Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1969

HONG KONG 1969

120°

114°00'

JAPAN

Nanking

Yangtze

Shanghat EAST

CHINA

CHINA

SEA0

TAIWAN

Capeo

HONG KONG

PACIFIC OCEAN

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

20

LAOSY

SOUTH

PHILIPPINES

AILAND

CHINA

SEA

zz°30

CAMBO DLA

MILES

5.00

LUNG KWU CHAU

снай

1527

Fan Lau

HONG KONG AND

AND THE NEW TERRITORIES

114° 10'

K WAN G T U NG

PO

O N

Shat

Mong/seng

Lau Fau Sin

Ha Tsuen Ping

Shan

Sheung Chuk Yuen

Long

Canton

PROVINCE

DISTRICT

Sham Chun

Lin Ma Hang

1612

Lo Wu

Chu Lok Ma Chau

Sheung Shui

San Ti

1877

PAT MEUNG

114°20'

PING CHAU

LPING

Sha Tau Kok

Starling

Crookeds Harbour

O CHAU

bai

Luk Keng

MIRS

BAY

WONG WAN

CHAU

Wo Kau Tang

Plover Cove Reservoir

2102

Tai Mo

Tai Po

Tolo Machour

TALPO DISTRICT

SHAP SZ HEUNG

YUEN LONG DISTRICT

Castle Peak New Town

Lung Kau Tan

EASTLE PEAK

1914

1660

Tal om Ching

Castle Peak Bay

Shany Tseng

MA WAN IS.

She Kong

GRASSY HILL.

+2130

Jubilee

TSUEN WAN Reservoir

DISTRICT

suen

Sha

WEL

SHA CHAU

THE BROTHERS

Chung

CHEK LAP KOK

ISLAND

Lo Wan

Lung Chung

LANTAU ISLAND

MunWo

EAK

Pui Q

3064

Shek Pik

Cheung Sha

Tong Fuk

SOKO ISLANDS

Kap

Mun

TSING YI ISLAND

STONE! CUTTERS IS.

KOWLOON

Tolo Channel

Harb

TAP MUN CHAU

) Lai Chi

Chong

Tai Tan

Sham Chung

1570

SHARP

1534

Chok Keng Taitong

Ma-Liu

Shui

MA ON SHAN

2305

Tai Mong

Tsai

Tide Cove

Ho Chang

Sai Kung

Sha

Pak Tam Chung

DY'S FRICT

HIGH ISLAND

Kau Sai

Port Shelter

Rocky Harbour

SHELTER IS.

ra Hu

BASALT ISLAND

BLUFF IS.

Rennie Mill

Clear Water Bay

STEEP ISLAND

Aberdeen

East Lamma Channel

La Harbour

ON

TalTam Reservoir

Deep

Bay

Repulse

Tai Tup Bay

Stanley

Junk Bay

JUNK IS.

ar Wan

Big Wave Bay Shek O

"House

Thong Channel

1527

PENG CHAU

Silver Mine Bay

KAU YI CHAU

SUNSHINE ISLAND

ISLANDS DISTRICTS

Ma Wan HEI LING CHAU

West Lamma Channel

CHEUNG CHAU

GREEN

Yung Shue

Wan

LAMMA

ISLAND

Channe

Pienie

SHEK KWU CHAU

HONG

KONG

11200

香港中央

Compiled & Drawn by Crown Lands & Survey Office, Hong Kong, 1969 Printed at the Government Press, Hong Kong.

圖書館

CENTRAL

LIBRARY

114°10'

LAM TONG ISLAND

CAPE D AGUILARA

ཚུ་

NINEPIN GROUP

EPIN

ew Territories Adminstration Districts

New

SCALE OF MILES

Heights

in Feet

MILES

2

3

MILES

REFERENCE

2000

BEAUFORT

ISLAND

Railway

Main Road

PO TOI ISLAND

Village

Built-up Area

River & Stream, Reservoir Ferry Service

1000

200

Seg Lavel

Crown Copyright Reserved

HONG KONG 1969

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

Act. No. 119621

Class.

HK 951.25

Author

HON

HKCr

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03706907 9

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE

Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong,

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE

54, Pall Mall, London, SW1

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1970

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

Frontispiece: On the morning of August II, 1969, the vast new Plover Cove reservoir, officially opened six months previously, overflowed for the first time. The event symbolised the great progress Hong Kong has made in the provision of water supplies for its millions. This picture shows the crowd of happy fisher- men who flocked to the scene to trap some of the hundreds of freshwater fish sweeping across the spillway.

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year 1969

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1970

   The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all organisations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter to this Report. Particular acknowledgement is given to Professor D. J. Dwyer, B.A., Ph.D., of the University of Hong Kong, for the chapter on Geography, to Mr G. B. Endacott, M.A., B.Litt., Dip.Ed., for the History chapter, and to Dr P. M. Marshall, B.Sc., Ph.D., for the section on Wild Life.

Unless otherwise mentioned, all illustrations in this Report are the work of official photographers. Photographs of the flying doctor service are by Eddie Chan. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustration should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

CONTENTS

Chapter

1 REVIEW:

2

3

4

5

6

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

EMPLOYMENT: Occupations - Industrial Training - Wages and Conditions of Work - Labour Admin- istration and Industrial Relations Safety, Health and Welfare.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue and Expenditure

Duties Rates - Internal Revenue Currency -Banking.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: General Review · Industry ·

Textiles and Clothing - Other Light Industries Heavy and Service Industries · Industrial Land External Trade International Economic Relations - Documentation of Exports-Admin- istration - Trade Development Council-Export Credit Insurance Corporation Productivity Council Trade and Industrial Organisations

 Trade Marks and Patents Companies - Bankruptcies and Liquidations.

·

-

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Introduction-Land Utilisa- tion Administration - Agricultural Extension and Development - Principal Crops Vegetable Marketing Organisation - Animal Industries - Forestry Fisheries Fish Marketing Organi- sation Co-operative Societies and Credit

Unions Mining.

EDUCATION: Pattern of Education - Pre-primary, Primary, Special, Secondary and Higher Education

 The Technical College Visual Education Centre Teachers and Teacher Training Adult Education - Educational Television Unit Examinations Music and Art in Schools Education Overseas University Research.

-

Page

1

26

36

48

68

79

vi

Chapter

CONTENTS

Page

7 HEALTH: General Situation · Administration -Com- 95

8

municable Diseases Port Health Service Maternal and Child Health School Health

Mental Health - Drug Dependency - Hospitals

·

  Specialist Services - Clinics - Dental Services -Ophthalmic Service - Environmental Health- Research.

LAND AND HOUSING: Land Tenure and Development- Land Sales - Surveys-Town Planning - Private Building Urban Renewal Resettlement

-

112

Squatter Clearance-

Housing - Rent Control-

Land Office.

9

SOCIAL WELFARE:

Organisation Group and Com-

133

munity Work - Family Services - Probation and Correction - Training and Research.

10

11

12

13

14

15

PUBLIC ORDER: Police-Crime-Traffic-Training Prisons Fire Services · Preventive Service.

wwww..c

w

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM: Immigration-Tourism.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES: Water Supplies

Buildings - Drainage Port Works Land Development - Quarrying - Public Utilities.

COMMUNICATIONS: Shipping Civil Aviation

·

·

Kowloon-Canton Railway - Roads - Parking -- Public Transport - Ferry Services - Administra- tion Cross-harbour Tunnel Postal Services

Telecommunications.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA:

Press Radio

Television

139

149

153

165

Introduction ·

179

-

Films Govern-

ment Information Services.

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES: The

Armed Services Local Auxiliary Defence Services Essential Services Corps.

187

CONTENTS

Chapter

16 RELIGION AND CUSTOM: Chinese Beliefs and Practices

Christian Churches - Jewish, Islamic and

vii

Page

192

Hindu Communities.

17

RECREATION: Facilities - Entertainment and the Arts

198

Exhibitions Libraries British Council.

18

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE: Topography and Geology

- Climate - Royal Observatory The Year's Weather.

206

Research -

19

POPULATION: Population Statistics and Groupings - Births and Deaths - Marriages - Statistics.

214

20 NATURAL HISTORY: Wild Life - Flora.

21

223

HISTORY

-

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION: Introduction - The Governor - Executive Council - Legisla- tive Council - Judiciary - Foreign Relations London Office - Advisory Committees - Urban Council Colonial Secretariat - Departments- Secretariat for Home Affairs and New Territories Administration Grievances Public Service Conclusion.

-

·

218

223

234

viii

ILLUSTRATIONS

CONTENTS

Page

Plover Cove

Frontispiece

Festival Year

Aberdeen

between x-1

between 24-5

Shipbuilding

between 48-9

The New Territories

between 72-3

Health Services

between 96-7

Sculpture Park

between 120-1

Women Police

between 144-5

Airport

between 168-9

Recreation

Aerial Views

between 192-3

between 216-7

Broadcasting

between 240-1

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Hong Kong, Kowloon & adjacent New Territories showing District Names

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

I

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

II

LEGISLATION

III-V

ix

Page

249

250

254

EMPLOYMENT: Industrial Undertakings and Per- sons Employed-Factory Registrations and Inspections - Industrial and Occupational Accidents.

·

VI-XIV FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue - Expenditure

Statement of Assets and Liabilities Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure - Public Debt - Colonial Development and Welfare Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees - Development Loan Fund - Lotteries Fund Currency and Banking Statistics, Currency in Circulation and Bank Deposits. INDUSTRY AND TRADE: Composition Value of

Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade- Imports Commodity Pattern - Principal Sources - Domestic Exports Commodity Pattern- Principal Markets - Re-exports -- Direction of Trade.

XV- XXI

XXII

XXIII- XXV

XXVI-

XXIX

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

·

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Marketing Organisation Statistics - Co-operative Societies - Produc- tion of Minerals.

EDUCATION: Categories of Schools, Enrolments, New Buildings, Classrooms and Places- Educational Statistics - Hong Kong Students Pursuing Further Studies in Britain - Actual Expenditure on Education.

·

HEALTH: Vital Statistics - Infectious Diseases Notified- Hospital Beds Professional Medical Personnel.

XXX-

XXXIII

XXXIV LAND AND HOUSING:

XXXV

257

276

288

289

291

295

Resettlement Estate

299

Statistics Housing as at March 31, 1969- Premiums Received on Sales of Crown Land.

X

Appendix

CONTENTS

Page

XXXVI- PUBLIC ORDER: Traffic Serious Crime and 301 XXXVII

Narcotic Offences.

XXXVIII COMMUNICATIONS: Statistics: Marine, Kowloon- Canton Railway, Air Traffic, Vehicles, Postal Traffic, Telegraph and Radio Traffic.

304

XXXIX

THE PRESS: Leading Newspapers and Magazines.

306

XL

RECREATION: Amenities Development.

307

XLI

WEATHER: Climatological Summary.

307

XLII-

XLIII

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION: Executive

Council - Legislative Council.

308

XLIV

URBAN COUNCIL

312

XLV

CASES IN THE COURTS AND WORK IN THE

MAGISTRACIES

313

XLVI

SOCIAL WELFARE: Hong Kong Council of Social

314

Service, Member Agencies.

INDEX

317

FESTIVAL YEAR

The

he year 1969 was one of progress and prosperity in Hong Kong and it was fittingly climaxed in an outburst of gaiety which marked the first Festival of Hong Kong. The object of the Festival was simply to provide a week of en- joyment and pageantry for the people of Hong Kong. The programme included many musical and sporting events, exhibitions, youth rallies and special displays. These included a full-scale military tattoo, an open air fiesta in the streets and open areas of the city centre and a massive parade through the streets of Kowloon, which attracted an estimated 500,000 spectators. (The previous page shows a scene from the parade while the picture opposite depicts a highlight of one of the well-attended youth rallies.)

   The following pages illustrate some of the myriad events, great and small, which went towards making 1969 a good year for the people of Hong Kong.

     Hong Kong's exhibit at Expo '70 was already drawing praise from early visitors to the site at the end of 1969. Here Hong Kong artist Van Lau puts finishing touches to his sculpture 'Progress' fea- tured in the social Pro- gress section of the Hong Kong pavilion. (opposite, top) The lights come on the isolated Hong Kong island of Peng Chau- thanks to a team of army engineers who installed a generator on the island during the year.

Hong Kong's new Colonial Secretary, Sir Hugh Norman-Walker speaks to reporters on his arrival to take up his appointment in March. Sir Hugh, a former Governor of the Seychelles, was also acting Governor for part of the year during the absence on leave of Sir David Trench.

The Governor, Sir David Trench, (opposite) turns a ceremonial first spadeful of earth to mark the beginning of construction work on Hong Kong's cross-harbour tunnel. (above) Her Royal High- ness Princess Margaret is escorted by Sir David on her arrival in Hong Kong for a visit in September. Lord Snowdon can be seen in the background.

The annual Schools Music Festival again drew big crowds during the year, with judges praising the standard achieved by young performers such as those shown here.

1

Review

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

A DECADE OF PROGRESS

     HONG KONG emerges this year from the decade of the sixties as it entered, surging forward at an increasing pace. It has risen to a place among the 25 leading trading countries in the world and in terms of exports per head of population is placed ninth. By any standards this is an impressive achievement for a territory of less than 400 square miles and four million people, situated half a world away from its major markets and blessed with no natural resources to speak of. The key factor in this development has been the growth and increasing sophistication of the manufacturing sector of the economy.

The year 1958 was in many ways a most significant year for Hong Kong's manufacturing industry; it is plain now that 1968 was a year of even greater significance. Many suspected that this was so, but hindsight and the sustained surge of the economy on all fronts, but particularly of manufacturing industry, during 1969 have confirmed the rightness of this view. That surge has undoubtedly benefited from the notable buoyancy of world trade, but neverthe- less 1969 can be pin-pointed as a year in which manufacturing industry acquired a new dimension, in terms of production, of productivity, and of a new deal for its employees made possible by a more secure economic base and general financial structure. It seems therefore appropriate once again to conduct a 10-year review, to look at the changes between 1959 and 1969.

The Acting Governor, concluding his speech at the opening of the 27th annual exhibition of the Chinese Manufacturers' Asso- ciation in November, described the expansion of activity that characterised the year just past as based 'not on an unhealthy

2

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE sixties

internal demand, but on a real and healthy increase in exports'. In saying this, Sir Hugh Norman-Walker highlighted the connection between industry and exports (and he might have added imports as virtually all raw materials have to be imported), which remains the most striking feature of Hong Kong's industrial economy. It is believed that about 90 per cent of the output of manufacturing industry is exported. As this sector of industry plays so central a role, the value of domestic exports remains the best indicator not only of the relative importance and state of individual parts of the manufacturing sector but of the state of the economy as a whole.

Domestic Exports

1959

1965

1969

$ 2,282 million

$ 5,027

""

$10,518

99

      For two years running the value of domestic exports has increased by approximately 25 per cent compound on what can only be regarded as an already high base for a territory so small in area. Indeed domestic exports have doubled in value in the last three years, having taken the previous six years to achieve the same result. In 10 years the value of domestic exports has increased four times from a high starting figure to over $10,000 million dollars in 1969. What is more, the rate of increase is itself increasing; it took six years for exports to double, and only four years to double again. This unusual performance substantiates the claim that manufacturing industry has acquired a new dimension in these last two years. Other indicators and informed observations also bear out this view.

      In probing the reasons for this growth it will be necessary to examine in particular changes in external factors since 1959, because it is true to say that the demand in Hong Kong's principal markets and the commercial policies their respective governments pursue are in the first and last resort what shapes and determines the growth of Hong Kong's manufacturing industry, which in turn exercises a decisive influence on the shape and progress of the remainder of the economy. There are many other important factors -tourism, service industries, invisible earnings from the very

DEVELOPMENT OF

MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRY

1959-1969

DOMESTIC EXPORTS (THOUSAND MILLION DOLLARS)

เอ

NUMBER OF FACTORIES (THOUSANTS)

4 12

38.

241

10.5

PERSONS

500

LABOUR FORCE THOUSAND PERSONS)

RIES

VALUE OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTS EXPORTED

LABOUR FORCE

PUBLI

400-

BR

NUMBER

300

0

1959 60 61 62 63 64

65

66

67 68 69

100

200

4

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

important financial and shipping sectors, the re-export trade, the contribution of the primary sector, and so on, but the principal focus is on manufacturing industry.

      Precise quantification of changes in the scope and pattern of manufacturing industry is not feasible in the absence of output statistics (towards which Hong Kong is cautiously feeling its way), but for reasons mentioned above, a good general picture emerges from examination of domestic exports. The graph on page 3 depicts broad trends in manufacturing employment, the number of factories registered or recorded with the Labour Department, and output as indicated by export values. It illustrates in general terms that increased production has been accompanied by increased productivity in terms of output.

THE SCOPE AND PATTERN OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

      Whether one measures the relative importance of particular industries by the value of exports (Table 1), or by numbers employed in registered or recorded establishments (Table 2), the overwhelming importance of textile manufactures both in 1959 and 1969 emerges very plainly. Taken all together, yarns and fabrics and clothing represent about a half of all manufactures in terms of either export value or of employment. But inside these broad textile groups, the changes are highly significant. To understand them, it is necessary to go back to 1959.

Spinning and Weaving

In that year, the textile industry was for the first time forced to pay the penalty of its success in supplying the market in Britain with cotton yarn and fabrics when, under pressure from the British industry and Government, it reluctantly undertook to limit exports of these goods to Britain, the Hong Kong Government agreeing to administer the necessary controls. One of the effects in due course was to encourage the industry to seek other outlets for the surplus capacity of its spinning and weaving mills either overseas or, more importantly, by sales of finished cloth to Hong Kong's garment industry. This in turn brought about expansion and diversification of finishing capacity.

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

5

      This trend gathered impetus from its own success, and resulting pressures overseas manifested themselves first in extension of restraints on cotton textile exports to Britain to include garments; and second, in a multilateral agreement negotiated on United States initiative (but with which other countries were not slow to fall in), under a waiver from the contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This agreement, to the content of which Hong Kong made a significant contribution, had three provisions of great practical importance to the textile and clothing industries of exporting countries. That is to say, the exporting country enjoyed a right to administer its restraints within any ceiling agreed with the importing country; it had the right to increase its exports annually by not less than five per cent; and it had a right to some degree of latitude in exchanging one item of cotton goods for another. These concessions partially mitigated the effect of the straight-jacket imposed on growth and development of the cotton textile and garment industries. Arrangements of considerable complexity worked out by the Commerce and Industry Department with the aid of the Cotton Advisory Board, an off- spring of the agreement with Britain, eventually had a number of side-effects of far-reaching importance for these industries.

The first was that while restriction of supplies in a sense stimulated textile production in buying countries, its immediate effect in Hong Kong was to convert a buyer's into a seller's market, with beneficial results to the business of those manufacturers and traders who had developed the trade. Secondary effects flowed from this. Manufacturers were encouraged to plough back more profits into their enterprises in the knowledge that they were in some degree protected from immediate resumption of internal competition, and they were able to 'trade up' in the sense of making more sophisticated and expensive goods with a higher rate of profit on a smaller turnover. Finally, there were several less tangible benefits such as development of much closer working arrangements between the Government and textile interests; more detailed understanding within the Government of the problems and aspira- tions of manufacturers; greater appreciation by manufacturers of the realities of international commercial relations in the textile field; and within official circles, wider knowledge of the machinery of international negotiations.

6

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

TABLE 1

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

IN TERMS OF EXPORT VALUE

1969

1959

Industry

% of total domestic

Industry

% of total domestic

exports

exports

-

1. Clothing

36.4

Clothing

34.8

2. Yarns, fabrics and made-

Yarns, fabrics and made-

ups

10.7

ups

18.1

3.

Toys

7.5

...

Toys and Dolls

3.9

4.

Electronic equipment and

Enamelled utensils

3.1

components

7.8

5.

Hair wigs and pieces

6.2

Rubber footwear

3.0

...

6.

Plastic flowers

3.5

Plastic flowers

2.7

...

7. Rubber footwear

1.7

Furniture ...

1.9

8.

Watches, clocks and

accessories

Footwear, other than

9.

10.

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

Footwear, other than

...

T

:

1.0

rubber

1.8

...

1.4

Flashlights

Ships and boats

1.7

...

1.3

rubber

1.1

...

A

11.

Rattan articles, other than

Printed matter

:

:

1.2

furniture

1.1

12.

Dolls

0.9

Travel goods, handbags

and similar articles

0.7

13. Flashlights

0.6

Rattan articles, other than

furniture

14.

Plastic household and

Iron or steel rods and bars

90

0.6

0.6

miscellaneous articles...

0.8

15.

Furniture ...

0.7

Watches, clocks and

accessories

0.6

16.

Printed matter

0.6

Plastic household and

miscellaneous articles...

0.4

17. Photographic and optical

Metal utensils, not

goods

0.7

enamelled

0.4

18.

Ships and boats

0.5

Umbrellas

0.4

19.

Metal utensils, not

Photographic and optical

enamelled

0.3

...

goods

0.1

20.

Other manufactures

16.5

Other manufactures

22.7

Total %

100.0

Total %

100.0

...

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

TABLE 2

EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

1969 (September)

7

1959 (March)

Per-

Per-

cent-

cent-

age

age

1.

Clothing(1)

143,534 27.2

Clothing(1)

41,087 23.2

2.

Textiles, other

than clothing

Textiles, other than

clothing(2)

34,174

19.3

(2)

78,487 14.9

3.

Toys

...

37,765 7.1

Shipbuilding and

repair

9,601

5.4

4.

Electronics

37,235 7.0

Printed matter

8,181 4.6

5.

Hair wigs and

Rubber footwear

7,461

4.2

pieces

24,596 4.7

6.

Miscellaneous

plastic

Enamelled domestic

utensils

5,301

3.0

articles

18,347 3.5

78

7. Plastic flowers 17,746

3.4

Flashlights

5,223 2.9

8. Printed matter

17,045

3.2

Toys ...

4,939

2.8

9.

Shipbuilding

Machinery repair

2,759 1.6

and repair

10,847

2.0

10.

