND AND HOUSING:

Resettlement Estate

306

Statistics Housing as at March 31, 1969

Premiums Received on Sales of Crown Land.

X

      Appendix 36-37

38

CONTENTS

Page

Narcotic Offences.

PUBLIC ORDER: Traffic Serious Crime and 309

COMMUNICATIONS: Statistics: Marine, Kowloon-

312

Canton Railway, Air Traffic, Vehicles, Postal Traffic, Telegraph and Radio Traffic.

39

THE PRESS: Leading Newspapers and Magazines.

314

40

RECREATION: Amenities Development.

315

41

WEATHER: Climatological Summary, Normals.

316

42-43

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION: Executive

Council - Legislative Council.

318

44

URBAN COUNCIL

322

45

CASES IN THE COURTS AND WORK IN THE

MAGISTRACIES

323

46

SOCIAL WELFARE: Hong Kong Council of Social 324

Service, Member Agencies, The Community Chest.

INDEX

329

IGELO CORELLI

All lia

EVENTS OF THE YEAR

WW

His Holiness Pope Paul VI is seen here together with the acting- Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Hugh Norman -Walker, at the commence- ment of the his- toric first Papal visit to Hong Kong on Decem- ber 4.

(top) Pope Paul is shown here during an exchange of commemorative gifts with Sir Hugh after the Pope had made a tele- vised address to the people of Hong Kong. On the left is the Roman Catholic Bishop of Hong Kong, the Most Rev Francis Hsu. Below, Pope Paul meets some of the people of Hong Kong at the Government Stadium, where he celebrated an open-air Mass.

JUSTICE

Pope Paul is seen (above) passing through

the

streets of Hong Kong in an open car; and (right) greeting the crowds who gave him an enthusiastic welcome at the Govern- ment Stadium.

AM 2680

1

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Mr Anthony Royle, is shown being escorted through the crowded district of Wan Chai by Hong Kong's first woman City District Officer, Miss Lily Kwan, who was appointed during the year.

The Duchess of Kent (right) admires the work of a young patient during her tour of the Colony's specialist medical and re- habilitation services in February.

W

ANGUBATI CAN Bu

است

Hong Kong's vast programme of public housing, embracing ap- proximately one quarter of the population, reached a landmark during the year with the opening of the 500th resettlement block, shown here during the opening ceremony.

Traditional Chinese danc- ers (top) celebrate the opening of a new public park on the site of a for- mer army barracks in Kowloon. Below, a mag- nificent Ching Dynasty dragon, built in Hong Kong during the year, is blessed in a Taoist Temple before being shipped off to the Australian city of Bendigo to take pride of place in that city's annual Easter Parade.

The first sections of the massive cross-harbour tunnel, which will cre- ate the first road link between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, were launched into the harbour during the year. The size of the tunnel sections may be gauged by comparison with the workman shown in the lower right-hand corner of the picture.

One of the ceremonial high points of the year for Hong Kong's legal profession Opening of the Assizes, pictured here.

was the

1

Review

1970 was, by Hong Kong's rather unusual standards, a compara- tively uneventful year. There are no dramatic events and no major natural disasters to record in this review. Nonetheless, that does not mean to say that it was a dull year: no year can be dull in so vital and dynamic a community. It was on the contrary a busy year and a year full of interest; a year of development and progress in the pattern characteristic of the Colony's post-war history. It was a year of consolidation, and of planning for the future.

      This was particularly noticeable in the field of social services. Attitudes towards the search for solutions to the social problems of Hong Kong have significantly changed. The piecemeal approach of former years and the practice of identifying and meeting the most immediately urgent areas of need, when the need was everywhere so great, have been overtaken by a growing determination to co- ordinate more effectively the work of the diverse professions con- cerned and to ensure that an appropriate share of the Colony's resources is applied to the development in a coherent manner of those social services which are most generally needed by the com- munity as a whole.

       In this task the first thought must be for those most in want. In recent years it has become increasingly clear that a comprehensive scheme of public assistance is one of the essential foundations for further social development in Hong Kong, and that the introduc- tion of such a system had become practicable. During 1970 expert advice was sought, and plans drawn up and approved, for a new system of cash grants to replace the present arrangements, based mainly on the issue of foodstuffs to needy persons. All families and individuals who have lived in Hong Kong for more than one year will now become eligible for assistance under the new scheme, excepting only able-bodied adults capable of employment, and it is intended to review the scales of assistance from time to time to

2

REVIEW

ensure that the scheme serves the purposes for which it has been designed.

       It is expected that there will be a very substantial increase in the number of families claiming assistance under the new scheme. A considerably expanded organisation is therefore necessary in the Social Welfare Department and, although additional staff is being recruited and trained, it will in consequence be necessary to pro- ceed to the full scheme by stages. The first stage starts in January 1971 when those families now receiving assistance in the form of foodstuffs will start to receive cash grants on interim scales prior to implementation of the full scheme early in the financial year 1971-2.

       Besides alleviating immediate want, the new public assistance scheme has important social objectives. These include the promo- tion of better standards of health and nutrition, strengthening the bonds of the family, eliminating the need for any child or young person to contravene the law by having to work for gain because of financial hardship, and assisting parents to avail themselves of the increasing educational opportunities for their children.

       In the field of education the emphasis until now has been on expanding the provision of primary school places. A further 37,443 primary school places were provided during 1970, and the total primary enrolment as at September 30 was 765,397. The target of providing a government or subsidised primary school place for every child of primary school age desiring one has now been achieved in overall terms. The next step is to ensure that these places do not go empty.

      As a start it is proposed to abolish all fees in the generality of government and aided primary schools in 1971. Thereafter it is the intention to introduce legislation aimed at parents who un- necessarily withhold a child from school. Present thinking is that the Director of Education should be empowered to serve an order on the parents requiring the child's attendance at a nominated free primary school. There would be a right of appeal, but any subsequent breach of the order would render the parents liable to prosecution. If a child is withheld from primary school for economic

REVIEW

3

reasons, the family would be eligible to be considered for aid under the new public assistance scheme.

      Primary school expansion can now be geared to particular rather than overall needs, and it will be possible to relate the building of new primary schools more closely to population movements from one district to another. It will also be possible to concentrate more on the provision of special schools and special classes for children who are slow learners or who suffer from defects of vision, hearing or speech, and plans are now being drawn up to this end. The quality of primary education generally will be improved by the Educational Television Service, which will be ready to start in 1971.

      With free or aided primary education on the point of being available to all children, the Government announced in August that the next main aim would be progressively to make available, with government assistance, at least three years of aided post-primary education for all children in the relevant age-group who seek it. It is intended that the first stage, which will provide for half the children in this category will, if possible, be completed by 1976.

      Meanwhile it is proposed that provision should be made for 18-20 per cent of the 12-16 age-group to proceed further to aided courses leading to a Certificate of Education. The extra school places required to achieve this would be provided either directly in govern- ment or aided schools, or indirectly in private non-profit schools which would be assisted for the purpose, or by bought places in suitable private schools. There are already approximately 62,000 government and aided places in Forms I-III; in order to give effect to this new policy an additional 101,600 aided places would be required by 1976. Detailed planning for this considerable task is now in hand.

Not all children are academically inclined, and more and more school leavers in Hong Kong are destined to spend their working lives as operatives, craftsmen and technicians in industry. In order to maintain a proper balance between the various forms of post- primary education it was decided to increase to a total of 11,000 the number of aided places in Forms I-III in secondary modern and pre-vocational schools.

      In October, the new buildings of the Morrison Hill Technical Institute were opened by the Governor. The institute now has an

4

REVIEW

enrolment of 555 students on full-time day courses, 712 students on block-release and day-release courses, and 8,581 students on evening and miscellaneous short courses; giving a total enrolment of 9,848 students engaged in a wide variety of courses at the craft and junior technician levels. Many of these courses have been started on the recommendations of the Industrial Training Advisory Committee. This committee which through its sub-committees covers almost the whole spectrum of Hong Kong industry, is preparing a report which is expected to include recommendations for the provision of further technical institutes, the establishment of a modern appren- ticeship system throughout industry, and permanent machinery to plan and oversee industrial training. In the meantime Government is considering the need to set up at least one more technical institute in advance of this report.

The two universities continued to make good progress with their development plans. A total of $93 million was voted from public funds towards their capital and recurrent expenditure during 1970-1. The numbers of full-time students increased to 2,990 at the Univer- sity of Hong Kong, and to 2,342 at The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Work also continued on the planning of a new institution for higher technical education, which is to provide post-secondary voca- tional education in technical and commercial subjects up to the standard of a professional qualification, or, in some cases, a pass degree. It is so far envisaged that this new institution will incor- porate the existing Technical College at Hung Hom, suitably ex- panded and improved, as well as a new sister institution to be built in Wan Chai: together it is hoped that these will provide for some 4,000 full-time and 20,000 part-time students by about 1975.

       These advances in education are already leading to an improve- ment in the quality and potential of young men and women begin- ning their working lives. The progress achieved must be set against the formidable fact that some 35 per cent of the population are under 14 years of age-already roughly one-quarter of the whole population are undergoing courses of instruction of one kind or another.

At the same time, the need to improve working conditions to the maximum extent compatible with Hong Kong's continued economic

REVIEW

5

progress has been widely recognised, and both real wages and work- ing conditions generally have continued to improve. Government's particular contribution has been two-fold: first, through the much extended advisory services of the Labour Department; and secondly, through the continued programme of labour legislation.

      On January 1, 1970 the law on workmen's compensation was extended to cover domestic servants and agricultural workers, as well as non-manual workers earning up to $1,500 a month. At the same time the sums payable on death or permanent incapacity were substantially increased. The level of payments during periods of temporary incapacity were also increased, and these were made payable in addition to any lump sums for death or permanent incapacity.

      In February the Employment Ordinance was amended to enable manual workers and all other employees earning less than $1,500 a month to take four voluntary rest days a month, these being additional to the six statutory holidays each year.

       Women form a substantial part of Hong Kong's labour force and under the fourth stage of a progressive reduction of the hours of work for women and young persons employed in industry which began on December 1, 1970 their standard hours of work were reduced to eight hours 20 minutes a day and 50 hours a week. The final stage introducing an eight-hour day and a 48-hour week will start in December, 1971. Under new legislation women workers are also ensured a set period of maternity leave during which they may not be dismissed from their employment. Legislation has also been introduced laying down minimum ages for the employment of young persons on premises licensed to sell liquor. One of the provisions makes it an offence to employ any female under the age of 18 in a bar or other licensed premise after 8 p.m.

       To protect further the wages of employees, legislation has been enacted to deal with any employer who attempts to abscond with- out paying his workers, and it has been made an offence for any person to employ workers unless he has reasonable grounds to believe that he will be able to pay all wages due to them. Workers' wages have also been given a higher degree of priority over other liabilities in winding-up and bankruptcy proceedings.

6

REVIEW

Legislation in Hong Kong for the protection of wages of employees earning not more than $1,500 per month now complies wholly with the main provisions of the International Labour Convention on this subject.

The narcotics problem has continued to cause deep concern, as it has for many years. It is estimated that there are about 80,000 people in the Colony who are dependent on drugs, mostly heroin, and there is a growing incidence of addiction among young adults. The Action Committee Against Narcotics carried out a special campaign to educate young people on the dangers of drugs. But continuing efforts by this and other Governments, and by the com- munity at large, are clearly required if the narcotics problem is to be diminished. (See also Chapters 7 and 10.)

       There has also been here, as elsewhere, considerable official and public concern over the increase in violent crime and the incidence of such typical 'teddy boy' offences as gang fights, sexual assaults and robberies. A disturbing feature of this trend has been the grow- ing tendency of young people to carry knives and other dangerous weapons and to show an irresponsible readiness to use them.

       The Police have taken firm action to forestall this type of criminal activity, with some success and with the clear approval of the public. Fortunately only a small minority were involved; for the most part young people have shown an increasing ability to act responsibly and with concern for others. This attitude has also been helped by the efforts made to direct the abounding energies of Hong Kong's younger generation into acceptable and productive channels.

       These efforts cover both work and play. The year's leisure activi- ties reached their peak during the summer school vacation, when more than 800,000 young people took part in a massive programme arranged by organisations from every walk of life, financed in large part by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, and co-ordinated by 15 district committees.

It has continued to be Government's policy not to concern itself too directly in the actual organisation of individual leisure activities, but rather to concentrate on stimulating interest and helping schools, voluntary agencies and other community groups to involve them- selves by establishing programmes. The response from all sections

REVIEW

7

of the community has been excellent, and Hong Kong's young people now have an extremely wide range of leisure activities to choose from.

Those taking part in future programmes, as well as the general public, will be able to use an additional new swimming pool complex at Morse Park. This pool, which was completed in December, can accommodate 5,000 people at one time and its three teaching pools will be of particular value to the younger generation.

These summer programmes have been extremely successful and their scope has been extended each successive year. The need to encourage activity of this sort and its value to the youth of Hong Kong was recognised by the setting up, in February, of the Sir David Trench Fund for Recreation. An initial sum of $3.2 million was provided by a most generous anonymous donor, $3 million of which was to be by way of capital endowment. From the original $200,000 available, and from interest on the capital, $270,000 has so far been committed from the fund, mainly for coaching schemes and the purchase of sports equipment.

Among the various social services, a high priority has continued to be given to the expansion of hospital and clinic facilities for the rapidly growing population. Between 1960 and 1969 the number of hospital beds increased from 8,090 to 15,835. The provision of a further 636 beds during 1970 brought the total up to 16,471, which gives a ratio of almost exactly four beds per 1,000 of population.

Major hospitals at an advanced stage of planning or under con- struction include a 1,300-bed government general hospital and a 1,300-bed government mental hospital at Lai Chi Kok, the 350-bed United Christian Hospital at Kwun Tong, and a 200-bed govern- ment hospital for mentally subnormal children at Siu Lam.

The number of public housing estates administered by the Reset- tlement Department and the Housing Authority continued to grow. In November the Acting Governor declared open the 500th resettle- ment block and the 50th estate school, both at Lam Tin (formerly Ham Tin) Estate. There are now 23 resettlement estates accommo- dating in all more than 1,100,000 people; and it is expected that by 1974-5 this figure will rise to 1,370,000.

8

REVIEW

In the 10 years of its existence the Housing Authority has built seven estates; two more are under construction and work has begun on a 10th estate during the year. The authority now houses more than 187,000 people and the plans in hand for future construction will double this figure over the next 10 years. The authority also. manages over 31,000 flats in government low-cost housing estates, which now accommodate 173,000 tenants.

     The Hong Kong Housing Society, which is a private body sub- sidised by Government, is also expanding and now has 116,400 tenants in its 14 estates.

     In these activities, and apart from its provision of quarters and subsidies for co-operative housing schemes for public servants, Government now provides housing, directly or indirectly for over 40 per cent of the population of the Colony.

     There was an upsurge of activity in the private building sector, with a marked increase in new buildings of all kinds. This was accompanied by a steep increase in land prices. A site of 53,000 square feet on Hong Kong Island, adjacent to the Star Ferry Con- course, was sold at public auction for HK$258,000,000 payable over nine years without interest. The purchasers were the Hong Kong Land Investment and Agency Company, which plans to build a 50- storey office block on the site.

There was also a substantial increase in the amount of private housing under construction, although it is too early for the effects to be felt. During the years 1967-9 there was a decline in the volume of new building and with the continued demand for housing there was a sharp increase in rents in the urban area. To alleviate this situation, legislation was enacted to control increases in domestic rents and to provide security of tenure for two years; it is expected that by the end of this period the housing situation will have im- proved. These controls apply to all post-war flats (rents in pre-war accommodation being already controlled) but exclude larger flats and houses with an annual rateable value of $15,000 or more, and allow for only one rent increase during the two years.

     The Multi-Storey Building (Owners Incorporation) Ordinance, which was enacted in June, enabled the owners of flats in multi- storey buildings to form corporations for the purpose of managing

THE GOVERNOR

ThenGor

The Governor, Sir David Trench, who has presided over one of the most successful periods of expansion in Hong Long's history, announced simultaneously during the year the third extension of his term of office since he came to Hong Kong in 1964 and his coming retirement in October 1971. He is pictured here during one of the happier moments in a Governor's crowded calendar-the annual get-together with children of the Government House staff at Chinese New Year.

'C

Thes

hese pictures show two more aspects of the Governor's year. In the top picture, Sir David chats with a young member of a traditional dance troupe at the opening of Kowloon Park. Below, he is seen talking with stall-holder, Mr Ha Yuen (left), during a tour of Aberdeen market. Escort- ing Sir David is the Chairman of the Aberdeen Kaifong Welfare Association, Mr Fong Yuen-wah (centre).

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the common parts of these buildings and to require all owners in the building to contribute towards the cost. Some owners have already taken advantage of these provisions; it is hoped that their example will be followed and that by this means a higher standard of cleanliness and order will be brought about in the high rise build- ings which now comprise so much of the urban area.

       The problem of cleanliness and of the disposal of refuse generally, in this age of plastics and packaging, has plagued Hong Kong as much as any other modern city. Some improvement will be brought about by the increase in incinerator facilities, but the main difficulty remains in the careless habits of the population who in spite of numerous campaigns mounted by the Urban Council and by the Kaifongs cannot, it seems, be persuaded to use the numerous litter bins provided for them. It is an offence to throw litter in the streets and other public places but this habit can probably only be cured by education and precept.

       As a further step towards cleanliness new regulations are being drawn up under the Clean Air Ordinance to control and reduce emissions of smoke, grit and dust from chimneys. On the recom- mendation of the Air Pollution Committee, which has now become a permanent advisory body, it is proposed to declare the whole Colony a smoke control area from a date in 1971. It should be recorded here that as a result of measures taken by the China Light and Power Company the average concentration of sulphur dioxide over Hung Hom has been reduced from 70 to 34 parts per hundred million.

        While much effort was dedicated during the year to the im- provement of social services, there was continued development and progress in other fields. There was a record revenue collection of $2,481 million; there was a record number of visitors to the Colony; there was a record volume of legislation dealt with by the Legislative Council. The scale of physical development can best be illustrated by the annual public works programme which it is estimated cost some $333.5 million in 1970 or $44.5 million more than the previous year. It contained more than 400 different projects, including housing and public buildings, swimming pools and recreation grounds and improvements to the Colony's roads. Among the major works set in hand were the lengthening of the runway at Kai Tak and the

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expansion of the airport's terminal facilities; detailed studies and preliminary work on the construction of a new reservoir, similar in concept to the Plover Cove scheme, at High Island in the Sai Kung peninsula; and raising the height of the dam at Plover Cove to provide greater storage capacity.

A start was made during the year on two other projects, both undertaken by private concerns and both of major importance to the Colony. The first was the cross harbour tunnel which will pro- vide a road link between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. It is estimated that it will cost in the region of $300 million and that the tunnel will be completed in September 1972. There were some initial difficulties but good progress had been made by the end of the year.

      The second project was the introduction of 'containerisation' to Hong Kong. It has become clear that if Hong Kong is to maintain its position as a major international port it must follow the growing trend towards this method of cargo handling. A site for three con- tainer berths at Kwai Chung to the north-west of Kowloon was sold by tender and two wharfage companies in the Colony modified part of their premises for use as container berths.

      In the economic field the value of domestic exports continued to rise but the overall percentage growth rate has declined from its very high levels of 25.8 per cent and 24.8 per cent in 1968 and 1969 to the still high figure of 17 per cent in 1970. Hong Kong is particularly susceptible to changes in the world trade scene and to economic conditions in its main markets. The Colony noted there- fore the increasingly protectionist attitude in certain circles in the United States, which is Hong Kong's largest export market. This attitude was reflected in the now lapsed Trade Bill which, as it emerged from the House of Representatives, provided for certain mandatory restrictions on imports, particularly of textiles and foot- wear, into the USA.

Some uncertainty has also been caused by the opening of ne- gotiations on Britain's application to join the European Economic Community and the effect that this would have on Hong Kong's trade, if successful; and by uncertainty over the position of Hong Kong in the various schemes for generalised preferences for develop- ing countries being prepared by developed countries in pursuance

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of resolutions of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

       In other trade developments during the year the Cotton Textiles Arrangement, which covers over 80 per cent of Hong Kong's textile exports, expired on September 30. After a series of meetings of the Cotton Textiles Committee of the GATT the signatories of the Arrangement agreed to extend it for a further period of three years, that is until September 30, 1973. By the end of the year the majority of participating countries had signed the protocol of extension.

The five-year United States/Hong Kong Bilateral Agreement, under which exports of all cotton textiles to the United States had been restrained from 1965 to 1970, also expired on September 30. A new three-year agreement similar to the former one was negoti- ated in May 1970 in Geneva and became effective from October 1. The restraint limit for the first year of the new agreement represents an increase of five per cent over that for the last year of the old

one.

Hong Kong also negotiated an agreement with the European Economic Community to restrain exports from Hong Kong of certain cotton woven and knitted textiles for a three-year period beginning January 1, 1971. This agreement resulted from the imple- mentation of the Community's common commercial policy but is in essence a continuation of the restraint arrangements in force with individual Member States, with the addition that exports to Italy, which were previously unrestricted, were to be brought under control.

An announcement by the Far East Shipping Conference of a rise of at least 15 per cent (subsequently reduced to 10 per cent) in freight rates also caused concern to Hong Kong exporters during the year.

       Despite these uncertainties, Hong Kong's economy continued to advance. There was indeed a sharp increase in business activity dur- ing the year which was reflected in an increase in bank deposits and in trade mark applications, while a record number of 3,419 new companies were registered during the year. A further indicator of the scale of economic progress was the 12.3 per cent increase in the consumption of electricity. Wages were estimated to be rising

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at the rate of 10 per cent annually. An international survey under- taken during the year by a leading regional bank indicated that income figures in Hong Kong were rising faster than elsewhere in Asia, and that this growth was built on exports which were going to increasingly sophisticated markets. Hong Kong did not, of course, escape a degree of inflationary pressure. Domestic prices rose during the year but the rises were out-stripped by the growth in incomes.

       The impressive story of Hong Kong's development and progress was displayed, for the first time in an international exposition, at Expo '70 at Osaka where the imaginative Hong Kong pavilion, with its distinctive junk sails, attracted considerable interest.

       On April 5 HRH the Prince of Wales stopped briefly in the Colony while on route to the exposition. On December 4 His Holiness the Pope spent three hours in the Colony in the course of a pastoral visit.

       These visits were all too brief. But there were many other distinguished visitors during the year, some of whom were able to stay for a longer time and to enjoy the many attractions that the Colony has to offer. For most visitors, shopping continued to be the main or sometimes the only aim. During 1970 almost a million people passed through the Colony; and it is estimated that between them they spent $2,000 million during their stay. Tourism has become a major Hong Kong industry and to cater for the increasing influx of visitors 3,500 new hotel rooms are being provided both by the expansion of existing hotel accommodation and in 13 new hotels under construction. In addition several further schemes have been submitted to the Building Authority.

       The increase in tourism as well as the growing sophistication and prosperity of the Hong Kong community have however exacerbated the problems of transport. The number of vehicles of all kinds has reached the stage where there are 235 vehicles for each mile of roadway and there is increasing traffic congestion and difficulty in parking.

      The solution proposed by the Mass Transit Further Studies Final Report, which was presented in August, was the construction of an underground rail system, with 47 stations and with routes on Hong

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      Kong Island and Kowloon linked by a tunnel under the harbour. The report is now being considered.

       Meanwhile some improvement in the quantity of public transport has been brought about by public light buses, which were introduced as a new category of licensed vehicle in September 1969. These have developed into an extremely profitable and widely used form of public transport although the aggressive tactics adopted by some of the drivers of these vehicles came in for some criticism from private motorists. It was estimated that by the end of the year about 1.1 million passengers a day were being carried by public light buses; the profitability of this form of transport is indicated by the rate of return on capital invested, which was estimated to be between 100 per cent and 200 per cent per annum, depending on the area of operation.

       The financial position of the two franchised bus companies on the other hand was far from buoyant. Fares had not been increased for 20 years but the cost of acquiring and operating vehicles had steadily risen; profitability has decreased and the companies have found it difficult to finance the expansion of their services needed to meet the demand.

        Under the terms of their franchise the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (which covers Kowloon and the New Territories) paid 20 per cent of its gross takings as royalty and the China Motor Bus Company (operating on Hong Kong Island) paid 46 per cent of its net profits before tax. After a close examination of the whole financial position of the companies it was decided that the Kowloon Motor Bus Company should pay no royalty and that the royalty payable by the China Motor Bus Company should be reduced to 20 per cent. At the same time the concessions previously given of reduced rates of vehicle licence fee and of tax on diesel fuel were withdrawn. The fare structure of Kowloon Motor Bus Company buses was also altered to provide a flat rate of 20 cents for all journeys within the area of Tsuen Wan and urban Kowloon in place of the previous system by which fares ranged from 10 cents to 40 cents according to the length of the journey. The price of an adult monthly season ticket was also raised from $18 to $20.

       These measures have made it possible for the companies to continue with their programme of expansion. This will mean that

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the Kowloon Motor Bus Company will in 1971 have a fleet with a capacity 50 per cent greater than it had in April 1969.

Public transport was of course only one of the subjects in the public mind during the year. In order to deal more effectively with complaints and representations received from the public, the office of the Unofficial Members of Executive and Legislative Councils (Umelco) was strengthened by the secondment of a staff-grade Administrative Officer to act as its Administrative Secretary. Since his appointment there has been a considerable increase in the use made of the office by members of the public and the number of complaints and representations dealt with has increased sharply.

      The Umelco Office, as well as the City District Offices and the Urban Council Ward Offices, all provide channels through which members of the public can make contact with the official machine. There is also direct contact between the public and government departments; and wide use is made of the correspondence columns of the local press for bringing complaints or suggestions to the attention of the authorities.

One hundred and five ordinances were passed into law during the year. Mention has already been made of some of this legislation, but two ordinances which passed into law were of particular interest. The first of these was the Marriage Reform Ordinance which was enacted in July, although certain provisions will not become effec- tive until after an appointed day late in 1971. The principal aim of this ordinance is to ensure that all marriages taking place in the Colony will in future be monogamous marriages, thus finally bring- ing to an end customary marriages, so-called Chinese modern mar- riages and the ancient Chinese custom of concubinage.

      The second measure, the Prevention of Bribery Ordinance, replaced existing ordinances with simpler and more effective proce- dures for dealing with corruption in all its forms.

       In October it was announced that the term of office of the Governor, Sir David Trench, was to be extended for a further year until October 1971. Shortly afterwards, a further announcement was made that Sir David would be succeeded by Mr Murray Macle- hose, currently British Ambassador in Denmark. Mr Maclehose

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served in Hong Kong from 1959-63 as Political Adviser on second- ment from the Foreign Office.

This review has given a necessarily brief description of the main events of 1970; these are dealt with in more detail in the following chapters. If it has been on the whole a less dramatic year than most recent years, it has nevertheless been a year of solid achievement and one which the people of Hong Kong can look back on with satisfaction. There are still many intractable 'problems to be faced, but Hong Kong has a record of overcoming its difficulties and there can be no doubt that the industry, intelligence and resilience of its people will ensure that this tradition will not be broken.

:

市政局公立體書館

2

Employment

THE most recent analysis of Hong Kong's workforce showed that about 47 per cent of the working population was engaged in con- struction, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities; about 24 per cent in various services; 17 per cent in commerce; seven per cent in communications and five per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern, the estimated employ- ment figures at the end of 1970 were: manufacturing 613,620, services 375,440, commerce 259,690, construction 96,000, agricul- ture, forestry and fishing 81,300, communications 106,600, public utilities 15,210, mining and quarrying 4,670. There were also some 5,970 in other work, making an estimated total of 1,558,500 employed.

In 1970, the Labour Department had on record 17,239 industrial undertakings and, according to voluntary returns made to the department, these employed a total of 589,505 workers, an increase of 27,942 over the 1969 figures. Those engaged in weaving, spin- ning, knitting, and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods accounted for a total of 238,440 and remained the largest section of this labour force. The plastics industry, which also employs a large number of out-workers, remained the second largest employer. The demand for labour in the manufacturing industries continued to exceed the supply. Fuller details of the distribution of industrial undertakings and of persons employed in them are given in Appendix 3.

The bulk of the industrial population is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon but there is increasing industrial development in the New Terri- tories, particularly in the new township of Tsuen Wan. In December 1970 the Labour Department had on record 1,733 factories in the New Territories, with a labour force of 88,843. Although most workers are engaged in modern manufacturing processes and to a

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17

small extent in mining and quarrying, traditional village industries still provide employment.

       The number of workers who went overseas for work during the year was 2,150, compared with 2,650 in the previous year and 2,643 in 1968. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants.

Permission to work in Britain is given by the British Department of Employment and Productivity through the Labour Department. During the year 990 permits and vouchers were issued, including six to Commonwealth citizens seeking unspecified employment, 290 to local people of British nationality going to specific jobs, and 694 to local residents of non-British nationality.

      The Local Employment Service provides a placement service introducing job seekers to prospective employers and vice versa. During the year, the Service registered 14,018 workers, recorded 4,732 employers' orders for workers, and helped to place 2,517 workers in employment.

      The Youth Employment Advisory Service completed its first stage of development during which 33 careers pamphlets were prepared and are being published in a loose-leaf booklet entitled 'A Guide to Careers in Hong Kong'. The Chinese versions of these pamphlets will be printed as they become available. The service has now entered its second stage of development which involves the giving of careers talks to senior pupils in secondary schools and the participation in careers conventions organised by school authorities and other establishments interested in careers for young people.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

      By the end of the year, 10 manpower survey reports from the 10 industrial committees of the Government-appointed Industrial Training Advisory Committee had been forwarded to Government for consideration. Some of these reports, in both Chinese and English, are available to the public while others are still being printed. Considerable progress has been made by these industrial committees in the important task of preparing minimum job standards and specifications for the principal jobs in their respec- tive industries.

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EMPLOYMENT

Training centres run by some voluntary welfare organisations and government departments offer various forms of pre-vocational or vocational training. These courses vary widely in standards and range from skilled trades to commercial training, domestic science, catering, and handicrafts. The standards of training in these training centres have been much improved as a result of the recommendations by the Industrial Training Advisory Committee and its associated committees.

Apprenticeship systems in Hong Kong fall into either the tradi- tional sector or the modern westernised sector. Under the first system, adopted by many local factories, the recruitment and training of apprentices are haphazard. The latter system, based on the British pattern of apprenticeship, has been followed for many years by government workshops and some of the larger industrial

concerns.

Since its creation just over a year ago, the Apprenticeship Unit of the Labour Department has concentrated on convincing em- ployers of the need for, and assisting them in, setting up properly organised apprenticeship schemes for the training of technicians and craftsmen. Several firms in the electronics and building in- dustries have adopted such apprenticeship schemes and engaged secondary school leavers as technician apprentices during the year. It is hoped that approved apprenticeship schemes for training production technicians in the garment-making industry, and spinning and weaving technicians in the textiles industry will soon be initiated. At craftsmen level, more than 20 firms in the machine shop and metal working trades, electrical trades and motor trades have either re-organised their training or started training along the lines recommended by the Apprenticeship Unit.

Technical education on a day-release basis forms an essential part of the apprenticeship system proposed by the Apprenticeship Unit. To meet this requirement, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute, which was established in 1969, provided for the first time in 1970 on a part-time day-release basis for craft apprentices four classes in mechanical engineering, four classes in electrical engineering, and five classes in vehicle repairing; and for technician apprentices one class in building construction. The Hong Kong Technical College started two part-time day-release classes for

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electronics technicians and has also expanded similar facilities for mechanical and electrical engineering technicians.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

       Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industries are piece-rated, although daily rates of pay are also common. Men and women receive the same rates for piece-work but women are generally paid less when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis and are customarily paid twice monthly or weekly.

      The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industries at the end of 1970 was $11.00 to $37.00 for skilled workers; $7.00 to $26.00 for semi-skilled; and $6.20 to $16.30 for unskilled. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, sub- sidised meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, and paid rest-days as well as a lunar new year bonus of one month's

pay.

A Consumer Price Index, intended as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, continued to be published throughout the year. It varied from 121 to 133 (base of 100 period of September 1963 to August 1964). In December 1970 this index stood at 126. A special index based on the expenditure of households spending less than $600 a month and known as the Modified Consumer Price Index is also published and used as the basis for monthly adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. A proportion of the wages of all minor staff (Scale 1) in the public service is adjusted quarterly by reference to this index.

       The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance is the basis for the control of hours and conditions of work in industry. On December 1, 1967, amending legislation came into force which introduced a phased programme to reduce by December 1, 1971 the maximum standard hours for women and young persons to eight a day and 48 a week. The first, second, and third stages of this programme have been implemented without serious difficulties. The fourth phase came into force on December 1, 1970 and reduced the maximum standard working hours for women and for young

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EMPLOYMENT

persons aged 16 and 17 years to eight hours and twenty minutes a day and 50 hours a week. In addition to providing for maximum daily hours, regulations made under the ordinance provide for limited overtime, weekly rest days, and rest periods for women and young persons.

      Young persons aged 14 and 15 years may work only eight hours a day in industry with a break of one hour after five hours continuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry and no woman nor young person is allowed to work at night or underground in any mine, quarry or in any industrial undertaking involving a tunnelling operation. Regula- tions under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance also provide for pre-employment medical examination of those employed underground or in tunnelling operations and for the periodical medical examination of those under 21 years of age employed underground.

Because of a continuing shortage of labour, a few large factories. engaged in cotton spinning were authorised to employ women at night, but permission was restricted to those concerns which were able to comply with stringent conditions. The effects of this experimental concession were being closely watched in anticipation of a review in early 1971 of the policy governing night work for

women.

There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work 10 hours a day or less. Government employees and those in concerns operating on western lines work eight hours. The restrictions on the hours of work for women, which were first introduced in January 1959, have resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men working alongside women in the same concern. By December 1, 1970, 39 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts, cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 35,779 men and 37,566 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry.

      The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance provides for six annual holidays to be

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given to workers in industrial establishments and for sickness allowance up to 12 days a year on half pay.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

      The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Governor on labour and industrial relations policies. All labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under International Labour Con- ventions are observed. The organisation of the department now provides for five divisions: Labour Relations, Development, Industry, Employment and Industrial Health. Having completed their missions, the two Labour Advisers appointed in 1968 to assist the Commissioner, one on labour legislation and the other on all aspects of industrial relations, left the Colony in March 1970 and November 1970 respectively.

      Three measures amending the Employment Ordinance were enacted during the year.

      The Employment (Amendment) Ordinance which came into operation on January 9, 1970 provides for maternity protection in employment to comply in part with International Labour Con- vention No. 3 (Maternity Protection). All female employees covered by the principal ordinance and employed continuously by the same employer for not less than 26 weeks are entitled to unpaid maternity leave of four weeks before the expected date of confine- ment and six weeks after the actual date of confinement. An employer is prohibited from giving notice of termination of employment to a female employee from the date on which she gives notice of intention to take maternity leave until the expiry of that leave.

The Employment (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance came into operation on April 1, 1970. All manual workers whatever their wages, and all non-manual workers whose wages do not exceed $1,500 a month, who are employed under a continuous contract, are entitled to not less than four rest days a month. Women and young persons who are entitled to one rest day in every seven days under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Regulations are not covered by this amendment which also provides for sub- stitution of, and voluntary work on, rest days.

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EMPLOYMENT

      The Employment (Amendment) (No. 3) Ordinance, which came into force on August 1, 1970, provides further protection to employees against the non-payment by employers of wages earned or other moneys owed. Under the amendment no employer may enter into, renew, or continue a contract of employment unless he believes on reasonable grounds that he will be able to pay, on the due date, all wages due under the contract of employment. An employee, if his employer or former employer is about to leave Hong Kong with intent to evade payment of wages earned or other moneys owed under a contract of employment, may apply to a District Judge seeking the issue of a warrant of arrest of his employer or former employer, provided that he has reasonable grounds for making such an application.

      With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, workers' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which are registered as societies and bear allegiance to opposing political groups. Divided politically and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organisations.

      The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 66 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills, and public utilities. A further 20 unions, nominally independent, are friendly towards the federation and participate in its activities. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathises with the policies of the Taiwan authorities. Most of the members of its 95 affiliated unions and of the seven nominally independent unions, which generally support the Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. During the year a number of changes took place in the leadership of the Council.

There are 77 independent unions, some of which continued to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

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The Labour Relations Division of the Labour Department dealt with 2,792 disputes, of which 331 involved large wage claims. This compared with 3,085 last year. There were a further 2,332 minor disputes compared with 2,572 in the previous year. Altogether there were 46 strikes and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 47,243 compared with 39,911 in 1969. Major disputes in the year were due mainly to disagreement over piece rates (particularly in the woollen knitting and wig industries), redundancy, dismissal and insolvency.

The service was expanded during the year, with the operation of five full-time offices, on Hong Kong Island, and in Kowloon (East), Kowloon (West), Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan. Progress has been made in the proposal to establish a Labour Court which will be presided over by an officer of the Judiciary. When established this court will settle expeditiously employees' claims of legal and contractual rights.

By the end of the year the Labour Department had recorded a total of 58 formal joint consultative councils and committees set up by 27 establishments. Most of these were working smoothly and achieving the object of bringing management and employees together to improve relationships and allow each to benefit from the experience of the other. Similar committees established in certain government departments discussed a wide range of adminis- trative, welfare and organisational problems. In a survey launched in February 1970, 1,865 industrial, commercial and service employ- ers were asked to indicate their interest in this form of communica- tion with their employees. A total of 253 replied that they had already introduced some form of joint consultation and 331 declared interest and requested a visit by an officer of the Labour Relations Service. A total of 220 visits were made during the year to em- ployers who had responded positively to the survey.

In the course of the visits made by the Labour Adviser (Industrial Relations) and officers engaged in industrial relations work, it was found that, while some establishments had written terms of employment contained in booklets issued to workers. setting out precise details of their conditions of service, many employers were in need of advice on how such booklets should be prepared. A booklet entitled 'Why you should have an employee

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EMPLOYMENT

handbook and how to prepare one' was published by the Labour Department and free copies in English and Chinese were made available to interested parties.

      The continuing shortage of labour resulted in wage demands being made by employees in the traditional trades, the manufactur- ing industries, the public utility companies and the various services of Government. Altogether, 29 unions were recorded as having made proposals for wage increases. A demand by female nurses in government hospitals for equal pay with male nurses was accepted by Government which undertook to introduce this by stages under an appropriate new salary scheme.

      The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are set out in the Trade Union Registration Ordinance which is administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions.

The 327 unions on the register at the end of 1970 consisted of 265 workers' unions with a total declared membership of 176,598, 50 organisations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 5,282 and 12 mixed organisations with a total declared membership of 6,583.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

       The Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department acts as an advisory service to Government and industry on matters. relating to the health of workers. The work of the division is primarily concerned with preventing occupational disease and protecting workers against health hazards in their working en- vironment. Such hazards are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate, or by officers of the division. Control is achieved by environmental and biological monitoring and the division has a laboratory with technicians trained in industrial hygiene. A survey of medical facilities in industry is being conducted with the help of the Industry Division.

The measurement of many concentrations in the air, such as chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust and sulphur dioxide, and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise, and lighting form a major part of

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the routine duties of the division. Also undertaken are medical examinations, including X-rays and pathological investigations, of workers exposed to risk of lead, radiation, or fluoride toxicity.

      Under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, the division has responsibilities for the clinical examination, case work, and medical assessment of injured workers. This important service operates principally from the casualty departments of the Queen Mary Hospital, the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Kwong Wah Hospital, although many visits to homes and workplaces are made by the health visitors of the division.

The report of the Committee on Air Pollution in Hong Kong was published in August. Training of staff for the New Air Pollu- tion Control Unit began in November and it is expected that Smoke Inspectors will start carrying out field work in February 1971. The number of monitoring stations for air pollution is now 28. In December the Committee on Air Pollution was reconstituted as a standing advisory committee.

      The factory inspectorate of the Industry Division of the Labour Department is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, for the safety of workers employed in factories and industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance are given to management on ways and means of guarding dangerous parts of machinery, adopting safe working practices, and general layout of factories to achieve safe working conditions.

      During the year the scope and activities of the Industrial Safety Training Centre were further expanded. Officers of its staff continued to give lectures to students at various technical and vocational training centres. The centre also helps to organise safety committees and prepares booklets and posters on industrial safety.

      In February, the Industrial Safety Training Centre, the Fire Services Department and agents and manufacturers of protective equipment jointly organised the first exhibition of industrial pro- tective equipment in Hong Kong. This was followed in August and September by three smaller exhibitions in Kwun Tong, San Po Kong and Tsuen Wan and a final exhibition in the City Hall.

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EMPLOYMENT

The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance came into force on January 1, 1970. This amending legislation increases substantially the maximum and minimum lump sums payable on death and permanent incapacity, raises the level of periodical payments during periods of temporary incapacity, and makes such periodical payments payable in addition to any lump sums for death or permanent incapacity. In addition the amendment brings domestic servants and agricultural workers within its scope and also extends the coverage of non-manual workers to include those whose earnings do not exceed $1,500 a month.

3

Financial Structure

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence to which it makes a substantial contribution. This contribution is now under a four-year Defence Costs Arrange- ment which commenced in 1967-8. The contribution to recurrent defence expenditure is £3,925,000 a year, with a sum of £2,400,000 during the four-year period for a services' capital works programme. At the same time, the maintenance function of HBM Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in Hong Kong in respect of certain service property, and the expenditure involved, has been taken over by the Public Works Department of the Hong Kong Government.

Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies simila to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of Hong Kong other than 'below the line' operations of various official funds.

(A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after the war. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively, a series of surpluses, some of them substantial, have been accumu- lated. Figures for the past four years are shown in Appendix 9. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which Hong Kong has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure

28

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. These annual capital spendings have been as high as $735 million; in 1969-70 they totalled nearly $372 million.

      The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, was that during the earlier years exceptionally rapid increases in population generated internal economic activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreci- able increases in the rates of tax. Revenue expanded from $292 million in 1950-1 to $2,481 million in 1969-70. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been strong and continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before Government could develop the public and social services necessary for an increasing population and made possible by economic growth itself. However, as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expendi- ture and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 54 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent. Consequently, in that year the surplus of revenue over ex- penditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure and an overall deficit of $45 million occurred. Subsequent budgets forecast further and in some cases substantial deficits, but the actual results suggest that the economic strength and resilience of Hong Kong was underestimated, particularly earlier on, for 1965-6 is the only year in which another deficit has been recorded.

      While the export trade remained buoyant, towards the end of 1964-5 the property market turned dull and this, to a degree, affected other sectors. The deficit of 1965-6 reflected this tem- porary set back.

      Revenue and expenditure for the years 1968-9 and 1969-70 together with the estimates for this financial year (i.e. 1970-1) are detailed and compared in Appendices 6 and 7. There was a return to surplus in 1966-7. The change was assisted by a small increase in taxation but a more important factor was a falling-off in capital works expenditure as certain major works, particularly

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

29

the Plover Cove Reservoir scheme and certain major land develop- ments, neared completion. There was also a fall in construction costs due largely to reduced private development.

      The picture changed again in 1968 when, partly as an aftermath of success in surmounting the political difficulties of 1967, partly under the influence of world inflation on demand for Hong Kong exports, another period of unusually rapid growth began, causing the growth of revenues at existing tax rates once again to out- distance the substantial rate of growth of expenditure on special services and development. A budget forecast of a surplus of $13 million in 1968-9 became an actual surplus of $208 million. The pace of economic growth continued to accelerate in 1969-70 and an estimated surplus of $53 million became an actual surplus of $449 million.

       For 1970-1 the budget estimate of revenue is $2,584 million which is $147 million more than actual revenue in 1969-70; there were only a few minor tax changes. The estimate of expenditure is $2,393 million which is $305 million more than in 1969-70. The estimated surplus of $191 million is, however, likely to be exceeded in the event. Apart from continued economic growth, a new factor during this year has been a revival of interest in sales of Crown Land and a record revenue yield from this source is expected. Much of this derives from land development schemes which have been carried out in recent years in anticipation of demand. The recovery of private development, however, is having the effect of raising the cost of public works substantially. The consequence of these factors during 1970-1 is likely to be a substantial overall fiscal surplus, although the increase in current expenditure will probably more than keep pace with the increase in recurrent

revenue.

       At March 31, 1970, net available public financial assets were $1,564 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in the Revenue Equalisation Fund as a reserve against possible future deficits on current account. In accordance with normal government practice, the public debt of the Colony (see Appendix 10) is not included in the statement of assets and liabilities at Appendix 8. The debt at March 31, 1970 was $63.3 million or the equivalent of approx- imately $16 per head of population. Indebtedness decreased by

30

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

     $3 million during the year, owing mainly to the repayment of £200,000 of the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport. This loan is repayable by 15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on October 1, 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; its sinking fund stood at $28.7 million on March 31, 1970.

In addition to the Assets and Liabilities referred to, there exist for special purposes the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund (see Appendix 8). The Development Loan Fund, of $654 million, is used to finance social and economic development proj- ects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes, but during the year an allocation of $15 million to cover interest-free loans to University students was approved. At March 31, 1970 liquid assets amounted to $13.4 million and outstanding commitments to $133.5 million. The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is for the support and develop- ment of social welfare services. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $20.7 million was credited during the period June 30, 1965 to March 31, 1970, by which date grants and loans amounting to $18.6 million had been approved. A further sum of $1.3 million, being unclaimed prize money as at March 31, 1970, is held in deposit. Details of the Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are shown in Appendix 11.

The audit of all public accounts and certain special funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Annual reports on the accounts by the Director of Audit and the Director General are presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

DUTIES

There is no general tariff. Five groups of commodities-alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table-waters, and methyl alcohol

are subject to duty, whether they are manufactured in Hong Kong or imported. In certain cases, preferential rates are charged on local manufactures and imports from other Commonwealth countries.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

31

       On liquors, the rates range from $1.60 per gallon on Hong Kong brewed beer to $73 a gallon on non-Commonwealth liquors and spirits. On tobacco, they range from $2.50 a pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $11.25 a pound on non-Commonwealth cigars; and on hydrocarbon oils, from two cents a pound on liquefied petroleum gas to $1.80 a gallon on motor spirits. The rates for table-waters and methyl alcohol are 48 cents and $7.50 a gallon respectively./

       All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed.

RATES

       Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and part of the New Territories. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In those parts of the New Territories which are statutorily subject to rates, the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Com- missioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up to date. The estimated revenue from rates for 1970-1 is $327 million.

       There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, chari- table and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments are reimbursed in the form of either direct subventions or contributions toward rates. }

INTERNAL REVENUE

       Income was first subject to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 as a temporary war time measure and, although the War Revenue Ordinance was not repealed until 1947, no attempt was made to collect tax in the two years following the liberation of Hong Kong. However, a new source of revenue was by then essential and it was decided to impose as a permanent measure with effect from April 1, 1947 a direct tax on earnings and profits. Under the Inland Rev- enue Ordinance, tax is charged only on income or profits arising

32

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

in or derived from Hong Kong. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside Hong Kong whether remitted here or not.

The standard rate of tax was raised to 15 per cent from April 1, 1966, having stood at 124 per cent for the previous 15 years and at 10 per cent before that.

      Earnings and profits are classified into four categories each of which is subject to a separate tax-Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. Property Tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building, with the exception of land or buildings in the New Territories and land or buildings wholly occupied by the owner as his residence; it is payable by the person paying the Rates who, if he is not the owner, can then recover from the owner by deduction from rent or any other money due to him. The payer of interest is required to withhold tax and account for it direct to the Commissioner. Dividends are regarded as paid out of taxed profits and exempt from further tax. Salaries Tax and Profits Tax are levied by direct assessment on persons chargeable.

      Tax is charged at the standard rate except for Salaries Tax, which is subject to personal allowance deduction and a sliding scale of tax; proprietors of small unincorporated businesses who have an exemption limit of $7,000 with provision for marginal relief where the profits of those businesses are only slightly in excess of $7,000; property owners-if the rent receivable is controlled by reference to the 1941 rental, the Property Tax charge is reduced to one-half the standard rate. Also, as an alternative to the separate taxes, a resident may elect to have Personal Assessment. A single assessment aggregating his total Hong Kong income, excluding dividends, granting personal allowances, and charging the same sliding scale of tax as for Salaries Tax is then made, with a set-off being allowed of any of the four separate taxes already paid.

      The personal allowances at present are: for the taxpayer $7,000; for his wife $7,000; for each of the first two children $2,000; for each of the third to sixth child $1,000 and for each of the seventh to ninth child $500. This makes a maximum allowance for children of $9,500. There is also an allowance for life insurance premia not to exceed 10 per cent of the capital sum insured or one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. Provision has been

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

33

      made with effect from the year of assessment 1970-1 for an allow- ance of $2,000 for dependent parents resident in Hong Kong, an allowance of $3,000 for a working wife and additional allowances of up to $3,600 for persons in the lower income brackets. The sliding scale of tax starts at 24 per cent on the first $5,000 of net income and increases at each subsequent $5,000 stage until at $45,000 a maximum rate of 30 per cent is reached, with a subsequent limita- tion that the total Salaries Tax chargeable cannot exceed 15 per cent of gross income.

It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1970-1 will be $724 million.

       Estate Duty generally follows the lines of the British tax of the same name. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong. Estates valued at less than $200,000 are exempt from duty. The rates of duty range from five per cent on estates valued between $200,000 and $300,000 to 20 per cent on estates over $2 million. Yield for the year ending March 31, 1971 is esti- mated at $20 million.

       Stamp Duty is modelled on the British pattern with fixed duties and ad valorem duty being charged according to the type of docu- ment. The lowest fixed duty is 15 cents on bills of lading and receipts and the highest $20. Ad valorem duty ranges from 25 cents on $1,000 to $2 on $100. For conveyance of land there is a fixed duty of $20 where the sale price does not exceed $20,000, one per cent ad valorem duty where the sale price exceeds $20,000 but does not exceed $40,000 and two per cent where the consideration is in excess of $40,000, with provision for marginal relief. There is also an ad valorem duty of two per cent payable on lease premia. The estimated yield from stamp duty during 1970-1 is $126 million.

        Substantial revenue accrues from Entertainments and Bets and Sweeps Taxes and it is estimated they will yield $66 million during the current year. Entertainments Tax is charged on the price of admission to cinematograph exhibitions and to race meetings at which totalisator or pari-mutuel betting is conducted. The rate varies with the amount charged but averages about 22 per cent. Certain cinema shows given for philanthropic, charitable or educational purposes are taxed at a lower rate or may be exempt. Bets and

34

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

Sweeps Tax imposes 74 per cent on totalisator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

The Hotel Accommodation Tax, introduced in July 1966, provides money for the promotion of tourism. The rate of tax is two per cent of the charge made for accommodation by the proprietor of any hotel containing 10 or more rooms normally available for guests. This levy is estimated to yield $4.5 million in 1970-1.

Every business except one which is not carried on for the purpose of gain or one which is carried on by a charitable institution must be registered and pay an annual registration fee of $25. Where the business is very small, the Commissioner may exempt it. These fees are expected to yield approximately $4.1 million.

CURRENCY

      Hong Kong's modern currency system came into operation in 1935 when the Currency Ordinance, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues, in exchange for certificates of indebted- ness. The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their small fiduciary issues. The exchange fund has, in practice, kept its assets in sterling and from 1937 to 1968 operated in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The Ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

Also in 1935 the Government undertook to issue one dollar notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960, because of the heavy expense of keeping clean notes in circulation, a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a British florin was introduced. The one dollar notes were demonetised by the Dollar and Subsidiary Currency Notes Ordinance which came into effect on September 1, 1969, and the assets of the security funds held against these issues were transferred to general revenue.

Government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of five cents, 10 cents and 50 cents, and notes of the value of one cent.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

35

The total currency in nominal circulation at December 31, 1970

was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins

Government 1 cent note issue

$2,413,483,000

$

...

89,433,639

...

***

$

74,260,035

$

498,280

Hong Kong has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. The Defence (Finance) Regulations give power to apply Exchange Controls but a general licence is in force. Certain con- trols are, however, operated in co-operation with the authorised exchange banks; these are designed largely to prevent any prejudice to the sterling area arising from the generally free exchange market in Hong Kong.

The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at approximately 1s 3d. On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. Hong Kong, like the greater part of the sterling area, followed fully Britain's 1949 devaluation. This relationship with sterling was at no time a statutory one; it was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in conjunction with the note- issuing banks. It came, however, to be generally regarded, in com- merce and banking, as a fixed relationship; while Hong Kong, as both a dependent territory and a member of the sterling area, was required in practice to keep its official reserves and the greater part of the reserves of the banking system (there being no central bank) in the form of sterling. Towards the end of 1967 Hong Kong's total sterling assets were of the order of £350 million.

In consequence of this situation, when sterling was devalued by 14.3 per cent in November 1967, the immediate effect was a loss which may be estimated at $700 million; and Hong Kong was faced with the dilemma of following the pound down and so letting the loss fall directly and fully on the standard of living of the people (by reason of their almost total reliance on imported food and other goods) along with a costly and completely unnecessary deteriora- tion of terms of trade; or of not devaluing the Hong Kong dollar and taking the loss, for the most part, directly on the reserves of Government and the commercial banks. After an initial devaluation

36

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

     which maintained temporarily the previous relationship with sterling, the Hong Kong dollar was revalued four days later by 10 per cent against sterling to a new rate of 1s 41⁄2d, equivalent to a 5.7 per cent devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar from its previous international parity. This decision cost Hong Kong public funds $450 million or nearly $120 per head of population. This sum included nearly full compensation paid from the Exchange Fund to commercial banks against their consequential losses.

These events finally made it clear that the old relationship with the pound was no longer appropriate to Hong Kong's economic situation. On the other hand, it was not possible for Britain to allow any significant diversification of Hong Kong's sterling assets of £350 million into other currencies, in view of her own depleted reserves; while at this stage she was not prepared to offer guarantees of the international value of sterling reserves. Negotiations in London in April and May 1968 resulted in a novel arrangement whereby Hong Kong was given the right to use its sterling assets to purchase British Government bonds, of seven years maturity, denominated in Hong Kong dollars. The rate of interest was 4 per cent below the current cost of United Kingdom Treasury borrowing for seven years. These bonds were purchasable to a value of £100 million or 50 per cent of official reserves, whichever was greater, up to an absolute maximum of £150 million. This arrangement went far to safeguard- ing the value of Hong Kong's reserves in terms of the Hong Kong dollar but safeguarded their international value only if it were possible to avoid for seven years a devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar.

      In July 1968, with the backing of the so-called Basle arrangement whereby credits of US$2,000 million were made available to Britain by the Group of Ten, Britain offered all members of the sterling area, including Hong Kong, a free guarantee in terms of US dollar value of all officially held sterling in excess of 10 per cent of each country's total official external reserves, in return for the under- taking by them to maintain a minimum proportion of their reserves in sterling (roughly the proportion existing when the offer was made; for Hong Kong this was 99 per cent). The guarantee is for five years from September 25, 1968. Hong Kong accepted this new scheme in place of the Hong Kong bond scheme, and arrangements were

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

37

introduced early in 1969, through the mechanism of the Exchange Fund, to bring within the cover of the guarantee a substantial portion of that part of the Colony's sterling reserves which are held by the banking system in the absence of a central bank. While the guarantee remains in force, the Hong Kong dollar is automatically protected from the effects of any change in sterling exchange rates so far as its capital assets are concerned. This does not mean, however, that the value of the Hong Kong dollar could necessarily be maintained if such an event was followed by substantial devalua- tions by Hong Kong's trade competitors to the detriment of her trading position.

BANKING

      Bank deposits in the Colony increased again during 1970 to reach a new record figure of $14,955 million at the end of the year, a rise of 21.6 per cent over the previous year-end figure.

Loans and advances increased to $9,670 million and, as a per- centage of bank deposits, amounted to 64.7 per cent at the end of the year, compared with 64.1 per cent at the end of 1969.

      At the end of 1970 there were 70 incorporated banks in the Colony with a total of 399 banking offices, an increase of 37 banking offices during the year. In addition, 11 representative offices of foreign banks were given approval to open during the year, making a total of 32 at the end of the year.

      Fifty-one of the licensed banks are Authorised Banks for the operation of Exchange Control in the Colony. Together with the un- authorised banks, they have branches and correspondents through- out the world and offer a comprehensive banking service of the highest order.

Monthly bank clearings during the year averaged $10,261 million. The tables at Appendix 14 illustrate the growth of the banking system over the past 15 years.

STOCK EXCHANGES

At the end of 1970 there were seven stock exchanges incorporated in the Colony under the provisions of the Companies Ordinance, including four incorporated during the year. However, only two

38

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

exchanges were engaged in active trading at the end of the year. Total stock exchange turnover was valued at $5,993 million in 1970, an increase of 135 per cent over the previous year.

The section of the Companies Ordinance which restricts offers in writing to the public of shares for purchase does not apply if the shares are quoted on, or permission to deal in them has been granted by, a recognised stock exchange. In February, the Companies Ordinance was amended to provide a definition of the expression 'recognised stock exchange in the Colony', which had hitherto not been defined, and to empower the Governor in Council to recognise stock exchanges by order. General conditions for recognition were determined by the Governor in Council during the year. At Decem- ber 31, 1970 two applications for recognition had been received, both of which were still under consideration.

4

Industry and Trade

     COMMERCE and industry continued to expand production and exports in 1970.

      Hong Kong's economic prosperity is dependent on export- oriented light manufacturing industries and a myriad of support and servicing industries operating within a free port, free enterprise environment. The industries which have developed in scope, scale and sophistication are those whose products have been able to withstand international competition without subsidy or protection, and those which are geared to servicing the manufacture of such products. The widespread skill in marketing techniques together with highly developed banking, insurance and shipping systems inherited from the historical entrepôt era have facilitated and promoted the development of manufacturing industries which are the mainstay of Hong Kong's economy.

Hong Kong has remained true to the traditions established when it was an entrepôt, with no tariffs and few restrictions on import of commercial goods. Preservation of a liberal import regime and reluctance to meet demands for protection of particular industries or to retaliate against other countries' restrictive actions are key elements in the Government's commercial policy.

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of which Hong Kong is treated as a member by virtue of the United Kingdom's status as such, can be regarded as the cornerstone of Hong Kong's commercial policy. Developments in international commercial policy in and through the GATT are therefore of great importance to Hong Kong because of their possible impact on its external trading, which in turn has a direct effect on the shape and magnitude of domestic industry and on employment. The aspirations and activities of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop- ment (UNCTAD), the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) (of which Hong Kong is an associate

40

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

member), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Development Pro- gramme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO), the Asian Development Bank (of the last two of which Hong Kong is a full member in its own right) are also of interest in varying degree to Hong Kong.

All these matters, in both their external and internal aspects, are the concern of the Economic Branch of the Colonial Secretariat in terms of higher policy and of the Commerce and Industry Department at the advisory and executive level. In recent years the traditional efforts of trade and industrial associations have been augmented by specialised sections of the department or by autonomous agencies, legislatively sanctioned, with defined objec- tives.

The Director of Commerce and Industry receives advice on matters of policy affecting trade and industry, other than textiles, from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board which he chairs. This is a body composed mainly of senior unofficial representatives of commerce, industry, banking etc nominated by the Governor and meeting once a month. A more specialised board, the Textiles Advisory Board, also chaired by the Director, is consulted on matters affecting the textile industry. It met on 24 occasions dur- ing 1970.

INDUSTRY

      Hong Kong is well-known for the competitive price and range of its light industrial products, now widely acknowledged to be of high quality. The majority of industrialists are Hong Kong residents, with most of their capital resources self-generated. In recent years, however, overseas interests have increasingly entered into various forms of industrial co-operation with Hong Kong companies. American and Japanese interests take the lead, followed by British, Australian and Swiss.

Textiles and Clothing

The textile and clothing industry still dominates the manufacturing sector, accounting for 45 per cent of domestic exports in terms of value and employing 40 per cent of the manufacturing labour force.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

41

The spinning section, with 882,200 spindles in operation, produced yarn counts ranging from 10's to 60's carded and combed, in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1970 reached 323 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weavers. In the weaving section, 22,910 looms produced drills, shirtings, poplins, ginghams and canvas, to be bleached or dyed or printed in the finishing sector. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1970 was approximately 769 million square yards, some being exported as cloth but the bulk being used by local garment manufac- turers.

The use of fibres other than cotton and new processes in the finish- ing and garment industries are of growing importance. Twenty-one textile mills are engaged in the production of polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose yarn for weaving into shirting and other fabrics for which there is a rapid growth in demand. Production in the woollen and worsted spinning sector is mostly consumed by the domestic knitting industry. The dyeing, printing and finishing sectors manufacture a wide range of multi-colour screen and roller prints, pre-shrunk and permanent-pressed fabrics and polymerized materials with drip-dry characteristics.

      Garment manufacturing remains the largest sector of the textile industry, employing 95,980 workers in 1,802 factories. A great variety of garments, ranging through cotton singlets, permanent press slacks and shirts to high fashion dresses are manufactured for export all over the world. Knitting mills produce a wide range of items in cotton, wool and other fabrics. The export value of garments rose by 13 per cent to $4,337 million in 1970.

Other Light Industries

In the ever-widening range of light industry, the plastics industry remains second in prominence to textiles. It includes the manufac- ture of toys, dolls, flowers and household articles. Skill in the cutting of moulds and dies, together with the ability to meet short-notice orders, have contributed to the rise in exports, the value reaching $1,396 million in 1970, an increase of 15 per cent over that achieved in the previous year.

      In recent years there has been spectacular growth and diversifica- tion in the electronics industry. This now includes the manufacture

42

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     of transistor radios; television sets and parts; computer parts (e.g. memory cores) and electronic components including silicon tran- sistors and diodes, magnetic reed switches, integrated circuits, condensers, transformers, capacitors, resistors and loudspeakers. Since the establishment of the industry in 1959, exports of transistor radios have increased to reach a total in 1970 of 22 million sets worth $549 million sent mainly to the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany.

      Manufacture of wigs and hair pieces has increased substantially in recent years, the principal market being the United States. The value of exports in 1970 reached $937 million. During the year synthetic fibres were used extensively and accounted for over 80 per cent of all exports of wigs.

Heavy and Service Industries

      Hong Kong's heavy industry has been related to port facilities and servicing as well as to the construction industry. The former includes ship and aircraft repair or modification and construction of small and medium-sized vessels. The latter embraces the produc- tion of reinforcing bars, made either from imported ingots or from scrap steel derived from shipbreaking or industrial detritus, and the manufacture of aluminium extruded products.

      Production by the steel rolling industry for domestic consumption and export remained at a satisfactory level. Imports of Chinese steel decreased considerably although the revival of the local property market, brought about an improvement in prospects for the steel industry. Taiwan became the leading foreign supplier and imports from this market were increasing.

      The expansion of light industry has in the past stimulated the manufacture of small and medium machine tools as well as parts and accessories for imported machinery. Of particular significance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines, power presses, lathes and planing machines.

Industrial Land

The demand for industrial land generated by the rapid expansion of local manufacturing industry remained keen in the early part of 1970. But, with the substantial amount of industrial land being

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

43

      made available for sale by Government during the past eighteen months, its price levelled off in the second half of 1970, indicating that the supply is keeping up with demand.

       A large number of flatted industrial buildings commenced con- struction in 1969 and most of these were completed in 1970. This eased the shortage of factory space and contributed to a stabilising of industrial rents which were rising sharply earlier in the year.

      Nearly all industrial sites in the townships of Kwun Tong and San Po Kong have now been developed. Heavy development is already occurring in the more distant and longer established township of Tsuen Wan. Some industrial land in Kwai Chung already sold still remains to be developed but it is believed that the impending construction of a container terminal at Kwai Chung will accelerate this development. Apart from some industrial land that will become available for development in Cheung Sha Wan and Kowloon Bay, the future for industrial expansion must lie largely in the New Territories, particularly in Castle Peak and Sha Tin.