Rubber foot-

Bread and confec-

wear

10,486

2.0

tionery

...

2,654

1.5

11.

Watch bands,

Miscellaneous plastic

cases and

articles

2,508

1.4

watch

assembly

7,611 1.4

12. Furniture

5,191 1.0

Plastic flowers

2,216

1.3

13. Flashlights

4,226

0.8

Footwear, except

rubber footwear

2,012

1.1

4

14. Flashlight bulbs

4,118

0.8

Metal watch bands...

1,864 1.0

15. Machinery

Sawmills

1,558 0.9

repair

3,883

0.7

16.

Electric

Pressure stoves and

appliances ...

3,515 0.7

lanterns

1,512 0.9

17.

Flashlight

Rolling mills

1,485

0.8

batteries

3,494 0.7

18.

Motor vehicle

Electro-plating

1,180

0.7

repair

3,422

0.6

19.

Bread and

Aircraft repair

956 0.5

confectionery

3,049 0.6

20.

Other

93,563 17.7

Other

40,600 22.9

528,160 100.0

177,271 100.0

(1) Includes employment in knitting and hosiery manufacture.

(2) Excludes the above.

8

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

      Thus, it came about that in 10 years during which restrictions imposed on export of cotton textiles steadily increased until the frequency with which they were mentioned in official communiques must have made it seem to many that they covered almost the whole of the industry's output, the number of factories spinning cotton yarn increased from 21 in 1959 to 34 in 1969, spindles installed from 398,000 to 804,000, people employed from 14,900 to 20,300, and output from 140 million pounds to 313 million pounds. In the same period the number of factories engaged in weaving cotton fabrics increased from 198 to 265, people employed from 21,400 to 31,700, looms installed from 12,800 to 23,300, and fabric woven from 360 million square yards to 763 million square yards. These simple figures disclose not only increased production but also increased productivity. And they conceal a change in the weaving industry from an almost universal long single shift to almost universal shorter double shift working.

Textile Finishing

What the statistics do not illustrate-because of the great difficulty in quantifying output and because so much of it goes into made-up goods or garments-is the rapid and substantial increase in volume and variety and sophistication of the finishing industry, which is perhaps the most noteworthy change in the character of the cotton textile industry during the last 10 years. The magnitude of this change can be judged from the industry's employment figures-8,500 in 1969 compared with 2,700 in 1959. There has concurrently been a considerable shift away from the elaborate yarn-dyed fabrics woven to meet specialised markets of South-East Asia which were a principal product of the finishing industry of the fifties, to the piece-dyed, printed and specially finished fabrics characteristic of the sixties. This change has in turn reduced to quite a substantial extent traditional reliance on imported finished piecegoods. In keeping with the shifting pattern of the cotton textile industry, perhaps even because of it, there has been a noticeable transition towards so-called vertically integrated enterprises capable of processing raw cotton to finished cloth, even in some cases to complete garments such as shirts and work clothes.

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

9

       In short, the cotton textile industry is emerging from the sixties in shape very different from that in which it started. Nonetheless it remains a small industry in terms of output measured by the standards of other leading textile nations and a surprisingly fragmented one, in part because of the sturdy independence of so many factory owners, but also because home-administered textile quotas probably on balance inhibit mergers.

The Knitting Sector

       It is appropriate here to mention the knitting industry. Cotton knitwear, principally men's undervests, was of great importance in the fifties; many stands at the Chinese Manufacturers' Association's exhibitions of the period were given up to sale of such knitwear. The 1969 exhibition included only one stand featuring men's vests. The shift in emphasis reflects the loss of South-East Asian markets but also a change to more profitable lines of business. Nonetheless, employment in cotton knitting in 1969 numbered 8,200 spread over 245 factories. But factories engaged in woollen knitting numbered 341 employing 22,800 people. In 1959, the whole knitting industry employed only 7,300 persons, an estimated two-thirds of whom were engaged in cotton knitting. The change in the product pattern of this industry is very striking. It arises of course from the new and profitable markets found in Western Germany, Britain and the United States for woollen knitted sweaters and similar garments. But the figures conceal the shift in emphasis on the cotton side into knitted fabrics suited to outer garments rather than underwear.

Clothing

       In 1959, clothing manufacture was a sector of industry becoming increasingly important, but its pattern was already rapidly changing. Concentration on knitted underwear, the cheaper range of shirts, and children's clothes had already given way to mass production of more expensive and well tailored shirts, women's dresses, pyjamas, rainwear, jackets and slacks of many different kinds, and the nucleus of a fashion industry. Very few of these goods ever appeared in the domestic market, the mass demand in which was for cheaper goods differently styled. Output and export of shirts had as early as 1956 called forth protectionist rumblings in Britain and the

10

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

United States but it was not until 1960 that the first restraints (in Britain) became effective. Thereafter restraints on individual items came thick and fast, reflecting increasing output of a widely varied range of goods to diverse markets; first on cottons, then in the second half of the decade on woollen knitwear; and finally, but to a limited extent, on clothing of predominantly man-made fibres. The share of total industrial output enjoyed by clothing increased from 34.8 per cent to 37.5 per cent, as measured by export value figures. Employment in the clothing industry (which properly includes employees engaged in knitting and hosiery) increased from 53,400 in 1959 to 121,000 10 years later. This industry was already the largest employer of labour in 1959; it continues so today.

      The character of the clothing industry has however changed almost out of recognition during these 10 years, in keeping with the world's fashion trends. In men's wear perhaps the most marked change has been towards manufacture of man-made fibre outer garments in great variety, highly finished dress and casual shirts, and extension of the retail tailoring trade into mass-produced ready-made suits, largely sold by mail order houses, much of the business being done by air freight to the United States.

Women's clothing is sold in bewildering range in accordance with the rapidly changing dictates of fashion. Women's woollen sweaters have been the biggest single growth line in the industry, but ready-made dresses and nightwear are also important. In the last few years there has been a pronounced movement into high fashion of women's clothes of all materials. Some of the most famous fashion designers of the Western world have interested themselves in this development.

Other Industries

The share of the textile and clothing industry in total manufactur- ing output (as measured by the value of exports) has gradually declined from about 53 per cent to 48 per cent over the decade. This is not by any means true of every one of its components, whatever arbitrary breakdown is adopted. None has been attempted here because so many sections of the industry shade imperceptibly into others. But the combined textile and clothing industry is not

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

11

the only industry to have lost ground relatively. Domestic enamel- ware was during 1959 fourth in the table by export value, sixth by employment; 10 years later, it finds no place in either. Overseas markets have diminished or stood still, or been taken over by local industries built up under heavy tariff protection. Hong Kong's industry employed 5,300 in 1959 in 22 factories; the number of factories is reduced now to 21 with 2,200 employees.

      The ship and boat building industry has failed to fulfil its export promise of the fifties. The industry is not in fact declining as its output for the domestic market and its repair work has substantially increased; it employs more people than it did 10 years ago. The steel rolling industry, again primarily geared to the domestic market, fell on lean years with the recession in building construction, competition from imports from China in the domestic market, and establishment of competing industries in its always uncertain overseas markets. A tariff-free competitive import regime associated with high cost of land is probably not the most suitable environment for the large investment usually associated with heavy manufacturing industry.

      The rubber footwear industry remains an important source of employment and of export earnings, although relatively less important on both counts than it was 10 years ago. This could be said also of non-rubber footwear, and of a variety of other industries such as manufacture of furniture, flashlights, printed matter and publications. The plastic flower industry has maintained the promise it held at the beginning of the decade, both in terms of employment and export earnings, but it seems to have reached its ceiling, at least temporarily. It is an important industry socially, because of its widespread employment of out-workers. There has been good, if not spectacular, development of travel goods and hand bags, of watch cases and watch bands, of plasticware, and of photographic equipment.

      The growth industries of substantial volume and value are toys, electronic equipment, and hair wigs. Toys, principally of plastic but also metal, were well up in the league at the beginning of the decade and now rank third in importance both in terms of employment and of export earnings. In 1959, there was only one factory engaged in assembling transistor radios. It is an astonishing fact that there

12

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

are now some 32,200 employees engaged in making electronic components of great variety and finished assemblies incorporating many of them. Other industries which have, particularly in the last few years, substantially increased their share of the total export market (but which in terms of value do not compare with the ones mentioned above) are those manufacturing watch cases and bands, and cameras. As with the electronic industry, these are relatively labour-intensive but also technologically oriented; they are therefore important in terms of Hong Kong's ability to move into industries technically more advanced than those which formed the rungs of the ladder of industrialisation.

There have come about great changes in the shape and size of manufacturing industry. Nobody in the previous decade could have predicted the rise of the plastic flower industry; nobody in the early stages of this decade could have predicted the remarkable growth of the wig industry. The growth of the electronics industry was perhaps foreseeable from the first, although it would have taken a bold imagination to have predicted the scale and range of equipment produced. The great diversification of the sixties has on the whole been responsive, not deliberately conceived in Hong Kong's boardrooms or few research laboratories. It has been achieved within those quite narrowly defined industrial sectors which Hong Kong is best suited to exploit, for instance leather footwear has given place to plastic or rubber sandals and a great variety of slippers and shoes made from cloth uppers. But the most notable achievement undoubtedly remains that, in spite of inevitable vicis- situdes, the value of output has increased four times in 10 years, from a very substantial base.

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

      This has been accomplished against a background of dramatic events, many of which, although usually of a transitory nature, had an impact on the development of manufacturing industry. The influence of textile restraints has already been referred to; their impact has not been wholly unfortunate and it has been possible to make a virtue of necessity. Another event of a somewhat similar nature was the sudden influx of an estimated 142,000 refugees from across the border in April and May 1962, absorbed into the

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

13

     population with compassion, but also nervousness because the previous year had seen a falling off in the growth of exports.

In 1965, there was a crisis of confidence in the banking system due partly to imprudent lending policies to the less efficient sector of small and medium industry, and partly to over-development in the real estate field. These events, while revealing certain weak- nesses in the banking system, revealed also its underlying strength. But, in the short run, it did affect to some extent the credit base of small and medium industry and affect its growth.

       More widespread was the effect of the water shortage of 1963 and 1964, resulting from failure of the rains in one year and delayed arrival in the second. It was faced with heroic fortitude by the public at large but also with great stoicism on the part of industry as a whole. Particularly memorable was a miracle of improvisa- tion by the finishing industry which normally needs great quantities of very pure water. Although the Government gave special assis- tance to this industry, an extraordinary degree of self-help was essential. The other side of the picture was the willingness of the Government of China to sell substantial supplies of water to Hong Kong and the completion of two major reservoirs. The combined effect of these measures is to assure industry a 24-hour supply of fresh water in the immediate future.

       During 1967, the serious, but limited, disturbances that beset Hong Kong had little effect on the output of manufacturing in- dustry. Although there was some fall-off in normal replacement of equipment, and new investment was temporarily diminished, the export trade figures showed a steady and strong increase, a remark- able tribute to the good sense of buyers in industry's principal markets and to the workers who ensured production when transport was seriously interrupted and there were other reasons for anxiety and strain.

       The devaluation of sterling in November 1967 against other currencies and the Hong Kong dollar caused certain temporary difficulties for industry to the extent that existing export orders were largely expressed in sterling; while the smaller devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar against the US dollar caused equally temporary difficulties for those relying on raw materials ordered in

14

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

these currencies. So far as new business was concerned there was little adverse effect on sales to Britain; in markets based on non- devalued currencies, the extent of the Hong Kong dollar's devalua- tion did not result generally in lower export prices in terms of these foreign currencies, but did, where necessary, give a small competitive advantage.

      As the political climate improved in 1968, reinvestment and re-equipment began again and were reflected in the import figures of the second half of the year. Easier manufacturing and trading conditions clearly lay ahead. Industry therefore correctly took a relaxed view of the likely effect of the import levy imposed in Britain late in 1968. This levy did not have as adverse an effect on Hong Kong as had Britain's 15 per cent import surcharge of 1964, which damaged exports of manufactured products to Britain in the following year. With assistance from the banking system, the flow of exports to Britain in 1969 was maintained, although the rate of increase was below the average Hong Kong achieved to its other major markets.

INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

None of these events were sufficiently traumatic to have as lasting an impact on the development of manufacturing industry as other less tangible changes. Among these is the much deeper and wide- spread knowledge of the world and its markets acquired by manu- facturers during the decade. Many more of them have now the knowledge and financial status to determine whether to open their own export departments or continue to rely on specialist exporters or to work through both systems. This was not so in 1959, which partly explains why such official assistance to industry as there was in the fifties concentrated on the trading rather than production aspects of industrial development. The Commerce and Industry Department's principal effort was in those days and in the sixties directed to establishing or securing markets for industry in the developed west as an alternative to declining South-East Asian markets, through organising participation in trade fairs and trade missions. This culminated in the establishment during 1967 of the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, an autonomous statutory body representative of industry, commerce, banking, etc, with an assured official income of sufficient magnitude to maintain an

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

15

effective permanent staff and to make a real contribution to export development. It was complemented by establishment also in 1967 of an Export Credit Insurance Corporation, with adequate official capital backing and credit resources. This too has proved a highly successful autonomous undertaking.

      More directly related to industry was the final stimulus given in 1963 by the Labour Department to institutionalising the productivity movement, whose banner had hitherto been kept flying principally through the efforts of the Hong Kong Management Association, established several years before, and of the Education Department's Technical College. A provisional Productivity Council was established in 1966 and given legislative sanction in 1967. By the end of that year it had set up an officially financed productivity centre, whose task was to improve the productivity of manufacturing industry, particularly small and medium scale industry. The centre was to complement on a wider and more intensive scale the work of the Management Association and has moved systematically from small beginnings to setting up, for instance, its own consultancy service for which it charges a fee. The Productivity Centre is the principal practical link with the Asian Productivity Organisation, with head- quarters in Japan, of which Hong Kong became a member in June 1963. The APO, with its technical bias and practical attitudes, is a forum in which Hong Kong can play an effective role. Hong Kong's director on the management board of the APO was elected its chairman for 1969, a year in which he was responsible for pre- paratory work on the Asian Productivity Year in 1970.

Hong Kong's APO director, appointed ad personam by the Governor, has for the last three years been also the elected Chair- man of the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the only industrial organisation which can with justification claim to be representative of all industry. The Federation was established by statute in 1960, partly as a result of official initiative; it is on the whole, but not exclusively, representative of larger-scale industry. The Federation has had a considerable measure of success in publicising Hong Kong industry and as a centre of ideas for its development. It has interested itself increasingly in relatively inexpensive but valuable infrastructural developments such as a reference library of inter- national standards and a testing laboratory, both of which are

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

16

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

likely to be of increasing importance in the next decade. It has also embarked on some pioneering work in the field of industrial design.

       The Chinese Manufacturers' Association has continued to con- centrate its efforts on its annual end-year exhibition, which although it has increased in size and annual attendance (180,000 square feet and 1.2 million people in 1959, and 610,000 square feet and 2.6 million people in 1969) has changed little in content. The exhibition has in the past brought to the notice of people in Hong Kong many domestic products of whose existence they were ignorant. It now mainly provides an opportunity for a relatively few export-oriented manufacturers to expose and sell some of their wares to the home market, and for a larger number of small manufacturers mostly concerned with the home market to sell their products, principally confectionery, traditional Chinese foodstuffs, stationery, and house- hold goods, in a framework of brilliantly illuminated stands specially erected for the occasion. The exhibition has always been a truly popular event whose manufacturing character has been somewhat over-shadowed by its valuable contribution to entertainment in and around the Christmas season.

GOVERNMENT POLICY IN RELATION TO INDUSTRY

Economic Policy

      The Government's economic policy towards manufacturing industry has not changed during the decade. What might be de- scribed as its negative aspects, that is to say, its reluctance to accord special favour to manufacturing industries, is bound up with a liberal commercial policy, which involves a minimum of official intervention or vexatious restrictions, and neither protection nor subsidisation of manufactures. The Government believes that dynamic and, above all, coherent industrial development in Hong Kong's circumstances is dependent on maintaining these elements of commercial policy. The positive elements benefiting industry are low direct taxation (although the standard rate of profits tax was increased from 12 per cent to 15 per cent in 1966); a prudent, by modern standards unorthodox, almost Gladstonian, fiscal policy; a strong financial structure and a liberal foreign exchange policy within the sterling area; mild but firm public administration, gear- ed to rapid but disciplined operation of standardised commercial

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

TABLE 3

SELECTED STATISTICS OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

17

Percent-

1959

1969

age increase

Domestic exports

$ 2,282 mn

$ 10,518 mn

361

Employment (manufacturing industry) 177,000

in registered/recorded factories

Electricity consumption (power and

bulk supply) KW hrs

529,894

199

...

4,541

14,333

222

701 mn

2,105 mn

201

Manufacturing Wage Index

103

252

145

Consumer Price Index ...

101

134

32

Bank deposits (savings)

...

315 mn

$ 3,367 mn

969

as a percentage of all bank deposits

16

27

69

routines such as in the important field of origin certification; coupled with timely, effective and economical development of the physical infrastructure essential to industry-whenever practicable by the private sector (power supply, telecommunications, public transport, harbour and warehouse facilities)-otherwise by the Government (water, airport, roads, reclamations and associated services).

During the decade only on two occasions did the Government fail to secure a budgetary surplus; and it actually reduced its dimin- utive national debt. It strengthened the legal framework within which commercial banking operates. Industry in general acknowl- edges that the Government's monetary policy has been of outstand- ing benefit both in terms of the cost of materials, the comparative freedom from restrictive exchange controls, and the accumulation of deposits in commercial banks which have provided so much of industry's working capital. It is not so sure that either the commer- cial banks or the Government has given sufficient attention to the provision of development finance for industry. In 1960, an official committee found not proven the case for an institution to provide such finance. At the end of the decade, the case was once again under examination in the limited context of small scale industry.

      Fresh water is one of Hong Kong's scarcest commodities and one most vital to many branches of industry. In 1959, average daily consumption, with some restriction in the dry season, was 60 million gallons a day. In 1969, average daily consumption, with no

18

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

restrictions on supply, was 156 million gallons. Many miles of new roads have been opened to make industrial operations easier. The second phase of airport development, including a considerable expansion of air cargo facilities which has greatly benefited certain sectors of manufacturing industry, has been finished and the third phase is nearing completion. In the Urban area 152 net acres of formed industrial land were transferred to private hands during the decade, entailing cutting, reclamation and formation of some 1,800 gross acres, the balance being absorbed by the housing, communications, utilities and community uses required to back up the industrial undertakings. In the New Territories 85 acres of formed industrial land have been provided by Government mainly in Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung, necessitating a total provision of nearly 800 acres. Also in the New Territories some 325 acres of unformed land and seabed have been disposed of for special industrial purposes including oil storage and electricity production, shipbreaking and boatyards. In total this has been development on the most massive scale and at very great cost.

      The private sector has not been idle. Two new and larger electric power stations have been built; in this way consumption which has increased four-fold since 1959 has easily been satisfied; and there is surplus capacity (or potential) and finance to meet foresee- able demand. The telephone system has undergone an expansion in the last 10 years almost amounting to a revolution; there are now more than 12 telephones for every hundred people. The carrying of passengers by public transport has doubled, the number of goods lorries on the roads trebled. Tonnages loaded and discharged by ocean and river vessels annually have almost doubled. An ocean passenger terminal capable of accommodating two vessels up to 1,000 feet in length at the same time was completed in 1966, adding yet a further pier to Hong Kong's continuing efficient and cheap lighterage facilities in the stream. Warehousing capacity has kept pace with demand throughout the period. A special development of the last five years has been shore-based container facilities.

Labour Policy

     The Government's social policies have an important impact on the development of manufacturing industry, most directly in

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

19

the case of labour policy. Traditionally the Government's labour policy has been enforcement of the minimum standards prescribed for non-metropolitan territories in international labour conventions, supplemented by additional measures as and when demand for such measures can be identified and the economy is thought strong enough to bear their legal imposition; 1968 saw the passage of a comprehensive Employment Ordinance, together with provisions. for gradual introduction of an eight-hour working day and a 48-hour working week for women and young persons by 1971. This is likely to have wider implications for manufacturing industry as a whole than at first seems obvious, because nearly as many women are employed in factories as men, and therefore limitation of working hours for women in effect determines the hours of work for men in a number of key industries. But the most important development in regard to labour policy in the sixties has been better labour conditions consequent on the employers themselves being able to meet such conditions with more assurance than in the past.

      A buoyant economy, moreover, created many job opportunities at a time when school leavers were abnormally few and not made up by illegal immigration. Labour generally, although not well organised, was able to capitalise on the situation and employers were in a position to pay higher wages. The result is demonstrated in the average increase in wages of workers in manufacturing in- dustry, which over the decade rose nominally by about 8.4 per cent per annum, or 5.7 per cent in real terms. It was generally accepted in 1959 that Hong Kong's industrial wage rates were third highest in Asia, after Japan and Singapore. They are now generally believed to be higher only in Japan. One corollary was that during the decade manufacturing industry was remarkably free from strikes or strife. And another was the great and steady increase in personal savings by wage earners; the figure for savings deposits with banks rose from $369 million in December 1959 to $3,367 million in the same month of 1969, a substantial proportion of which must have come from the pockets of industrial workers.

Industrial Training

Other aspects of social policy which have had their impact on industry result from greater resources devoted to education and

20

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

low-cost housing. The decade has seen the accomplishment of the goal of universal primary education of relatively good quality; not compulsory, but providing a place in school for all who want it; in great degree subsidised, but not free except in case of demon- strable need. Secondary education has not been expanded so rapidly, but has nonetheless been increased in quantity and improved in quality. There are now two fully-fledged universities where before there was only one with, most importantly, a degree of co- operation between them as to the courses of studies relevant to industry and to business which each offers.

Unhappily, industrial, technical, and technological training have lagged behind. Education for blue-collar jobs has traditionally been the poor relation in the eyes of both public and teachers. Only in the last five or six years has concern expressed about this matter begun to be more than mere lip-service or hand-wringing and a considerable, but recognisably less than adequate expansion of training courses has taken place.

      One can only marvel at how much was accomplished by in- dustrialists during the sixties with only the most limited appren- ticeship schemes and formal technical training schemes available to them. It is perhaps because individual industrialists improvised so successfully that they did not bring collective pressure to bear upon the Government to step up such training schemes or themselves devise group schemes until about the middle of the decade. Since then a determined attempt has been made to lay the foundations for a considerable expansion of formalised industrial training after completion of primary education. The Industrial Training Advisory Committee established in 1965 under the chairmanship of the Commissioner of Labour has undertaken preparatory studies de- signed to identify the types of craft training for which there is a particular demand and its extent; also to determine what combina- tion of in-school in-plant training is most likely to produce the most effective apprenticeship scheme for Hong Kong in the seventies. In the meantime craft courses have started at the Education Depart- ment's new Morrison Hill Technical Institute and proposals for further institutes have been drawn up by the Industrial Training Advisory Committee. At the prevocational level a new type of junior technical school is being introduced, which will provide three

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

21

years of post-primary education with a strong practical bias for the 12 to 15 age group.

It became clear during the late sixties that the continued develop- ment of Hong Kong's industry will require an increased supply of technologists and managers, not only for manufacturing industry itself but also for the service industries and commercial services on which the manufacturer is so dependent. The Government has therefore decided to expand very considerably the facilities for higher vocational education by setting up a Polytechnic to provide courses in both industrial and commercial fields at levels varying from junior technician up to those of the examinations required for professional qualifications. A Polytechnic Planning Committee has been set up and it is hoped by about 1974 to provide for an enrol- ment of 4,000 full-time and up to 20,000 part-time students.

Housing and Land Development

      Of greater immediate concern to manufacturing industry than training systems were the massive government resettlement and low-cost housing schemes, the provision and location of which became of crucial importance to labour supply. The relationships in time and space of such housing to effective development of planned new industrial areas has been well demonstrated at Kwun Tong. By and large, a remarkable degree of co-ordination has been achieved. The result-that characteristic vista of factories grouped among huge blocks of coloured, balconied, small flats-taken for granted by so many who live here, compels admiration, and even some degree of aesthetic satisfaction, in the perceptive visitor landing by air at Kai Tak.

      It is almost impossible to picture the change in the physical environment in which manufacturing industry now goes about its business. In 1959 factories, at the most four or five storeys high, were concentrated in Tsuen Wan, already a substantial town; along the Lai Chi Kok Road, in Tai Kok Tsui and Ma Tau Kok, and among squatter clusters in northern Kowloon; at North Point and Quarry Bay on the island.

      Tsuen Wan's factories are now unrecognisably different in height, in size, in number. At the northern end of the neighbouring valley of Kwai Chung large factories jostle for position on the most

223

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

awkward and difficult sites. Cheung Sha Wan is no longer a lagoon of oozing mud circled by ramshackle boat and timber yards, but a rising town of humming factories. San Po Kong, formerly part of the old Kai Tak airfield, has been most densely developed with particular emphasis on high-rise commercially built flatted factories. Kwun Tong, still being reclaimed from the sea in 1959 with but a few isolated buildings, is a major industrial centre with a quarter of a million inhabitants, and an overflow suburb along the shore to the east at Yau Tong. At the eastern extremity of the island's urban development is Chai Wan, a completely new, small industrial town- ship on what was 10 years ago little more than a muddy bay. And factory and low-cost housing development in Aberdeen has given that picturesque town of boats and fishermen an entirely fresh aspect without destroying its individuality and links with the fishing industry.

       Official assistance to industry in factory development has been stepped up insofar as Crown land zoned for industrial purposes may now be paid for by instalments over 20 years in Tsuen Wan/ Kwai Chung, Castle Peak and Sam Ka Tsuen as well as at Kwun Tong, and over two years elsewhere. In the urban area, it has been policy to make land available at auction in sufficient quantity, in the right mixture of large and small lots, in the right place, at the right time, and at relatively low upset prices to satisfy the competing and constantly varying demands of industry, an art in which personal judgement is likely to be at least as successful as the computer.

       The market for industrial land has been through a complete cycle during the decade. In the first few years, a period of rising demand, prices remained relatively steady, many lots being bought by genuine industrialists anxious to expand their operations or com- pelled to buy because the land which they occupied on temporary permit was wanted for other purposes. In 1964 premiums for land where labour and housing was readily available rose substantially, with considerable competition among industrialists themselves for choice lots and not always without a flavour of speculative invest- ment. But the bank closures of 1965 had a substantially depressent effect on demand and therefore on prices. The Government continued thereafter to auction industrial land to meet the relatively

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

233

     small demand until this collapsed altogether in 1967 under the influence of the civil disturbances. The end of the disturbances quickly led to a revival of interest in industrial land and prices firmed up until by the end of 1969 shortage of supply led to very high prices in favoured areas such as Kwun Tong and San Po Kong. Some average current prices per square foot in selected industrial areas (with the 1962 figures in brackets) are: Kwun Tong $126 ($39), San Po Kong $186 ($35), Chai Wan $107 ($38) and Aberdeen $70 ($27).

In the New Territories, where most Crown land zoned for in- dustry is at present available, an industrialist is more likely to acquire land by exchange than by auction. This involves the pro- spective buyer in first negotiating the purchase of exchange entitle- ments granted to the original landowners whose land holdings had been surrendered to Government for the development of the new development areas. This exchange system has come to be well understood locally; indeed all industrial land at Kwai Chung has already been committed to this type of exchange transaction. However, it may well be a deterrent to a newly arrived overseas business man who may tend to lose heart when faced with either the apparently complicated nature of the exchange procedure or the need to find a private owner who is willing to sell a piece of indus- trial land at a reasonable price.

INVESTMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

      Foreign participation in manufacturing industry in the commonly accepted meaning of that term in Hong Kong, that is to say, partic- ipation in terms of money or technology by non-residents, partic- ularly non-Chinese residents, was not a feature of the industrial scene during the fifties after the major incursion from central China in the early years of the decade. The greater part of the capital and enterprise required was either self-generated or con- tributed by people who were residents or had been at some time. And so it has continued. There has however in the sixties been some incursion of overseas capital and technology, particularly from Japan and the United States, both of which have made sub- stantial contributions to certain sections of the textile, clothing and electronic industries. One recent calculation puts overseas interest

24

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

as being of the order of eight per cent of total capital investment in manufacturing industry. Such investment has been especially welcome where it has led to innovation or more effective spe- cialisation.

      By the end of the fifties, some Hong Kong industrialists had established branch factories overseas, usually to retain or gain access to traditional markets. In the sixties, this movement ac- celerated significantly, partly for the reasons mentioned above, but also as a hedge against commercial and political risks and as a means of increasing output when labour was becoming scarcer and more expensive in Hong Kong. Special inducements or concessions to industrial development stimulated many industrialists to inves- tigate, and some to select, Taiwan and Singapore in particular as sites for branch factories during the latter half of the decade. The loss and it is arguable that it is a gain, although frequently depicted as a loss to manufacturing industry has been inconspicuous.

THE FUTURE

      Unquestionably the two most important factors in this success story are the indomitable will of management to win through and the willingness of workers to work. It would also be reasonable to claim that important among many contributory factors have been stable and consistent administration during a period of general restlessness elsewhere in South Asia, continuation of pragmatic liberal economic policies, good judgment with infrastructural devel- opment, and that element of luck which is an essential ingredient of successful enterprise, both public as well as private. As to the future, it lies as always primarily in the hands of the people.

In the last five years, it has been noticeable that the generation of managers who laid the foundations of new manufacturing industry immediately after the war has been withdrawing from the scene. In many cases they have been replaced by sons or kindred more highly educated, better informed about the international scene, but with the will to succeed perhaps even more highly developed. A glance at the advertisement columns of the newspapers discloses the change in methods of recruiting and qualities sought for management outside the family structure. These are the new managers or managing directors of that five per cent or so of all

ABERDEEN

A

berdeen

-

the very name must be high on anyone's list of the intriguing contrasts with which Hong Kong abounds. However, this former haunt of China Sea pirates was named, not for the staid Scottish city but for a British Peer, Lord Aberdeen, who was Foreign Secretary during the early days of the Colony. The Chinese name for the original village on the site was (and is still) Heung Kong Tsai, which translates roughly as 'fragrant small harbour'; and it is this village which gave Hong Kong its name. Historians still argue about whether the name refers to the incense makers who used to inhabit the area or to the fact that ships used to call there to stock up on fresh water from its clear streams. But whatever the truth, one thing certain is that Aberdeen, while retaining much of its original character, has progressed a long way since then. It is still the home of the hardy and independent boat people; and their unique way of life (though increasing numbers are now choosing to live ashore) helps make Aberdeen one of Hong Kong's leading tourist attrac- tions. The huge floating restaurants moored among the sam- pans and junks (see picture previous page) are also a magnet for visitors. Lately, however, Aberdeen's traditional outlines have been changing. Modern housing developments and factories are springing up beside the old street markets and temples in a unique blend of old and new that could only happen in Hong Kong.

Diners sit down in one of Aberdeen's floating restaur- ants to a meal of sea food which, a few moments earlier, was swimming around in tanks alongside.

1

There are still people in Aberdeen's 'floating village' who spend virtually their whole lives afloat. The yellow-roofed structure is Aberdeen's floating City Hall, where the fisherfolk hold their weddings, meetings and celebrations.

TI

This youngster is one of the modern generation, living ashore with her family in a modern government low-cost housing estate. (below) A typic- al street market scene on the Aberdeen waterfront.

осо

Fishing is still the mainstay of life for a great many Aberdeen residents and this scene cap- tures the early morning bustle of the fish market as the catch is brought in. (opposite page, top) Yet another facet of Aber- deen's life is captured here as a Technical College teacher helps a student with an elec- trical experiment. (bottom) These girls are assembling delicate electronic components at a newly opened Aberdeen factory.

203.

An aerial view of Aberdeen harbour, showing the striking patterns of the floating village framed by the modern build- ings on shore.

HONG KONG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE SIXTIES

25

factories which contribute some 60 per cent of manufacturing output; and, significantly, they are to be found also in increasing numbers among the small factories which contribute the remaining 40 per cent of output.

      A new and much better educated generation of workers also made its presence felt during the decade and they are increasingly to be found in industrial employment. The notion that craftsmen and artisans have a dignified place in the scheme of things is beginning to be accepted at all levels of society, if only because they command the good wages that enable them to bring up their families in reasonable comfort. The next 10 years will witness a great, and overdue, increase in technical and technological education which will clearly be very costly. The great question mark is whether employers will be willing and able to match this development by in-plant craft apprenticeship schemes on an adequate scale to meet the unpredictable future demands of industry. There will be no lack of candidates for training; but its pace and extent will be set by the availability of instructors and teachers.

      The productivity movement can be expected to make con- siderable progress under the spur of competitive prices set by other countries now beginning to sell in Hong Kong's existing overseas markets. Shorter working hours and pressure for improved wages will also stimulate greater interest in productivity. Generally, products are likely to become increasingly sophisticated as in- dustrialists and buyers find the right markets to which Hong Kong's particular expertise can best be adjusted. Improved design and packaging and increasing attention to international standards are likely to go hand in hand with these developments. The pace of change will continue to be set by the general state of world trade and international demand rather than by external or internal competition, changes in economic boundaries, international restric- tions, or internationally agreed preferences for developing countries. Nevertheless it will also continue to be of crucial importance for Hong Kong industry that, in general, liberal policies in world trade should be maintained throughout the seventies, and that Hong Kong itself should be seen to accept and practice these principles.

2

Employment

THE general employment pattern in the 1966 by-census showed that about 47 per cent of the working population was engaged in con- struction, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities, about 24 per cent in various services, 17 per cent in commerce, seven per cent in communications and five per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern, the estimated employment figures at the end of 1969 were: manufacturing 599,780, services 366,970, commerce 253,830, construction 93,840, agriculture, forestry and fishing 79,470, communications 104,190, public utilities 14,870, mining and quarrying 4,570. There were also some 5,830 in other work, making an estimated total of 1,523,350 employed.

In 1969 the Labour Department had on record 14,754 factories and according to voluntary returns made to the Department these employed a total of 561,563 workers, an increase of 54,810 compared with the 1968 figures. Those engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting, and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods accounted for a total of 227,857 and remained the largest section of this labour force. The plastics industry, which also employs a large number of out-workers, remained the second largest employer. The demand for labour in manufacturing industries continued to exceed the supply. Fuller details of the distribution of industrial undertakings and of persons employed in them are given in Appendix III.

      The bulk of the industrial population is concentrated in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon but there is increasing industrial development in the New Terri- tories, particularly in the new township of Tsuen Wan. In December 1969 the Labour Department had on record 1,319 factories in the New Territories, with a labour force of 81,122. Although most workers are engaged in modern manufacturing processes and a small amount of mining and quarrying, traditional village industries still provide employment.

EMPLOYMENT

27

Employment opportunities overseas for Hong Kong Chinese are limited on account of the strict controls which most countries maintain over the entry of foreign nationals seeking employment. The number of workers who went overseas during the year was 2,650, compared with 2,643 in the previous year and 2,368 in 1967. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants.

Permission to work in Britain is given by the British Department of Employment and Productivity through the Labour Department. During the year 939 permits and vouchers were issued, including five to Commonwealth citizens seeking unspecified employment, 310 to local people of British nationality going to specific jobs, and 624 to local residents of non-British nationality.

The British Phosphate Commission recruited through a local agent 170 workers for Nauru and Ocean Islands as compared with 105 in the previous year. Re-engagement contracts, as required under the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, numbered 1,017.

The local Employment Advisory Service provides a placement service introducing job seekers to prospective employers and vice versa. During the year the Service registered 12,011 workers, recorded 3,295 employers' orders for workers, and placed 1,693 workers in employment.

The Youth Employment Advisory Service continued with the preparation of written information and on the sponsorship of talks to senior pupils in secondary schools. By the end of the year 30 leaflets in English had been prepared and issued. The translation of these into Chinese and their publication in a loose-leaf form as 'A Guide to Careers in Hong Kong' was being arranged.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

By the end of the year nine reports from industrial committees had been endorsed by the Government-appointed Industrial Training Advisory Committee and had been forwarded for consideration. Each of the industrial committees has begun to consider other important aspects such as the drawing up of minimum job standards and specifications, examinations and certification of skills.

28

EMPLOYMENT

      Some industries have schemes for operative training although the scope and method vary widely. In the cotton spinning and weaving branches of the textile industry newly engaged workers without previous experience but with minimum qualifications serve a learnership of several months, finally becoming semi-skilled operatives. The same two branches of the industry also provide training at technician level for junior maintenance and shift en- gineers. This usually lasts two years depending on the requirements of individual mills. The garment manufacturing industry also has its schemes for the training of newly engaged operatives.

      Training centres run by certain voluntary welfare organisations as well as by certain government departments offer various forms of vocational training, mainly for the seriously handicapped and physically disabled. These courses vary widely in standards and range from skilled trades to commercial training, domestic science, catering, and handicraft. A functional committee to co-ordinate these activities, where they have a vocational training content, was established under the Industrial Training Advisory Committee at the end of 1966.

The Hong Kong Technical College and the Morrison Hill Technical Institute are the principal government institutions pro- viding technical education at technologist, technician, craft, and pre-apprentice or pre-craft levels. The Morrison Hill Technical Institute established in 1969 concentrates on pre-apprenticeship, craft and instructor training and has taken over such courses previously being run by the Hong Kong Technical College, thus permitting the latter to concentrate on the higher levels. There are, in addition, six government secondary technical schools, three government subsidised institutions, and one private school providing technical education for boys at secondary level. Ten government subsidised and 79 private day and 72 private night schools also offer courses of a technical, vocational and commercial nature. Courses, of varying standards, are offered for aircraft mechanics, radio operators, radio technicians, typists, stenographers, book- keepers, dress-makers, painters, and motor-car drivers.

      Apprenticeship systems in Hong Kong fall into either the tradi- tional sector or the modern westernised sector. The latter system, based on the British pattern of craft apprenticeship, is followed by

EMPLOYMENT

29

government workshops and some of the larger industrial concerns. A special feature is the award of overseas training opportunities to outstanding technical apprentices who have completed their training locally. The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company of Hong Kong Limited, the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited, and the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited train substantial numbers of apprentices, while some public utility companies train a smaller number.

In many Chinese factories run on traditional lines, the recruitment and training of apprentices is haphazard. Among the steps taken during the year to improve apprentice training was the appointment of a Senior Training Officer (Apprenticeship) whose primary tasks are to advise the Commissioner and the Industrial Training Advisory Committee on the preparation of apprenticeship legislation and to implement the Advisory Committee's recommendations on the training of technicians and craftsmen. The Committee on Apprentice- ship continues to be responsible for investigating, advising and making recommendations on apprenticeship matters generally, and the Senior Training Officer (Apprenticeship) is both member and secretary of this committee.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

      Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industry are piece-rated although daily rates of pay are also common. Men and women receive the same rates for piece-work but women are generally paid less when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis and are customarily paid twice monthly or weekly.

       The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industry at the end of 1969 was $11.00 to $36.00 for skilled workers; $6.60 to $24.00 for semi-skilled; and $6.00 to $15.80 for unskilled. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, subsi- dised meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, and paid rest-days as well as a lunar new year bonus of one month's pay.

      A consumer price index, intended as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, was published through- out the year. It varied from 114 to 124 (base of 100-period of

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EMPLOYMENT

September 1963 to August 1964). In December 1969 it stood at 119. A special index based on the expenditure of households spending less than $600 a month and known as the Modified Consumer Price Index is also published and used as the basis for monthly adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. A proportion of the wages of minor staff (Scale 1) in the public service is adjusted quarterly by reference to this index.

       The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance is the basis for the control of hours and conditions of work in industry. On December 1, 1967, amending legislation came into force which introduced a phased programme and will result in the reduction of the maximum standard hours for women and young persons to eight a day and 48 a week by December 1, 1971. The first and second stages of the programme were carried out without serious difficulties. The third phase of the programme came into force on December 1, 1969 and reduced the maximum standard working hours for women and for young persons aged 16 and 17 years to eight hours and forty minutes a day and 52 hours a week. In addition to providing for maximum daily hours, regulations made under the ordinance provide for limited overtime, weekly rest days, and rest periods for women and young persons.

      Young persons aged 14 and 15 years may work only eight hours a day in industry with a break of one hour after five hours continuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry and no woman nor young person is allowed to work at night or underground in any mine, quarry or since October 1, 1969 in any industrial undertaking involving a tunnelling operation.

There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work ten hours a day or less. Government employees and those in concerns operating on western lines work. eight hours. The restrictions on the hours of work for women, which were introduced in January 1959 and which have been amended to allow for the phased introduction of a 48 hours week, resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men in the same concern. By December 1, 1969, 40 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts, cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 38,180 men and 41,544 women were

EMPLOYMENT

31

     working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry. Except where continuous produc- tion demands a rotation of rest days, which are usually unpaid, Sunday is the most common rest day. Although male industrial workers do not have a statutory right to a rest day it is customary for them to be granted unpaid leave on request.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations came into operation on October 1, 1969. These Regula- tions prohibit the employment of women and young persons under- ground in industrial undertakings involving tunnelling operations, provide for pre-employment medical examination of those employed underground in mines, quarries and industrial undertakings involving tunnelling operations and for periodical medical examinations of those employed underground who are under 21 years of age. They also make other minor amendments to the principal regulations relating to the employment of workers and young persons.

      The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance provide for six annual holidays to be given to workers in industrial establishments and for sickness allowance up to 12 days a year on half pay.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Governor on labour and industrial relations policies. All labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under International Labour Con- ventions are observed. The organisation of the department now provides for five divisions: Labour Relations, Development, Industry, Employment and Industrial Health. Two labour advisers were appointed in 1968 to assist the Commissioner, one on labour legislation and the other on all aspects of industrial relations with particular reference to joint consultation.

      With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, workers' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which bear allegiance to opposing political groups and which are registered as societies. Divided politically and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of

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EMPLOYMENT

unions has grown beyond practical needs and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organisations.

The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 65 affiliated unions were concentrated in shipyards, textile-mills, and public utilities. A further 18 unions, nominally independent, are friendly with the federation and participate in its activities. The other trade union federation, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathises with the policies of the Taiwan authorities. Most of the members of its 71 affiliated unions and of the 23 nominally independent unions, which generally support the Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Confedera- tion of Free Trade Unions. There are 77 independent unions, some of which continued to make improvements in their internal admin- istration and in the services offered to their members.

The Labour Relations Division of the Labour Department dealt with 3,085 disputes, of which 513 involved large wage claims. This compared with 418 last year. There were a further 2,572 minor disputes compared with 2,536 in the previous year. Altogether there were 27 strikes and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 39,911 compared with 8,432 in 1968. Major disputes in the year were due mainly to disagreement over piece rates (particularly in the woollen knitting industry), redundancy, dismissal and in- solvency.

      By the end of the year the Labour Department had recorded a total of 56 joint consultative councils and committees set up by 24 establishments. Most of these were working smoothly and achieving the object of bringing management and employees together to improve relationships and allow each to benefit from the experi- ence of the other. Similar committees established in certain govern- ment departments discuss a wide range of administrative, welfare and organisational problems. Another development has been the increase in the number of firms which issue handbooks detailing conditions of service. During the year a large dockyard, a gas works, an elevator engineering company and several woollen knitting and electronics factories issued such booklets to their

EMPLOYMENT

33

employees. In many instances advice was sought of the Labour Department. In the dockyard a declaration was made jointly by the management and an independent craft union for the introduc- tion of consolidated and improved terms of employment.

      The shortage of labour resulted in wage demands being made by and granted to employees in the traditional sector of the economy. Employees in the tailoring and dress-making industry, copper- smiths, employees in barber shops, camphor-wood trunk, rattan- ware, blackwood furniture, ivory carving and mahjong tile making establishments benefited. In most cases the increases agreed by the employers' organisation and the workers' union concerned were between 20 per cent and 25 per cent. Overall average wages in the building trades also rose very considerably. Wages in other sectors have continued to rise.