EXTERNAL TRADE

External trade in 1970 advanced to a record level due to sub- stantial rises in domestic exports and imports of 17 per cent and 18 per cent respectively. Summary trade statistics, including a breakdown by countries and commodities and comparisons with previous years, are contained in Appendices 15 to 21.

      Imports were valued at $17,607 million. Domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish were substantial, but as most of Hong Kong's food-stuffs have to be imported, food was the principal item, valued at $3,051 million, representing 17 per cent of all imports. The chief items of edible imports were fruit and vegetables, rice and other cereal, live animals, fish and fish prepara- tions, meat and meat preparations, and dairy products and eggs. Raw materials and semi-manufactured goods for industry included textile yarn and fabrics, raw cotton, base metals and plastic moulding materials. Capital goods imported included machinery and transport equipment, while consumer goods and mineral fuels were also imported in large quantities.

44

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

The sources of imports were determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade relationships. Japan con- tinued to be the principal supplier in 1970, providing 24 per cent of all imports. Of the imports from Japan, 34 per cent was textile yarn and fabrics; the rest consisted of electrical apparatus and appliances, photographic goods, watches, non-electrical machinery, plastic mate- rials, iron and steel bars, rods, plates and sheets and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from China, the second largest supplier, accounted for 16 per cent of imports from all sources and 46 per cent of all food imports. Other items imported from China included textile fabrics, clothing, crude animal and vegetable materials, paper, paper board, pottery and manufactured articles. Imports from the United States registered an increase of $314 million or 16 per cent. The principal imports from this source were machinery, diamonds, textile yarn and fabrics, fruit, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, tobacco and tobacco manufactures, photographic and cinematographic supplies and plastic materials.

The value of domestic exports reached $12,347 million, an in- crease of 17 per cent over the previous year. Products of the textile and garment manufacturing industries accounted for 45 per cent by value, and miscellaneous manufactured articles, mainly plastic toys and dolls, wigs and artificial flowers, made up a further 25 per cent. Other light industrial products such as transistorised radios and electronic components, footwear and manufactures of metals were also important exports.

The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is nowadays in- fluenced less by such factors as tariff preference in Britain and several smaller Commonwealth markets, than by economic con- ditions and commercial policies in principal markets. During the year 54 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to two markets-the United States and Britain. The United States, re- maining the largest market, took 42 per cent by value and increased her purchases by $762 million or 17 per cent. The value of all goods sent to Britain was $1,481 million, 12 per cent of all domestic exports. The Federal Republic of Germany, Hong Kong's third largest market, purchased Hong Kong manufactures worth $985 million during the year. Other growing markets of importance

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

45

included Japan, Canada, Australia, Sweden and Singapore, but in fact domestic exports go to nearly every country in the world.

       The entrepôt trade has sustained its role in external trade. The value of re-exports in 1970 totalled $2,892 million, an increase of eight per cent over 1969. This was 19 per cent of the total combined value of exports of Hong Kong manufactures and re-exports of imported goods. During 1970 Japan remained the most important re-export market, followed by Singapore, the United States, Indonesia, Taiwan and Belgium. The principal commodities in the re-export trade were diamonds, textile fabrics, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, coffee, tea and spices, crude animal and vegetable materials and watches. Re-exports of goods originating from China amounted to 24 per cent of all re-exports.

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

       As the United Kingdom has acceded to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on behalf of Hong Kong, the Colony's exports are given most-favoured-nation tariff treatment in the majority of its overseas markets and are thus accorded a degree of protection against discriminatory import restrictions by members of GATT. Nevertheless difficulties do occur from time to time, and the Com- merce and Industry Department is responsible for such action as is necessary and practicable at official levels to resolve them. During the year, Hong Kong made representations, on matters outside the trade in cotton textiles which is covered by the provisions of the GATT Cotton Textiles Arrangement, to the Governments of Algeria, Greece, France and the Republic of Ireland.

       Britain's application to join the European Community, which had lain dormant since 1967, was resuscitated this year. The Government, in close collaboration with Hong Kong trade and industry, maintained a close watch on the progress of the negotia- tions which could have far-reaching implications for Hong Kong's external trade.

       Close contact on this subject and related matters was maintained with Her Majesty's Government. A senior official from the British negotiating delegation in Brussels visited Hong Kong for discussions in August and this visit was followed in September by one from

46

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

the Rt Hon Geoffrey Rippon, QC, MP, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, the British Minister charged with responsibility for the negotiations. A Hong Kong team led by His Excellency the Governor subsequently visited London in November for further discussions with British officials, including Mr Rippon.

      The GATT Cotton Textiles Committee met on May 25 and 27 in Geneva to decide on the future of the Cotton Textiles Arrange- ment (CTA) due to expire on September 30, 1970. Hong Kong was represented throughout the meeting. A Protocol extending the Arrangement for three years was subsequently opened for signature on June 15, 1970.

       The GATT Committee on Trade in Industrial Products established five working groups earlier in the year to study a consolidated inventory of non-tariff barriers affecting trade in industrial products. The Commerce and Industry Department contributed to the compila- tion of the inventory and was kept fully informed of developments by its Assistant Director in Geneva who attended meetings of the Committee.

A generalised preference scheme for developing countries as envisaged by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop- ment (UNCTAD) moved nearer realisation when the prospective 'donor' countries presented their revised schedule of offers to the UNCTAD Special Committee on Preferences in September. The Committee produced a report with a set of mutually acceptable conclusions for transmission to the UN General Assembly. Final decisions on beneficiary countries, product coverage, rates of preferential tariff etc are left to the individual donors. Hong Kong's claim to be considered a beneficiary under the various schemes has been formally stated by HMG and every effort continues to be made to ensure that the Colony's interests are safeguarded.

Canada: Both the Hong Kong/Canada agreement regarding trade in certain cotton textiles and Hong Kong's unilateral under- taking to restrain the export of certain man-made-fibre garments expired on September 30, 1970. Following consultations in Ottawa with Canadian officials in July, 1970, it was agreed that restraints should continue for a further year. The most significant feature of the new arrangement was that, where appropriate, quota limits for similar cotton and non-cotton apparel items were combined.

JEWELLERY

The

"he physical beauty of Hong Kong has earned for it the graceful title 'Pearl of the Orient', but this is by no means its only link with the glamorous world of precious stones. Hong Kong, with its free port status and its ceaseless flow of visitors, is rapidly developing into one of the world's major retail jewellery markets. This is due in part to the bargain prices available in this keenly competitive market and partly to the skill and artistry of Hong Kong's designers and crafts- men. During 1970 the Diamond Importers Association of Hong Kong launched a worldwide campaign to spread the word of Hong Kong's unique advantages as a place to buy fine jewel- lery. The picture on the previous page shows a skilled operator putting the finishing touches to a ring, newly handmade in one of Hong Kong's many modern jewellery factories. Opposite, a diamond importer examines a shipment of diamonds rang- ing in size from one to ten carats and worth approximately $2-million, destined for the Hong Kong market.

BLA

==

The process starts here, as a designer visualises how the finished piece will look and prepares detailed drawings. Hong Kong-designed jewellery has won a number of international awards.

Here a technician selects the stones to be mounted.

The actual crafting of a piece of jewellery is a matter of painstaking handwork calling for a keen eye and delicate touch.

A

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

47

A new Canadian Textile Policy was announced during the year, designed to 'create conditions in which Canadian industry could continue to move progressively towards viable lines of products on an increasingly competitive basis internationally'. Towards this end, a Textile and Clothing Board was created in November with power to examine allegations of injury to Canadian industry by imports and to consider plans put forward for the rationalisation of the industry. The activities of this Board and the way it develops will naturally be watched with interest.

       United States of America: The five-year United States/Hong Kong Agreement, under which exports of all cotton textiles to the United States had been restrained from 1965 to 1970, expired on September 30, 1970. A new three-year Agreement, which was negotiated in May 1970 in Geneva, became effective from October 1, 1970. This continued the comprehensive restraint on exports of cotton textiles to the United States. The terms of the new Agreement are largely similar to those of the old one. The restraint limit for the first year of the new Agreement represents an increase of five per cent over that for the last year of the old Agreement.

In April, the US Trade Bill, 1970, (the so-called 'Mills Bill') was introduced in the Ways and Means Committee of the US House of Representatives. The Bill contained provisions which would limit imports into the United States of textiles and certain footwear and thus was of considerable concern to Hong Kong. After chequered progress through the House Ways and Means Committee, the House of Representatives and the Senate Finance Committee it eventually failed to come up for debate in the Senate owing to lack of time at the end of the session. This Bill now automatically dies and it remains to be seen what action will be taken in the new session of Congress in 1971.

For much of the year also, the US Government sought to obtain the voluntary agreement of the Japanese Government to restrain the export of non-cotton textiles to the United States. The talks, which broke down in June and were resumed in October after a meeting between the US President and Japanese Prime Minister, were watched with much interest and some concern by Hong Kong. At the end of the year, no agreement had been reached.

48

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       Norway: In August, at the request of the Norwegian Government, the export restraint arrangements with Norway on Hong Kong's exports of certain cotton and non-cotton garments were extended by one month until October 31, 1970. Consultations with represen- tatives of the Norwegian Government took place in September. These resulted in an agreement whereby Hong Kong undertook to restrain exports of six categories of cotton and non-cotton garments during the period November 1, 1970 to June 30, 1972.

       Sweden: Consultations with representatives of the Swedish Government on Hong Kong's exports of cotton and non-cotton textiles took place on two occasions in April and May. These negotiations resulted in an agreement whereby Hong Kong under- took to restrain exports to Sweden of five groups of cotton and non-cotton garments for the period July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971.

       United Kingdom: Since 1966, Hong Kong's exports to Britain of cotton yarn, cotton woven piecegoods, garments and made-up articles have been limited under a five-year agreement, which is outside the ambit of the Cotton Textiles Arrangement. The agree- ment has been extended to cover 1971.

Based on the recommendations of the Textile Council, the British Government announced in July 1969 its decision, as from January 1, 1972, to impose a tariff on imports of cotton woven textiles into the United Kingdom from Commonwealth countries, and to remove quotas. A special committee of the Textiles Advisory Board examined the likely effects of this decision for Hong Kong and presented its report to the Textiles Advisory Board. Taking account of the Board's advice, appropriate representations were made to Her Majesty's Government in London.

Benelux: Hong Kong's exports of cotton textiles to the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) were subject to an arrangement reached in November 1969 whereby Hong Kong agreed to restrain exports of all cotton textiles (except yarn). Under a special arrangement this restraint did not apply to unbleached grey fabrics which were destined for processing in the Benelux and for subsequent re-export outside the EEC and its associated terri- tories.

France: Contrary to the provisions of the GATT France maintains import restrictions on certain goods from Hong Kong. Informal

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

49

talks were held in Paris in January 1970 regarding the 1969-70 import quotas for certain items of cotton textiles, the import of which from Hong Kong into France was restricted. The French Government decided to split the quotas into two parts, one to be administered by the French authorities and the other by the Commerce and Industry Department in Hong Kong.

      Federal Republic of Germany: Under an agreement concluded in October 1969 between Hong Kong and the Federal Republic of Germany, Hong Kong agreed to continue export restraint on five groups of woven cotton textiles for a further nine months from January 1, 1970. Exports of grey fabrics and towels, also previously under restraint were liberalised from the same date. Subsequently the agreement was extended to cover the full calendar year.

The European Economic Community: With the ending of the Common Market's transitional period on December 31, 1969 the Member States of the EEC were no longer able to negotiate trade agreements bilaterally. The provisions of the Treaty of Rome require that with effect from January 1, 1970, the Commission act on behalf of the Member States. There were three preliminary meetings with the Commission during 1970, two in Brussels in January and in March and one in Geneva in July 1970 on the question of future cotton textile arrangements between Hong Kong and the EEC.

In October, formal negotiations were held in Brussels at the request of the EEC. These resulted in the conclusion of an agreement regarding all cotton textiles other than yarns. The agreement, which runs from January 1, 1971, is for three years, and covers exports to all Member States of the European Economic Community. Export restraint is to be applied to the trade covered except for certain fabrics, where a consultation arrangement was agreed.

      Australia: In June, consultations were held in Hong Kong with the Australian Government on the renewal of export restraint by Hong Kong of cotton drills, other than grey, weighing between six ounces and 15 ounces per square yard. As a result, Hong Kong agreed to continue the restraint on exports of this item to Australia at an increased limit for the period July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971. Improved flexibility in the form of 10 per cent carryover was also secured.

50

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      During the year the Australian Government carried out an extensive review of its entire tariff structure in order to reduce the number of tariff classifications. In the course of its review some tariff rates were altered but the changes as a whole were minimal. The trade was kept informed of details of tariff amendments for items of interest to Hong Kong.

      The Australian Tariff Preference Scheme for Less Developed Countries was further extended. During the period from July 1, 1969 to June 31, 1970, Hong Kong was the third largest beneficiary after India and Spain in this scheme.

DOCUMENTATION OF EXPORTS

      Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations. The most complex formalities are those resulting from Hong Kong's obliga- tions to restrain certain exports of textile products.

With Hong Kong's economic dependence upon the export of manufactured goods, most of them made from imported materials, and the concurrent existence of a substantial re-export trade, the operation of an origin certification system satisfactory to overseas customs authorities is vitally important. The Commerce and Industry Department issues certificates of origin and accepts the responsibility for safeguarding the integrity of the entire Hong Kong certification system. To this end, close liaison is maintained with overseas authorities and with the authorised non-Government certificate issuing bodies, i.e. the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association. The value of domestic exports covered by certificates of Hong Kong origin issued by the department and the five organisations during the year was $6,380.9 million.

Britain and a number of other commonwealth countries grant preferential rates of duty to Hong Kong products. In order to support claims to preference, the department issues Commonwealth preference certificates against legal undertakings given by manu- facturers to use only Commonwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements prepared by accountants authorised for the purpose.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

51

The value of goods exported under these certificates during the year was $1,304.9 million.

      United States law prohibits the importation on a commercial basis of certain classes of goods presumed to originate in the People's Republic of China, North Korea or North Vietnam. As Hong Kong manufacturers produce many goods in these categories the department issues, under procedures agreed with the United States authorities, what are known as comprehensive certificates of origin to cover exports of these goods to the USA and its depend- encies. Goods exported under these certificates in 1970 were valued at $1,231.6 million.

      An estimated 72.2 per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports were covered by certificates of origin of one type or another; 44.9 per cent of them by the Commerce and Industry Department's certificates.

ADMINISTRATION

      The Commerce and Industry Department's responsibilities in- clude overseas commercial relations, industrial development, origin certification, trade controls, and the collection and protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. Its work is complemented by several autonomous institutions either wholly or partly financed by official funds, whose functions and activities are outlined in subsequent sections.

        There are two Commercial Relations Divisions within the department, which collect and disseminate information on trade policy measures by other countries which may affect Hong Kong, and keep in touch with the activities of international organisations. The divisions are also responsible for preparing for Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other governments and for implementing the agreements reached. This involves calculation and allocation of quotas and the operation of export control procedures.

      The department's four overseas offices, in London, Washington, Brussels and Geneva, are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work and provide up-to-date information on international matters which are likely to affect Hong Kong.

The Industry and Certification Division provides a liaison between industry and other government departments, answers industrial

52

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      enquiries from overseas and deals with specific industrial problems. It also operates certificate of origin and Commonwealth preference procedures. An industry inspection service enforces these procedures through the regular inspection of factories and goods and the prosecution of those suspected of contravening the regulations.

The Preventive Service, a uniformed and disciplined organisation, whose role in the protection of revenue from dutiable commodities and the control of narcotics traffic is described in Chapter 10, is under the command of an Assistant Commissioner. The service has an establishment of 11 gazetted officers, 291 inspectors and 668 rank and file.

The General Duties Branch deals with trade licensing (other than for textiles) and the control of certain reserved commodities including rice. Trade complaints are also handled by this branch.

Trade Development Council

      The Trade Development Council was formed as a statutory corporation in 1966. The council's chairman is appointed by the Governor while members of the council comprise representatives of principal commercial and industrial organisations, two senior government officials and four nominated members.

In September it was announced that the council's chairman since its establishment, Dr the Honourable Sir Sik-nin Chau, would retire and the Honourable Y. K. Kan was appointed his successor.

      It is financed by subvention from the Government's general revenue. Overseas, at the beginning of the year, the council had offices in London, New York, Brussels, Sydney and Nairobi and, during the year, opened new offices in Frankfurt, Stockholm, Vienna, Chicago, Los Angeles and Tokyo. This wider representation will create closer contact with market areas, a better service for Hong Kong businessmen on visits overseas and an improved flow of trade information and trade enquiries back to head office.

       An extensive programme of promotional activities was undertaken including attendance at major European specialised and general trade fairs, fashion promotions staged in London, Dusseldorf, Tokyo, Osaka and Hong Kong, a series of department store promo- tions in the United States, incoming buying missions from Britain,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

53

Japan and South Africa, and trade missions visiting the Middle East, the United States of America, Australia, the countries of the EEC and Japan.

       The Hong Kong Ready to Wear Festival was organised by the council for the first time in March; it was attended by 815 overseas buyers and local representatives of overseas buying offices while a total of 108 Hong Kong garment firms participated.

       Approximately half a million pieces of promotional literature were issued. Included was the council's monthly magazine, 'Hong Kong Enterprise', which considerably increased its circulation, two issues of the quality magazine 'Apparel' and, to publicise the toy industry, a second edition of the magazine, 'Hong Kong Toys'. Additionally, updated versions of two books, 'Industrial Investment Hong Kong' and 'Hong Kong for the Businessman', were published in May and December.

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

       The Corporation, which provides protection against those risks in overseas trading which are not normally insurable commercially, is four years old. Some 600 Hong Kong exporters are now using the corporation's facilities-representing an annual estimated in- surable export turnover of more than HK$1,300 million and a maximum liability of $650 million. With some eight per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports under its umbrella, the corporation is playing a significant part in the protection and development of Hong Kong's overseas trade.

This year has seen a growing awareness amongst those exporters who traditionally extend credit to their overseas customers of the need for this protection. This is not surprising in view of the fact that more than 80 per cent of Hong Kong's domestic exports go to countries with highly developed and competitive economies. The authorities in many of these markets have been pursuing stringent domestic financial policies for many months; such policies, characterised by credit squeezes and high interest rates, inevitably produce their crop of individual business failures.

Further steady growth is expected in view of the continuing growth in the Colony's export trade as a whole. In addition, the

54

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

efforts being made by many Hong Kong manufacturers and exporters to sell goods of higher quality and greater sophistication will bring them into a field where credit terms are more often demanded by foreign buyers who are probably already receiving such terms from Hong Kong's competitors. Furthermore, exporters can be expected increasingly to turn to this form of insurance as a result of the growing competition which they face from neighbour- ing countries (several of which, including Taiwan, and South Korea, have recently set up or are in the process of setting up export credit insurance schemes to enable their own exporters to be more com- petitive in granting credit facilities).

      On April 1, 1970 the corporation entered into a re-insurance agreement with a leading European re-insurance company to lay off part of its increasing liabilities.

Hong Kong Productivity Council

      The Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in January 1967. The council comprises a chairman and 20 mem- bers, all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 members represent management, labour, academic and professional interests. The other 10 members represent government departments closely associated with productivity matters.

       The council's terms of reference are wide ranging and are aimed at promoting by all means possible increased productivity of industry in Hong Kong. To achieve this, the council works in close co-operation with other organisations active in this field, in particular with the Hong Kong Management Association, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the two Universities and the Hong Kong Technical College.

       The executive instrument of the council is the Hong Kong Productivity Centre which was formally established on April 1, 1967. The centre co-ordinates the activities of persons and organisa- tions engaged in the study and development of productivity tech- niques in industry; collects and disseminates information relating to productivity and provides training in productivity techniques. Over 60 professional and administrative officers had been appointed to the staff of the centre by the end of 1970.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

55

      The centre's activities are grouped under four main divisions, namely Manpower Development, Operations (which includes consultancy services for industry), Research and Administration. Its premises, in the heart of the business district of the island, comprise administrative and consultancy offices, lecture rooms, a technical reference library, a methods laboratory, a small workshop and an audio-visual studio.

      The centre's courses, conducted both in Chinese and English, are designed for participants from various levels of technical and managerial responsibility. Training has been concentrated on financial, personnel and production management, the application of basic productivity techniques and sectoral production technology. Along with the development of this type of training, increasing emphasis has been given to vertical courses concerning advantages to be derived from increased productivity and the practical tech- niques available in limited fields of industry. The response to these training programmes has been growing steadily, and this has made it necessary to establish a Branch Training Centre in Kwun Tong. An Electronic Data Processing Section was also recently established.

The Government has been for some years a member of the Asian Productivity Organisation. The present Deputy Chairman of the Productivity Council has been appointed by the Governor as Hong Kong's Director on its Governing Body and the Executive Director of the Productivity Centre is Alternate Director.

Hong Kong was represented at the 10th Workshop Meeting of directors of National Productivity Centres of the APO (at Bangkok in May 1970), at the 11th Governing Body Meeting (in Bangkok in February 1970) and at the 12th Governing Body Meeting (in Tokyo in August 1970). A 17-member delegation of senior rep- resentatives from Government, management and labour attended the Asian Productivity Congress (in Tokyo in August 1970) which was organised by APO as a highlight of the Asian Productivity Year. Other activities in Hong Kong to mark the Asian Productivity Year included the issue of special industrial posters, the production of a film on productivity, an intensified programme of training activities and the issue of a special APY commemorative postage stamp and first day cover.

56

Trade and Industrial Organisations

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the oldest trade association in the Colony, now has a membership of over 1,800, representing all branches of commerce and industry. The chamber is represented on a number of government boards and committees. It is an organisation member of the International Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce, which held its biennial Congress in Hong Kong in May 1970.

       Other chambers and trade associations include the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the American Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Hong Kong Exporters' Association.

      The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by ordinance in 1960, devotes much of its effort in helping to bring about an industrial infrastructure which assists Hong Kong in- dustry in its growth. Its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. Among the services which it offers to Hong Kong on a community basis are its Standards Centre and its Testing Laboratories for textile, plastic and electrical products. To encourage the development of better industrial design in Hong Kong, the Industrial Design Council of the Federation has instituted two awards for Hong Kong designed products: The Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries Award for Good Design. The Federation has also set up a Packaging Council and Centre to promote creativity and innovation in the fields of product design and packaging. The Packaging Centre is co-sponsoring, with the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, a community-wide packaging contest and arrangements have been made to enable the prizewinners to participate in Regional and World-wide Packaging Competitions.

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 2,000 factories. Member firms represent factories of all sizes and industries. The Association has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong with particular emphasis on the expansion of industrial training facilities and has recently offered Government a substantial sum of money to assist in the establishment of a pre-vocational

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

57

school to provide post primary education with a technical bias for about 1,100 students. Annually the Association organises an exhibition of Hong Kong products which attracts an attendance of nearly 2,000,000 persons. The Association is a member of the International Chambers of Commerce.

TRADE MARKS AND PATENTS

Trade Marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in the United Kingdom or any other country, must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 2,623 applications were received and 1,980 (in- cluding many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,780 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

United States of America... Hong Kong

Japan

United Kingdom

West Germany

...

Switzerland France

483

82

381

45

277

Australia

30

...

193

The Netherlands

27

117

Singapore

23

The total number of marks on the register at December 31, 1970 was 24,933.

       Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong. A total of 506 patents were registered during the year, compared with 474 in 1969.

COMPANIES

       The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies in- corporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations

58

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. However, the Companies Law Revision Committee, which was reconstituted in 1968, has now reached an advanced stage in its consideration of the relevant legislation with a view to recommending revision thereof.

On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1970, 3,419 new com- panies were incorporated, 873 more than the total incorporated in 1969. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1970 totalled $2,222,980,360, 93 per cent more than the corresponding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 55 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. At the end of the year there were 18,229 local companies on the register compared with 15,167 on December 31, 1969.

Companies incorporated outside Hong Kong are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in the Colony. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 84 such companies were registered and 27 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 696 companies registered from 44 countries, including 181 from the United States, 95 from the United Kingdom and 68 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local companies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance, respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Acts 1958-67 in Great Britain, or-in the case of fire and marine insurance by maintaining similar deposits elsewhere in the Com- monwealth. There are altogether 210 insurance companies, including 55 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

59

approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transact- ing motor vehicle third party insurance business.

The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partner- ships and money-lenders.

BANKRUPTCIES AND LIQUIDATIONS

In Hong Kong the number of business failures in which recourse is had to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always compara- tively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. During the year 11 petitions in bankruptcy and 11 petitions for the winding up of companies were presented to the court, and the court made four receiving orders, two orders for the admin- istration in bankruptcy of the estates of deceased debtors and five orders for the winding up of companies. For many years past the Official Receiver has become trustee or liquidator in almost every case, and this was so again in 1970, during which the assets realised by the Official Receiver amounted to approximately $18,100,000. In addition to the foregoing compulsory windings up, 131 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year, 126 by members' voluntary winding up and five by creditors' voluntary winding up.

5

Primary Production

HONG KONG's remarkable industrial expansion, extensive and vigorous though it has been, has by no means extinguished the farming and fishing industries. Indeed, the continuing vitality of the farmers and fishermen is well demonstrated by the way in which they have adapted their operations to meet changing con- ditions.

The inflow of immigrants from China in the nineteen-fifties had a profound effect upon the countryside as well as the town. The growing urban demand for farm produce provided the incentive for those immigrants who wished to continue a farming life. There was, therefore, an increase in the number of immigrants renting land for intensive vegetable production or poultry farming, but a steady reduction in the number of people growing rice on their own land. At the same time rice farmers have tended to diversify production by planting vegetables after the harvesting of the second rice crop. These trends, and comparable improvements in the fish- ing industry, are in line with the government policy of stimulating the production of food where this is clearly the best use to which land or sea can be put.

LAND UTILISATION

Of the 398 square miles in the Colony, only 13 per cent is being used for farming; 77 per cent of the total area is marginal land, in different degrees of subgrade character and the built-up areas comprise the remaining 10 per cent. The need to establish new towns and residential areas on plans that provide for adequate open space, wider roads and public facilities of all kinds, inevitably means encroachment upon agricultural land. The losses, however, are partially offset by more intensive production and by develop- ment of marginal land.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Class

Approximate

Percentage

(square miles) of whole

61

area

Remarks

(i) Built-up (Urban Areas)

40.3

10.1

Includes

roads and

railways.

(ii) Woodlands

53.8

13.5

...

Natural and established woodlands.

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

233.2

58.5

Natural grass and scrub.

(iv) Badlands

14.1

3.5

...

...

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable of re- generation.

lands

(v) Swamp and mangrove

(vi) Arable...

5

1.3

...

Capable of reclamation.

48.6

12.2

Includes orchards

and

...

market gardens.

(vii) Fish ponds

3.5

0.9

Fresh and brackish water fish farming.

POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilisation and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with all matters concerning the economic, social and technological development of Hong Kong fisheries, especially those aspects which directly involve the fishermen, and the administrative organisation of co-operative societies of all types. The conservation of water and soil, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is also an important aspect of the department's work. Afforestation is largely undertaken by the department and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND DEVELOPMENT

       For the purpose of agricultural extension, the Colony is divided into three districts and sub-divided into 30 areas. Each district is administered by a District Extension Staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with farming, livestock and co-operative problems. Close contact with the farming community is maintained through the stationing of one farm adviser in each area, and by liaison with local co-operative societies and rural associations. Both technical and credit facilities are available through the Extension Service.

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       Loans are available to farmers through four separate loan funds: the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organisation Loan Fund, which are all administered through the department. As at December 31, 1970, the total loans issued and recovered since inception of the four funds were in the order of $53,507,246.93 and $49,806,576.91 respectively.

       In the rural education programme this year, over 1,240 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out in which 290 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. Over 136,627 visits were made to farmers by both professional and technical officers and farmers also visited govern- ment experimental farms and farming projects.

      With the rising labour cost, farmers have shown increasing interest in the use of small farm machines and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of 1970, 140 'Landmaster' cultivators were in use on fields and 120 sprinkler units were established on vegetable farms.

PRINCIPAL CROPS

       The principal crops grown in Hong Kong are vegetables, rice, flowers, fruit and some other field crops. The value of crop produc- tion has gone up from $75.8 million in 1964-5 to $162 million in 1969-70, an increase of some 112 per cent. Vegetable production presently accounts for over 74 per cent of the total value, having increased from $54 million in 1964-5 to $116 million in 1969-70.

      Rice is the staple food of the southern Chinese. Two crops of rice can be grown in a year on land where irrigation water is adequate. The normal yield from an acre of two-crop land is approximately two tons, but the yield per acre can be increased to over five tons by planting high yielding strains of rice selected from varieties IR8 and Nonsensitive BPI (Bicol) with improved management and high levels of manuring. Since 1954 the acreage of rice land has dropped from 23,353 acres to 13,850 acres in 1970. Rice production continues to give way to very intensive vegetable production which gives a far higher return, where there is adequate irrigation water and good road access.

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      The main vegetable crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish and leaf mustard which grow all the year round. Considerable quantities of string bean, water spinach, cucumber, and many species of Chinese gourd are produced in summer and excellent quality tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, celery and watercress in winter. The main types of flowers are chrysanthemum and gladiolus which grow all the year round; dahlia, snapdragon, aster, carnation and rose are grown in winter, and ginger lily and lotus flower, in summer. Peach blossom is grown especially for the Chinese New Year. The area of land under vegetables and flowers has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 9,760 acres in 1970.

      A wide range of fruit is grown on the lower hill slopes. The principal crops are lychee, longan, wampei, local lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, banana and pineapple. The acreage under orchard in 1954 was 952 acres. By 1970, the area so used was 1,540 acres.

       Other field crops such as sweet potatoes, groundnut, millet, soy bean and sugar-cane are cultivated in drier land where irrigation is inadequate for planting rice and vegetables. The acreage under the rainfed crops was 2,130 acres in 1970 compared to 3,450 acres in 1954.

VEGETABLE MARKETING ORGANISATION

      The Vegetable Marketing Organisation operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, which provides for a board to advise the Director of Marketing (currently the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). The main objective of the organisation is to provide for orderly marketing of local crop produce by the collection and transportation of vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, and the supervision of sales and financial transactions in the market. Revenue is obtained from a 10 per cent commission on sales of vegetables. The organisation is a non-profit making concern and seeks to obtain maximum returns for the growers by minimising their marketing costs.

       During the year, 1,316,490 piculs of vegetables, valued at $66,400,891 were sold through the organisation. This amounted

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to an overall average of 3,600 piculs of vegetables handled daily by the organisation.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

       Since there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared in the Colony for food. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common.

       To enable the farmer to utilise the prolific characteristic of the local breed with the greater food conversion ratio to meat of the exotic breeds, the Agriculture and Fisheries Department provides an artificial insemination service, besides supplying breeding stock.

      While locally produced pigs represent only 16 per cent of total pigs killed, their value is some $32 million per annum, and proposals to stimulate and expand production are being implemented.

      The poultry industry which, including pigeons and quail, is worth some $176.3 million production value per annum is develop- ing rapidly with units increasing in size and intensity. Farmers are adopting advanced methods of management adapted to local conditions with success, taking the process through from locally bred chicks to table birds, using both local breeds and imported hybrids. Duck rearing is also important and steps are being taken to expand this industry. Legislation controlling the slaughter and inspection of Chinese style pressed ducks for export to the USA was passed during the year.

While local cattle and buffaloes are kept mainly for work, imported Friesians are kept by dairies, the main one on Hong Kong Island and others in smaller groups outside Kowloon and in the New Territories. Regular tuberculin testing is carried out on all dairy animals.

      While sporadic outbreaks of a mild type of foot-and-mouth disease (type Ò) and swine fever still occur, these have been kept under control by vaccination. Newcastle disease in poultry has been controlled by the use of the Ranikhet and intra-nasal-drop vaccines. During 1970, the lapinised rinderpest vaccine formerly used was replaced by a tissue-culture vaccine which bestows a

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prolonged immunity against the rinderpest disease in cattle. Investigations to establish the incidence of intercurrent diseases in both pigs and poultry are being undertaken at the Veterinary Laboratory.

Legislation requires all imported dogs and cats to be quarantined for six months except those from scheduled countries (UK, Australia and New Zealand) to prevent the introduction of rabies in the Colony. Stray dogs are caught and detained for observation and, if unclaimed, destroyed in pursuance of the rabies control policy.

FORESTRY

The principal objectives of forestry are to preserve and improve the vegetative cover on the Colony's steep hillsides, in order to prevent soil erosion and to assist in the conservation of water supplies, wildlife and the aesthetic and recreational amenities of the countryside.

The main problem in implementing this policy is the frequent occurrence, principally during the dry winter months, of fires which destroy or seriously damage both natural vegetation and plantations. As a result, a high proportion of effort must be devoted to the prevention, suppression or repair of fire damage.

Forestry fire crews were called out to 373 fires. Damage to plantations was approximately 860 acres as compared with 50 acres in 1968-9.

Work on the restoration or improvement of vegetative cover on hillslopes and barren areas caused by engineering works included the extension of forest plantations by 219 acres. A further 91 acres damaged by fire in previous years were replanted while an additional 32 acres of pine were underplanted with hardwoods with the object of producing a more fire-resistant cover. The total acreage of Crown plantations is about 13,000 acres, excluding substantial acres of village plantations and natural woodland which occur in various localities.

FISHERIES

       Marine fish are one of Hong Kong's main primary products, and in 1970 landings marketed through wholesale fish markets

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totalled 1,288,779 piculs (77,944 metric tons) valued at $136,773,261. The Government's aim is to encourage the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of the fishermen.

      The fishing fleet consists of some 6,200 vessels of which more than 5,000 are mechanised. The number of fishermen is estimated at 50,000 and the main fishing centres are at Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, Castle Peak, Tai Po and Sai Kung. The largest part of the fleet is owner-operated while the remainder is directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

      A major breakthrough in local fisheries development was achieved in 1965 with the successful introduction of a prototype 66-foot wooden stern otter trawler designed by the Fisheries Branch. Other modern designs include the 86-foot wooden pair trawler and long-liner, and the 54-foot long-liner. Over 30 of these have been built with financial and technical assistance from Govern- ment and over 100 with private funds.

       Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through the extension service and by liaison with fishermen's co-operative societies. A large number of these co-operative societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which continue to grow in size and effectiveness. The position of registered fishermen's co- operative societies as at December 31, 1970 is shown in Appendix 24. Extension work also includes the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as local masters and engine operators, and the instruction of local fishermen in navigation.

      The Fisheries Development Loan Fund, administered by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, is allotted specifically for the development of the distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. The World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies, made available in 1954 by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, also assists members of fishermen's co-operative societies. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organisation, which administers two other funds and investigates applications for loans from all four. Together they provide capital of more than $9 million for the development of the industry.

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The Fisheries Research Division at Aberdeen is concerned with biological and hydrographical research in the northern part of the South China Sea. Biological research deals with the fish population study of selected commercial fishes, the taxonomic analysis of the commercial marine fauna, the culture of commercial aquatic organisms, and the exploration of new fishing grounds. Hydro- graphical research continues to study the fluctuations in the marine environment in which commercial organisms occur. This work also constitutes the United Kingdom contribution to the Co-operative Study of the Kuroshio organised by the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission. The Division has two sub-stations: one at Kat O where investigations are concerned with mariculture research; and one at Au Tau which has been responsible for the induced breeding of carp species.

       Fish ponds totalling 2,255 acres are mainly located in the Yuen Long area. The most important species is the grey mullet, the fry of which are collected along the coastal waters in spring. Other important species for cultivation include the silver carp, grass carp, big-head and mud carp; a total of 5.74 million fry of these species have been imported from China during the year. The total pond fish production has amounted to 2,126.4 metric tons representing 8.6 per cent of the local freshwater fish consumption; this quantity is valued at $13.7 million.

Edible oysters are cultivated at Deep Bay. Production amounted to some 125 metric tons of oyster meat, valued at approximately $1.4 million. Part of this quantity has been dried for export.

FISH MARKETING ORGANISATION

The present Fish Marketing Organisation, a non-government trading organisation established in October 1945 and controlled by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War, with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. It is a non-profit-making concern, and operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance.

       The organisation runs seven wholesale fish markets at Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, Cheung Sha Wan, Tai Po, Sha Tau Kok, Castle

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Peak and Sai Kung. Two fish-collecting depots set up in other fishing centres provide sea and land transport to the wholesale markets. Both markets and depots serve as liaison offices for the organisation.

The provision of cheap credit to fishermen is one of the most important services offered by the organisation. Its revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made loans totalling $32,877,961.45. Of this, some $30 million had been repaid at the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was raised to $4 million this year. The organisa- tion also administers a revolving loan fund of $106,000 financed by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, specifically for shrimp fishermen.

      Another important aspect of the organisation's development programme is the provision of schooling facilities for the children of fishermen. Fourteen schools have been established and nearly 4,000 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools, with a further 462 attending other schools on scholarships provided by the organisation.

       The success of the organisation has attracted world-wide interest and many overseas visitors and students come to study its operation.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND CREDIT UNIONS

      Government policy is to promote and develop the co-operative and credit union movements in Hong Kong as instruments to improve the economic and social conditions of the people, by pro- viding encouragement, technical guidance and material support.

      In particular, farmers and fishermen have accepted the co- operative movement as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. This has been evidenced by the formation of societies of diverse nature with activities related to housing, thrift and loan, credit, marketing, irrigation, animal feed and pig raising. Local civil servants form a third major group in the co-operative move- ment and, with the aid of Hong Kong Government finance, have established an increasing number of co-operative building societies.

      A table showing the number of co-operative societies in being at December 31, 1970 with details of their membership, share capital and deposits is at Appendix 24.

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The Credit Unions Ordinance (Chapter 119) was brought into operation on February 28, 1970. Under this legislation, the Registrar of Credit Unions (currently the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries) has vested in him powers and duties in regard to the registration of credit unions and their by-laws, the examination of their accounts and general supervision. Up to the end of the 36 credit unions were registered, and they have made loans of nearly $2 million to members for provident and productive pur- poses at low rates of interest.

MINING

       Iron ore and, at times, wolframite and graphite are mined under- ground and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron ore concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan, graphite principally to the United States and kaolin to Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. Most of the feldspar and about 20 per cent of the kaolin are con- sumed by local light industries.

       Under the Mining Ordinance, the ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown. The Commissioner of Mines is empowered to issue prospecting and mining licences and the Land Officer to issue mining leases. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of 1970 there were three mining leases, 20 mining licences, and six prospecting licences valid for different areas in the territory. They were mainly controlled by individuals or small mining companies.

The Superintendent of Mines deals with applications for pro- specting and mining licences, the grant of mine-blasting certificates, the assessment of royalties on mineral sales at rate of five per cent of value, the collection of royalties, rents, premiums and fees for licences and leases, the certification of the origin of minerals in respect of which Comprehensive Certificates of Origin are required, and enforces safety regulations. He is also responsible for explosives regulations and for enforcing safety legislation in stone quarries. Strict security controls over explosives and fireworks were also continued throughout 1970.

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Education

THE Director of Education is charged, under the Education Ordin- ance, with the superintendence of matters relating to education in the Colony. He directly controls all government schools, while all other schools with very few exceptions are required to be registered under the Ordinance, which provides the Director with the necessary powers to ensure that acceptable standards are maintained. The Director is chairman of the Board of Education which advises the Governor on educational matters.

       Expansion remains the main feature of education and the number of students in all areas of education continues to increase. Detailed figures are given in Appendix 26, but some idea of this expansion can be gained from the fact that enrolment at the end of September in primary schools was 765,397 and in secondary schools it was 279,318 compared with 752,171 and 264,056 respectively in 1969. Altogether 1,240,540 pupils were enrolled in 2,804 schools, colleges and education centres, 44,239 more than last year's figure.

Of significance during the year was the announcement by Govern- ment of its intention to make available at least three years of assisted post-primary education to all children in the appropriate age group (12-14) seeking it; the intention to introduce free primary education; and the completion of the new Technical Institute buildings at Mor- rison Hill, which enabled the institute to commence training at the craft and technician level in the new premises in September.

PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION

Private kindergartens, which are not maintained or Government but are registered with the Education Department and supervised by the Inspectorate, rose in number from 778 in the previous year to 863 in September 1970 and enrolment increased from 112,774 to 123,218. Government gives assistance in the form

UNDERWATER

Hong Kong's visual attractions do not end at the water's

edge, as the pictures on these pages show. They were taken during the year on a fisheries research and extension expedition to the Macclesfield Bank and Helen Shoal in the South China sea due south of Hong Kong. The expedition was part of a continuing Government effort to encourage the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of fishermen. In addition to helping with these important tasks, the divers who produced the pictures shown here are members of a growing band of underwater enthusiasts who are finding the experience of venturing beneath the clear blue waters off Hong Kong reward enough in itself. The past few years have seen a considerable growth in the popularity of skin- diving in Hong Kong and there are a number of well-organised clubs ready and willing to introduce both local residents and visitors to the delights of Hong Kong's underwater world.

The title page picture shows a member of the expedition photographing fish 120 feet beneath the surface on the Macclesfield Bank. The photos on the following pages, taken by Ho Bat-kai, Eric Lee and John Fortune, show some of the typical marine fauna of these waters.

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of grants of Crown land to reliable bodies, provision of accommoda- tion in government low-cost housing estates, the waiving of rents in resettlement estates, the provision of teacher training and further education facilities. It also makes freely available professional advice which is greatly sought after by workers in this field.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

      The great majority of primary schools use Cantonese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Eight primary schools, including five operated by Government, cater for children whose first language is English.

       The total primary day school enrolment in September was 741,476, compared with 725,295 in the previous year. In addition, 23,921 pupils attended primary night schools and a limited number of special afternoon classes. During the year 37,443 new primary places were provided, compared with 47,430 in the previous year. The target of providing a government or subsidised primary school place for every child of primary school age is expected to be reached in 1970-1. Further provision of school places will be geared mainly to the needs of developing areas.

      Primary education is, at present, neither free nor compulsory. However, in government and government-aided primary school fees are low and the scheme of fee reduction, introduced in September 1968, has been further implemented since September 1969. The standard fees now chargeable in the public primary schools in urban and rural areas (which cater for the needs of about 74 per cent of the primary school population) are $20 and $10 per annum respec- tively. The reduction of fees, together with fee remission of 20 per cent of primary school places for government and subsidised schools, ensures that no child is deprived of a place in a public school solely through the inability of his parents to pay the fees. It is declared policy that if at any time it should appear that existing funds are inadequate to meet the demand for remission of fees in public primary schools in all cases of genuine hardship, the Government will authorise further expenditure even if it means that the rate of remission is raised to 30 per cent or higher.

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In addition, there is a scheme of textbook and stationery grants for holders of free places. Grants are made to schools to the value of $20 per free place holder per annum to enable them to be supplied with free textbooks and stationery.

Government has also declared its intention to introduce free primary education in 1971. It is not proposed that attendance will be automatically made compulsory but it is likely that the Director of Education will be given powers to compel parents to send their children to primary schools where there is an evident need.

SPECIAL EDUCATION

      Thirty-one special schools cater for about 3,000 blind, deaf, physi- cally handicapped, mentally handicapped and maladjusted chil- dren. In addition, there are 24 special classes for 480 slow-learning children in 13 government primary schools, and two special classes for 20 partially-hearing children in two government primary schools. Over 300 mildly physically handicapped children have been placed in ordinary classes in government primary schools and government subsidised schools. These children are supervised regularly by the Special Education Section. The section also runs an audiometric screening programme and a speech screening programme in govern- ment primary schools. In addition, the section provides diagnostic services which include audiologic testing, psychological testing, speech screening and educational assessment, as well as remedial services in auditory training and speech therapy. During the year these services have assisted over 10,000 children. The section also runs in-service training courses for teachers of special schools and special classes. A development plan to cover the extension of services to an increased number of handicapped children during the next five- year period is under consideration by Government.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

There are four types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools. The 229 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have an enrolment of 172,569 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination.

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Instruction is in English, and Chinese is taught as a second language. Successful certificate of education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare themselves for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education (University of London), at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition there are 33,206 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruc- tion in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

The 114 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 48,484 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese). Instruction is in Chinese, and English is taught as a second language. In addition, a number of Chinese middle schools offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who pass the certificate of education in English or Chinese, higher education is available at the colleges of education and the Technical College.

       There are 12 secondary technical schools 11 of which offer a five- year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Eight of the schools are government, three are subsidised and one is private. Their total enrolment is 7,037. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools they prepare their pupils for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) and suitable candidates can con- tinue their studies either in Form VI or at the Technical College. Five subsidised secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,699 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also 12 private and four subsidised secondary schools with a total enrolment of 3,617 which offer some form of technical or trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education examina- tion. Plans have been approved to provide 6,000 places in three-year courses in subsidised pre-vocational schools and three such schools are already in operation.

      There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools operated during the day. In Septem- ber there were 235,406 such students compared with 221,910 in the previous year. During the school year 12,181 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings.

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       Government's declared aim is to provide three years of aided secondary education for all children in the 12-14 age group seeking it. This will require a very substantial programme of expansion, and every effect will be made to provide places for 50 per cent of the age group by 1976.

       Within the 50 per cent figure, provision will be made for 18-20 per cent of the 12-16 year age group to proceed on to aided courses leading to a certificate of education, in substitution for the present aim of providing for 15-20 per cent of primary school leavers. It is to be emphasised that this figure of 18 per cent calculated on the new age group basis represents a considerable increase of the order of 45,000 places in the numbers to be provided for. Although 16.8 per cent of school leavers are currently being aided in this sector, this figure represents only 10 per cent of the 12-16 age group.

       The extra school places to be found in Forms I-III under this new policy will be provided either directly in government or aided schools, or in private non-profit-making schools which will be assisted for the purpose, or by buying places in suitable private profit-making schools: in whatever proportion appears to be most suitable and economic. It is also probable that a considerable number of new schools will have to be built to make up the balance of the required number of places in Forms I-III.

י;

HIGHER EDUCATION

       With the beginning of the 1969-70 academic year, Government introduced a new scheme of student financing, under which public funds are made available for outright grants and interest-free loans to be made to needy students at the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The administration of grants totalling $2.588 million and loans totalling $3.235 million for 1970-1 is in the hands of a Joint Universities Committee. This scheme represents a substantial increase in the amount of public funds available for student financing and is intended to enable Government to achieve the aim of ensuring that students offered a place in either of the two universities should not be unable to accept that place through lack of means.

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      There are two universities in Hong Kong, the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong. These two uni- versities have financial resources of their own but are largely financed by Government. In view of the importance of university develop- ments and the sums of public money involved, Government needs impartial and expert advice both on the assessment of the amount of grant required to sustain any level of university activity and on developments necessary to meet the community's requirements for graduates. Government also needs advice on the allocation of funds between the universities. To carry out these functions there is a University Grants Committee appointed by the Governor. It also acts as the formal channel between the universities and Government.

      The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the Government and endowments which have since been increased. Substantial grants are also made by the Government towards the university's annual recurrent and non-recurrent ex- penditure.

The number of undergraduate places in each faculty in 1970-1 is arts 677; science 404; medicine 663; engineering and architecture 556; and social sciences, including law, 435. Of these, a total of 820 places were available for new undergraduate entrants. There were also 406 places for postgraduate students, comprising 255 reading for higher degrees and 151 reading for diplomas and certificates, 32 students at the Chinese Language School and 15 external students. The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstrator- ships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year 1970-1 was 416. All the university's degrees in professional subjects (medi- cine, architecture, and civil, electrical and mechanical engineering) are on the same professional footing as those of universities in Britain.

The new Department of Law admitted its first 40 students at the beginning of the academic year 1969-70 and a further 40 for 1970-1. The department provides a full-time three-year course leading to the honours degree of LLB.

      The Department of Education of the University of Hong Kong offers to graduates a one-year full-time course leading to a Diploma in Education and a two-year part-time course leading to a Certifi- cate in Education. The department also offers the MA (Ed) either

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     as a six-term part-time course spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time course. As in other departments, the PhD is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

The Department of Extra-mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong provided over 180 evening and day-time courses for adult students in 1969-70. During the period July 1969 to June 1970, 4,223 attended regular courses and 194 attended public lectures, seminars and conferences. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from Oriental Studies through a full range of liberal arts and language courses to economics, law and commerce, and include a rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including a Diploma in Management Studies which is recognised by the British Institute of Management.

The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level examination. Entry to the university is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination. In May 3,625 candidates entered for the examination, of whom 2,129 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in October 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It comprises Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. Title to about 330 acres of land lying in the Ma Liu Shui section of Tai Po Road near Sha Tin was conveyed to the university by the Government on July 3, 1970, and it is anticipated that by autumn 1972, New Asia College and United College, which are now situated in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island, will be on the new campus.

The Chinese University has at present three faculties and the total undergraduate enrolment in September 1970 is 2,260. The enrolment in each faculty is: arts 677; science 657; commerce and social science 926.

This year 417 students have graduated from the university-18 Masters of Arts, three Masters of Commerce, 111 Bachelors of Arts,

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77

60 Bachelors of Commerce, 117 Bachelors of Social Science, and 108 Bachelors of Science.

       In the matriculation examination held in the summer of 1970, a total of 5,114 candidates sat and 1,798 passed. The total number of freshmen for the academic year 1970-1 is 610.

       The Graduate School of the university was established in Septem- ber 1966, and admits students for two years of postgraduate studies in arts, science, business administration, and social science leading to a Master's degree. Up to October 1970, 84 students had been awarded Master's degrees. There were 82 students in the School in September 1970. A Division of Sociology has been instituted in the academic year 1970-1, bringing the total number of divisions to eight.

       The School of Education, inaugurated in September 1965, offers a one-year full-time and a two-year part-time postgraduate course of professional training leading to a Diploma in Education. A total of 24 students obtained the Diploma in Education in 1970.

The Lingnan Institute of Business Administration was inaugurated in September 1966. The institute provides facilities for graduate study and research in the broad area of business administration, and offers a two-year curriculum leading to the degree of Master of Business Administration.

       The Department of Extra-mural Studies of The Chinese University of Hong Kong offered 422 courses and had an enrolment of 9,955 during 1969-70. In addition to general courses, departmental certifi- cate programmes in Chinese literature, general banking administra- tion, personnel management, three-dimensional design, basic systems analysis, graphic design, librarianship, advanced translation, and the teaching of modern mathematics in secondary schools were provided in the autumn of 1970. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin. The department also offers correspondence courses in English and Chinese writing, English and Chinese language and literature, and business administration.

THE TECHNICAL COLLEGE

       The Technical College has transferred its lower-level technician and craft courses to the Morrison Hill Technical Institute. The

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college had a total enrolment of 11,111 students in 88 courses, comprising 1,770 full-time students in 63 classes, 559 part-time day students in 22 classes and 8,782 evening students in 289 classes distributed in nine centres. The college has eight departments: build- ing, surveying and structural engineering; commerce and manage- ment studies; electrical engineering; mechanical, production and marine engineering; textile industries; nautical studies; mathematics and science; and industrial and commercial design. These provide full-time courses leading to the college's own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the associate membership examinations of many British professional institutions, a number of which have granted exemption from certain parts of their examinations to students in the higher diploma courses. One-year professional diploma courses leading on from the higher diploma to the Part II examinations of the Council of Engineering Institutions have been approved, as has a three-year higher diploma course in company secretaryship.

      In addition to the two-year and three-year diploma courses, the electrical engineering department also offers courses for first and second-class radio officers, and a three-month course in radar main- tenance which gives training to qualified sea-going officers and technicians. The department of nautical studies operates courses for deck officer cadets, masters and mates of foreign-going vessels and also courses for radar observers. The department of commerce and management studies offers courses for industrial supervisors and, mainly for girls, secretarial courses. The department of mechani- cal, production and marine engineering also operates a productivity centre. Since the inception of the productivity centre in 1961, 40 productivity courses have been offered to more than 586 managerial supervisory and technician staff from local factories, representing some 15 different industries. Full-time courses at craftsman level are also offered in radio and television servicing. Approval has been obtained for the college to conduct the alternative training scheme for marine engineers and recognition has been given to the course. The full-time three-year Higher Diploma course in industrial design will have its first batch of graduates in July 1971.

The eight departments also provide part-time day and evening courses. These lead to qualifications in a range of technical and commercial subjects at professional and technician levels.

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Whenever there is a need for courses on specific subjects of current interest to local industry or to a sufficient number of individuals, the college operates short courses to meet the demand, so far as its resources permit. During the year, a number of short courses of this nature in all departments were given.

THE MORRISON HILL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

The Morrison Hill Technical Institute, which is run by the Education Department, was established in September 1969, and spent the first academic year organising courses, on a limited scale, in borrowed premises at the Technical College, Hung Hom, Kowloon. It moved to its new accommodation at Morrison Hill in the summer of 1970 and classes commenced in the new building in September 1970. The main function of the Technical Institute is to provide facilities for the training of craftsmen and lower-level technicians in the field of construction, mechanical and electrical engineering trades. In addition there are courses in business studies. The Institute also fulfills an important role in providing technical teacher/workshop instructor training which gives qualified status. Courses are run on a full-time, block-release, part-time day-release and evening basis. Short courses, in specialised subjects, are also organised.

The Technical Institute, by specialising in lower-level courses enables the facilities of the Technical College to be employed mainly for the training of technologists and higher-level technicians.

      When fully developed, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute will provide places for approximately 1,300 full-time or block-release students, or the equivalent number of part-time day-release students. Part-time evening students already number in excess of 7,000 and apart from the Technical Institute premises, there are 15 evening centres, on both sides of the harbour, administered by the Technical Institute.

ADVISORY INSPECTORATE

The Assistant Director (Chief Inspector of Schools) is responsible for the inspection of all schools, curriculum development, and the maintenance or improvement of teaching standards. He is assisted in this by the Assistant to the Chief Inspector, whose duty is to

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co-ordinate the work of advisory inspectors. The Chief Inspector, with the assistance of a Senior Education Officer, is also responsible for the Research, Testing and Guidance Centre. The centre, estab- lished in 1965, continued to provide locally-constructed tests of attainment in Mathematics, Chinese Language and English Language and administered them to Primary 3-Primary 6 pupils. The service has been extended to cover some 350 primary schools with more than 150,000 pupils participating. The test results provide cumula- tive information for the educational guidance of pupils and valuable data on the effectiveness of courses and syllabuses.

A number of Research Projects have been undertaken. Among these is a study of the written Chinese vocabulary of primary school children, and a survey of the amount of homework set in primary and secondary schools.

Also under the supervision of the Advisory Inspectorate is the English Language Teaching Centre. The centre, which was first established in 1965, has a peripatetic sub-unit in Kowloon and during 1970 was mainly concerned with the provision of refresher courses for teachers and the production of teaching materials, especially tapes to improve spoken English.

VISUAL EDUCATION CENTRE

The Audio-Visual Education Centre of the Education Department provides on loan to all schools a large range of audio-visual materials. The centre, whose facilities are extensively used by teachers, houses a wide range of modern equipment as well as darkroom and photo- graphic facilities.

      During the year slide sets and photographs on topics of interest to schools were produced. The centre also published its quarterly news bulletins in English and Chinese which contained information about additions to the film library as well as reviews of new equip- ment and materials. An exhibition of andio-visual aids made by teachers was held in July. Over 1,400 people attended the three-day exhibition.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER EDUCATION

      In March there were 33,656 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools, of whom 7,926

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were university graduates and 15,121 were non-graduates qualified for the teaching profession. Another teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 187 were in special schools. At the end of 1969-70 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of primary and secondary day schools was 31.7:1.

       Most teacher education is carried out by the Education Depart- ment's three Colleges of Education-Northcote, Grantham and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges offer full-time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers qualified to teach in primary schools and the lower forms of secondary schools. A special one-year course is offered at Northcote College of Education for diploma holders from certain other post-secondary institutions. Specialist third year courses are offered to prepare non-graduate teachers to be specialists in Domestic Science or Mathematics (at Northcote), Art (at Grantham), Music (at Sir Robert Black) for teaching these subjects in the higher forms in secondary schools.

      The colleges also provide in-service courses of training for un- qualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, in either Chinese or English, of two-year's duration. These courses lead to the award of a certificate granting qualified teacher status.

       Since September 1969, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute has been co-operating with the colleges of education in offering special full-time one-year and two-year courses for the training of technical teachers.

In September 1970 there were 1,114 students in the two-year courses, 23 in the special one-year course, 44 in the specialist third year course, 1,061 trainees in the in-service training courses, and 15 in the one-year and 20 in the two-year course for special full-time training of technical teachers.

ADULT EDUCATION

       Adult education is provided by the Education Department in the Evening Institute, the Technical College and Technical Institute Evening Departments, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres.

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The Evening Institute offers English courses from elementary to post-certificate of education level; teachers' classes for art, music, handwork, woodwork, physical education, modern educational dance, modern mathematics and the teaching of English; and secondary school courses leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, both English and Chinese. A three-year post-primary extension course providing additional training with a practical bias is also available for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level. Rural literacy classes and general background classes provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical back- ground education classes give adults an opportunity of learning woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. Adults now have a complete educational ladder from the literacy level to post-secondary studies. The total number of classes organised under the Evening Institute is 763 in 78 locations in both urban and rural areas.

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers a three-year course in general arts leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. Subjects taught include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology and English language and literature. Most of the students are primary school teachers. There are 14 classes in two centres.

       At the 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres, education and recreation are combined in activities ranging from music appreciation and physical education to group study of art, photography and dramatics. These activities are expressly designed to stimulate crea- tive ability and develop individual talents and are aimed at fostering a community spirit and a sense of belonging. Two additional centres are to be opened this year.

Apart from its regular activities, the Adult Education Section has from time to time designed various schemes which aim at serving the community at large. In conjunction with the Prison Department, several classes giving instruction in general subjects with a moral and civic emphasis, and also in subjects of a practical nature, are organised for inmates at different prisons. Classes are also held at the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

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EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION UNIT

In October 1969 approval was given for the establishment of an Educational Television Service within the Education Department. Initially, lessons on Chinese, Mathematics, English and Social Studies will be provided for primary schools by 1971.

      The Educational Television Centre, occupying an area of 24,000 square feet will comprise two studios, control rooms, rehearsal room and workshop on the ground floor and administrative offices on the first floor. The building is now under construction and is expected to be completed in early 1971.

In order to familiarise teachers with the educational television project, a series of 29 seminars on the use of educational television were held in July and August 1970 and attended by 2,976 teachers.

EXAMINATIONS

       There are five local public examinations for schools, one con- ducted by the Education Department, one each by the Boards of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, English and Chinese, one by the Advanced Level Examination Board of the University of Hong Kong and one by The Chinese University of Hong Kong Matriculation Board.

The Secondary School Entrance examination is a competitive examination to select pupils for places in government and aided secondary schools, and for assisted places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an Examination Committee is appointed to give advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate and may enter all their Primary 6 pupils for the examination. However participating schools are asked to send a minimum of 50 per cent of their Primary 6 enrolment. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

       The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination is conducted by a board of representatives from participating schools, the University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the Education Department. The University of Hong Kong, the University of London and a number of other

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overseas universities recognise Grade C and above in individual subjects as equivalent to ordinary level passes in the University of London General Certificate of Education.

      The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) examination is also conducted by a board. It is similar to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination, but is of course conducted in Chinese.

The two certificate of education examinations and the Secondary School Entrance examination are processed by the government computer which also marks such papers in these examinations as are set in the multiple-choice format. In addition the computer allocates secondary school places to pupils in accordance with their results and their stated preferences.

The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations at standards comparable with those in Britain. Of these examinations, the General Certificate of Education is open to both school and private candidates who hold a local certificate of education of the required standard, and to private candidates of 23 years of age or over.

      The University of London Degree examinations are also con- ducted annually in May and June. Appendix 27 shows the more important examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

MUSIC AND ART IN SCHOOLS

The 22nd Hong Kong Schools Music and Speech Festival at- tracted 8,216 entries and an estimated 40,000 competitors took part in the 382 available classes.

The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra with 86 members gave three public performances two of which took place during the Festival of Hong Kong. Five visiting examiners conducted the practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Entries reached a total of 4,875 thus enabling Hong Kong to retain its position as the second largest centre among the 36 countries served by the board. Entries for the Associated Board theory examinations totalled 2,019 and 73 candidates entered for

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the Trinity College of Music examinations. The annual Children's Examination of the Royal Academy of Dancing attracted 466 entries.

       Hong Kong children's ability and keeness in art was displayed in the large number of high quality entries submitted by them for competitions and exhibitions organised by the Education Depart- ment in co-operation with other government departments and outside organisations.

RECREATION

       The recreational activities programme of the Physical Education Section of the department continues to increase in scope and in numbers of participants.

       A feature of this year's work has been the organisation and training of the Expo '70 Dance Team which was chosen from participants in the 1969 and 1970 School Dance Festival. Two teams were trained and each gave performances in the Hong Kong Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan.

The summer programme of recreational activities continues to expand. Altogether 504,157 school children, an increase of 15 per cent compared with last year, participated in the numerous activities offered by schools.

EDUCATION OVERSEAS ·

Two major changes have taken place in the Hong Kong Students' Office in London during the course of the year. Firstly, the Students' Office has been incorporated within the general framework of the Hong Kong Government Office in London and in order to make this integration more effective, the Students' Office has moved to 54 Pall Mall to join the other sections of the Hong Kong Government Office located there. Secondly, the Hong Kong Government Training Division has taken over responsibility for the training of government servants in the United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Government Training Section, independent of the Students' Section, but maintaining a close liaison with it, has been established.

       Nevertheless the Students' Section of the Hong Kong Govern- ment Office continues to be responsible for keeping records of all

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officially recommended Hong Kong students in the United King- dom, for assisting them to find places in universities and other institutions of higher education of their choice in Britain (except private schools or colleges), for making arrangements for them to be met and accommodated on arrival and for helping them with personal or educational problems.

In this latter connection, the Student Advisers made a total of 55 visits during the period under review, 31 to universities and colleges of further education and 24 to hospitals in various parts of the United Kingdom.

There are 4,673 students recorded by the Student Adviser, excluding government servants but including apprentices on sand- wich courses and nurse trainees, undergoing a wide range of courses in the United Kingdom.

      During the year under review, 2,871 Hong Kong students left for further study to the United States, 1,600 went to Canada and 128 to Australia.

      Government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain. It accommodates some 80 students and serves as a focal and meeting place for many more. During 1970 the Administrative Commissioner in London assumed responsibility for the adminis- tration of Hong Kong House and is assisted in this work by an Advisory Board which includes two student representatives among its members.

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

During the year, a wide range of research programmes was conducted by both universities. The following serve to illustrate some of the research completed or in progress during 1970 which has particular relevance to the Hong Kong community.

In the University of Hong Kong, the Centre of Asian Studies sponsored a number of projects including studies of urban squatters in Hong Kong, trade unions, attitudes of youth towards modernisa- tion and industrialisation, locational preferences and characteristics of Hong Kong street hawkers, the development of exchange bank- ing in the Far East, the writing of a concise Cantonese-English

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dictionary, and a statistical study of the local population. In arts and social sciences, research continued on economic developments in China and Hong Kong, on comparative linguistics and phonetics, on entrepreneurial and urban history, on industrialisation and popu- lation growth in Hong Kong, and on the Hong Kong educational system. A survey of quality control practice in Hong Kong was undertaken, and work was also done on industrial planning, urbanisation, social welfare needs, and the study of Chinese com- mercial law. In the medical faculty work on child development and growth of Chinese children continued, while other projects included studies of the biochemistry of drug addiction, of local plants used by the Chinese herbalists, and of the treatment of spinal tuber- culosis. In science, engineering and architecture, a Centre of High Building Research was established to promote advanced study, publication and research in this field. Other projects included studies of resettlement housing environments, of urban renewal, of dynamics of structures and of industrial noise, while work on characteristics and properties of Hong Kong soils, on the ecology of Plover Cove reservoir, and on diseases of some economic plants in Hong Kong continued.