      The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are set out in the Trade Union Registration Ordinance and administered by the Registry of Trade Unions.

The 320 unions on the register at the end of 1969 consisted of 254 workers' unions with a total declared membership of 170,018, 53 organisations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 5,413 and 13 mixed organisations with a total declared membership of 6,929.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

The Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department acts as an advisory service to government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. The work of the division is pri- marily concerned with preventing occupational disease and protect- ing workers against health hazards in their working environment. Hazards to the health of workers are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate, or by officers of the division. Control is achieved by environmental and 'biological monitoring and the division has a laboratory with technicians trained in industrial hygiene. A survey of medical facilities in industry is being conducted with the help of the Industry Division.

The measurement of concentrations in the air of, amongst many, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust and

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EMPLOYMENT

sulphur dioxide, and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise, and lighting are a major part of the routine duties of the division. Medical examinations, including X-rays and pathological investigations, of workers exposed to risk of lead, radiation, or fluoride toxicity are also undertaken.

Regulation 5 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (First Aid in Registrable Workplaces) Regulations became effective on October 1. Factories employing more than 100 employees must have at least one trained first aider. To meet the demand occasioned by this legislation, 51 first aid classes were arranged in conjunction with the St John Ambulance Association during 1969 and 1,394 industrial workers are known to have received first aid training.

The division also undertakes the clinical examination, case work, and medical assessment of injured workers under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. This important advisory service operates principally from the casualty departments of the Queen Mary Hospital, the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Kwong Wah Hospital, although many visits to homes and workplaces are made by the health visitors of the division.

Approval in principle was given to the establishment of an Air Pollution Control Unit in the Labour Department and financial provision for certain equipment approved. Staff for the unit has yet to be recruited and trained. Additional monitoring stations were set up for measuring sulphur dioxide, smoke and solid partic- ulated matters. Seminars were held with the enamel industry in March and the textile industry in September on the proper use of the fuels.

The factory inspectorate of the Industry Division of the Labour Department is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, for the safety of workers employed in factories and industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance are given to management on ways and means of guarding dangerous parts of machinery, adopting safe working practices, and general layout of factories to achieve safe working conditions.

During the year, the scope and activities of the Industrial Safety Training Centre continued to expand and, in addition to courses

EMPLOYMENT

35

on basic industrial safety given to industrial and government employees the first course on advanced industrial safety was com- pleted. A specialist half-day course was held on five occasions, on the safe operation of fork lift trucks for members of the Civil Aid Services. Members of the centre continued to give lectures to various technical and vacational training centres. The centre also helps to organise safety committees and prepares booklets and posters on industrial safety.

The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance was enacted on November 19, 1969 to come into force on January 1, 1970. The amending legislation increases substantially the maximum and minimum lump sums payable on death and permanent in- capacity, raises the level of periodical payments during periods of temporary incapacity, and makes such periodical payments payable in addition to any lump sums for death or permanent incapacity. The Ordinance brings domestic servants and agricul- tural workers, who were formerly excluded, within its scope and also extends the coverage of non-manual workers to include those whose earnings do not exceed $1,500 a month.

3

Financial Structure

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs is required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence to which it makes a substantial contribution. This contribution is now under a four-year Defence Costs Arrange- ment which commenced in 1967-8. The contribution to recurrent defence expenditure is £3,925,000 a year, with a sum of £2,400,000 during the four-year period for a services' capital works programme. At the same time, the maintenance function of HBM Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in Hong Kong in respect of certain service property, and the expenditure involved, has been taken over by the Public Works Department of the Hong Kong Government.

      Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies similar to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of the Colony other than 'below the line' operations of various official funds.

A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after the war. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively, a series of surpluses, some of them substantial, have been accumu- lated. Figures for the past four years are shown in Appendix IX. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which the Colony has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

37

      other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. These annual capital spendings have been as high as $735 million; in 1968-9 they totalled nearly $377 million.

The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, was that during the earlier years exceptionally rapid increases in population generated internal economic activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreci- able increases in the rates of tax. Revenue expanded from $292 million in 1950-1 to $2,081 million in 1968-9. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before Government could develop the public and social services necessary for an in- creasing population. However, as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 50 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent. Consequently, in that year the surplus of revenue over ex- penditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure and an overall deficit of $45 million occurred. Subsequent budgets until the current year anticipated further and in some cases sub- stantial deficits, but the actual results suggest that the economic strength and resilience of the Colony was underestimated, partic- ularly earlier on, for 1965-6 is the only year in which another deficit has been recorded.

While the export trade remained buoyant, towards the end of 1964-5 the property market turned dull and this, to a degree, affected other sectors. The deficit of 1965-6 reflected this temporary set back. 1966-7 saw a swing back into surplus which has persisted despite the continuation of the upward trend in the recurrent expenditure/revenue ratio which increased to 75 per cent in 1968-9 and is estimated at 80 per cent for the current financial year. The swing was assisted by a small increase in taxation but a more important factor was a falling-off in capital works expenditure as certain major projects, particularly the Plover Cove Reservoir scheme and certain major land development schemes, gradually reached completion and have not yet been replaced by new projects

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FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

of comparable magnitude. The 1968-9 budget anticipated a deficit of $13 million but a surplus of $208.1 million was achieved, although an adjustment of Civil Service salaries costing about $50 million was not taken into account when the budget was prepared. The investments in which part of the Colony's financial assets are held are revalued annually and the General Revenue Balance adjusted accordingly. During the year 1968-9, investments in British Govern- ment stocks declined in value by $46.5 million.

      The budget for 1969-70 introduced no significant taxation changes but forecast a $53.4 million surplus. However, it seems likely that the actual surplus will be substantially greater.

      Revenue and expenditure for the two previous years, together with the estimates for this financial year are detailed and compared in Appendices VI and VII. In 1968-9, revenue at $2,081 million was $129 million more than the original estimate. The head showing the largest excess was internal revenue up $76 million due mainly to higher earnings and profits tax and stamp duty receipts which reflected the prosperity of the Colony during last year. The largest relative increase, however, came from the Kai Tak Airport and air services head which exceeded the estimate by 22 per cent. There were shortfalls on two recurrent heads (Rates and Kowloon- Canton Railway) but all other recurrent heads produced excesses. Expenditure for the financial year 1968-9 was $1,873 million against the estimate of $1,965 million showing a shortfall of $92 million. Of the $359 million voted for building, civil engineering and water projects under public works non-recurrent heads of expenditure only $289 million was actually spent.

At March 31, 1969, net available public financial assets were $1,087 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalisation Fund as a reserve against possible future deficits on current account. According to normal government practice, the statement of assets and liabilities at Appendix VIII excludes the public debt of the Colony (see Appendix X) from the liabilities. The debt at March 31, 1968 was $66.4 million or the equivalent of approximately $17 per head of population. Indebtedness decreased by $3.6 million during the year, owing mainly to the repayment of £200,000 of the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport. This loan is repayable by

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

39

15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on October 1, 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; its sinking fund stood at $26.3 million on March 31, 1969.

       In addition to the Assets and Liabilities referred to, there exist for special purposes the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund (see Appendix XIII). The Development Loan Fund, of $628 million, is used to finance social and economic development proj- ects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes, but during the year an allocation of $27.5 million, as the Government's share in the equity capital of the Cross Harbour Tunnel Company Ltd, was approved. At March 31, 1969 outstanding commitments from funds allocated exceeded liquid assets of $12 million by $123 million. The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is for the support and development of social welfare services in the Colony. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $13.6 million was credited during the period June 30, 1965 to March 31, 1969, by which date grants and loans amounting to $14.29 million had been approved. A further sum of $2.6 million, being unclaimed prize money as at March 31, 1969, is held in deposit. Details of the Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are shown in Appendix XI.

The audit of all public accounts and certain special funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Annual reports on the accounts by the Director of Audit and the Director General are presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

DUTIES

      There is no general tariff and only five groups of imported com- modities-alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol-are subject to duty. Duties are levied on the same products manufactured locally. All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture, or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed.

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FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

The rates of duty are, in general, low, and on liquor they range from $1.60 per gallon, on Hong Kong brewed beer, to $73 a gallon for liquors and spirits of non-Commonwealth origin.

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $2.50 a pound for Chinese prepared tobacco to $11.25 a pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted for unmanu- factured tobacco of Malawi origin and to cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth manufacture.

      For hydrocarbon oils the rate of duty ranges from two cents a pound for liquefied petroleum gas to $1.80 a gallon for motor spirits. On table waters and methyl alcohol duty is levied at the rate of 48 cents and $7.50 a gallon respectively.

RATES

      Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and part of the New Territories. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In those parts of the New Territories which are statutorily subject to rates, the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up to date. The estimated revenue from rates for 1969-70 is $300 million.

      There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, charit- able and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments are reimbursed in the form of either direct subventions or contributions toward rates.

INTERNAL REVENUE

Income was first subject to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 as a temporary war time measure but no attempt was made to collect tax after the liberation of the Colony, although the ordinance was not repealed until 1947. However, a new source of revenue was by then essential and it was decided to impose a direct tax on earnings and profits as a permanent measure with effect from

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

41

April 1, 1947. Under the Inland Revenue Ordinance, tax is charged only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside the Colony whether remitted here or not.

The standard rate of tax was raised to 15 per cent from April 1, 1966 having stood at 124 per cent for the previous 15 years and at 10 per cent before that.

      Earnings and profits are classified into four categories each of which is subject to a separate tax-Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. Property Tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building in the Colony, with the exceptions of land or buildings in the New Territories and land or buildings wholly occupied by the owner as his residence; it is payable by the person paying the Rates who, if he is not the owner, can then recover from the owner by deduction from rent or any other money due to him. Interest Tax is charged on the borrower who is required to pay interest to his creditor net after deduction of tax. Dividends are regarded as paid out of taxed profits and exempt from further tax. Salaries Tax and Profits Tax are levied by direct assessment on persons so chargeable.

      Tax is charged at the standard rate except for: Salaries Tax, which is subject to personal allowance deduction and a sliding scale of tax: proprietors of small unincorporated businesses who have an exemption limit of $7,000 with provision for marginal relief where the profits of those businesses are only slightly in excess of $7,000; property owners-if the rent receivable is controlled by reference to the 1941 rental, the Property Tax charge is reduced to one-half the standard rate. Also, as an alternative to the separate taxes, a resident may elect to have Personal Assessment. A single assessment aggregating his total Hong Kong income, excluding dividends, granting personal allowances, and charging the same sliding scale of tax as for Salaries Tax is then made, with a set-off being allowed of any of the four separate taxes already paid.

      The personal allowances at present are: for the taxpayer $7,000; for his wife $7,000; for each of the first two children $2,000; for each of the third to sixth child $1,000 and for each of the seventh to ninth child $500. This makes a maximum allowance for children

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FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

of $9,500. There is also an allowance for life insurance premia not to exceed 10 per cent of the capital sum insured or one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. The sliding scale of tax starts at 24 per cent on the first $5,000 of net income and increases at each subsequent $5,000 stage until at $45,000 a maxi- mum rate of 30 per cent is reached, with a subsequent limitation that the total Salaries Tax chargeable cannot exceed 15 per cent of gross income.

It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1969-70 will be $598 million.

       Estate Duty generally follows the lines of the British tax of the same name. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong. The rates of duty range from three per cent on estates valued between $100,000 and $200,000 to 25 per cent on estates over $4 million. Yield for the year ending March 31, 1970 is estimated at $18 million.

       Stamp Duty is modelled on the British pattern with fixed duties and ad valorem duty being charged according to the type of docu- ment. The lowest fixed duty is 15 cents on bills of lading and receipts and the highest $20. Ad valorem duty ranges from 25 cents on $1,000 to $2 on $100. For conveyance of land there is a fixed duty of $20 where the sale price does not exceed $20,000, one per cent ad valorem duty where the sale price exceeds $20,000 but does not exceed $40,000 and two per cent where the consideration is in excess of $40,000, with provision for marginal relief. A special duty at the rate of three per cent payable on the first conveyance of any parcel of land after September 1948 was repealed with effect from February 27, 1969. The estimated yield from stamp duty during the current financial year is $80 million.

       Substantial revenue accrues from Entertainments, Dance Halls, Bets and Sweeps Taxes and it is estimated they will yield $61.1 million during the current year. Entertainments Tax is charged on the price of admission to places of entertainment, the rate varies with the amount charged but averages about 22 per cent. Certain types of entertainment given for charitable or educational purposes are taxed at a lower rate or may be exempt. Public Dance Halls Tax exacts a levy of 10 per cent on all dance halls charges. Bets and

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

43

Sweeps Tax imposes 7 per cent on totalisator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

       The Hotel Accommodation Tax, introduced in July 1966, pro- vides money for the promotion of tourism. The rate of tax is two per cent of the charge made for accommodation by the proprietor of any hotel containing 10 or more rooms normally available for guests. This levy is estimated to yield $3.1 million in the current

year.

       Every business carried on in the Colony except one which is not carried on for the purpose of gain or one which is carried on by a charitable institution must be registered and pay an annual registra- tion fee of $25. Where the business is very small, the Commissioner may exempt it. These fees are expected to yield approximately $3.8 million.

CURRENCY

      Hong Kong's modern currency system came into operation in 1935 when the Currency Ordinance, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues, in exchange for certificates of indebtedness. The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their small fiduciary issues. The exchange fund, in practice, has kept its assets in sterling and from 1937 to 1968 operated in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

At the same time the Government undertook to issue one dollar notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960, because of the heavy expense of keeping clean notes in circulation, a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a British florin was introduced. Although banks have been asked to withdraw all one dollar notes and also the previously issued five and ten cent notes, as they are received in the course of business, many still remain unredeemed although few appear to be in active circulation. When the Dollar and Subsidiary Currency Notes Ordinance came

44

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

into effect on the September 1, 1969, these old notes were demon- etised and the assets of the security funds held against these issues were transferred to general revenue. Any outstanding notes may be redeemed after this date on presentation to the Accountant General. Government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents, and notes of the value of 1 cent.

The total currency in nominal circulation at December 31, 1969

was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins

Government 1 cent note issue

$2,116,164,000.00

$

77,040,366.00

$ 67,251,727.10

$

468,310.00

The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modi- fications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at approximately 1s 3d. On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. Hong Kong followed fully Britain's 1949 devaluation, like the greater part of the sterling area. This relationship with sterling was at no time a statutory one; it was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in conjunction with the note- issuing banks. It came, however, to be generally regarded, in com- merce and banking, as a fixed relationship; while Hong Kong, as both a dependent territory and a member of the sterling area, was required in practice to keep its official reserves and the greater part of the reserves of the banking system (there being no central bank) in the form of sterling. Towards the end of 1967 Hong Kong's total sterling assets were of the order of £350 million.

In consequence of this situation, when sterling was devalued by 14.3 per cent in November 1967, the immediate effect was a loss to the Colony which may be estimated at $700 million; and Hong Kong was faced with the dilemma of following the pound down and so letting the loss fall directly and fully on the standard of

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

45

living of the people (by reason of their almost total reliance on imported food and other goods) along with a costly and completely unnecessary deterioration of terms of trade; or of not devaluing the Hong Kong dollar and taking the loss for the most part, directly on the reserves of Government and the commercial banks. After an initial devaluation which maintained temporarily the previous relationship with sterling, the Hong Kong dollar was revalued four days later by 10 per cent against sterling to a new rate of 1s 44d, equivalent to a 5.7 per cent devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar from its previous international parity. This decision cost Hong Kong public funds $450 million or nearly $120 per head of population. This sum included nearly full compensation paid from the Exchange Fund to commercial banks against their consequential losses.

       These events finally made it clear that the old relationship with the pound was no longer appropriate to Hong Kong's economic situation. On the other hand, it was not possible for Britain to allow any significant diversification of Hong Kong's sterling assets of £350 million into other currencies, in view of her own depleted reserves; while at this stage she was not prepared to offer guarantees of the international value of sterling reserves. Negotiations in London in April and May 1968 resulted in a novel arrangement whereby Hong Kong was given the right to use its sterling assets to purchase British Government bonds, of seven years maturity, denominated in Hong Kong dollars. The rate of interest was per cent below the current cost of United Kingdom Treasury borrowing for seven years. These bonds were purchasable to a value of £100 million or 50 per cent of official reserves, whichever was greater, up to an absolute maximum of £150 million. This arrangement went far to safeguarding the value of Hong Kong's reserves in terms of the Hong Kong dollar but safeguarded their international value only if it were possible to avoid for seven years a devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar.

In July 1968, with the backing of the so-called Basle arrangement whereby credits of US$2,000 million were made available to Britain by the Group of Ten, Britain offered all members of the sterling area, including Hong Kong, a free guarantee in terms of US dollar value of all officially held sterling in excess of 10 per cent of each

46

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

country's total official external reserves, in return for the under- taking by them to maintain a minimum proportion of their reserves in sterling (roughly the proportion existing when the offer was made; for Hong Kong this was 99 per cent). The guarantee is for five years from September 25, 1968. Hong Kong accepted this new scheme in place of the Hong Kong bond scheme, and arrangements were introduced early in 1969, through the mechanism of the Exchange Fund, to bring within the cover of the guarantee a substantial part of that part of the Colony's sterling reserves which are held by the banking system in the absence of a central bank. While the guarantee remains in force, the Hong Kong dollar is automatically protected from the effects of any change in sterling exchange rates so far as its capital assets are concerned. This does not mean, however, that the value of the Hong Kong dollar could necessarily be maintained if such an event was followed by sub- stantial devaluations by Hong Kong's trade competitors to the detriment of her trading position.

BANKING

Banking business in the Colony is licensed by the Government and carried on subject to the provisions of the Banking Ordinance, which deals with the supervision of banks and requirements of minimum capital and reserves, liquidity ratios, limitations on the holdings of certain classes of assets, and control over the opening of branches. Monthly returns are made by all banks to the Com- missioner of Banking, who makes regular inspections.

Despite the strong attraction of high interest rates in the Euro- dollar and Sterling currency markets, bank deposits in the Colony increased again during 1969 to reach a new record figure of $12,297 million at the end of the year. This increase was achieved with no increase in deposit rates of interest such as was necessary in some other financial centres, and represented a rise of 18.6 per cent over the previous year-end figure.

Loans and advances increased to $7,884 million and, as a percentage of bank deposits, amounted to 64.1 per cent at the end of the year, compared with 58.2 per cent at the end of 1968.

     At the end of 1969 there were 70 incorporated banks in the Colony with a total of 362 banking offices: the former decreased

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

47

by one and the latter increased by 13 during the year. In addition, 10 representative offices of foreign banks were given approval to open during the year, making a total of 21 at the end of the year. Fifty-one of the licensed banks are officially authorised to deal in foreign exchange. Together with the unauthorised banks, they have branches and correspondents throughout the world and offer a comprehensive banking service of the highest order.

Monthly bank clearings during the year averaged $8,027 million. The tables at Appendix XIV illustrate the growth of the banking system over the past 14 years.

4

Industry and Trade

     THE high growth rates in production and exports achieved by commerce and industry in 1968 were maintained in 1969.

Hong Kong's economy is in great part keyed to export-oriented light industries operating within a free port, free enterprise environ- ment. The industries which have prospered are those whose products have been able to withstand international competition without subsidy or protection, and those which are geared to servicing the manufacture of such products. Preservation of a liberal import regime and reluctance to meet demands for protection of particular industries or to retaliate against other countries' restrictive actions are key elements in the Government's commercial policy. Hong Kong has therefore remained true to the traditions established when it was an entrepôt with no tariffs and few restrictions on import of commercial goods. Widespread skill in merchandising techniques together with highly developed banking, insurance and shipping systems inherited from the historical entrepôt era, blended with manufacturing techniques constantly developing in scope and scale in the post war period, have made this policy successful.

      The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of which Hong Kong is a member by virtue of the United Kingdom's status as a contracting party can be regarded as the cornerstone of Hong Kong's commercial policy. Developments in international com- mercial policy in and through the GATT are therefore of great importance to Hong Kong because of their possible impact on its external trading, which in turn has a direct effect on the shape and magnitude of domestic industry and on employment. The aspira- tions and activities of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) (of which Hong Kong is an associate member), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial

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SHIP

BUILDING

香港公

HONG

共圖書館

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"here have always been the closest of links between Hong Kong and the world of ships. Ship repairing and related services were among the very first activities of the infant Colony and despite inevitable ups and downs the industry has, in general, grown and prospered with the development of Hong Kong itself. Today, Hong Kong shipyards turn out craft of all types for buyers throughout the world. Hong Kong is also a major repair centre and has recently being carrying out increasing numbers of conversions of conven- tional ships into container carriers.

The picture on the preceding page shows the launching during the year of a newly-built tanker from the Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company's shipyard at Hung Hom.

This picture shows an innova- tion for Hong Kong's thriving fishing industry, a ferro-cement fishing trawler built at Taikoo Dockyard for a local fisherman with the aid of a government loan.

PAK TAK HONG KONG

TEOPO

   Hong Kong's skilled workmen are fast establishing a world- wide reputation in the delicate craft of building scale model ships. This model of a LASH (lighter aboard ship) was built in Hong Kong for a company which wished to demon- strate the new car- go handling system to prospective cus- tomers.

E

The unusual struc- ture seen taking shape in this picture is the special 'bulb- ous' bow for im- proved performance incorporated in the roll-on, roll-off ship Wanaka built at Taikoo during 1969.

1

A shipyard worker (left) super- vises the operation of an auto- matic plate-cutting machine. (below) This giant bronze pro- peller receives a final buffing up after a delicate repair job.

1

In the foreground is part of a special petroleum transfer buoy being built at Taikoo. The ship in the background is undergoing conversion for use as a container carrier. (oppo- site) This giant Hong Kong dry- dock is used to repair ships from all over the world. This vessel is from Indonesia.

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These plates will eventually form the bottom of a 10,000 ton barge which will be towed to Alaska and used to ferry crude oil to tankers anchored offshore. (opposite) A Norwe- gian ship slides back into the water after being slipped in Hong Kong for repairs.

HO

SLEMBE FREDRIKSTAD

*1*

7.