       In The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Research Centres have been set up under the university's three Research Institutes (the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities, the Institute of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Chinese Studies). These provide a wide range of research and training opportunities for staff and students of the university.

      Among the many projects in the social studies and humanities field, there were studies on the impact of industrialisation on the living standard; the impact of urbanisation upon the lives of rural villagers; the identification of types of natural vegetation from aerographs; the geography of paper in Hong Kong; urban land use; and communications patterns of residents of Hong Kong. Science and technology projects included investigations into Hong Kong flora and goamineae; the chemical analysis of Chinese medicinal plants; cosmic rays in Hong Kong; and the biology of Hong Kong groupers. Chinese studies included Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong; grammar of the Chinese language; and the compilation of a Chinese-English dictionary of modern usage.

7

Health

THE people of Hong Kong continued to enjoy, in the main good health during the year 1970. Notification of diphtheria and malaria continued to decline and the incidence of measles remained low. There was no occurrence of any epidemic disease. Precautionary measures against the reappearance of cholera were maintained throughout the year.

      The mortality pattern remained one in which fewer deaths were due to communicable diseases and more resulted from the diseases of later life, predominantly cancer, heart diseases and cerebrovascular lesions.

The development programme of the Medical and Health Depart- ment continued to make steady progress. The Kowloon Hospital West Wing was completed in October and provides useful sub- sidiary accommodation for patients from Queen Elizabeth Hospital during convalescence. In addition it has an acute psychiatric unit and a paraplegic unit. Work on the planning of other government projects continued, including polyclinics for Kowloon East and the Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung area, a new Vaccine Institute, a specialist clinic on Hong Kong Island East, a large general hospital and a large mental hospital in the Lai Chi Kok area. Construction work on the Siu Lam Hospital for the mentally subnormal and a re- habilitation and health centre in the Sai Ying Pun district was well advanced.

      The generally satisfactory state of health of the population is demonstrated by the Colony's vital statistics which appear in Appendix 30.

ADMINISTRATION

The Medical and Health Department provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease.

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       The estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department for the financial year 1970-1 is $170,534,400. To this should be added subventions totalling an estimated $64,023,600 to many non- government medical institutions and organisations. The estimated capital expenditure for the Medical and Health Department during 1970-1 on hospital and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $17,872,000.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

       Cholera has not appeared in Hong Kong since the notification of the last case in October 1969. Routine sampling of nightsoil for cholera vibrio was continued on a year-round basis as part of the surveillance programme. All the samples were negative. An annual inoculation drive was started in April and continued into the summer months. As the disease has become endemic in this part of the world, special preventive measures are continuing and quarantine restrictions are maintained in respect of neighbouring countries declared infected.

       Tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem. It is believed from the figures which are available that approximately one per cent of the population of Hong Kong is suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment. Males are affected at least twice as commonly as females, the disease being especially common in elderly men, while drug addicts are a group particularly prone. Tuberculosis in the young is now relatively uncommon and the former large numbers of acute and often fatal cases of tuberculosis in infants are now no longer seen.

       Government, either by subvention or directly through the Govern- ment Chest Service, spends more than $19,000,000 yearly on control measures. The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, while certain other organisations, including the Tung Wah Group and the Caritas Medical Centre also provide treatment facilities, maintained mainly with the aid of substantial government subventions. The Government Chest Service operates six full-time clinics equipped with radiological facilities and 15 subsidiary centres throughout the Colony. In addition it maintains

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the BCG vaccination programme and during the year 96 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. It is believed that the widespread use of this pro- phylactic has led to the precipitate fall in tuberculosis in the very young in Hong Kong.

      The cornerstone of treatment in Hong Kong is ambulatory chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. The position with regard to the treatment of tuberculosis in the last 15 years has changed completely, and the disease can now nearly always be cured provid- ed that the patient is co-operative and takes his treatment regularly.

The previous monthly issue of PAS/Isoniazid tablets has now, in a large proportion of cases, been replaced by a regimen of twice weekly Streptomycin injections and high dosage Isoniazid tablets. This has the advantage that it is a completely supervised regimen whereas it is known that some patients did not take their drugs regularly when they were issued on a monthly basis. At present a large scale trial with the Medical Research Council to evaluate the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy in Hong Kong is almost complete and analysis of the results is under way. A further trial to evaluate the most effective drugs for the treatment of resistant cases was started in April and is also well under way. The regimens being evaluated include new and most promising drugs.

A close examination of the actual functioning of the Chest Service, known as the Hong Kong Treatment Survey, began in September and it is now believed that the results of all these in- vestigations will within the next few years revolutionise the approach to the treatment of tuberculosis in Hong Kong.

      With the improving efficiency of the Chest Services and the decreased patient load, there is now an obvious need for more emphasis on case finding. During December a one-week anti- tuberculosis publicity drive was launched.

The Colony has 1,788 beds available specifically for the treatment of tuberculosis. The Government provides 146 of these beds in Kowloon Hospital and St John Hospital on Cheung Chau Island, but the majority are in government-assisted hospitals, notably those managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic

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       Diseases Association. This association offers a total of 840 beds distributed between Grantham Hospital, Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home. In addition the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council has 310 beds at its Haven of Hope Sanatorium. The Tung Wah Group has 251 beds for the treatment of tuberculosis. The Chest Unit at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary has 185 beds in spacious accommodation and now plays a major role in the treatment of tuberculosis in Kowloon.

Venereal disease is diagnosed and treated free at social hygiene clinics. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis continued to remain low in 1970, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. Latent and late syphilis and gonorrhoea have stayed comparatively unchanged and the incidence of chancroid and lymphogranuloma remained very low. The maintenance of this satisfactory position is due, at least in part, to energetic epidemic control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine ante-natal blood tests.

Leprosy remains only a very minor public health problem. Twenty outpatient sessions are held weekly solely for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while other sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. The Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary, with the aid of a government subvention, maintains accommodation for 540 persons at Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium for the treatment of infectious cases and a small number of patients requiring reconstruc- tive operations are also accepted.

Malaria is reported only in certain rural areas of the Colony. Most of the cases reported during the year were either imported or recurrent cases. Malaria prevention in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures consisting of draining and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. In the greater part of the New Terri- tories, where the background is essentially rural, screening of buildings, use of mosquito nets and chemoprophylaxis constitute the main protection against malaria. All anti-mosquito measures for the prevention of malaria are carried out by the Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department. Clinical aspects of malaria control such as malaria surveys and chemotherapy are the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department.

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HEALTH

       Diphtheria continued to occur mainly among children under 10 years of age, predominantly within the 'pre-school' age-group. The annual inoculation drive which has been in progress since 1959 continued to give encouraging results, and it is gratifying to record that there has been a steady decline in the number of cases notified annually; in 1970 only 43 cases were recorded compared with 2,087 cases in 1959.

Measles is most prevalent among children under the age of five years and epidemics are characteristically biennial. In Hong Kong during epidemics the disease is usually associated with high mortality due mainly to complicated bronchopneumonia encountered too late for treatment to be effective. A Colony-wide immunisation cam- paign commenced in December 1967 and was continued in the following years. The vaccine is now regularly available at government maternal and child health centres. Health education efforts at health centres are continued and parents are informed of the importance of early treatment of the disease. The disease incidence and its mortality have remained satisfactorily low in the last three years. These results were due, at least in part, to the immunisation cam- paign and the continuing health education efforts to encourage parents to seek early medical advice.

      Influenza occurred only sporadically after the appearance of the epidemic in the summer of 1968. Hong Kong has been collaborating with the World Health Organisation in its surveillance programme of influenza disease, and epidemiological and laboratory information is transmitted overseas so that early preventive measures may be taken to meet the threat of new epidemics. During the year some strains of influenza A virus were isolated. They resembled the A variant prevalent in recent years.

       Other communicable diseases remain at a low level, and do not constitute a major public health problem. The number of cases of infectious diseases notified in 1970 is shown in Appendix 31.

PORT HEALTH SERVICE

       The Port Health Service is responsible for the enforcement of the International Sanitary Regulations as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance and the sanitary control of

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the port and airport areas. It provides facilities for the vaccination and the issue of International Vaccination Certificates to travellers and transmits free advice to ships at sea requiring medical assistance. A 24-hour service for the inspection of in-coming passengers arriving by sea and air and the granting of Radio Pratique to ships from clean ports on request is maintained throughout the year.

Epidemiological information is regularly exchanged with the World Health Organisation in Geneva, the Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila and several neighbouring health administrations.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

       There is increasing public understanding of the value of Hong Kong's maternal and child health facilities. Most babies are born either in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes, and con- finements at home attended by private midwives now represent less than one per cent of the total deliveries. The Government District Midwifery Service has 28 centres, and the total number of maternity beds available for deliveries in these health centres is 516. There are 100 registered midwives practising privately in 60 maternity and nursing homes, which are regularly inspected by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff.

        The Government Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 29 centres, 18 of which are full-time. Clinics are held for infants and for children between two and five years old, and ante-natal sessions are also conducted. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinic are visited at home, and health visitors also go to the homes of newborn infants whose names appear in the monthly birth returns. Health education forms an important part of this work and includes practical demonstrations, talks, film shows and individual advice to mothers. There is a close liaison between the service and the Family Planning Association, which conducts an increasing number of sessions in all the centres.

SCHOOL HEALTH

       The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Essentially the scheme offers a service whereby participating school

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      children receive medical treatment from private medical practi- tioners for the small sum of $7 year. This per capita fee does not meet the cost of the service and the Government contributes an equal sum, as well as the cost of administrative expenses. At the end of the year 42,803 students attending schools were enrolled in the service and 183 private medical practitioners were participating.

       The School Health Service continues as a government responsi- bility and is concerned with the environmental health and sanitary condition of school premises and the control of communicable diseases in schools. Routine inspection of schools is undertaken by school health inspectors, while immunisation of school children' against the major infectious diseases is arranged by health officers.

MENTAL HEALTH

       Psychiatric cases from the whole Colony are admitted to the Castle Peak Hospital, mostly as voluntary patients. Outpatient treatment is available in the urban area and in the New Territories, and day-patients are treated in the Psychiatric Day Centre on Hong Kong Island as well as the Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre in Kowloon. The latter Centre also provides special facilities for the observation of disturbed children. An acute Psychiatric Unit is provided in the Kowloon Hospital New Wing, which also provides facilities for the treatment of day-patients. A Psychiatric Observa- tion Unit is operated in the Victoria Reception Centre for remand prisoners, and there is one ward for very low-grade mentally sub- normal children in the Tung Wah Hospital. Other cases of mental subnormality are in the care of the Social Welfare Department where they receive occupational training. Certain voluntary agencies, working in close co-operation with the Mental Health Service, assist in rehabilitation of patients before their return to full social and economic activities in the community.

DRUG DEPENDENCY

       Drug addicts who volunteer for treatment and rehabilitation are treated in a drug-free environment at a rehabilitation centre on Shek Kwu Chau Island; their stay varies from four to six months. This institution is run by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

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      of Drug Addicts, a voluntary organisation receiving a substantial government subvention. The society maintains an office in the urban area where addicts can apply voluntarily for admission to the centre and, after a medical examination and socio-economic investigation, are admitted for treatment and rehabilitation. Following their discharge, the society provides further assistance in their rehabilitation. The centre in the urban area also provides accommodation facilities for the treatment of female drug addicts.

      An anti-narcotic campaign organised jointly by the Medical and Health Department and the Action Committee Against Narcotics was held in November. Widest publicity to the campaign was given through all the available publicity media. The emphasis of the campaign was on the preventive aspect of drug addiction and publicity was directed primarily towards education of the young.

HOSPITALS

      The 16,471 hospital beds available in Hong Kong represent 4.03 beds per thousand of the population (see Appendix 32). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes, but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds 14,321 are in government hospitals and institutions and in government-assisted hospitals, while the remaining 2,150 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and for the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases there are 13,103 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity, giving a ratio of 3.20 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the hospitals, but in some cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used exten- sively whenever the need arises.

      Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as the main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories and has 1,596 beds, with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. The Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. The newly completed West Wing at Kowloon Hospital when fully commissioned will increase the total bed complement of the hospital to 1,086 beds.

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       On Hong Kong Island, the Government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary Hospital, which performs the same functions for the island as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital does for Kowloon, and is also the teaching hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of Hong Kong. The hospital's phased programme of alterations, designed ultimately to increase the hospital bed capacity to 1,140 and to provide improved facilities, was practically completed during the year. Planning for a new pathology building, virus laboratory and mortuary in the same hospital is under way.

       Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialised purposes. Apart from the Castle Peak Hospital they include two infectious disease hospitals and a maternity hospital of 292 beds, where the teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out. The new Tang Shiu Kin Hospital provides casualty service as well as facilities for maternal and child health, social hygiene and maternity services. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also established in the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries.

      The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is a long-established charitable organisation. It operates three general hospitals, the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah with a total of 2,325 beds, and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. It also provides subsidiary beds for long term patients at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary. These hospitals, whose recurrent expenditure is met mainly by a large subvention from the Government, provide a valuable contibution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernised and expanded.

       The Pok Oi Hospital, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, is another long-established charitable organisation operating with the assistance of a government subvention. It has been modernised and expanded.

       A number of the general hospitals are maintained by missionary and other charitable organisations such as the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre at So Uk, Our Lady

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of Maryknoll Hospital and the Duchess of Kent Children's Ortho- paedic Hospital and Convalescent Home. Several receive substantial government subventions, and in recent years some of the hospitals underwent major extensions to provide improved and additional facilities.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in various medical fields. There are also specialised clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, together with specialist services offered by the Government Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory. The Medical and Health Department Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals maintain blood banks and the Hong Kong Red Cross Society operates a blood-collecting service for voluntary blood donation; laboratory work for these blood banks is carried out by the Institute of Pathology.

Open heart surgery for the treatment of various types of congenital and acquired heart diseases by the pulmonary by-pass technique using the heart-lung machine became available in Hong Kong in the middle of 1968, although open heart surgery employing a different technique had been used earlier. The combined efforts of the Medical and Health Department, the University of Hong Kong, the Anti- tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and some private individuals have made this project possible. Patients are admitted to the Queen Mary Hospital for preliminary investigation and, if it is indicated, transferred to the Grantham Hospital for operation.

A ward-unit for organ transplantation was established in Queen Mary Hospital. The unit has accommodation for four patients and is provided with facilities to ensure a near sterile environment for cases undergoing organ transplantation.

OUTPATIENT CLINICS

To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services, provided mainly by the Govern- ment, and also by subsidised organisations and private agencies,

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are developing steadily. Government now maintains 43 clinics for general outpatients, and specialist facilities are available in the major centres of the urban areas; similar specialist facilities are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, especially the isolated villages on the eastern and western coasts. Other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

       Since the Medical Clinics Ordinance came into effect in January 1964, 441 private clinics have been granted registration, of which 357 were exempted from employing registered doctors. Under the Medical Clinics (Amendment) Ordinance of 1966 the power of the Registrar of Clinics to register clinics with exemption was extended for three years as from January 1967, and all clinics, whether registered or registered with exemption, are required to be re- registered annually. During the year the power of the Registrar to register clinics with exemption was extended for another two years as from January 1970. The Low Cost Medical Care Scheme under which static clinics are set up in Resettlement and Housing Estates continued to operate during the year, and in allocating these premises registered doctors are given priority.

MEDICAL FEES

At government general outpatient clinics there is a nominal charge of $1 a visit, including medicine as well as x-ray examinations, laboratory tests etc. Consultation at a specialist's clinic also costs $1. There are no charges for patients at Tuberculosis, Social Hygiene, Leprosy clinics or for patients suffering from quarantinable diseases. Similarly, no charges are raised at certain remote institutions located in outlying areas or on the floating clinics. The Infant Welfare and Ante-Natal and Post-Natal clinics are also free.

For patients admitted in the general wards of government hospitals the daily maintenance fee ranges from $2 to $6 according to the diet supplied. A limited number of private rooms and small semi-private wards are provided at major hospitals. The charges for these are much higher than those for general class wards, and in addition all treatment is chargeable.

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Where a patient is unable to pay the medical fees, provision has been made that the charges can either be waived or reduced at the discretion of the Director of Medical and Health Services.

DENTAL SERVICES

The Government Dental Service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 30 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

       Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. The rate of enrichment is one part of fluoride per million parts of water; the cost per person receiving fluoridated water is 13.5 cents per annum. It would appear from clinical observation that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will become more marked in the future.

       Many voluntary bodies and welfare organisations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Society and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped static and mobile dental clinics.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

      Based upon three full-time outpatient centres, equipped with operating, investigation and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the New Territories. Additionally, ophthalmic surgery is per- formed in two government hospitals in which 31 beds are reserved for ophthalmic cases. The staff of the Ophthalmic Service also deal with ophthalmic emergencies at three casualty departments situated at the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Kwong Wah Hospitals.

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TRAINING

      The degrees of MB, BS, conferred by the University of Hong Kong, have been recognised for registration by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. During recent years the Medical Faculty expanded to cope with an annual intake of 120 medical students to meet the increasing needs of the Colony for doctors. Then in October 1970 the annual intake was further increased to 150. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain, and is supervised by a panel for post- graduate medical education, consisting of university and govern- ment staff members. Due mainly to this programme almost all of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department are now held by locally-recruited staff.

      Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry, but a government dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from Hong Kong to go overseas each year to study dentistry. This scheme commenced in 1954; 81 scholarships have been awarded.

      There are three government hospital schools of nursing, two in general nursing and one in psychiatric nursing. Training at govern- ment schools and at the Caritas Hospital school is in English, but there are also approved schools at Tung Wah Hospital, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, where instruction is in Cantonese. Examinations are held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board and there is full reciprocity of registration between the Hong Kong Board and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales.

       The Queen Elizabeth Hospital (and to a limited extent other approved hospitals) has one-year courses in obstetric nursing for registered nurses and the tuition is in English. These courses qualify the entrants to sit for the Hong Kong Midwives Board Examination. The Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital runs two-year obstetric courses in Cantonese for student midwives who are not trained nurses. These courses are also accepted by the Hong Kong Midwives Board for entry into its examinations. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is not possible at present.

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       Two training courses, one in general nursing, the other in psychiatric nursing, for Nursing Auxiliaries (each of two-years' duration) are run at the Kowloon Hospital and Castle Peak Hospital respectively.

        A nine-month course for Health Visitors continues to be held at the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital and this course prepares its entrants to sit for the examination of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Health Auxiliaries, who supplement the Health Visitor Service, continue to have a two-year training in health education and basic public health nursing, at the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital.

Government conducts a continuous post-graduate overseas training programme for graduate nurses. Subjects studied during 1970 were nursing administration, nursing education, dietetics, neuro-surgical nursing, orthopaedic nursing, intensive-care therapy and special operating theatre service.

       The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appointments, the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors and the Certificate for Health Visitors and School Nurses. Training for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appointments and the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors is carried out within the Urban Services Department.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

       Responsibility for environmental health service and for the dis- posal of the dead in the urban area rests with the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories, the Director of Urban Services is responsible.

       About 7,000 employees of the Urban Services Department are engaged in street cleansing, removal of refuse and nightsoil, and attending public conveniences and bathhouses. An average of 2,420 tons of refuse is collected and disposed of daily. Two large oil-fired incinerators operated by the Public Works Department disposed of slightly more than half of the total tonnage collected.

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      A further 760 tons collected in Kowloon each day was conveyed by vehicles for controlled tipping at Gin Drinker's Bay, Tsuen Wan. Construction of a second incinerator for Kowloon has begun and a third one is being planned. The composting plant installed at Lai Chi Kok converts 45 tons of refuse into compost weekly. Refuse collected in the New Territories (about 350 tons daily) is mainly disposed of, by controlled tipping, at Gin Drinker's Bay, Chau Tau, Ngau Tam Mei and Shuen Wan.

Efforts are continually being made to secure public co-operation in reducing the problem of litter through educational campaigns and prosecutions. Dogs' latrines are being set up at suitable sites in the urban areas to minimise the extent of fouling of streets by dogs.

The nightsoil collection service continued to diminish as pre-war property is replaced by modern buildings with waterborne sanita- tion and the number of nightsoil pans serviced was half of what it used to be a decade ago. 16,550 gallons of nightsoil were collected daily from 15,580 floors with dry latrines and from 2,258 temporary latrine compartments on building sites and squatter or licensed resettlement areas. Thirty-four specialised vehicles and three tanker- barges are employed on this service and, since the maturation plant operated by the Vegetable Marketing Organisation closed down, all of the nightsoil collected has been disposed of by dumping into the sea outside harbour limits.

       Eleven public cemeteries (two closed) and three public crematoria are directly controlled by the Department and 28 private cemeteries and one private crematorium are under its general supervision. Three funeral parlours and 30 undertakers are licensed by Urban Council to arrange funeral services. In addition, Government provides two funeral depots for the performance of last rites and also transportation of deceased persons in coffins to a public cemetery or crematorium for interment or cremation; such services are rendered free of charge.

       The Hygiene Division of the Urban Services Department is principally responsible for the maintenance of environmental sanitation and for the hygienic control of all types of food business and food and drink. A system of regular house-to-house inspection

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is carried out by the District Health Section of the Division; com- plaints of sanitary nuisances are investigated and preventive measures are taken against the breeding of mosquitoes and flies. Investigation into food poisoning cases and control of infectious diseases are carried out in close liaison with the Medical and Health Department. Health staff also undertake regular inspection of 6,765 (including New Territories) licensed premises such as restaurants, food factories and fresh provision shops. All applications for licences in the urban areas (other than hawker licences) under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance and its subsidiary legislation are dealt with by a Central Licensing Unit which ensures that only premises that comply with the required public health standard are granted licences. Frozen meat and offal, frozen poultry and poultry parts are imported in increasing quantities from various sources. The Food Inspection Unit of the Division is responsible for the in- spection and control of such imported commodities as well as other varieties of imported foods and meat products. It also under- takes the inspection and certification of food for export, and the inspection of animal products and human hair for export under veterinary certification. Control is also exercised over the sale of food and drink for local consumption, including milk and ice-cream, by systematic surveys and sampling to check on quality and purity by both bacteriological and chemical analyses. Legislation was introduced to prohibit the use of Cyclamate (an artificial sweetener) in food and drink following reports of experiments elsewhere involving the use of large dosages of Cyclamates having caused cancer of the bladder in laboratory animals. Amendments were made to the Colouring Matter in Food Regulations by including an up-to-date list of permitted colouring matter based on United Kingdom legislation and also on the recommendation of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organisation and World Health Organisation Expert Committee on Food Additives.

       Advisory work and measures for the control of rodents, cock- roaches, ants, fleas, bed-bugs, wasps, biting midges and other pests throughout the Colony are the responsibility of the Pest Control Section. In the New Territories, the scope of this section is extended to include the control of culicine (nuisance) mosquitoes and flies. Weekly larvicidal oiling of streams to prevent the breeding of malarial mosquitoes on Hong Kong Island, in the Kowloon

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peninsula, and in the New Territories at Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill Village and Cheung Chau, is also a function of the Pest Control Section.

      The Health Education Section continued to organise publicity campaigns on various aspects of health and hygiene and to run food hygiene course for food handlers. Other public health courses were also conducted for specific groups of the public. To promote health education among school children, an annual 'Health Project Competition' for secondary schools and 'Speech and Song Contests' for primary and secondary schools were held.

The supervision of abattoirs, markets and hawkers has an im- portant bearing on public health, and for this purpose the Urban Services Department employs a staff numbering over two thousand. There are 66 public retail markets (43 in the urban areas and 23 in the New Territories) where housewives can buy meat, fish, poultry and vegetables at reasonable prices and under clean and hygienic conditions. The Urban Council is committed to an exten- sive programme for the reconstruction of the many old and out- moded markets where it is difficult to maintain the necessary standards of food hygiene. At the same time, new markets are planned to serve the populations of the developing areas.

      Progress on the implementation of the Urban Council's policy of working towards a reduction in street hawking has been hampered by lack of manpower for control and law enforcement, but much useful work has been done on the revision of legislation on hawking, the clarification and codification of points of detail in the policy and on the building-up of reliable data for forward planning. As a result of a re-organisation and substantial expansion of hawker licensing facilities in the urban areas in late 1969, a new organisation known as the Hawker Liaison Section was introduced. This section has already obtained a considerable quantity of accurate data on hawkers from which it is clear that the actual numbers of people earning a livelihood from hawking are smaller than had previously been supposed. Unlicensed hawking has declined sharply and the present total of 47,000 valid licences is believed to present a more accurate idea of the hawker population than heretofore. More attention is now being given to collecting information on the socio-economic aspects of hawking.

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       The enforcement of legislation governing hawkers should be carried out by the Hawker Control Force, established in 1960 to relieve the Police of this responsibility. The Force has an establish- ment of 530 officers and men who operate in the urban hawker areas. In many districts, particularly of Kowloon, the Police still remain the sole authority for control. Plans for improving the conditions of service for the Force and for expanding its establish- ment are currently under consideration.

Two newly constructed abattoirs of modern design are in full operation: one at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island, and the other at Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon. Each complex, including a wholesale livestock market and quarantine service, can handle 3,000 pigs and 300 cattle in an eight-hour working day.

RESEARCH

The study of Shigella organisms, particularly the antigenic com- ponents in connection with typing is now being carried out. Co-operative study with the World Health Organisation on Cytomegalic virus antibodies in sera will start soon. Investigations are now in progress to evaluate a new selective medium for direct inoculation of untreated sputum to isolate tubercle bacilli. Besides typing of salivary gland tumours in Hong Kong, histochemical studies of these tumours are being done.

A study of the natural history and treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was completed and a new stage classification was proposed. A study of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal car- cinoma continues. As part of this study an investigation on the association between a herpes-type virus (HTV) infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma is carried out jointly with the Interna- tional Agency for Research on Cancer and in collaboration with workers overseas. The second phase of the work to study by sero-epidemiological methods the natural history of the herpes- type virus infection has begun. The study is in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Institute of Health, National Cancer Institute, United States of America, the Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society, the Health Service of the University of Hong Kong and the Medical and Health Department Institute of Radiology.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Now, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

     Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the responsi- bility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon foothills, called New Kowloon. The Dis- trict Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories are mostly located in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them, with a few exceptions, are recorded in the Registrar General's Department. The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

      Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction. All land available to the general public for com- mercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. The realised premium is payable by a percentage of the upset price on the fall of the hammer and the balance within a short period after the sale, except in the case of industrial lots where it can be paid by instalments. In 1969 a concession was introduced in respect of sites of high value in central areas when the upset price

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of the site was $10 millions or more, providing for payment by annual instalments over 10 years free of interest; during the year this concession was amended to provide for payment by instalments with 10 per cent of the realised price being payable within one month of the auction, the balance being payable by 10 equal annual instal- ments bearing interest at 10 per cent per annum. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools up to the full market value and payment by instalments for public utilities.

       In order to assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, a concession exists which, subject to certain conditions, permits the subletting of parts of the building without having to pay the outstanding balance of premium. Previously the balance of premium outstanding became payable in the event of any subletting.

In recent years, groups of 75-year non-renewable Crown leases granted chiefly in Kowloon, have been expiring. Terms and condi- tions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of

cases.

On re-grant, the boundaries of the lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines etc, but the leases will not be re- granted if the land is needed for a public purpose. In these cases the Government pays ex-gratia compensation for the buildings on the lot.

       A concession in respect of non-renewable leases enables lessees who do not wish to pay the re-grant premium and redevelop to hold over for a period up to five years from 1968 at an annual rent equiv- alent to the net income arising from the property. This concession is only applicable to property which in the opinion of the Director of Public Works is under-developed, and lessees of fully developed post-war property are not eligible.

       The number of 75-year renewable leases falling due for renewal is increasing and a Consolidated Statement of the terms and condi- tions for renewal of these leases has been issued. The statement divides lots into two groups: the first group being lots in the New

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    Territories including those Survey District Lots in New Kowloon registered in a District Land Office. The second group comprises the lots on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon and New Kowloon together with the new grant lots in the New Territories registered in the Victoria Land Office.

Renewal of the leases of the first group of lots will be effected by means of legislation as from the expiration of the first term in 1973, without change in Crown rent. In the case of the second group, renewal may be effected under the legal option contained in the Crown lease or by means of one of four other ways offered by Government. The legal option contained in the 75-year renewable Crown leases gives right of renewal for a further period at a re- assessed Crown rent which is normally 'such rent as shall be fairly and impartially fixed as the fair and reasonable rental value of the ground at the date of renewal'.

The first way of effecting renewal other than by the legal option is for the lessee to apply for renewal at the expiry of the original lease term but, in lieu of paying an annual re-assessed Crown rent, to pay in a lump sum the capitalised value of such re-assessed rent. The second and third ways are designed specifically to meet the needs of lessees who wish to renew lots the leases of which have less than 20 years to run and provide alternative methods for the surrender of the existing lease and the grant of a new lease for a non-renewable term plus the tag-end of the original term. Under the first method, the premium is calculated in the same way as if the lease were for a 75-year non-renewable term and is payable in a lump sum or by three equal annual instalments including interest at 10 per cent. By the second method the premium is replaced by a re-assessed Crown rent which is payable throughout the new term. Allowance is made in each case for the value of the tag-end of the original term.

The fourth way caters for the lessee of an under-developed lot who does not wish to redevelop and allows him to renew his lease at a Crown rent lower than the full rental value of the land if he is prepared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal. The covenant can be modified at any time redevelopment is required subject to the pay ment of an appropriate fee.

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       The demand for land continues unabated and future expansion must be in the New Territories. Outline development plans have therefore been prepared, or are under preparation, for building new towns and expanding existing market towns in areas best suited to industry and high-density housing. These are Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung, Castle Peak, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po and Shek Wu Hui. However, most of these development areas contain a high proportion of leased agricultural land and there is not enough Crown land to serve public purposes. As development proceeds, Crown lessees are invited to surrender agricultural and village or rural building land in exchange for a re-grant of building land with bound- aries conforming to the development layout. Within planning layout areas these exchanges are normally negotiated on a foot-for-foot basis for building land surrendered, or on a five-feet-for-two-feet basis for the agricultural land surrendered, with a premium payable equal to the difference in value between the land surrendered and that re-granted. This system has proved acceptable to landowners and the capital commitment has been eased by the issue of letters (known generally as letters 'A' and 'B') entitling any landowner who voluntarily surrenders land at the time when it is required for a public purpose to a future grant of land when this becomes available. These entitlement letters are freely assignable.

LAND SALES

During the year, the interest in land development continued but the emphasis shifted slightly from industrial land to land for resi- dential use. The system of selling land regularly in accordance with a planned programme continued and as the year went on, price levels rose and higher prices were realised for lots in new development areas than previously, particularly the Broadcast Drive and Beacon Hill Road areas of Kowloon. The numbers of applications received for modifications, re-grants of 75-year non-renewable leases and renewals of 75-year renewable leases as well as the number of private transactions increased still further than in the previous year.

       Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1969-70 totalled approxi- mately $100 million made up as follows: about $63 million from 83 sales by auction and tender; $14 million from private treaty sales;

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$4.5 million from modifications of lease conditions, extensions and exchanges; and $17.5 million from re-grants of expired 75-year leases. Revenue from land transactions in the New Territories during the same period was $21 million. These figures are three to four times higher than those for the year 1968-9.

Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant but may be occupied either on temporary annual permit or on short term tenancy. The 1969-70 revenue from this type of tenure exceeded $6 million in the urban area and was $871,000 in the New Territories (the last figure includes modification of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, permits are cancelled and the number decreases year by year; short term tenancies however are increasing. Revenue derived in rent from the leasing of govern- ment-owned buildings in whole or part totalled $5.5 million.

During the year, a further step was taken in providing for con- tainerisation by the sale by public tender of three berths at Kwai Chung. The premia realised were not high in relation to industrial values but it must be borne in mind that the purchasers have to carry out very substantial civil engineering works at their own expense. Another matter that attracted great public attention was the sale of a site of 53,000 square feet off Connaught Road Central, Hong Kong close to the Star Ferry which realised $258 million payable by 11 instalments over a period of 10 years without interest.

URBAN RENEWAL

Acquisition of property by negotiations with owners in both the Urban Renewal Pilot Scheme area and in the Urban Renewal district generally increased. So far nearly 80 properties have been acquired at a cost of about $8 million and negotiations are continuing for the acquisition of a further 150. An inter-departmental co-ordinating committee has been set up to ensure the even progress of urban renewal and with a view to speeding up property acquisition and clearance of sites for redevelopment in the pilot scheme area.

The larger Urban Renewal District comprises some 250 acres in the Western and Sai Ying Pun districts of Hong Kong Island. The Town Planning Board has been instructed to prepare an outline

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zoning plan for this area. The draft plan has been exhibited and 21 objections were received and considered by the board.

SURVEY

       Land survey in Hong Kong serves two main purposes; first the delineation of town planning layouts, the setting out of public works and the boundaries of private lots and government sites, etc, i.e. cadastral survey; and second the production of plans and maps.

       The demand for cadastral surveys and plans continued to rise during the year with the increased interest in private development and surveys for government sites and the setting out of building works also showed a steady increase.

Control surveys included the completion of a precise levelling network on Hong Kong Island. As a result of the construction of radio, radar and television installations on the higher hills, several main triangulation stations were destroyed or obstructed and these had to be rebuilt elsewhere and tied into the Colony network by first order triangulation.

The implementation of the programme of 'cyclic' revision of large-scale plans continued. The total number of plans of the Colony now approaches 1,900, about 690 at 1:600 scale of the urban areas and over 1,200 at 1:1,200 scale of the New Territories. The value of these plans, especially in the developing areas-would be lost unless they are kept up-to-date. All plans of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon are therefore revised at one, two or three yearly intervals, depending on the rate of change in the areas they cover. Most of the plans of the New Territories cover remote and hilly areas where little change occurs and these will be checked every five years or so, but plans of built-up areas must be revised every two or three years and a few sheets in areas of rapid development, such as Kwai Chung and Castle Peak, are revised annually. To maintain even the minimum necessary programme the equivalent of over 500 plans a year must be revised. This requires the sustained efforts of a large proportion of survey and cartographic staff.

      The original large-scale air survey contract was virtually com- pleted during the year but at the request of the District Commissioner

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New Territories it was extended for another year to map a number of areas above the 600-foot contour where the boundaries of cul- tivated areas are raising land administration problems.

Production continued of the new edition of the 1:2,400 series of plans of the urban areas, by 'compilation' from the large-scale basic plans. The use of the 'scribing' technique was extended to the re- drawing of large-scale plans; several sheets of the New Territories at 1:4,800 scale were also under preparation by this method.

Production of the first edition of the 1:10,000 map series was completed by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys in Britain. Two sheets (covering Kwai Chung and Kowloon) were revised by the Survey Branch and reprinted by the military survey authorities at Singapore. Revision of another two sheets (covering Hong Kong Island) was well advanced and arrangements are being made with the Government Printer to print up to 10 revised sheets a year commencing in 1971. Each new sheet published will be in dual- language (English/Chinese) form. The first 'pilot' sheet (of Kowloon) has already been printed. It is hoped that these maps will be popular with the public and that they can be sold at a relatively low price.

Of the 20 sheets covering the Colony at 1:25,000 scale, which are produced by reduction of the 1:10,000 maps by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys, 16 sheets of the first edition have now been pub- lished. Subsequent editions will be published by the Directorate of Military Surveys in Britain. As each 'block' of four sheets at 1:10,000 scale is revised by the Survey Branch of Crown Lands and Survey Office copies of the revised sheets will be sent to the Directorate to be used in the preparation of 2nd Edition maps at 1:25,000 scale.

      Several completely new maps are in preparation in the drawing office. They include a 1:50,000 scale map of the Colony in two sheets, which will be printed in several colours and put on sale to the public early in 1971. This should be very useful to the public and to motorists in particular. The first sheet of a new 'Country-side' series, covering Hong Kong Island, is almost completed and should also be on sale early in 1971. It shows scenic walks, picnic areas and recreational facilities and should be popular with walkers, residents and tourists. Other sheets in the series of popular scenic areas of the New Territories will be produced in due course.

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      The popular folded 'Tourist' map of the Colony, which was re- printed in 1969, was hurriedly revised towards the end of 1970 at the request of the Government Printer, whose stocks were running low. The map is now being completely re-designed and a new edition will be published in 1971.

      A new Colony map at 1:100,000 scale was published by the Directorate of Military Surveys in Singapore, based on the new 1:10,000 series. Arrangements were made to put this map on sale through the Publications Centre as well as at local bookshops.

      Aerial photography continued for the first half of the year and during that period photographs taken were used by the mapping contractors to plot large-scale contoured plans of the 'borrow' areas at Texaco Peninsula, Kwai Chung and on Tsing Yi Island which are to be used for reclamation of the Kwai Chung Container Terminal. Other air photographs taken with the department's camera installed in the HKAAF Auster aircraft were used to map areas in the north of the New Territories at 1:1,200 scale. Unfor- tunately, the Auster aircraft modified to carry the aerial camera crashed into the sea off Kai Tak in early June and the camera, which was salvaged, has been sent to England to ascertain whether it can be repaired.

TOWN PLANNING

       Since 1953 plans have been prepared for the 39 planning areas which make up the main urbanised portion of the Colony and for 13 towns of various sizes in the New Territories. These plans are of two types: statutory plans prepared under the Town Planning Ordinance; and outline development and detailed layout plans which are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the re- development of private land but which have no statutory effect.

The Town Planning Board constituted under the Town Planning Ordinance comprises seven official and three unofficial members. Plans of areas where development is likely to affect private land or interests are prepared on the instructions of the Governor under the board's direction. Statutory plans for 21 planning areas have been approved; of these, eight have been referred back to the Town Planning Board for amendment or replacement; a further 12 draft plans are under preparation.

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During the year work was completed on the preparation of the draft Colony Outline Plan based upon the deliberations of six inter-departmental working committees. The plan provides guide- lines for a more balanced approach to the preparation of statutory, outline development and detailed layout plans. It also provides a basis for the formulation of land development programmes and the reappraisal of transportation proposals. The plan is a conceptual document, and as such, will require periodic reviews to maintain its effectiveness as a guide.

LAND OFFICE

The Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department, is responsible for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, the grant and exchange of Crown land; the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases; the granting of mining leases; and advice to the Government generally on matters relating to land.

The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any sub- sequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable considera- tion. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it.

      The number of instruments registered during the year rose by 26.7 per cent from last year's total of 55,482 to 70,278. The figure included 1,546 assignments of whole buildings or sites (against 1,238 in 1969), 24,866 assignments of flats and other units in multi-storey buildings (against 22,050), 10,252 agreements for sale of such flats and units (against 4,896), and 16,343 mortgages (against 12,479). As a consequence of the increase in new building projects, the number of building mortgages registered during the year rose from 121 in 1969 to 145, and the number of orders excluding premises from the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which usually have to be obtained prior to redevelopment of the sites of old buildings,

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increased by 54 to 81. Orders requiring redevelopment of the sites of demolished buildings totalled 72 (against 77). The number of searches, which, as a search is normally made prior to every land transaction, provides a good index to the state of the property market, rose by 32.4 per cent from 75,446 to 99,891. Compared with 1969 the grand total of considerations recorded in all instruments registered rose by $1,939,000,000, or 61.8 per cent, to $5,078,000,000.

        The volume of work in several other sections of the Land Office was influenced by the prevailing market conditions. During the year, 201 conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc were registered as compared with 173 in 1969. Consents granted to forward sales of flats in those cases where the conditions under which the land is held give the necessary power of control increased by 63 to 197. The number of modifications and deeds of variation of lease con- dition-often a prelude to multi-storey development-decreased by three to 35. Three hundred and fifty four Crown leases were issued as compared with 512 in 1969.

At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners contained the names of 188,807 people (an increase of 16,860 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being merely owners or part owners of small individual flats.

PRIVATE BUILDING

The renewed interest in private building development of the two previous years continued unabated in 1970, reaching almost optimum conditions for the building industry in some sectors. The total cost of new buildings as reported by architects to the Building Authority upon completion of their projects was $516,827,198.08, an increase of 33.7 per cent over 1969, while 978 new building schemes were processed and approved, compared to 730 for the previous year. Balcony fees paid, relating mostly to domestic buildings of the tenement type, amounted to $1,549,754.28.

While all categories of building are affected by the current property market expansion, interest in hotels and high priced residential accommodation was particularly noticeable. No less than 13 large and medium sized hotels were under construction by the end of the year, with over a dozen further schemes submitted

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to the Building Authority for tentative consideration or formal approval. In addition, several conversion schemes of existing build- ings to hotel use were also under consideration or completed during the year.

The larger hotels under construction included a 34-storey, 1,004-bedroom complex at East Point, and an 890-bedroom hotel addition, above an existing office building at Lee Gardens, Hysan Avenue, both on Hong Kong Island, while work also started on an 18-storey, 895-bedroom hotel at the junction of Nathan Road and Salisbury Road in Kowloon.

Amongst the numerous high priced apartment blocks going up, many of them situated in the mid-level areas of Hong Kong Island, the most dominant was the 35-storey, circular Century Tower building adjacent to the May Road Peak Tram station. The slipform method of construction was used for the service core of this build- ing. Further up the Peak, foundation works started on a major addition to the upper Peak Tram terminus. When completed, the seven-storey elliptical tower will comprise spacious lookouts, roof-garden, bank, post office, restaurant and facilities for both tourists and residents and command extensive views over the harbour and the south side of Hong Kong Island. In the New Territories, the Chinese University near Sha Tin was rapidly taking shape, with over half of its buildings, roads and ancillary services under construction by the end of the year.

In June, for the first time in 13 years, the various Divisions of the Buildings Ordinance Office moved under one roof upon completion of Murray Building, the new PWD main offices. With internal adjustment of staff and working procedures and some outside recruitment, every measure was taken to keep delays in processing and approving plans to a minimum. However with the necessity to carry out procedures to ensure that Government's planning in the field of urban renewal, mass transport and road construction are not frustrated by private development, and by the fact that this year's total submission of plans is the highest for seven years, some delays have been inevitable.

The Dangerous Buildings Division of the Buildings Ordinance Office continued with its task of dealing with private buildings which due to general dilapidation including structural deterioration have

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become so dangerous that, in the public interest, they must be either demolished or made safe. The closure and demolition of 124 build- ings, mainly in the Western and Central districts of Hong Kong Island resulted in the eviction of 5,608 people, compared with 164 buildings and 7,337 people in 1969. This fortunate downward trend reflects the extent and thoroughness with which the division has been able, since its inception seven years ago, to seek out and deal with pre-war buildings in poor condition that still exist through- out most of the older urban areas. During the year 455 notices to repair were served on owners by the division.

During the year 684 complaints were received in the Buildings Ordinance Office from private and public sources necessitating investigation of illegal building works and material change of use in private buildings, priority being given to those cases which may involve a life risk. A total of 2,184 statutory notices affecting build- ings were served during the year. In addition, as a deterrent to illegal building works in newly completed buildings a system of follow-up inspections shortly after the issue of the occupation permit was initiated during the year.

RENT CONTROL

       Legislation controlling rents and providing security of tenure was instituted by proclamation immediately after the war and in 1947 was embodied in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. It applied to both domestic and business premises and restricted rents by reference to pre-war levels, while excluding new and substantially reconstructed buildings from control. Following an amendment in 1953 permitted increases in standard rents were raised to 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises, at which level they have remained ever since.

      There is provision in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance for the exclusion of premises where redevelopment is intended. Such exclusions are made on the recommendation of a tenancy tribunal by order of the Governor or the Governor in Council in the case of an appeal. The payment of compensation to tenants dispossessed is almost invariably a condition to the grant of an exclusion order. One hundred and one such orders were approved during 1970, in- volving 290 buildings. An amendment in 1968 provided that, subject

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to the agreement being certified by the Secretariat for Home Affairs, a tenant may accept compensation from his landlord in return for delivering up vacant possession of his premises. A total of 320 agreements under this provision were certified during 1970.

      The 1953 amending legislation also provided for the establishment as part of the Secretariat for Home Affairs of two tenancy inquiry bureaux, one in Hong Kong and one in Kowloon, to assist in the working of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. Their principal task is to provide factual information to tenancy tribunals in respect of exclusion proceedings, and where premises are declared dangerous by the Building Authority, which may also involve the payment of compensation. They also provide general advice and assistance on tenancy matters.

       Further amendments to the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance were under consideration during the year.

In respect of post-war premises, legislation dates back to 1952 and the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance which gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants who had entered into oral tenancy agreements involving the payment of key money or premia. In 1963 the three-year security provided by this ordinance was extended to five years. However, the payment of key money etc in such circumstances is no longer so prevalent in Hong Kong. Increases in rent in 1961 and the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance which generally requires landlords seeking possession to give six months' notice of termination.

The first comprehensive legislation affecting post-war domestic premises was the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1963 which was enacted primarily to control increases in rents and provide a measure of security of tenure. With an increase in the supply of newly completed building in 1963 through to 1966 the housing position eased and rents stabilised. As a result this ordinance was allowed to expire on June 30, 1966. For the next three years the situation remained fairly quiet but, with a return of confidence following the disturbances in 1967 and a con- tinuing demand for accommodation, rents by the end of 1969 had taken a sharp upward trend. While the situation was being considered

FESTIVAL

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香港公共圖

The

'he Yu Lan Festival, also known as the 'Festival of the Hungry Ghosts' is a major event in Hong Kong's yearly calendar of colourful festivals. It falls generally in the first half of the Seventh Moon (by the Chinese calendar) or around the end of August, by western reckoning. To the outsider it seems a singularly thoughtful festival. The central idea is to pay homage and to offer food and other provisions to the spirits of those who for various reasons have no one to pray for them and honour them. These observances are said to bring peace and prosperity to the area throughout the year. The festival is also an occasion for everyone to remember and pay their respects to their dead relatives and friends. In addition to the offerings of food, specially printed 'money' (which is burned), paper clothing and incense, the spirits are treated to lavish performances of Chinese opera and to a grand parade through the streets.

   Our photographers this year recorded the Yu Lan observ- ances at Chai Wan, on the eastern end of Hong Kong Island. The title page picture shows a young musician sounding a gaily decorated conch horn, to mark the beginning of the street procession. Opposite, an old lady falls to her knees in homage as the parade passes by. She is holding the traditional offering of incense.

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行表光

The two pictures opposite show young girls from the district relaxing before the procession (top); and (below) lining up with their colourful banners before parading through the streets. An over-all view of the march is shown on this page.

灣箕

WINE These youngsters, dressed in the garb of ancient scholars, pay their re spects at a street altar after the parade. Below and at right may be seen the offerings, which play a central role in the ceremonies.

Indicative of the tremen- dous care that goes into the preparations for the festival is the finely- detailed work on this ceremonial dragon's head presiding over the scene.

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a temporary measure was enacted in January 1970 to 'freeze' rents and this was followed in June by the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1970.

This ordinance, which follows very closely the provisions of the 1963 ordinance, provides security of tenure for tenants of post-war domestic premises for the life of the ordinance-two years-or for a period of two years from the date of any increase in rent. There are a number of exclusions, in particular larger flats and houses, and new lettings are not controlled. Landlords and tenants are free to agree on an increase in rent but such agreements must be endorsed by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. Where an increase in rent is not agreed, a landlord may apply to the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation for his certificate as to what may be con- sidered a fair increase. The Commissioner has wide powers under the ordinance and also issues certificates to assist in disputes as to whether or not particular premises are excluded from its provisions. Where landlords, and in certain cases tenants, are dissatisfied with the increase in rent certified by the Commissioner there is a right of review and also appeal to the District Court. Reviews are carried out by the Commissioner or one of his more senior officers in con- sultation with an appointed panel known as the Rent Increases Advisory Panel. From its enactment in June to the end of 1970 the Commissioner had received 4,868 rental agreements for endorse- ment, 13,912 applications for increases in rent and 403 applications for reviews of rental increase certificates issued.

MULTI-STOREY BUILDING MANAGEMENT

The problems caused by the multiple ownership of many of the large multi-storey buildings which have been built in recent years have been under study for some time and a new ordinance, the Multi-Storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) Ordinance was enacted in June. This new law enables the individual owners in a building to form themselves into a corporation for the proper management of the common areas. Although a few corporations had been formed by the end of the year, it was too early to judge the success of this measure, which makes it easier for conscientious flat owners to form a management corporation even when other owners are indifferent.

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HOUSING

       Housing its millions is one of Hong Kong's proudest achieve- ments. Spurred on by an influx of more than a million refugees into an already crowded territory, the Government has carried through a massive public housing programme in the post-war years.

About 43 per cent of the population of Hong Kong is living in government or government-aided housing, but statistics show that the demand for public housing, particularly in the urban areas, is still very strong. Because of the general rise in rents following the rapid revival of the property market in 1969, public housing in the urban areas is many times over-subscribed and that in the outlying areas is filled as soon as completed. At the end of 1970, domestic accommodation in the urban areas, owned by the private sector, comprised 196,300 tenement floors, 59,900 small flats, 23,600 large flats and 1,000 houses.

       A Housing Board was set up in 1965 to keep under review the building progress in all types of housing, assess the present and future housing needs and the balance between types of housing, and advise on administrative measures to improve co-ordination between housing agencies. The board's main recommendations in 1969 were that the same design should be used for all government housing (resettlement and low-cost housing) and that government housing should be built for about 500,000 people at a cost of about $700 million over the next six years.

Government housing

       The categories of persons eligible for resettlement were laid down in order of priority in the 1964 White Paper 'Review of Policies for Squatter Control, Resettlement and Government Low- Cost Housing' and subsequently revised on the recommendation of the Housing Board. These categories and the number of people resettled under each head during the year are:

Priority 1: Compassionate cases, including certain victims of natural disasters and persons recommended by the Director of Social Welfare 5,643.

Priority 2: Rent Advance Scheme for families displaced from

dangerous buildings 1,335.

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Priority 3: Development clearances 12,558.

Priority 4: Relief from overcrowding 6,139.

Priority 5: Pavement dwellers, including rear lane dwellers

169.

Clearances undertaken during the year freed 456.38 acres of land for development. A total of $477,286.14 was paid as ex-gratia com- pensation to people who had opened up land for cultivation without legal tenure before October 1954 and to pigbreeders. A total of 154 shops were cleared, of which 144 qualified for cash allowances totalling $864,000. In addition, 281 factories and workshops had to be cleared. Of these, 203 were resettled into resettlement factory estates, while 75 were not eligible for resettlement and three rejected resettlement.

Squatters were originally resettled to resettlement cottage areas and 15 of these still remain in various parts of the urban area and the New Territories. The population of these cottage areas has diminished as clearance for development continues and the occupants are resettled in multi-storey estates. However, cottage areas still house 57,500 people. Several of these areas contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types largely established by voluntary agencies which generously continue to maintain these facilities. As far back as 1953, it was realised that the building of cheap bungalows in cottage resettlement areas was not the fundamental solution to our housing problem. For one thing, land in the urban area is so scarce and so valuable that one-storey development in resettlement areas must be regarded as only a temporary expedient. It was then decided that the main housing problem was the provi- sion of multi-storey permanent housing at low rental for families of the hundreds of thousands living in unhygienic and overcrowded conditions. These are described in the section on housing.

Under the auspices of the Urban Council the Resettlement Department also administers multi-storey resettlement factory blocks for the small factories cleared for permanent development. Because of the need to use a simple design in order to keep construction costs, and therefore rents, as low as possible a number of trades cannot be accommodated in the multi-storey factory blocks and

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consequently some factories can be resettled only if the owners are willing to change their trades.

       The latest factory blocks are seven storeys high and have units of 256 square feet. At the end of the year there were 22 resettlement flatted factory blocks, containing a total of 1,860,000 square feet of net working space, mostly situated in or near existing resettlement estates. Rents are calculated to cover administration costs and a return on capital within 21 years at five per cent interest. In the latest factories these rents vary from 55 cents a square foot a month for a ground floor unit to 25 cents for one on the top floor, all rents being inclusive of rates.

       Resettlement housing estates are built by the Public Works Department. The resettlement building programme is reviewed annually by the Housing Board to ensure that the needs of resettle- ment are balanced with those of other types of housing. The Government has accepted as a working basis the board's recom- mendations in its report for 1969. These include a recommendation that new building programmes for the six-year period 1969-75 of 300,000 individual units of resettlement accommodation, and 290,000 units of government low-cost housing be adopted, pending any further recommendation of the board.

From the initiation of the programme in 1954 until 1964 very basic seven-storey resettlement blocks with communal washing and sanitary facilities were built. There are now some 240 of these blocks housing approximately 500,000 people. Over the years these early blocks have become extremely overcrowded, and the facilities are inadequate for modern requirements. During the year a pilot scheme was completed for converting one of these blocks in an old estate into self-contained flats, each with its own lavatory and water supply and most with private balconies. The response to this im- proved accommodation was very favourable, and the Housing Board, with the unqualified support of the Urban Council, have recommended that the experiment be extended.

       The new 16-storey blocks built since 1964 are provided with lifts and refuse chutes and the rooms are self-contained with balconies, private lavatories and water taps in place of the former communal facilities. The 500th block-the first to be allocated at 35 square

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feet per adult person was opened by the Acting Governor in Novem- ber 1970 at Lam Tin estate. Estates now being planned will be built to a larger room-grid to give effect to a Housing Board recommenda- tion that resettlement accommodation should be built to the same standards as low-cost housing. By the end of 1970, the total number of tenancies in blocks of all types administered by the Resettlement Department was 179,489. The total number of persons housed was 1,094,376, 50.81 per cent of them in the newer type of block.

Rents are fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimburse- ment of the capital cost over 40 years (at 34 per cent interest), plus all annually recurrent expenditure including the cost of administra- tion and maintenance. The basis on which these rents are calculated is to be reviewed. An element for rates, and in the early blocks for water charges, is included in the rent. Rents vary according to the design of the block and the size of the room. The all-in rent of a standard room of 120 square feet in the oldest type of block is $18 a month (having been raised, for the first time from $14 in 1965), while the all-in rent of a standard room of 135 square feet in a new block is $34. Despite the large population and the wide variety of rents charged, the number of tenants failing to pay is still extremely small. Of the total of $76.7 million due in rents for the year, only about 0.08 per cent had to be written off as irrecoverable

arrears.

Management, for the 19 estates situated within the urban area housing 933,896 persons, is entrusted to the Urban Council, with the Commissioner for Resettlement managing the four in the New Territories on similar lines. Some resettlement estates are virtually townships (the population of Tsz Wan Shan estate, for instance, is around 130,000) and a wide range of community facilities must be provided. Some ground floor rooms are let as shops or workshops. Others are used by government departments or voluntary welfare agencies as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops in the older blocks are put to use. Most of them have been allocated to voluntary agencies who operate primary schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. In the newer estates separate six-storey buildings (each with 24 classrooms) are provided for primary school accommodation and in the latest blocks provision has been made for self-contained

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kindergarten accommodation. Some estates have community centres and, in the latest ones, the tendency is to concentrate ancillary services into separate buildings for welfare services, restaurants and administration.

The Housing Authority manages government low-cost housing estates on behalf of the Government. These estates are built by the Public Works Department, and all capital and recurrent expenditure is met from government revenue. The first of these was built in Kwun Tong in 1963. Ten completed and two partly completed estates accommodating 187,789 people in 33,620 flats were under the management of the authority at the end of 1970. Six projects were under development-one in Kwun Tong, one in Ho Man Tin and four in Kwai Chung. By the time all the six projects are com- pleted, about 430,000 people will find accommodation in 16 govern- ment low-cost housing estates.

The authority has also agreed to manage Pak Tjn government resettlement estate, an estate of the latest design, comprising 8,546 flats in 14 blocks. The management of this estate will be on the same standard as for Housing Authority and government low-cost housing estates. Resettlement staff are accepted for training by attachment to the estates under the management of the authority.

Government-aided housing

       The Hong Kong Housing Authority, a statutory body created in 1954 by the Housing Ordinance (Chapter 283), aims to provide suitable accommodation for as many as possible of those people who are living in overcrowded or otherwise unsatisfactory condi- tions and cannot afford to pay the rent for comparable accommoda- tion in the open market. At the end of the year, the authority had provided accommodation for 205,044 people in 33,119 domestic flats in nine housing estates. Three estates are on Hong Kong Island, five in Kowloon and one in the New Territories. The largest is Wah Fu estate, comprising 7,788 flats for 53,910 people. It was nearly completed at the end of the year. The estate entirely completed during the year is Ping Shek estate in Kowloon, providing 4,567 new homes for 29,028 people. Another estate containing 6,320 flats for 46,175 people is under construction at Ho Man Tin.

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       Domestic flats built by the authority are self-contained. Each flat contains a private verandah, a kitchen and a toilet with a water closet and a shower, and living space of 35 square feet for each person. Housing estates provide such amenities as shopping centres, market stalls, primary schools, kindergartens, clinics, community rooms, garages and play areas, open and covered.

       By the time all the estates under construction and planning are completed, the authority will be able to house 264,590 people in 41,209 flats. In addition, 353 shops and 34 kindergartens will have been established. The total capital assets of the authority as at the end of the year amounted to $328 million of which $250 million was from government loans and $78 million from internal resources. The Government provides land at one-third of the estimated market value.

       The policy of the authority has always been to fix rents for new estates as low as possible, well below the market value for compa- rable accommodation, covering only the direct annual expenditure of each estate including a charge for amortisation of the capital cost and a small budgeted surplus to finance future schemes. In order to accelerate its programme of building new estates to house many more people in housing need, the authority has adopted a schedule of rent adjustments which entails a rent increase of about 10 per cent at intervals of not less than two years. At the end of the year, rents ranging from 25 cents to 39 cents per square foot were charged for domestic accommodation, depending on the location and capital cost of the estate.

The Housing Authority maintains a combined waiting list from which to find tenants to fill vacancies in both Housing Authority and government low-cost housing estates, present or future. At the end of the year, this list contained 163,767 applications, of which 24,390 had been passed after investigation for allocation of flats. In order to be eligible for registration on that list, the applicant must have a family of at least four persons with a family income from $400 to $1,250 per month for Housing Authority flats, and not exceeding $500 per month for government low-cost housing flats. Government low-cost housing estates at Kwai Chung also cater for families of at least three persons, two of whom must be a married couple, with a family income not exceeding $600 per

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month. 'Family income' is defined for this purpose as the total of the main or permanent emoluments accruing to the principal wage earner, together with 50 per cent or such higher proportion as the authority might from time to time decide, of his casual earnings and of earnings of other members of the family.

      The Housing Authority also manages a new type of local govern- ment officers' housing scheme, financed by the Government, planned by the technical staff of the authority and built for sale to local government officers. The first of these estates, Lung Cheung Court, consisting of 296 flats, was completed during the year. Another estate at Kwun Tong, was under construction.

All the accommodation under the control of the authority is managed and maintained at a high standard. The staff are all government servants working in the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. The authority reimburses all staff salaries to the Govern- ment plus a percentage surcharge to meet such costs as pension and medical treatment.

The Government also provides its staff with housing accommoda- tion. Apart from staff quarters provided in accordance with the terms of service, 15 per cent of the accommodation in government low-cost housing estates is offered to junior local staff on the same tenancy terms as for the public. Government loans were also made available to co-operative building societies formed to promote home-ownership. Up to the end of 1970, there were 228 societies with 4,809 members.

       The largest voluntary housing agency is the Hong Kong Housing Society formed in 1948. The first flats were built at Sheung Li Uk in 1952. Up to the end of 1970, the society had provided 18,830 flats for 116,413 people in 15 estates. During the year, 1,542 flats were com- pleted, providing homes for 8,560 people. Other voluntary bodies in the housing field include the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Cor- poration Ltd, the Hong Kong Model Housing Society and the Hong Kong Economic Housing Society.

       The Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited, established in 1964, provides long-term loans for the purchase of domestic flats. In 1970, the agency had approved 56 developments for loan

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purposes. The agency also considers loan applications on flats in new buildings as well as secondhand flats of reasonable standards. During the year 1,651 loan applications amounting to $51.2 million were approved, compared with $33.1 million for the previous year.

Squatters

       All squatting on Crown land is by definition unlawful, but illegal structures are 'tolerated' if they were included in the 1964 squatter survey. When the land on which they stand is needed for development they are then cleared and their occupants resettled. 'Untolerated' structures are demolished, as are extensions to tol- erated huts. People who are genuinely homeless may apply for a site in one of the Resettlement Department's licensed areas, on which they can build a hut on payment of a small licence fee.

       The squatter population continues to decrease gradually and at the end of 1970 was estimated to be about 358,254 as compared with 463,000 in April 1965. Some 2,066 people were admitted to licensed areas during the year, and at the end of December the population of these areas stood at 34,711.

       Liaison Officers of the Resettlement Department maintain close contact with squatters and, where necessary, arrange for minor public works.

       The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettlement Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non- prohibited areas. In prohibited areas, such as the margins of roads, development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with permission from the District Office.

9

Social Welfare

      WELFARE services of a basic kind are required by those who are not capable, without help and support, of standing on their own feet as fully independent and contributing members of the community. These services have been continuously expanded by Government and by a large number of both international and local voluntary welfare agencies. Many of the latter are subvented out of public funds.

       Social welfare activities may be divided into six groups: (i) services for the family and the child, including family and individual coun- selling, child welfare services such as day nurseries, children's homes, adoption of children both local and overseas, hostels for younger workers and homes for the aged; (ii) services to deal with economic difficulties, which aim at alleviating hardship and distress as a result of insufficient income and social contingencies by the provision of material relief, financial assistance, compassionate resettlement in public housing, school meals programmes and assistance with school fees; (iii) services for the physically and mentally disabled which aim at assisting clients to make full use of their residual abilities in gaining employment and social adjust- ment through rehabilitation; (iv) probation and correctional services for offenders; (v) community services which aim at fostering neigh- bourliness and encouraging co-operative efforts and self-help programmes through neighbourhood associations and councils, district community officers and community centres, particularly for those in the newer housing schemes but also for the longer settled urban population; (vi) services for groups which provide holiday camps, youth clubs and centres for recreational, social and cultural activities to develop civic consciousness and individual potentialities.

      The Social Welfare Department is responsible for formulating and carrying out Government's policies for social welfare and it

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operates through five main divisions: the Group and Community Work Division, which aims at the development of responsible citizenship; the Family Services Division, which is responsible for a wide range of social welfare services to help individuals and families; the Probation and Correction Division, which provides probation services in the courts and rehabilitation in its correctional institutions for young offenders; the Public Assistance Division, which is responsible for the administration of the public assistance scheme; and the Training Section, which is increasingly developing in-service training, not only for the staff of the department but also for voluntary welfare organisations. In addition the section provides field-work placements for the two universities.

The Government is advised on all matters of social welfare policy and on applications from voluntary welfare organisations for sub- ventions by a Social Welfare Advisory Committee. This is a com- mittee appointed by the Governor, consisting of leading unofficials and chaired by the Director of Social Welfare.

Co-ordination of work in the social welfare field is achieved by the department maintaining close contact and co-operation with the many voluntary welfare organisations. Appendix 46 lists 89 voluntary welfare organisations which are affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and 64 member organisations of the Community Chest of Hong Kong, which raised some $7.2 million in aid of the work of its member organisations during the year.

Apart from increased spending for the maintenance of existing services and the establishment of new capital projects generally associated with normal progress, there have also been significant new developments. These include the extension of services into the newer resettlement communities through the establishment of estate welfare buildings (the sixth building was opened in Ngau Tau Kok in November); the District Community Officer scheme, and the introduction of an extended public assistance scheme in which Government will become responsible for cash grants follow- ing an eligibility criteria which is more liberal than at present. It is estimated that the new scheme will cost HK$20 million for the first year of operation and will initially benefit some 15,000 families.

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SOCIAL WELFARE

Community development connotes a process by which people of an area are encouraged to acquire a better appreciation of problems which affect them both as individuals and as members of the com- munity by mutual co-operation to promote their well-being. This concept is inherent in the establishment and growth of the kaifong welfare associations in the urban areas and the rural committees in the New Territories, as well as other voluntary bodies which pro- mote social and welfare activities.

The Social Welfare Department plays a leading role in this activity and is responsible for the operation of eight community, social and youth centres. Construction of the Yuen Long Town Hall has been completed, and one for Chai Wan is being planned. These centres provide facilities such as day nurseries, libraries, clubs for all ages, and a communal hall as well as casework service and various forms of vocational training. Their purpose is twofold: first, to provide the population of developing townships with a centrally located building for group and communal activities; and second, to encourage the predominantly youthful population of Hong Kong to take part in healthy and meaningful pursuits, which will give them a sense of mutual co-operation and civic responsibility and develop their capacity for leadership.

Group and community work is not confined to community centres: its extension beyond the limits of various centres began in February 1969 with the appointment of four District Community Officers on an experimental basis. Their appointment stems from the fact that the need for community and group services is evident as much in the older, more established urban districts as in the resettlement areas and new townships. The four District Community Officers work in close relationship with the City District Officers of Yau Ma Tei and Sham Shui Po in Kowloon, and of the Western and Wan Chai Districts on Hong Kong Island. Their task is to foster the growth of responsible attitudes towards citizenship and to encourage people to take a more active part in the furtherance of local objects and activities which are beneficial to their districts. Consideration is being given to additional appointments on a per- manent basis.

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       Voluntary welfare organisations such as the Hong Kong Federa- tion of Youth Groups, the Scouts Association, the Girl Guides, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the YMCA, YWCA, the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, Caritas and many others play an important part through the organisation of regular pro- grammes of activities.

FAMILY SERVICES

       The family welfare services of the department consist of a wide- spread network of nine casework offices and supporting services for child care, the welfare of women, relief of those in need and rehabilitation of the disabled. The number of families and individuals receiving such services continued to increase and at the end of the year amounted to some 10,276.

The child care services of the department are responsible for adoptions and for the co-ordination of day care centres provided mainly by voluntary welfare organisations. The department itself does not run any child care institutions, with the exception of a reception centre which provides temporary care for children found abandoned or wandering. The department is responsible, however, for the administration of subventions to some 45 non-profit- making child care agencies providing a total of 14,467 places at the end of the year, and maintains close liaison with the Child Care Institutions and Day Nursery Supervisory Committees of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service as well as with UNICEF. Legal adoptions of children, made in accordance with the provisions of the Adoption Ordinance, require investigations by the department in the first instance as to the suitability of the adoptive parents. Although some adoptions are arranged between families the majority are in fact made in respect of abandoned children and orphans for whom the department is responsible for finding suitable homes and parents either locally or overseas. A total of 407 adop- tions were investigated during the year.

Children and women in moral danger are assisted partly through counselling and guidance for the individual as well as his or her family, partly through the relief of such immediate anxieties as care and accommodation for unmarried mothers and partly through vocational training. This work is done by two reputable voluntary welfare organisations, the Congregation of the Sisters of the Good

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Shepherd and the Po Leung Kuk, and also by the department's two day-training centres.

       In the field of rehabilitation the aim of the department is to give disabled people, where possible, the opportunity of becoming independent and self-supporting members of the community. This generally involves three things: treatment to help the disabled to adjust to their disabilities; vocational training to encourage them to make the fullest possible use of their residual skills and their restoration to society through placement in remunerative employ- ment or appropriate schooling. Rehabilitation services are provided through 19 centres and institutions and are supplemented by the work of more than a dozen voluntary welfare organisations. The continuing expansion of these services was marked by the opening during the year of the department's Yuen Long Deaf Club, the Second Tung Tau Training Centre for mentally retarded children, and the Morninglight Centre of the Hong Kong Association for Mentally Handicapped and Young Persons Ltd. Various improve- ments were made to existing rehabilitation institutions. Success in rehabilitating the disabled can be gauged by the department's experience in getting them jobs. During the year suitable employ- ment was found for 258 persons out of 382 applying for jobs.

       In addition to the three estate welfare buildings opened last year in the Lam Tin Resettlement Estate, in Shek Lei Resettlement Estate in Tsuen Wan and in Sau Mau Ping, two further buildings were opened at Tsz Wan Shan and Ngau Tau Kok during the year. Another building has been completed and will be opened next year while planning for yet another three is under way. These centres are being provided in a ratio of one to every 50,000 residents. They are each of six storeys and provide accommodation for non- profit-making day nurseries, libraries, group and communal activity areas, family planning clinics, general out-patients clinics and departmental family casework offices.

PROBATION AND CORRECTION

       The probation and correctional services of the department are concerned with the supervision of offenders on probation and the operation of correctional institutions. The probation service has a staff of 47 trained officers working with the courts. At the end of

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the year a total of 2,670 persons were under supervision on proba- tion and a total of 6,478 social investigations had been carried out at the request of the courts, including cases referred for welfare assistance of some kind. The correctional service operates five institutions: The Castle Peak Boys' Home is a reformatory school for 150 boys aged 14 and below 16; the O Pui Shan Boys' Home accommodates 140 boys aged below 14; a combined remand home and probation home in Yau Yat Chuen in Kowloon accommodates a total of 160 boys; and another combined home in Ma Tau Wei Road accommodates 45 girls. The fifth institution is a probation hostel at Kwun Tong for young men between the ages of 16 and 21 years who are ordered to reside there as a condition of their proba- tion order. These young men go to work daily and pay for their upkeep at the hostel from their salaries. Voluntary welfare organisa- tions which take a leading part in helping to prevent the spread of juvenile delinquency are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys' Centres, which give residential training to those who need help in finding a place in society or in overcoming difficul- ties of behaviour and personal relationships.

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE

The present public assistance programme provides assistance, mainly in the form of dry rations, to people who have lived in Hong Kong for five years and whose income is below $40 per adult per month after deducting rent and school expenses. Children under the age of nine are reckoned as half an adult. There are about 7,500 people receiving public assistance at present. With rising standards of living and changes in the concept of social welfare as a means of providing relief to one of social rehabilitation it became increasingly apparent that a more extensive programme of assistance was needed for which Government should bear the ultimate responsibility. A review of broad aims and objectives for public assistance was made by the Social Welfare Department resulting in the introduction of an extended public assistance scheme.

        Under the revised scheme all individuals who have resided in the Colony for at least one year and whose per capita income after deducting rent, school expenses and essential travelling expenses is not more than $50 a month will be eligible for assistance.

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Children will be counted as adults in the assessment of assistance. The assistance given will be in the form of cash instead of dry rations and will be calculated in accordance with a sliding scale which varies from $30 to $70 per person per month (based on the size of the family) to bring the income of the family up to the appropriate level in the scale. It is estimated that the number of cases will increase from 7,500 to 15,000 when the new scheme is fully implemented and that the new scheme may cost an additional $20 million.

      Following the decision to introduce a revised public assistance scheme a Public Assistance Division with eight field units was set up in the Social Welfare Department in August. This division is responsible for dealing with applications, investigations, assess- ments, authorisation of payments and periodic review of cases. In addition there is an Administration Division responsible for payments, inspections and audit of the public assistance cases.

       The staff of social workers will be strengthened to cope with the substantial increase in cases, as a considerable proportion of those families taken on for public assistance will also require other social welfare services such as family counselling, rehabilitation, institu- tional care, etc, to help them towards self-support and independence. In view of the much expanded organisation required for the new arrangements and the time needed for the recruitment and training of new staff, it will be necessary to proceed by stages. It is anticipated that the scheme will be implemented early in 1971.

      During the year 63 major and minor disasters, resulting from rainstorms, typhoons, fires, shipwrecks and the closure of dangerous buildings, etc, rendered some persons homeless and destitute. The department provided emergency relief in the form of hot meals and temporary shelter as well as financial aid under the Community Relief Trust Fund, from which payments amounting to $471,850.00 were made.

TRAINING

The development of effective social welfare services depends a great deal on the employment of trained workers. Professional training at the academic level is available at the two universities. This is supplemented by training programmes directly organised or sponsored by the Social Welfare Department for staff employed in

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the department as well as those working in voluntary welfare organisations. These include in-service courses for the training of workers without sufficient academic qualifications, refresher courses and field-work studies for university students.

There has been widespread interest by the Government and voluntary social welfare agencies in a full time training programme for youth workers to be established in Hong Kong. Dr Irving Spergel, UN adviser on youth work who arrived in September, has been assisting in planning the curricula and in developing youth work training facilities in consultation with staff of the Training Section and others in the field.

The Lady Trench Day Nursery and Training Centre was opened in July by Lady Trench. The centre serves as a training centre for workers in the welfare field and houses the Training Section of the Department. The nursery provides day care for up to 100 children aged two to five from a cross section of families and enables super- vised field-work training to be given to trainees of the nursery work

courses.

Funds for social work training through scholarships and bursaries are provided by the Social Work Training Fund, which is con- trolled by a statutory committee of which the Director of Social Welfare is ex officio Chairman, by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and by the Government. Grants amounting to $376,000 were made from these sources during the year to enable 90 students to receive social work training at both universities and 11 social workers to receive further training both locally and abroad. Grants have also been made to the Chinese University for the estab- lishment of courses, and small grants have been made to various agencies to finance their staff development programmes. The fund also assisted in sending a delegation of about 90 local social workers, social welfare administrators and social work educators to attend the 15th International Conference on Social Welfare and the 15th International Congress of Schools of Social Work in Manila in August and September.

10

Public Order

THERE were no serious threats to the peace and stability of the Colony during the year. The Royal Hong Kong Police Force was therefore able to concentrate largely on normal constabulary duties. At the same time, a review of policing requirements and the application of new methods and equipment were given much atten- tion with the object of ensuring that the force maintains a high standard of efficiency.

Several changes were made in police boundaries on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon so as to improve efficiency and suit the convenience of the public.

In the New Territories, a new police division covering the developing Sha Tin and Tai Po areas was formed in August to give improved operational efficiency. These areas were previously served by sub-divisional stations under the command of Yuen Long Division.

Although the overall crime rate in Hong Kong continued to remain low by comparison with many other major cities in the world, there was an increase in violent crime, especially homicide cases, robberies and serious assaults during the year, a trend which caused some public expressions of concern. The force strengthened its preventive crime patrols to discourage further development of violent tendencies, and succeeded in seizing a considerable number of offensive weapons. These steps met with widespread public support.

The emphasis on improvement of police public relations was maintained, and organised visits to police formations became almost a daily occurrence. The previous system of single 'open days' was extended in the urban areas to 'open week-ends', so that more people would have an opportunity to visit selected police stations, and gain an insight into the day-to-day duties of the force. For

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the third year running, six summer camps were held for secondary school boys who took part in outdoor activities on Outward Bound lines.

       The reorganised and expanded Planning and Research Division was active in examining various aspects of police operations and administration. Twenty-three major studies were completed on a wide range of subjects; the division is currently engaged in long and short term studies aimed at improving techniques, methods, procedures and equipment.

Buildings completed during 1970 included a new Waterfront Police Station, the third stage of the new Police Training School at Aberdeen and Police Inspectorate Quarters in Kowloon. Prog- ress was made with construction of Stage III of Police Head- quarters and quarters for married inspectors on the island. At the end of the year there were 48 police projects in the Public Works Programme. Planning was well advanced on a new District Head- quarters for the New Territories, a depot for the Police Tactical Unit at Lung Cheung Road and another at the Police Training School as well as divisional stations at North Point, Kwai Chung and Frontier. Other projects in the advanced planning stage in- cluded sub-divisional stations at Shing Wo Road, Chai Wan, Tsz Wan Shan, Ngau Tau Kok, Ping Che Road, Hang Hau and Stanley, a Police Motor Transport Service Station and Police Driving School at Lung Cheung Road, a new headquarters for the Police Dog Unit at Lung Cheung Road and a sub-unit at Kai Tak Airport, and a new Drill Hall for Auxiliary Police in Kowloon.

CRIME

Crimes committed rose by 14 per cent over 1969. Altogether 29,052 cases were reported to police, of which 22,241 were detected; the detection rate was 76.6 per cent as compared to 75.6 per cent in 1969. Some categories of crime however showed an apparent decrease in the detection rate because of changes in the law effected by the Theft Ordinance which came into effect on September 1, 1970. For example the taking of a vehicle without authority is now classified as a crime. In such cases the vehicle is usually quickly recovered after being abandoned, but the crime is classified as undetected if no person is arrested and convicted.

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The majority (67.2 per cent) of persons arrested were adults, of whom there were 10,448, but there was an increase of 288 or 21.1 per cent in the number of juveniles prosecuted.

The Commercial Crime Office investigated a number of involved fraud, forgery and company offences, the most spectacular of which ended in the arrest of four persons and the seizure of over HK$7.7 million worth of forged US and Philippine currency together with printing equipment. There has been a marked increase in the number of commercial offences committed by international criminals.

The Narcotics Bureau in conjunction with District Dangerous Drug Squads continued to play a prominent role in combating drug offences and again made some large seizures during the year. A total of 31 lbs of heroin, 170 lbs of morphine and 877 lbs of raw opium were seized. The largest single seizure this year was one of 78 lbs 11 oz of morphine and 39 lbs of raw opium, the retail value of which was HK$2,300,000.

The General Investigation Office of the Criminal Investigation Department has devoted particular attention to offences involving Cannabis (more popularly known as marijuana or hashish) and abusive use of stimulant and depressant pills and drugs. Sixteen persons of non-Asian origin were successfully prosecuted for Cannabis offences. Nevertheless inquiries show that the use and abuse of 'pep pills', etc, is less widespread than it was first thought to be, and has not yet developed into a major social problem.

The Triad Society Bureau has succeeded in keeping triad activities in the Colony at a relatively low level, but gangs of youths given to violence and exhibiting quasi-triad characteristics pose a problem. During the year 960 triad offences were detected, as against 530 cases in 1969, and 875 persons were prosecuted, an increase of 408 over last year. Apart from triad offences, many of the offenders were also convicted of other crimes.

       Crime committed by juveniles (i.e. those under 16 years of age) numbered 1,652, representing 10.6 per cent of the total number of persons arrested, as compared with 10.5 per cent in 1969. Juvenile first offenders may also be treated as 'discretion' cases and are referred to the Juvenile Liaison Section for follow up action. A

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total of 702 cases were disposed of in this manner, and only 28 were subsequently found to have committed further offences. This compared favourably with results achieved in the previous year.

In May 1970, approval was granted for the reorganisation and expansion of the Anti-Corruption Branch. The branch has ceased to be a part of the Criminal Investigation Department, and is now directly responsible to the Deputy Commissioner of Police, Opera- tions. The Prevention of Bribery Bill 1970, introducing new meas- ures to combat corruption, was passed by the Legislative Council on December 16.

Publicity concerning the lengthened hours during which the branch's offices are open was extended to television. Officers are immediately available 16 hours a day and on call for the other eight hours. Reports are received in confidence anywhere and at any time that is convenient to the informant. These arrangements have resulted in more reports being received from members of the public, in many cases leading to successful prosecutions or dis- ciplinary proceedings.

TRAFFIC

       Speeding continued to be one of the predominant causes of traffic accidents. In the past, speed checks were conducted by Traffic Police by timing a vehicle over a measured distance. This method, however, is now becoming outdated. As a result of considerable research into other means of detecting speed offences two radar speedmeters were obtained and after extensive publicity this new equipment was put into operation on July 15, 1970. By the end of the year 3,889 cases of speeding offences had been detected by use of the radar, and of the cases brought to court 922 were convicted.

       As an effective means of preventing private cars being used for the carriage of passengers for hire or reward, the Commissioner for Transport in consultation with police, decided that upon conviction of a driver for such an offence, committed on or after March 1, 1970, the vehicle involved would be deregistered. At the end of the year 651 private cars had been so deregistered.

The introduction of a fixed penalty system for minor traffic offences was under consideration during the year. This system

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would lessen the burden on both court staff and police in relation to the prosecution of offenders for minor traffic violations, and would enable such offences to be dealt with more speedily.

Traffic patrol cars were first introduced in December 1968. These are saloon cars painted white with blue doors bearing the police crest and manned by officers who have passed an Institute of Advanced Motorists Standard Driving Examination conducted by qualified Police Driving Instructors. The main aim of these patrol cars is to set an example of good, courteous and safe driving for other motorists to follow. The crew of the car is required to correct faults of other motorists, point out minor breaches of the traffic regulations and to take action in relation to more serious breaches of the law.

MANPOWER AND TRAINING

The strength of the regular police force (excluding women police) at the end of the year was: 160 gazetted officers, 932 junior officers, 9,978 non-commissioned officers and constables. There were 507 women police of all ranks.

       The strength of the auxiliary police was 3,102 and there were 1,760 civilian staff employed in the force.

Recruitment of rank and file was maintained at a satisfactory level but some difficulties were experienced in recruitment to the inspectorate. During the year a total of 87 officers and 1,288 constables were accepted for training, and 78 officers and 851 constables completed their training and were posted to police formations to commence duty.

To assist in the successful recruitment of local inspectorate officers, a three-day extended interview programme was introduced in April 1970. The purpose of this scheme is to enable selection staff to make a more accurate assessment respecting the suitability of potential recruits who, prior to final selection, must attend a three-day non-residential course at the Police Training School. The advanced training scheme combining general and internal security training at company level and the NCO selection courses continued successfully during the year.

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       The Police Tactical Unit provides advanced training in internal security duties for gazetted officers, inspectors and the rank and file. In addition it supplies an immediate reserve of manpower for reinforcing general police duties. Personnel attached to the unit receive training in the use of modern weapons, personnel carriers and helicopters. Instruction is also given in fieldcraft, driving, first-aid and life-saving as well as various aspects of outward bound training.

Beat and patrol duties by women police in both urban and rural areas resulted in a greater variety of casework being handled and friendly contact with members of the community being made. The scope of women police is no longer confined to matters affecting women and children, although their special aptitudes in this sphere are fully utilised. They are for the most part uniformed personnel engaged on operational duties, although opportunities also exist for periods of two to three years to be spent in all specialist branches of the force.

Members of the auxiliary police force come from all sections of the cosmopolitan society of Hong Kong. They devote eight hours month and 14 days a year to the performance of police duty and training. Auxiliary police are deployed whenever necessary in support of the regular force on crime prevention and other duties. The auxiliary force continues to play an important role in the maintenance of law and order.

PRISONS

a

The Commissioner of Prisons, with his Headquarters in Victoria, is responsible for the overall administration of 12 establishments in various parts of the Colony. For male offenders there is a reception, classification and assignment centre at Victoria; security prison at Stanley; two open prisons at Chi Ma Wan and Tong Fuk; a treatment centre at Tai Lam for those known to be drug-dependent on conviction; four training centres for young male offenders at Cape Collinson, Stanley, Lai Chi Kok and Shek Pik; and a 'Half-Way' house for environmental rehabilitation. For female offenders there is a multi-purpose centre at Tai Lam which serves as a prison, a training centre, and a drug addiction treatment centre with ample recreation and hospital facilities. There is also a staff training school at Stanley.

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       All convicted male prisoners are received at Victoria Reception Centre and after a thorough medical examination appear before a classification board for allocation to an institution best suited to their needs. The centre also contains a psychiatric observation unit manned by fully trained staff under a consultant psychiatrist. This unit will be replaced next year by a new Prisons Department Psychiatric Centre at Siu Lam in the New Territories.

All women prisoners are received and housed at the Tai Lam Centre for Women. Opened at the end of last year it provides separate facilities for remand and convicted women prisoners, for convicted persons known to be drug-dependent, and for young women between the ages of 14 and 21.

       The former women's prison at Lai Chi Kok is being used temporarily as a remand and recall centre for young male offenders between the ages of 14 and 21 pending the opening next year of Dragon's Back Training Centre on Hong Kong Island.

       On conviction young male offenders are housed under open conditions at the training centres or at Chi Ma Wan Prison where there is a young prisoners' section with separate dormitory accom- modation and daily routine (half day at school; half day at work). There is a thorough, and successful, system of statutory after-care for young men released from training centres and all are found employment before release. They remain under supervision for a period which may be as long as four years from the date of sentence. The training centres had an inmate population of 677 on December 31, 1970.

      The open prison system is used whenever possible in Hong Kong as experience has shown that an environment where prisoners lead healthy outdoor lives doing constructive work leads to more successful rehabilitation. Open prisons, with an average population of 1,553 during 1970, are situated on Lantau Island in the New Territories and an immense amount of useful work has been done by prisoners in forestry areas and on minor construction projects.

      About 53 per cent of all prisoners and inmates live and work under open conditions and this brings with it attendant escape risks. During the year there were altogether 68 escapes compared with the

IMMIGRATION

Hong Kong is a uniquely fluid community. Close to half of

its population was born elsewhere and later moved here. There is a constant flow of students, professional people, workers and families between Hong Kong and the rest of the world. It is, in addition, one of the most popular spots on earth for visitors: Approximately five million arrivals and departures are recorded yearly, and this number is rising all the time. The authority that presides over this human kaleidoscope is the Immigration Department, one of the busiest arms of the Hong Kong Government. Something of the work of the department is shown in the following pages.

   The title page picture shows Immigration Officers boarding one of the 6,000 or so sea-going ships which visit Hong Kong each year. Ship processing procedures were streamlined dur- ing the year to help speed up the turn-around of shipping. The facing page shows (top) members of the public being assisted by an Immigration official at the head office on Hong Kong Island; and (below) arrivals at one of the Immigration Department's busiest centres-the Macau hydrofoil terminal.

#10144

PASSPORT INSPECTION

The arrival during the year of the first of the Jumbo' jets (below) co- incided with the com- pletion of a number of improvements in the airport terminal and in its immigration facilities (top picture), so that the big planes caused no immigration handling problems.

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      previous year's total of 97. However 58 had been recaptured by the end of the year.

Those prisoners not considered suitable for open institutions are confined in Stanley Prison which is the Colony's main security establishment with an average daily population of some 1,966 inmates. This prison is also the main industrial centre where productive industries such as tailoring, metal work, shoemaking and rattanware are concentrated.

A large percentage of convicted male prisoners are found on admission to be drug-dependent. The addiction treatment centre at Tai Lam offers special treatment facilities for drug-dependents and, through a unique programme developed since the centre was opened in 1958, has achieved encouraging results. All necessary phases of treatment are followed, including statutory after-care. A milestone in the field of treatment and rehabilitation of drug- dependents was reached in early 1969 when the Drug Addiction Treatment Centres Ordinance 1968 came into operation, whereby a court is able to order a person known to be drug-dependent to be detained in a treatment centre from six to 18 months in lieu of any other sentence. Subject to one year's supervision on release, supervisees may be recalled if the terms of a Supervision Order are not complied with. The centre carries out an extensive pro- gramme of research of which details are published annually. The average inmate population of the centre was 559 during 1970.

This year has continued to be one of great activity in preparation for new institutions at Siu Lam (Prisons Department Psychiatric Centre) and Dragon's Back (Training Centre for young male offenders). Plans are also in hand for a new Reception and Classi- fication Centre for men, an open prison for men and two additional training centres for young male offenders.

FIRE SERVICES

The Fire Services Department is responsible for combating outbreaks of fire, for rescuing persons from perilous situations and generally assisting the public at times of disaster. This is achieved by the provision of some 30 Fire Stations located throughout the Colony. In addition a fleet of six fireboats are always prepared for

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emergencies in the harbour or the Colony's waters. At Kai Tak Airport, firemen with the most modern equipment provide safety coverage for all flights. The Ambulance Service and the Fire Prevention Bureau are two other arms of the department which are provided for the guidance, help and succour of the population of this crowded community.

The current authorised establishment of the department is 345 officers and 2,620 other ranks. This is supported by a reserve force of some 850 auxiliaries. It has 273 modern operational appliances vehicles carrying the most up-to-date fire fighting and rescue equipment, including 547 sets of breathing apparatus and 93 miles of hose.

No less than 87,224 calls for assistance were received by the department in the year. This is a staggering figure in comparison to the total for 10 years ago which was 23,318. The Ambulance Service responded to 79,955 calls, of which 48,035 were emergency cases or accidents. It is sad to relate that calls for fires and similar calamities show no signs of diminishing. This year the service responded to 7,269 calls compared with 6,744 calls last year, which was a record in the history of the department. The total monetary loss resulting directly from fire was in the region of $12,000,000. This does not take into account substantial losses incurred indirectly, such as loss of production in industry and general disruption of family life in domestic premises.

      It is a common trend throughout the world that as nations become more industrialised and affluent there is a proportionate increase in financial loss through fire. Regrettably Hong Kong is no exception. To eliminate this problem as much as is humanly possible the Fire Prevention Bureau's staff of 127, are constantly at the disposal of the public to help, advise and if necessary take legal action to protect the community. Officers from the bureau made a total of 215,799 inspections in all types of premises throughout the year. Principally these visits were in answer to complaints or, with regard to the licensing of factories, dangerous goods stores, hospitals, schools, places of public entertainment and air-condi- tioning plants. Complaints from the public cover a wide variety of law infringement. Officers from the bureau are normally successful in getting the hazard removed by request and persuasion. Where

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this is not possible, legal action is taken. During the year, a total of 2,745 cases were prosecuted resulting in $534,390.00 being imposed in fines. The New Projects Section of the bureau processed 5,756 new building plans, an increase of 91.23 per cent over the preceding year. The bureau is also active in publicising the dangers of fire, through radio, TV, newspapers and other media. It organises fire prevention campaigns, exhibition lectures and displays throughout the Colony.

      One of the major achievements of the year has been the comple- tion of the new Kowloon Headquarters Complex. This modern 13-storey block replaces temporary and out of date buildings previously used. The new Canton Road Fire Station contained in the building is a replacement for the Fire Station in Salisbury Road which provided fire cover to the Tsim Sha Tsui area for over 50 years. The complex also houses Kowloon Command Headquarters, fire and ambulance control rooms, workshops, a fireboat berth and recreational facilities for personnel including a gymnasium.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

      The Preventive Service of the Commerce and Industry Depart- ment is a uniformed and disciplined force of 974 officers responsible for those measures which in a customs-controlled port are handled by a Customs and Excise Department. Being a free port, Hong Kong imposes a duty on only five categories of imported goods (tobacco, liquor, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol). This is matched by an excise tax on the same items locally manu- factured.

      The service has a major responsibility in the prevention of narcotics smuggling and all vessels arriving in Hong Kong from ports which are suspected to be outlets for narcotic drugs are boarded and searched by specially trained teams and/or guarded throughout their stay in Hong Kong waters; similar attention is paid to aircraft arriving in Hong Kong. Selective searches are made of suspect cargoes and postal packets. The service enforces legislation controlling import and export of cargo and acts as a law enforce- ment agent for other government departments.

11

Immigration and Tourism

IMMIGRATION

      RECORDED movements of travellers in 1970 totalled 6,790,459, an increase of 21.21 per cent over 1969. Arrivals numbered 2,908,603, and departures 2,881,856. The six-month long Expo '70 in Osaka stimulated much of this extra growth, although the upward trend continued throughout the year. Traffic by steamer and hydrofoil to Macau returned to pre-1967 levels, and in fact more passengers passed through the Macau terminal than through Kai Tak Airport. Movements to China across the land frontier increased, but the traffic remained below the pre-Cultural Revolution level.

At Kai Tak Airport, the completion of improvements in the passenger terminal, and particularly the separation of arriving and departing passengers onto different levels, allowed the immigration clearance of passengers to proceed with greater efficiency and in greater comfort, and the arrival of the first Boeing 747 'Jumbo Jet' in April caused no immigration clearance problems. In the harbour, in order to reduce costly delays to in-bound shipping, a scheme which began in April allows selected cargo ships to dock without waiting for immigration clearance, provided crew lists are submitted in advance of the ship's arrival. The scheme is intended to reduce to a minimum costly delays to in-bound shipping.

Policy governing the entry of persons for employment or residence is liberal but selective, and admits those with special skills not readily available in Hong Kong, those likely to make a substantial contribution to the economy, those with close family ties in Hong Kong, and other cases where there are compelling humanitarian reasons. Nevertheless, Hong Kong continues to attract illegal im- migrants, not only from China and Macau, but also from elsewhere, particularly overseas Chinese from the unsettled areas of South East Asia.

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       The demand for travel documents continues to rise, and the number of British passports issued exceeded the record level of 1967, when demand was exceptionally high because of the disturbances. Fees for travel documents were increased during the year, but at the same time the period of validity of several travel documents was extended; for example, passports are now normally issued valid for 10 years as in the United Kingdom, whilst the initial validity of certificates of identity was increased from three to five years.

       The number of new applications for naturalisation seems to have settled down at approximately 90 per month, compared with 50 per month prior to 1967. The backlog of naturalisation applica- tions which had built up following the unprecedented increase in demand in 1967 and 1968 has now been overcome.

The Immigration Department acts as the agent in Hong Kong in passport and immigration matters for the United Kingdom Govern- ment and the Governments of many other Commonwealth coun- tries, and a notable event in this sphere was the introduction in July of the new immigration appeals procedure in the United Kingdom, whereby a person has a right of appeal to an adjudicator in the United Kingdom if a visa or entry certificate for the United Kingdom is refused in Hong Kong.

An independent survey of all aspects of the work of the Immigra- tion Department was carried out during the year by a senior govern- ment administrator. Certain changes in procedure and increases in staff and training facilities to enable the department to offer a better service to the public were recommended.

TOURISM

The strong growth of Hong Kong's tourist industry was further stimulated during the year by the influx of visitors to the Far East for Japan's Expo '70. The great majority of overseas visitors to Expo also visited Hong Kong. Not counting the still important but gradually decreasing numbers of military personnel coming to Hong Kong for rest and recreation visits, the total number of visitors in 1970 was 927,256, compared to the 1969 total of 765,213, an in- crease of 21.18 per cent. It is estimated by the Hong Kong Tourist

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Association that these visitors while in Hong Kong spent about $1,759 million on hotel accommodation, shopping, entertainment, sightseeing and related expenditures.

Americans remained the largest national group of visitors with a total of 251,609, an 18.69 per cent increase over 1969. The number of Japanese visitors to Hong Kong continued to increase as did the figures from other Asian neighbours with the exception of the Philippines.

The Japanese total for 1970 was 168,473, a 17.20 per cent increase over the figure for 1969. Increases in the number of tourists coming from other Asian countries to Hong Kong may be attributed par- tially to the successful liaison between the Hong Kong Tourist Association and Cathay Pacific Airways begun in 1969, whereby Cathay Pacific offices in the region act as official representatives of the HKTA, distributing promotional material and disseminating information regarding events and festivals in Hong Kong.

Hotel accommodation was again strained at peak periods of the year. At present there are nearly 8,000 rooms available. The estimated occupancy in 1970 was 90.3 per cent, a figure that did not allow for much selectivity on the part of visitors. This situation prompted the Tourist Association to carry out a survey of hotel needs. Pro- jections for the next 10 years were made and indicated that an average of 1,100 new rooms a year would be required. At the present time, about 3,500 hotel rooms are under construction in Hong Kong. Many of these are in the lower budget category. Staffing these additional facilities will be helped by the expansion planned for the hotel training division of the Kwun Tong Vocational Train- ing School.

      Overseas, a new office of the Hong Kong Tourist Association was opened in Frankfurt. Numerous seminars and displays were mounted by the Association's offices in the United States, Canada, Japan, Europe and Australia, and, from headquarters in Hong Kong, more than one million pieces of promotional literature were dis- tributed to prospective visitors in 102 countries. A major overseas promotion in 1970 linked the Tourist Association and the Hong Kong Diamond Importers Association for the first time. 'Hong Kong International Diamond Centre' is the slogan now being publicised abroad to indicate an additional feature of Hong Kong.

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       The April and July HKTA advertisements won first and second prize in their category at the Seventh Asian Advertising Congress held in New Delhi. The year 1970 saw the publication of a large number of high quality commercial tourist publications, including coffee table photographic books, a restaurant guide, records and magazines.

       In Hong Kong the tourist industry was bolstered with the addi- tion of new amenities. New harbour tours began on ferries converted to provide air-conditioning, carpeting, Chinese cuisine and dancing. A helicopter service began, both for sightseeing and for the transfer of air passengers from Hong Kong Island to the airport. In addition the Peak Tramways Company began work on a new complex of lookouts, restaurants and shops at the upper terminus of the Peak Tram, one of Hong Kong's most famous tourist landmarks. A new tour company was formed on Lantau Island to promote the develop- ment of Lantau as a major tourist attraction.

12

Public Works and Utilities

     THE programme of Public Works, Hong Kong's largest single financial commitment, ranges from the formation and reclamation of land, the building of resettlement estates, schools and hospitals to the construction of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs. Capital expenditure for the financial year 1970-1 is estimated at $350 million, or about 15 per cent of total expenditure envisaged in the annual estimates. Of this sum $89 million is to be spent on resettle- ment and government low-cost housing, $50 million on roads, and $52 million on water supplies.

WATER SUPPLIES

For the third year in succession Hong Kong enjoyed an un- interrupted water supply and thus entered a new era-normal for most countries in the world, but exceptional for Hong Kong where restrictions in the hours of supply have been accepted as the rule. The introduction of the 37,000 million gallon capacity Plover Cove reservoir in 1968 has made an enormous contribution to the Colony's resources. However, with demand averaging about 160 million gallons per day this year and continuing to increase, full supply can be assured in future only by the provision of further large sources of supply, and some work on these has already begun.

On January 1, 37,903 million gallons of water were held in stor- age compared with 37,000 million gallons in January 1969. Of this total 31,943 million gallons were stored in Plover Cove. Rainfall was slightly higher than average (91.19 inches compared to 85.39 inches) and all the major reservoirs overflowed in September.

The Chinese Authorities continued the supply from their Shum Chun reservoir, and during the period from October 1969 to June 1970, 15,017 million gallons were purchased from them. The supply was resumed on October 1, 1970, in accordance with the current agreement with the Peoples Council of Kwangtung Province.

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       The demand for water reached a new peak of 204.3 million gallons per day, showing an increase of 6.1 per cent over the 1969 peak although summer temperatures were not exceptionally high. The 1969-70 winter average of 141.80 million gallons per day was 7.7 per cent more than for the 1968-9 winter and the average for the whole year was 7.1 per cent higher than that for 1969.

       During the year a total of 60.917 million gallons of water were supplied showing an increase of 3,935 million gallons over the 1969 figure and representing an average 'per capita' consumption of 40.80 gallons per day. This figure does not include water con- sumed for sanitation which is normally obtained from wells or from the salt water distribution system. A total of 11,814 million gallons of salt water were supplied during the year.

       These increases reflect once again the generally healthy state and growth of industry as well as increasing affluence and rising standard of living.

       To meet future increases in demand, work started on raising the Plover Cove dam by 12 feet, thereby increasing the capacity of the reservoir to 50,000 million gallons. Additional pumping and filtration capacity in connection with the dam raising is being provided by extensions to the Tai Mei Tuk and Tai Po Tau pumping stations and the Sha Tin treatment works. The output of Sha Tin treatment works will be increased in stages from its present capacity of 80 million gallons per day to 175 million. gallons per day by 1973.

Detailed studies continued on a major new scheme similar in concept to but larger than Plover Cove. This scheme if approved will intercept water from the Sai Kung Peninsula (the largest untapped catchment in the Colony) and lead it, via a system of catchwaters and tunnels, to a 60,000 million gallon reservoir formed by dams linking High Island with the mainland. The whole scheme is estimated to cost $850 million and work has already begun on site investigation and construction of access roads. Design of intakes, tunnels, pumping stations and dams is proceeding rapidly. The scheme is planned for completion in 1978 and will contribute about 76 million gallons per day to the yield of the water supply system.

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      As the High Island Scheme will leave little scope for further extension of conventional water supply, the possibilities of desalting are being carefully considered. An experimental desalting plant of 50,000 gallons per day capacity has been ordered and will be operating early next year. It will be used to confirm the suitability of sites for large-scale desalting, to test materials for the construc- tion of large desalting plant in Hong Kong and to determine the treatment necessary to make desalted water suitable for injection into the distribution network. The best method of introducing large-scale desalting to Hong Kong is also being studied.

      Along with these plans for new and different sources of water, work continues on new service reservoirs, pumping stations and pipelines to provide for growing demand in existing and new areas of development.

      At Castle Peak, for example, in the western part of the New Territories, a new supply system is nearing completion, comprising a raw water tunnel, pumping station, treatment works, service reservoir and distribution system. This will provide up to six million gallons per day for the new town growing at Castle Peak, and the system is designed for expansion in stages to a capacity of 60 million gallons per day.

      The rapid growth in demand has presented problems in ensur- ing sufficient local pumping, treatment and distribution facilities, since provision of new pumps etc takes many months and demand growth is not uniform-in time or geographically-and is difficult to predict. However, these problems have been overcome in the past year by improvisation, and plans have been made to provide a greater proportion of spare capacity in key pumping stations in future.

      Work on the government's programme for providing fully treated supplies to towns and villages in the New Territories continued, and work was in hand to give or improve supplies to the outlying islands of Cheung Chau, Tsing Yi, Kat O and Lamma. Irrigation works continued with the construction of 37 small irrigation dams, 31,000 feet of irrigation channels and the laying of 8,000 feet of pipes.

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Summer inflows reduced the salinity of the impounded water in Plover Cove reservoir from 400 parts per million of sodium chloride to 210 parts per million at the abstraction point. This latter figure compares favourably with the normal taste threshold which is in the region of 330 parts per million of sodium chloride. Marked thermal and chemical stratification of the stored water was established during the summer months. However, the overall quality of water remained satisfactory with no serious proliferation of algae or difficulties in treating the water. Further fish stocking was undertaken; a total of 381,000 fish, mainly silver, mud, grass and common carp, were introduced.

With the steady expansion of the Waterworks during recent years computers have been introduced to assist in reservoir opera- tion and control and the processing of hydrological data. The increase in the number of metered connections (119,000 in 1965 to 403,000 in 1970) has made the present semi-manual system of accounting cumbersome and work is in hand to computerise this function. Preliminary consideration is also being given to the possible introduction of automated equipment to monitor and control the Waterworks system.

BUILDINGS

Building costs, which had increased sharply in 1969 due to rising wage rates and higher costs of materials, continued to rise throughout 1970. It is estimated that the general rise in costs over the year was about 40 per cent. In the latter half of the year material costs had started to level off to some extent but wages were still rising, thus causing building costs to rise proportionately. The cause of these increases has been attributed to the continued resurgence of private building in Hong Kong, maintaining a shortage of labour in the industry.

Progress on construction of government buildings generally maintained a steady pace although the programme suffered to some extent with delays and stoppages, mainly due to financial difficulties experienced by certain contractors. Construction and maintenance of new and existing buildings for HBM Ministry of Public Building and Works also progressed steadily. Private

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     architects and private quantity surveyors continued to be appointed for specific projects.

      Expenditure during the year amounted to approximately $46.7 million on resettlement estates and associated schools; $58.2 million on government low-cost housing and $78.9 million on all other projects.

Sixteen resettlement blocks and six government low-cost housing blocks were completed during the year, providing accommodation for some 85,000 people. Twelve 24-classroom primary schools, fifteen 2-storey restaurants and two estate welfare buildings were also completed in resettlement and government low-cost housing estates. At the end of the year work was continuing on 29 resettle- ment blocks and 40 low-cost housing blocks (which will provide accommodation for 290,000 people in addition to 22 estate schools providing a total of 528 classrooms, one resettlement estate administration building and eleven 2-storey restaurants).

Improvements in electrical wiring in Marks I and II blocks were continued and work was completed at two estates. The experiment of converting one of the early Mark I resettlement blocks at Wong Tai Sin into self-contained flats was completed and appears to be successful.

Approval was given during the year for the provision of improve- ments in resettlement estates, the main item being the introduction of a new block design known as Mark VII which will effectively bring resettlement blocks in line with the standards adopted for low-cost housing blocks. A further innovation was the introduction of modular hawker markets which, together with the policy adopted in relation to the leasing of pre-planned shop space should enable better management and control to be exercised.

An important milestone in the history of the resettlement programme was reached on November 19, 1970 when His Excel- lency, the Acting Governor, opened the 500th domestic resettlement block and the 50th estate school, the buildings being at the Lam Tin Resettlement Estate. The 500th block was also the first 16-storey Mark VI type to be completed in which the designed floor space had been increased to 35 square feet for each adult.

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At the end of the year planning and preparatory work was in hand or construction was about to start on several resettlement and low-cost housing estates which will provide future accommodation for a further 330,000 people.

       Many varied and interesting projects were completed during the year, of which the most notable on Hong Kong Island were a tech- nical institute at Morrison Hill for which the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club provided the total funds, a multi-storey car park on the central reclamation, a large sports ground at Aberdeen, the Lady Trench Children's Day Nursing and Training Centre at Morrison Hill, which was financially assisted by a donation from Sir Shiu-kin Tang and the 27-storey Murray Building in Garden Road which houses various offices of the Public Works Department.

       Amongst the many buildings completed in Kowloon were the Canton Road Fire Station and District Headquarters, the first stage of a multi-storey car park in Yau Ma Tei, three blocks of Police Inspectorate quarters and a block of service flats at Ho Man Tin, additional staff quarters and a convalescent ward block at Kowloon Hospital, a secondary technical school at Kwun Tong, a large swimming pool complex at Morse Park and major modi- fications to the Kai Tak terminal building. The secondary technical school and the swimming pool complex were financed from dona- tions by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club.

Projects under construction at the end of the year included an extension to the Air Traffic Control Centre at Kai Tak Airport, three fire stations, the reprovisioning of the Aberdeen Fisheries Office and Marine Licensing Station, a block of government offices and a magistracy in North-East Kowloon and at Tsuen Wan, education television studios in Broadcast Drive, a number of departmental and non-departmental quarters in Hong Kong and Kowloon, a clinic at Kwai Chung North, a mental hospital for the Prisons Department at Siu Lam, a training centre at Dragon's Back, parks and playgrounds at Cheung Sha Wan, Tsuen Wan and Kwun Tong and site formation for a Medical Department laundry at Shau Kei Wan. Also under construction were a hospital for the mentally sub-normal at Siu Lam, the Kai Tak East Play- ground, King's Park sports ground and a secondary technical

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school in North Kowloon, all of which are being financed by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. An office block and Marine Department buildings at the former naval camber in Canton Road and the redevelopment of the Medical Institutions at Sai Ying Pun were nearing completion. Several playgrounds, amenity areas, latrines, markets, hawker bazaars and floodlighting schemes were also in hand.

      Design, working drawings and contract documents were in preparation for some 150 projects including additional office accommodation for Kai Tak Terminal Building, the Sir Robert Black College of Education, Piper's Hill, a secondary school at Sha Tin, a secondary technical school at Kwai Chung, four fire stations, a clinical building at Queen Mary Hospital, the reprovi- sioning of the Victoria public mortuary, a pharmaceutical manu- factory at North Point, fourteen police stations, three swimming pool complexes, the new general post office, a prison at Starling Inlet and several markets, hawker bazaars, parks, playgrounds, recreation and amenity areas.

DRAINAGE

All the urban areas and the newly-developing townships now have waterborne sewerage systems although, in a few areas, there are buildings which are not yet connected to the sewers. En- couraging progress has been maintained on the programme of works for duplicating and replacing existing sewers in older areas of the system which are now of inadequate capacity and for constructing large intercepting sewers leading to suitable submarine outfalls, including new sewers in Sham Shui Po, Yau Ma Tei, Kowloon City, Wan Chai, Central and Shau Kei Wan districts as well as Aberdeen and the new Waterfront Road.

An extensive hydrological survey of the waters of Tolo Harbour, Victoria Harbour and the associated tidal water past Tsuen Wan to Castle Peak has just been completed by Consulting Engineers working in association with the staff of the Public Works Depart- ment. The results of the survey will influence the siting and design of submarine outfalls and the degree of treatment of sewage prior to discharge into the sea to ensure adequate dilution and dispersion

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and avoid pollution of the Colony's marine environment. Con- struction of submarine sewage outfalls at Sham Shui Po and Tai Wan was completed; work on those at Wan Chai and Lai Chi Kok continued.

Sewerage systems are also being constructed in the new towns now being developed in the New Territories. Consulting Engineers have been commissioned to design and construct a pilot sewage treatment plant at Shek Wu Hui. This project will improve sanitary conditions in that area as well as provide information on which form of sewage treatment will best suit local conditions when discharge of sewage into the sea is not possible.

Work was in progress on the extension of stormwater culverts in conjunction with the Wan Chai and Central reclamation projects. The extension of Staunton Creek Nullah in Aberdeen was com- pleted. In order to alleviate dangers from landslides, the stormwater drainage serving village areas in Shau Kei Wan was improved. River training works were in hand at Sha Tin; training of part of the Tung Chung River on Lantau Island was completed. Work continued on the construction of a large culvert at Kwai Chung and extension of two large culverts in the Kai Tak area.

PORT WORKS

      Subsequent to the publication of the engineering report on the proposed container terminal at Kwai Chung, tenders were called in April for the sale of four containership berths with related 'back-up' areas. Three of these container-terminal lots were sold on the basis of the purchasers constructing quay walls and reclama- tion and then developing the lots for container handling. Extensive investigations were carried out to locate suitable borrow areas for filling material and suitable technical clauses were drafted and technical layout drawings prepared for incorporation into the tender documents.

A breakwater was completed at Aldrich Bay thereby providing a typhoon shelter of about 38 acres for the long established fishing industry at Shau Kei Wan. At North Point a pier for the Fire Services Department was completed. At Aberdeen work started on a pier to serve both the Fisheries Office and Marine Licensing

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Station. Construction of the seawall fronting Wan Chai reclamation was nearing completion. The old rigid-fendering system protecting the poultry pier at Kennedy Town was replaced with a new spring- fendering system.

In Kowloon, a passenger-ferry pier and a seawall fronting the bus and ferry concourse at Tai Kok Tsui was completed. At Yau Ma Tei a new seawall was being constructed inside the existing typhoon shelter to permit reclamation for the extension of Tong Mi Road. Construction of a passenger-ferry pier at Kwun Tong was nearing completion.

Work started on a second incinerator at Lai Chi Kok.

In the New Territories, a seawall was completed at Castle Peak as was a breakwater at Yim Tin Tsai, Sai Kung; the latter will provide a typhoon shelter of about 28 acres in Port Shelter. At Sai Kung Town an area was reclaimed for a latrine and bathhouse. Construction was commenced at Shek Pik on a new pier for use by villagers and personnel of the nearby Training Centre and Tong Fuk Prison. Dredging work for improving the natural anchorage at Chek Keng, Long Harbour, commenced in July. The construction of a spring-fendering system for the Tsing Yi Public Pier continued. Improvement of the existing breakwater at Three Fathoms Cove was started and further navigational beacons were provided at Junk Island and at the cross-connection chamber for the submarine pipeline off Chau Kung Island.

LAND DEVELOPMENT

      Progress at the two new towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan included the formation of 5.1 acres of land and 31.7 acres of reclamation. At Kwun Tong 1.8 acres of terraced sites were formed and 18 acres were reclaimed from Kowloon Bay for industrial development. At Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung, 17 acres of land were formed, comprising 3.3 acres of formed hillside sites and adjacent roads for government low-cost housing and 13.7 acres of reclama- tion at Gin Drinker's Bay.

In Kowloon, development of land for low-cost housing, schools, government and institutional uses included about four acres of terraced sites at Ho Man Tin, 6.7 acres at Pak Tin and 0.25 acres

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      at Lung Cheung Road. 4.9 acres were formed at Tai Kok Tsui for a ferry and bus concourse, 0.6 acres at Tong Mi Road for a road extension and 10.8 acres at Kai Tak as part of the total of 33.1 acres completed to date as concrete apron for the airport.

       On Hong Kong Island, reclamation continued with the formation of 11 acres of land at Wan Chai, six acres at Chai Wan and one acre at Sandy Bay. At Wong Chuk Hang 0.75 acres of terraced sites were formed for government low-cost housing, and at Hing Wah, 4.5 acres were formed for a resettlement estate.

In the first stage of the new town at Castle Peak, a further 20 acres of land were formed by cutting and filling. 9,000 feet of new roads were constructed; 3,000 feet of main storm water drains and 10,500 feet trunk sewers were laid. A multiple pipe inverted syphon to carry sewage across the river channel was nearing completion, and work was well advanced on the submarine sewer outfall, pumping station and sewage screening plant at Pak Kok Tsui. Work also continued on the remaining site formation, roads and drains.

       A start was made on the first stage of the new town at Sha Tin, with 10.9 acres of land being reclaimed for government housing and the Sha Tin by-pass road.

QUARRYING

      The increase in private building in 1970 caused a temporary shortage of crushed-stone aggregates resulting in an overall rise in price, which in turn stimulated production of this material in existing quarries generally. Contract quarries are operated in accordance with government's policy of concentrating stone pro- duction in large quarries let under long-term contracts. There are now five such quarries in full production with a sixth under active planning. There are still 13 private quarries operating under Crown Land permits, but normally on sites not considered suitable for large-scale operation and it is anticipated that they will largely cease operating before the end of 1971 as new quarries under government contract replace them.

      The two government quarries at Diamond Hill in Kowloon and at Mount Butler on Hong Kong Island which provide aggregate

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and road making material for government projects increased their production of crushed stone to help alleviate the aggregate short- age. The supply of sand which is sold by Government for building purposes was also increased to meet rising demand. The responsi- bility for the procurement and sale of sand was transferred from the Government Supplies Department to the Public Works Depart- ment on July 1, 1970.

The materials testing laboratory operated by the Civil Engineering Office of the Public Works Department carried out approximately 96,996 tests on building materials. Of these, 7,425 were for private firms.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

The Hongkong Electric Company supplies power to Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma. Electricity is generated by plants at North Point, which has an installed capacity of 345 MW, and at Ap Lei Chau, which has an installed capacity of 120 MW. Two 125 MW sets are on order for Ap Lei Chau to keep pace with expanding consumer demand. The first of these sets is due to be commissioned in 1972 and the second set in 1973. The secondary distribution voltages are 346 volts, three-phase, four-wire and 200 volts, single-phase. The frequency of the system is stablised at 50 cycles.

Maximum demand on the company's generating plant rose to 304.4 MW in 1970, an increase of 11.1 per cent over 1969. The number of consumers increased by 4.08 per cent during the year, and sales of electricity amounted to 1,210.4 million kwh, an increase of 8.74 per cent. These were made up of: domestic and residential, 323.8 million kwh; commercial, 638.6 million kwh; industrial, 241.4 million kwh; street lighting, 6.6 million kwh.

China Light and Power Co Ltd supplies electricity to Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of outly- ing islands. In 1970 the peak load was 709 MW, which was 15 per cent more than in 1969, and 109 per cent more than in 1965. Generation of electricity is carried out partly by China Light, and partly by Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd, an enterprise owned and financed by Esso and China Light. The generating station at Hok Yuen, Kowloon Bay, has a capacity of 630 MW, of which

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390 MW is owned by China Light and 240 MW by Peninsula Electric. The power station at Tsing Yi, owned by Peninsula Electric, has two 120 MW units operating. Four similar 120 MW units are due to be installed at varying intervals before the middle of 1973, followed by two 200 MW units. Peninsula Electric's generating stations are constructed and operated by China Light. The electricity supply in Kowloon and the New Territories is 50 cycle alternating current, normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 11 kv and, in some locations, at 6.6 kv.

At September 30, 1970, there were 531,169 consumers, six per cent more than a year earlier, and total output was up 13 per cent to 3,614 million kwh. Under the new tariff system adopted in 1969, a maximum demand tariff was made available to all bulk users from January, 1970.

      The Cheung Chau Electric Company Limited supplies electricity to Cheung Chau Island which contains some small industries and a population of fisherfolk. It was founded in 1913 as a community project and is now operated by commercial interests. It supplies power on a 50-cycle, three-phase, four-wire system of 200/346 volts for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes.

The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited supplies Towngas to Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. Gas is sold on a thermal basis (one therm 100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of Towngas in the urban area is 455 British thermal units per cubic foot, while in the Tsuen Wan area the calorific value of the gas is 650 BTU per cubic foot. The total quantity of gas sold in 1970 was approximately 9.1 mil- lion therms compared with 7.9 million therms in 1969, an increase of 14.4 per cent.

13

Communications

SHIPPING

VICTORIA Harbour, the main port of the Colony, enjoys a world- wide reputation as a port which provides all the requirements of modern shipping. The magnificent natural harbour which lies between the island of Hong Kong and the city of Kowloon, almost landlocked, has an area of 23 square miles and varies in width between one and six miles. The surrounding hills form excellent natural protection from the prevailing easterly winds and the tidal streams are never so strong as to inhibit cargo working operations in the port by vessels at anchor or secured to mooring buoys.

Port administration is one of the responsibilities of the Director of Marine. To ensure that port facilities and services keep abreast of developments and the changing needs of Hong Kong and the ships of all nations which use the port, the Director is assisted by the advice of the Port Committee and the Port Executive Com- mittee, through which the closest liaison with the shipping and commercial interests of the Colony is maintained. The Department neither controls nor operates any of the alongside berthing facilities of the port nor the transit sheds or warehouses associated with them: it does however maintain 75 moorings for ocean-going vessels within the harbour and of these, 44 are classified as being suitable for use by ships up to 600 feet in length, and 31 for ships up to 450 feet in length. In addition, the largest and deepest-draught vessels afloat can be afforded a safe anchorage within the limits of the harbour. The commercial wharves can accommodate vessels of up to a thousand feet in length with drafts of up to 36 feet.

The comprehensive system of navigational aids in the harbour and approaches allows safe entry to the port by day and by night and improvements are continually being implemented within the port or its approaches. All fairway light buoys are fitted with

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      radar reflecting devices, and in the harbour itself the lead mooring buoys at the eastern end of the lines of mooring buoys are identified by quick-flashing lights. The Department operates a network of signal stations situated at Waglan Island, Green Island, North Point and at the Marine Department Signal Tower, which are inter-connected by teletype circuits. In addition a modified Hague Plan VHF Port Operations Service is controlled by the Department.

       During the year work started on the construction of the cross harbour tunnel between Kellett Island and Hung Hom. This major civil engineering enterprise has entailed certain alterations being made to the Hung Hom fairway leading from Kowloon Bay to the central and western area of the harbour. In consequence of this the Marine Department has recommended that whenever consid- erations of draft allowed it, ships should utilise the western entrance to the harbour rather than the eastern entrance.

Quarantine and immigration facilities are available on a 24-hour basis at the Western quarantine anchorage and from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the Eastern quarantine anchorage. This change in times of availability of 24-hour clearance from the Eastern to the Western quarantine anchorage reflects the emphasis now being placed upon the arrival and departure of vessels via the western approaches to the harbour. Ships are normally cleared on arrival and large passenger vessels are processed en route to their alongside berth mooring buoy. Advance immigration clearance may however be obtained by some vessels upon application and this, together with the facilities available for advance medical clearance obtainable by radio, does much to obviate delay to vessels occasioned by the necessity to comply with formalities on arrival.

      The harbour is patrolled by Marine Department launches to ensure effective control of fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo working areas. The launches are in continuous contact by radio with the Port Control Office which is thus able to initiate and control action required in an emergency. A fleet of modern fire- fighting vessels operated by the Fire Services Department is kept in continuous readiness and units are stationed on either side of the harbour. These and other government vessels are also equipped with emulsifier sprays for dispersing oil pollution and in the course of the year a new Anti-Pollution Unit was formed by the

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Marine Department for the better detection and combatting of oil pollution within the harbour and Colony waters.

      The proximity of Hong Kong to the Portuguese Colony of Macau attracts both tourists and residents to Macau. The facilities of the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal Wharf have been further improved and additional alterations are planned with a view to ensuring greater ease of passenger processing and move- ment through the terminal. The volume of passenger traffic has increased from just over one million in 1962 to 2.89 million passengers in 1970. Services between Macau and Hong Kong are provided by four conventional steamers and twelve hydrofoils.

      At the present time most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage transported by lighters. Over two thousand lighters and junks are now used for this purpose and nearly a thousand of these are mechanised. This mechanised fleet provides a type of transport which has been particularly suited to the handling and delivery of the small parcels of cargo which make up a considerable portion of tonnage handled in the port. Usually ship's gear is used for loading or discharging cargo alongside wharves or in the stream, but heavy lifting gear is available in the port when required. Wharf and godown companies are alive to the advantages and increased efficiency which may result from mechanisation and modern equipment is available to speed the rapid and safe move- ment of goods between godowns, ships and lighters.

      As in other world ports, the impact of changed technology in the shipping industry is being felt in Hong Kong in increasing degree as liner companies serving the Colony develop their capacity to handle containers. Self-sustaining and non-self-sustaining con- tainer ships are already using container handling facilities at berths developed by private interests within the port. During the year development of container handling facilities at the Kowloon Wharves, North Point Wharf and at the Kowloon Docks continued. In April 1970 Government called for tenders for the development of a container terminal at Kwai Chung. When fully developed the container terminal will comprise four berths each with a consid- erable area of land back-up. Each berth will be 1,000 feet long with an alongside depth of 40 feet. In August it was announced that three companies had each been awarded one of the berths at

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the Kwai Chung terminal. Reclamation of the seabed site, the construction and the development of the terminals will be the responsibility of the companies who have been awarded the berths whilst the Government will dredge a large approach area to a depth of forty feet. At the end of the year the final preparations for commencement of construction work at the Kwai Chung container terminal and arrangements to let a dredging contract were well in hand. It is anticipated that the three berths awarded will be completed and capable of accepting container ships in the summer of 1972.

      Very good bunkering facilities are provided in the port and vessels may be supplied with fuel oil either at the wharves of oil terminals or from a fleet of harbour oilers owned and operated by the major oil companies. Fresh water is similarly available at commercial wharves or from waterboats which service vessels at anchor or at mooring buoys.

       Hong Kong has a long history of ship building and its ship repair facilities are justly admired. Whilst the Colony's major shipyards are able to build dry cargo vessels, tankers, and general purpose passenger and cargo vessels of about 500 feet in length to suit any trade the emphasis of their work is now increasingly directed towards ship repair and major modifications.

       Two main shipyards are the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co Ltd and the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co Ltd. Both companies have extensive facilities for the repair, maintenance and dry docking or slipping of all class and types of vessels up to 35,500 deadweight tons in the case of bulk oil tankers, or 750 feet in length and 88 feet beam in the case of passenger liners and dry cargo vessels. The Colony's smaller yards are well equipped to undertake repairs to small vessels and have developed a capacity for the building of very specialised craft, particularly pleasure craft and yachts.

      Hong Kong continues to play an important role as a centre of recruitment for seamen and over 28,000 Hong Kong registered seamen are serving on board some 1,400 British and foreign vessels. The Seamen's Recruiting Office and the Mercantile Marine Office combine to register and supervise the employment of seamen on

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board vessels of all flags. The Mariners' Club in Kowloon managed by the Port Welfare Committee provides recreational and welfare facilities of a very high standard for seamen of all nationalities.

       Hong Kong is situated in an area which is frequently affected by tropical cyclones in the summer months but 1970 has proved to be a year relatively free from the effect of such storms. Work in the harbour came to a standstill on only a few occasions and no serious damage to shipping from this cause took place during the

year.

CIVIL AVIATION

      The Civil Aviation Department supervises all aspects of Civil Aviation in Hong Kong and its Flight Information Region which extends over an area of approximately 100,000 square miles. In addition to Hong Kong's international airport, operational services provided include Air Traffic Control, Communications, Air/Sea Rescue, Airport Fire, Crash and Rescue Service, Aeronautical Information Service, and, in conjunction with the Royal Observa- tory, an Aeronautical Meteorological Service.

      Hong Kong Airport is a major world airport of modern design situated only three miles from the busy hotel and commercial centre of Kowloon and the facilities offered for operators, passen- gers and cargo are second to none in the Orient. More than 400 scheduled services to all parts of the world are provided each week by 28 international airlines as well as many charter and non-scheduled flights. 2,324,900 passengers passed through the airport during the year and passengers, freight and mail figures showed an increase over last year of 22.67 per cent, 19.92 per cent and 11.76 per cent respectively.

      The modern terminal building now operates on a 'two level' system thus separating arriving and departing passengers, and speeding up the processing system. The building has shops, restaurants, bars, an observation terrace, and provides post office and banking facilities. Improvements to the terminal building continued throughout the year and led to the installation of a mechanical baggage handling and distribution system, and exten- sions to the departure hall with additional shopping and restaurant services. A pier and six aerobridges suitable for use by aircraft up

EXPO '70

۱۷

共圖

香港公共

HO

'ES

uring the year Hong Kong re-created itself in miniature at the World Exposition held in Osaka, Japan, from March 15 to September 13. In that time more than nine million people from all over the world visited the colourful Hong Kong pavilion, which captured the spirit of this unique community in its blend of traditional sails and modern structure. Inside, the pavilion gave visitors a taste of the daily life of Hong Kong, its achievements and its problems. There were three main sections, dealing with social progress, industrial progress and daily life. Traditional and modern arts and crafts were demonstrated and Hong Kong per- formers put on a series of shows for the strolling crowds outside the pavilion. A first class Chinese restaurant also drew many patrons. It was Hong Kong's first independent participation in such an exposition and the pavilion was one of the big attractions for many visitors. The picture on the facing page shows a traditional Hong Kong dance troupe entertaining visitors to the pavilion. By way of contrast, the two following pages show a pop group formed specially from among talented young Hong Kong musicians to play at Expo.

I

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

17

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  due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Their Imperial

Crown

nesses,

High- Prince

Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan are shown being escorted through the Industrial Progress section (top) and, below, through the Cultural Heritage section by Mr G. S. Blundell, who was in charge of the Hong Kong pavilion.

3:

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to the size of the Boeing 747 were completed and brought into operation, enabling passengers to board and disembark from aircraft with greater speed, comfort and safety. The handling capacity of the terminal building is now 2,200 passengers per hour.

As a result of extensive modifications, the capacity of the freight terminal was doubled, permitting 70,000 metric tons of cargo a year to be handled. Further expansion of this building is not possible and consultants have been engaged to prepare a detailed scheme for a new fully consolidated air cargo terminal for all carriers using the airport.

All the taxiways were widened in time for the advent of Boeing 747 services on April 11, Hong Kong being the fourth airport outside the USA to receive this aircraft. Construction commenced in October to extend the runway by 2,530 feet and this will result in a paved runway surface of 11,130 feet becoming available by mid 1973. Extensive enlargements of aircraft parking areas con- tinued as part of the phased development to provide accommoda- tion for 25 large transport aircraft on the long-term and main- tenance parking areas. The terminal apron will provide 24 bays by the end of 1971.

The continuing increase in aircraft movements has brought a need for improved and more sophisticated equipment for air traffic control. A scheme for increasing traffic handling capability includes an additional radar for approach surveillance purposes and the re-siting and improving of the existing terminal area radar. An instrument approach system has been installed to the north-west end of the runway to provide approach guidance to runway 13 and feasibility trials were successfully completed, paving the way for full operational availability next year.

Airport terminal operations are assisted by the Hong Kong Air Terminal Services Limited who provide a centralised system of baggage handling, processing and transportation of passengers on the aircraft parking area. Aircraft maintenance is provided by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd which offers overhaul and repair services for a wide range of aircraft. This year the company completed construction of a new hangar capable of accommodating aircraft of Boeing 747 size.

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      Two private flying clubs operate at the airport, the Aero Club of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Flying Club, offering pilot training up to commercial standard, and the Far East Flying Training School offers full-time courses in aeronautical engineering and electronics. A helicopter service was started by a newly formed company, Hong Kong Air International, and provides a scheduled service between Hong Kong island and the airport in addition to undertaking charter and sight-seeing flights, making use of two Alouette III helicopters.

      Cathay Pacific Airways Limited, the Hong Kong based airline, expanded its operations and provides frequent services to Taiwan, Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Sabah, Indonesia and Australia using its fleet of eight Convair 880 aircraft.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

       The British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Sham Chun where it joins the Chinese railway system, the northern bank of the Sham Chun River forming the international boundary at this point. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains at the border and walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads, however, travel through without transhipment.