As befits a great port, Hong Kong provides not only the birth-place but also a last resting place for many ships. Pictured here is one of the busy shipbreaking yards at ap- propriately-named Junk Bay, where steel and other mate- rials are reclaimed from old ships and put to other uses.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

49

Development Organisation (UNIDO) and the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO) (of which Hong Kong is a full member in its own right) are also of interest in varying degree to Hong Kong. In March, Hong Kong also became a member of the Asian Develop- ment Bank.

       All these matters, in both their external and internal aspects, are the concern of the Economic Branch of the Colonial Secretariat in terms of higher policy and of the Commerce and Industry Department at the advisory and executive level. In recent years the traditional efforts of trade and industrial associations have been augmented by specialised sections of the department or by autonomous agencies, legislatively sanctioned, with defined objec- tives.

       The Director of Commerce and Industry takes advice on matters of policy affecting trade and industry, other than textiles, from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board which he chairs. This is a body of senior unofficial representatives of commerce, industry, banking, etc, nominated by the Governor, which meets once a month. A more specialised board, the Textiles Advisory Board, also chaired by the Director, is consulted on matters affecting the textiles industry. It was particularly busy during 1969, meeting on 23 occasions.

3

INDUSTRY

      In general, Hong Kong is best known for the competitive price and range of its light industrial products, now universally recognised to be of high quality. The majority of industrialists are Hong Kong residents, and the greater part of their capital resources self- generated. In recent years, however, overseas interests-in particular American and Japanese, but also British, Australian and Swiss- have increasingly entered into various forms of industrial co- operation with Hong Kong firms. The employment figures in Appendix III record very well both the narrow range but con- siderable variety of manufacturing industry, and where employment is concentrated.

Textiles and Clothing

      The textile and clothing industry dominates the manufacturing sector, accounting for 47 per cent of its domestic exports in terms

50

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     of value and employing 41 per cent of its manufacturing labour force. Within the industry, the manufacture of clothing now pre- dominates. Nevertheless the 803,700 spindles now in operation are among the most up-to-date in the world producing yarn counts ranging from 10's to 60's carded and combed, in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1969 amounted to 313 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weavers. In the weaving section, some 23,300 looms produce cotton drills, shirtings, poplins and ginghams, to be bleached or dyed or printed in the finishing sector. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1969 was approximately 763 million square yards. Much was exported as cloth, but much also used by garment manufacturers.

The use of fibres other than cotton and new processes in the finishing and garment industries have assumed growing significance. A total of 13 textile concerns are producing polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose yarn for weaving into shirting and other fabrics for which there is a rapid growth in demand. The demand for woollen knitwear has likewise continued to grow. Production in the woollen and worsted spinning sector goes mostly to the domestic knitting industry. The dyeing, printing and finishing sectors produce a wide range of multi-colour screen and roller prints, pre-shrunk and permanent-pressed fabrics and polymerized materials with drip-dry characteristics.

      The production of garments is the largest sector of the textile industry, employing 79,100 workers in some 1,570 factories. Gar- ments of great variety and of many materials ranging through cotton singlets, permanent press slacks and shirts to high fashion dresses are manufactured for export all over the world. Knitting mills produce a wide variety of items in cotton, wool and other fabrics. The value of clothing exports rose by 27 per cent to $3,828 million in 1969.

Other Light Industries

In the ever-widening range of light industry the most prominent, after textiles, is the manufacture of plastic articles which fall into four main groups-toys, dolls, flowers, household and miscel- laneous articles. Skill in the cutting of moulds and dies, together with the ability to meet short-notice orders, have resulted in in- creased production of a very wide variety of products, leading to

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

51

the export of plastic goods worth some $1,212 million during 1969, an increase of 17 per cent in the value of exports over that achieved in the previous year.

       There has in recent years been spectacular growth in the manu- facture of electronic components such as silicon transistors and diodes, condensers, transformers, capacitators, resistors, loud- speakers and printed circuit boards. Manufacture or assembly of complete radios began only in 1959, but since then exports have increased to reach a total of 21 million sets worth $472 million in 1969, principally to the United States and the United Kingdom.

       Manufacture of human hair wigs and pieces also increased dramatically during the last few years to meet a fashion demand in developed countries, the principal market being the United States. Exports during 1969 were valued at $647 million. During 1969, the trend towards use of synthetic hair previously noted increased markedly, a trend to be welcomed since the overheads of making human hair wigs for their principal market, the United States, has increased very considerably consequent upon a sudden change in 1966 of a definition in the Foreign Assets Control Regulations.

Heavy and Service Industries

       In recent years Hong Kong's heavy industry has been related on the one hand to port facilities and servicing, that is to say, ship and aircraft repair or modification, as well as construction of small and medium-sized vessels; and on the other to servicing the construc- tion industry, that is to say, production of reinforcing bars, made either from imported ingots or scrap steel derived from ship- breaking or industrial detritus, manufacture of aluminium extrusion products, etc. Ship and aircraft repair facilities were fully employed during 1969.

After three years of difficulties associated with competition from Chinese steel for a diminishing domestic market and a declining external market, the steel rolling industry was in a substantially better condition during 1969 and hopefully anticipating a new domestic construction boom.

The expansion of light industry has in the past stimulated manu- facture of small and medium machine tools and replacement parts for imported machinery. Of particular importance are plastic blow

52

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

moulding and injection moulding machines, power presses, lathes and planing machines. There are some indications of expansion in the small machine tool industry based partly on improved internal demand but also on external orders, both related to recognition of the good value offered by goods produced in Hong Kong.

Industrial Land

      Adequate provision of industrial land in a territory where there are many competing claims for any available land continues to be of great importance to industry. Nearly all industrial sites in the satellite town of Kwun Tong, created largely from the sea, have now been developed. The industrial suburb of San Po Kong, situated on land freed by relocation of the airport runway, is now also fully developed. So is the more distant and longer established township of Tsuen Wan. Its neighbour, Kwai Chung, has however a less developed appearance although much of the land zoned for industry is in fact already taken up.

A resurgence of interest by industrialists in the purchase of land during the latter half of 1968 led to the resumption of programmed sales of Crown land in the urban area. Since July 1969 some 100,000 square feet of land have been auctioned each month. However, the strong demand for land in the most favoured urban locations has led to very high prices being paid. By contrast industrialists have been slow to develop sites in the New Territories, particularly in locations such as Kwai Chung.

Shortage of acceptable industrial land has been parallelled by a shortage of space in flatted factories. There are, however, en- couraging signs that this shortage should be considerably relieved by new buildings due for completion towards the end of 1970.

EXTERNAL TRADE

External trade in 1969 advanced to a record level due to remark- able rises in domestic exports and imports of 25 per cent and 19 per cent respectively. Summary trade statistics, including a breakdown by countries and commodities and comparisons with previous years, are contained in Appendices XV to XXI.

Imports were valued at $14,893 million. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, most of

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

53

Hong Kong's foodstuffs have to be imported, and food was the principal import, valued at $2,804 million, representing 19 per cent of all imports. The chief items of edible imports were rice and other cereal, fruit and vegetables, live animals, fish and fish preparations, meat and meat preparations, and dairy products and eggs. Raw materials and semi-manufactured goods for industry included textile yarn and fabrics, raw cotton, base metals and plastic mould- ing materials. Capital goods imported included machinery and transport equipment, while mineral fuels were also imported in large quantities.

      The sources of imports are determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade relationships. Japan once again surpassed China as principal supplier in 1969, providing 23 per cent of all imports. Of imports from Japan, 34 per cent was textile yarn and fabrics; the rest consisted of electrical apparatus and appliances, photographic goods, watches, plastic materials and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from China, the second largest supplier, accounted for 18 per cent of imports from all sources, and 48 per cent of all food imports. Other items im- ported from China included crude animal and vegetable materials, textile, fabrics, paper, china ware, clothing and base metal. Imports from the United States registered an increase of $275 million or 16 per cent. The principal imports from this source were raw cotton, tobacco, machinery, fruit, plastic materials and medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

      The value of domestic exports reached $10,518 million, an in- crease of 25 per cent over the previous year. Products of the textile and garment manufacturing industries accounted for 47 per cent by value, and miscellaneous manufactured articles, mainly plastic goods, toys and dolls, and wigs, made up a further 24 per cent. Other light industrial products such as transistorized radios and electronic components, footwear, and manufactures of metals were also important exports.

      The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is influenced nowadays less by such factors as tariff preference in Britain and several smaller Commonwealth markets, than by economic conditions and com- mercial policies in principal markets. During the year 56 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to two markets-the United

54

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

States and Britain. The United States, remaining the largest market, took 42 per cent by value and increased her purchases by $942 million or 27 per cent. The value of all goods sent to Britain was $1,465 million, 14 per cent of all domestic exports. The Federal Republic of Germany, Hong Kong's third largest market, purchased Hong Kong manufactures worth $765 million during the year. Other growing markets of importance included Canada, Japan, Australia and Singapore but domestic exports go to practically every country in the world.

       The entrepôt trade has sustained its role in external trade. The value of re-exports in 1969 totalled $2,679 million, an increase of 25 per cent over 1968. This was 20 per cent of the total combined value of exports of Hong Kong manufactures and re-exports of imported goods. During 1969 Japan remained the most important re-export market, followed by Singapore, Indonesia, the United States, Taiwan, and the Republic of Vietnam. The principal com- modities in the re-export trade were textile fabrics, diamonds, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, and crude animal vegetable materials. Re-exports of goods originating in China amounted to 27 per cent of all re-exports.

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

      As the United Kingdom has acceded to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on behalf of Hong Kong, the Colony's exports attract most-favoured-nation tariff treatment in the majority of its overseas markets and are thus accorded a degree of protection against discriminatory import restrictions by members of GATT. Nevertheless difficulties do occur from time to time, and the Com- merce and Industry Department is responsible for such action as is necessary and practicable at official level to resolve them. During the year, Hong Kong made representations, outside the field of cotton textiles which are covered by their own particular arrange- ments, to the governments of Algeria, Greece, France and the Republic of Ireland.

       Hong Kong continued to follow closely developments in the European Economic Community, particularly in regard to the formulation of a common commercial policy. As the community provides a market already worth over $700 million a year, Hong

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

55

      Kong is particularly concerned that the process of creating the Common Market should not result in limitations on the com- munity's external trade.

        The GATT Cotton Textile Committee held its seventh annual review in October 1969 in Geneva of the operation of the Arrange- ment regarding International Trade in Cotton Textiles (CTA). A Hong Kong delegation was in attendance throughout the session. The meeting was adjourned to December 1969, when after some further discussion it was again adjourned to early in 1970 in order to allow for further consideration on the future of the CTA. The latter is due to come to an end in September 1970.

       The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) through its Special Committee on Preferences continued to discuss in detail the formulation and implementation of a general scheme to grant preferential entry to exports from developing countries to the markets of developed countries. Although all developed countries had agreed in principle to such a scheme and had tabled 'illustrative' offers in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, they have yet to agree to a sub- stantive offer to be presented to the UNCTAD Special Committee on Preferences. Hong Kong followed developments in the two forums and was in close liaison with representatives of the British Government to ensure that the Colony's interests were safeguarded.

       Canada The three-year Hong Kong/Canada agreement on cotton woven fabrics, together with the one-year agreement on cotton woven apparel and towels, expired on September 30. Following consultations in Hong Kong with Canadian officials in August and September, these agreements were renewed for a further year. Under the new arrangements on cotton woven fabrics, the overall yardage was slightly increased and the specific limits on all particular fabrics, except for cotton towelling, were removed. The arrangements cover- ing exports of cotton woven apparel and towels also provided for increased limits and improved flexibility. At the same time the existing sub-limits within the apparel categories were removed.

Hong Kong also extended for a further year its unilateral under- taking to restrain exports to Canada of polyester and polyester- cotton blend shirts, blouses and trousers, and the restraint was

56

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

extended to include shirts made from woven fabrics of polyester/ polynosic blends.

      United States of America. Exports of cotton textiles to the United States continued to be restrained under the five-year United States/Hong Kong Bilateral Agreement. The restraint limit for the fourth year of the agreement, which ended on September 30, 1969, was 389.87 million square yards; for the fifth year this figure was increased to 409.36 million square yards.

The US Secretary of Commerce, Mr Maurice Stans, visited Hong Kong in May to explain US concern over rising imports of textiles of non-cotton fibres and to seek Hong Kong's agreement to attend a special meeting the US proposed to hold within the GATT to discuss the problem. Hong Kong expressed its willingness to consult with any of its trading partners in any specific sector where there was a demonstrable case of market disruption caused by imports from Hong Kong, but could see no justification, from the information presented by Mr Stans, for any action by Hong Kong along the lines proposed by him. Hong Kong took note of the situation as explained by Mr Stans and assured him that it would be prepared to renew discussion at any time on the request of the United States Government. In October a further approach was made to Hong Kong and some discussion took place subsequently in Geneva.

The Benelux Countries. Hong Kong's exports of cotton textiles to the Benelux countries are restricted under a comprehensive bilateral agreement concluded in June 1968, whereby Hong Kong agreed to restrain exports of all cotton textiles (except yarns) to a limit of 3,153 metric tons for the period July 1, 1968 to December 31, 1969. As a result of the growing needs in the Benelux countries of the re-export trade in unbleached cotton textiles, it was agreed in July this year that Hong Kong would issue export licences outside the ambit of the bilateral agreement for additional quantities of unbleached grey fabrics destined for further processing and consumption outside the EEC and its associated territories.

       Norway. This year saw the continuation of the export restraint agreement with Norway on Hong Kong's exports of five categories of cotton garments. In September, Hong Kong undertook

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

57

unilaterally to limit exports to Norway of women's and girls' acrylic and woollen knitwear and men's and boys' woollen knitwear for one year from October 1.

       Sweden. Consultations with representatives of the Swedish Government on Hong Kong's exports of cotton and non-cotton textiles took place on three occasions in February, April and June. These negotiations resulted in an agreement whereby Hong Kong undertook to restrain exports of 12 categories of cotton garments to 7.21 million pieces and cotton towels to 292 metric tons for the period May 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970. At the same time, Hong Kong also undertook unilaterally to limit exports to Sweden of six categories of non-cotton garments to 3.38 million pieces for 12 months commencing July 1, 1969.

       United Kingdom. Outside the ambit of the Cotton Textiles Arrangement, Hong Kong's export to Britain of cotton yarn, cotton woven piecegoods, garments and made-up articles are limited under a five-year agreement reached in 1966. This agreement provided for the export, in 1969, of 6.49 million pounds of cotton yarn and the equivalent of 193.04 million square yards in the piecegoods, garments and made-up groups combined.

       Based on the recommendations of the Textile Council, the British Government announced in July its decision to impose a tariff on imports of cotton textiles into the United Kingdom from Commonwealth countries and to remove quotas as from January 1, 1972. A special committee of the Textiles Advisory Board has been established to study the likely effects for Hong Kong.

Federal Republic of Germany. The year saw the continuation of the export restraint agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany on Hong Kong's exports of cotton woven textile products. The 1969 aggregate limit is 67.65 million square yards. Exports of woollen knitted outerwear, previously under restraint, were liberalised in June.

Australia. Following consultations with the Australian Govern- ment in June 1969, Hong Kong agreed to restrain exports to Australia of cotton drills, other than grey, weighing between six and 15 ounces per square yard, to 950,000 square yards during the period July 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970.

58

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      Republic of Korea. In response to an invitation extended by the Vice Minister of Commerce and Industry of the Republic of Korea, the Director of Commerce and Industry, accompanied by two senior officers of the department, visited the Republic in February. Discussions were held with Korean officials, commerce and trade organisations on topics of mutual interest and visits were made to a number of industrial areas.

DOCUMENTATION OF EXPORTS

Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations. The most complex formalities are those resulting from Hong Kong's obligations to restrain certain exports of textile products.

With Hong Kong's heavy dependence upon the export of manufactured goods, most of them made from imported materials, and the concurrent existence of a substantial re-export trade, the establishment of origin to the satisfaction of overseas customs authorities is vitally important. The Commerce and Industry Department issues certificates of origin and liaises with both overseas authorities and the four authorised non-Government certificate issuing bodies-the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association -to this end. The value of exports covered by standard certificates of origin during the year was $5,346.0 million. Of these $2,468.5 million were covered by the department's certificates.

Britain and a number of other Commonwealth countries grant preferential rates of duty to Hong Kong products. In order to support claims to preference, the department issues Commonwealth preference certificates against legal undertakings given by manu- facturers to use only Commonwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements prepared by accountants authorised for the purpose. The value of goods exported under these certificates during the year was $1,475.6 million.

United States law prohibits the importation of certain classes of goods presumed to originate in the People's Republic of China, North Korea or North Vietnam. As Hong Kong manufacturers

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

59

produce many goods in these categories the department issues, under procedures agreed with the United States authorities, what are known as comprehensive certificates of origin to cover exports of those goods to the USA and its dependencies. Goods exported under these certificates in 1969 were valued at $1,339.9 million.

       Altogether 77.6 per cent of Hong Kong's exports were covered by various types of certificates of origin during the year; 50.2 per cent of them by the department's certificates.

ADMINISTRATION

The Commerce and Industry Department's responsibilities include overseas commercial relations, industrial development, origin certification, trade controls, and the collection and protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. Its work is complemented by several autonomous institutions either wholly or partly financed by official funds, whose functions and activities are outlined in subsequent sections.

There are two Commercial Relations Divisions within the department, which collect and disseminate information on trade policy measures by other countries which may affect Hong Kong, and keep in touch with the activities of international organisations. The divisions are also responsible for preparing for Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other governments and for implementing the agreements reached. This involves calculation and allocation of quotas and the operation of export control procedures.

The department's four overseas offices, in London, Washington, Brussels and Geneva, are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work and provide up-to-date information on international matters which are likely to affect Hong Kong.

The Industry and Certification Division provides a liaison between industry and other government departments, answers industrial enquiries from overseas and deals with specific industrial problems. It also operates certificate of origin and Commonwealth preference procedures. An industry inspection service enforces these procedures through the regular inspection of factories and goods and the prosecution of those suspected of contravening the regulations.

60

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The Preventive Service, a uniformed and disciplined organisation, whose role in the protection of revenue from dutiable commodities and the control of narcotics traffic is described in Chapter 10, is under the command of an Assistant Commissioner. The service has an establishment of 11 gazetted officers, 291 inspectors and 668 rank and file.

The General Duties Branch deals with trade licensing (other than for textiles) and the control of certain reserved commodities including rice. Trade complaints are also handled by this branch.

Trade Development Council

The Trade Development Council was established by statute in 1966: the council consists of a chairman, appointed by the Governor, the chairmen and representatives of the principal commercial and industrial organisations, two senior government officials, and four members nominated by the Governor. The council has a permanent executive under an executive director and is financed by subvention from the Government's general revenue. The head office is in the Ocean Terminal, Kowloon, where it maintains a permanent display of Hong Kong products. The council also maintains offices overseas, in London, New York, Brussels, Stockholm, Sydney and Nairobi.

At the beginning of 1969, a re-appraisal was conducted of the council's representation in Europe. This survey re-examined existing policy and recommended a wider council representation abroad. As a result, new offices will shortly be established in Frankfurt, Rotterdam (or Amsterdam), Vienna and Milan. The European offices will come under the direction of a newly appointed Regional Representative for Britain and Europe.

In general, the year was the busiest experienced so far by the council, with numerous promotional activities taking place especially in Western Europe and North America.

      A departure from the normal trade fair participation was the council's mounting in Bangkok of an exhibition of building materials available from Hong Kong. This was the first time the council had organised a solo exhibition of this type.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

61

      In general, the overall emphasis of the council's promotional activities remained in Europe, directed in particular towards trade with the Federal Republic of Germany.

       At the council's London office, many specialised promotions were held which attracted buyers not only from Britain, but also Europe. A highlight of the year was a fashion promotion which was held in a leading London hotel and later at the Trade Development Council's London Display Centre.

Market surveys were conducted in the expanding Japanese market; and also in Malaysia.

       'Hong Kong Enterprise', the council's monthly magazine, in- creased its circulation and continued to prove an excellent medium for both suppliers and overseas businessmen.

A second version of 'Investment Hong Kong' was published in conjunction with the Industrial Development Branch of the Department of Commerce and Industry and a new quality magazine, 'Apparel '69', was produced to promote the Hong Kong garment industry. This was followed by a later edition, 'Apparel '70', to coincide with the 1970 buying season. Similarly, another new magazine, aimed at promoting the sale of toys, was also produced.

During the year the council's Design Department gave assistance to Government with the interior design of Hong Kong's pavilion for Expo '70 in Osaka.

Export Credit Insurance Corporation

      The Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation which provides protection against those risks in overseas trading which are not normally insurable commercially, entered its third year of operation. Nearly 500 Hong Kong exporters are now making use of the corporation's facilities, representing an annual estimated insurable export turnover of well over $1,000 million and a maximum liability for the corporation of over $500 million. On February 5, 1969, the liability which the corporation is empowered to assume was increased to $750 million by resolution of the Legislative Council.

62

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

With high interest rates and restrictions on domestic borrowing persisting in both Europe and USA, Hong Kong's most important markets, it is not surprising that buyers in these markets are looking increasingly to their Hong Kong suppliers for assistance with the extension of credit.

      The average premium charged by the corporation on all policies works out at under 50 cents per $100 of invoice value, i.e. less than one half of one per cent. More and more traders are realising that this small sacrifice of profit is a worthwhile investment to protect the accounts receivable which are a vital component of the assets side of any exporter's balance sheet.

The value of credit insurance is well illustrated by the fact that the corporation has paid claims since its inception involving buyers in 16 different countries including countries as far apart and different in their economies as Zanzibar and Sweden, Japan and the Dominican Republic.

      In June the corporation was admitted to membership of the Berne Union, an international association of credit insurance organisations covering 18 different countries.

Hong Kong Productivity Council

      The rapid industrialisation which has taken place in Hong Kong during the past 20 years has brought with it an increasing need to improve the utilisation of all industrial resources, particularly that of manpower. Following intensive study by industry and Government, the Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in January 1967. The council comprises the Director of Commerce and Industry as chairman and 20 members, all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 members represent management, labour, academic and professional interests. The other 10 members represent government departments closely associated with produc- tivity matters.