There are 17 daily passenger trains each way operating on the British Section and an average of five goods trains per day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at week-ends and public holidays, especially in winter time. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin Station which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon at Tsim Sha Tsui and the border station at Lo Wu is about one hour.

The greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year, was 118,985 on Sunday, April 5, 1970-the Ching Ming Festival day when many visitors paid their respects to their ancestors in the cemeteries at Wo Hop Shek and Sandy Ridge in the New Territories.

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Works have been commenced at the University and the Tai Po Kau Railway Stations to modernise the signalling equipment from semaphore signals to colour light signals. Also structural elements of the proposed new Railway Terminus at Hung Hom are in the design stage, while drainage and permanent way work are expected to start during the coming year.

ROADS

There are 605.89 miles of road in the Colony maintained by Government of which 203.00 are on Hong Kong Island, 178.72 in Kowloon, and 224.17 in the New Territories. The planning and design of new roads as well as improvements to the existing road network were continued in accordance with a programme of priorities, which was reviewed annually. A total of $48.0 million was spent on major projects together with $11.6 million on road improvement and maintenance during the year.

On Hong Kong Island, the completion of Cotton Tree Drive up to the MacDonnell Road junction marked another stage in the implementation of the Garden Road complex designed to improve traffic flow between the central business district and the mid-levels. The widening of Upper Albert Road, including the improvement of its junction with Garden Road, was also completed.

Progress was maintained on the construction of the Waterfront Road which links Harcourt Road at the western end of Wan Chai with King's Road at North Point. Several sections of this road were completed during the year and were opened to traffic successively to relieve traffic congestion in the Wan Chai and Causeway Bay areas. As a continuation of the Waterfront Road along the north coast of the Island, planning and design were carried out on the extension of this major traffic route eastward through North Point to Shau Kei Wan.

In Kowloon, two flyovers and one interchange were completed. These are the Pui Ching Road/Fat Kwong Street flyover, the Lai Chi Kok interchange and the flyover at Choi Hung Road. The flyover at Choi Hung Road forms part of a $40 million flyover complex at the Kowloon City roundabout and the Prince Edward Road/Choi Hung Road roundabout and was the first of the five

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      flyovers in this project to be completed. Works on the remaining four flyovers were well in hand.

       Extensive road reconstruction continued throughout Kowloon to remedy the deterioration of roads which were built shortly after the war and which were not intended to carry the heavy traffic loads now common in urban areas.

      A preliminary report on the feasibility of a new road along the western waterfront linking Lai Chi Kok with Yau Ma Tei was prepared. In anticipation of the traffic generated by the container terminal development at Kwai Chung in the New Territories, consultants were engaged to carry out investigations into the im- provement of the major traffic route connecting Kwai Chung and Kwun Tong.

       In the New Territories, a second carriageway was constructed between Castle Peak and Ping Shan thus completing the dual carriageway from Castle Peak to Yuen Long. A new road between Castle Peak and Tsuen Wan was being planned to provide the necessary traffic capacity to serve the developing town of Castle Peak. On Lantau Island, a new road connecting Keung Shan with Tai O was nearing completion. With the completion of this road it will be possible to motor all the way from Silver Mine Bay to Tai O.

      Traffic management techniques continued to be applied to make the best use of the existing road network. Good progress was made in the installation of traffic light signals to control traffic at road inter-sections and to provide pedestrian crossing facilities. A total number of 203 sets of traffic signals was in operation by the end of 1970. Investigations were made into the feasibility of employing a computer to control traffic signals in the area of west Kowloon.

The improvement and extension of the public street lighting system continued. A total of 1,413 new lamps were installed during the year.

       The Traffic and Transport Survey Division carried out a large number of transportation surveys for various government depart- ments. Personal interviews were conducted with the assistance of university students on the travel habits of passengers using the

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cross-harbour ferry services. The information was gathered for an investigation into the design of the public transport services that might use the cross-harbour tunnel. The data on parking collected in 1969 was analysed, and the study of traffic flows on the roads of the Colony was continued.

       Further work was carried out by consultants (Freeman, Fox and Partners) on the mass transit study. Population and travel fore- casts were reassessed taking into account the results of the 1966 by-census. Various aspects of the civil, electrical and mechanical engineering work associated with the project were investigated in depth to enable the preparation of reliable estimates.

PARKING

There are six government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 3,599 cars. In addition, 1,463 parking spaces in four temporary open air car parks, also managed by the council, have been established on Crown land awaiting development. Besides, there is a total of 7,273 parking meters installed in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

With the exception of the Kowloon-Canton Railway whose activities are fully described in an earlier section of this Report, public transport is operated by private enterprise. There are five major public transport companies operating scheduled services under ordinances which grant monopoly rights but require the provision of adequate services. These are: The China Motor Bus Co Ltd and the Hongkong Tramways Ltd which operate scheduled services on Hong Kong Island; the Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd which has the exclusive scheduled bus franchise in Kowloon and the mainland portion of the New Territories; the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co and the 'Star' Ferry Co which operate ferry services on specific routes across the harbour. Appendix 38 lists the traffic carried annually by each of the public transport undertakings between the years 1959 and 1970.

       At the end of the 1970 the Kowloon Motor Bus Company's fleet totalled 1,018 vehicles, comprising 658 doubled-deck buses

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360 single-deck buses. On order at the end of 1970 were 38 single- deck and 230 double-deck buses which will be added to the fleet during 1971. The fleet's total passenger-carrying capacity at the end of the year was 89,798. During the year 568.0 million passengers were carried and 40.4 million miles were covered by the company's buses. At the end of 1970 a total of 70 routes (55 in Kowloon and 15 in the New Territories) were operating.

       Bus services on Hong Kong Island are operated by the China Motor Bus Company Limited which has 499 vehicles, made up of 340 single-deck and 159 double-deck buses. The total passenger carrying capacity at the end of the year was 34,853, an increase of 11.3 per cent over 1969. The Company operates a total of 29 routes and two special services on race days. In 1970 the buses carried 185.8 million passengers and covered 17.2 million miles.

        Route No. 8-A was extended from Wan Tsui Road terminal to San Ha Street from May 22, and double-deckers have been introduced for Repulse Bay and Shek O routes during the swimming season.

      The Peak Tramways Company Limited runs a funicular railway service up the Peak. The present haulage system has been in use since 1925 and cars are drawn along the track by nearly two miles of steel cable. During the year, two million passengers were carried. The tramway climbs Victoria Peak to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in two. It is reputed to be the steepest funicular railway in the world using a steel wire rope as its sole means of haulage.

      As from September 1, 1969 new categories of licensed vehicles known as public and private light buses were introduced. By the end of the year 3,784 public light buses and 1,368 private light buses were registered. Public light buses (minibuses) plying for hire are free to set their own routes and fares but there are certain areas or stretches of congested roads where they are not allowed to operate or where they are forbidden to set down or pick up passengers. Private light buses are not allowed to carry fare-gaying passengers unless the buses are owned and operated by schools or other educational establishments.

      Taxis are licensed for specific use on Hong Kong Island, or in Kowloon and fares vary with each area. On Hong Kong Island

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fares are $1.50 for the first mile or any part of it and 20 cents for every subsequent fifth of a mile. In Kowloon the fare is $1 for the first mile and 20 cents for every subsequent quarter of a mile. At the end of the year, there was a total of 3,406 licensed taxis in the Colony: 2,235 in Kowloon and 1,171 on Hong Kong Island.

Public and private omnibuses operate bus services other than those provided by the major bus companies and light buses. Such services include sight-seeing tours, limousine services provided by hotels and school-bus services. At the end of the year there were 898 public omnibuses and 406 private omnibuses. Public omnibuses are hired for the carriage of passengers under a contract or at a distinct fare for a predetermined route in accordance with the licence granted. Private omnibuses are not allowed to carry passengers for hire or reward.

FERRY SERVICES

The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited operates a fleet of 61 diesel-engined ferries, 14 of which are vehicle ferries. The company maintains 10 routes in the harbour between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, as well as services to New Territories and outlying islands. The number of vehicles carried by the com- pany across the harbour during the year totalled 6,088,627.

In July this year the Company introduced its first dual-purpose triple-decked ferry 'Man Shing'. On the top deck of the ferry there is an air-conditioned restaurant complete with night club facilities. Besides serving as a cross-harbour ferry, the 'Man Shing' is used on harbour cruises in the evenings and on excursion trips to the outlying islands at week-ends.

The Star Ferry Company Limited runs a passenger ferry service across the harbour between Victoria City on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. The company uses 10 vessels on this service with a total passenger- carrying capacity of 5,643. Supplementary services are operated to cope with the daily peak hour traffic and to relieve congestion at the ferry concourses. During 1970 56.6 million passengers were carried.

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ADMINISTRATION

The Transport Advisory Committee formed in 1965, has a membership of four official members and six unofficial members, with one of the latter as its chairman. It advises the Governor or the statutory authority (who in most cases is the Commissioner for Transport) on all aspects of transport and traffic policy, with the exception of external sea and air communications.

The Transport Department provides a secretariat for the Trans- port Advisory Committee and carries out a wide range of executive functions including vehicle licensing, driving tests and vehicle inspection. As the statutory authority, the Commissioner for Transport is also responsible for regulating public transport services and co-ordinating action between other departments in the transport field.

       The number of registered motor vehicles at the end of 1970 was 143,687, an increase of 15 per cent over the previous year. (Vehicle statistics are given in Appendix 38).

       The demand for driving licences continued to rise and during the year 173,445 driving tests were conducted and 338,503 driving licences were issued. (Driving licences statistics are given at Appendix 38).

The system of compulsory annual inspection of taxis and public cars, instituted in June 1966, was extended to all public light buses first registered before January, 1969, and all omnibuses first registered before 1962 to ensure that these vehicles comply with basic safety requirements.

       The 4,677-foot Lion Rock Tunnel, which was formally opened to traffic on November 14, 1967, and provides a shorter alternative route between Kowloon and Sha Tin, is managed and operated by the Transport Department. The tunnel is the first and only toll road in the Colony. The tolls charged are $1 for buses, goods vehicles, public light buses and private light buses, and 50 cents for private cars and motor cycles. During the year a total of 2,763,914 vehicles used the tunnel and 1,551,620.25 was collected in tolls, an increase of 19 per cent over the previous year.

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CROSS HARBOUR TUNNEL

       The Cross Harbour Tunnel Company, in which the Government has a 25 per cent interest, reported continued progress in the construction of the cross harbour tunnel, the largest tunnel project in the history of the Colony. The fabrication and launching of the submerged tube units was in full swing while work was well advanced on the ramp approaches and ventilation buildings. Con- tracts for the road connections to the tunnel on both sides of the harbour, which are Government's direct responsibility, have all been placed. Completion of these extensive grade-separated inter- sections is scheduled to coincide with the opening of the tunnel in 1972.

POSTAL SERVICES

The development of postal services continued in 1970 with postings to all destinations of over 200 million postal articles, representing an increase of about 20 per cent over postings for the previous year. About 164 million items were delivered and over 1.8 million were handled in transit. Total postal statistics are given at Appendix 38.

Counter business at all post offices includes the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels, and the issue and payment of money orders and postal orders. Special services, used mainly by the business community, such as business reply facilities, cash on delivery parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for bulk postings, are available. There are two postal deliveries a day, excluding Sundays, in most areas.

A high percentage of mail posted is destined for abroad and since separate despatches to individual countries are established whenever justified by the volume of mail available for despatch, direct despatches are actually made up to more than 200 different places overseas. The train services between Kowloon and Lo Wu form the main link for the conveyance of mails to and from the People's Republic of China.

       Two new post offices were opened during the year, bringing the total offices to 59 including one mobile post office operating in the New Territories. Of the two post offices one was established on Hong Kong Island at Causeway Bay, the other was opened in

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the New Territories at the Shek Lei Resettlement Estate. Temporary post offices were provided for the 24th Congress of the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce and the 28th Exhibi- tion of Hong Kong Products.

Four postage stamp issues were made during the year. As part of a series of stamps to commemorate Lunar New Year, two stamps in values of 10 cents and $1.30 were issued in January to commemorate the 'Year of the Dog'. In March there was a further issue of two stamps to publicise the Hong Kong pavilion at Expo '70. The stamps in the 15 cents and 25 cents denominations depicted the Expo symbol. To commemorate the Tung Wah Hospital group centenary, two stamps in 10 cents and 50 cents denomination were issued in April. A 10 cents stamp was also issued in August to promote Hong Kong's participation in the Asian Productivity Year 1970. First Day Covers were sold on each occasion. The popular pictorial Christmas aerogrammes were again placed on sale this year.

       The year has been one of expansion of services, especially in regard to letters (+ 20 per cent) and air parcels posted (+ 25 per cent). The reduced Comprehensive Certificate of Origin require- ments of the United States also brought about a sizeable increase in postings of surface parcels to that country. The introduction of the parcel service to the People's Republic of China in October initially more than doubled all parcel postings, though the level of traffic subsequently declined somewhat.

The increase in business during the year aggravated some staffing and accommodation problems. Plans are in hand for relieving the shortage of accommodation and attention is being given to the other problems.

This year saw the introduction of mechanised sorting in the Hong Kong Post Office in the form of a newspaper and packet sorting machine, which is intended largely to give the staff some experience on this sort of equipment before the handling of mails is transferred to new offices currently being planned.

TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES

       The Postmaster General, as the Telecommunication Authority, administers the Telecommunication Ordinance and is responsible

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for the control and supervision of all telecommunication services operating within and from the Colony. The Telecommunication Division of the Post Office licences and inspects installations operating under the Ordinance, monitors radio transmissions, and investigates interference. The division also provides an advisory service to the government and co-ordinates the communication requirements of departments.

Overseas communications are provided by Cable and Wireless, Limited. Hong Kong is linked by an 80-channel submarine telephone cable westwards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam from where telegraph, telex and telephone circuits extend to all parts of the world.

In addition to the underseas cable a satellite earth station work- ing via the Pacific Intelsat III satellite provides circuits to Japan, USA, Thailand, South Korea and Australia. Other destinations will be added as and when necessary. A second earth station working to the Indian Ocean satellite is being constructed, to be operational in 1971.

HF Radio circuits connect to 12 countries providing, in com- bination with undersea cables and satellite links, a total of 311 telegraph and 214 telephone circuits terminating in Hong Kong.

Because of the very rapid rise in demand which followed installa- tion of the first computer-based system in 1969, the electronic data processing message switching centre handling traffic for international airlines and commercial firms and also the public telegrams service, is being expanded by the addition of a fifth computer and additional electronic storage. When completed, the new system-probably the largest of its type in the world-is expected to handle 21,000 messages an hour and have a theoretical capacity of half a million a day.

With the installation of the new telecine equipment in 1970, Cable and Wireless is able to provide news agencies with a 'round- the-clock' international television service for televising news to and from Hong Kong and many overseas countries via Intelsat III satellite.

To cater for the ever-growing telex demand a new fully automatic telex exchange providing many additional facilities is planned to

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be operational in 1971. Domestic telex service came into effect in 1970 and the first Far East ship-shore telex service enabling ships at sea to send and receive telex calls from Hong Kong and all parts of the world also came into operation in 1970.

Telephone services in the Colony are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company, Limited, a public company operating under a Government franchise. In collaboration with Cable and Wireless, Limited, it also provides telephone communication to most over- seas countries and to ships at sea.

      The telephone system is fully automatic and consists of more than 580,000 working telephones operating through 42 exchanges. Exchange line rentals are on a flat rate basis of HK$350 a year for business lines and HK$235 a year for residential lines. There is no charge made for local calls and the telephone service in Hong Kong is one of the cheapest in the world.

Some 72,000 new lines were installed during 1970 compared with 71,446 in 1969, and 2 additional telephone exchanges were com- missioned in 1970 together with extensions to existing exchanges and the necessary cable schemes associated with this expansion of the system.

The overall demand has continued at a high rate and an annual growth rate of about 20 per cent has been maintained for some years.

14

Press, Broadcasting and Cinema

HONG KONG's lively communications industry continued to develop during the year.

       Although a net decrease of six in the number of daily newspapers published in the Colony was recorded, the number of periodicals registered with the Registrar of Newspapers showed an increase of 27, bringing the total number of periodicals and publications of all kinds to 264 by the end of 1970.

In addition to the usual sources of news, both local and inter- national, all media receive a constant flow of news releases, radio bulletins, films and photographs from the Government Information Services, informing the people of the Government's actions, views and intentions. The department maintains a 24-hour service and provides news coverage of all major public events.

PRESS

       The Chinese and English language press in Hong Kong currently produce 264 publications, including 66 Chinese and four English daily newspapers. It is estimated that, between them, the Chinese and English language newspapers have an overall circulation of some one-and-a-half-million copies a day. Some of the leading newspapers and magazines are listed in Appendix 39.

       Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 18 members and three associate members. The society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in matters affecting the interests of all Hong Kong newspapers, the society or its members.

       A notable event of the year was the official opening in May of the 19th General Assembly of the International Press Institute in Hong Kong. The three-day conference was attended by about 200 leading journalists from all over the world.

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       Hong Kong is the base of South-East Asian operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies represented include the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Kyodo, Reuters and United Press International. Hong Kong is also rapidly growing in importance internationally as a major magazine, book and commercial printing

centre.

TELEVISION

       Hong Kong became the first Colony within the Commonwealth to benefit from a television service when, in December 1957, Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd pioneered a television relay service. This company started operations on one channel which produced 28 hours of television a week to approximately 63,000 viewers.

       In November 1967 a second television service came into operation. This was the wireless television service operated by Hong Kong Television Broadcasts Ltd (HK-TVB). Television viewership has in- creased from 63,000 in 1957 to well over two million people by the end of 1970. Viewers may now watch some 310 hours of television a week-150 hours a week being transmitted by Rediffu- sion and 160 hours a week being transmitted by HK-TVB.

      RTV operates, under an exclusive franchise, the wired relay television service in Hong Kong and relays a 405-line, two channel service, one in English and one in Chinese. The company's multi- studio centre at Television House, Broadcast Drive, Kowloon, is a modern production complex equipped with 19 studios, nine television studios, eight audio studios and two dubbing suites.

      Hong Kong Television Broadcasts Ltd, operating under an exclu- sive licence for their first five years, broadcasts two wireless channels, the Jade (Chinese) and the Pearl (English). The company employs the UHF, 625 line PAL colour system with its main transmitters on Temple Hill. There are now nine auxiliary transmitters throughout the Colony and the company's plans envisage complete coverage of urban and rural Hong Kong by the end of 1970.

SOUND BROADCASTING

Hong Kong is served by three broadcasting organisations produc- ing between them eight sound channels (two English, one background

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music and five Chinese channels). Two of the three organisations are commercial and the other is a Government operated station. There are an estimated 1,500,000 radio receivers in use in the Colony.

Radio Hong Kong broadcasts separate Chinese and English Programme Services, on AM and FM. It is financed from general revenue and carries no advertising. The aim of the Government broadcasting service is to provide balanced programmes with emphasis on information and public affairs programmes. Govern- ment broadcasting also plays an important role in assisting the development of better mutual understanding of the problems and attitudes of the different communities who make up the Colony's society. As a result of an Audience Research Survey carried out for both the English and Chinese Services a number of programme schedules were revised and the FM/AM split confined only to the evening hours from 8.25 p.m. to 11.15 p.m.

       Commercial Radio broadcasts two Chinese programme services and one English on AM from studios at present situated in the Yau Yat Chuen area of Kowloon. During the year, work began on the construction of a new studio centre in Broadcast Drive, Kowloon, where Radio Hong Kong and the two television com- panies also have their headquarters.

       In addition to public affairs programmes there are many serious and light music programmes included in the schedules of both organisations, with comprehensive news and weather services throughout the day. Transmission hours were increased late this year. Both Commercial Radio and Radio Hong Kong now open daily at 6 a.m. and close down at 1 a.m.

       The wired sound service of Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd-a locally controlled subsidiary of the organisation which operates in Britain and in many other Commonwealth countries-is dis- tributed throughout the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon and to many outlying areas in the New Territories by more than 1,500 miles of trunk lines and another 4,000 miles of installation cabling.

       At the end of the year there were 40,000 loudspeakers connected to these sound services offering a choice of four programmes.

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FILM INDUSTRY

      Hong Kong's thriving film industry this year maintained the output which has won it a place among the world's leading film producing centres. There was also continued interest by major overseas producers in Hong Kong location shooting and a con- tinued upsurge in the numbers of advertising films and commercials made here for both local and international clients.

      The two principal Hong Kong companies are Shaw Brothers and the Cathay Organisation, and they control the bulk of 28 shooting stages. A number of smaller independent companies have studio complexes. Most of the Mandarin films are widescreen and in lavish colour-Shaw Brothers' films are renowned for their outstanding colour and the company now operates its own highly- automated colour laboratories. Cantonese films, which are produced almost exclusively for the Hong Kong domestic market, are usually in black-and-white but some of the more ambitious productions have ventured into colour. An average Mandarin film now costs approximately $900,000 and a Cantonese black-and-white produc- tion about $400,000.

      Hong Kong films are popular throughout Asia and have recently been increasingly well received overseas both in film festivals and at the box office.

There are 103 cinemas in the Colony, with total seating capacity of 120,365. Attendance figures are among the highest in the world per head of population.

Costs for location shooting in Hong Kong, where some unparal- leled scenery is to be found, are still considerably lower than in other leading international centres such as Spain, Italy and Mexico. Labour costs are extremely economical, yet international standards in services are consistently provided. These advantages, combined with Hong Kong's unique story possibilities, drew a number of American and European producers to the Colony during the year and several others have announced firm plans to film part or all of coming productions in Hong Kong.

      Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censorship in accordance with the law and must be viewed by the

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film censors panel. A total of 6,583 films were submitted for censor- ship during the year, including 147 local productions.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

The task of the Government Information Services is to keep the people of Hong Kong and the rest of the world accurately informed of the Government's aims and achievements. The department is linked by teleprinter to 66 newspapers, news agencies, broadcasting and television stations as well as City District Offices.

The department is organised in three Divisions-News, Technical Services and Public Relations, with certain services common to all three. The News Division operates in two main sections-press and radio news. The press section channels information to newspapers and deals with press enquiries 24 hours a day while the radio news section specialises in the preparation of world and local news for the Colony's broadcasting stations and Rediffusion Television. Eighteen radio news bulletins in English and Chinese are prepared daily, ranging in length from full 10-minute bulletins to two-minute summaries. The radio news room moved to Broadcasting House on March 2, 1969 to be near its customers in 'Radio City' in Kowloon. It is in constant contact with the press section in Beaconsfield House, Hong Kong, through teleprinter, facsimile and telephone links.

The special responsibilities of the recently formed Public Rela- tions Division are to maintain contact with Hong Kong people living overseas, especially those living in Britain, and at home to improve understanding between the public and the Government. This latter function involves keeping the Government informed of the current state of public opinion, explaining government activities and intentions to the people, and sorting out situations which may provide potential sources of misunderstanding. Much of this work is done through the news media, especially the Chinese language press. Continuous contact is also maintained with departments, such as the Resettlement Department and City District Offices, which are themselves in daily contact with large numbers of the public.

A special Chinese newspaper for Hong Kong residents abroad, Hong Kong News Digest, is produced by the Public Relations Division. The division has also initiated or assisted the provision

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of film and sound-tape information and entertainment for Hong Kong people living in Britain.

        The Technical Services Division has local and overseas commit- ments, and it produces magazine and newspaper feature articles, photographs, newsreels, booklets and posters. Locally, the division. is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all government departments. The editorial section provides written material for a worldwide press syndication service and for most booklets and leaflets produced in the department.

The division continued to produce a weekly digest of events in the Colony, widely circulated to readers overseas. Other publications produced during the year included booklets on Adult Education, Youth Activities, Fire Services, Prisons and Tropical Cyclones. The Hong Kong Fact Sheet, revised annually, was supplemented by fact sheets on the Waterworks and Medical Services. A book commemorating the 19th Assembly of the International Press Institute, held in Hong Kong in May, was produced for selective distribution overseas, as was a photographic portfolio entitled City of Children.

       The Film Unit continued to concentrate its efforts on the monthly film Hong Kong Today. This three-minute newsreel style film in colour is screened regularly in about 60 local cinemas and on the local television channels.

Other projects included a short colour film for Chinese New Year and a film on the Festival of Hong Kong, which won the 'Best- Planned Documentary' award at the Asian Film Festival held in Djakarta in June. This 13-minute film has been shown overseas in the United Kingdom, Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan and New Zealand.

The Design and Display section in 1970 again increased its production of art work, posters, advertisements and window dis- plays, and designed and built a display for the 15th International Conference on Social Welfare in Manila, Philippines.

The Distribution section is responsible for the planned and effective distribution of films and publications, either produced by this department or received from the Central Office of Information

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in England. It also operates a mobile cinema to give open-air film shows in the resettlement estates, remote villages, schools and asso- ciations. The Film Lending Library, stocked with informative films on Hong Kong and Britain, continued to be very well patronised.

The Hong Kong Government participated independently for the first time this year in the Category 1 World Exposition held in Osaka, Japan. Expo '70 opened on March 15, 1970 and closed on September 13, 1970. During this time 9.3 million people from all over the world visited the Hong Kong Pavilion. In addition the Hong Kong Restaurant, which was on the same site and was part of the pavilion, served over a quarter of a million people.

The outward appearance of the pavilion combined the tradi- tional batwing sails of Hong Kong with a modern structure which symbolises Hong Kong today. The main exhibition inside the pavilion told the story of Hong Kong in all aspects of its daily life. There were three main sections: The first dealing with social progress; the second with industrial progress; and the third telling something of the history and culture of Hong Kong and of its advantages as a tourist centre. The pavilion was designed in Hong Kong and built in Japan. The interiors were designed and made in Hong Kong.

In addition to the displays there was a continuing programme of entertainment staged on a circular platform on the site in the open air. The performances on this platform, including Chinese traditional dances, lion dances, traditional Chinese music and pop music, regularly attracted very large crowds. There were also demonstrations inside the main pavilion featuring jade carving, ivory carving, wood carving, carpet making, jewellery work and coromandel work. Near these demonstrations was an informa- tion counter staffed throughout the period of the Exposition, tell- ing people about Hong Kong.

       The pavilion was visited by His Royal Highness Prince Charles, Their Imperial Highnesses Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko, His Royal Highness the King of Nepal and other members of Royal Families in Japan, Nepal and other countries throughout the world. Visitors also included Prime Ministers, Ministers of State and leading businessmen from all parts of the world.

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The Governor, Sir David Trench, and Lady Trench were guests of the Japanese Government for the celebration of Hong Kong's special day held on March 19, 1970.

The Hong Kong Pavilion was considered one of the attractions of Expo and drew as many visitors as did the pavilions of countries many times larger.

        The information section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London works in close collaboration with the Government Information Services. Press relations form an important part of the work, and releases for the British press are prepared from information bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. The information section also acts as a distributing agency in Britain for photo- features prepared by the Government Information Services and these, together with press releases, play a major role in informing the British public about Hong Kong and its achievements through the medium of newspapers and magazines.

15

The Armed Services and Auxiliary Services

THE British Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the Hong Kong Government in maintaining security and stability in the Colony. All three Services are represented and are under the com- mand of the Commander British Forces, who in April 1970 became responsible to the Chief of the Defence Staff in London instead of to the Commander in Chief Far East. The Commander British Forces is the Governor's Adviser on matters affecting the security of the Colony.

       Army units predominate in Hong Kong, and are under the direct command of the Commander British Forces, who has the additional appointment of General Officer Commanding, Land Forces. Royal Navy ships in Hong Kong are under the direct operational control of the Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong. The Commander, RAF, commands the RAF station at Kai Tak, and, in addition, has under command a squadron of Whirlwind helicopters (No. 28 Squadron). This RAF support is a part of the overall backing provided by Far East Air Force, based in Singapore.

       The local Auxiliary Defence Units, consisting of the Royal Hong Kong Regiment and the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, are administered by the Hong Kong Government, but they come under command of Commander British Forces, and his appropriate single-service subordinate commanders, for operations and training for operations.

HMS Tamar, headquarters of the Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong, is the base of the 6th Mine Countermeasures Squadron and also provides full maintenance facilities and support for ships of the Far East Fleet and Commonwealth Navies which regularly visit Hong Kong. It remains a very popular port for ship visits and provides excellent facilities for relaxation after operational patrols and exercises.

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      The minehunters of 6th Mine Countermeasures Squadron, HM Ships Maxton, Bossington, Kirkliston, Sheraton and Hubberston, adopted the symbolic Chinese Dragon as their squadron badge to mark their association with Hong Kong, and this is now displayed on each ship. Two of the ships companies were official visitors to the Hong Kong Pavilion at Expo '70. The Squadron's day to day naval tasks include practising the latest minehunting techniques, which are the most sophisticated of any Navy in the world, and underwater searching exercises, for example tracing sunken vessels or aircraft. In addition the ships, together with many other visiting ships, contribute men and materials to install or improve recreational and domestic facilities for the local inhabitants of isolated villages and islands in Hong Kong waters.

The year has seen a great number of vessels visiting the base, including the recently converted Helicopter Cruiser HMS Blake, the Commando Carrier HMS Bulwark, the Assault Ships HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid, together with Royal Fleet Auxiliaries and warships from Australia, New Zealand, the United States, France, India and Portugal.

       HMS Tamar recruits and trains Hong Kong Chinese Ratings for service in Tamar and with the Western and Far East Fleets, and is also the agency for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary Service, which operates world wide.

       Under command of Headquarters Land Forces, there are two Army formations, 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, which has its head- quarters at Sek Kong in the New Territories, and 51 Infantry Brigade which commands units both in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island, and which has its headquarters in Kowloon. Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island.

      During 1970, the Major General, Brigade of Gurkhas, moved from Malaysia to Hong Kong and is now based permanently at Victoria Barracks with Headquarters, Brigade of Gurkhas.

       Throughout 1970, units of the Army have taken their turn in the joint police and military patrolling and manning of the defensive positions in the Border area. In addition, they have trained and exercised in their military skills, for example operating tanks and artillery and the use of infantry weapons and techniques.

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      Apart from normal military work, the Army is always ready to help the local population. Sometimes it may be a planned project, for instance the building of a Youth Recreation Centre in Shau Kei Wan or else it may be in an emergency as when a volunteer patrol of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment recovered the bodies of two civilians killed by lightning on a high peak in the Sai Kung peninsula.

       Units which have been stationed in the Colony during 1970 include C Squadron, The Queen's Own Hussars; B Squadron, The 14th/ 20th King's Hussars; 25th Light Regiment Royal Artillery; 1st Bat- talion the Irish Guards; 1st Battalion The Royal Welch Fusiliers; 1st Battalion The Duke of Wellington's Regiment; and from the Brigade of Gurkhas, 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles, 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles, together with squadrons of Engineer, Signals and Transport units of the Brigade. In addition, 40 Commando Royal Marines and B Squadron The Royal Hussars have served tours of duty in the Colony.

       The Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak is a separate enclave adjacent to the civil airport and uses the airport's runway and control services. The RAF has its own radar and signal facilities for the long distance control of military aircraft approaching Hong Kong. These facilities are shared by the Director of Civil Aviation to ensure the safety of civil aircraft operating within the Hong Kong flight in- formation region.

       No. 28 Squadron, based permanently at Kai Tak, is equipped with ten Whirlwind helicopters. It is established primarily for the rapid movement of troops and supplies and in one lift can transport a complete platoon. In addition, it provides a standby aircraft for search and rescue in the Colony and the near waters, and assists in the evacuation of casualties from the islands and New Territories. Vulcan strike aircraft continued their training flights from the United Kingdom, supplemented by detachments of Phantom fighter bomb- ers and Victor tanker aircraft. RAF transport aircraft activity has maintained the now established regular pattern.

       The continuing secure and stable situation in Hong Kong in 1970 has enabled the Armed Forces to extend their activities in providing help of all kinds to the local community. These have varied between

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provision of recreational activities on a large scale for the young, assistance to a number of charitable organisations for the poor and the physically handicapped, help with community projects in villages, and specialised engineering works in remote areas; all making good use of the special facilities, qualifications and equipment of the Services. Linked to this work are the numerous patrols which the Services carry out with the Police in the isolated parts of the Colony. These visits help Government to keep in touch with the areas and engender confidence amongst the inhabitants.

      The primary task of the British Armed Forces in Hong Kong remains, however, to be ready at all times to give instant support to the Hong Kong Government and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, should this be necessary. To this end, the Services have maintained a high standard of training and alertness and, jointly with the New Territories Administration and the Police, have steadily improved the arrangements for the security of the Border and other critical areas of the Colony and its waters should an emergency arise.

LOCAL AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

      During the year under review, Her Majesty the Queen approved the grant of the title 'Royal' to both the Hong Kong Regiment and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force and also approved the incor- poration of the words 'The Volunteers' in the title of the Hong Kong Regiment. The award of this honour to the two units by Her Majesty was associated with the final disbandment of the former Royal Hong Kong Defence Force and the establishment of the two remaining constituent units, the Hong Kong Regiment and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, as separate legal entities, each under its own Ordinance.

      The Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) has a strength of about 600. It is a light reconnaissance regiment and comprises a headquarters squadron, four reconnaissance squadrons (three equipped with landrovers and one with scout cars), and a Home Guard squadron. The regiment is fully mobile and its role is to operate in support of the regular army battalions stationed in the Colony with tasks which make special use of the Volunteers' detailed knowledge of the Colony and its people. During 1970, the regiment formed a youth group called the Junior Leaders Squadron. This is

RELIGIONS

---

佛王 在 自定辜

共圖

香港公:

HONG KO

IBRARIES

ong Kong's status as a cultural meeting point has resulted

Hin a great diversity of religious life. The Buddhism and

Taoism of the traditional Chinese co-exist harmoniously with a strong Christian community and active representa- tion of virtually all the world's major religions. Religious observances are strongly interwoven with the fabric of daily life in Hong Kong. Many of the major festivals celebrated throughout the year are of religious significance and almost every home or business place has its shrine or 'God Shelf'. There are many temples, both large and small, scattered throughout Hong Kong. The title page shows the interior of the Temple of Ten Thousand Buddhas in the New Terri- tories, while opposite is shown a shrine sandwiched between tall buildings in the inner city area.

EE

W

UIT

INUS

A

The traditional architec- ture of St John's Anglican Cathedral (left) and the contemporary lines of the Roman Catholic church of St Joseph in- dicate the wide variety of religious architecture found in Hong Kong.

The Shelley Street Mosque (above) is the principal gathering place for the followers of Islam on Hong Kong Island, whilst the Hindu com- munity centres around the Temple in Happy Valley, shown at right.

CH

1

      A quiet moment of medi- tation at the Sikh Temple in Happy Valley.

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a non-military organisation which aims to provide a further outlet for the energies of young people in the Colony and so develop self- confidence and community responsibility. It has a current strength of 135 boys between the ages of 14 and 17 years.

The Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force has a strength of 90 volunteer members and operates three Alouette helicopters and three Auster aircraft. The main functions of the force are internal security, search and rescue, casualty evacuation, aeromedical services and the conveyance of government officers to remote areas of the Colony. The force is ready to fly seven days a week and a 24-hour emergency call service is also provided. Over 100 casualty evacuation flights were carried out during the year and sorties were also flown to assist the Marine Police locate missing yachts, vessels carrying illegal im- migrants, and to detect oil slicks in the harbour area. The aircraft have also been used to deliver weekly newspapers to remote villages in the New Territories and the outlying islands. One of the Austers, unfortunately crashed shortly after take off on August 2 and the pilot was killed, the first fatal accident sustained by the Force for 12 years.

ESSENTIAL SERVICES CORPS

The Essential Services Corps comprises four autonomous services -the units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Services and the Auxiliary Fire Service.

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of some 60 units which can be mobilised during severe emergencies to maintain public utilities and other essential services under circumstances in which the security of the Colony or the health of the population might be seriously endangered. Approximately half of the 11,000 strong Corps is formed from government departments and the other half from commercial organisations. Each unit is principally staffed by a re- stricted number of volunteers employed by the departments or organisations concerned. On the call-out of units, members of the Corps undertake, under a disciplinary code, special obligations in return for which they are entitled to substantial benefits appropriate to the abnormal conditions of service.

The Auxiliary Medical Service has a strength of over 5,300 volunteers, many of whom are professionally qualified in medicine

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or nursing, whilst others are trained for auxiliary duties within the Service. In emergencies, the functions of the Auxiliary Medical Service are to augment the Medical and Health Department by providing additional staff and equipment for hospitals and clinics, to provide first aid parties to work in disaster areas and to provide trained drivers and ambulance crews to assist the Fire Services. Members have continued to show a keen interest in learning first aid, casualty handling and life saving and during the year two hundred qualified life savers from the Service were made available for duties at public bathing beaches, to reinforce the life guards of the Urban Services Department. The establishment of additional Auxiliary Medical Service teams in the New Territories and outly- ing islands is progressing steadily.

      The Civil Aid Services, with a strength of over 4,000 volunteer members from all walks of life in the community, is a multi-purpose auxiliary force which is trained and ready to assist with emergencies of all kinds. Members are posted to the Warden Service, Rescue Units, Command Units and other Administrative Units, whose duties include crowd control, search and rescue, radio telephonic communications, casualty handling and mountain rescue. The Civil Aid Services has continued to instruct and maintain trained person- nel for essential public utilities, including tram and bus drivers and wharf machine operators. During 1970, three new Warden Zones were established in the New Territories at Yuen Long, Tsuen Wan and Tai Po-Sha Tin. The four mountain rescue teams have continued to maintain a high standard of training and one team is on standby duty during every Sunday and public holiday. The Civil Aid Services Cadet Corps expanded to a total of 14 units during the year and a further increase to a total of 20 units (2,000 boys) by the end of 1971 has been approved during the year.

The 580-man Auxiliary Fire Service provides a reserve of man- power to augment their professional colleagues, particularly in iso- lated communities and offshore Islands. In their training, they are integrated with professional firemen and all training is supervised by officers of the regular service. The Auxiliary Fire Service Band is very popular among the community and gives regular concerts at public parks and playgrounds.

16

Religion and Custom

A BRIEF account of religious practices in Hong Kong must embrace such diverse subjects as Taoism, the religious aspects of Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and a kaleidoscope of Chris- tian sects. It is easy to be misled by the entirely different appearances of religious observance, particularly between the traditional Chinese practices and those of the Christian churches, and even to assume a relative lack of religion in Chinese life. It is true that Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are churches in the City of London, but there are likely to be at least as many signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, as in its Western counterpart. Almost every Chinese shop has its 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines, and the traditional religious rites of birth, marriage and death are still widely observed.

There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years, mainly due to immigration from China. Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people.

       Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries, nunneries and hermitages. Because of their accessibility, those at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, some of the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and unspoilt parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is much visited at week-ends and holidays.

       Sightseers as well as devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories such as Ching Shan Tsz and Tsing Chung Koon at Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor and Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen near Tsuen Wan and Sai Lam at Sha Tin. At Tao Fong Shan, near Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on

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     Chinese religion and culture, where the work of the Christian Mis- sion to Buddhists has been carried on for many years. To meet the demands of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

      As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may often be found in the same temple. Many of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port, and, except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been tradi- tionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of righteousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau) and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors). Many Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Other Tin Hau temples which were originally established close to the shore are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations.

      Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, which is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. Other popular temples of Taoist origin include the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin in New Kowloon and the Che Kung temple at Sha Tin.

In the New Territories, where traditional clan organisation has been preserved to a great extent many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular life there. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also

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to be found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. Visits to the graves of the family ancestors are also paid on this day as well as during the Ching Ming Festival.

The fact that Chinese may follow one or other of these ways or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, has often made Christianity, with its exclusive claims, seem uncongenial to the Chinese spirit. Nevertheless Christianity is rooted deeply and growing rapidly in Hong Kong.

Its roots go back to the earliest days of the Colony, the first church being founded in 1842. Since that time, the Christian church has grown until today there are more than 450 churches, and chapels, grouped together in some 60 denominations. The number of Chris- tians in Hong Kong is estimated at slightly over 400,000-or about 10 per cent of the total population. There is an annual increase in communicant church membership of approximately four per cent. New churches and chapels are being organised in new housing estates and satellite towns.

While about 12 churches in the Colony hold services in English, the great majority of the congregations are Chinese speaking, mostly Cantonese and a few Mandarin. The major world denominations are represented in the Adventists, Anglicans, Alliance, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists, and Pentecostals, while churches of a Pres- byterian type are joined in the Church of Christ in China. There are, in addition, a number of non-denominational churches.

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The Protestant churches are responsible for more than 218 primary schools, and 100 middle schools and colleges in the Colony and the number is increasing each year. They also sponsor a variety of service programmes including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, family case. work centres, vocational training centres, aid for the handicapped and many others. Whereas in the past a large percentage of funds for these projects came from overseas, increasingly this is decreasing and local support must take over.

      Churches which are in relationship with the World Council of Churches come together with other Christian organisations such as the YMCA, the YWCA, the Bible Society in the Hong Kong Christian Council. The council's new headquarters, the Christian Centre, houses the offices of Hong Kong Christian Service, Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee, Chinese Christian Literature Council and the Audio Visual Evangelism Committee and the facil- ities include an Ecumenical Library and a Conference Room.

      A near neighbour in the same building is the old-established Chinese Churches Union, in which churches are linked on a con- gregational basis. The union now numbers 135 congregations in its membership.

The Hong Kong Christian Council was established in 1954. Its membership is by denomination, or association. It now has a mem- bership of 22 major church bodies and Christian organisations. Hong Kong Christian Council members represent 77 per cent of the total Protestant Church membership in Hong Kong.

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong dates back to the beginning of the Colony and British Army chaplains were among the first to arrive here. On April 23, 1841, Pope Gregory XVI estab- lished the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first prefect. Msgr Joset built a matshed church at what is now the intersection of Wellington and Pottinger Streets, estab- lished a seminary for the training of Chinese priests, and persuaded religious sisters to voyage out here to start schools, hospitals, creches and other welfare work. The seeds of the present diocese had been

sown.

The Most Rev Francis Chen-ping Hsu, who had been consecrated Auxiliary Bishop of Hong Kong on October 7, 1967, was formally

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installed on October 26, 1969, the first Chinese Bishop of the 130- year old Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong.

Health, education and diversified social service work has been extended and developed during the past year as the people's needs required.

In the field of education, expansion continued and there are at present 259 Catholic primary and secondary schools with an aggre- gate enrolment of 224,151 students.

Social services include eight vocational centres, six social centres, 11 hostels for students and working persons; six hospitals, two maternity homes, 22 general clinics, six dental clinics, three mobile clinics; four residential nurseries for children and 17 day nurseries; two homes for the aged and two for the blind and three training centres for the disabled.

       In their Christian social commitment, the Catholic clergy and laity have during the past year increasingly engaged in joint activi- ties related to contemporary conditions in Hong Kong with the other Christian groups with whom they share an awareness of re- sponsibility to their fellow men.

      Today, church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 342 priests, 117 religious brothers and 818 religious sisters, 38 religious orders and congregations rep- resenting 38 nationalities.

      Catholics as in September 1970 number 247,953, over 90 per cent of them Chinese, spread out in 29 parishes on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and in 15 rural districts of the New Territories.

      Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at a synagogue in Robin- son Road constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory of his mother Leah and it is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 500 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United King- dom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States, South Africa and Israel.

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There are more than 8,000 followers of Islam in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese who have come to the Colony during the past two decades. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Persia and from neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street and Wongneichong Road Mosques, on Hong Kong Island and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is the co-ordinating body for all religious affairs and is also responsible for the mosques and cemeteries. This board is in the process of being incorporated and will be known as the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Com- munity Fund of Hong Kong. Much charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial help to the needy, hospital- isation and assisted education, is being done by welfare committee set up in recent years by a group of public-spirited women.

The Hindu community numbers more than 8,000 and their reli- gious and social activities centre round a temple in Happy Valley. The community has been associated with Hong Kong since earliest times and the temple itself is considered to be one of the finest in the Far East. In addition to visits by saints, swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holi Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Diwali. The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes open to all com- munities, and for the teaching of Hindi to the Indian community.

17

Recreation

HONG KONG is a crowded and busy place where leisure is precious. Add to this the traditional Chinese enthusiasm for nature and the result is a community that appreciates its parks, gardens and playing fields more than most. From before sunrise on a typical morning in Hong Kong people of all ages can be seen out in the open air performing the slow, graceful routines of Tai Chi Chuan, a system of physical fitness derived from ancient Chinese martial arts but now practised almost exclusively for health reasons. Early morning strollers walk among them, often carrying a pet songbird in its cage for a breath of fresh air. Throughout the day playgrounds and pools are thronged with children. And not even the coming of dark brings a halt. The lights come on over football arenas, basket- ball pitches and swimming pools, while the less active gather at the mahjong tables, watch television or flock out to sample the almost endless variety of diversions that Hong Kong offers for both rich and poor.

All of this activity goes on to the accompaniment of an energetic government programme to provide recreation facilities of all kinds. This effort has been gathering pace in recent years. There is no doubt that these amenities are well-used-for example, it is estimated that some 94 million people a year use Victoria Park (excluding the swimming pool), and well over one million the Chatham Road playground in Kowloon.

Existing amenities vary from small playgrounds and gardens serving an immediate locality, to large parks incorporating a wide range of facilities. A good example of the latter is the 48-acre Victoria Park, built on reclaimed ground on Hong Kong Island. Besides a large swimming pool and extensive areas for strolling, it contains two children's playgrounds, three grass games pitches and five hard-surfaced mini-soccer pitches, six basketball or volley- ball courts, 14 tennis and two squash courts, a children's library, a

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RECREATION

model boat pool, bowling and putting greens, and a roller-skating rink.

      Among the major projects completed during the year, pride of place must go to the 18-acre Stage I of Kowloon Park, which was opened by the Governor in June, and to Morse Park swimming pool, opened in December. Kowloon Park, situated on the site of a former Army barracks in the heart of the tourist area of Kowloon, when fully developed will contain the first public Chinese garden, adventure playground and floral clock in the Colony. Equally significant is the Morse Park swimming pool, the first of the new generation of 'pool complexes'. These 'complexes', which will hold up to 5,000 swimmers at a time, consist of main, secondary and diving pools, as well as three teaching pools and a paddling pool and children's play area. Two more such 'complexes' were nearing completion at the end of the year, at Lei Cheng Uk and Kwun Tong.

Other important projects completed during the year were the Road Safety Town at Sau Mau Ping resettlement estate, the Yuet Wah Street playground in Kwun Tong, Tsz Wan Shan resettlement estate central playground, and the redevelopment of the Boundary Street sports ground to accommodate over 11,000 spectators. Still under construction were large new sports grounds at King's Park, Kowloon, and at Aberdeen, together with sizeable play- grounds in the densely-packed Tai Kok Tsui and Cheung Sha Wan areas of Kowloon. A large new stadium is to be built in central Kowloon for football and other spectator events.

The Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department, builds and administers recreation facilities in the urban area. In the New Territories, this responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services working closely with the District Commissioner. The Recreation and Amenities Division of the Urban Services Department now manages a total of 1,388 acres of public open space.

During the year 339,000 trees, shrubs and seasonal flowers were planted in parks, playgrounds, along roadsides and in other public places. In addition to its own planting programme, the Urban Council also encourages horticulture in Hong Kong by its

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Annual Flower Show held in the spring, which this year was attended by about 68,000 people.

      Swimming continued to be possibly the most popular outdoor summer recreation, and a survey of the 38 officially-administered beaches carried out in August showed that they were used by some 130,000 people on a Sunday. There were more than 1.4 million admissions at Victoria Park and Kowloon Tsai swimming pools during the year. Life-saving services were stepped up during the year, partly by volunteers from the Auxiliary Medical Service joining with members of the St John Ambulance Brigade and the Hong Kong Life Guard Club to augment the life-saving and first-aid services provided by the Urban Services Department.

The growing popularity of swimming has emphasised the need for more facilities. Mention has already been made of the three large new pools, completed or nearing completion; in addition, another six pools (two of them in the New Territories) are at various stages in the Public Works Programme. The development of new beaches is also being considered, while a programme for the improvement of existing beaches is being steadily carried out.

Throughout the year, the Urban Council and the Urban Services Department continued with their programme of public entertainment activities which were again expanded and made more varied. Some of these activities formed part of the summer recreation programme referred to below, but, outside that pro- gramme, many Cantonese operas, variety shows, film shows and band concerts were presented. In addition, the Urban Services Department's Entertainment Section, in co-operation with other organisations, presented special entertainments at the Mid-Autumn Festival and the Lunar New Year, the Fourth International Karting Prix, and a number of 'pop' concerts. This entertainment programme was carried out not only in the major centres of population but also at more remote communities such as Tai O and Pui O on Lantau Island, and Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island.

In drawing up the programme particular (but by no means exclusive) emphasis was placed upon the needs of young people and those living in resettlement estates. Attendance at these functions exceeded 460,000.

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SUMMER RECREATION PROGRAMME

      During the summer months of 1970, as in previous years, a large-scale programme of recreation activities and service projects was mounted for the young people of Hong Kong. The activities were financed by a generous donation of over $800,000 from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and a roughly matching contribu- tion by Government. There were also numerous donations from community groups, firms, families and private individuals.

It is estimated that the activities this year touched an unprece- dented number of young people-800,000 and probably more. A programme of this considerable magnitude was possible only through the joint efforts and ready co-operation of the community. The activities involved schools, voluntary agencies, district organisa- tions, church groups, business firms, private benefactors and many government departments.

      This summer's recreation programme included many forms of outdoor activities, visits and tours, sports competitions and coach- ing courses, service and holiday camps, training courses and working youth seminars, concerts and dances, drama and variety shows, art contests and other cultural activities. It is becoming more and more evident that while the activities have a purely recreational value for young people, they are used increasingly as a means of developing qualities of leadership and service in the young people of Hong Kong.

      A significant development this year was the formation of District Youth and Recreation Co-ordinating Committees in the 15 City and New Territories districts. These committees involve local groups and district leaders and provide focal points for the joint planning and co-ordination of activities within individual districts. The overall co-ordination of the planning and financing of the programme was carried out by an ad hoc Central Co- ordinating Committee, comprising representatives from the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and major government departments with an interest in youth recreation.

ENTERTAINMENT AND THE ARTS

      The performing arts play an increasingly important part in the cultural life of Hong Kong. The centre of these activities is the

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City Hall, which had another year of intensive and varied usage in 1970. The demand for use of the City Hall facilities is greater than can be satisfied and a considerable number of performances have had to be given elsewhere in school and other halls.

The City Hall, which was opened in 1962, includes a concert hall with approximately 1,500 seats, that is quickly convertible for use for theatrical performances, an intimate 470-seat theatre that is also used for film shows, a museum and art gallery, two public restaurants with bars and several rooms for exhibitions, lectures and conferences. Most of the facilities are available for hire throughout the year and both local performers and overseas artists are presented regularly in the two auditoria.

The City Hall is administered under policies laid down by the Urban Council, which, often in association with national cultural organisations such as the British Council, the Goethe Institute, and the Alliance Francaise, engages artists regularly to give performances of music, ballet and drama. In 1970, a total of 43 such performances were given. The Urban Council also arranged 26 concerts of recorded music at the City Hall using very sophisticated equipment to excellent effect in the Concert Hall where the acoustics are exceptionally good. In planning these 'Hi-Fi' concerts attempts are made to include works which are unlikely to be heard 'live' in Hong Kong such as Berlioz's 'Requiem'; these concerts have been particularly well received by the public. The admission price for students at all Urban Council cultural presentations was $1, and the great majority of the 92 performances presented had completely full houses.

Local impresarios also arranged visits of internationally renown- ed artists. In the City Hall, they presented 20 artists and groups with a total of 26 performances.

In addition to participation in the Urban Council's own presentations, local musical groups and soloists gave a total of 73 concerts in the City Hall during the year. In drama, three active English amateur groups and many Chinese dramatic groups, amateur and professional, presented 35 productions with 105 performances in the City Hall.

The City Hall Theatre was also used for frequent presentations of films which would almost certainly not have been shown in

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RECREATION

the commercial cinemas of the Colony. These included Indian and Pakistani films, regular presentations by Studio One (the Film Society of Hong Kong) and a number of travel and documentary films.

CITY MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY

The City Museum and Art Gallery's collection of historical pictures consist of the Chater, Ho Tung, Law and Sayer Collections. This has been augmented steadily over the past five years by purchase and, occasionally, by gift. There are at present more than 700 items in total, including paintings, prints and engravings. They form a unique pictorial record of Sino-British contacts in the 18th and early 19th centuries and provide interesting illustra- tions of life in Hong Kong, Macau and other ports on the China coast in those days. In addition, the City Museum now holds about 1,300 old photographs of Hong Kong since 1870. The 'limited space in the Museum and Art Gallery does not allow a permanent display of all these collections, or of the collection of contemporary paintings and prints by Hong Kong artists, but temporary exhibi- tions or material from them are arranged from time to time.

     The donation of examples of painted pottery of the neolithic period by the Hong Kong Archaeological Society greatly enhanced the value and importance of the Museum's archaeological collec- tion. The pottery was discovered by members of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society during their excavations in April and May

1970.

     In addition to the permanent display of Chinese antiquities and the monthly exhibition of art collections, the City Museum and Art Gallery organise regular temporary exhibitions from its own collections and loan material. These exhibitions cover a wide field of interests reflecting the rich and complex cultural back- ground of the people of Hong Kong.

     Among the most important of the exhibitions of Chinese art organised so far by the City Museum and Art Gallery was that of Chinese Paintings of the Ming and Ching Periods held in June- July 1970. This exhibition was assembled from loan items from local collections and was organised in co-operation with the Min Chiu Society. The exhibition was specially visited by many

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      members of the Symposium on Chinese Paintings that was held in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, in June 1970.

Probably the most popular of all exhibitions so far mounted by the City Museum and Art Gallery was that of '100 Years Ago-a picture-story of Hong Kong in 1870' shown in the months of August and September 1970. This exhibition consisted of over 100 photographic enlargements from the Museum's collection of historical material. The exhibition was the hundredth organised by the City Museum and Art Gallery since the opening of the City Hall in 1962 and was visited by 150,000 people.

       The City Museum and Art Gallery continued to present a monthly programme of art documentary films during the year. These frequently relate to exhibitions currently on display.

       The Lei Cheng Uk Museum which is a site museum of a Han tomb discovered in 1955 and preserved in situ, came under the administration of the City Museum and Art Gallery in 1969. Plans are being prepared for the complete renovation of the exhibition rooms and to provide extra space for temporary displays serving the local community.

       The total attendance at the City Museum and Art Gallery at the City Hall for the year was 272,440 representing an average of 870 persons on each day that it was open. The corresponding figures for 1969 were 120,000 and 390. At the Lei Cheng Uk Museum, where an admission charge of 30 cents for adults and 10 cents for children is made, the total attendance was 15,225 averag- ing 50 per opening day. The corresponding figures for 1969 were 11,900 and 39.

       In addition to the formal Art Gallery and Museum exhibitions organised by the Museum and Art Gallery, a total of 138 exhibi- tions were held in the City Hall's general Exhibition Hall and Exhibition Gallery which are available for hire. These exhibitions were arranged and mounted by various commercial and non- commercial groups and ranged from exhibitions of paintings to exhibitions of commercial appliances. Photography is an art form in which Hong Kong residents have gained international reputa- tions and it is not surprising therefore that amongst the most interesting of these exhibitions were the international salons of the several photographic societies in Hong Kong.

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RECREATION

LIBRARIES

      The Urban Council's public libraries at the City Hall, Hong Kong, and at Cambridge Court, Kowloon, provide lending and reference services. Each consists of adult lending, junior and reference sections, a newspapers and periodicals room and students' reading room. The new Aberdeen-Pok Fu Lam Branch Library at Wah Fu estate opened this year provides lending facilities and has adult and junior sections and a students' reading room. All the three libraries offer free library services to residents of Hong Kong. Almost two-thirds of the books are in the Chinese language, and the remainder in English with a small collection in French, Spanish and German.

The microfilm collection of 2,710 reels contain rare books in the National Library, Peking, and back-numbers of selected early English and Chinese newspapers of Hong Kong and South China.

In addition to the 506 seats in the study sections of the City Hall, Cambridge Court and the Aberdeen-Pok Fu Lam Libraries, an independent Students' Study Room with 300 seats has been provided this year at the newly opened Kowloon Park as a pilot scheme.

       Progress has continued in the expansion of public library service, including the preparation of new branch libraries and the provision of more reading material and extension activities in the form of book exhibitions, children's story-hours and organised school visits. The expansion of public library services to the New Territories has also been under preliminary consideration in order to meet the growing demand from residents there.

THE BRITISH COUNCIL

The British Council continued to make its contribution to the educational and cultural activities of the Colony during the year.

       Its two libraries, at Gloucester Building in Central district, and at Star House in Kowloon, provided their 8,000 members, mainly students, with a selection of some 30,000 English books, mostly educational. Its reading rooms also made 216 periodicals available to readers as well as providing a quiet place to study for the many

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207

students who frequent them. Circulation figures were over 85,000 issues annually, and on any one day of the year some 3,500 books were out on loan.

Book presentations to the value of $42,000 were made to The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and smaller presentations were also made, on Youth Work to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, on Management Studies to the Extra-Mural Department of Hong Kong University, as well as to various colleges and secondary schools.

       Assistance was given to government departments, the Hong Kong Teacher's Association, the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, and the two universities, to enable staff to visit British universities and other institutions, and to attend specialist courses, or go on tour. Nine British Council scholarships (six for training in the Teaching of English as a Second Language), and two Sino-British Fellowship Trust scholarships, were awarded for post-graduate studies in the United Kingdom with a further two grants-in-aid. Various specialists visited the Colony under council auspicies for lecture engagements and consultations with govern- ment departments. Subjects covered included Librarianship (Science Information Work), Modern British Art, Youth and Community Service, VI Form Curriculum Development, Adult Education, Chippendale Furniture and the Chinese Influence, Local Govern- ment Studies, Drug Addiction, the British Cinema, Polymer Technology, Nursery Schools, Botany, and Higher Education.

On the arts side the council arranged for the large Henry Moore exhibition of sculpture, assembled by the council for the British Week in Tokyo, and opened there by Her Royal Highness, Princess Margaret, to come on to Hong Kong, as well as an important exhibition of British Prints, the work of up and coming artists of the younger generation. Both of these were held at the City Hall. Exhibitions of local Hong Kong artists were also sponsored at the council exhibition hall in Star House, notably those of Hon Chi Fun, and the Circle Group. The council also provided, at Star House, the venue for the English section of the Hong Kong Schools Music Festival.

18

Geography and Climate

     THIS chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present a background against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report may be viewed.

The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon, on the mainland, stand on either side of the harbour, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony to within less than 24 hours of Britain, while the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles of which Hong Kong Island itself, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprise 29 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another three-and-three-quarter square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

      Hong Kong is situated on the edge of an eroded mountain chain which extends along the south coast of China. The main components of the chain are folded and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimen- tary rocks with younger intrusions of granitic rocks nearly all of which formed during the Jurassic Period.

The oldest rocks in the Colony are marine sedimentary rocks forming the Tolo Harbour Formation. This formation is exposed on Ma Shi Chau and contains fossils that have been dated as most probably Permian in age. The stratigraphic relationships of this

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

209

formation are uncertain. The oldest sedimentary formation about which there is no doubt is the Tolo Channel Formation exposed on the north shore of Tolo Channel where it contains fossil ammonites of Lower Liassic age.

       Mineralisation associated with the intrusion of the granitic rocks has been economically beneficial to the Colony. Ores of lead, zinc and tungsten have been mined, while molybdenum, beryllium, tin and copper have been found in small quantities. Iron ore, formed by the pyrometasomatic alteration of limestone during the emplace- ment of one of the granitic intrusions, is profitably mined. Other minerals associated with the granites are feldspar and kaolin. Graph- ite, which formed by thermal metamorphism of coal, has also been mined.

       Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area has any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall regime of the area alone accounts for many of the water shortages.

      Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia, although more profitable crops have increasingly displaced this form of land utilisation. Market garden cropping, including the cul- tivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is be- coming increasingly important. Vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. The upland areas, which are pre- dominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilisation of these areas is principally through afforestation, vigorously pursued since 1945.

CLIMATE

      Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season unusual for tropical countries.

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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and nor- mally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid- March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall re- mains slight it is often fairly persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon- when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and although it can occur from mid-April until September it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rain- fall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm in 1963 and 3040.7 mm in 1889 but the mean value is 2168.8 mm.

The mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever recorded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to over seven hours in mid-July and late October.

      Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force, endangering life and property.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY

211

      The main function of the Royal Observatory today is the pro- vision of meteorological services. Weather forecasts and tropical cyclone warnings are prepared in the Royal Observatory while services for aviation are provided at the Airport Meteorological Office.

      Close liaison is maintained with all ships that visit Hong Kong and about 60 selected ships are provided with instruments by the Observatory to encourage them to transmit weather reports which are used for locating tropical cyclones and in the preparation of forecasts. About 75 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two radio coast stations in Hong Kong. All reports received are disseminated to other centres through the new World Weather Watch telecommunication network. In addition about 5,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received each day from other countries. They are decoded, plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and for fishermen, and all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are given briefings, written forecasts and weather charts.

       One of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory is to issue warnings of Tropical Cyclones. Whenever a Tropical De- pression, Tropical Storm or Typhoon is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly non-local warnings are issued. These provide information on the maximum winds, the position and movement of the centre and the forecast position 24 hours ahead. Reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the Royal Observatory direct from meteorological satel- lites are used to locate the storm.

When the Colony itself is threatened warnings are widely distrib- uted by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Statements and recommended precautions are broadcast at frequent intervals whenever local signals are displayed. The Royal Observa- tory also issues "Thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings', 'Grass fire warnings', and 'Frost and low temperature warnings' whenever

necessary.

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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

       The Observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a three centimeter radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms and a 10 centimeter radar, for locating larger tropi- cal disturbances up to 240 miles away. The latter radar can also be used to estimate the intensity of rainfall and provides valuable information for forecasting as well as for local hydrological purposes.

       The Observatory is also responsible for the Colony's time service. Six pip signals from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95 MHz and are relayed by the various broadcasting and television stations.

       The Observatory operates 12 seismometers, prepares bulletins of all earthquake tremors recorded, and participates in the Pacific Tidal-wave Warning Service. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum- Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However an average of two to three tremors may be felt each year by residents in favourable locations such as on balconies of high buildings. No such tremors occurred in 1970.

       In order to provide warning of any possible health hazards due to radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions, regular measurements of beta- and gamma-activity in the atmosphere and in rainfall are carried out at King's Park Meteorological Station. The radioactivity of filtered water samples from several reservoirs in the Colony is also regularly monitored.

       The Observatory answers numerous requests for climatological and meteorological information from various government depart- ments, firms and the general public and issues certificates for litiga- tion purposes and for insurance claims. The department also acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of many projects in the Colony that may be affected by meteorological conditions. Technical notes and memoirs are published from time to time on various aspects of the weather of Hong Kong and on a wide variety of related subjects.

       In 1970, plans were made to computerise the work of the Observ- atory and a great deal of climatological data was transferred onto punch cards and magnetic tapes. In order to facilitate retrieval and to save storage space, plans were also made to microfilm all weather maps and documents.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

RESEARCH

213

      Operational and research activities continued to grow as a result of the ever-increasing demand for services for aviation, shipping, industry and the general public. Investigations were carried out on meteorological and geophysical problems in connection with various development projects in the Colony such as the extension of the runway at the Hong Kong International Airport, the design of High Island Dam, the construction of the Kwai Chung Container Terminal and the planning of underground transport.

       Considerable efforts were devoted to the improvement of existing techniques of forecasting rainfall amount, tropical cyclone movement and cold surges. Methods were also developed for the prediction of frost, rime and low temperatures.

      Composite cross-sections of cloud distribution were prepared from satellite pictures for the analyses of westward-moving wave disturb- ances and tropical cyclones in the western Pacific and South China Sea. Experiments were initiated to study cloud movement in tropical cyclones by the sequential display of Polaroid radar pictures.

       The Royal Observatory continued to co-operate with several other overseas scientific institutes and the World Meteorological Organi- sation in special research projects in seismology, radioactivity, marine climatology and atmospheric chemistry. In co-operation with the University of Hong Kong, the Observatory will soon resume magnetic observations at a new station near Tate's Cairn.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

       During 1970 many countries in the region suffered from the effects of typhoons and cyclones. There were disastrous floods or tidal waves reported in Queensland in January, Djakarta in February, Korea in July, Japan in August, the Philippines twice in October and once in November. A cyclone with tidal waves swept through East Pakistan on Friday, November 13, flooding a vast area and there was a great loss of life. Hong Kong experienced some flooding in May but nothing catastrophic.

      In Hong Kong the year as a whole was slightly wetter and cloudier than normal but average temperatures were nearly normal. Six tropi- cal cyclones affected the Colony but none of them did much damage.

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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

       Rainfall had been below normal during the latter part of 1969 and the dry weather continued in early January 1970. There was some frost in the New Territories on January 20 but the month as a whole was not abnormally cold. February was exceptionally mild and in particular the Lunar New Year holiday was memorably fine and warm. An unseasonable typhoon, Nancy, which developed over the Pacific, was the first February typhoon on record to last for more than seven days.

March was cloudy and cool with long periods of drizzle. The total sunshine duration of 31.2 hours was the lowest recorded in any March since 1905. During April some rain was reported on 17 days but nevertheless the accumulated rainfall was the third lowest on record.

      May was hot and very wet. It was the first month since the previous July in which the monthly rainfall exceeded the normal amount. A trough of low pressure moving backwards and forwards across south China caused a very rainy spell between May 10 and 15. There were numerous floods and landslides on May 13.

      June was uncomfortably hot and humid. The mean wet bulb temperature, which has occasionally been used as the basis for a discomfort index, was 25.9°C, the highest ever recorded in any June. Rainfall was near normal. July was also a very hot month and the monthly mean temperature of 29.3°C was the second highest of any month on record. However the humidity was low. The mean relative humidity of 78 per cent was the third lowest on record for any July. There were two tropical cyclones in July. Typhoon Olga hit Japan on July 5. Tropical storm Ruby passed about 40 miles to the east of Hong Kong on July 16 and on the following day a maximum instantaneous rate of rainfall of 378 mm/h was recorded at the Royal Observatory. This is the highest rate ever recorded. The previous record of 320 mm/h occurred on August 3, 1955.

      August was a fairly normal month. Six tropical cyclones developed: three affected Japan and Korea, one North Vietnam and two caused strong winds in Hong Kong. The tropical depression which passed north of Hong Kong on August 3 also caused severe thunderstorms and 223.5 mm of rain, whereas tropical storm Violet which passed Hong Kong early on August 9 was relatively dry.

HONG KONGS OTHER ISLAND

31

Hong Kong actually includes some 230 islands, scattered like

     a handful of jewels at the edge of the South China Sea. The one which generally overshadows the rest is of course Hong Kong Island, the bustling commercial heart of this thriving community. But in one respect, at least, Hong Kong Island must take second place. About an hour away by ferry lies the majestic bulk of Lantau, twice the size of its more populous neighbour, its peaks generally wreathed in clouds and its edges fringed with golden beaches and clean surf. Lantau Island, which is featured in the next few pages, was originally considered a possible rival for Hong Kong as the principal trading centre of the Colony, but somehow this never came about. For the most part the islanders have re- mained wedded to their rural past or to the offshore fisheries their ancestors have worked for centuries. Lantau has not been forgotten, however. Major dams and pumping works. have been built there and towards the end of 1970 the finishing touches were being put to a road which will join up the biggest township, Tai O, with the rest of the island for the first time. Lantau today is attracting increasing interest as a tourist at- traction and as a promising sight for commercial development.

   The picture on the previous page shows an interior view of the magnificent new hall opened during the year at Po Lin Buddhist Monastery, one of the most famous of the many monasteries Lantau's beauty and tranquility have attracted there. Two more views of Po Lin, taken during opening cere- monies for the great hall, may be seen overleaf.

The picture opposite shows the island as most people see it for the first time-from the ferry approaching the wharf at Silver Mine Bay.

||

F

H་་

WEA

       For some 300 years these ancient guns and battle- ments have glowered out over the seaways between Lantau and the mainland. Originally built as a defence against pirates, this Ching dynasty fort now shelters a modern primary school.

w

This modern pumping station controls the flow of water from the big Shek Pik reservoir on Lantau Island.

Government

forestry workers tend seedlings at one of the several tree nurseries on Lantau. Large areas, especially around the watersheds, have already been planted with trees and an am- bitious planting pro- gramme is continuing.

BRARIES

This road,

seen here

nearing completion, will create the first direct link between Lantau's main township, Tai O, and the tourist resort of Silver Mine Bay at the other end of the island.

This picture shows the picturesque rope-guided ferry which links the two halves of Tai O township, home of about Lantau's population.

half

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

215

On August 30, a trough associated with typhoon Billie developed over the south China coast and caused widespread showers and thunderstorms over the Colony on the last day of the month.

       September was wetter and less sunny than normal. The total rainfall for the month was 509.6 mm which is the tenth highest on record. On September 4, two tropical storms, Ellen and Fran, formed near the Ryukyu Islands. Two days later Ellen was absorbed into the circulation of Fran and crossed the coast of east China late on September 7. In Hong Kong persistent rain was recorded for the next three days and was heaviest on September 9.

       Typhoon Georgia developed over the western Pacific on September 8. It passed about 60 miles east of the Royal Observatory on Septem- ber 14. Gale force winds were experienced in exposed places but there was very little rain in Hong Kong.

Early on September 16 a rainstorm occurred in the Tai Po area. Several hundred acres of farm land were flooded. Nearly 200 mm of rainfall were recorded at Tai Po Tau Treatment Works between 4 p.m. on September 15 and 9 a.m. on September 16. An early winter surge occurred on September 27. Temperatures dropped sharply and the minimum temperature of 19.3°C recorded on September 30 was the lowest September temperature since 1935.

       A succession of tropical cyclones crossed the South China Sea during October and as a result the month was the cloudiest October since 1909 with the least sunshine of any October on record. Typhoon Iris formed near the Paracel Islands on October 4 and began to move directly towards Hong Kong. However it turned towards the east- north-east and dissipated near Pratas Island on October 8.

       Typhoon Joan was a relatively large typhoon. It formed over the Pacific on October 10 and moved west-north-westwards. The centre crossed Luzon, passing very near Manila on October 14. It caused a tidal wave, widespread damage and more than 500 fatalities. Joan moved north-westwards and eventually weakened near Hainan Island on October 17 and dissipated over the mainland the next day. Typhoon Joan caused strong winds and 89.5 mm of rainfall in Hong Kong on October 16 and 17.

       Typhoon Kate developed over the Pacific on October 15 and crossed the southern Philippines on a west-north-westerly track on

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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

October 19. It caused severe damage and more than 600 fatalities as it crossed southern Mindanao. It moved north-westwards to the vicinity of the Paracel Islands and then turned westwards and caused severe flooding in Vietnam on October 26 and 27 where it eventually died out.

       Tropical storm Louise developed over the southern part of the South China Sea on October 27. It moved westwards and caused more flooding over South Vietnam on October 28 and 29.

       The continental anticyclone over mainland China was rather in- tense during November and the weather in Hong Kong was excep- tionally dry. The total rainfall for the month was only 0.1 mm which is the second lowest rainfall ever recorded in November.

During the month, three tropical cyclones crossed the South China Sea but none of them came close to Hong Kong. However, typhoon Patsy hit the central Philippines and caused severe damage in Manila on November 19.

       In Hong Kong December was much wetter than normal. The total rainfall for the month was 70.4 mm and there was some rain on 17 days. During the month there were four monsoon surges but no very sharp falls in temperature. The absolute minimum tempera- ture for the month was 11.2°C.

19

Population

THE total estimated population of the Colony at the end of 1970 was 4,127,800. About 981 per cent could be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin.

The population, from about 600,000 at the end of the Japanese occupation, grew rapidly and at the 1961 census was 3,133,131, in- cluding 3,843 transients. The 1966 census showed the total popula- tion to be 3,716,400, including 3,787 transients. During 1970 the population increased by 93,100 to reach the estimated total of 4,127,800. This increase is made up of 59,136 excess of births over deaths, plus an inward balance of migration estimated at 24,935.

Density: Hong Kong with a total land area of only 400 square miles is one of the most densely populated areas in the world and its population is about the same as that of Norway or Niger (both 3.9 million in 1969) or Zambia (4.2 million in 1969). The population density per square kilometre for the whole Colony is almost 3,800 which is higher than that of Singapore (3,400 in 1968) and East Berlin (almost 2,700 in 1968), although not as high as that of Gibral- tar (slightly over 4,000 in 1968) or West Berlin (almost 4,500 in 1968). The 1966 census revealed that Sheung Wan with over 165,000 persons per square kilometre was then the most densely populated district in the Colony. This is about 10 times greater than Tokyo city proper (15,754/sq km in 1969) or Osaka city proper (15,158/sq km in 1969).

      Urban Population: At the time of the 1966 census, 31,405 persons excluding transients, claimed to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong. Of these, 26,065 resided in the urban area. According to information provided by the Aliens' Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than three months and children under 16 years old) the figure at the end of 1970 was 17,726. The largest groups were: American 5,767, Portuguese 2,532, Japanese 1,186, Filipino 1,179, Indonesian 1,122, German 926, French 590.

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POPULATION

Approximately 57 per cent of the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most of these and the greater part of the immi- grant population originate from Kwangtung province. The urban Chinese population also includes a Fukien community and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

       New Territories: Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo make up the indigenous population of the New Territories. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. These people differ from each other in physical appearance, dress and customs. The usual village community consists of a single clan, but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan, but as far as is known intermarriage between land and boat-dwellers is

rare.

       The Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Terri- tories. They occupy the best parts of the two principal plains in the north-western section of the New Territories and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages-those of the Tang clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement dating from the late eleventh century. Others date back to the late thirteenth century.

The Hakka people (their name, if it is really Chinese, means 'strangers') began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. The latter were, however, the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, along foothills, and generally on poorer land. The balance was later restored by heavy immigration, and relations between Hakka and Cantonese, which have endured periods of strife, are now peaceful. Intermarriage is not now uncommon and the two groups share some villages.

The Tanka people have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the last five years, young men and women of this community have begun to take factory jobs, and thirty or forty thousand people of Tanka origin are believed to be now living ashore.

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The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations. The influx of people into the New Territories from China in recent years has been so great that only in the Sai Kung district is the truly indigenous population still in the majority. The newcomers are mostly from Kwangtung province.

A mid-term census was taken in the summer of 1966. The boat people were counted between June 18 and 22 and the remainder of the population between July 19 and August 2. The results showed a 26 per cent reduction in the marine population and a considerable slowing down of the rate of increase of the land population.

THE CENSUS AND STATISTICS DEPARTMENT

       This department was set up in December 1967 to collect and co-ordinate government statistics. During 1970, the department suc- cessfully conducted a Pilot Marine Census in February and a Pilot Land Census in March as part of the preparatory work leading to the Population and Housing Census to be taken in March 1971. Training of chief enumerators, field editors and ordinary enumera- tors for these Censuses commenced in October. Also, a pilot census for a census of manufacturing establishments to be held in 1971 was conducted in August 1970. This census will be the first of its kind in Hong Kong and the success of the pilot census has given rise to optimism for the full Census next year.

       The first issue of the Monthly Digest of Statistics, which replaced the Special Statistical Supplement to the Government Gazette, was published in March and contained the available statistics on various topics for the month of January 1970. The department continued to compile monthly trade statistics and the Consumer Price Index, and to prepare monthly issues of Hong Kong External Trade Report for distribution to trade commissions and other organisations. The department also rendered assistance to other departments in setting up systems of collecting statistics and to the City District Offices, the Resettlement Department and social survey groups of the uni- versities in the planning and carrying out of small-scale sample surveys.

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POPULATION

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout the Colony. The General Register Office is situated at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are maintained. Sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts, while in outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

The statutory period during which a birth should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days from the date of birth. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth, the birth may be registered upon pay- ment of a fee of $2. During the year 77,465 live births and 20,763 deaths were registered, compared with 79,329 and 18,730 respectively in 1969. These figures, when adjusted for under-registration, give a natural increase in population for 1970 of about 59,100. Only 90 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry.

       A birth which has not been registered within one year after the date of birth may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a fee of $15. During the year 2,010 such births were post-registered including 680 in the New Territories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there continues to be a number of cases where non-registration was due to the fact that facilities for regis- tration were not available until 1932, and also some cases relating to births in the war years when there was no registration of births. However, in most cases during the last year applications for post- registration have been in respect of minors. The New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub-registries or by mobile registration teams. All applications for post-registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

       The General Register Office is responsible for the compilation of vital statistics for the Colony. The Hollerith system is used for com- piling statistics of birth and mortality. This information is recorded in separate statistical forms and coding sheets for card punching and data processing by computer.

POPULATION

MARRIAGES

221

       All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done very rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

       Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at any of the 10 full- time marriage registries and four part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 18,676 marriages were performed in the registries and 1,755 at licensed places of worship. The total was 20,431; 47 more than in 1969. All marriage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

       The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian cus- tomary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not have to be registered under that Ordinance. No statistics of such marriages are therefore available, but it is believed that the number has steadily decreased in recent years as a result of registered marriages becom- ing more and more popular. The position with respect to these unregistered marriages has long been recognised as being very un- satisfactory and on July 10, 1970 a Marriage Reform Ordinance was enacted. This Ordinance provides that on and after October 7, 1971, all marriages entered into in Hong Kong shall imply the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others and may be contracted only in accordance with the Mar- riage Ordinance. It provides for the recognition as valid of certain customary marriages contracted outside the Marriage Ordinance before the last mentioned date. Certain other marriages, known as modern marriages, being non-customary and also outside the Mar- riage Ordinance, are also validated by the Marriage Reform Ordin- ance provided they have been entered into before the said date. There is also provision for post-registration of these customary and modern marriages and for dissolution of such marriages by mutual consent.

20

Natural History

DESPITE rapid urbanisation and an expanding population, Hong Kong has clung to its countryside heritage with surprising success. By far the greater part of the Colony's land mass is still rolling fields, quiet wooded hills, lush valleys and beaches. Here can be found the animal and plant life of Hong Kong.

Government's interest and concern in conserving nature is dem- onstrated both by legislation and by the activity of its conservation staff. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. In 1969 the Report of the Provisional Council for the Use and Conservation of the Countryside was tabled before Executive Council and as a result two Advisory Committees for Recreational Development and Nature Conservation were subse- quently created in September 1970. One Committee is to make recommendations in respect of measures to be taken on Hong Kong Island, while the other Committee will make recommendations cover- ing the New Territories. New legislation was enacted to prohibit, except under licence, the trading in, importation, exportation and possession of certain non-indigenous rare animals and birds which are in danger of extinction. The law covering the protection of local fauna is also being revised.

WILD LIFE

With increased urbanisation and greater use of the countryside by an urban population many wild animals, particularly mammals, are declining in numbers. Indigenous mammals which no longer occur are the Crab-Eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, the Tiger and the Leopard. The last definite record of a Tiger was in 1947 and the last recorded sighting of a Leopard in 1957. The Eastern Chinese Otter, once abundant, is now a rare visitor, and of the carnivores, the South China Red Fox and the Chinese Leopard Cat have all but disappeared from the Colony.

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223

The Barking Deer and the Wild Pig were once plentiful all over the Colony. Both are now rare in the New Territories and the remaining Barking Deer on Hong Kong Island are confined to a few areas, particularly the forests about the Peak.

Of the larger indigenous mammals, the Chinese Pangolin (Scaly Anteater) which grows to three-and-a-half feet and is protected by horny scales, may occasionally be seen. Monkeys are to be seen on the hillslopes and the more daring ones on the motor roads near the Kowloon reservoirs. The South China Red Fox has been sel- dom sighted in recent years.

Smaller mammals are abundant in the Colony, and the Woodland Shrew and the House Shrew are fairly numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in some areas of the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island.

There is ample opportunity in Hong Kong for either serious study, or simple enjoyment, of bird life and the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society holds approximately 12 field outings each year. Nearly 350 species, representing more than 60 different families, including resi- dent and migrant birds, have so far been recorded in the Colony.

The largest species is undoubtedly the Spotted-billed Pelican which comes in small numbers as a winter visitor to the Mai Po Marshes. Among the smallest are the insectivorous White-eyes, of the wooded areas, and the Yellow-bellied Wren Warbler of the reed beds. The Chinese Blue Magpie, with royal blue plumage and orange beak, and the Crow Pheasant of dark brown plumage with light brown wings, can frequently be seen on the shrubby and wooded hillsides. The Crow Pheasant is neither crow nor pheasant, but a cuckoo and has a haunting call of descending notes which can be heard in spring and early summer. The bulbuls and the minute Tailor Bird, with its insistent 'tch tch' call, are common birds in urban areas, and the beautiful song of the Wah Mei delights hikers and residents in the countryside.

Snakes, lizards and frogs are well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapin and turtle. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the

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NATURAL HISTORY

venomous land snakes are: the Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait with black and white bands; Mac- clelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black trans- verse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the very rare Mountain Pit Viper and the White-lipped Viper or Bamboo Snake. The Bamboo Snake is bright green, and although less venomous than the others, is more often seen and is more likely to attack if accidentally disturbed. The Hamadryad preys almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snake, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but, fortunately, have never been known to attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Hong Kong newt, which has not been record- ed anywhere else in China.

There are nearly 200 species of butterfly in the Colony. Of the many moths two are outstanding for their size. These are the Atlas and Moon moths with wing spans of nine and six inches respectively. Apart from butterflies and moths there is a great variety of insects, many brilliantly coloured. They include many species of dragon fly and damsel fly and metallic-coloured beetles and solitary wasps. The beautiful Candle Fly or Lantern Fly has delicately coloured wings like those of a butterfly, but is more closely related to the cicada. It lives on lychee trees and is remarkable in that its forehead is almost as long as its body, hence the Chinese name which trans- lated means the elephant-nosed bug. The adults of several species of cicada emerge during spring and summer. They range from the rare three-and-a-half inches Tacua to the small grass cicadas less than half an inch long.

       Land molluscs of note are the Giant African Snail, measuring about five inches long, which was introduced (and is now a con- siderable pest), and a large black slug, Veronicella, a species sufficiently distinct from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

MARINE LIFE

       Marine life in Hong Kong waters is exceedingly diverse in variety, form and colour. It used to sustain a profitable inshore fishery, as the Yellowtail (Seriola quinquilineata), Mackerels (Scomberomorus species), Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena arocea) and a number of

NATURAL HISTORY

225

other schooling species appeared seasonally in commercially ex- ploitable quantities. In the course of fisheries development, however, the abundance of these resources (with the exception of certain isospondylous fishes) began to diminish-possibly due to an in- creasing disturbance of the local marine environment. The full extent of Hong Kong's marine fauna is difficult to assess but the diverse varieties of fish, crustacea, cephalopod, mollusc and seaweed in- dicate that the number of species involved is certainly very high. The discharge of the largest freshwater system in South China to the west, and the prevailing Taiwan Current from the northeast, have created a situation where the westerly sector of Hong Kong has a predominately brackishwater fauna, while the eastern sector has a genuine marine fauna. A notable marine animal which has been successfully introduced in the Deep Bay area is the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. It is now being cultivated.

FLORA

The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. After centuries of cutting and burning most of the original arborescent vegetation on the mountainsides has been replaced by herbaceous cover, but in the ravines and on sheltered northern slopes a flora rich in flowering shrubs, low trees and ferns persists. Few high trees are to be found except in the fine fung shui groves preserved around many villages in the New Territories. A great variety of plants in Hong Kong bear flowers of exceptional beauty or fragrance.

The Bauhinia Blakeana, which grows on a medium-sized ever- green tree known as the Hong Kong orchid tree, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. Named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, it was discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

There are several species of camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with

226

NATURAL HISTORY

red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia Hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct camellia was dis- covered in 1955 and named Camellia Granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee reser- voir, bearing handsome white flowers five-and-a-half inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been distributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

       More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

       By regulations, made under the Forestry Ordinance, special pro- tection is given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, magnolias, orchids, and azaleas.

The Hong Kong Herbarium, which was founded in 1878, contains a valuable collection of over 30,000 plant specimens including all the known 2,346 indigenous species and some 2,500 related species from adjacent regions of East and South East Asia. The Herbarium, situated in the Causeway Bay Magistracy building, is open to the public during office hours.

21

History

Hong Kong-'a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the 19th century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

       The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

      In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a

228

HISTORY

prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

Trade relations between Britain and China originally centred on Canton. The first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese was the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699.

In 1839 Chinese alarm over the growing opium trade culminated in the appointment by the Emperor of Special Commissioner Lin Tse-hsu with orders to stamp it out.

Lin surrounded the foreign factories in Canton with an armed force and demanded the surrender of all opium supplies for destruc- tion. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents. But Elliot refused to allow anyone to sign the bond and, much to Lin's annoyance, all British trade was stopped until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British. community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by commer- cial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a

* The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public

park near original site.

HISTORY

229

settlement in relations between Britain and China. He demanded either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by enforcing measures against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and Keshen, a Manchu commissioner who had replaced Lin after his exile in disgrace, resulted in agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty- the Convention of Chuenpi-on January 20, 1841. By it, Hong Kong was to be ceded. The island was formally occupied by a naval party on January 26, 1841, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a 'barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

Pottinger visited Hong Kong Island during the winter of 1841-2 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's

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HISTORY

Road'. Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supple- mentary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 the Chinese were allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed, British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, prob- ably malaria, decimated the Europeans and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, while build- ings in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000, with a further 2,000 living afloat. The first report on population in June 1845 gave the total as 23,817, of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

At first the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium, as had been predicted, trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parlia- mentary committee of enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts that Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

Shortly after Hong Kong's foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to South-East Asia and the countries bordering the Pacific. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco. In 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration of labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses connected with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing reasonable standards of food, space and medical atten- tion. This tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports, but Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

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231

The Tai Ping Rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting in thousands seeking refuge in the Colony. By 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated and is significant among the factors which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

The Treaties of Tientsin at the conclusion of the Second Anglo- Chinese War of 1856-8, gave Britain and France the privilege of diplomatic representation at Peking. However, the first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had served as Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong in 1844-5, was met by armed Chinese opposition at Taku Bar on his way to the Chinese capital. In the ensuing hostilities, Kowloon peninsula was occupied and used as a camp for the British forces and Sir Harry Parkes, at Canton, secured from the Viceroy there the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking, 1860, converted the lease into an outright cession.

By the Convention of Peking of 1898, negotiated with China because of rivalry between the western powers over concessions in China and because of fear of French and Russian ambitions in the Far East following the alliance of these two powers in 1893, Hong Kong's boundaries were again extended by a 99-year lease of the mainland north of Kowloon, together with some 235 islands in the vicinity. This extension soon acquired the name New Territories. The British take-over in April 1899 met with some initial ill-organised armed opposition, but Sir Henry Blake based the administration on the maintenance of Chinese law and custom, in co-operation with village committees and headmen, and by extensive visits to the villages to explain his policy in person he was able to build up confidence. Steps were taken to improve economic conditions and check widespread malaria, so that the population of the New Territories has gradually increased from about 100,000 to nearly half a million as shown by the 1961 Census.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

       The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion in trade and population, and of consequent material and social improvements.

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HISTORY

      The old traditional practice of European and Chinese communities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. Each pursued his own way of life largely independent of the other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education there could be little Chinese participation in government, western com- merce or the professions. There have been, however, Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by missionary bodies, who have received grants or subsidies since 1873 and have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai, with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of its first graduates was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

       Undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding in 1911 of the University of Hong Kong, which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis of its faculties of medicine and engineering. The university was made possible by the enthusiasm of Sir Frederick Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody who met the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the university has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking university in a Chinese environ- ment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and South- East Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community.

The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials, but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle,

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       and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected'. The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. It was changed again in 1969 to Secretary for Home Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body representative of responsible Chinese opinion.

       The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building and Queen's Road approxi- mately follows the line of the original settlement. Expansion could only take place on the slopes of the Peak-as for example Stanley Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable area or by reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously overcrowded and insanitary. It was this which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

       The earliest reclamation was the filling of a small creek in 1851, to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land. The most important reclamation was that in the Central District, begun in 1890 and completed in 1904, which added Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclamations were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

       Increasing urbanisation led also to the problem of water, and the start of a century-long race between water supply and population demand. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugurated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung (1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935, named in honour of the silver jubilee of King George V's reign.

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THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

       The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first world war was followed by strong nationalist and anti- foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

      Japanese plans for political aggrandisement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first world war to present her 'twenty-one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and South-East Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December

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18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were over- whelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley while the Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating con- ditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organising mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Terri- tories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional Government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military Government. Civil Government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000 rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. A by-census taken in 1966 showed a population figure of 3,716,400.

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Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied the growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has played, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. Low-cost housing schemes and multi-storey resettlement estates have called for a heavy investment of public funds; schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided on a huge scale. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon is the largest general hospital in the Common- wealth. The Chinese University of Hong Kong has been created from a federation of post-secondary colleges. Despite the substan- tial progress made, however, the demand for more services continues and is still far from being satisfied.

Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernised much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. In Kowloon and Tsuen Wan particularly, industrialists have opened many large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export to all parts of the world. To meet the demand for land for industry and housing the Government has continued to carry out many new reclamation schemes, principally in the Central District, Causeway Bay, at various points on the northern shores of the harbour, and by Kwai Chung. The investigation of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Impressive schemes to improve the water supply were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957, and at Shek Pik in 1963; the Plover Cove scheme, which opened in 1968, trebled the amount of water available. Following a period of unparalleled drought in 1963-4, an arrangement was made with the Kwangtung Provincial Authorities to purchase 15,000 million gallons of water annually.

The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops, coupled with the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques, have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with produc- tivity and trade promotion, and with technical and vocational training.

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       The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network; more rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in the face of public demand for transport services and the big increase in the number of private cars. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. The airport has a runway 8,340 feet long, built on a promontory reaching out into Kowloon Bay and capable of meeting the needs of the biggest aircraft yet in service. Further extensions are under way cope with the arrival of the Jumbo jets. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sightseeing and shopping facilities, and night-time entertainment.

Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Wired and wireless radio and television has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment. There are many modern cinemas. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

       A pulsating tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life. But it is the growth of local industry, which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, that has been the most significant feature-after population growth- in the Colony's history in the post-war years.

22

Constitution and Administration

HONG KONG is a British Crown Colony, and this chapter describes the way in which the Hong Kong Government is organised to administer the Colony. The policy of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom is that there shall be no major constitutional change; nor is there much popular pressure for it.

THE GOVERNOR

          The office of Governor is the central feature of the Government of Hong Kong. The Governor is the representative of the Queen and is in a real sense the head of the Government. He presides at meetings of the Executive Council, whose advice he must seek on important policy matters. He is also the President of the Legislative Council, where he possesses both an original and a casting vote. All bills passed by the Legislative Council must have his assent before they become law. With strictly defined exceptions, he is responsible for every executive act of the Government.

The Governor is appointed by the Queen and derives his authority from the Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom. These Letters Patent create the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hong Kong, and require him to observe the laws of the Colony and such Instructions as may be given him by the Queen or Secretary of State. Among the more important of these are the Royal Instructions and Colonial Regula- tions.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

The composition of the Executive Council is determined by the Royal Instructions, which provide that it shall consist of five ex officio members (the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Financial Secretary) together with such other persons as are appointed by the Queen, or by the Governor on the instructions

      This young audience is typical of the enthusi- astic crowds which keep the City Hall's facilities stretched to the limit. The performer (opposite) is taking part in a tradi- tional Chinese opera, but on another night it could just as easily be modern ballet, experimental the- atre or a pop show.

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Some of the City Hall's wide range of activities are illustrated in the four pictures on these pages. An orchestral concert (above left); a travelling exhibi- tion of Henry Moore's sculpture (lower left); a Ming dynasty shrine and an early Ching rooftile decoration in the museum section (top right); and a photographic exhibition.

      The City Hall's activities are not limited to in- doors. Here passers-by admire the blooms at the annual Urban Council flower show.

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of the Secretary of State. At the present time, one official member and eight unofficial members have been appointed in addition to the five ex officio members already mentioned.

       The Executive Council usually meets once a week throughout the year but additional meetings are held if necessary. The Governor presides at meetings of the Council, although he is not a member of it. The Council's function is to advise the Governor, who is required by the Royal Instructions to consult it on all important matters of policy except:

(a) those of such immediate urgency as to preclude prior con- sultation (in which case the Governor must inform the Council as early as practicable thereafter of the measures adopted and the reasons therefor);

(b) where such consultation could prejudice the interests of the

Colony;

(c) where the appointment, disciplinary control, or removal

from office of a public officer is involved.

Meetings of the Council are summoned by the Governor, who alone decides in accordance with the Royal Instructions which matters to submit for its advice. However, should the Governor not submit a matter for the Council's advice when requested by a member to do so, a record of the request and refusal must be entered in the minutes of the Council.

The decision on any question which comes before the Council is that of the Governor. If he decides to act in opposition to the advice given by the majority of members, he is required to report his reasons to the Secretary of State.

The Governor in Council (that is, the Governor acting after re- ceiving the advice of the Executive Council) is also the statutory authority for making regulations, rules and orders under a number of Ordinances. The Governor in Council also considers appeals, petitions, and objections under Ordinances which confer such a statutory right of appeal.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

This Council comprises the Governor, who is both a member and president, four ex officio members (the Colonial Secretary, the

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Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs, and the Financial Secretary), eight official members and 13 unofficial members. With the exception of the ex officio members, all members are appointed by the Queen or by the Governor on the instructions of the Secretary of State.

The primary functions of the Council are to enact legislation and to control the expenditure of public funds. The Queen has the power to disallow laws passed by the Legislative Council and assented to by the Governor. In addition, laws having effect within the Colony may also be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and by the Queen by Order in Council in exercise either of prerogative powers or of powers conferred by an English Act of Parliament.

      The procedure in the Legislative Council is broadly similar to that of the House of Commons, with provisions for public debates and for questions. There is a debate on financial and economic affairs in February/March of each year during the second reading of the Appropriation Bill. A wider-ranging debate on social progress and government policy in general normally takes place at the open- ing of the new session of the Council in October of each year.

The Finance Committee of the Council, which consists of the Colonial Secretary (Chairman), the Financial Secretary, the Director of Public Works and all the unofficial members of the Legislative Council, considers requests for the supplementary provision of funds, and meets in private once a fortnight on average.

JUDICIARY

       Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Supreme Court Ordinance, the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge and the puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent issued under the Public Seal by the Governor on instructions from the Sovereign given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State; district judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by instrument under the Public Seal or by warrant. The qualifications of puisne judges are prescribed in the Supreme Court Ordinance and those of district judges in the District Court Ordinance.

The function of the Judiciary is to try all prosecutions and to determine civil disputes, whether between individuals or between

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individuals and the Government. The principle of English constitu- tional law that, in the performance of their judicial acts, members of the Judiciary are completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the Government is fundamental in Hong Kong. The English common law and the rules of equity are in force in Hong Kong, so far as they may be applicable to local circumstances. English Acts of Parliament are in force in the Colony only if applied to Hong Kong by the Legislative Council or by their own terms or by an Order in Council. The locally enacted laws of the Colony are consolidated and revised periodically; the last edition of them was published in loose leaf form in 1967.

The courts of justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Coroners Courts and the Tenancy Tribunal. In 1970, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, six puisne judges, eight district judges, 36 magistrates, two coroners and a President of the Tenancy Tribunal.

Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. In the case of in- dictable offences, however, their powers of punishment are restricted to a maximum of two years' imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may impose some higher penalty. Cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by magistrates when trying two or more offences together may not exceed three years. Magistrates also hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer criminal cases to the District Court for trial, on the application of the Attor- ney General.

A Justice of the Peace Court, consisting of two Justices of the Peace, and having the same jurisdiction as a special magistrate, also sits several times a week. The two coroners sit one in Hong Kong, one in Kowloon. The work of the Tenancy Tribunal is described in Chapter 8.

The District Court, established in 1953, provides a simple method of trial of civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter is under $10,000, or $5,000 in the case of land, and also tries criminal

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cases transferred to it by the magistrates. It exercises appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals and in tenancy tribunal matters, and ordinary jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by a judge sitting alone; he may not award more than five years im- prisonment.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bank- ruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1966-70 will be found in Appendix 45).

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court, which sits when required and is composed of two or three judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal in England. Appeals may be brought from the Full Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

LEGAL AID

The Legal Aid scheme in civil cases in its present form first came into operation on January 12, 1967 and provided for the giving of legal aid to litigants of limited means in cases in which these litigants appeared to have reasonable grounds for taking, defending or continuing civil actions. At the outset, the scheme was adminis- tered by a sub-department of the Judiciary under the Director of Legal Aid.

The scheme provided for legal aid to be given in almost all types of proceedings heard in the District Court, the Supreme Court and in the Full Court. Its scope was increased in July 1969 by reason of the transfer to the District Court of the civil jurisdiction hitherto exercised by the magistrates.

On January 1, 1970, the Director of Legal Aid also took over the administration of legal aid in criminal cases. Such legal aid is available for accused persons of limited means in all cases tried in

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the Supreme Court, and in all appeals heard in the Supreme Court and the Full Court.

      The Legal Aid Department was established as a separate depart- ment, independent of the Judiciary, on July 1, 1970.

URBAN COUNCIL

The Urban Council consists of a maximum of 26 members, six ex officio, 10 elected unofficial members and not more than 10 unofficial members appointed by the Governor. The term of office of an unofficial member (which term includes both elected and appointed members) is four years. Of the ex officio members, the Chairman (who is appointed by the Governor) is the Director of the Urban Services Department, while the Vice-chairman is the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services in charge of the health division of that department. The other ex officio members are the Secretary for Home Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Social Welfare and the Commissioner for Resettle-

ment.

The Council meets monthly, though most of its business is con- ducted by 17 select committees which meet at frequent intervals. Unofficial members of the Council are in the majority on all select committees, and the chairman of each committee is an unofficial member.

The main responsibilities of the Council are sanitation and hygiene, licensing and inspection of food premises and factories, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries, running of markets and abattoirs, licensing and control of hawkers, management of ceme- teries and crematoria, and control of funeral parlours, licensing of advertisement signs, management of the City Hall and public libraries, management of government car parks and the control and maintenance of places of public recreation, such as bathing beaches, swimming pools, tennis courts, squash courts and parks and play- grounds in the urban areas. The Urban Council is also the com- petent authority for the management of resettlement cottage areas and estates and resettlement factories in the urban areas. Policies and decisions of the Council are carried out by the Urban Services Department and, in the case of resettlement estate management, by the Resettlement Department.

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FOREIGN RELATIONS

The foreign relations of the Government of Hong Kong are the responsibility of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, but in the sphere of external trade a considerable degree of latitude is in practice permitted to the Hong Kong Government. Hong Kong's dependence on trade makes it necessary for the Hong Kong Government to maintain offices in London, Washington, Geneva and Brussels to maintain and improve commercial relations with other countries.

COLONIAL SECRETARIAT

The Colonial Secretary is the Governor's principal adviser on policy, the chief executive of the Government, the head of the civil service and the chief Government spokesman. His office (known as the Colonial Secretariat) is under the general direction of the Deputy Colonial Secretary and co-ordinates and supervises the work of all government departments.

The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and for the overall supervision through his Deputy Financial Secretary and Deputy Economic Secretary of departments primarily involved in this field. The Establishment Secretary deals with per- sonnel matters; the Defence Secretary advises on defence and internal security, co-ordinates the work of the local forces and auxiliary services and maintains liaison with the police and Her Majesty's armed forces stationed in the Colony.

A Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office advises on the external political aspects of government policies.

       Principal Assistant or Assistant Colonial Secretaries head the other main branches of the Secretariat, dealing with general matters, social services, buildings and lands, Councils and legal matters.

LONDON OFFICE

       The London Office, situated at 53-54 Pall Mall, is a projection of the Hong Kong Government in London and as such it forms part of the Colonial Secretariat and the Administrative Commissioner is directly responsible to the Colonial Secretary. The Administrative Commissioner provides a point of direct contact in London between

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Hong Kong and various ministries and departments of the British Government.

The London Office keeps British commercial, economic and industrial developments and official thinking on world-wide trade policies under review and advises the Hong Kong Government of the likely repercussions of these developments on Hong Kong. It also keeps under review the needs of Hong Kong residents in Britain, maintains contact with them and assists them over problems arising from their residence in Britain or relating to their families and interests in Hong Kong.

The London Office also operates well-developed publicity serv- ices aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image to the British public and the Chinese community in Britain. It has special sections to look after the interests of Hong Kong students, including nurses and Government trainees, resident in Britain.

GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

The administrative functions of the Government are discharged by about 40 departments, most of which are organised on a func- tional basis and have responsibilities covering the whole Colony. This form of organisation, rather than one based on authorities with responsibilities in a limited geographical area only, is suitable for this small, compact territory and has enabled the Government to provide services without regard to the capacity of residents of various districts to pay taxes.

SECRETARIAT FOR HOME AFFAIRS AND NEW

TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The two government departments most closely concerned with the reactions of the people to government policies and plans are the Secretariat for Home Affairs, which controls the City District Officers in the urban areas, and the New Territories Administration under which come the District Officers stationed in the New Ter- ritories. Hong Kong Island has four districts, Kowloon six and the New Territories five. A primary function of both departments is to assess the impact of contemplated new policies upon the inhabitants and, when they are adopted, to explain these policies to the public.

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They also report on trends of public opinion in the districts. In this general connection it has long been the practice of these two departments to foster links with a variety of private organisations including, in the urban areas, the Tung Wah Hospitals, Po Leung Kuk, Kaifong Association, district and clansmen's associations, multi-storey building associations and religious organisations and youth groups.

       The City District Office scheme, modelled on the long-established District Officer system, was introduced in 1968. The 10 City District Officers who are located in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, are charged with the threefold duty of rendering services on behalf of Government, services for the community and services for the individual. They exercise a local co-ordinating function, test public opinion, watch for sources of grievance and tension, and in general try to interpret to the man in the street, the measures adopted by a specialised and sophisticated administration; they also deal with individual complaints, answer enquiries, provide information and mediate in a variety of disputes.

       At the City District offices and sub-offices, almost all of which are located in shop-type premises easily accessible to the public, enquiry service counters are combined with the reception facilities. The primary objects of the enquiry services are to give the man in the street information and guidance on the services provided and functions performed by government departments, to explain rules and procedures, and to supplement broadcast information during tropical storms and other emergencies. During the year the enquiry services handled a total of 678,041 enquiries of all kinds.

        In the New Territories the District Commissioner and his five District Officers also exercise political and co-ordinating responsi- bilities, and in addition perform certain executive functions, principally in relation to land administration. The arrangements for consultation with the people are more formalised to the extent that there is a village representative system. More than 900 Village Representatives are chosen from over 600 villages. Villages are grouped under 27 Rural Committees, each of which has an execu- tive committee which is elected by secret ballot every two years by Village Representatives. The Rural Committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the Government,

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receiving a small monthly subvention to cover their expenses. Within its own area the Rural Committee acts as spokesman for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Adminis- tration and the people.

The chairman and vice-chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 Special Councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the Heung Yee Kuk whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum of New Territories opinion from which the Government seeks advice on New Territories affairs. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, the Kuk has an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Com- mittees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

ADVISORY COMMITTEES

Such bodies as the Board of Education, the Medical Advisory Board, the Social Welfare Advisory Committee, the Labour Advisory Board, the Trade and Industry Advisory Board, the Housing Board, the Transport Advisory Committee, and many others of a similar nature, constitute effective consultative and advisory machinery which enables unofficial opinion to be brought to bear on policy formation. In addition to unofficial members of both Executive and Legislative Councils, members of the public are appointed to many boards, councils and committees.

The Action Committee Against Narcotics (ACAN) is a standing committee designed to meet the need for practical co-ordination and direct co-operation between the various voluntary and government organisations engaged in the suppression of the narcotics trade, the medical and social rehabilitation of addicts and public education and propaganda. It has five specialist sub-committees, each handl- ing a particular aspect of the narcotics problem. Established in

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      1965, the Committee now consists of representatives of 10 govern- ment departments and eight voluntary agencies under the chairman- ship of Dr the Honourable Sir Albert Rodrigues.

GRIEVANCES

       No administration is likely to claim that it functions so well that injustices do not occur. In Hong Kong there are several well- developed channels for the examination of complaints from members of the public and for helping people who have difficulty in their dealings with government departments. Probably the most com- monly used channel is an appeal or complaint to the department concerned, which will ensure a review, at a higher level, of the decision taken. Another method is a letter to the Governor or the Colonial Secretary, which will also ensure that the matter is recon- sidered. Complaints and representations are also dealt with by the office run by unofficial members of the Executive and Legislative Councils commonly referred to as the UMELCO office which was strengthened in June 1970 by the appointment of an Administrative Secretary. City District Officers and District Officers in the New Territories also receive and investigate complaints. The absence of any statutory powers of investigation is offset by a lack of restric- tion on the type of complaint which UMELCO and the District Officers can receive and investigate. Both systems deal effectively with many grievances.

       In addition members of the Urban Council have a ward system through which the urban councillors receive complaints from mem- bers of the public and bring them to the attention of the appropriate government department or raise them formally in the Urban Council.

PUBLIC SERVICE

The Public Service provides the staff for all government depart- ments, sub-departments and other units of the administration. As at April 1, 1970 the total number of posts in the Public Service (or its establishment, as it is generally called) was 79,924. The strength on January 1, 1970 was 77,975 officers of whom 76,116 were local officers and 1,859 were overseas officers.

This indicates that about one person in every 50 in Hong Kong is employed by the Government. There is a large proportion of

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labouring staff, and nearly 34,770 of the total establishment of the Public Service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Public Service of the Hong Kong Govern- ment is somewhat unusual in that it includes the staff for certain activities which in other territories and administrations are carried out by people who do not belong to the Civil Service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central Government. In Hong Kong, the establish- ments of the Medical and Health Department (10,150 posts), the Public Works Department (9,966 posts), the Urban Services Depart- ment (13,534 posts) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (14,264 posts) account for total of 47,914 posts or about 60 per cent of

the total establishment of the Service.

       The growth in the size of the Service from just over 17,500 in 1949 to about 45,000 in 1959 and now to its present total strength of over 79,900 reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population. However, in recent years, there has been some slowing down of the rate of expansion and it now stands at about three per cent per annum.

       The cost of the Public Service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1970-1 the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, excluding pensions, is about $891 million. This represents approximately 48 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure, or approximately 37 per cent of the estimated total expenditure included in the Budget.

The establishment of each post in the Public Service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its Establishment Sub-Committee, which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilised and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

Recruitment and promotions to the Public Service are, with cer- tain exceptions, subject to the advice and overall scrutiny of the

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Public Services Commission, a body independent of the Govern- ment, set up in 1950. Sir Charles Hartwell, CMG, is the full-time chairman of the Commission, and local leading citizens are appointed as members of the Commission on a part-time voluntary basis.

      Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training and conditions of service in the Public Service is exercised by the Estab- lishment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

CONCLUSION

It will be seen that this system of public administration is unusual in a sophisticated community such as Hong Kong, but it is well suit- ed to local conditions and the economic and social progress made since the war indicates that it works with a substantial degree of efficiency. The Government, though prevented by its peculiar situa- tion from following a normal pattern of constitutional development, nevertheless attaches the greatest possible importance to ascertain- ing and, as far as practicable, meeting public aspirations and needs.

The structure of the Government is by no means static, and institutional and organisational developments still continue on a pragmatic basis to meet the needs of an exceptionally resilient and robust community.

The government of a Colony unique in the twentieth century poses problems to which neither history nor practice elsewhere provide solutions, but which will continue to be tackled in a vigorous and imaginative way.

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C

Appendices

Appendix 1

Units of Measurement

253

        Chinese, metric and British Imperial units are all in common use in the Colony. The Chinese units in the table below are those which have statutory equivalents in Hong Kong.

         In China the standard size of the chek (Chinese foot) increased through the three millennia from the Chou period, and in practice the size also varied according to locality and the trade in which the unit was used. In Hong Kong the variation with usage still persists but the tabulated values are based on the statutory equivalent for the chek of 14 inches.

       In the past, the values used in China for the units of mass have varied according to locality. The tabulated values are those in general use in Hong Kong and are in accord with the present statutory equivalent for the leung (tael) of 13 ounce.

CHINESE UNITS

EQUIVALENTS

Metric (SI)

British (Imperial)

Length

10 fan

1 tsün (Chinese inch) 37.147 5

mm

1.462 5 in

10 tsün

=1 chek (Chinese foot)

0.371 475 m

1.218 75 ft

Mass

10 fan (candareen)=1 tsin (mace)

3.779 94 g

58.333 3 gr

10 tsin

=1 leung (tael)

37.799 4 g

1.333 33 oz

16 leung

=1 kan (catty)

0.604 790 kg

1.333 33 lb

100 kan

=1 tam (picul)

60.479 0 kg

1.190 48 cwt

        The conversion factors are printed in bold type when they are expressed exactly. Not more than six significant figures are used.

254

255

ORDINANCES

Appendix

2

Legislation

Appropriation Ordinance 1970

Bankruptcy (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Bankruptcy (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970

Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Census (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Church of England Trust (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Community Chest of Hong Kong (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Companies (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970

Companies (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1970

Companies (Prevention of Evasion of the Societies Ordinance) (Amendment)

Ordinance 1970

Consular Relations Ordinance 1970

Corporal Punishment (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Crown Rent and Premium (Apportionment) Ordinance 1970

Crown Rights (Re-entry and Vesting Remedies) Ordinance 1970

Diplomatic Privileges (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

District Court (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

District Court (Civil Jurisdiction and Procedure) (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Dogs and Cats (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilitation (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Dutiable Commodities (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Employment (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Employment (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Employment (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1970 Entertainments Tax (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Estate Duty (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Estate Duty (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Evidence (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Exchange Fund (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Exchange Fund (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Fatal Accidents (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Federation of Hong Kong Industries (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) Ordinance 1970

Foreshores and Sea Bed (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Full Court (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Hawker Control Force (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation (Amendment) Ordinance

1970

Hong Kong Stadium Ordinance 1970

Hong Kong Tourist Association (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Legislation

Import and Export Ordinance 1970

Importation and Exportation (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Inland Revenue (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Landlord and Tenant (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Law Reform (Interest on Claims and Judgments) Ordinance 1970 Law Reform (Miscellaneous Amendments) Ordinance 1970

Law Revision (Miscellaneous Repeals) Ordinance 1970

Legal Aid (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Legal Practitioners (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Li Po Chun Charitable Trust Fund (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Magistrates (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970

Marine Stores Protection (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Marriage Reform Ordinance 1970

Medical Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) Ordinance 1970 Nurses Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Pawnbrokers (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Pawnbrokers (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Pensions (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Pensions (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Pensions (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1970 Perjury (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Perpetuities and Accumulations Ordinance 1970

Places of Public Entertainment (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Places of Public Entertainment (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Prevention of Bribery Ordinance 1970

Probate and Administration (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Promissory Oaths (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Promissory Oaths (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970

Protection of Non-Government Certificates of Origin (Amendment) Ordinance

1970

Public Dance-Halls Tax (Repeal) Ordinance 1970

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Public Health (Animals and Birds) (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Public Order (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Public Reclamations and Works (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Public Transport Services (Hong Kong Island) (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Radiation (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance 1970 Resettlement (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970

256

Append

2- Contd

257

Legislation

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1970 Road Traffic (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Road Traffic (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Road Traffic (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1970 Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force Ordinance 1970 Royal Hong Kong Regiment Ordinance 1970

Sand (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Security of Tenure (Domestic Premises) Ordinance 1970 Sedition (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Sir David Trench Fund for Recreation Ordinance 1970 Societies (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Streets (Alteration) Ordinance 1970

Supplementary Appropriation (1969-70) Ordinance 1970 Supreme Court (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Telecommunication (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Theft Ordinance 1970

Trustee (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Ordinance 1970 Urban Council (Amendment) Ordinance 1970

Urban Council (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1970 Wills Ordinance 1970

SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Accountant's Certificate (Amendment) Rules 1970 Admission and Registration (Amendment) Rules 1970

Animals and Birds (Restriction of Importation and Possession) (Fees)

Regulations 1970

Births and Deaths Registration (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 1970 Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Exemption) Order 1970

British Nationality (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Amendment of

Schedule) Order 1970

Building (Planning) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Census (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Census Orders 1970

Church of England Trust (Church Councils) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Colouring Matter in Food (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Credit Unions (Forms) Regulations 1970

Dangerous Goods (Classification) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Dangerous Goods (Classification) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1970 Disciplinary Committee Proceedings Rules 1970

District Court Civil Procedure (Costs) (Amendment) Rules 1970

Legislation

District Court Civil Procedure (Fees) (Amendment) Rules 1970 District Court Civil Procedure (Fees) (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1970 District Court Civil Procedure (Forms) (Amendment) Rules 1970 District Court Civil Procedure (Forms) (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1970 District Court Civil Procedure (General) (Amendment) Rules 1970

District Court Civil Procedure (General) (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1970 Dogs and Cats (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Dogs and Cats (Fees) (Amendment) Order 1970

Dutiable Commodities (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Dutiable Commodities (Liquor) Regulations 1970

Emergency (Principal) Regulations (Discontinuance) Orders 1970

Emergency Regulations (Repeal) Orders 1970

Enrolled Assistant Nurses (Enrolment and Disciplinary Procedure) Regula-

tions 1970

Estate Duty (Forms) Notice 1970

Evidence (Hearsay) Rules 1970

Exportation (Certificates of Origin and Commonwealth Preference Certifi-

cates) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Fire Services (Amendment of Fourth Schedule) Regulations 1970

Fixed Penalty (Traffic Contraventions) Regulations 1970

Food and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) (Amendment) Regulations

1970

Food Business (Amendment) By-laws 1970

Food Business (Amendment) (No 2) By-laws 1970

Food Business (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Frozen Confections (Amendment) By-laws 1970

Frozen Confections (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 *Fugitive Offenders (Designated Commonwealth Countries) (Amendment)

Order 1970

*Fugitive Offenders (United Kingdom Dependencies) (Amendment) Order 1970

Funeral Parlour (Amendment) By-laws 1970

Hawker Control Force (Discipline) Regulations 1970

Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company (Services) Ordinance-Legislative

Council Resolution amending the Schedule

Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1970 Importation and Exportation (Registration of Imports and Exports) (Amend-

ment) Regulations 1970

Legal Aid (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Legal Aid (Scale of Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Magistrates (Forms) (Amendment) Rules 1970 Marine Stores (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Marriage Reform (Fees) Regulations 1970 Marriage Reform (Forms) Regulations 1970

258

Appendix

2- Contd

259

Legislation

Medical Practitioners (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment)

Regulations 1970

Merchant Shipping (Control of Ports) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Merchant Shipping (Control of Ports) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1970 Merchant Shipping (Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Merchant Shipping (Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminals) Regulations 1970 Merchant Shipping (Launches and Ferry Vessels) (Amendment) Regulations

1970

Merchant Shipping (Launches and Ferry Vessels) (Amendment) (No 2)

Regulations 1970

Merchant Shipping (Life Saving Appliances) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Merchant Shipping Ordinance--Amendment of Notification of Ports of the

Colony

Merchant Shipping (Pleasure Vessels) Regulations 1970

Merchant Shipping (Pleasure Vessels) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Merchant Shipping (Small Craft) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Military Installations Closed Areas (Amendment) Order 1970

Milk (Amendment) By-laws 1970

Milk (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Money-lenders Ordinance-Order of Exemption

Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) (Fees) Regulations 1970

Multi-storey Buildings (Owners Incorporation) (Forms) Regulations 1970 Nurses (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment) Regulations

1970

Pawnbrokers (Forms) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Pensionable Offices Order 1970

Pensions (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Pharmacy and Poisons (Agricultural Poisons) Regulations 1970

Places of Public Entertainment (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Places of Public Entertainment (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1970

Pleasure Grounds (Amendment) By-laws 1970

Poisons (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Poultry (Slaughtering for Export) Regulations 1970

Practising Certificate (Amendment) Rules 1970

Prison (Amendment) Rules 1970

Prison (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1970

Protected Places Declaration (Amendment) Order 1970

Protection of Women and Juveniles (Places of Refuge) (Amendment)

Regulations 1970

Public Conveniences (Charges) (Amendment) Orders 1970

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment of Fourth Schedule) Orders

1970

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment of Fifth Schedule) Order 1970 Public Health (Animals and Birds) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Legislation

Public Services Commission (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Public Swimming Pools (Amendment) By-laws 1970

Radiation (Control of Irradiating Apparatus) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Radiation (Control of Radioactive Substances) (Amendment) Regulations

1970

Rating (Forms) (Amendment) Regulations 1970

Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Rules 1970 Resettlement (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Resettlement (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1970 Resettlement (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1970

Revised Edition of the Laws (Correction of Error) Orders 1970

Road Traffic (Parking and Waiting) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Road Traffic (Registration and Licensing of Vehicles) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1970

Road Traffic (Temporary Car Parks) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force Regulations 1970

Royal Hong Kong Regiment Regulations 1970

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) Rules 1970

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1970 Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 3) Rules 1970

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 4) Rules 1970

Sailors Home and Missions to Seamen (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Societies (Amendment of Schedule) Order 1970

Solicitors (General) Costs Rules 1970

Statutes of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Statutes 1970 Statutes of the University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Statutes 1970

Statutes of the University of Hong Kong (Amendment) (No 2) Statutes 1970

Students (Amendment) Rules 1970

Students (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1970

Supreme Court Fees (Amendment) Rules 1970

Tax Reserve Certificates (Fourth Series) (Amendment) Rules 1970

Trustee Ordinance-Notification of Alteration of First Schedule

Urban Council Elections (Procedure) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Urban Council Elections (Registration of Electors) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1970

Widows and Orphans Pension (Application) (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Regulations 1970 Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1970 Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1970 Workmen's Compensation Ordinance (Amendment of Second Schedule)

Order 1970

* Made under the Fugitive Offenders Act 1967.

260

Appendix

Industrial undertakings and persons employed

United Nations

standard

industrial

classification

in main industrial groups

Industry

Industrial undertakings

(Chapter 2:

3

Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

United Nations

standard

industrial

classification numbers

Industry

261

Persons employed

Industrial undertakings

numbers

Persons employed

(revised)

1969

1970

1969

1970

1969

1970

1969

1970

230

Metal ore mining

2

1

368

333

321

Manufacture of textiles

290

Other mining

41

39

769

807

Cordage, rope and twine

21

25

311-312

Food manufacturing

591

656

10,254

11,106

Cotton knitting

245

252

419 9,219

386

8,821

313

Beverage industries

25

24

2,155

2,629

Cotton spinning

34

36

21,814 21,957

Cotton weaving

265

252

31,432 29,547

314

Tobacco manufactures

5

3

1,176

1,022

Finishing

266

290

10,249 10,381

321

Manufacture of textiles

2,197

2,540

123,563

127,466

Made-up textile goods except wearing

322

Wearing apparel except footwear

1,960

2,299

100,337 110,974

apparel

112

126

Wool spinning.

1,990 1,930

13

12

4,150

4,416

323

Leather and leather products except

Woollen knitting

793

1,020

footwear

54

61

857

790

34,316 39,186

322

Wearing apparel except footwear

324

Footwear except vulcanized, moulded

Garments

1,567

1,802

86,850

95,978

rubber or plastic footwear

156

198

3,174

3,888

Gloves

137

185 7,910 8,748

331

Wood, and wood and cork products

324

Footwear except vulcanized, moulded

except furniture

442

504 5,383

6,059

rubber or plastic footwear

332

Furniture and fixtures except primarily

Shoes

123

162

2,417

3,151

of metal

258

347

3,221

3,631

351

Industrial chemicals

341

Paper and paper products

340

411

5,308

6,269

Chemicals

16

17

453

513

352

342

Printing and publishing

973

1,078

17,179

18,484

Other chemical products

Matches

1

1

132

109

351

Industrial chemicals

27

30

352

Other chemical products

112

122

607 3,534

694

Medicines

46

50

1,062

3,676

Paints and lacquers

1,175

11

10

870

874

353

Petroleum refineries

1

1

9

8

356

Plastic products

Plastic flowers

355

Rubber products...

303

337

12,789

12,042

426

516

16,445

14,690

Plastic products (miscellaneous)

969

1,208

19,627

356

Plastic products

2,297

2,756

72,284

70,958

Plastic toys

19,582

902

1,032 36,212

36,686

361

Pottery, china and earthenware

13

16

200

227

371

Iron and steel basic industries

362

Glass and glass products

62

75

1,907

2,047

Rolling mills

16

16

1,426

1,279

381

369

Other non-metallic mineral products

34

36

1,048

Fabricated metal products

942

Aluminium ware

34

41

1,867

2,116

371

Iron and steel basic industries

70

72

2,164

2,014

Electro-plating

192

216

2,303

2,161

372

Non-ferrous metal basic industries

65

75

789

869

Enamelware

21

22

2,361

1,456

Hand torch cases

381

Fabricated metal products

2,219

2,586

47

382

Manufacture of machinery

677

732

45,835 7,518

46,673

48

4,028

Metal toys

3,474

57

68

1,889

1,836

7,454

Pressure stoves and lanterns

31

31

1,979

2,028

383

Electrical machinery, apparatus,

Tin cans

48

53 1,062

appliances and supplies

325

446

384

Transport equipment

56

59

49,111 48,829 13,686

Vacuum flasks

1,181

6

7

1,184

Wrist watch bands

1,106

13,493

108

127

383

Electrical machinery, apparatus,

5,470

5,730

385

Professional and scientific, and measur-

appliances and supplies

ing and controlling equipment, and

Electronics

146

photographic and optical goods

103

146

6,634

7,155

Hand torch bulbs

390

Other manufacturing industries

713

897 33,649

39,779

384

Transport equipment

410

Electricity, gas and steam

10

12

6,172

6,665

Aircraft repair

Shipbuilding and repairing

610

Wholesale trade

13

13

628

644

WN SA

223

37,417

38,362

59

63

4,020

4,150

2

1,853

2,045

37

39

385

Professional and scientific, and measuring

9,914 9,803

711

Land transport

8

8

9,946

10,421

and controlling equipment, and

719

Services allied to transport

50

54

4,632

4,708

photographic and optical goods

720

Communication

1

2

4,472

6,531

Cameras

13

16

2,431

2,322

Manufacture of watches and clocks...

941

Motion picture and other entertainment

64

102

3,448

4,043

390

services ...

16

16 2,124 2,172

Other manufacturing industries

Bakelite ware

36

951

Repair services

255

295 5,523

5,313

42

1,307

1,232

Wigs

...

347

422

25,486

30,990

952

Laundry and dry cleaning

278

287

2,537

2,694

711

Land transport

959

Miscellaneous personal services

2

5

21

39

Motor buses

7

7

8,307

8,846

Tramways

1

1

1,639

1,575

Totals

14,754

17,239

561,563 589,505

951

Repair services

Repair of motor vehicles

188

217

3,908 3,598

262

Appendix 4

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections, 1970

Applications received for registration

Registration Certificates issued

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

...

3,170

1,454

17

Factories 'recorded' at December 31

...

Applications withdrawn

Factories closed and Registration Certificates surrendered

*Places of employment registered at December 31

Routine visits by inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health and

welfare provisions

Inspections in connection with industrial or occupational accidents

and workmen's compensation

310

572

10,793

...

8,630

...

62,113

2,278

Visits for wage enquiries

540

...

Visits about employment of women and young persons

37,706

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

20,467

Visits in connection with enforcement of the Industrial Employment

(Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance

3,292

* Undertakings which are in the course of registration and those which are not registrable but

are inspected by the Labour Department staff.

Appendix 5

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1970

Persons involved

Deaths

Persons injured in registrable workplaces

Deaths in registrable workplaces...

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1969 rate 12.97)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1969 rate 0.040)

:

:

:

:

:..

:

:

:

24,610

259

9,561

39

16.46

0.067

Appendix 6

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue

263

1968-9

1969-70

1970-1

Head of Revenue

Actual

Estimated

Actual

Estimated

$

$

$

$

1. Duties

2. Rates

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences and Franchises

5. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties

6. Fees of Court or Office ...

7. Water Revenue

8. Post Office

9. Kai Tak Airport and Air Services

10. Kowloon-Canton Railway

11. Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc

335,750,196 345,500,000 374,345,101 392,650,000

297,432,347 300,000,000 316,201,686 327,000,000

704,029,167 726,900,000 835,663,532 893,500,000

99,461,909 99,908,400 109,438,954 114,528,000

10,358,589 10,320,900 11,661,255 10,435,000

138,069,268 142,158,400 155,968,524 166,486,000

76,561,377 79,358,000 90,543,475 93,392,000

121,286,603 122,513,000 143,651,882 146,393,000

45,752,725 47,820,800 58,231,140 60,915,000

13,734,475 16,894,000 15,532,848 16,622,000

194,195,164 205,939,400 235,147,900 246,239,000

2,036,631,820 2,097,312,900 2,346,386,297 2,468,160,000

12. Land Sales

13. World Refugee Year Grants

14. Contributions towards Projects

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

39,915,655 55,230,000 121,179,405 101,885,000

7,986

39,500

31,023

68,000

4,562,720 19,028,000 12,333,390 14,091,000

244

727,273

Total Revenue

2,081,118,425 2,171,610,400 2,480,657,388 2,584,204,000

264

Expenditure

Appendix

7

(Chapter 3: Financial

Structure)

Expenditure

265

1968-9

1969-70

Head of Expenditure

Actual

$

Estimated $

Actual

$

1970-1 Estimated $

Head of Expenditure

1968-9 Actual $

1969-70

Estimated $

Actual

$

1970-1 Estimated $

21.

HE the Governor's Establishment

796,110

902,100

22. Agriculture and Fisheries

Department

23. Audit Department

24.

25.

Census and Statistics Department Civil Aviation Department

26.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

988,900

13,381,272 15,416,100 14,572,289 16,642,400 1,930,110 2,086,300 2,144,229 2,264,500 2,473,033 3,757,000 3,459,870 12,819,400 9,302,043 11,152,500 9,542,996 12,583,100

17,024,435 19,597,800 17,768,059 23,392,500

881,145

54.

55.

Police: Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force Post Office

56. Printing Department

57. Prisons Department

58. Public Debt

59. Public Services Commission

60.

Public Works Department

3,972,674 4,452,100 3,502,493 4,530,500 71,191,111 73,618,700 80,705,869 84,467,200 8,014,405 8,976,200 8,635,738 10,070,600 20,806,920 23,047,100 20,869,303 24,727,700 5,019,021 5,019,030 5,015,206 5,015,220

205,505 212,800 204,881

226,000 110,570,214 123,114,400 122,098,376 136,650,800

27.

Colonial Secretariat: London

Office

61.

Public Works Recurrent

...

2,070,900

92,588,718 106,871,000 95,554,545 107,957,900

62.

28. Commerce and Industry

Department

17,660,243

29. Defence: Hong Kong Regiment

(The Volunteers)

2,059,539

30.

Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

1,629,273

20,105,400 19,653,786 21,514,100

2,385,500 2,188,087 2,145,000

1,824,800 1,892,481

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Headquarters

63.

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Buildings

3,745,338 6,642,000 10,700,824 13,111,000

152,574,867 185,212,600 170,616,681 188,909,700

64.

2,284,600

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Engineering

68,870,353

65.

31. Defence: Essential Services

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Waterworks

Corps and Directorate of Manpower

322,427

32. Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service 33. Defence: Auxiliary Medical

333,591

364,200 485,000

223,971

314,714

358,300

66.