The council's terms of reference are wide ranging and are aimed at promoting by all means possible increased productivity of industry in Hong Kong. To achieve this, the council works in close co-operation with other organisations active in this field, in particular with the Hong Kong Management Association, the

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

63

Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, the two Universities and the Hong Kong Technical College.

       The executive instrument of the council is the Hong Kong Productivity Centre which was formally established on April 1, 1967. The centre co-ordinates the activities of persons and organisations engaged in the study and development of productivity techniques in industry; collects and disseminates information relating to productivity and provides training in productivity techniques. Over 20 professional and administrative officers had been appointed to the staff of the centre by the end of 1969 and recruitment continues.

The centre's activities are grouped under four main divisions, namely Manpower Development, Operations (which includes consultancy services for industry), Research and Administration. Its premises are in Gloucester Building in the heart of the business district of the island and comprise administrative and consultancy offices, lecture rooms, a technical reference library, a methods laboratory, a small workshop and an audio-visual studio.

       The centre's courses, conducted both in Chinese and in English, are designed for participants at various levels of management structure. Films and other audio-visual aids are extensively used to illustrate productivity principles and techniques. Two mobile audio-visual teams assist in in-plant training programmes, which concentrate mainly on production management techniques. Most of the courses are conducted by the centre's own instructors, whose qualifications include high academic and professional attainments and many years of practical experience in industry.

       The Government has been for some years a member of the Asian Productivity Organisation. The present Deputy Chairman of the Productivity Council has been appointed by the Governor as Hong Kong's director on its Governing Body and the Executive Director of the Productivity Centre is Alternate Director.

       Hong Kong was represented at the 9th Workshop Meeting of directors of National Productivity Centres of the APO (at New Delhi in January 1969) and at the 10th Governing Body Meeting (in Manila in May 1969) at which meeting Hong Kong's

64

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

director, Dr the Honourable S. Y. Chung, OBE, JP, was elected chairman of the organisation.

Trade and Industrial Organisations

       The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the oldest trade association in the Colony, now has a membership of over 1,700, representing all branches of commerce and industry. The chamber is represented on a number of government boards and committees. It is an organising member of the British National Committee of the International Chambers of Commerce and the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce. Other chambers and trade associations include the Indian Chamber of Commerce and the Hong Kong Exporters' Association.

      The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by ordinance in 1960, promotes the interests of Hong Kong industry as a whole, and its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. The federation actively promotes the standards of locally manufactured goods, and currently provides testing and certification services for textile and electrical products. To encourage the development of better industrial design in Hong Kong, the Industrial Design Council of the Federation has instituted two awards for Hong Kong designed products, viz: the Governor's Award for Hong Kong Design and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries Award for Good Design.

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 2,000 factories. Member firms represent factories of all sizes and industries. The association has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong. Its best known annual activity is an exhibition at which a number of its members take part and which attracts an attendance of 2,600,000 persons.

TRADE MARKS AND PATENTS

Trade Marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Every

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

65

mark, even if already registered in the United Kingdom or any other country, must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 2,756 applications were received and 1,627 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,560 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

Hong Kong

...

474

United States of America 367

Japan

United Kingdom

West Germany

Switzerland Australia

...

244

Italy

192

France

64

The Netherlands

:

55

29

24

21

14

The total number of marks on the register at December 31, 1969 was 23,628.

      Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong. A total of 474 patents were registered during the year, compared with 376 in 1968.

COMPANIES

      The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies in- corporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. However, the Companies Law Revision Committee, which was reconstituted in 1968, is actively considering the relevant legislation with a view to recommending revision thereof.

      On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1969, 2,546 new com- panies were incorporated, 871 more than the total incorporated in 1968. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1969 totalled $1,150,588,800, 113 per cent more than the corresponding

66

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 19 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. At the end of the year there were 15,167 local companies on the register compared with 12,929 on December 31, 1968.

Companies incorporated outside Hong Kong are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in the Colony. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 52 such companies were registered and 20 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 639 companies registered from 42 countries, including 168 from the United States, 92 from the United Kingdom and 62 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local companies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance, respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Act 1958 (as amended by the Companies Act 1967) in Great Britain, or in the case of fire and marine insurance-by maintaining adequate deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. There are altogether 203 insurance companies, including 51 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partner- ships and money-lenders.

BANKRUPTCIES AND LIQUIDATIONS

       In Hong Kong the number of business failures in which recourse is had to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always comparatively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. Nevertheless, during the year 13 petitions in

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

67

bankruptcy and 21 petitions for the winding up of companies were presented to the court, and the court made 13 receiving orders, and 16 orders for the winding up of companies. For many years past the Official Receiver has become trustee or liquidator in almost every case, and this was so again in 1969, during which the assets realised by the Official Receiver amounted to ap- proximately $16,379,000. In addition to the foregoing compulsory windings up, 129 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year, 126 by members' voluntary winding up and three by creditors' voluntary winding up.

LO

5

Primary Production

HONG KONG'S remarkable industrial expansion, extensive and vigorous though it has been, has by no means extinguished the farming and fishing industries. Indeed, the continuing vitality of the farmers and fishermen is well demonstrated by the way in which they have adapted their operations to meet changing con- ditions.

       The inflow of immigrants from China in the nineteen-fifties had a profound effect upon the countryside as well as the town. The growing urban demand for farm produce provided the incentive for those immigrants who wished to continue a farming life. There was, therefore, a steady reduction in the number of people growing rice on their own land and an increase in the number of immigrants renting land for intensive vegetable production or poultry farming. But at the same time rice farmers have tended to diversify produc- tion by planting vegetables after the harvesting of the second rice crop. These trends, and comparable improvements in the fishing industry, are in line with the Government policy of stimulating the production of food where this is clearly the best use to which land or sea can be put.

LAND UTILISATION

Of the 398 square miles in the Colony, only 13 per cent is being used for farmings; 77 per cent of the total area is marginal land, in different degrees of subgrade character and the built-up areas comprise the remaining 10 per cent. Although housing and industry in recent years have developed vertically the need to establish new towns on plans that provide for adequate open space, wider roads and public facilities of all kinds, inevitably means encroachment upon agricultural land. The losses, however, are partially offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

69

Approximate

Class

area

(square miles)

Percentage of whole

Remarks

(i) Built-up (Urban Areas)

40

10.0

Includes

roads and

railways.

(ii) Woodlands

53.8

13.5

Natural and established woodlands.

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

233.2

58.5

Natural grass and scrub.

(iv) Badlands

14.1

3.5

Stripped of cover. Granite country. Capable of re- generation.

(v) Swamp and mangrove

lands

5

1.3

Capable of reclamation.

(vi) Arable...

49.2

12.4

Includes

orchards

and

market gardens.

(vii) Fish ponds

3.2

0.8

Fresh and brackish water fish farming.

POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilisation and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with all matters concerning the economic, social and technological development of Hong Kong fisheries, especially those aspects which directly involve the fishermen, and the administrative organisation of co-operative societies of all types. The conservation of water and soil, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is also an important aspect of the department's work. Afforestation is largely undertaken by the department and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land develop- ment in the New Territories.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND DEVELOPMENT

      For the purpose of agricultural extension, the Colony is divided into three districts and sub-divided into 30 areas. Each district is administered by a District Extension Staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with farming, livestock and co-operative problems. Close contact with the farming community is maintained through the stationing of one farm adviser in each area, and by liaison with local co-operative societies and rural associations. Both technical and credit facilities are available through the Extension Service.

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

       Loans are available to farmers through four separate loan funds: the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organisation Loan Fund, which are all administered through the department. As at December 31, 1969, the total loans issued and recovered since inception of the four funds were in the order of $46,219,906.43 and $42,979,112.16 respectively.

      In the rural education programme this year, over 489 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out in which 201 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. Over 124,815 visits were made to farmers by both professional and technical officers and farmers also visited govern- ment experimental farms and farming projects.

      With the rising labour cost, farmers have increasing interest in the use of small farm machines and sprinkler irrigation. At the end of 1969, 56 'Landmaster' cultivators were in use on fields and 30 sprinkler units were established on vegetable farms.

PRINCIPAL CROPS

      The principal crops grown in Hong Kong are vegetables, rice, flowers, fruit and some other field crops. The value of crop produc- tion has grown from $75.8 million in 1964-5 to $127 million in 1968-9, an increase of some 67 per cent. Vegetables production presently accounts for over 78 per cent of the total value, having increased from $54 million in 1964-5 to $99 million in 1968-9.

      Rice is the staple food of the southern Chinese. Two crops of rice can be grown in a year on land where irrigation water is adequate. The normal yield from an acre of two-crop land is approximately two tons, but the yield per acre can be increased to over five tons by planting high yielding strains of rice selected from varieties IR8 and Nonsensitive BPI (Bicol) with improved management and proper manuring. Since 1954 the acreage of rice land has dropped from 23,353 acres to 14,500 acres in 1969. Rice production is giving way to very intensive vegetable production which gives a high return.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

71

       The main vegetable crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish and leaf mustard which grow all the year round. Considerable quantities of string bean, water spinach, cucumber, and many species of Chinese gourd are produced in summer and excellent quality tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, celery and watercress in winter. The main types of flowers are chrysanthemum and gladiolus which grow all the year round; dahlia, snapdragon, aster, carnation and rose are grown in winter, and ginger lily and lotus flower, in summer. Peach blossom is grown especially for the Chinese New Year. The area of land under vegetables and flowers has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 9,410 acres in 1969.

A wide range of fruit is grown on the lower hill slopes. The principal crops are lychee, longan, wampei, local lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, banana and pineapple. The acreage under orchard in 1954 was 952 acres. By 1969, the area so used had increased to 1,560 acres.

       Other field crops such as, sweet potatoes, groundnut, millet, soy bean and sugar-cane are cultivated in drier land where improve- ment of irrigation for planting rice and vegetables does not pay. The acreage under the rainfed crops was 2,500 acres in 1969 com- pared to 3,450 acres in 1954.

VEGETABLE MARKETING ORGANISATION

The Vegetable Marketing Organisation operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance 1952, which provides for a board to advise the Director of Marketing (currently the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries). The main objective of the organisation is to provide for orderly marketing of local crop produce by the collection and transportation of vegetables from the New Territories to the wholesale market in Kowloon, and the supervision of sales and financial transaction in the market. The organisation is a non-profit making concern and seeks to obtain maximum returns for the growers by minimising their marketing costs.

       The organisation currently obtains its revenue from a 10 per cent commission on sales of vegetables. New regulations were

72

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

passed into law this year to enable the Director of Marketing to charge commission either on the weight of vegetables or as a per- centage of the purchase price.

During the year, 1,511,476 piculs of vegetables, valued at $52,814,446 were sold through the organisation. This amounted to an overall average of 4,163 piculs of vegetables handled daily by the organisation.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

       Since there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared in the Colony for food. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common.

       To enable the farmer to utilise the prolific characteristic of the local breed with the greater food conversion ratio to meat of the exotic breeds, the Agriculture and Fisheries Department provides artificial insemination services, besides supplying breeding stock.

      While locally produced pigs represent only 13 per cent of total pigs killed, the value of local pig production is some $30 million per annum, and proposals further to stimulate and expand produc- tion in this field will be implemented shortly.

      The poultry industry which is worth some $81 million production value per annum is developing rapidly with units increasing in size and intensity. Farmers are adopting advanced methods of management adapted to local conditions with success, taking the process through from locally bred chicks to table birds, using both local breeds and imported hybrids. Duck rearing and pigeon breeding also represent an important part of the poultry industry.

      While local cattle and buffaloes are kept mainly for work, imported Friesians are kept by dairies, the main one in isolation on Hong Kong Island and others in smaller groups outside Kowloon and in the New Territories. Regular tuberculin testing is carried out on all dairy animals.

      While sporadic outbreaks of a mild type of foot-and-mouth disease (type O) and swine fever still occur, these have been kept

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F

ong Kong's New Territories, though growing richer

by the year, cling strongly to the ancient traditions of rural China. Fortunately, this has been less and less true in the field of agricultural practice- as illustrated by a growth rate in agricultural production last financial year of 22 per cent. The persistence of old ways of life, combined with increasing modernization and the impact of active government administration has resulted in a unique society where the new and the old interact smoothly and with apparent success. Much, of course, remains to be done in rationalizing old forms of tenure and in modernizing. None the less, Hong Kong's experience already compares favourably with that of other countries in the region. Farming takes up about 12 per cent of Hong Kong's land area, virtually all of it in the New Territories. Production in 1968-9 was valued at nearly $300-million and productivity levels are improving.

The title page picture (previous page) shows a traditional scene in the rice fields of Hong Kong. The following pages show something of the successful transition to more modern methods which is now taking place.

This striking panorama (facing page) provides a classical example of the placid beauty that abounds in rural Hong Kong.

This farmer is harvesting rice, a form of land use now being increasingly displaced by inten- sive market gardening.

A farmer's wife visits one of the bustling market towns which dot the New Territories.

• The pictures on these two pages point up the changes now occurring. An age-old technique of watering crops is contrasted with modern machine cultivation.

F

The top picture shows Hakka women in traditional dress, while in the background is an example of modern terracing, scientifically designed to take greatest advantage of the Hong Kong terrain. (Below) a modern office block rises over a traditional market place.

PC

With

With approximately four million people in 400 square miles, Hong Kong is far from being able to support itself agriculturally. However, Hong Kong's farmers produce, for example, almost 50 per cent of the Colony's fresh vegetable requirements and more than a third of the fresh poultry. (Production of vegetables has quadrupled and that of poultry increased seven-fold since 1956). Farming covers about 12 per cent of the land area and involves between four and five per cent of the work force, a comparable ratio to that existing in Britain. Life in the New Territories is not, of course, all agriculture. Both local residents and visitors are taking advantage of the increasing leisure of modern life to visit the New Territories' fascinating scenic spots, temples and beaches in ever-growing numbers. Many parts of the New Territories, too, are becoming increasingly important centres of industry. It is farming, however, which is still most charac- teristic of this unique district and various aspects of it are illustrated in these pages.

The District Officer, Yuen Long, Mr J. W. Sweetman, (opposite) chats with children as he does his rounds of a New Territories village.

PU

Modern irrigation systems such as the one shown here contribute to the continually rising productivity of the vege- table growing industry.

A government technician pre- pares a soil sample for testing at an Agriculture and Fisher- ies Department experimental farm at Tai Lung. The farm is one link in a constant chain of endeavours to improve the quality of local agriculture.

Hong Kong's poultry industry is highly successful. These handsome birds indicate one of the reasons.

*

י

I

ייננוגן

Here young chicks are raised under closely controlled con- ditions.

The greatest asset of any com- munity, citizens of tomorrow make their way to a New Territories school.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

73

under control by vaccination. Newcastle disease in poultry has been controlled by the use of the Ranikhet and intra-nasal-drop vaccines. Rinderpest vaccine continues to be given to cattle. Investigations to establish the incidence of intercurrent diseases in both pigs and poultry are being undertaken at the Veterinary Laboratory.

       Legislation requires all imported dogs and cats to be quarantined for six months except those from scheduled countries (UK, Australia and New Zealand) to prevent the introduction of rabies in the Colony. Stray dogs are caught and detained for observation and, if unclaimed, destroyed in pursuance of the rabies control policy.

FORESTRY

The Government's Forestry policy is mainly concerned with the protection and improvement of the vegetation for soil and water conservation purposes and with preservation of the natural amenities.

       The area of Crown plantations totals 13,134 acres located largely within the Shing Mun, Tai Lam, Kowloon, Tai Po Kau and Shek Pik water catchment areas. During 1968-9 the plantations were extended by 346 acres. In addition, 137 acres of replanting was done in areas affected by fire in previous years and 18 acres of hardwood conversion underplanting was carried out within pine plantations.

       During the dry winter months from mid-September through to May hill fires present a very serious threat to the plantations. The 1968-9 dry season was comparatively mild. Forestry fire crews were called out to 216 fires but most of these were small grass fires. Damage to plantations was restricted to approximately 50 acres compared with 335 acres in 1967-8.

FISHERIES

Marine fish are one of Hong Kong's main primary products, and in 1968-9 total landings amounted to 1,182,038 piculs (71,488 metric tons) valued at $88,566,420. The Government's aim is to foster the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of the fishermen.

74

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

      The fishing fleet consists of some 6,200 fishing vessels of which more than 5,000 are mechanised. The number of fishermen was estimated at 50,000 and the main fishing centres are Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, Castle Peak, Tai Po and Sai Kung. Most of the fleet are owner-operated while the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

      A major breakthrough in local fisheries development was achieved in 1965 with the successful introduction of a prototype 66-foot wooden stern otter trawler designed by the Fisheries Branch. Other modern designs include the 86-foot wooden pair trawler and long-liner, and the 54-foot long-liner. Over 20 of these have been built with financial and technical assistance from the department, and over 80 with private funds. A 54-foot ferro-cement long-liner, the first in Hong Kong, was built during the year, financed by a loan from the Fish Marketing Organisation Loan Fund.

      Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through the extension service and by liaison with fishermen's co-operative societies. A large number of these co-operative societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which continue to grow in size and effectiveness. The position of registered fishermen's co- operative societies as at December 31, 1969 is shown in Appendix XXIV. Extension work also includes the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as local masters and engine operators, and the instruction of local fishermen in navigation.

      The Fisheries Development Loan Fund, administered by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, is allotted specifically for the development of the distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organisation, which administers two other funds and investigates applications for loans from all three. Together they provide capital of more than $8 million for the development of the industry.

The Fisheries Research Division at Aberdeen is concerned with biological and hydrographical research in the South China Sea. Biological research deals with the population study of Saurida and Psenopsis, the taxonomic analysis of the commercial marine fauna, the culture of commercial aquatic organisms, and the exploration

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

75

      of new fishing grounds. A handbook on Hong Kong cephalopods has been completed, and the second part of the Marine Fishes of Hong Kong is under preparation. The Division's research trawler Cape St Mary has discovered the Macclesfield Bank to be rich in demersal fish resources. Hydrographical research continues to study the fluctuations in the marine environment in which commercial organisms occur. This work also constitutes the United Kingdom contribution to the Co-operative Study of the Kuroshio organised by the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission. The Division has two sub-stations: one at Kat O where investiga- tions are concerned with mariculture research with oysters, mussels and fishes; and one at Au Tau which has been responsible for the breeding of carp species for stocking the Plover Cove Reservoir during the year.

      Fish ponds totalling 2,200 acres are located mostly at Yuen Long along the coast of Deep Bay. The most important species is the grey mullet, the fry of which are collected along the coastal waters in spring. Other important species for cultivation include the silver carp, grass carp, big-head and mud carp; a total of 3,800,000 fry of these species have been imported from China during the year. The total pond fish production has amounted to 1,806.89 metric tons representing 6.4 per cent of the local freshwater fish consumption; this quantity is valued at $9.5 million.

       Edible oysters are cultivated at Deep Bay. Production amounted to some 212 metric tons of oyster meat, valued at approximately $2.1 million. Some of this quantity has been dried for export.

FISH MARKETING ORGANISATION

      The present Fish Marketing Organisation, a non-government trading organisation controlled by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War, with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. It is a non- profit-making concern, and operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance 1956.

      The organisation runs six wholesale fish markets at Aberdeen, Shau Kei Wan, Cheung Sha Wan, Tai Po, Sha Tau Kok and Castle

76

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Peak. Another new market at Sai Kung is under construction, and is expected to open in about March 1970. Four fish-collecting depots have been set up in other fishing centres to provide sea and land transport to the wholesale markets. The depots also serve as liaison offices for the organisation.

The provision of cheap credit to fishermen is one of the most important services offered by the organisation. Its revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made loans totalling $30,102,511.45 Of this, some $26,683,000 had been repaid at the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was stabilised at $3.5 million in 1968. The organi- sation also administers a revolving loan fund of $100,000 financed by the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, specifically for shrimp fishermen.

      A further important side to the organisation's development pro- gramme is the provision of schooling facilities for the children of fishermen. Fourteen schools have been established and approxi- mately 3,800 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools, with a further 493 attending other schools on scholarships provided by the organisation.

      The organisation may one day be run by the fishermen themselves as a co-operative enterprise, but the previous lack of education is a problem that only time and the existing educational programme can solve. As it is, the success of the organisation has attracted world-wide interest and many overseas visitors and students come to study its operation.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND CREDIT UNIONS

       Government policy is to promote and develop the co-operative and credit union movements in Hong Kong as instruments to improve the economic and social conditions of the people, by pro- viding encouragement, technical guidance and material support.

      In particular, farmers and fishermen have accepted the co- operative movement as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. This has been evidenced by the formation of societies of diverse nature with activities related to housing, thrift and loan, credit, marketing, irrigation, animal feed and pig raising. Local civil servants form a third major group to have embraced the co-operative

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      movement and, with the aid of Hong Kong Government finance, have established an increasing number of co-operative building societies.

       A table showing the number of societies in being at December 31, 1969 with details of their membership, share capital and deposits will be found at Appendix XXIV.

Regulations to the Credit Unions Ordinance were finalised in December and were scheduled to be placed before the Executive Council early in 1970. The Ordinance provides for the incorpora- tion and regulation of credit unions and the Credit Union League of Hong Kong and for the appointment of a Registrar. Some 30 credit unions have been formed and the movement continues to expand among sections of the population who find it difficult to borrow other than at high rates of interest. Approximately one million dollars has been advanced to members since the first credit union was formed in 1964.

MINING

Iron ore and, at times, wolframite and graphite are mined under- ground and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron ore concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan, wolframite and graphite principally to the United States and kaolin to Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. Most of the feldspar and about 26 per cent of the kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance. The Commissioner of Mines is em- powered to issue prospecting and mining licences and the Land Officer to issue mining leases. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of 1969 there were three mining leases, 20 mining licences, and six prospecting licences valid for different areas in the territory. They were mainly controlled by individuals or small mining companies.