Radio Hong Kong

78,778,300 72,022,715 96,592,000

67,254,524 38,406,000 30,373,421 52,015,000 4,476,003 5,651,400 5,117,827 6,134,800

382,000

67.

Rating and Valuation

Department

Service ...

1,300,599

34. Defence: Civil Aid Services

2,564,647

1,787,000 1,450,972 2,574,700 2,797,987

1,683,600 2,848,100

68.

Registrar General's Department

69.

Registry of Trade Unions

35. Defence: Registration of Persons

Office

70.

Resettlement Department

42,572,061

36. Defence: Miscellaneous

Measures

...

37.

44. Kowloon-Canton Railway

Education Department

38. Fire Services Department 39. Government Supplies Department

40. Immigration Department

41. Information Services Department 42. Inland Revenue Department 43. Judiciary

45. Labour Department: Labour

Division

46. Labour Department: Mines

Division

47. Legal Department

48.

Marine Department

49. Medical and Health Department 50. Miscellaneous Services ...

51. New Territories Administration

1,725,576 1,779,400 1,806,282 2,019,200

78,284,033 83,141,900 77,250,989 93,344,500 279,315,183 327,811,500 326,815,770 383,451,500 30,332,595 37,075,500 33,937,290 40,024,300

71.

Royal Observatory

72.

73.

74.

Secretariat for Home Affairs

Social Welfare Department Subventions: Medical

5,465,271 6,528,100 6,427,867

659,686 470,500 472,105 4,302,623 4,279,900 4,176,852

15,575,609 21,139,800 20,911,870 19,083,500 8,061,279 9,629,200 9,070,995 10,237,900 6,988,664 14,940,500 11,689,594 11,111,800 10,583,404 14,271,300 13,149,581 15,657,300 11,227,202 12,526,600 12,299,871 15,401,300 8,630,561 10,924,800 9,873,038 10,817,100

7,716,300

76.

75. Subventions: Social Welfare

Subventions: Miscellaneous

77. Transport Department

78. Treasury

79.

Universities

3,790,052 4,374,200 5,431,429 6,181,900 425,886 437,500 47,629,400 3,675,797 3,873,600 5,278,810 7,672,200 6,931,832 7,933,900 16,914,720 19,880,900 19,204,686 22,498,800 52,457,856 62,085,600 57,732,380 64,023,600 9,350,870 11,625,100 11,068,813 12,741,400 22,728,733 25,339,100 25,724,826 30,071,800 964,233 3,406,100 3,381,234 3,604,200 5,147,746 5,511,000 5,555,875 9,646,900 65,888,639 77,728,000 63,406,213 93,614,500

4,144,674 4,998,200 5,888,556 453,989

45,441,566 3,845,917

6,498,400

445,700

55,731,800

4,524,700

80.

Urban Services Department and

Urban Council

81.

Urban Services Department:

Cultural Services Division

82. Urban Services Department:

Housing Division

650,600 4,522,700

83.

20,931,492 24,976,300 22,665,882 27,060,500

133,582,644 147,858,900 148,239,041

52.

Pensions

53.

Police: Royal Hong Kong Police

Force

170,534,500 42,708,284 44,536,800 49,941,278 52,431,000 13,596,287 15,471,900 14,990,674 17,657,600 53,267,385 56,729,000 55,653,371 63,788,000

143,344,769 158,668,100 156,745,204 176,571,600

84. World Refugee Year Schemes

Total Expenditure ...

Urban Services Department: New Territories Division Secretariat for Home Affairs:

Public Enquiry Service

89,875

1,872,963,445 2,118,146,430 2,032,152,364 2,392,993,220

88,000

11,510

49,400

31,024

1,872,974,955 2,118,195,830 2,032,183,388 2,393,081,220

68,552,706 80,364,800 76,965,760 91,980,600

3,468,953 3,999,200 3,319,416 4,236,200

9,000,980 13,060,300 11,058,206 14,420,400

8,574,577 9,777,500 9,602,402 11,555,100

266

DEPOSITS:

Unspent Grants

Public Works Department:

Contract Retentions

Private Works

Water Deposits.

Appendix 8

(Chapter 3: Financial

Statement of Assets and

Structure)

Liabilities as at March 31, 1970

LIABILITIES

$ 2,802,891.11

$ 9,931,845.82

3,802,403.50

32,288,480.98

46,022,730.30

Other Deposits:

Control of Publications

1,310,000.00

Government Servants

1,201,415.29

Post Office

1,215,318.97

Other Administrations

75,947.26

Miscellaneous

16,507,501.68

20,310,183.20

$ 69,135,804.61

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies ...

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE: (iii)

As at April 1, 1969

Dollar Note Security Fund

Subsidiary Note Security Fund

Add:

Surplus from April 1, 1969 to March 31, 1970

Appreciation on Investments

949,277,875.06

6,961,340.05

2,741,665.00

9,703,005.05(ii)

448,473,999.93

CASH:

ASSETS

267

In Treasuries, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong

With the Crown Agents

FIXED DEPOSITS:

Local

Sterling

INVESTMENTS: (i)

:

:

:

:

$ 69,738,064.64

23,210,507.94

$

92,948,572.58

847,640,000.00

65,454,545.45 913,094,545.45

Malayan

22,029,212.12

572,254,823.15

594,284,035.27

Sterling

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies-Deposits

ADVANCES:

Personal-Imprests

324,833.71

Personal-General

138,024,760.94

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

:

:

:

339,971.57

9,269,321,25

197,192.36

22,965,736.73

18,309,095.91 1,425,763,975.95

$1,633,249,375.21

Notes: (i) Does not include 16,290 shares of a nominal value of (ii) Under the Dollar and Subsidiary Currency Notes on September 1, 1969 and the assets of the related

(iii) There are contingent liabilities in respect of:-

(a) The Colony's Asian Development Bank capital (b) A guarantee on notes issued by the Hong Kong (c) The contracts of the Hong Kong Export Credit (d) Outstanding currency notes demonetised under the (e) A guarantee to pay 25% of sums made available

Limited and Lloyds Bank Limited.

$100 each held in Associated Properties Limited.

Ordinance 1969, dollar, ten and five cents notes were demonetised Security Funds transferred to General Revenue.

subscription.

Building and Loan Agency Limited. Insurance Corporation.

Dollar and Subsidiary Currency Notes Ordinance 1969.

under an Agreement between the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company

150,000.00

32,772,221.91

$1,633,249,375.21

268

Appendix 9

(Chapter 3: Financial

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

Structure)

and Capital Income and Expenditure

269

Recurrent

Actual

1966-7 $

Actual 1967-8 $

Actual 1968-9 $

Actual 1969-70 $

Estimate 1970-1 $

Recurrent Revenue

... 1,715,690,705 1,794,823,131 1,997,208,521 2,325,275,731 2,440,837,000

Personal Emoluments

Pensions

1,715,690,705 1,794,823,131 1,997,208,521 2,325,275.731 2,440,837,000

...

Actual 1967-8 $

Actual 1968-9 $

Actual 1969-70 $

Estimate 1970-1 $

Actual 1966-7 $

573,972,981 625,243,893 722,600,313 801,347,610 891,190,200

43,515,917 46,657,149 53,267,385 55,653,371 63,788,000

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (Excluding Unallocated Stores)

178,051,064

Recurrent Subventions 236,985,765

Public Works Recurrent ... 91,505,753

Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

57,209,115

1,181,240,595

Transfer to Capital Revenue 522,755,160

Surplus

186,682,062 222,236,251 244,437,566 282,563,600

258,446,702 301,057,356 355,767,831 403,208,200

85,922,654 92,588,718 95,554,545 107,957,900

102,183,738 104,250,912 107,235,635 114,665,920

1,305,136,198 1,496,000,935 1,659,996,558 1,863,373,820

356,181,474 293,064,116 216,805,173 386,340,400

11,694,950 133,505,459 208,143,470 448,474,000 191,122,780

1,715,690,705 1,794,823,131 1,997,208,521 2,325,275,731 2,440,837,000

Capital

Estate Duty

19,450,595 18,327,217 15,401,589 13,949,232 14,000,000

Departmental Special

Expenditure

Excess Stamp Duty (3%

on Assignments)

10,219,200

7,778,047

9,308,096

120,034

Private Contribution

towards Government Schemes

6,064,626

Loan Repayments

8,578,514

Land Sales

48,454,617

3,079,983

7,081,291

42,445,806

4,562,720

6,664,749

12,333,390

14,091,000

2,767,349

3,261,000 39,915,655 121,179,405 101,885,000

Capital Subventions

Public Debt (excluding

interest)

32,206,622

16,877,567

3,809,600

3,700,000

Public Works Non-

recurrent ...

479,893,230

26,587,538 28,049,617 33,824,686 75,212,700

18,110,809 31,257,244 25,157,432 65,654,200

3,409,091

3,409,100

360,799,811 292,445,082 283,713,642 350,627,700

3,409,091

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

371,252

12,937

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

World Refugee Year Grants

Taxi concessions

365,648

161,882

8,775,765

13,307

401,688

25,577,029

Services Capital Works

244

7,986

6,568,026

1,480,839

727,273

31,023

Miscellaneous Capital

68,000

Expenditure

85,226,332

52,058,373

18,351,335 21,562,747 32,715,700

Contribution from

Recurrent Revenue

102,070,847 104,704,368

522,755,160 356,181,474 293,064,116

3,000,000 7,062,000 83,909,904 155,381,657 143,367,000 216,805,173 386,340,400

World Refugee Year

Schemes

410,316

60,424

11,510

31,023

88,000

4,273,951

Unallocated Stores

Accounts...

6,031,088

Cr. 444,050

3,450,141

4,488,209

2,000,000

Deficit

624,826,007 460,885,842 376,974,020 372,186,830

529,707,400

624,826,007 460,885,842 376,974,020 372,186,830 529,707,400

270

Appendix 10

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Public Debt of the Colony at March 31, 1970

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8 ...

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

:

:

:

:

$

45,889,000.00

17,454,545.45

63,343,545.45

Appendix 11

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Colonial Development and Welfare

Details of locally administered schemes in progress during 1970 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme Number

Title

D 6297* Extension to Hong Kong Technical

College

Miximum grant available

Estimated expenditure

CD & W Share of approved expenditure

up to December 31, 1970

Total

CD & W Share

%

£

£

50,000

First £50,000

102,648

50,000

R 1817A

R 1817B

TB in the Tropics Research

8,600

100

5,870

5,870

R 1817C

* This scheme was completed in 1969 but the grant was received in 1970.

Appendix 12

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees*

271

1967-8

1968-9

1969-70

1970-1

Actual Revenue

Actual Revenue

Actual

Estimate

Revenue

$

$

$

$

1. Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils ... 108,120,836 117,337,293 135,753,460 150,000,000

2. Import Duty on Intoxicating Liquor...

62,055,754 69,379,458 81,522,312 85,000,000

3.

Import Duty on Liquor other than

Intoxicating Liquor...

4.

Import Duty on Tobacco

1,742,451 2,097,809 2,327,222 2,250,000

121,503,206 118,784,951 125,474,767 128,000,000

5. Duty on Locally Manufactured

Liquor

19,221,883 19,960,586 19,307,643 18,400,000

6. Duty on Table Waters

8,036,885 8,190,099 9,959,697 9,000,000

320,681,015 335,750,196 374,345,101 392,650,000

* These figures represent net revenue collected, i.e. after deducting refunds and drawbacks

of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

1. Hydrocarbon Oils

2.

Liquor

3. Tobacco

4.

Miscellaneous

193,455

194,900

...

3,128,505

198,007

3,323,900 3,488,846 3,540,000

199,000

851,268

32,709

884,000

861,525

890,000

32,800

35,387

34,000

4,205,937 4,435,600 4,583,765

4,663,000

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

1. Denaturing

411,386

405,300

383,594

320,000

2. Factory Inspection and Supervision ...

253

3. Anti-narcotic Smuggling Guards

10,710

1,400

Bonded Warehouse Supervision

331,034

326,600

359,565

400,000

753,383

733,300

743,159

720,000

272

Appendix

13

273

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Approved

Structure)

Loan Fund

Projects as at March 31, 1970

Allocation

of

Funds $

Total Expenditure to 31.3.70 $

Total Repayments

to 31.3.70 $

Balances at 31.3.70

DETAILS

LOAN PROJECTS

I Housing Loans:

1.

Housing Authority (i) ...

2.

Hong Kong Housing Society:

Completed Schemes...

(a)

3.

Local Government Officers

(b)

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans (ii)

5.

6.

Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited

Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited:

(a) Share Capital

(b) Initial Loan Fund

II Educational Loans

:

:

The Mother Superioress of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

Medical Loans:

III

1.

2.

IV - Miscellaneous Loans:

1.

Hong Kong Football Club

2.

South China Athletic Association

3.

Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited:

Ocean Terminal

4.

University of Hong Kong

5.

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund

V Fisheries Loans (i)

VI · Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

-

:

:

:

:

$

260,000,000

250,145,974.03

250,145,974.03

146,018,214

146,018,212.04

10,212,500.23

135,805,711.81

176,000,000

139,118,184.98

36,994,386.78

102,123,798.20

27,500,000

15,823,771.76

1,393,638.63

14,430,133.13

210,000

210,000.00

175,293.72

10,000,000

600,000 6,904,000

9,500,000.00

600,000.00 6,904,000.00

34,706.28 9,500,000.00

600,000.00 6,904,000.00

627,232,214

568,320,142.81

48,775,819.36

519,544,323.45

140,000,000

92,952,014,20

38,720,953.21

54,231,060.99

:

:

3,750,000

2,000,000

3,750,000.00 2,000,000.00

1,388,900.00

2,361,100.00

901,315.30

1,098,684.70

5,750,000

5,750,000.00

2,290,215.30

3,459,784.70

550,000 600,000

550,000.00

448,187.96

101,812.04

600,000.00

380,018.67

26,900,000 220,000 500,000

28,770,000

26,900,000.00

4,035,000.00

219,981.33

22,865,000.00

500,000.00

500,000.00

28,550,000.00

4,863,206.63

23,686,793.37

5,000,000

3,446,618.60

3,446,618.60

10,000,000

10,000,000.00

27,500,000

13,712,500.00

10,000,000.00

13,712,500.00

VIII Universities: Loans to Students (i)

Grand Total (iv)

Notes: (i) These loans constitute revolving funds and are therefore (ii) Includes balances of loans originally made from General

1, 1959.

(iii) This figure differs from the corresponding figure in the the statement of $350,000 loan stock acquired in lieu of (iv) Projects totalling $9,272,934.69 have been finalised and

15,000,000

3,052,420.00

3,052,420.00

859,252,214

725,783,695.61

94,650,194.50

(iii) 631,133,501.11

Revenue but taken over by the Development Loan Fund on October

shown net.

Statement of Assets and Liabilities as the result of the inclusion in interest.

are not included in this statement.

VII

Ad

The Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Limited

274

Development Loan Fund:

Appendix 13- Contd

(Chapter 3: Financiul

Development

Statement of Assets and

Structure)

Loan Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1970

LIABILITIES

Cash:

ASSETS

In Treasuries, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong

Fixed Deposits

Kwun Tong Reclamation:

Outstanding premia (i)

Outstanding Loans and Capital Projects for:

Housing (ii)

Educational

University Students

Fisheries

Export Credit Insurance (ii)

Cross-Harbour Tunnel (iii)

Miscellaneous purposes

As at April 1, 1969

$628,104,654.74

Adjustment in respect of Fisheries Loans

21,908.00 $628,126,562.74

Add: (a) Per Statement of Receipts and

Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

(b) Loan stock received in lieu of

interest (Cross-Harbour

Tunnel)

26,085,378.73

350,000.00

26,435,378.73

654,561,941.47

Medical

Less: Loss due to irrecoverable loans

447,204.89 $654,114,736.58

Deposits-Hong Kong Government (iv)

1.

Receipts:

Loan repayments

Notes:

996.56

$654,115,733.14

275

:

:

$519,544,323.45 54,231,060.99

$ 3,382,160.33

10,000,000.00

9,250,071.70

3,052,420.00

3,459,784.70

3,446,618.60

10,000,000.00

14,062,500.00

23,686,793.37 631,483,501.11

(i) Does not include the value of 7 unsold Kwun Tong (ii) The Capital Projects comprise 6,000 shares of $100 Limited and $10,000,000 in the Hong Kong Export (iii) This figure is made up as follows:

(a) $11,320,000 10 per cent Convertible Unsecured (b) 2,742,500 Fully paid up Ordinary Shares.

$14,062,500

(iv) Being an amount received by the Fund but paid over to

Reclamation lots.

each fully paid in The Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Credit Insurance Corporation.

Loan Stock.

Government after the close of these accounts.

Summary of Receipts and Payments for 1969-70

Interest on Loans

Interest on Investments and Balances

Interest on Land sales premia

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong Reclamation

Kwun Tong Reclamation-Premia Adjustment Deposits-Hong Kong Government Amount previously written off

LESS

2.

Payments:

Loans and Capital Projects (Net)

3.

Surplus

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

$654,115,733.14

$16,645,691.94 24,309,754.15 698,988.67 788,952.91

4,670,425.35 287,683.00 996.56

16,148.10

$47,418,640.68

45,949,527.01

$ 1,469,113.67

276

I-

GRANTS:

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

Statement of Approved Grants and

DETAILS

13- Contd

Structure)

Fund

Loans as at March 31, 1970

Allocation of

Funds

$

Total Expenditure

$

to 31.3.70

Total Repayments to 31.3.70

$

Balances at

31.3.70

$

277

(a) Capital expenditure

(b) Recurrent expenditure

1. Yuen Long Community Centre:

2. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals-Home for the Aged, Aberdeen

1,000,000

802,801.64

250,000

200,000

3. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

for Female Drug Addicts

692,807

196,745.92

4. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts--Expansion of Shek Kwu Chau

Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

2,000,000

1,352,109.00

YWCA-Anne Black Centre, Stage II ...

10.

5. Poh Yeh Ching Shea-Home for the Aged, Tai Po

6. Children's Playground Association-Repairs and improvements at MacPherson Stadium 7. Boy Scouts Association:

(a) Gilwell Projects, Phase B

(b) Tai Tam Project

8. Po Leung Kuk-Annexe to main building

9.

Chinese Anglican Church Body-Kwai Chung Workers' Recreation Centre

11. Capital assistance to Voluntary Agencies

200,000

45,000

14,216.00

100,000

300,000

58,026.08 51,688.00

400,000

400,000.00

750,000

250,000

200,000

149,021.68

| | | | | | | || | || |

12. Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups-Alterations to and equipment for existing youth

centres

16,800

12,598.10

13. Director of Medical and Health Services-Campaign to assist the disabled travelling by public

transport

10,000

4,000.00

14. Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Gymnasium at Pelletier Hall

309,000

309,000.00

15.

The Lady Trench Nursing and Training Centre

1,250,000

601,431.85

16.

Maryknoll Fathers-Social Service Centre, Ngau Tau Kok.

340,000

340,000.00

17.

Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Two additional storeys on the Rotary Centre for the Blind..

140,000

137,185.57

18. Children's Playground Association-Silver Mine Bay Holiday Camp

30,000

30,000.00

19. St. Christopher's Home-Replacement of dilapidated accommodation

60,000

60,000.00

20. Tung Lam Nien Fah Tong Limited-Home for the Aged, Tsuen Wan

220,000

220,000.00

21. Hong Kong Christian Service--Housing for the elderly at Wah Fu Estate

32,750

32,750.00

31.

32.

33.

22. Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council-Diocesan Youth Centre

23. Salvation Army-Tai Hang Tung Social Centre

24. Canossian Missions-Ling Yuet Sin Infants' Home

25.

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

26. Action Committee against Narcotics-a main survey

27. Cheung Chau Rural Committee-Home for the Aged

28. Caritas Equipment for Youth Sections at two Social Centres

29. Good Shepherd Sisters-The Mary Stanton Centre, Stage II

30. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Three libraries

YWCA Youth Centre at Ngau Tau Kok

34. Cheung Chau Rural Committee-Youth Centre

25,000

25,000.00

50,000

50,000.00

40,725

40,724.71

42,000

42,000.00

110,000

98,582.09

32,563

32,563.00

300,000

600,000

91,200

88,661.22

25,500

Social Welfare Department-Two printing machines for the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre Children's Playground Association-Portland Street Playground Renovation

26,770

34,450

15,906.00

80,000

35.

The Outward Bound Trust of Hong Kong School

224,190

148,127.69

Total Grants

:

10,478,755

5,313,138.55

II. LOANS:

1.

2.

3.

Chinese YMCA-Youth Centre

YWCA-Anne Black Centre

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

320,000.00

2,000,000

1,220,340.00

Hong Kong Resettlement Estates Loan Association-Loan Capital

100,000

100,000.00

12,500.00

Total Loans

4,100,000

3,320,340.00

332,500.00

1,680,000.00 1,220,340.00 87,500.00

2,987,840.00

Grand Total

14,578,755

8,633,478.55

332,500.00

2,987,840.00

Note: Projects totalling $3,984,514.59 have been

finalised and are not included in this statement.

278

Unclaimed Prize Money-1969 Lotteries

Lotteries Funds:

As at April 1, 1969

1968 Lotteries

Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Recurrent Payments

Appendix

13 Contd

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

Statement of Assets and

Structure)

Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1970

:

:

LIABILITIES

Cash at Bank

$ 910,036.00

423,112.00 $ 1,333,148,00

Fixed Deposits

Loans*

15,239,051.22

.$7,142,726.55

3,515,276.99 3,627,449.56

18,866,500.78

$20,199,648.78

* In addition Grants totalling

$9,297,653.14 have been made.

:

ASSETS

:

Statement of Receipts and Payments for the year ended March 31, 1970

Recurrent:

Proceeds of Government Lotteries:

Gross receipts

Less: (a) Prize money...

(b) Running expenses

DETAILS

RECEIPTS

Interest on balances

Unclaimed prize money forfeited

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities ...

Non-Recurrent:

Loan repayments

:

:

Total Receipts

PAYMENTS

Recurrent:

Grants

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities ...

Non-Recurrent:

Loans

:

:

:

:

:

:

Total Payments

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

279

$

711,808.78

16,500,000.00

2,987,840.00

$20,199,648.78

Approved Estimate

Actual Receipts/ Payments $

11,000,000 6,600,000

11,364,000.00

6,818,400.00

750,000

770,231.75

3,650,000

3,775,368.25

1,021,000

1,177,910.30

2,189,000

2,189,448.00

6,860,000

7,142,726.55

222,000

7,082,000

222,500.00

7,365,226.55

3,782,000

3,782,000

3,515,276.99

3,515,276.99

2,000,000

1,220,340.00

5,782,000

4,735,616.99

280

Date

Appendix 14

(Chapter 3: Financial

Currency and

Currency in Circulation

Number of reporting banks

Notes and coins in circulation (HK$ million)

Structure)

Banking Statistics

and Bank Deposits

Deposits (HK$ million)

281

Index of Deposits

December 31, 1955=100

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

31.12.1955 31.12.1956

31.12.1957

31.12.1958

34

771.7

1,137

852

152

133

100

100

100

100

34

783.3

1,267

928

173

166

111

109

114

125

35

812.6

1,412

955

267

190

124

112

176

143

36

827.6

1,583

988

351

244

139

116

231

183

31.12.1959

41

896.2

2,056

1,205

482

369

181

141

317

277

31.12.1960

47

984.0

2,682

1,393

752

537

236

163

495

404

31.12.1961

59

1,026.7

3,367

1,470

1,234

663

296

173

812

498

31.12.1962

63

1,123.7

4,311

1,664

1,768

879

379

195

1,163

661

31.12.1963

67

1,229.8

5,425

1,997

2,283

1,145

477

234

1,502

861

31.12.1964

69

1,399.5

6,568

2,237

2,810

1,521

578

263

1,849

1,144

31.12.1965

78

31.12.1966

31 12.1967 31.12.1968 31.12.1969 31.12.1970

75

73

* R R R R R

1,739.8

7,251

2,532

3,099

1,620

638

297

2,039

1,218

76

1,852.4

8,405

2,681

3,742

1,982

739

315

2,462

1,490

75

2,307.7

8,162

2,658

3,324

2,180

718

312

2,187

1,639

2,130.5

10,367

3,144

4,432

2,791

912

369

2,916

2,098

2,260.9

12,297

3,714

5,216

3,367

1,082

436

3,432

2,532

73

2,577.7

14,955

4,326

6,407

4,222

1,315

508

4,215

3,174

Date

Number of reporting banks

Cash (i.e. legal tender notes and coins in hand) (HK$ million)

Banking Assets

NET balances with

other banks (including Head Offices or Branches outside Hong Kong)

& other short

Loans and Advances (HK$ million)

Investments (HK$ million)

Index of Loans and Advances December 31, 1955=100

'Liquidity Ratio' (i.e. cash and net balances with other banks expressed as

percentage of total deposits)

term claims

(HK$ million)

31.12.1955

34

144

12.7%

459

40.4%

632

55.6%

96

8.4%

100

53.3%

31.12.1956

34

97

7.7%

541

42.7%

769

60.7%

98

7.7%

122

50.4%

31.12.1957

35

118

8.4%

578

40.9%

865

61.3%

101

7.2%

137

49.3%

31.12.1958

36

84

5.3%

730

46.1%

919

58.1%

121

7.6%

145

51.4%

31.12.1959

41

86

4.2%

775

37.7%

1,373

66.8%

133

6.5%

217

41.9%

31.12.1960

47

136

5.1%

930

34.6%

1,720

64.1%

166

6.2%

272

39.7%

31.12.1961

59

114

3.4%

1,041

30.9% 2,334

69.3%

232

6.9%

369

34.3%

31.12.1962

63

162

3.8%

1,482

34.4%

2,849

66.1%

191

4.4%

451

31.12.1963

67

210

3.7%

1,831

33.8% 3,642

38.1%

67.1%

187

3.4%

576

37.5%

31.12.1964

69

238

3.6%

1,577

24.0%

4,586

69.8%

271

4.1%

726

27.6%

31.12.1965

78

221

3.0%

2,133

29.4%

5,038

69.5%

527

7.3%

797

32.5%

31.12.1966

76

232

2.8%

2,862

34.1%

5,380

64.0%

537

6.4%

851

31.12.1967

75

333

4.1%

2,347

28.8%

36.8%

5,343

65.5%

590

7.2%

845

31.12.1968

75

310

3.0%

3,860

37.2%

32.8%

6,038

58.2%

636

6.1%

955

31.12.1969

73

333

2.7%

3,927

31.9%

40.2%

7,884

64.1%

670

5.4%

31.12.1970

73

356

2.4%

4,895

32.7%

1,247

34.6%

9,670

64.7%

856

5.7%

1,530

35.1%

Figures in Italics=

percentage of total deposits.

282

Appendix 15

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections and Divisions of the Standard International Trade Classification: 1968, 1969 and 1970

283

1968

$

IMPORTS 1969 $

1970 $

1968

$

EXPORTS

1969 $

1970

Food

$

1968 $

Live animals

356,037,870

460,255,037

495,135,333

29,060

724,949

Meat and meat preparations

251,851,920

283,967,836

338,904,334

1,822,156

1,398,003

10,450 1,223,100

1,902,252

RE-EXPORTS 1969 $ 3,110,059

1970

$

2,972,689

7,488,295

4,442,918

5,684,279

Dairy products and eggs

202,207,150

238,029,453

249,622,337

467,789

355,025

311,835

15,212,157

9,291,735

11,647,563

Fish and fish preparations

250,663,686

273,014,534

335,714,598

74,544,132

104,377,772

88,837,707

22,268,240

34,394,958

22,574,280

Cereals and cereal preparations

602,642,353

597,707,218

556,219,714

41,069,245

27,862,734

20,939,557

30,562,063

25,787,469

21,585,760

Fruits and vegetables

507,641,825

553,637,328

671,074,470

25,016,679

23,963,688

24,422,302

74,989,099

95,456,494

99,044,723

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

91,463,579

95,543,669

102,286,071

16,168,301

15,943,615

16,923,726

16,537,130

22,411,574

12,038,975

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures

thereof

97,500,195

175,921,532

156,868,488

1,230,131

1,272,531

1,427,123

59,212,621

102,732,128

121,326,112

Feeding stuff for animals (not including

unmilled cereals)

32,745,212

41,497,997

59,660,211

2,893,346

2,231,442

2,594,610

Miscellaneous food preparations

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

75,524,660

84,430,432

85,178,962

26,311,181

31,180,799

37,379,184

990,181 6,815,302

2,525,630

3,089,584

7,470,571

5,822,838

2,468,278,450

2,804,005,036

3,050,664,518

189,552,020

209,310,558

194,069,594

235,977,340

307,623,536

305,786,803

96,651,707

119,676,277

157,324,179

2,554,991

3,196,206

3,931,305

8,298,831

10,086,133

12,402,580

129,665,811

150,662,386

171,386,262

26,369,670

35,323,963

45,058,980

10,144,331

7,905,323

13,883,080

226,317,518

270,338,663

328,710,441

28,924,661

38,520,169

48,990,285

18,443,162

17,991,456

26,285,660

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

14,327,456

20,888,928

29,743,949

2,696,591

3,008,765

2,931,614

3,119,054

4,270,394

3,595,950

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

41,240,873

35,874,195

47,298,247

17,291,447

16,485,407

15,916,905

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

26,936,721

37,504,322

28,915,480

1,478,738

1,575,857

Wood, lumber and cork

66,097,587

71,962,607

81,691,768

7,695,071

15,284,924

14,823,723

11,306,426

7,986,705

Pulp and waste paper

304,672

146,605

17,840

8,785,472

15,248,763

20,408,511

75,812

60,418

Textile fibres and waste

840,216,182

717,699,283

795,976,809

12,296,024

12,037,825

11,641,856

7,039,491

12,292,804

187,897 9,063,695 44,811 11,087,232

Crude fertilisers and crude minerals,

excluding coal, petroleum and precious stones

22,988,215

25,959,882

31,495,935

1,180,551

2,043,037

2,043,837

1,660,681

4,260,305

4,939,376

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

39,023,019

36,821,010

64,212,597

80,188,232

94,835,754

151,155,807

6,115,999

8,935,229

4,382,370

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible,

not elsewhere specified.

210,312,417

222,025,302

248,722,287

28,056,132

31,099,763

30,217,147

95,399,865

101,566,255

120,797,225

1,261,447,142

1,168,882,134

1,328,074,912

140,898,073

173,558,831

233,222,495

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Coal, coke and briquettes

Petroleum and petroleum products Gas, natural and manufactured

Electric energy

9,658,407 409,723,191 9,147,567

6,075,872

4,649,808

3,110

463,745,163

497,820,509

10,655,508

12,655,349

143,487,513

108,960 36,774,126 401,012

157,433,374

170,015,461

153,448 40,379,109 610,450

126,406

41,271,799 747,756

428,529,165

480,476,543

515,125,666

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Animal oils and fats

1,235,274

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

76,517,779

864,814 84,175,037

1,712,282 96,521,876

3,110

17,856 2,905,277

410,772 3,926,598

456,530 3,842,784

Animal and vegetable oils and fats, processed,

and waxes of animal or vegetable origin

1,196,589

1,150,397

1,227,703

10,475

16,405

78,949,642

86,190,248

99,461,861

2,933,608

4,353,775

4,299,314

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

203,921,716

206,884,475

234,080,148

4,067,924

3,985,594

4,231,619

Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal,

petroleum and natural gas

80,853

156,965

303,851

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

138,851,586

158,747,461

198,409,662

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

201,707,023

238,471,103

315,851,746

19,620,710

23,857,966

25,929,653

24,945,778

32,570,502

32,636,537

37,284,098

327,532 5,124,554

270,776

5,722,862

40,281,331

6,350 55,617,156 176,241,162

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet,

polishing and cleansing preparations

107,265,676

125,720,478

137,733,659

Fertilisers, manufactured

3,338,784

3,680,008

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

21,458,729

26,768,544

34,966,273

3,791,997

14,795,842

20,567,553

27,238,512

19,947,958

41,143,007

29,142 7,369,263

137,805

7,536,210

38,071,659

5,638 59,012,810 210,383,227

25,655,339

42,145,961

32,105 9,045,473

92,871

9,170,449

48,064,703

5,066

67,219,540 253,334,314

33,873,232

28,575

11,241

30,827,980

34,914,025

40,563,924

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and

artificial resins

311,541,845

370,575,485

Chemical materials and products, not

elsewhere specified

421,463,964

14,454,260

17,459,058

11,646,814

20,989,454

23,277,752

18,241,698

52,485,885

64,769,654

76,199,542

1,040,652,097

1,195,774,173 1,422,800,842

2,313,857

80,198,371

2,500,175

100,940,848

2,425,376

104,108,511

18,432,280

28,564,007

31,363,798

362,372,246

419,884,457

492,677,516

284

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

15- Contd

-

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International 1968, 1969 and 1970

1968 $

IMPORTS 1969 $

1970 $

1968

EXPORTS

1969

1970

1968

RE-EXPORTS 1969

1970

$

$

$

$

$

$

285

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere

specified, and dressed furs

49,144,217

59,479,189

85,025,828

5,458,160

6,451,006

6,380,374

2,509,123

3,594,749

3,477,164

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified Wood and cork manufactures (excluding

furniture)

43,470,065

46,906,267

48,125,370

3,650,694

4,100,499

3,872,391

5,967,434

6,733,845

4,798,856

48,467,016

54,960,801

67,029,224

13,105,087

17,590,794

19,402,982

5,039,649

5,598,332

3,753,155

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related

products

318,065,988

355,609,723

438,921,378

12,670,147

14,378,963

17,224,270

22,468,358

28,953,880

29,445,986

2,108,065,097

2,555,682,908

3,012,265,944

1,035,124,781

1,126,205,105

1,276,676,737

416,735,296

402,820,956

387,273,652

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not else-

where specified

852,849,356 1,161,592,251

1,235,359,331

71,825,886

91,410,853

96,190,476

386,977,192

608,311,711

704,684,878

Iron and steel

227,663,131

315,528,502

464,193,583

49,439,056

45,900,309

53,219,144

10,591,924

16,385,567

17,135,166

Non-ferrous metals

207,376,507

218,446,239

270,276,653

22,126,830

26,509,062

27,679,213

40,593,497

27,032,803

22,763,816

Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified

121,395,526

144,198,911

203,650,390

3,976,496,903

4,912,404,791

5,824,847,901

239,746,551

1,453,147,192

291,657,494

1,624,204,085

344,894,139

17,692,758

22,895,362

22,887,087

1,845,539,726

908,575,231 1,122,327,205

1,196,219,760

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

481,588,537

647,966,779

969,215,624

57,637,157

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliance

922,309,988

1,310,029,208

1,508,387,593

771,977,349

Transport equipment

200,490,593

279,629,270

419,426,105

47,821,557

1,604,389,118

2,237,625,257

2,897,029,322

877,436,063

60,846,812 1,058,312,032 54,363,011

1,173,521,855

93,083,715 1,292,651,299

75,932,045

98,305,667

138,372,057

41,341,105

113,679,709

106,255,815

68,987,571

25,646,342

26,731,926

32,095,908

1,454,722,585

142,919,492

238,717,302

276,723,780

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures

and fittings

25,944,586

32,852,033

Furniture

23,854,685

30,058,800

43,900,793 39,176,809

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

17,021,616

24,165,707

30,630,198

148,868,356 60,483,878 124,780,945

156,984,573

175,379,279

2,453,563

3,142,879

3,519,576

70,319,643

87,071,904

2,898,490

3,890,528

3,903,567

143,481,070

174,790,708

1,109,733

1,851,096

Clothing

205,314,067

231,258,674

278,054,564

1,618,471

3,013,920,424

3,827,579,952

4,336,577,724

42,486,836

46,538,294

Footwear

53,300,400

53,602,753

52,509,148

53,419,619

271,418,746

295,174,502

302,282,256

16,355,546

9,190,856

4,784,054

Professional, scientific and controlling instru-

ments; photographic and optical goods, watches and clocks

526,143,866

715,986,471

875,462,916

136,742,133

183,433,112

215,788,732

114,191,912

147,580,127

190,010,674

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not else-

where specified

514,149,611

1,365,728,831

623,419,164

791,148,196 1,711,343,602 2,110,882,624

1,880,198,108

5,636,412,590

2,495,215,554 3,141,563,491

7,172,188,406 8,433,454,094

92,210,268

140,480,454

101,007,790

271,706,348

352,674,234

358,263,751

Commodities and transactions not classified according

to kind and transactions in gold and coin Commodities and transactions not classified

according to kind

Transactions in gold and current coin

20,758,429 254,748,967

275,507,396

25,977,260 448,359,588

474,336,848

29,116,464 306,723,619 335,840,083

18,906,811

21,429,616

28,095,031

18,906,811

21,429,616

28,095,031

15,423,894 164,428,249

179,852,143

13,799,847

14,279,877

183,731,062

197,530,909

192,438,019

206,717,896

Total Merchandise

GRAND TOTAL

:

12,471,547,295 14,893,017,707 17,606,714,551

12,726,296,262 15,341,377,295 17,913,438,170

8,428,412,499

8,428,412,499

10,518,028,143

10,518,028,143 12,346,501,635 2,141,912,186 2,679,130,628 2,891,569,018

12,346,501,635 2,306,340,435 2,862,861,690 3,084,007,037

286

Appendix 16

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade) Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

% increase or decrease

Imports... Exports. Re-exports Total trade

1970 1969

1970

$ million

1969

$ million

17,607

14,893

+ 18%

12,347

10,518

+17%

2,892

2,679

+

8%

32,845

28,090

+ 17%

Cargo Tonnages

Appendix 17

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade) Imports: Commodity Pattern

1970 total value $17,607 million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Chemicals

14.3 million tons

13.3 million tons

% of total imports in 1970 33% 17

16

12

8

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

1970

1969

% increase or decrease

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-metallic mineral manufactures

5,825

4,912

+19

3,012

2,556

+181

1,235

1,162

Iron and steel

464

316

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Non-ferrous metals...

439

356

270

218

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

204

144

Food and live animals

3,051

2,804

Fruit and vegetables

671

554

Cereals and cereal preparations

556

598

Live animals...

495

460

Meat and meat preparations

339

284

Fish and fish preparations ..

336

273

Dairy products and eggs

250

238

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

157

176

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

102

96

Miscellaneous food preparations

85

84

Machinery and transport equipment

2,897

2,238

Electrical machinery

1,508

1,310

Non-electric machinery

969

648

Transport equipment

419

280

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

2,111

1,711

+++

++++++1

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

875

716

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

791

623

Clothing

278

231

Footwear

53

54

Chemicals

1,423

1,196

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

421

371

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

316

238

Chemical elements and compounds

234

207

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

198

159

Essential oils and perfume materials Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Textile fibres

138

126

1,328

1,169

796

718

11%

Crude animal and vegetable materials

249

222

+12%

Wood, lumber and cork

82

72

+14

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

64

37

+741

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels...

47

36

+ 32%

Crude fertilisers and crude minerals (excluding coal

petroleum and precious stones)

31

26

+ 21%

287

By country

Japan

China

USA

United Kingdom.

Taiwan

Appendix 18

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1970 total value $17,607 million

% of total imports in 1970

24%

16%

13

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

Commonwealth Countries

Asia

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom)

% of total imports in

1970

18%

54%

22%

North America

14%

Federal Republic of Germany

1970

1969

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Iron and steel

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

China

Japan

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

optical goods, watches and clocks

Non-electric machinery

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial

resins

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

4,188

3,484

+ 20%

1,411

1,309

+ 8%

Electrical machinery

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

415

415

-%

347

283

+ 22%

254

153

+ 67%

228

191

+ 19%

224

132

217

173

178

132

+ 69 +26 + 35%

2,830

2,700

+ 5%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Live animals...

486

431

+13%

394

388

Fruit and vegetables

303

268

13

Meat and meat preparations

190

178

Fish and fish preparations...

173

165

532365Y

Cereals and cereal preparations

140

147

Clothing

130

99

Dairy products and eggs

128

117

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

104

90

159

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

102

175

-42

Crude animal and vegetable materials

100

87

+15%

USA

2,317

2,002

+ 16%

Electrical machinery

493

472

+ 4%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

256

265

3

Non-electric machinery

243

160

+ 52

Fruit and vegetables

152

108

+ 41

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

151

91

+66

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

118

90

+31

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

109

100

+ 9%

96

65

+ 47%

United Kingdom

1,517

1,201

+ 26%

Electrical machinery

230

154

+ 49%

Transport equipment

181

133

+36

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

174

155

+12%

Non-electric machinery

162

87

+ 86°

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

136

147

7%

Taiwan

820

502

***

+ 63%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

326

184

Electrical machinery

96

54

Fruit and vegetables

66

46

78 +77 + 45

Iron and steel

58

15

+278%

Federal Republic of Germany.

657

544

+ 21%

Non-electric machinery

125

104

+ 20

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

75

65

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials...

62

52

19

Electrical machinery

62

57

Transport equipment

56

40

Chemical elements and compounds

46

46

288

Appendi

(Chapter 4: Industry Domestic

19

and Trade)

Exports

289

Commodity Pattern

1970 total value $12,347 million

% of all exports in

1970

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Electrical machinery

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

Footwear

35%

25

By country

USA

% of all exports in 1970

Principal Markets

1970 total value $12,347 million

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of all exports in

10

United Kingdom...

10%

12

North America

3

Federal Republic of Germany

Japan

Canada

1970

1969

% increase

Australia

or decrease

$ million $ million

Clothing

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers,

knitted

Singapore Sweden Netherlands

1970

Commonwealth Countries

26%

45%

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom)

29%

Asia Australasia

129

26%

4,337

3,828

+ 13%

1970

1969

761

745

+ 2%

% increase or decrease

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

$ million

$ million

other than knitted

589

553

Shirts, other than knitted

539

463

Suits, jackets, uniforms and overcoats, other than

knitted

293

272

Outer garments, knitted

267

273

Gloves and mittens of all materials

238

192

Shirts, knitted

197

174

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not embroidered Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

169

104

160

164

++++++ |

+ 7%

USA

+16%

5,190

4,428

+ 17%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

1,885

1,475

+ 28%

1,657

1,497

+119

Electrical machinery

848

753

+13

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles United Kingdom

258

261

1%

1,481

1,465

+ 1%

Clothing

639

644

1%

Skirts, dresses, frocks, gowns and house-coats, other than

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

266

285

7%

knitted

150

158

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

262

272

4%

Underwear and nightwear, knitted

127

103

+ 23%

Footwear

111

109

Outer garments, other than knitted

108

127

15%

Electrical machinery

80

55

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

3,142

2,495

+ 26%

Federal Republic of Germany

985

765

+ 29%

Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc

937

647

+45

Plastic toys and dolls

Clothing

628

520

+21%

872

771

+13

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit (plastic)

416

366

+ 14

Toys and dolls (not plastic)

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Footwear

195

113

+ 72%

35

40

13%

173

110

+ 57

Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)

90

100

10

Japan

492

355

Metal watch bands

+ 39%

73

58

+ 26

Clothing

...

103

44

+134%

Electrical machinery

1,293

1,058

Metalliferous ores and metal

+ 22%

scrap

82

62

32%

Transistorised radio receiving sets

549

472

Transistors and thermionic and electronic tubes and

valves

+16%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Fish and fish preparations

68

45

52

62

80

23

Electrical machinery

40

32

259

232

+ 12%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

32

28

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

1,277

1,126

+ 13%

Cotton grey sheeting

Canada

***

389

352

136

114

+ 20°

10%

Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered

103

104

1

Clothing

165

172

4%

Cotton yarn

101

88

15

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

132

96

+ 37%

Cotton canvas and ducks, grey

64

62

4

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

20

19

+ 5%

Watches, complete

Electric torches

Cotton grey twill and sateen

Cotton grey drills

Cotton flannels, other than grey

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s. ...

Domestic utensils of other metals

Locks, padlocks and keys and key chains

Domestic utensils of iron and steel, enamelled

Footwear

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles Plastic footwear

Other

Handbags, wallets, purses and similar articles

Prawns and shrimps, fresh or frozen

61

45

35

Australia

Angled gaf 2200

56

55

345

292

73

61

32

302

122

124

90

68

** 207 208 20

359

286

59

5%

+ 25%

+ 13%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

120

102

+189

+ 18%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

98

71

+ 37

70

54

+ 29

+ 24%

49

+ 25%

Singapore

280

228

+ 23%

26%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

75

71

+ 6%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

295 + 2%

55

41

+ 35%

Clothing

16

19

14%

8%

+ 17%

Sweden ...

242

208

+ 17%

Clothing

177

156

+ 14%

64

65

+++1

1458

10101010

Netherlands

216

166

+ 30%

Clothing

120

92

+ 31%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

40

26

+ 57%

290

Commodity Pattern

1970 total value $2,892 million

Appendix (Chapter 4: Industry Re-exports

20

and Trade)

Principal Markets

1970 total value $2,892 million

291

% of all re-exports in

By country

% of all re-exports in

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of all re-exports in

1970

1970

1970

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

41%

17%

Japan Singapore

20%

Commonwealth Countries

26%

12%

Asia

62%

USA

12%

8%

Western Europe (including

Indonesia

11%

7%

United Kingdom)

12%

Taiwan

10%

5%

North America ...

9%

6%

Belgium and Luxembourg

3%

Africa

6%

Republic of Korea

3%

% increase

1970

1969

or decrease

1970

1969

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s. Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

1,196

705

1,122 608

+ 7%

Japan

584

503

+16%

387

403

J

+16%

4%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

209

183

+ 14%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

122

87

+ 41%

29

29

+ 2%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

48

36

+ 35%

23

23

Crude animal and vegetable materials

Non-ferrous metals...

23

27

-% 16%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Iron and steel

Fruit and vegetables

2222

36

23

+ 57%

48

41%

20

17

+ 11%

16

+ 5%

Singapore

337

318

+ 6%

Chemicals

493

420

+ 17%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

253

210

+ 20%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

67

59

+ 14%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Chemical elements and compounds

48

38

+ 26%

Fruit and vegetables

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

41

35

+ 16%

Electrical machinery

Essential oil and perfume materials

34

26

+ 32%

Chemical materials and products, n.e.s. ...

31

29

+10%

Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s. Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

257259

78

69

+ 13%

61

64

5%

44

41

+ 8%

16

+ 29%

17

14

+ 16%

16

27

40%

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

18

23

22%

USA

244

209

+ 17%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles ...

358

353

+ 2%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

167

165

+ 1%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

Electrical machinery

190

148

+ 29%

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

225

26

12

+117%

18

+ 42%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

101

140

28%

Indonesia

202

288

30%

Clothing

53

47

+15%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

40

114

65%

Food and live animals

306

308

1%

Non-electric machinery

27

21

+ 27%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

121

103 + 18%

Fruit and vegetables

99

95

++

Transport equipment

17

15

+ 18%

4%

Fish and fish preparations...

23

34

34%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Medicinal and pharmaceutical products ...

16

17

-

8%

14

12

+ 18%

Cereals and cereal preparations

22

26

16%

Taiwan

154

125

+ 23%

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

12

: 22

46%

Machinery and transport equipment

277

239

16%

Non-electric machinery

Electrical machinery

138

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Crude animal and vegetable materials

23

19

+ 21%

19

13

17

98

...

41%

106

114

7% te

Belgium and Luxembourg

...

91

103

Transport equipment

32

27

+ 20%

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

170

157

+ 8%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Republic of Korea

87

100

82

Crude animal and vegetable materials

121

102

+ 19%

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

16

16

-%

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Electrical machinery

22

12

Textile fibres

11

12

10%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

10

22 38 8000

+ 46%

12

+ 40%

11%

13%

98

16%

19

+ 17%

26

53% + 66%

292

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past two years:

Appendix

21

(Chapter 4: Industry

and Trade)

Direction

of Trade

Domestic

Exports

The principal markets during the past two years

for the Colony's exports were as follows:

293

Re-exports

The principal markets for the Colony's re-exports during the past two years were as follows:

1969 $

1970

$

1969

$

1970

Japan

China

USA

United Kingdom

Taiwan

Federal Republic of Germany...

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Australia...

Singapore

Thailand ...

Italy

Belgium and Luxembourg

Netherlands

Pakistan

France

Brazil

Indonesia

3,484,033,713 4,188,422,425

2,699,985,374 2,830,366,755

2,002,375,159 2,316,823,853

1,200,726,134 1,517,339,751

501,952,129 819,760,073

544,182,699 656,622,298

412,485,738 512,549,940

357,296,712 430,141,569

282,349,965 358,402,886

350,077,316 324,460,389 170,261,301 259,506,777

262,782,023 255,875,878

161,553,691 236,728,396

230,827,485 222,992,744

173,059,007 205,364,896 183,184,200 183,808,944 120,824,046 157,909,376

USA

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany...

Japan

Canada

Australia ...

Singapore

Sweden

Netherlands

Taiwan

Republic of South Africa

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

Denmark and Greenland

Republic of Vietnam (South

Vietnam)

$

4,428,462,811 5,190,291,226 1,464,757,398 1,481,399,275 764,676,040 984,668,861 354,695,766 491,729,030 352,359,197 389,329,391 286,312,059 358,682,183 227,821,428 280,260,916

207,984,316 242,452,024 166,316,231 215,801,685

87,174,847 147,121,015

111,811,064 141,529,369

98,110,988 118,309,631 87,680,472 110,198,041

Taiwan

Switzerland and Liechtenstein... Belgium and Luxembourg Macau

Republic of Korea (South Korea) Nigeria

United Kingdom Philippines

Australia Thailand ...

Israel

1969 $

1970

$

Japan

Singapore

USA

Indonesia

62,369,193

502,670,894

317,870,673 336,818,730

208,862,371 244,252,013 287,927,480 202,461,175

124,594,225 153,759,289 36,799,746 99,661,085

102,866,291 91,449,853 61,768,773 84,302,861

97,551,614 81,872,992 48,640,340 76,850,785

71,797,948 74,666,568

65,110,352

584,495,964

49,794,506 64,667,953

63,725,025

59,614,381

New Zealand

Italy

Republic of Korea (South

Korea)...

Israel

Republic of South Africa

Saudi Arabia

Canada

India

Tanzania (Tanganyika)

Iran

Macau

Philippines

Denmark and Greenland

Malaysia (Malaya)

Uganda

...

Other Countries...

127,117,538 155,691,601 156,033,216 153,564,620

143,037,250 147,006,919

72,295,611 129,944,953 103,401,617 123,093,685

92,254,892 117,507,718

70,841,538 100,777,187

121,922,214 88,692,435 45,517,748 86,053,585 56,548,274 71,497,051 49,230,189 64,090,043

44,321,592 57,847,348

50,664,521 56,669,409 621,874,815 777,201,047

Thailand

Norway

127,402,544 107,900,189 93,232,518 106,298,337 70,944,407 105,343,427 91,177,646 86,922,683

49,564,011

56,547,445

US Oceania

30,774,531

52,374,385

Republic of Vietnam (South

Vietnam)

100,688,871

48,161,931

Indonesia

Malaysia (Malaya)

Nigeria

28,857,759

Belgium and Luxembourg

60,453,607 77,325,117 89,906,108 77,125,242

74,001,887 70,608,106

66,945,349

63,971,357

Malaysia (Malaya)

43,553,870 47,596,914

Ghana

China

Panama

Kuwait

+

Panama

Zambia

Burma

US Oceania

Netherlands

Venezuela

France

Austria

Libya

:

*

Other Countries

Total

14,893,017,707 17,606,714,551

Total

:

43,635,902

41,545,246 58,779,000

50,664,150 57,093,746 28,761,118 53,561,855

45,282,605 51,433,152 41,489,466 49,577,666

47,255,655 49,421,217 32,092,966 44,165,068

27,703,469 41,597,672 885,458,473 1,026,659,805

10,518,028,143 12,346,501,635

Morocco...

Cambodia

New Zealand

Republic of South Africa Other Countries...

Total

10,574,289 12,479,320

193,193,332 209,318,505

2,679,130,628 2,891,569,018

Federal Republic of Germany...

Canada

Malaysia (Sabah)

23,751,110 34,564,427 30,438,818 33,772,766 22,502,617 29,610,753

24,260,123 27,066,563

32,030,207 26,149,361

21,604,252 21,392,815

5,842,198 16,688,416

11,501,521 15,422,156

14,311,733 14,081,729

22,380,362

13,405,371

4,919,704

12,952,160

294

India

New Zealand

Singapore

Australia

Britain

Canada

Pakistan

Countries

Appendix 22

Overseas Representation

I. Commonwealth Countries

II. Foreign Countries

Represented by

Commissioner Commissioner

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Countries

Argentina

:

:

Represented by

Consul-General

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Burma

Cuba

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Dominican Republic

Ecuador...

France

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Germany

Consul-General

Indonesia

Consul-General

Italy

Consul-General

Japan

Consul-General

Khmer Republic

Consul-General

Korea

Consul-General

Mexico

Consul-General

Netherlands

Consul-General

Norway

Consul-General

Panama

Consul-General

Peru

Consul-General

Philippines

Consul-General

Portugal

Consul-General

Republic of South Africa

Consul-General

Sweden.

Consul-General

Vietnam

Venezuela

Greece

Switzerland

Thailand

United Arab Republic

United States of America

Uruguay

Consul

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Israel

Bolivia

Columbia Costa Rica

Denmark

El Salvador

Finland

Guatemala Honduras Irish Republic Lebanon Nicaragua Spain

Honorary Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Vice-Consul

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident in

London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, Denmark, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade

Commissioners.

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

Appendix 23

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Marketing Organisation Statistics

Fisheries Products sold through the Wholesale Markets

Quantities and Values

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

295

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

846,892

51,221

64,205,249

958,241

57,956

72,864,447

1,178,974

71,306

91,052,177

1,269,800

76,799

111,295,765

1,288,779

77,944

136,773,261

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(per catty)

Fresh Fish

$0.76

.76

.77

.87

1.05

Salt/Dried Fish

$0.70

.85

.90

1.25

1.48

Vegetables sold through the Wholesale Markets

Quantities and Values

Locally-produced

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

Imported

1966

1967

1968

1969 1970

        1966 1967

1968

1969

1970

:

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

1,215,389

73,508

34,412,750

1,305,015

78,929

39,588,234

1,298,481

78,534

40,006,788

1,213,756

73,410

45,920,730

1,031,942

62,413

54,072,619

296,615

17,940

6,286,024

296,157

17,912

7,870,360

296,653

17,942

8,388,743

322,841

19,526

10,706,192

284,548

17,210

12,328,272

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(per catty)

Locally-produced

Imported

$0.28

$0.21

.30

.27

.31

.28

.38

.33

.56

.44

296

Appendix 24

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

as at December 31, 1970

Mem-

Num-

Paid-up

Societies

ber-

Share

ber

ship

Capital

Loans granted

Loans

repaid⭑

Deposits

$

$

$

Rural Societies:

Federation of Vegetable

Marketing Societies...

1

†29

5,700

Vegetable Marketing

31

8,719

114,126

681,148

670,298 178,653

Federation of Pig

Raising Societies

1

++36

950

498,500

393,291

Pig Raising

35

1,599

113,125

826,590

800,554

57,918

Agricultural Credit

12

352

35,480

365,900

341,030

51,929

Better Living

13

1,062

18,920

9,350

26,515

Farmers' Irrigation

1

68

340

Thrift and Loan

3

112

2,340

4,350

3,250

21,960

Sub-total

97 11,977

290,981

2,376,488

2,217,773

336,975

Fishermen's Societies:

Federation of Fisher-

men's Credit Societies

4

+54

5,325

Credit

62

1,585

31,472

4,318,793

4,764,895

3,080,579

Consumers

2

97

3,980

Better Living

10

665

10,880

1,768

186,218

Credit and Housing

2

121

Fish Pond

1

118

670 590

65,608

98,060

78,549

Sub-total

81 2,640

52,917 4,384,401

4,864,723

3,345,346

Urban Societies:

Apartment Owners'

Building/Housing

2

234

Consumers

156 4,971 9 2,458

Salaried Workers'

Thrift and Loan

728

Sub-total

249 8,313

10,786 1,383,700 14,125

7,209

1,415,820

§4,209,206

5,716,979

314,309 252,953

4,523,515 5,969,932

193,466

193,466

TOTAL

427 22,930

1,759,718

11,284,404

13,052,428 3,875,787

* Including repayment of loans issued during previous years.

+ Members Societies.

* Including 7 Agricultural Credit Societies.

§ Loans made by Treasury direct.

Appendix 25

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Production of Minerals 1970

Production in long tons

1,595.12

Mineral

Feldspar

Graphite 72-80% fixed carbon

50% fixed carbon

***

Iron ore 50% Fe

Kaolin

Quartz

Wolframite 65% WO3

Value in $ 59,896.76

167,566.66

6,702,666,40

3,724.71

543,830.10

5,265.29

97,249.91

Government

Grant

Subsidised

Private

Special Afternoon

Classes

...

Special Education

:

Appendix 26

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

Number of Schools (As at September 1970)

137

22

Total Enrolment (As at September 1970)

297

Number of Teachers (As at March 1970)

5,358

139,341

21,879

868

689

509,580

13,487

1,925

566,781

19,619

287

29

31

2,672

187

2,804

1,240,540

39,548

Kindergarten

Primary

Secondary

Enrolments

(Figures are shown as at September 30, 1970, with the previous year's figures in brackets)

Post-Secondary

Adult Education

Special Education

:

Enrolment

123,218

( 112,774)

765,397

( 752,171)

279,318

( 264,056)

11,739

(11,522)

58,196

(53,663)

2,672

( 2,115)

1,240,540

(1,196,301)

New Buildings, Classrooms and Places

October 1, 1969-September 30, 1970

Government

Aided

Private

:

:

Number of Schools and Extensions

Increase in Number of Classrooms Primary Secondary

Increase in Number of Places

Primary Secondary

1

19

1,300

32

412

101

37,080

3,080

5

128

363

7,801

38

417

248

37,443

12,181

:

298

Appendix 27

(Chapter 6: Education)

Educational Statistics

Overseas Examinations 1970

Entries

Examinations

1968

1969

1970

University of London General Certificate of Education Associated Examining Board General Certificate of Education

11,767

12,980

13,025

1,570

University of London External Degree

132

99

124

London Chamber of Commerce

9,962

10,529

13,285

Pitman Shorthand

1,226

1,326

1,349

Pitman Typewriting

460

520

599*

Pitman Single-Subject

204

164

44

Cambridge Diploma in English Studies

1

1

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English

128

140

118*

Cambridge Lower Certificate in English...

55

88

102*

Institute of Bookkeepers

14

59

6*

Chartered Institute of Secretaries

234

278

182*

Association of International Accountants

1,003

1,126

565*

Association of Certified and Corporate Accountants

370

560

323*

Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers

12

10

11

Institute of Fire Engineers..

49

71

College of Preceptors

9

7

Gemmological Association

2

British Federation of Master Printers

Society of Engineers (Graduateship)

Institute of Export

Royal Society of Arts (Shorthand)

11

4

The Australian Institute of Cartographers

1

32

95

55

Institute of Company Accountants

1

Institute of Public Cleansing

10

10

10

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)

5,492

7,043

5,383*

The School of Mines and Industries Annual Examination

1

1

Canadian Scholastic Aptitude Test

1,206

560

Canadian English Language Achievement Test

1,206

560

Sydney University Deferred Examination

Indian School Certificate Re-examination

Diploma in Marketing Examination

Corporation of Secretaries Examination

Victorian University Matriculation English Expression

Examination

The Cost Accountants Association

The Institution of Structural Engineers

University of Reading BSc (Estate Management)

University of Oxford General Certificate of Education

University of Cambridge General Certificate of Education

The Royal Aeronautical Society

Institute of Cost and Works Accountants

Institute of Electronic and Radio Engineers

Institute of Business Administration

1

3

9

274

274*

1

7*

38

5

1

1

1

51

51

1

Institute of Public Relations

The Mathematics Association

Total

31,185

37,823 38,338*

* As at September 30, 1970.

New Awards made by Government during 1970

Tenable at

Type

Number Awarded

Total Value ($ per annum)

Maintenance Grants

Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools

395

119,800

Chinese Middle Schools

162

49,650

Commonwealth Scholarships

University of Hong Kong

1

23,880

299

Appendix 28

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Further Studies in the United Kingdom

Number of Hong Kong Students arriving in the United Kingdom:

1961-2

1962-3

1963-4

1964-5

1965-6

1966-7

1967-8

1968-9

1969-70 (1.10.69-30.9.70)

:

479

568

750

889

1,161

...

1,248

1,176

938

...

551

Distribution of Courses by Hong Kong Students in United Kingdom:

September

Course

September

1968

1969

September

1970

Accountancy Architecture

72

98

39

27

Arts

48

43

...

Commerce

:

59

53

8249

83

27

44

Dentistry

8

12

12

Economics

29

31

21

Education

43

33

18

Engineering

444

454

457

General Certificate of Education

1,308

1,329

1,468

Law

Medicine

Meteorology

128

120

122

115

121

108

1

3

Music

Nursing

Science

24

19

19

891

967

1,111

135

197

170

Secretarial

Social Science

Textiles

Others

109

104

· 90

17

17

23

29

25

21

315

292

135

3,814

3,945

3,978

School Children

:

741

578

:..

695

4,555

4,523

4,673

300

Appendix 29

(Chapter 6: Education)

Actual Expenditure on Education

for period August 1, 1969-July 31, 1970

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

Total $

$ 89,501,430 18,419,015

(3) Maintenance and Repairs of Schools

Buildings (Public Works Department)..

(B) Capital Expenditure:

(1) Equipment and Furniture for Government

Schools and Headquarters

(2) New School Buildings, including Furniture

and Equipment (Public Works Department)

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

(1) Grant Schools

(i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(2) Subsidised Schools

  (i) Recurrent (ii) Capital

(3) Private Schools

(i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

::

::

(D) Grants to University of Hong Kong and The

Chinese University of Hong Kong:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(E) University Grants Committee:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Capital

::

...

1,778,245 109,698,690

$ 573,782

5,494,944 6,068,726

$ 20,760,094

580,605 21,340,699

$190,342,758

16,682,953 207,025,711

$ 9,016,603 1,056,296

$ 60,646,508

10,072,899

12,872,140 73,518,648

$ 198,878

48,011

(F) Expenditure by Other Departments:

    (1) Medical and Health Department (2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(3) Agriculture and Fisheries Department

88,070 334,959

$ 4,757,238

341,990 168,968

$ 5,268,196

$428,060,332

Appendix 30

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics - Hong Kong

1961-1970

301

BIRTHS

DEATHS

Crude

birth

Crude death

Infant

Estimated

Regis-

rate

tered

Regis- rate

mortality

Neo-natal Maternal mortality mortality

Year

mid-year

population births

live

(per

tered

(per

rate

rate

rate

1,000

deaths

1,000

(per 1,000

(per 1,000 (per 1,000

live

live

popula-

popula-

tion)

tion)

births)

births)

total births)

1961

3,174,700* 108,726

34.2

18,738

5.9

37.7

21.0

0.45

1962

3,346,600* 111,905

33.4

20,324

6.1

36.9

21.2

0.48

1963

3,503,700* 115,263 32.9

19,748

5.6

32.9

18.9

0.29

1964

3,594,200* 108,519

30.2

18,113

5.0

26.4

16.6

0.38

1965

3,692,300* 102,195 27.7

17,621

4.8

23.7

15.2

0.33

1966

. 3,732,400 92,476 24.8

18,700

5.0

24.9

15.3

0.43

1967 ...

3,834,000 88,171 23.0

19,644 5.1

25.6

15.9

0.30

1968

3,926,500 82,992 21.1

19,319

4.9

23.0

15.0

0.14

1969

3,987,500 79,329 19.9

18,730

4.7

21.8

14.9

0.15

1970

4,089,000 77,465 18.9 20,763 5.1

19.6

12.7

0.19

* Figures adjusted after 1966 By-census.