The Superintendent of Mines deals with applications for pro- specting and mining licences, the grant of mine-blasting certificates, assessment of royalties on mineral sales at a rate of five per cent of value, collection of royalties, rents, premia and fees for licences and

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leases, certification of the origin of minerals in respect of which Comprehensive Certificates of Origin are required and enforcement of safety regulations.

       The Superintendent of Mines and his staff inspect mining areas and survey land affected by applications for licences and for en- forcement of Regulations governing manufacture, packing, convey- ance, storage and use of commercial explosives. Strict security controls imposed in relation to explosives, including fireworks, at the time of the 1967 disturbances were continued throughout 1969. They also took over from the Marine Department the responsibility for the Government Explosives Depot on July 1 and on October 1 responsibility for enforcement of legislation governing safety in stone quarries.

6

Education

THE number of students in all areas of education continues to increase. Detailed figures are given in Appendix XXVI, but some idea of this expansion can be gained from the fact that enrolment at the end of September in primary schools was 752,171 and in secondary schools it was 264,056 compared with 724,450 and 253,458 respectively in 1968. Altogether 1,196,301 pupils were enrolled in 2,730 schools, colleges and education centres, 63,260 more than last year's figure.

       Significant features of the year have been a further reduction in school fees in government and government-aided primary schools; the approval in principle by Government of the introduction of a new type of school, known as a Junior Technical School; the introduction of machine-marked multiple-choice questions in the Secondary School Entrance examination and the Hong Kong English Certificate of Education examinations in certain subjects; and the commencement in September of classes operated by the Morrison Hill Technical Institute.

      In May Government appointed a Polytechnic Planning Com- mittee to plan a new Polytechnic to provide post-secondary vocational education in technical and commercial subjects up to the standard of a pass degree or professional qualification. It is envisaged that the Polytechnic will comprise the existing Technical College in Hung Hom, suitably expanded and improved, and a new sister institution, providing places for a total of 4,000 full-time and 20,000 part-time students by 1974.

      With the beginning of the 1969-70 academic year, Government introduced a new scheme of student financing, under which public funds are made available for outright grants and interest-free loans to be made to needy students at the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The adminis- tration of grants totalling about $2.5 million and loans totalling

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over $3 million for 1969-70 is in the hands of a Joint Universities Committee. This new scheme represents a substantial increase in the amount of public funds available for student financing and is intended to enable Government to achieve the aim of ensuring that students offered a place in either of the two universities should not be unable to accept that place through lack of means.

PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION

Private kindergartens, which are not maintained or run by Government but are registered with the Education Department and supervised by the Inspectorate, rose in number from 628 in the previous year to 778 in September 1969 and enrolment increased from 92,952 to 112,774. Government gives assistance in the form of grants of Crown land to reliable bodies, provision of accommo- dation in government low-cost housing estates and the waiving of rents in resettlement estates.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

The great majority of primary schools use Cantonese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Seven primary schools, including five operated by Government, cater for children whose first language is English.

The total primary day school enrolment in September was 725,295. In addition, 26,876 pupils attended primary night schools and special afternoon classes. Since many school places are occupied by over-age children, further expansion is continuing, particularly in developing areas.

During the year 47,430 new primary places were provided, compared with 53,320 in the previous year. It is now certain that the target of providing a government or subsidised primary school place for every child of primary school age will be reached by late 1970.

       Primary education in Hong Kong is neither free nor compulsory. However, in government and government-aided primary schools fees are low and the scheme of fee reduction, introduced in September 1968, has been further implemented since September

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1969. The standard fees now chargeable in the public primary schools in urban and rural areas (which cater for the needs of about 70 per cent of the primary school population) are $20 and $10 per annum respectively. The reduction of fees, together with complete or partial fee remission of 20 per cent of primary school places for government and subsidised schools ensures that no child is deprived of a place in a public school solely through the inability of his parents to pay the fees. It is declared policy that if at any time it should appear that existing funds are inadequate to meet the demand for remission of fees in public primary schools in all cases of genuine hardship, the Government will authorise further expenditure, even if it means that the rate of remission is raised to 30 per cent or higher.

       In addition there is a scheme of textbook and stationery grants for holders of free places. Grants are made to schools to the value of $20 per free place holder per annum to enable them to be supplied with free textbooks and stationery.

SPECIAL EDUCATION

       Twenty-eight special schools cater for about 3,000 blind, deaf, physically handicapped, mentally handicapped and maladjusted children. In addition, there are 20 experimental classes for 400 slow-learning children in government primary schools. Over 200 physically handicapped children under the supervision of the Special Education Section are attending ordinary government and subsidised primary schools. The Special Education Section runs an audiometric screening programme in government primary schools. In addition the section provides diagnostic services which include audiologic testing, psychological testing, educational assessment, and speech screening, as well as remedial services in auditory training and speech therapy. During the year these services have assisted approximately 6,000 children. The section also runs in-service training courses for teachers of special schools and special classes.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

       There are four types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical

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schools and secondary modern schools. The 230 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have an enrolment of 157,881 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination. Instruction is in English, and Chinese is taught as a second language. Successful Certificate of Education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare themselves for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education (University of London), at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition there are 32,649 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

The 120 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 50,638 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese). Instruction is in Chinese, and English is taught as

language. In addition, a number of Chinese middle schools offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who pass the Certificate of Education in English or Chinese, higher education is available at the colleges of education and the Technical College.

       There are 10 secondary technical schools nine of which offer a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Six of the schools are government, three are subsidised and one is private. Their total enrolment is 6,332. Like the Anglo- Chinese grammar schools they prepare their pupils for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) and suitable candidates can continue their studies either in Form VI or at the Technical College. Five subsidised secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,561 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also 11 private and five subsidised secondary schools, with a total enrolment of 3,498 which offer some form of technical or trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education examination.

       There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools operated during the day. In

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September there were 221,910 such students compared with 213,224 in the previous year. During the school year 10,940 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings.

Government has approved in principle the introduction of a new type of school, known as a Junior Technical School, which will provide integrated general education and pre-vocational training of three years' duration to primary school leavers up to the age of 16. These schools will be established and operated by voluntary agencies and will be given financial assistance by Government. During the initial trial period 6,000 places will be provided of which 5,000 will be in new institutions and 1,000 in established training centres which will be developed into junior technical schools.

HIGHER EDUCATION

       There are two universities in Hong Kong, viz the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong. These two universities have financial resources of their own but are largely financed by Government. In view of the importance of university developments and the sums of public money involved, Government needs impartial and expert advice both on the assessment of the amount of grant required to sustain any level of university activity and on developments necessary to meet the community's require- ments for graduates. Government also needs advice on the alloca- tion of funds between the universities. To carry out these functions there is a University Grants Committee appointed by the Governor. It also acts as the formal channel between the universities and Government.

       The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the Government and endowments which have since been increased. Substantial grants are also made by the Government towards the university's annual recurrent and non- recurrent expenditure.

       The number of undergraduate places in each faculty in 1969-70 is: arts 636; science 405; medicine 579; engineering and architecture 484; and social sciences, including law, 351. Of these, a total of 781 places were available for new undergraduate entrants. There were also 295 places for postgraduate students, comprising 200

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reading for higher degrees and 95 reading for diplomas and certificates, 35 students at the Chinese Language School and 15 external students. The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstratorships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year 1969-70 was 404. All the university's degrees in professional subjects (medicine, architecture, and civil, electrical and mechanical engineering) are on the same professional footing as those of universities in Britain.

      The new Department of Law admitted its first students at the beginning of the academic year 1969-70. The department provides a full-time three-year course leading to the honours degree of LLB.

      The Department of Education of the University of Hong Kong offers to graduates a one-year full-time course leading to a Diploma in Education and a two-year part-time course leading to a Certificate in Education. The department also provides a one-year part-time qualifying course for candidates who seek to enrol for the MA (Ed) degree and to successful students offers the MA (Ed) either as a six-term part-time course spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time course. As in other departments, the PhD is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

      The Department of Extra-mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong provided over 181 evening and day-time courses for adult students in 1968-9. During the period July 1968 to June 1969, 4,337 attended regular courses and 1,168 attended public lectures, seminars and conferences. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from Oriental Studies through a full range of liberal arts and language courses to economics, law and com- merce, and include a rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including a Diploma in Management Studies which is recognised by the British Institute of Management.

The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level examination. Entry to the university is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination. In May

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3,257 candidates entered for the examination, of whom 1,984 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in October 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It comprises Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. A campus site covering 273 acres in Sha Tin, New Territories, adjoining the present Chung Chi campus, has been allocated to the university by the Government, and it is anticipated that by autumn 1972, New Asia College and United College, which are now situated in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island, will be on the new campus.

      The Chinese University has at present three faculties and the total undergraduate enrolment in September 1969 is 2,104. The enrolment in each faculty is: arts 623; science 637; commerce and social science 844.

This year 479 students have graduated from the university-22 Masters of Arts, 9 Masters of Commerce, 2 Masters of Social Science, 148 Bachelors of Arts, 55 Bachelors of Commerce, 124 Bachelors of Social Science, and 119 Bachelors of Science.

In the matriculation examination held in the summer of 1969, a total of 3,917 candidates sat and 1,727 passed. The total number of freshmen for the academic year 1969-70 is 568.

      The Graduate School of the university was established in September 1966, and admits students for two years of postgraduate studies in arts, science, commerce, and social science leading to a Master's degree. Up to October 1969, 63 students have been awarded Master's degrees. There were 50 students in the School in September 1969.

The School of Education, inaugurated in September 1965, offers a one-year full-time and a two-year part-time postgraduate course of professional training leading to a Diploma in Education. A total of 25 students obtained the Diploma in Education in 1969.

The Lingnan Institute of Business Administration was inaugurated in September 1966. The institute provides facilities for graduate study and research in the broad area of business administration, and offers a two-year curriculum leading to the degree of Master of Commerce.

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      A Computing Centre was established in February 1967. The main purposes of the centre are to assist faculty research and administrative work and to organise the teaching of computer science within the university. A limited number of survey or research projects conducted by non-profit-making institutions have also made use of the facilities of the centre.

The Department of Extra-mural Studies of The Chinese Uni- versity of Hong Kong offered 387 courses and had an enrolment of 9,760 during 1968-9. In addition to general courses, departmental certificate programmes in Chinese literature, general banking administration, tourism, hotel operation, three-dimensional design, and the teaching of modern mathematics in primary schools were provided in the autumn of 1969. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin. The department also offers correspondence courses in English and Chinese writing, English and Chinese language and literature, and business administration.

THE TECHNICAL COLLEGE

      The Technical College, including the Morrison Hill Technical Institute, has a total enrolment of 16,280 students in 106 courses, comprising 1,920 full-time students in 69 classes, 560 part-time day students in 25 classes and 13,800 evening students in 460 classes distributed in 24 centres. The college has eight departments: building, surveying and structural engineering; commerce and management studies; electrical engineering; mechanical, production and marine engineering; textile industries; nautical studies; mathematics and science; and industrial and commercial design. These provide full-time courses leading to the college's own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the associate membership examina- tions of many British professional institutions, a number of which have granted exemption from certain parts of their examinations to students in the higher diploma courses.

      The electrical engineering department also offers courses for first and second-class radio officers, and a three-month course in radar maintenance which gives training to qualified seagoing officers and technicians. The department of nautical studies operates courses for masters and mates of foreign-going vessels and also courses for radar observers. The department of commerce and

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     management studies offers, mainly for girls, secretarial courses. The department of mechanical, production and marine engineering operates a productivity centre. Since its inception in 1961, 38 productivity courses have been offered to more than 562 managerial and supervisory staff from local factories, representing some 15 dif- ferent industries. Full-time courses at craftsman and pre-apprentice levels are also offered in the building, electrical and mechanical trades. Approval has been obtained for the college to conduct the alternative training scheme for marine engineers and recognition has been given to the course. The department of industrial and commercial design operates a full-time three-year Higher Diploma course in industrial design.

      The eight departments also provide part-time day and evening courses. These lead to qualifications in a range of technical and commercial subjects at professional, technicians' and craftsmen's levels. A two-year part-time in-service course for training teachers of technical subjects, an 11-week part-time day-release course for workshop and trade instructors, and a plumbing and pipe-fitting part-time craft course, are also offered.

Whenever there is a need for courses on specific subjects of current interest to local industry or to a sufficient number of in- dividuals, the college operates short courses to meet the demand. During the year, a number of short courses of this nature in all departments were given.

       The Morrison Hill Technical Institute, which is run by the Education Department, is expected to occupy its own premises at Morrison Hill on Hong Kong Island when the building is com- pleted early in 1970. In the meantime, several of its courses were started in September this year in the Technical College premises in Kowloon. The main function of the Technical Institute is to provide facilities for the training of pre-apprentices, craftsmen and lower-level technicians in the fields of construction, and mechanical and electrical engineering trades. There are also courses in business studies and technical teacher training. Courses are on a full-time day, part-time day and evening basis. The Technical Institute by specialising in lower-level courses will enable the facilities at the Technical College to be employed mainly for the training of tech- nologists and higher-level technicians.

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      When fully developed, the Morrison Hill Technical Institute will provide places for approximately 1,200 full-time and block release students and 600 part-time day-release students. Part-time evening students are expected to number about 9,000, many of whom will attend classes at outlying centres administered by the Technical Institute.

VISUAL EDUCATION CENTRE

The Audio-Visual Education Centre of the Education Department provides on loan to all schools a large range of audio-visual materials. The centre, whose facilities are extensively used by teachers, houses a wide range of modern equipment as well as darkroom and photo- graphic facilities.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER TRAINING

In March there were 32,157 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools, of whom 7,758 were university graduates and 14,764 were trained non- graduates. Another 5,573 teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 156 were in special schools. At the end of the 1968-9 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of primary and secondary day schools was 31.6 : 1.

      Most teacher training is carried out by the Education Depart- ment's three Colleges of Education, Northcote, Grantham and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges offer full-time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers qualified to teach in primary schools and the lower forms of secondary schools. A special one-year course is offered at Northcote College of Educa- tion for diploma holders from certain other post-secondary insti- tutions. Specialist third year courses are offered to train specialist teachers in mathematics, domestic science, music and art. These courses are intended to train teachers for the upper forms of secondary schools.

      The colleges also provide in-service courses of training for un- qualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, in either Chinese or English, of two years' duration. Successful students are awarded a certificate granting qualified teacher status.

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      In September there were 1,114 students in the two-year courses, 23 in the special one-year course, 41 in the specialist third year course and 943 in the in-service training course. In addition, 20 students were enrolled in a special full-time one-year course for the training of technical teachers in the Technical Institute.

ADULT EDUCATION

      The Education Department's Evening Institute offers English courses from elementary to post-Certificate of Education level, teachers' classes for art, music, handwork, woodwork, physical education, modern mathematics, modern educational dance and the teaching of English; and secondary school courses leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, both English and Chinese. A three-year post-primary extension course providing additional training with a practical bias is also available for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level. Rural literacy classes and general background education classes provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical background education classes give adults an opportunity of learning woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. Adults now have a complete educational ladder from the literacy level to post-secondary studies. The total number of classes organised under the Evening Institute is 716 in 72 locations in both the urban and rural areas.

      The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers to holders of the English or Chinese Hong Kong School Certificate, or the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English or Chinese), a three- year course in general arts leading to an Education Department diploma. Subjects include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology and English language and literature. Most of the students are primary school teachers.

At the 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres, education and recreation are combined in activities ranging from music appreciation and physical education to group study of art, photo- graphy and dramatics.

      Apart from its regular activities, the Adult Education Section has from time to time designed various schemes to serve the com- munity at large. In conjunction with the Prisons Department,

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several classes giving instruction in general subjects with a moral and civic emphasis are organised for inmates. Classes are also held at the Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION UNIT

Although the Education Department's new Schools' Television Service is not yet in operation, planning is at an advanced stage and administrative, production and technical staff have been or are being recruited. A number of producers and technicians have already been trained abroad. Television lessons in English, Chinese, Mathematics and Social Studies are in preparation and a series of seminars on the use of educational television were held in July 1969 and attended by 2,239 teachers.

EXAMINATIONS

       There are five local public examinations for schools, one con- ducted by the Education Department, one each by the Boards of the Hong Kong Certificate of Education, English and Chinese, one by the University of Hong Kong and one by The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

       The Secondary School Entrance examination is a competitive examination to select pupils for places in government and aided secondary schools, and for assisted places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an Examination Committee is appointed to give advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate. In 1969 entries from each school were limited to 80 per cent of its junior six or primary six pupils, but this percentage was increased to 100 per cent where justified by previous examination results. In 1970 this restriction on entry will be completely removed. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

       The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination is conducted by a board of representatives from participating schools, the University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the Education Department. The University of

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Hong Kong, the University of London and some overseas univer- sities recognise Grade C and above in individual subjects as equiva- lent to ordinary level passes in the University of London General Certificate of Education.

The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) examination is also conducted by a board. It is similar to the Hong Kong Certifi- cate of Education (English) examination, but is of course conducted in Chinese.

      In January 1969, a Working Party was set up under the chair- manship of Sir Charles Hartwell, CMG to make proposals for the establishment of an independent examinations authority which will be responsible for all local public secondary school examinations, provide technical assistance in the conduct of the Secondary School Entrance examinations, and conduct such other local or overseas examinations as may appear to be needed.

In 1969, for the first time, extensive use was made of the govern- ment computer to process the Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination and to mark sections of six major papers, which had been set in the multiple-choice form. Sections of the Secondary School Entrance examination were also marked by the same computer, which then allocated secondary school places to pupils in accordance with their results and their stated preferences. The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations at stand- ards comparable with those in Britain. Of these examinations, the General Certificate of Education is open to both school and private candidates who hold a local certificate of education of the required standard, and to private candidates of 25 years of age or over.

      The University of London Degree examinations are also con- ducted annually in May and June. Appendix XXVII shows the more important examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

MUSIC AND ART IN SCHOOLS

The 21st Annual School Music Festival attracted 8,167 individual entries, 927 more than in 1968, and an estimated 40,000 competitors took part in the 372 available classes.

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      The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, with over 90 players, gave two public concerts during the year and the instrumental music scheme now covers 12 schools involving 492 pupils. Four visiting examiners conducted the practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Entries reached the record total of 4,687 thus maintaining Hong Kong's position as the second largest centre among the 36 countries served by the board. Entries for the Associated Board theory examinations totalled 2,054 and 55 candidates entered for the Trinity College of Music examinations. Children's examination of the Royal Academy of Dancing attracted 409 entries.

      Hong Kong children's keen interest and talent in Art was shown by the large number of entries of high quality submitted by them for various competitions and exhibitions organised by the Education Department in co-operation with other government departments.

EDUCATION OVERSEAS

      The Hong Kong Students' Office in London continues to be responsible for keeping records of all officially recommended Hong Kong students in the United Kingdom, for assisting them to find places in universities and other institutions of higher education of their choice in Britain (except private schools or colleges), for making arrangements for them to be met and accommodated on arrival and for helping them over personal or educational problems.

There are 4,523 recorded students, including government servants, apprentices and nurse trainees undergoing a wide range of courses

overseas.

      During the year under review 2,597 Hong Kong students left for further study to the United States, 1,537 went to Canada and 141 to Australia.

      Government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain, under the control of a board of governors appointed by and respon- sible to Government. It accommodates some 80 students and serves as a focal point and meeting place for many more.

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UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

       During the year, a wide range of research programmes was con- ducted by both universities. The following serve to illustrate some of the research completed or in progress during 1969 which has particular relevance to the Hong Kong community.

      In the University of Hong Kong, the Centre of Asian Studies sponsored a number of projects including studies of urban squatters in Hong Kong, trade unions, the development of exchange banking in the Far East and the writing of a concise Cantonese-English dictionary. Conferences were organised on the development of Japanese studies, and on urbanisation in Asia. In arts and social sciences, research continued on economic developments in China. and Hong Kong, on comparative linguistics and phonetics and on the Hong Kong educational system. A survey of housing conditions in Hong Kong was undertaken, and work was also done on traffic accidents, industrial planning, urbanisation and the geomorphology of the Hong Kong coast. In the medical faculty work on child development continued, while other projects included studies of the biochemistry of drug addiction and of the treatment of spinal tuberculosis. In science, engineering and architecture, high buildings research continued, while other projects included studies of the productivity of various soils, of building costs, of the biology of Plover Cove reservoir and of the development of a modern mathe- matics curriculum for Hong Kong schools. A number of research projects on hydraulics were undertaken, connected with major waterworks developments.

In The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Research Centres have been set up under the university's three Research Institutes (the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities, the Institute of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Chinese Studies). These provide a wide range of research and training opportunities for staff and students of the university.

      Among the very many projects in the social studies and humanities field, there were studies on the impact of industrialisation of the living standard; the impact of urbanisation upon the lives of rural villagers; the urban family; the removal of Plover Cove villagers to

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Tai Po Market; and the identification of types of natural vegeta- tion from aerographs. Science and technology projects included investigations into the ecology of Hong Kong marine fauna, Hong Kong flora and goamineae, and the chemical analysis of Chinese medicinal plants. Chinese studies included Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong and the compilation of a dictionary of Chinese words.

7

Health

THE people of Hong Kong continued to enjoy, in the main, good health during the year 1969. Notifications of diphtheria and malaria continued to decline while the incidence of poliomyelitis remained satisfactorily low. The anti-measles vaccination drive which was launched in December 1967 began to show an encouraging result, and the measles epidemic expected in the winter of 1968-9 did not materialise. A minor outbreak of cholera occurred in July. The outbreak was quickly contained by vigorous public health measures and an energetic inoculation drive.

The mortality pattern remained one in which fewer deaths were due to communicable diseases and more resulted from the diseases of later life, predominantly cancer, heart diseases and cerebrovascular lesions.