Tuberculosis Statistics

TB death

Estimated

% TB

% TB deaths

Year

mid-year population

rate (per 100,000 population)

deaths

under 5

of total

deaths

years

Total number of TB beds

Under treatment Government

clinics

registered

1959

2,857,000

76.23

18.92

10.76

1,846

25,090

1969

3,987,500

36.87

0.95

7.85

1,852

25,012

1970

4,089,000

35.12

0.63

6.92

1,788

24,481

302

Appendix 31

(Chapter 7: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths, 1966-1970

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

Cholera...

9

Amoebic

Dysentery

220

24

154

21

117

12

85

7

68

4

Bacillary

Dysentery

766* 10*

829*

7*

869*

6*

736

5

609

7

Cerebro-spinal

Meningitis

10

7

55

16

Chickenpox

600

4

1,257

10

2880

32

14

23

10

4

900

1

445

959

2

Diphtheria

307

27

226

18

113

10

62

10

43

2

Enteric Fever

(Typhoid &

Para-typhoid)

686

7

728

11

552

546

7

438

Leprosy...

160

2

148

4

164

127

1

135

-

Malaria ...

127

65

2

19

I

11

I

3

1†

Measles ...

2,360

384 4,726

654 1,138

46

994

21

1,011

13

Ophthalmia

Neonatorum...

203

191

203

76

1

84

Poliomyelitis

32

1

5

3

15

2

16

3

27

3

Puerperal Fever

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Scarlet Fever

37

64

8 1

4

3 1

Tuberculosis

**

11,427 1,515 15,253 1,493

9,792 1,483 11,072 1,470 10,077 1,436

Typhus (Mite-

borne)

Whooping

Cough

108

40

88

3

Total

*Influenza

17,048 1,983 23,742 2,240 14,011 1,583 14,210 1,528 13,473 1,481

1,220 30 4,923 25 8,493 45 3,232 14 5,814 16

Remarks: * Including unspecified dysentery.

↑ Case reported in 1969.

‡ Voluntary notifications.

         The above table omits rabies, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the year.

<

303

Appendix 32

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1970

Institutions

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

A. Hospitals Castle Peak Hospital

Kowloon Hospital

Lai Chi Kok Hospital Queen Elizabeth Hospital

Queen Mary Hospital Sai Ying Pun Hospital

South Lantau Hospital St John Hospital

Tang Shiu Kin Hospital Tsan Yuk Hospital

6 Prison Hospitals

B. Dispensaries Aberdeen

Anne Black

Castle Peak

Chai Wan

***

Cheung Sha Wan

Ho Tung

Hung Hom

Kam Tin

Kennedy Town

Number of Hospital Beds

:

.

1,242

1,042

492

1,596

1,062

88

15

100

76

292

294

6,299

26

10

24

24

24

6

14

7

6

Kwun Tong

25

Lady Trench Polyclinic

6

Li Po Chun Health Centre

28

Lions Club Government MCH Centre

22

Maurine Grantham MCH Centre

26

North Lamma

6

Peng Chau

7

Robert Black Health Centre ...

28

Sai Kung

Sha Tin ...

Shau Kei Wan ...

Shek Wu Hui

Silver Mine Bay

Stanley

Tai O

Tai Po

...

***

Wang Tau Hom

Yuen Long

7

24

26

31

6

4

19

27

:

223242

489

304

Appendix 32-Contd

(Chapter 7: Health)

GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED HOSPITALS

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital...

Caritas Medical Centre

...

350

850

Duchess of Kent Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent

Home

200

Grantham Hospital

612

Haven of Hope TB Sanatorium

322*

Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium

540

Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital

178

Kwong Wah Hospital

1,552

Margaret Trench Medical Rehabilitation Centre

80

Nam Long Hospital

120

Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital...

250

162

Ruttonjee Sanatorium

360

503

435

:

338

681

7,533

...

::

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

::

Pok Oi Hospital

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital

Tung Wah Hospital

Tung Wah Eastern Hospital

Wong Tai Sin Infirmary

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Adventist Sanatorium

Baptist Hospital

Canossa Hospital

...

Evangel Medical Centre

Fanling Hospital

...

Hong Kong Central Hospital

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

Matilda and War Memorial Hospital

Precious Blood Hospital

St Paul's Hospital

St Teresa's Hospital

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

PRIVATE NURSING|MATERNITY HOMES

* Including 12 beds in Rennie's Mill Church Clinic.

151

35

97

180

50

54

120

390

52

107

225

380

1,806

302

42

GRAND TOTAL

16,471

305

Appendix 33

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

as at December 31, 1970

         Registered Medical Practitioners (excluding 493 Government Medical Officers) Provisionally Registered Medical Practitioners

Government Medical Officers (including 18 seconded to Tung Wah Group etc) Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Officers)

1,996

180

610

417

Government Dental Officers

69

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists) Government Pharmacists

156

18

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

3,166

Government Nurses

1,637

Registered Male Nurses (excluding Government Male Nurses) Government Male Nurses

57

197

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) Government Midwives

2,661

226

Government Male Nurses (Psychiatric)

123

Government Female Nurses (Psychiatric)

59

Students or Probationers in Training

as at December 31, 1970

Length 1st 2nd

of

3rd

Course year year

year

Number who successfully completed training during year

Student Physiotherapist

Student Nurse (Psychiatry)

Student Radiographer {Diagnostic)

Student Dispenser

Student Laboratory Assistant

Student Medical Laboratory Technician

Student Male Nurse (General)

Student Nurse (General)

Student Male Nurse (Psychiatry)

Student Midwife (Registered Nurse)

Student Midwife (Non-registered Nurse) Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

         Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry) Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

Student Health Visitor

+

Male Student Health Auxiliary

(Therapy)

3

wwww

3

7

10

12

12

3

3

5

1

3

10

11

13

8

22

13

13

8

2

4

5

2

3

11

3

3

3

:

3

23

18 20

3

46

30

27

3

193

120

158

148

3

18

7

18

23

3

10

9

18

18

...

103

115

...

Student Health Auxiliary

Medical Social Worker

Student Prosthetist

22222-22-M

33

22

24

25

9

26

30

7

9

8

1

15

5

3

1

26

3

3

+91 11

4

3

10

13

306

Appendix 34

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Resettlement Estate Statistics

A. Population

January 1, 1970

December 31, 1970

Cottage Areas (one storey

buildings)

57,568

57,506

Multi-storey Estates (6-7-8- and

16-storey buildings)

1,071,129

1,094,376

1,128,697

1,151,882

B. Premises of various types on December 31, 1970

(The number on December 31, 1969 are shown in brackets)

Cottage Areas Multi-storey Estates

Domestic cottages and huts

8,987 (9,397)

Self-contained flats...

467 ( 467)

End bay flats

Domestic rooms

Shops of various kinds

2,292 (2,292)

:

:

205,444 (200,777)

261

(277)

8,833 ( 8,281)

Restaurants (general and light

refreshment)

6

6)

534* (

552)*

Workshops

Factories

Schools

62

(59)

1,428 ( 1,615)

:

:

:

14

(19)

2,026 ( 1,901)

35

(35)

330 (

314)

Clinics and Welfare Centres

30

(29)

223 (

234)

* Including 6 annexe general restaurants and two 2-storey restaurants.

307

Appendix 35

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Number of Domestic Units and Estimated Number of Persons Accommodated at March 31, 1970

Domestic Units

Persons Accommodated

Increase] Decrease

Permanent

No

Increase Decrease in year

No

in year

Urban Areas

Government Quarters A

10,500

+

100

Resettlement Estates B...

177,000

+ 2,800

55,100 922,500

+ 4,900 +37,300

Resettlement Cottage Areas

7,200

-

1,400

48,300

- 10,200

Government Low Cost Housing

27,000

+ 5,000

154,200

+27,200

Housing Authority

25,100 + 800

152,100

+ 8,600

Housing Society ...

15,900 + 600

98,100

+ 1,400

Total

262,700

+ 7,900

1,430,300

+69,200

New Territories

Government Quarters A

2,300

+

200

11,200

+

600

Resettlement Estates B

31,600

154,600

+ 9,700

Resettlement Cottage Areas

2,200

9,300

Government Low Cost Housing B

4,300

+ 1,800

21,800

200 +18,500

Housing Authority

3,100

19,800

200

Housing Society ...

2,100

13,200 + 500

Total

45,600

+ 2,000

229,900 +28,900

Residual Mainly Private

Urban Areas

New Territories

273,600

57,200

+ 7,700 300

1,594,300 C -14,100

Total Permanent

639,100

+17,300

3,254,500

+84,000

Temporary

Urban Areas

Squatters.

64,900 D

2,600

338,700

-13,600

Occupants of licensed/resite areas

5,600

+

200

30,200

+ 2,100

New Territories

Squatters

39,500

300

150,400

4,600

Occupants of licensed/resite areas

1,300

+ 200

6,700

+ 1,200

Permittees E

36,600

+ 2,400

169,000

+10,000

Total Temporary

147,900

100

695,000

4,900

Colony Land Total

787,000

+17,200

3,949,500

+79,100

Marine

Floating Craft

21,900 + 500

102,800 F

Colony Population

Notes:

4,052,300 G +79,100

(i) All Figures have been rounded off to the nearest hundred. (ii) New Territories 'Domestic Units' and 'Persons Accommodated' figures in-

clude those for Tsuen Wan District.

A. Population figures include officers living in barrack type accommodation (11,300 in the urban areas, 4,000 in the New Territories) but this type of accommodation is not in- cluded in the domestic unit figure.

B. Although the number of domestic units completed is smaller than that for 1968-9 the large increases in population are mainly due to the filling of units handed over after the end of the previous year.

C. The Urban and New Territories residual population figures have been combined in the

table due to the difficulty in reconciling population estimates for the New Territories. D. Figures are based on number of families not on numbers of structures. The term squatter

means the occupant of an unlawful structure.

E. Permittees are occupants of Crown Land in the New Territories who hold the land on permits which may be cancelled at one month's notice. Such permits are usually cancelled only when an area is due for development; permittees in areas not due for development often erect buildings of a more substantial character. Occupants of private agricultural land for which Modification of Tenancy permits have been granted to allow the erection of temporary structures are also classified as permittees. The increase in permittees in the New Territories is mainly due to the regularisation of temporary structures during the year.

F. The 1966 By-census marine population figure (as adjusted) has been retained as an

accurate count has not been undertaken since that time.

G. Figures are derived from the deliberations of the Working Party on Half Yearly Popula

tion Estimates.

308

Appendix 35 - Contd

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Premiums received on sales of Crown Land from 1851 to 1970

The system of disposing of leasehold land by public auction for a premium began in 1851 in accordance with the Secretary of State's Despatch No. 222 of January 2, 1851. Where premiums are payable by instalments, only the amounts actually received have been included in the annual totals.

Total

$

4,223,058.44

5,655,048.87

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

F:..

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

Period

1851

1900 (50 years)

1901 - 1920 (20 years)

-

1921 1941 (25.12.41)

-

1946-7 - 1955-6 (10 years)

1956-7 - 1960-1 (5 years)

1961-2 (1 year)

1962-3 (1 year)

1963-4 (1 year)

1964-5 (1 year)

1965-6 (1 year)

1966-7 (1 year)

1967-8 (1 year)

1968-9 (1 year)

1969-70 (1 year)

:

:

29,989,868.03

67,617,711.64

177,375,655.35

107,225,301.38

234,402,780.18

207,157,985.13

143,295,983.24

75,859,685.12

50,623,349.27

43,785,984.08

43,757,254.32

120,392,786.28

$1,311,262,451.33

Appendix 36

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic

309

Comparative figures for the six calendar years are as follows:

Fatal

...

Serious injury

Slight injury ...

Total

:

:

:

Accidents

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

268

264

284

333

314

367

2,624 3,065

3,556

3,759

3,970

4,098

5,975

5,732

6,108

5,843

5,891

6,555

8,867 9,061 9,948

9,935 10,175

11,020

Number of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

Number of registered vehicles

87,768 92,966 99,444 109,736 125,596* 143,995*

176,340 197,180 227,093 250,948 291,486 338,503

31,393 29,664 48,286 55,274 63,178 83,643

+

110,594 126,147 160,146 178,265 207,966† 246,766†

Number of licensed drivers

Provisional (Learner) Licences

issued

Driving tests conducted

* This number includes 308 trailers and does not include 212 rickshaws, and 80 pedal

tricycles.

†This number includes written test, the number of practical tests conducted is 173,445.

310

Appendix 37

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Crime and Narcotic Offences in 1970

Number of Persons

Prosecuted

311

Number of Cases

Reported

Crime

Crime

1970

1969

1970

Under

16 years

16 years

and over

Against Public Order

72

53

9

256

Forgery and Coinage

Perjury

71

80

1

50

Bribery and Corruption

Escape and Rescue

123

110

1

77

Unlawful Society

960

530

116

759

Possession of Arms and Ammunition Conspiracy

::ཋ

Other Offences Against Lawful

Authority

Breach of Deportation

Other Crime

50

36

24

Total

Total

:

1,276

809

128

1,166

Serious Narcotic Offence

Rape and Indecent Assault

Other Sexual Offences ...

378

427

26

123

Grand Total

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

1970

Reported

1969

Under

Prosecuted 1970

16 years

16 years

and over

281

266

1

38

113

1

66

46

4

39

23

24

204

9

13

207

207

25805

97

640

668

30

434

1,191

838

5

1,262

29,052 25,488 1,652

13,901

397

326

12

198

(Percentage of Crime Detected: 1969-75.6%; 1970-76.6%)

Total

:

:

775

753

38

321

NARCOTIC OFFENCES

Murder and Manslaughter

Attempted Murder

71

55

7

91

*Manufacturing (Section 6)

3

5

5

2

1

*Trafficking (Section 4-Importing)

1

Serious Assaults

1,337

1,266

64

1,019

*Other Trafficking (Section 4)

34

73

Abortion

3

*Possession for Purpose of Trafficking

Kidnapping

(Section 7)

1,154

759

10

Criminal Intimidation

33

34

2

27

Opium

Other Offences Against the Person

167

137

1

64

Possession of Opium ...

1,974

1,542

Total

1,617

1,494

74

1,205

Possession of Equipment

145

142

Keeping a Divan

7

38

Smoking Opium

2,279

2,137

Robbery with Firearms

:

4

4

10

Other Opium Offences

25

15

111-2

6

33

5

1,223

1,729

41

6

2,237

2

Other Robberies

All Burglaries

Blackmail

Theft from Person

3,002

2,323

379

1,217

Heroin

2,522

2,333

99

659

Possession of Heroin ...

8,262

9,220

53

7,121

Going Equipped for Stealing, etc

292

44

1

139

Possession of Equipment

118

112

349

393

31

103

...

Keeping a Divan

3

3

1,500

1,543

63

666

Smoking Heroin

1,169

1,674

Other Thefts

10,247

8,909

679

3,422

Other Heroin offences

79

102

INI

65

3

2

1,069

5

All Frauds

497

382

1

129

Other Dangerous Drugs

Handling Stolen Goods

62

56

2

28

Malicious Injuries to Property

Possession

488

750

292

275

194

8

132

Unlawful Possession

Smoking

27

9

726

504

56

554

Other Offences

2

11

1

Possession of Unlawful Instrument

1,834

1,700

39

327

Loitering and Trespass

2,243

2,541

19

2,127

Total

15,751

16,611

63

13,842

Total

:

23,553

20,926

1,377

9,513

* These offences are classified as Crime and are also shown under Serious Narcotic Offences.

312

Marine

Appendix

(Chapter 13, Communication

for the year ending

Mechanised vessels under

38

Communications)

Statistics

December 31, 1970

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas (Millions)

313

Ocean-

River

going

Junks

vessels

steamers

300 tons

1959

Vessels entered

Tonnage entered

Passengers disembarked

Cargo tons discharged

Vessels cleared

Tonnage cleared

7,147

23,008,320

11,656 2,815,726

7,016 1,130,074

5,075

1960†..

437,591

1961

24,270 9,341,721 7,156

1,449,485

1962

15,828 11,661

22,942,023

2,938,337

656,396 7,030 1,137,693

449,267

1963

5,068

1964†

434,938

1965

Passengers embarked

Cargo tons loaded

Length of line ...

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section*

Main points of call

Passenger kilometres

Passengers carried

Freight carried (in metric tons)

Net operating revenue

Capital expenditure

Total revenue

Main line-22 miles

Total length of line-38 miles

New Territories (Hong Kong)

10,318,789 177,191,083

859,998

$16,089,247.37

23,516*

1,445,843

1966

2,802,540

6,943

154,206

182

1967

Including 292 emigrants.

1968†

Urban

HK

Cross New§ Total

Area

Island

Harbour Territories 721.332 689.942 259.943 298.352 131.647 809.447 772.756 281.620 353.155 137.981 890.716 840.066 300.705 394.500 144.861 974.777 913.101 1,032.576 961.483 1,090.195 1,007.695 1,162.710 1,072.985 1,237.516 1,147.206 1,054.590 986.046 1,196.631 1,119.582

Kowloon

31.390

36.691

50.650

323.196 430.678 159.227

61.676

333.946 456.698 170.839

71.093

340.663 478.123 188.909 351.023 518.924 203.038 368.150 568.817 210.239 323.268 462.559 200.219

82.500

89.725

90.310

68.544

359.102 549.892 210.588

77.049

1969 1970

Air Traffic

Aircraft

Passengers

Freight (Kilos)

Mail (Kilos)...

Vehicles

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on December 31, 1970 was 143,687. This represented an overall increase of 15% over 1969. There is now a density of about 240 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

( 9,992,889

(181,186,237

885,215.8) ($15,660,307.58)

Urban

HK

Total

Kowloon

$ 2,156,808.15

($ 5,157,657.18)

Area

Island

Cross Harbour

News Territories

1959

100

100

100

100

100

$ 8,360,494.85

100

($

338,217.26)

1960

112

112

(*) Figures for 1969 are shown in brackets.

106

118

105

117

1961

123

122

116

132

110

161

1962

135

132

124

144

121

196

% increase

1963

143

139

128

153

130

226

In

Out

compared

1964

151

146

131

160

143

263

with 1969

1965

161

156

135

174

154

286

23,416

23,425

1966

21.55%

172

166

142

191

160

288

1,142,120

16,728,311

1,422,082

1,182,780 44,458,159 2,361,004

22.67%

1967

146

143

124

155

152

218

19.92

1968

166

162

138

184

160

245

11.76%

1969

170

166

144

184

169

253

1970

161

159

132

174

175

213

Source: Transport Department.

1,225.837 1,146.340 374.931 548.705 222.704 1,160.849 1,093.936 344.329 518.883 230.725

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas

(Index Numbers: Base 1959=100)

79,497

66.913

Private Cars

Motor Cycles

Motor Tricycles

Taxis

Buses

Public Light Buses

Private Light Buses

Goods Vehicles

Public Cars

Crown Vehicles

Rickshaws

Pedal Tricycles...

Trailers ...

Total.

Notes: * Passenger journeys represent the number of tickets sold or fares collect for single

journeys and estimates of journeys made by holders of season tickets.

† February figure is adjusted to 28 days.

Kowloon-Canton Railway (British Section) excludes passengers to and from Lo Wu. New Territories-The sum of Kowloon Motor Bus routes 16 and upwards and all suffixes; Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry, other than services between Hong Kong and Kowloon or New Kowloon; and Kowloon-Canton Railways excluding passengers to and from Lo Wu. K.M.B. Tsuen Wan routes were grouped into Urban routes w.e.f. July 1, 1970.

92,884

14,089

116

3,408

2,873

3,784

1,368

21,298

770

3,097

158

Number of Post Office

72

Total Revenue

308

144,225

Postal Traffic

Value of Remittance Business (Money Order and Postal Order Issued

and Paid)..

Tons of Mail Despatch by Air

1969

57 $138.9 m

$ 69.101

1970

59 $160.02 m

1,995 374,560

$ 82.64 m 2,313 426,424

Passenger Journeys* by Public Transport: Annual

Bags conveyed by Kowloon-Canton Railway

Traffic by Undertakings (Millions)

1959

Total

KMB 721.332 322.077

Telecommunication Traffic

CMB 87.180

1960†

809.447 380.712 106.288

HKT

HYF

SFC 172.763 97.186 37.039 175.332 101.983

KCRI

5.087

Telegrams accepted for transmission

39.384

5.748

Telegrams received

1961

1962

1963

1964†.

1965

1966

1967

1968†

1969

1970

890.716 435.515 120.120 180.585 106.765 41.864 974.777 481.569 134.196 189.000 117.228 1,032.576 515.172 143.026 190.920 126.990 1,090.195 546.579 158.209 182.454 1,162.710 593.221 169.256 181.767 155.499 54.491 1,237.516 643.120 186.561 181.589 161.180 1,054.590 515.539 169.151 154.117 158.524 1,196.631 610.752 201.107 157.995 166.830 50.986 1,225.837 611.463 212.879 162.052 174.407 1,160.849 568.014 185.795 158.533 182.201

5.867

Telegrams handled in transit

46.630

5.154

Telex calls-outward minutes

1969 1,413,037 1,458,013 1,666,786 1,743,628 1,186,450 1,252,174 1,389,451 1,418,938

1970

49.196

7.272

Telex calls--inward minutes

1,019,641

1,377,008

144.611

50.460

7.882

International telephone calls-outward minutes

2,908,317

4,078,224

8.476

International telephone calls-inward minutes

3,587,038

4,947,055

56.332

8.734

Pictures transmitted

3,401

2,836

48.625

8.634

Pictures received

17,260

18,922

8.961

Press broadcasts and reception services-number of hours

55.819

9.217

56.646

9.660

Meteorological broadcasts and reception services--number of hours Inland telegrams

16,800

19,968

89,406

92,381

8,783

7,032

314

Daily

Appendix 39

(Chapter 14: Press, Broadcasting and Cinema)

Leading Newspapers and Magazines

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

South China Morning Post

Hong Kong Standard

China Mail

(including Sundays)

The Star

(including Sundays)

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Sunday Star

Asia Magazine

Far Eastern Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

This Week in Hong Kong

Monthly

Far East Builder Far East Engineer

Far East Medical Journal Asian Industry

Young Hong Kong

Reader's Digest (Asia Edition) Asia Travel Trade Style

Hong Kong Telegraph

CHINESE LANGUAGE

Daily (Morning Papers)

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

Fai Po (Express)

Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao (Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Po

Chiu Yin Pao

Sin Sang Yat Po (Gentlemen Daily News)

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Ching Po Daily

Tin Tin Yat Po

Ming Tang Yat Po

Daily (Evening Papers)

Alternate Days

Tien Wen Toi

(Observatory Review)

Weekly

Kung Kao Pao

Tung Fung (East Pictorial) Chau Mut Pao

(Week-end News)

Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom) Chinese Student Weekly Economic Reporter

Every 10 days

Kar Ting Sang Wood

(Home Life Journal)

Fortnightly

Children's Paradise

Ming Pao

Hong Kong Daily News

      Wah Sing Pao Daily Pictorial

Yuet Wah Daily News

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao (New Evening Post)

Chan Pao (Truth Daily)

New Life Evening Post

Seng Weng Evening News

Cheng Wu Pao

Nam Wah Man Pao

World Evening Express

The Star (Chinese Edition)

Monthly

Companion

Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial)

Sing Tao Pictorial

Woman Today

Reader's Digest

(Chinese Edition)

Appendix 40

(Chapter 17: Recreation)

Some Trends in Recreation and Amenities Development

315

Number of recreational facilities managed by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department in Hong Kong, Kowloon' and the New Territories as at:

30.9.55 | 30.9.60 | 30.9.64 | 30.9.66|31.12.68|31.12.70

Number of acres of public open space

administered by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department

Facilities

Children's playgrounds

Parks and gardens

Grass games pitches

Hardsurface mini-soccer pitches

Basketball/volleyball courts

Tennis courts

Running tracks

Beaches and swimming pools

176

562

846

1,099

1,252

1,388

:

+

26

26

55

101

185

233

10

78

164

220

283

336

:

Service and recreational facilities not

otherwise stated

12

18

21

24

29

37

N

19

31

42

1223

35

54

73

6

36

97

136

233

303

Nil

18

Nil

a

$

2

22

22

2

25

25

30

30

N

31

32

38

6

7

40

40

41

211

286

338

323

506

316

Appendix 41

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate)

Climatological Summary 1970

Pres- sure at

Mean

Air Temperature

Sea Abs Mean Level Max Max

Wind

Rela-

Amount

Dew tive Point Hu-

Sun-

Rain- Pre-

of

shine

Mean

Mean Abs Min Min

Cloud

fall

vail-

Mean

midity

ing

direc-

Speed

tion

mb °C °C °C ос °C

ос %

%

hours

mm points knots

January 1020.6 22.9 17.7 14.9

12.6

7.6

9.3

71

60

156.0

28.7 ESE

February 18.6 26.1 21.1 17.7 15.5

11.6 13.1

75

61

149.2

3.0 E

55

23

8.5

7.3

March

15.9 25.2 17.7

15.8 14.2

11.7 13.2 85

92

31.2

43.3

E

10.0

April

15.0 31.3 24.5 21.2 18.8 14.4 16.5 76

75

122.4 14.7

[I]

E

89

5.8

May

09.2 32.6 28.8 25.8 23.6 20.6 22.8 84

76

143.1 531.8 E

4.8

June

07.2 33.1 30.9 28.4 26.2 23.6 24.9 82

67

183.5 409.3 E

30

3.0

July

05.2 33.6 32.0 29.3 27.0 24.7 24.8 78

58

261.9 151.3 W

3.3

August

04.3 33.1 31.3 28.3 26.0 23.8 24.9 82

71

184.5 410.5 W

3.7

September 06.6 32.6 30.0 27.3 25.0 19.3 23.9 82

70

161.1 509.6

[2]

E

5.2

October

12.2 31.4 27.3 24.7 22.5

16.6 19.4 73

71

134.8

143.6 NNE 7.9

19

November 17.2 27.8 24.4 21.5

19.0 12.9 14.9 67

63

167.1

0.1 E

December 17.9 25.1 20.8 18.2 15.9

11.2 13.5 75

65

149.9 70.4 E

4.9

56

19

5.6

Mean,

total or extreme

for year 1012.5 33.6 25.5 22.8 20.5

(Jul 7)

7.6 18.4 77 (Jan 19)

69

1844.7 2316.3 F

5.8

Pres-

sure at

Appendix 41

Contd

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate)

Climatological Normals

(1884-1939; 1947-60)

Air Temperature

317

Wind

Rela-

Amount

Dew tive

Sun-

Rain-

Pre-

Mean

of

    Sea Abs Mean Level Max* Max

Mean

Mean Abs

Min Min*|

Point Hu-

midity

shine

fall

vail-

Cloud

Mean

ing

direc-

Speed

tion

mb °C °C °C °C

°C

°C %

%

hours

mm

points knots

January 1019.9 26.9 18.2 15.4 13.3

0.0 11.1 75

64

145.4 31.7 E

7.7

February 18.4 27.8 17.7 15.2

13.2

2.4 11.7 79

75

100.2 46.9 E

8.9

March

16.1 29.7 19.9 17.5 15.6

6.2 14.8 83

82

94.7 72.2 E

9.4

April

12.7 33.4 23.9 21.3 19.5

9.9

18.8 85

80

114.6 135.8 E

8.7

May

09.2 35.5 27.8 25.2 23.3

15.4 22.4 85

76

76

156.1 292.7 E

8.3

June

05.9 35.6 29.8 27.3 25.4 19.2 24.2 84

78

159.9 401.2

E

7.6

July

04.9 35.7 30.7 27.9 25.8 22.2 24.7 83

69

213.7 371.7 E

6.8

August

04.9 36.1 30.4 27.7 25.5 21.7 24.6 84

67

200.9 370.8| E

6.5

September 08.4 35.2 29.8 27.1 24.9 18.4 23.1 79

61

197.5 278.8 E

7.8

October

13.8 34.3 27.3 24.6 22.5

14.1 19.3 72

51

218.9 99.2 E

8.5

November 17.5 31.8 23.7 20.9 18.6 6.5 15.1 69

3335

187.9

43.1 E

7.8

December 19.7 28.7 20.1

17.3 14.9

4.8 11.9

20

70

355

172.6 24.9 E

7.2

Mean,

total or

extreme

for year 1012.6 36.1 24.9 22.3 20.2 0.0 18.5 79

(Aug 19 1900)

(Jan 18.

1893)

* 1884-1939; 1947-70.

89

68

1963.1 2168.8 E 7.9

318

Type of appointment

Name of Members on January 1, 1971

Ex Officio

(Presided over by His Excellency the Governor)

Appendix

42

(Chapter 22: Constitution

The Executive

and Administration)

Council

Remarks

Sir Hugh Selby NORMAN-WALKER, KCMG, OBE, JP, assumed the office of Acting Governor during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 17.10.70 to 12.12.70.

Ex Officio

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander British Succeeded Lieutenant-General Sir Basil

Forces

Lieutenant-General Sir Richard

Erskine WARD, KCB, DSO, MC

Oscar Paul EUGSTER, KCB, KCVO, CBE, DSO, MC on 11.12.70.

Major General D. G. T. HORSFORD, CBE, DSO, appointed to act as Com- mander British Forces from 23.9.70 to 7.10.70 and from 1.12.70 to 10.12.70.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary| Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON,

Sir Hugh Selby Norman-Walker,

KCMG, OBE, JP

""

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil Roberts,

CBE, QC, JP

55

Nominated

GM, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 26.3.70 to 6.4.70.

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 11.6.70 to 24.9.70 and from 17.10.70 to 12.12.70.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General from 27.6.70 to 2.9.70.

The Honourable the Secretary for Home Mr Paul TSUI Ka-cheung, OBE, JP,

Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG,

CBE, MC, ED, JP

appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 11.6.70 to 19.7.70.

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 20.7.70 to 24.9.70 and from 27.9.70 to 31.12.70.

The Honourable the Financial Secretary Mr Charles Philip Haddon-Cave, JP,

Sir John James COWPERTHWAITE,

KBE, CMG, JP

The Honourable George Tippett ROWE,

JP

(Director of Social Welfare)

appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 8.4.70 to 15.4.70, 2.5.70 to 20.6.70, and from 16.9.70 to 27.9.70.

Type of appointment

Name of Members

Remarks

on January 1, 1971

Nominated

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable Sir Albert RODRIGUES,

CBE, ED, JP

"

The Honourable Sir Cho-yiu KWAN,

CBE, JP

""

+

319

The Honourable John Douglas CLAGUE, Mr Herbert John Charles BROWNE, JP,

CBE, MC, QPM, TD, JP

appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 30.5.70 to 27.9.70.

The Honourable Sir Kenneth Ping-fan Mr SZETO Wai, OBE, JP, appointed

FUNG, CBE, JP

provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 6.5.70 to 16.6.70.

""

The Honourable Sidney Samuel

GORDON, CBE, JP

""

""

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 12.7.70 to 18.8.70.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr GORDON from 17.10.70 to 22.1.71.

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE, JP

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 30.4.70 to 27.6.70 and from 10.10.70 to 24.10.70.

The Honourable John Anthony Holt Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP,

SAUNDERS, CBE, DSO, MC, JP

appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 8.8.70 to 25.9.70.

"

The Honourable TANG Ping-yuan,

CBE, JP

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TANG from 22.5.70 to 30.6.70.

320

Type of appointment

Name of Members on January 1, 1971

Ex Officio

Appendi

43

(Chapter 22: Constitution

The Legislative

and Administration)

Council

Remarks

PRESIDENT:

His Excellency the Governor

Sir David Clive Crosbie TRENCH,

GCMG, MC

Sir Hugh Selby

NORMAN-WALKER,

KCMG, OBE, JP, assumed the office of Acting Governor during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 17.10.70 to 12.12.70.

Type of appointment

Name of Members on January 1, 1971

Nominated

Remarks

321

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE, JP

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen,

OBE, JP

Mr ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 2.5.70 to 26.6.70.

5

""

Nominated

"

""

""

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Sir Hugh Selby NORMAN-WALKER,

KCMG, OBE, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil Roberts,

CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for Home

Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG,

CBE, MC, ED, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Sir John James COWPERTHWAITE,

KBE, CMG, JP

The Honourable Robert Marshall

HETHERINGTON, DFC, JP

(Commissioner of Labour)

Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON, GM, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 26.3.70 to 6.4.70. Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 11.6.70 to 24.9.70 and from 17.10.70 to 12.12.70. Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General from 27.6.70 to 2.9.70.

Mr Paul Tsur Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 11.6.70 to 19.7.70.

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 20.7.70 to 24.9.70 and from 27.9.70 to 31.12.70.

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 8.4.70 to 15.4.70, 2.5.70 to 20.6.70, and from 16.9.70 to 27.9.70.

The Honourable David Richard Watson Mr Alastair Trevor CLARK, JP, appointed

ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

(Director of Urban Services)

The Honourable James Jeavons

ROBSON, JP

(Director of Public Works)

The Honourable Donald Collin Cumyn

LUDDINGTON, JP

(District Commissioner, New

Territories)

The Honourable John CANNING, JP

(Director of Education)

55

Dr the Honourable Gerald Hugh

CHOA, JP

"

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

The Honourable Paul Tsui Ka-cheung,

OBE, JP

(Commissioner for Resettlement)

provisionally during the absence of Mr ALEXANDER from 24.6.70 to 18.8.70.

Mr Richard Charles CLARKE, ISO, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr ROBSON from 15.8.70 to 12.12.70.

Succeeded Dr TENG Pin-hui, CMG,

OBE, JP, on 1.7.70.

Appointed as an Official Member with effect from 14.8.70 when the Director of Social Welfare ceased to be an Official Member.

The Honourable Jack CATER, MBE, JP Succeeded Mr T. D. Sorby, JP, on 24.9.70.

(Director of Commerce and Industry)|

"

The Honourable SZETO Wai, OBE

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Sien-bing, OBE, JP

The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Wilson WANG Tze-sam,

OBE, JP

Mr Oswald Victor CHEUNG, QC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mrs Li to 16.1.70.

The Honourable Herbert John Charles Mr Gerald Mordaunt Broome Salmon,

BROWNE, JP

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen,

OBE, JP

"

The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, OBE, JP

JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr BROWNE to 2.2.70.

The Honourable Oswald Victor CHEUNG, Succeeded Mr FUNG Hon-chu, OBE,

QC, JP

JP, on 1.7.70.

"

The Honourable Gerald Mordaunt

Broome SALMON, JP

Succeeded Mr Michael Alexander Robert

HERRIES, OBE, MC, on 2.6.70.

The Honourable ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP |Succeeded Mr TSE Yu-chuen, OBE, JP,

on 1.7.70.

The Honourable Lo Kwee-seong, JP

Appointed on 1.7.70.

322

Type of appointment

Ex officio

"

"

""

"

Elected

"

Appendix 44

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1971

CHAIRMAN:

The Director of Urban Services

The Honourable David Richard

Watson ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Vice-Chairman

Deputy Director of Medical and

Health Services

   Dr James Kenneth CRAIG, MBE The Honourable the Secretary for

Home Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG,

CBE, MC, ED, JP

The Director of Public Works

The Honourable James Jeavons

ROBSON, JP

The Director of Social Welfare

The Honourable George Tippett

Rowe, JP

The Commissioner for Resettlement

The Honourable Paul Tsur

Ka-cheung, OBE, JP

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE,

QC, JP

Mr Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, JP

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT

Remarks

Mr Alastair Trevor CLARK, JP, appoint- ed as Chairman during the absence of Mr ALEXANDER from 24.6.70 to 17.8.70.

Succeeded Dr Edward Noel Frazer

BROWNE on 4.7.70.

Mr Paul Tsur Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, acted as Secretary for Home Affairs from 11.6.70 to 19.7.70.

Mr Denis Campbell BRAY, JP, acted as Secretary for Home Affairs from 20.7.70 to 31.12.70.

Mr Richard Charles CLARKE, ISO, JP, acted as Director of Public Works from 5.4.70 to 25.4.70 and from 12.8.70 to 11.12.70.

Mr Lawrence Edwin Arthur HOLT- KENTWELL, MBE, JP, acted as Director of Social Welfare from 1.7.70 to 12.8.70.

Succeeded Mr John Philip ASERAPPA,

JP, on 6.8.70.

"

Mr Solomon RAFEEK, BEM

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick

""

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa

"

Mr Woo Po-shing

19

Nominated

Mr Raymond KAN Yat-kum

Mr Peter CHAN Chi-kwan

Mr Henry WONG

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira Sales, OBE, JP

*

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, JP

31

""

59

Appointed

"

""

**

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE, JP

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, JP

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP

Mr Derek John Renshaw BLAKER, JP

Mr James Wu Man-hon, JP

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun

Mrs Catherine Joyce SYMONS, JP Mr Lo Tak-shing, JP

Succeeded the Honourable Wilson WANG

Tze-sam, JP, resigned on 1.4.70.

Appendix 45

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal 1966-70

323

Supreme Court

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

Civil appeals

59

52

36

47

51

Criminal appeals

612

711

758

912

735

Original jurisdiction

2,493

1,983

1,651

1,642

2,210

Miscellaneous proceedings

487

316

296

246

237

Adoptions

160

134

224

292

271

Divorce

136

164

144

222

257

Criminal sessions

65

64

51

53

72

Admiralty jurisdiction

16

62

31

30

40

Probate grants

989

1,080

1,101

1,240

1,449

Lunacy

2

2

...

Bankruptcy

26

27

11

10

10

Company winding-up

28

39

26

21

10

5,073

4,632

4,331

4,715

5,342

Total

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

215

383

123

305

216

Civil jurisdiction

12,890

16,717

18,892

15,444

15,690

Workmen's compensation

250

223

158

175

201

Distress for rent

1,362

1,730

1,314

1,255

1,214

Total

14,717

19,053

20,487

17,179

17,321

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

749

580

702

759

719

Exemption cases

24

18

13

62

289

Demolished building cases

286

173

164

132

110

Total

1,059

771

879

953

1,118

Work in the Magistracies for the Years 1966-70

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

Total number of summary matters

(charges, summonses and appli- cations, etc)

399,907 316,177

441,461

478,711

528,363

Total number of adult defendants

412,960 342,101

435,120

486,753

541,247

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

384,620

310,668

399,685

445,211

490,146

Total number of juvenile defendants Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

12,325

9,368

12,711

9,587

5,111

12,072

Totalnumber of charge sheets issued

Total number of summonses issued

Total number of miscellaneous

proceedings issued

155,311

236,123

9,111 113,451 161,785 199,136 274,332

12,539

9,077

4,682

175,498

199,414

295,915 321,387

4,800

3,590

5,344

7,298

7,562

324

Appendix 46

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(A) The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Member Agencies

American Women's Association of Hong Kong Hong Kong Red Cross

Boy's and Girls' Clubs Association

CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services)

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Relief Services-USCC

Catholic Women's League

Hong Kong Red Swastika

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of

Children

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Association

The Cheshire Home

Children's Meals Society

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Children's Playgrounds Association Child Care Centre-Walled City Christian Children's Fund, Inc Christian Family Service Centre

Church of Christ in China, Hong Kong

        Council, Social Welfare Department Conference Board of Christian Social

Concerns of the Methodist Church

Convent of Good Shepherd

Hong Kong University Social Service Group International Rescue Committee International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council The Leprosy Mission

Lutheran World Service Maryknoll Sisters

Marycove

Mennonite Central Committee

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

Diocesan Welfare Council of the Diocese of Oxford Committee for Famine Relief

Hong Kong and Macau

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind The Endeavourers

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

Five District Business Welfare Association Foster Parents' Plan, Inc

Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club

Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Church Hospital Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic

Disease Association

Hong Kong Catholic, Conference of Social

Service

Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of the Boys' Brigade Hong Kong Council of Women Hong Kong Christian Service Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid

Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups Hong Kong Housing Society Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern, Inc

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

Resettlement Estates Loan Association

The Salvation Army

Save the Children Fund

Scouts Association

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese

Methodist Church

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of

Drug Addicts

Society for the Relief Disabled Children

Society of Boys' Centre

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

World Council of Churches

World Vision, Inc

Yang Memorial Social Service Centre YMCA (Chinese speaking).

YMCA (English speaking)

YWCA

The Chinese Methodist Church

Epworth Village Community Centre Association of Volunteer for Service

325

Appendix 46- Contd

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

(B) The Community Chest of Hong Kong

Member Organisations

Buddhist Po Ching Home for Aged Women

Calvary Social Service Centre

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services)

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council

Catholic Women's League

Child Care Centre-Kowloon Walled City

Children's Meals Society

Chinese YMCA

Christian Family Service Centre

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

Epworth Village Community Centre

Family Planning Association

Foster Parents Plan

Hans Andersen Club

Happy Home for the Aged

Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Youth Centre

Holy Nativity Social Service Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Council of the Boys Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Hong Kong Red Cross

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

Kei Oi Youth Centre

Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong

Neighbourhood Advice Council

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation

Association

North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

North Point Estate Residents' Association

Project Concern---Hong Kong

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

St Christopher's Home

St James' Settlement

Salvation Army-Hong Kong Command

Shaukiwan Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association HK Ltd

Society of Boys' Centres

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

Workers Tours and Travel Service

YWCA

Lutheran World Federation

St Thomas' Day Nursery

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

Save the Children Fund

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Yang Memorial Social Centre

Youth Centre of St Barnabas'

Practical Training Centre of the Churches

Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Pelletier Hall

:

Index

HONG KONG BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Bibliography last appeared in this Report in 1963. A revised edition, 'A Hong Kong Bibliography 1965' by J. M. Braga, is available as a separate publication priced at HK$1.00 per copy, obtainable from the Printing Department, 81-115 Java Road, North Point, and the Government Publications Centre, Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong.

:

Abattoirs, 105 Aberdeen, 227

Accidents, industrial, 262

Administration, Government,

238-50 Adoption, 128

Adult education, 81-2 Advisory Committees, 247-8 Aero Club of Hong Kong, 168 Agriculture, 60-3

policy and administration, 61 Air Pollution, 9, 25

Air traffic, 146, 166-7, 312 Aircraft engineering, 42, 167 Airport, 166-8

loan, 28

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Hospital, 96

Aliens, 146

Ambulance service, 144

Anglican Church, 195

Animal industries, 64-5 Apprentices, 4, 18

Archaeology, 204

Armed Services, 27, 187-91 Art Collections, 204-5 Art in schools, 85

Arts, the, 202-4

Asian Development Bank, 40 Asian Productivity Organisation,

49, 55

Assets and liabilities, 27-8, 266-7 Auxiliary Fire Service, 192 Auxiliary Forces, 190-1 Auxiliary Medical Service, 191 Aviation, 166-8

Banks, 27, 37, 280 Banknotes, 34, 280

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 59 Baptist Church, 195 Basle Agreement, 36 Bathing and beaches, 201 Bauhinia Blakeana, 225

BCG vaccine, 90

Benelux Countries, the, 48 Bets and Sweeps Tax, 33 Bibliography, see opposite Birds, 223

Birth and death registration, 220 Black, Sir Robert, College, 81

Index

Blake, Sir Henry, 231

Blood banks, 97

Bonds, 36

Border, 168

Botany, 226

Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 131 Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, 131 British-

Council, 206-7

Government, 238

Broadcasting, 180-1

Bruce, Sir Frederick, 231 Buddhism, 193

Budget, 27-8, 266-7

Building-

Authority, 115

development, 8, 115-7, 153-6 Ordinance, 116

Bus services, 13, 171-3 Business registration, 11, 57-9

Cable and Wireless Ltd, 177 Cantonese, 86, 218

Car parks, 171

Cargo tonnages, 164, 312 Caritas, 89

Castle Peak, new town, 109 Castle Peak Hospital, 101 Cathay Pacific, 168

Catholic Church, 196 Cattle, 64

Census, 217, 219

Centre of Asian Studies, 86 Certificates of Origin, 50 Chater Collection, 204 Chemist, Government, 97 Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 161 Chi Ma Wan Prison, 142 Child welfare, 131

Children, abandoned, 131 China, 45, 146

China Light and Power Co Ltd, 160 China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 13, 171 Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

56

Chinese Middle Schools, 72

Chinese People's Republic, 22, 51 Chinese University, 4, 73, 74, 75, 76,

83, 87 Ching Ming, 195

Cholera, 89

330

Christians, 193, 195-7 Chuenpi, Convention of, 229 Chung Chi College, 76 Chung Yeung Festival, 195 Church of Christ in China, 195 Churches, 193-8 Cinemas, 182

City District Officers, 14, 246 City Hall, 203-6

Civil-

Aid Services, 191-2 Aviation, 166-8 Defence, 190-1

Service, see Public Service

      Clean Air Ordinance, 9 Cleansing, 101-5

Climate, 209-10

Clinics, 97-8

Clinics, Floating, 98

Coinage, 34

Collections, government, 202

Colonial Development and Welfare,

263

Colonial Secretariat, 244

Commerce and Industry Department,

40, 51, 145

Commercial Radio, 181

      Commercial wharves, 164-5 Commonwealth preference, 31, 44 Communicable diseases, 89-92 Communications, 162-78, 312 Community centres, 129

Community Chest, Hong Kong,

129, 325

Companies Registry, 58

Computers, 170

Confucius, 193

Constitution, 238-40

Consular corps, 294

Consumer price index, 19

Container Cargo Services, 157, 164

Convention of Peking, 231

Co-operative societies, 66-7

Cotton, see Textiles

Courts, 240-2

Credit Unions, 68-9

Crime, 137-9

Crops, 62-3

Cross-harbour tunnel, 175

Crown land, 106-9, 308 CTA, 46

Currency, 34-7

Customary marriages, 221

Death rate, 88

Deaths, 220

Defence, 187-92

Defence expenditure, 27

Defence (Finance) Regulations, 35

Dental services, 99

Design-

Governor's Award for Hong

Kong Design, 56

Federation Award, 56

Devaluation, 35-6

Development Loan Fund, 28 Diphtheria, 88, 92

Disabled, the, 132

Diseases, 89-92

District Community Offices, 129 Dockyards, 165

Dollar coins, 34

Domestic exports, 10, 43, 288

Dougherty P. W., Editor Hong Kong

1968, '69, '70, 330

Dragon Boat Festival, 195 Drainage, 156-7

Driving licences, 174 Drug addiction, 94-5, 138

(see Narcotics)

Ducks, 64

Dutiable commodities, 31

Earnings and profits tax, 32 East India Company, 228 ECAFE, 39

Education, 70-87

adult, 81-2

educational television, 83 examinations, 83-4 higher, 74-7

music and art, 84-5

number of schools and pupils,

70

overseas, 85-6

pre-primary, 70-1

primary, 71-2

research, 86-7

School Health Service, 94

School Medical Service, 93 secondary, 72-4

special, 72

technical, 77-9

Electricity, 160-1

Electronics industry, 41-2

Elliot, Capt C, 228

Emigration, 17

Employment, 16-26, 260

holidays with pay,

20

Local Employment Advisory

Service, 17

migration for, 17

Ordinance 1968, 5, 20-2

safety, health and welfare, 24-6 wages and conditions of, 19-21 working hours, 19

Entertainment, 202 Entertainment Tax, 33

Entrepôt trade, 45

Essential Services Corps, 191 Estate duty, 33

European Economic Community,

10, 11, 45, 49

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 82

Exchange control, 34-7

Excise duties, 30-1

Executive Council, 238-9, 318

        Expenditure and revenue, 27-8, 263 Explosives, 69

Expo '70, 12, 85, 185-6, 176, 188 Export Credit Insurance Corporation,

53-4

Export promotion, 52-3 Exports, 10, 39, 43-54, 282 External trade, 43-5

Factories and industrial undertakings,

11, 16, 19, 109, 260

Ordinance, 19

Factory registration and inspection,

262

Far East Flying Training School, 168 Farming, 60-5, 209

Fauna, 222-5

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

56

Federation of Youth Groups, 131 Ferries, 173

        Festivals, Chinese, 195 Film censorship, 182-3 Film industry, 182 Films, government, 184 Finances, public, 27-8, 263 Fire prevention, 65, 144 Fire Services, 143-5, 163 Fish, 65-8

marine, 65

     Marketing Organisation, 67 ponds, 67

Fisheries, administration, 66, 67

Development Loan Fund, 66 research division, 67

Fishing fleet, 66

trawlers, 66

        Flatted factories, 121-2 Flora, 225-6 Fluoridation, 99

       Flying doctor service, 98 Flyovers, 169

Food inspection, 102 Footwear, 44 Forces, local, 190 Foreign Relations, 244 Forestry, 65 Fruit, 63

Garden Road Complex, 169 Garment industry, 41 Gas, 161

GATT, 11, 39, 45, 46, 48 Geography, 208

Geology, 208-9

Government Aid to Industry, 40 Government Chemist, 97

331

Government Information Services, see Information Services Department Governor in Council, 239 Governor, office of, 14, 238 Grantham College of Education, 81 Grievances, 248

Hakka, 218

Handicapped, the, 132 Harbour facilities, 162-6 Hawker Control Force, 105 Hawkers, 104 Health, 88-105

dental services, 99 education, 104

environmental, 101-5

industrial, 24-5

inspectors, 103

mental, 94

ophthalmic service, 99 outpatient services, 97-8 specialist services, 97 statistics, 301 training, 100-1

Heavy industries, 42

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium, 91 Helicopters, 149, 187

Herbarium, Hong Kong, 226 Heung Yee Kuk, 247

High Island Water Scheme, 151 Hindu community, 198 History, 227-237 Hoklo, 218

Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering

Co Ltd, 167

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and

Thoracic Diseases Association, 90 Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, 191 Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission

to Lepers, 91

Hong Kong Building and Loan

Agency, 126

Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd,

161

Hong Kong Christian Council, 196 Hong Kong Christian Service, 196 Hong Kong College of Medicine, 232 Hong Kong Council of Social Service,

129

Hong Kong Enterprise, 53

332

Hong Kong Exporters' Association,

56

Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 22

Hong Kong Federation of Youth

Groups, 131

Hong Kong Flying Club, 168 Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 56

Hong Kong House, London, 86 Hong Kong Housing Authority,

124-7

Hong Kong Housing Society, 126 Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 22

Hong Kong Life Guard Club, 201 Hong Kong Mass Transport Study,

171

Hong Kong Regiment, 187 Hong Kong Settlers' Housing

Corporation, 126

Hong Kong Students' Office, 85 Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd, 178 Hong Kong Tourist Association,

147-9

Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, 84 Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 160 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 135

Hongkong Tramways, Ltd, 171 Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co

Ltd, 165

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co

Ltd, 171

Hospitals, 95-7, 303-4

Hotels, 34, 115, 116, 148

Ho-tung Collection, 204

Housing, 120-7, 306-7

Authority, 124--7

Board, 120

co-operatives, 126

low-cost scheme, 120-7, 154

rents, 123

Society, 126

Hsu, Bishop, 196 Hydrofoils, 164

Hygiene, environmental and food,

101-5

Immigration, 146-7, 163

Immigration, illegal, 146 (see also

refugees)

Imports, 39, 43-4, 51, 282-8, 292 Incinerators, 101-2, 158

Income tax, 31-3

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 56 Industrial-

accidents, 24-6

employment, 16-26

Industrial (Contd)

health, 24-6 land, 42-3 productivity, 54-5 relations, 21-4 safety, 24-6 training, 17-9

Training Advisory Committee,

17-8

undertakings, 260-2

wages, 19-21 welfare, 24-6

Industry and trade, 39-59, 282-93 Influenza, 92

Information Services Department, 179,

183-6 Insurance, 53-4

INTELSAT III, 173 Interest tax, 32

Internal revenue, 31-4

International Confederation of Free

Trade Unions, 22

International economic relations,

39-40, 45-50

International trade negotiations,

45-50 Iron ore, 69

Islamic community, 198

Japanese occupation, 235 Jewish community, 197 Joseph Trust Fund, 62 Judiciary, 240-2

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, 91 Junks, 164

Juvenile Care Centre, 133

Juvenile crime, 6, 138

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 62

Kaifong welfare associations, 130 Kindergarten schools, 70

Kowloon-Canton Railway, 168-9,

312

Kowloon Hospital, 95

Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

13, 171-2

Kwai Chung, 10, 43, 109, 157 Kwangtung, 218, 267 Kwong Wah Hospital, 96 Kwun Tong, 43, 158

Labour-

administration, 4-6 Department, 16, 21

disputes and stoppages, 23 hours of work, 5, 19-20 legislation, 5-6, 19-22 policy, 21

Lady Trench Day Nursery and

Training Centre, 135 Lai Chi Kok Hospital, 7, 88 Lai Chi Kok Prison, 142 Land, 8, 106-10

administration, 113 agricultural, 60, 209

arable, 61

area, 208

auctions,

8, 106, 109

Crown, 106

for industry, 42-3

Office (Registrar General), 106,

114

revenue, 109

sales, 8, 109-10

    surveys, 111-3 tenure, 106-9

transactions, private, 106 utilisation, 61, 209

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance,

117-9

Law courts, 240-2

Law, Department of, 75

Law and Sayer Collection, 204

Leases, Crown, 106 Legal Aid, 242-3 Legislation, 14, 254-9

Legislative Council, 239-40, 320-1

Lei Cheng Uk, Tomb, 205 Leprosy, 91

Letters Patent, 238 Libraries, 206

Light industries, 41-2 Lin Tse-hsu, 228 Lion Rock tunnel, 174 Liquidations, 59 Livestock, 64-5 Lo Wu, 168 Loans, 30, 62, 74

London Office, Hong Kong

Government, 244-5 Long-Term Cotton Textile Arrangement, 11, 45, 46 Lotteries Fund, 30, 276-7 Low-cost housing, 8, 120-7 Lugard, Sir Frederick, 232 Lutheran Church, 195

Macau, 146, 164

ferries, 164

Magistracies, 241-2

Malaria, 91

Mammals, 222-3

Management Studies Diploma, 76

Manufacturing industry, 40-2

Marine Department, 162-6

Marine fauna, 224-5

Market gardening, 62-3

Marriages, 14, 221 Maryknoll Hospital, 97 Mass transit, 12-13

Materials Testing Laboratory, 56 Maternal and child health, 5, 93 Matriculation, 83

Measles, 92

Measures and weights, 253 Medical-

and Health Department, 88-9 Clinics Ordinance, 98

finance, 89, 98

personnel, 305

research, 105

specialist services, 97

training, 100-1

Mental health, 94

Mercantile Marine Office, 165 Meteorological research, 213 Meteorology, 211-6

Methodist Church, 195 Mid-Autumn Festival, 195 Midwives, 93

Minerals, 69, 209

Mines Department, 69

Mining, 69

Monasteries, 193

Moral welfare, 131

Morrison Hill Technical Institute,

3, 79, 155

Multi-storey buildings, 8, 119 Museum, 204-5 Music, 84-5, 203

Muslim community, 198

Narcotics, 94, 138 Natural history, 222-6 Navigation, 162 New Territories-

Administration, 61, 245-6 employment, 16 health services, 98 Heung Yee Kuk, 247 land tenure, 60, 106 land utilisation, 60

parks and playgrounds, 199 population, 217

squatters, 127

New towns, 109

News agencies, 180

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong,

179

Newspapers, 179-80, 314

Northcote College of Education, 81 Nurses, 100

Occupational health, 24-6 Occupations, 16

OECD, 40

333

334

Official Receiver, 59

Open Heart Surgery, 97 Opium, 138

Orchids, 226

Outdoor activities, 199 (see also

Summer Recreation Programme) Overseas representation, 294 Oyster farming, 67

Pacific Tidal Warning Service, 212

Palmerston, Lord, 227, 229 Papal visit, 12

Parcel post, 176

Parkes, Sir Harry, 231

Parking, 171

Parks and playgrounds, 155, 199, 315

Patents, 57

Peking, 229

Peking, Convention of, 231

Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd,

160

Personal assessment, 32

Pest control, 103

Pig-raising, 64

Pirates, 227

Plants, 225-6

Plastics, 16, 41-2

Plover Cove Scheme, 151, 236 Po Leung Kuk, 132 Police, 136-41

anti-corruption branch, 139 Auxiliaries, 140-1 CID, 137-9

manpower and training, 140-1 Traffic Branch, 139-40 women, 141

Pond fish production, 67

Population, 16, 217

    New Territories, 218-9 non-Chinese, 217 urban, 218

Port, 162-6

Control Office, 163 health, 92-3, 163

    Welfare Committee, 166 works, 157-8

Postal Services, 175-6

Pottinger, Sir Henry, 229

Poultry, 64

Presbyterian Church, 195

Press, 179-80

Prevention of Bribery Ordinance, 14

Preventive Service, 52, 145

Primary production, 60-9

Printing industry, 180

Prisons, 141-3

Private building, 8, 115-7, 153

Privy Council, 242

Probation, 128, 132-3

Productivity, 54-5

Centre, 54 Council, 54

Profits Tax, 31-2 Property Tax, 32

Protestant churches, 195-6

Public-

administration, 238-50 assistance, 1-2, 129, 133-4 assets, 27-30

debt, 270

health administration, 88-9 light buses, 13, 172 order, 136-45 Service, 248-50

Services Commission, 250 transport, 12-4, 171-3, 312-3 utilities, 160-1

works, 9, 150-9

Works Department, 160 Public Relations, 183

Quarantine, 89, 92-3, 163 Quarrying, 16, 159-60

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 88, 95 Queen Mary Hospital, 96

Rabies, 65

Radio, Commercial, 181 Radio Hong Kong, 181 Radio news, 177, 180-1, 183 Radioactivity, measurements, 211-2 Railway, 168-9, 312-3

Rainfall, 210, 213-6, 316-7 Rates, 31

Rating and Valuation Commissioner,

31, 119

Reclamations, 150, 157, 158, 236 Recreation, 199-207, 315

Red Cross, 97

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd, 180,

181

Refugees, 234, 235

Refuse collections, 101-2

Registrar of Co-operative Societies, 69

Registrar General, 57

Registrar of Trade Unions, 24

Registration, companies, 57-9

Rehabilitation, 94-5, 132

Rehabilitation Loan, 30

Religion and Custom, 193-8 Rent control, 117-9

Rescue service, 192 Research-

Chinese University, The, 87 fisheries, 67

medical and health, 105

meteorology, 213

University of Hong Kong, 86-7

335

Reservoirs, 150-3, 236 Resettlement, 120-4, 127

cottage areas, 121

flatted factories, 121-3 rents, 123 schools, 123, 154 statistics, 306

Revaluation, 36

Revenue and expenditure, 27-30

263-81

Revenue Equalisation Fund, 29 Rice, 60, 62, 209 Rinderpest, 65 Roads, 169-71, 237

Rodent control, 103-4

Roman Catholic-

Church, 196-7

schools, 196, 197

Royal Air Force, 187, 189

Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air

Force, 190

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force,

190-1

Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, 155,

156

Royal Hong Kong Regiment, 190 Royal Instructions, 238

Royal Navy, 187-8

Royal Observatory, 166, 211-2

Rural Committees, 246-7 Ruttonjee Sanatorium, 91

Sai Ying Pun Clinic, 88

Salaries tax, 32

Sha Tin, new town, 109, 159

Shek Kwu Chau Rehabilitation Centre,

94

Shek Pik, 236

Shipbreaking, 42

Shipbuilding and repairing, 42, 165

Shipping, 162-6

Silver currency, 34

Slaughterhouses (see abattoirs) Snakes, 223-4

Social services, 28, 197 Social Welfare, 128-35

training, 134-5

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

of Drug Addicts, 94

Society of Boys' Centres, 133

Soil, 60, 209

Specialist health services, 97

Sports and recreation, 199-207, 315 Squatters, 127

St John's Hospital, 90

Stamp duty, 33

Stanley Prison, 141

Star Ferry, 173

Statistics, Department of, 219 Steel, 42

Sterling, 34-7

Stock exchanges, 37-8

Stonecutters Island, 208, 231

Street cleansing, 101-2

Strikes and stoppages of work, 23

Students in Britain, 85-6, 207

Summer Recreation Programme, 6, 202 Sun Yat-sen, 232, 234

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital, 96 Sung Wong Toi, 228

Sanitary services, 101-2

Savings, 37

School(s)-

    Anglo-Chinese grammar, 72 for blind, 72

Chinese middle, 72

for deaf, 72

evening, 82

fishermen's children, 68

Health Service, 94 Medical Service, 93-4 music festival, 84

number of schools and pupils,

70, 297-300

primary, 70-1

secondary, 72-4

special, 72

subsidised, 71

technical, 70, 77-9

Seamen's recruiting, 165

Secretariat for Home Affairs, 118,

238, 245-7

Seismology, 212

Sewerage, 156-7

Supreme Court, 240-2

Survey, 111-3

Sweeps tax, 33

Swimming, 200-1

Swimming pools, 156, 200

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering

Co Ltd, 165

Tai Lam Treatment Centre, 143 Tai Ping Rebellion, 231

Tang clan, 227

Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, 96 Tanka, 218

Taoism, 193-4

Taxation, 28, 31-4

Taxis, 172-3

Teachers and teacher training, 80-1 Technical College, 4, 18, 70, 73, 77-9 Telecommunications, 176-8, 237 Telephones, 178

Television, 180, 237

Broadcasts Limited, 180

Rediffusion, 180, 181

Telex, 177-8, 312-3

336

Temperatures, 210, 316-7 Temples, 194

Tenancy inquiry bureaux, 118 Tenancy tribunals, 118, 241

Textile Restraints, 46-50

Textiles, 16, 40-1

Textiles Advisory Board, 40

Time signals, 212

Tin Hau, 194

To Fung Shan Monastery, 193-4

Tong Fuk Prison, 141

Topography, 208-9

Tourism, 12, 147-9

Town planning, 113-4

Town Planning Board, 106, 113

Toys, 41

Trade-

administration, 51

and industrial organisations, 56 and Industry Advisory Board, 40 Commissioners, 294 Development Council, 52 external, 43-50

international, 45-50

Marks and Patents Registries,

57-9

promotion, 52-3

restrictions, 46-50 statistics, 280-93

Trade unions, 21-4

Traffic, 139-40, 169-71, 237, 309, 312-3

Traffic accidents, 139, 309

Traffic and Transport Survey Unit,

170-1

Training--

industrial, 17-9

health, 100-1

teachers, 80-1

Transistor radios, 42

Tramways, 172

Transistors, 42

Transport, public, 171-3, 312-3

Transport Advisory Committee, 174

Transport Department, 174

Travel documents, 147

Treaties of Tientsin, 231

Treaty of Nanking, 229 Treaty Ports, 230

Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, 100 Tsuen Wan, 16, 43, 109, 155, 158,

193, 236

Tuberculosis, 64, 89-91, 105

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 89,

96, 194

Typhoons and tropical storms, 211-6,

230

UMELCO, 14, 248 UNCTAD, 11, 39, 46 Underground railway, 12 UNDP, 40 UNIDO, 40

University of Hong Kong, 4, 74-6, 83,

86, 100, 207, 232

University, The Chinese, 4, 74, 76-7,

116, 236

Urban-

Council, 101, 199-206, 243, 322

population, 217-8

renewal, 110-1

Utilities, public, 160-1

Vegetable(s)--

co-operatives, 68-9

cultivation, 62-3, 209

Marketing Organisation, 63-4

production, 62-3

Vegetation, 61, 225-6

Vehicle ferries, 173

Vehicles and drivers' licences, 174, 309

Venereal diseases, 91

Victoria Park, 201

Vital statistics, 88, 301-5

Vocational training, 236

Voluntary agencies, 126, 128, 131, 133,

135, 324

Volunteers, The, 190

Wages, 19-21

Wah Fu Estate, 124

Wan Chai Reclamation, 157, 159 Watches, 44

Water, 150

consumption, 151

from China, 150, 236 Waterfront Road, 169

Weather, 213-26, 316-7

forecast, 211-2

Weights and measures, 253

Welfare of women and children, 131

Wigs, 42, 44

Wild life, 222-4

Working hours, 20-1

Workmen's Compensation Ordinance,

5, 242

X-ray examinations, 89-90

YMCA, YWCA, 131, 196, 324-5 Yoga, 198

Youth Employment Advisory Service, 17

Zoning of land, 113-4 Zoology, 222-4.

Printed and Published by J. R. Lee, Government Printer, at the Government Press Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1971

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一九七0年