The Development Programme of the Medical and Health Depart- ment continued to make steady progress. In April the new Tang Shiu Kin Hospital at Morrison Hill was opened. This provides, in addition to casualty facilities for which there is a rising demand, services formerly carried out at the Eastern Public Dispensary and Maternity Home, the Harcourt Health Centre and the Wan Chai Social Hygiene Female Clinic. The latter three clinic premises were subsequently closed. The fifth of the five phases of the alteration programme of Queen Mary Hospital was completed, bringing the hospital bed capacity to 1,086 beds. Work on a new maternity unit of 54 beds in the same hospital was under way. Substantial progress was achieved in the planning of many other government projects, including polyclinics for Kowloon East and Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung areas, a standard urban clinic for Kwai Chung North, a new Vaccine Institute, a large general hospital and a large mental hospital in the Lai Chi Kok area, and a rehabilitation and health centre in the Sai Ying Pun district. Construction work on the Siu Lam Hospital for the mentally subnormal and the extension to Kowloon Hospital were in progress.

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HEALTH

The general state of health of the population continued to be satisfactory, as demonstrated by the Colony's vital statistics which appear in Appendix XXX.

ADMINISTRATION

       The Medical and Health Department provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease.

       The estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department for the financial year 1969-70 is $147,858,900. To this should be added subventions totalling an estimated $62,085,600 to many non-government medical institutions and organisations. The esti- mated capital expenditure for the Medical and Health Department during 1969-70 on hospital and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $16,179,000.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Cholera reappeared in Hong Kong after an absence of the disease for more than two and half years, the last case being reported in November 1966. Routine sampling of nightsoil for cholera vibrio had been carried out on a year-round basis as part of the surveillance programme. The first indication of cholera vibrio in 1969 was a positive isolation in the middle of May of V cholerae El Tor (Inaba) in a specimen collected from a nightsoil route in the western area of Hong Kong Island. This was 52 days before the appearance of the first clinical case in Kowloon. Following the confirmation of the first clinical case on July 5, all the necessary public health measures to contain the spread of the disease were reinforced. The annual inoculation drive, which had been in progress since April, was intensified particularly in the vicinity of the affected premises and among the population at risk. Apart from one imported case notified in August there were six cases notified in July and one isolated case in September. In addition a further case was reported on October 16, making a total of nine cases notified between July 5 and October 16. As the disease has become endemic in this part of the world, special preventive measures are continued and quarantine restrictions are maintained in respect of neighbouring countries declared infected.

HEALTH SERVICES

宴落 CHEE WAN

n addition to the network of hospitals, clinics and other standard medical facilities found in any large city, Hong Kong's unique situation has resulted in the development of other and less conventional health services. These pages show some of the ways by which Hong Kong ensures that all its citizens, however remote from the major population centres, have access to first class medical care and the latest developments in public health services.

The title page picture shows one of the floating clinics which pay regular visits to the more remote coastal villages in Hong Kong's New Territories. (opposite) A mother in traditional village dress consults with the doctor at one of the floating clinics' outlying ports of call.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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   Residents line up for treatment, inoculations and regular check-ups. Apart from these regular calls, the flying doctor service is constantly available for emergency calls to transport severe- ly ill or injured people to hospital.

Educational campaigns and personal contact by trained personnel play a vital part in maintaining Hong Kong's high public health standards. Here

a

government Health Visitor chats with a mother during her rounds in an inland village.

Here the Health Visitor uses a wall chart to illus- trate a point to an interested gathering of villagers.

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      Tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem. It is believed from the figures which are available that approximately one per cent of the population of Hong Kong is suffering.from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment. Males are affected at least twice as commonly as females, the disease being especially common in elderly men, while drug addicts are particularly prone. Tuberculosis in the young is now relatively uncommon and the former large numbers of acute and often fatal cases of tuberculosis in infants are now no longer seen.

      Government either by subvention or directly through the Govern- ment Chest Service spends more than $17,000,000 yearly on control measures. The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, while certain other organisations, including the Tung Wah Group and the Caritas Medical Centre also provide treatment facilities, maintained mainly with the aid of substantial government subventions. The Government Chest Service operates six full-time clinics equipped with radiological facilities and 17 subsidiary centres throughout the Colony. In addition it maintains the BCG vaccination programme and during the year 95 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. It is believed that the widespread use of this pro- phylactic has led to the precipitate fall in tuberculosis in the very young in Hong Kong.

      The cornerstone of treatment in Hong Kong is ambulatory chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. The position with regard to the treatment of tuberculosis in the last 15 years has changed com- pletely, and the disease can now nearly always be cured provided that the patient is co-operative and takes his treatment regularly. Consideration is now being given to the replacement of the monthly issue of PAS/Isoniazid tablets by a regimen of twice weekly Strep- tomycin injections and high dosage Isoniazid tablets. This has the advantage that it is a completely supervised regimen whereas it is known that some patients do not take their drugs regularly when issued on a monthly basis. At present a large scale trial is under way with the Medical Research Council to evaluate the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy in Hong Kong. Consequent to the very

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large number of drug resistant cases in Hong Kong 'second line' drugs are widely used. A further trial to evaluate the most effective second line drug regimen for Hong Kong is now at an advanced stage of planning.

In recognition of the need for more active case-finding a Colony- wide tuberculosis publicity drive was launched in April, lasting two weeks. The response was dramatic and large numbers of people attended chest clinics in response to the theme of the campaign which was: 'If you have a cough lasting more than one month go for a chest x-ray'.

The Colony has 1,852 beds available specifically for the treatment of tuberculosis. The Government provides 146 of these beds in Kowloon Hospital and St John Hospital on Cheung Chau Island, but the majority are in government-assisted hospitals, notably those managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association. This association offers a total of 979 beds distributed between Grantham Hospital, Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home. In addition the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council has 310 beds at its Haven of Hope Sanatorium. The Tung Wah Group has 346 beds for the treatment of tuberculosis and during the year there was a considerable expansion from 118 to 185 beds at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary. The Chest Unit at Wong Tai Sin Infir- mary has been re-located in spacious new accommodation and now plays a major role in the treatment of tuberculosis in Kowloon.

Venereal diseases are diagnosed and treated free at social hygiene clinics. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis continued to remain low in 1969, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. Latent and late syphilis and gonorrhoea have stayed comparatively unchanged and the incidence of chancroid and lymphogranuloma remained very low. The maintenance of this satisfactory position is due, at least in part, to energetic epidemic control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine ante-natal blood tests.

Leprosy remains only a very minor public health problem. Twenty outpatient sessions are held weekly solely for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while other sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. The Leprosy Mission Hong Kong Auxiliary, with

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the aid of a government subvention, maintains accommodation for 540 persons at Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium for the treatment of infectious cases and a small number of patients requiring reconstruc- tive operations are also accepted.

Malaria continues to occur on a very limited scale, being restricted to certain rural areas of the Colony. Most of the cases reported during the year were either imported or recurrent cases. Malaria prevention in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures consisting of draining and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. In the greater part of the New Territories, where the background is essentially rural, screening of buildings, use of mosquito nets and chemoprophylaxis constitute the main protection against malaria. All anti-mosquito measures for the prevention of malaria are carried out by the Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department. Clinical aspects of malaria control such as malaria surveys and chemotherapy are the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department.

Diphtheria continued to occur mainly among children under 10 years of age, predominantly within the 'pre-school' age-group. The annual inoculation drive which has been in progress since 1959 continued to give encouraging results, and it is gratifying to record that there has been a steady decline in the number of cases notified annually; in 1969 only 62 cases were recorded compared with 2,087 cases in 1959.

Measles is most prevalent among children under the age of five years and epidemics are characteristically biennial, the last one occurring in the winter of 1966-7. In Hong Kong during epidemics the disease is usually associated with high mortality due mainly to complicated bronchopneumonia encountered too late for treatment to be effective. A Colony-wide immunisation campaign commenced in December 1967 and was continued through 1968-9. The campaign was given wide publicity and parents were also informed of the importance of early treatment of the disease. The disease incidence during the winter months of 1968-9 did not show the expected biennial rise, and mortality associated with the disease remained low. These results were due, at least in part, to the immunisation campaign and the continuing health education efforts to encourage parents to seek early medical advice.

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Influenza occurred only sporadically after the appearance of the epidemic in the summer of 1968. Hong Kong has been collaborating with the World Health Organisation in its surveillance programme of influenza disease, and epidemiological and laboratory information is transmitted overseas so that early preventive measures may be taken to meet the threat of new epidemics. During the year some strains of influenza B virus were isolated. They resembled the B variant prevalent in recent years.

      Other communicable diseases remain at a low level, and do not constitute a major public health problem. The number of cases of infectious diseases notified in 1969 is shown in Appendix XXXI.

PORT HEALTH SERVICE

      The Port Health Service is responsible for the prevention of the introduction of quarantinable diseases, the sanitary control of ports of entry and the provision of facilities as required by the International Sanitary Regulations, with the aim of ensuring the maximum security against the international spread of diseases with the minimum inter- ference with world traffic. A regular exchange of epidemiological intelligence is maintained with the International Quarantine Service of the World Health Organisation in Geneva, the World Health Organisation Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila and several neighbouring health administrations.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

      There is increasing public understanding of the value of Hong Kong's maternal and child health facilities. Most babies are born either in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes, and confinements at home attended by private midwives now represent less than one per cent of the total deliveries. The Government District Midwifery Service has 29 centres, and the total number of maternity beds available for deliveries in these health centres is 523. There are 110 registered midwives practising privately in 68 maternity and nursing homes, which are regularly inspected by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff.

The Government Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 29 centres, 17 of which are full-time. Clinics are held for infants and for children between two and five

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years old, and ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also conducted. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinics are visited at home, and health visitors also go to the homes of newborn infants whose names appear in the monthly birth returns. Health education forms an important part of this work and includes practical demonstra- tions, talks, film shows and individual advice to mothers. There is a close liaison between the service and the Family Planning Associa- tion, which conducts an increasing number of sessions in all the

centres.

SCHOOL HEALTH

The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Essentially the scheme offers a service whereby participating school children receive medical treatment from private medical practitioners for the small sum of $7 a year. This per capita fee does not meet the cost of the service and the Government contributes an equal sum, as well as the cost of administrative expenses. At the end of the year 39,821 students attending schools were enrolled in the service and 196 private medical practitioners were participating.

The School Health Service continues as a government responsi- bility and is concerned with the environmental health and sanitary condition of school premises and the control of communicable diseases in schools. Routine inspection of schools is undertaken by school health inspectors, while immunisation of school children against the major infectious diseases is arranged by health officers.

MENTAL HEALTH

Psychiatric cases from the whole Colony are admitted to the Castle Peak Hospital, mostly as voluntary patients. Outpatient treatment is available in the urban area and in the New Territories, and day-patients are treated in the Psychiatric Day Centre on Hong Kong Island as well as the Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre in Kowloon. The latter Centre also provides special facilities for the observation of disturbed children. A Psychiatric Observation Unit is operated in the Victoria Reception Centre for remand prisoners, and there is one ward for very low-grade mentally subnormal children in the Tung Wah Hospital. Other cases of mental subnor- mality are in the care of the Social Welfare Department where they

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     receive occupational training. Certain voluntary agencies, working in close co-operation with the Mental Health Service, assist in rehabilitation of patients before their return to full social and economic activities in the community.

DRUG DEPENDENCY

Drug addicts who volunteer for treatment and rehabilitation are treated in a drug-free environment at a rehabilitation centre on Shek Kwu Chau Island; their stay varies from four to six months. This institution is run by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts, a voluntary organisation receiving a substantial government subvention. A building programme to increase treat- ment facilities from 250 to 500 was completed during the year. The society maintains an office in the urban area where addicts can apply voluntarily for admission to the centre and, after a medical examination and socio-economic investigation, are admitted for treatment and rehabilitation. Following their discharge, the society provides further assistance in their rehabilitation. Towards the end of 1968 a centre for the treatment of female drug addicts was opened in the same office in the urban area, the centre being able to treat up to 36 female addicts at a time.

HOSPITALS

      The 15,835 hospital beds available in Hong Kong represent 3.97 beds per thousand of the population (see Appendix XXXII). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes, but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds 13,698 are in government hospitals and institutions and in government-assisted hospitals, while the remaining 2,137 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and for the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases there are 12,469 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity, giving a ratio of 3.13 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the hospitals, but in some cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used exten- sively whenever the need arises.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as the main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories and has

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1,525 beds, with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. The Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. Construction work is continuing at Kowloon Hospital on an additional block of 600 beds, which is expected to be completed by middle of 1970.

      On Hong Kong Island Government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary Hospital, which performs the same functions for the island as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital does for Kowloon, and is also the teaching hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of Hong Kong. The hospital's phased programme of alternations, designed ultimately to increase the hospital bed capacity to 1,140 and to provide improved facilities, continued during the year.

      Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialised purposes. Apart from the Castle Peak Hospital they include two infectious disease hospitals and a maternity hospital of 241 beds, where the teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out. The new Tang Shiu Kin Hospital provides casualty service as well as facilities for maternal and child health, social hygiene and maternity services. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also established in the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries.

      The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is a long-established charitable organisation. It operates three general hospitals, the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah with a total of 2,553 beds, and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. It also provides subsidiary beds for long-term patients at Wong Tai Sin Infirmary. These hospitals, whose recurrent expenditure is met mainly by a large subvention from the Government, provide a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernised and expanded.

       The Pok Oi Hospital, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, is another long-established charitable organisation operating with the assistance of a government subvention. It has recently been modernised and expanded.

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A number of the general hospitals are maintained by missionary and other charitable organisations. Several receive substantial government subventions, and in recent years major extensions to provide improved and additional facilities were undertaken at Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre at So Uk, Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital and Sandy Bay Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in various medical fields. There are also specialised clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, together with specialist services offered by the Government Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory. The Government Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals maintain blood banks and the Hong Kong Red Cross Society operates a blood-collecting service for voluntary blood donation; laboratory work for these blood banks is carried out by the Institute of Pathology.

The first kidney transplant operation in Hong Kong was performed at Queen Mary Hospital in January 1969. Open heart surgery for the treatment of various types of congenital and acquired heart diseases by the pulmonary by-pass technique using the heart-lung machine became available in Hong Kong in the middle of 1968, although open-heart surgery employing a different technique had been used earlier. The combined efforts of the Medical and Health Department, the University of Hong Kong, the Anti-tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and some private individuals made this project possible. Patients are admitted to the Queen Mary Hospital for final assessment and, if indicated, transferred to the Grantham Hospital for operation.

OUTPATIENT CLINICS

To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine the outpatient services, provided mainly by the Govern- ment, and also by subsidised organisations and private agencies, are developing steadily. Government now maintains 43 clinics for general outpatients, and specialist facilities are available in the

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major centres of the urban areas. Similar specialist facilities are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, especially the isolated villages on the eastern and western coasts. Other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

Since the Medical Clinics Ordinance came into effect in January 1964, 436 private clinics have been granted registration, of which 355 were exempted from employing registered doctors. Under the Medical Clinics (Amendment) Ordinance of 1966 the power of the Registrar of Clinics to register clinics with exemption was extended for three years as from January 1967, and all clinics, whether registered or registered with exemption, are required to be re- registered annually. It is intended that the power of the Registrar to register clinics with exemption be extended for another two years as from January 1970. The Low Cost Medical Care Scheme under which static clinics are set up in resettlement and housing estates continued to operate during the year and in allocating these premises registered doctors are given priority.

DENTAL SERVICES

The Government Dental Service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 30 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. The rate of enrichment is one part of fluoride per million parts of water; the cost per person receiving fluoridated water is 11.9 cents per annum. It would appear from clinical observation that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will become more marked in the future.

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Many voluntary bodies and welfare organisations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Society and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped static and mobile dental clinics.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

Based upon three full-time outpatient centres, equipped with operating, investigation and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the New Territories. Additionally, ophthalmic surgery is per- formed in two government hospitals in which 31 beds are reserved for ophthalmic cases. The staff of the Ophthalmic Service also deal with ophthalmic emergencies at three casualty departments situated at the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Kwong Wah Hospitals.

      The degrees of MB, BS, conferred by the University of Hong Kong, have been recognised for registration by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. During recent years the Medical Faculty has expanded to cope with an annual intake of 120 medical students to meet the increasing needs of the Colony for doctors. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain, and is supervised by a panel for post-graduate medical education, consisting of university and government staff members. Due mainly to this programme almost all of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department are now held by locally-recruited staff.

Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry, but a government dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from Hong Kong to go overseas each year to study dentistry. This scheme commenced in 1954; 81 scholarships have been awarded.

There are three government hospital schools of nursing, two in general nursing and one in psychiatric nursing. Training at govern- ment schools and at the Caritas Hospital school is in English, but there are also approved schools at Tung Wah Hospital, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, where instruction is in Cantonese. Examinations are

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held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board and there is full reciprocity of registration between the Hong Kong Board and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales. Most female nurses, on completion of general nursing training, take a midwifery course of one year which qualifies them for entry to the examination held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. For student midwives who are not registered nurses a two-year course of training at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital (and to a limited extent at the other approved training schools) is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examinations. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is not at present possible.

Government conducts a continuous post-graduate training pro- gramme for nurses to obtain experience overseas; subjects during 1969 included nursing education, paediatrics, thoracic and open- heart surgery and dietetics. A nine months' course for Health Visitor training was held during the year. The health auxiliaries, who are to supplement the Health Visitor service, continued the two-year training in health education and basic public health nursing.

      The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appointments, the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors and the Certificate for Health Visitors and School Nurses. Training for the Diploma for Local Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appointments and the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors is carried out within the Urban Services Department.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

      Responsibility for environmental health services in the urban areas rests with the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories the Director of Urban Services is responsible.

About 7,000 employees of the Urban Services Department are engaged in street cleansing and the removal of refuse and nightsoil.

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An average of 2,300 tons of refuse is collected and disposed of daily. All the refuse (about 650 tons daily) collected from Hong Kong Island is disposed of in the oil-fired incinerator at Kennedy Town, operated by the Public Works Department. 650 tons of the refuse collected from Kowloon and New Kowloon are taken to the incinerator at Lai Chi Kok and the rest (amounting to about 700 tons) is conveyed by vehicle to Gin Drinkers' Bay, Tsuen Wan, in the New Territories, for disposal there by controlled tipping. Construction of a second incinerator for Kowloon is expected to commence next year and planning for a third one is in hand. A composting plant has also been installed at Lai Chi Kok, convert- ing 45 tons of refuse into compost weekly. In the New Territories, only townships and villages accessible to vehicles are provided with cleansing services. However, picnic spots are attended to regularly by special cleansing gangs. Refuse collected in the New Territories (about 300 tons daily) is disposed of, by controlled tipping, at Gin Drinkers' Bay, Chau Tau, Ngau Tam Mei and Shuen Wan.

      The refuse collecting fleet now consists of 160 vehicles in use daily, supplemented by 43 prime-movers, 131 trailers, 24 lorries and four tippers. In addition, 34 street-washing vehicles are em- ployed to clean roads, lanes, gutters, footpaths, bus stops and hawker areas.

The nightsoil collection service continues to diminish gradually as pre-war property is demolished and replaced by modern buildings with waterborne sanitation. 17,420 gallons of nightsoil were collected daily from 16,586 floors with dry latrines and from 2,420 temporary latrine compartments on building sites, and squatter and licensed resettlement areas. Thirty-four specialised vehicles and three tanker- barges are employed on this service, most of the nightsoil collected being delivered to the maturation tanks of the Vegetable Marketing Organisation at Tsuen Wan for processing and subsequent sale as fertiliser to farmers; the rest is dumped into the sea outside harbour limits.

      The Hygiene Division of the Urban Services Department is re- sponsible for the regular inspection of some 5,744 licensed premises such as restaurants and fresh provision shops. Regular house inspection is also carried out. All applications for licences under the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance and subsidiary

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legislation (other than hawker licences) are dealt with by a Central Licensing Unit. Investigation into food poisoning cases and control of infectious diseases is carried out in close liaison with the Medical and Health Department. Health staff are also responsible for inves- tigating complaints of sanitary nuisances and for the prevention of fly and mosquito breeding. Strict hygienic control is exercised over food and drink vending-machines. Frozen meat and offal, frozen poultry and poultry parts, including feet, are imported in large quantities into Hong Kong from many sources, and special food inspection staff are engaged in the control and inspection of these products, together with many other varieties of imported foods and meat products. Inspection and certification of food for export is also undertaken by the food inspection staff, as well as the inspec- tion of animal products and human hair for export under veterinary certification. Milk and ice-cream are regularly sampled for quality and purity and samples are also obtained for the control of food preservatives, food colouring materials, and composition. It is pro- posed to introduce legislation to prohibit the use of Cyclamate (an artificial sweetener) in food and drink. This follows reports of ex- periments involving the use of large dosages of Cyclamates having caused cancer of the bladder in laboratory animals.

       A pest control section carries out measures and renders advice on the control of rats, mice, cockroaches, ants, fleas, bed-bugs, and biting midges throughout the Colony. In the New Territories, the scope of this section includes also the control of flies and culicine (nuisance) mosquitoes (handled in the urban area by District Health Staff). The regular larvicidal oiling of streams to prevent the breeding of malarial mosquitoes on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon peninsula, and, in the New Territories at Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill Village and Cheung Chau Island, is also a function of the Pest Control Section.

       The Health Education Section continued to organise publicity campaigns on various aspects of health and hygiene and to hold food-hygiene training courses for food handlers. In conjunction with the Department of Extra-mural Studies of the Chinese Uni- versity of Hong Kong, evening food-hygiene courses for catering supervisors were introduced. Other public health courses were also held for specific groups of the public.

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      To promote health education among school children, health talks were given to schools. A Health Education Project Competi- tion for secondary schools was held during the year, and participating schools illustrated selected themes by using models, charts, diagrams or other means of their choice. Annual Speech and Song Contests continued.

      The section also participated in various exhibitions held by non- Government organisations, such as Kaifong Associations.

The supervision of hawkers, markets and slaughterhouses has an important bearing on public health, and the Urban Services Department employs a staff numbering over two thousand on these duties. There are 66 public retail markets (43 in the urban areas and 23 in the New Territories) where housewives can buy meat, fish, poultry and vegetables from clean and hygienic sources. Many of these markets are, however, old and out-moded, making it difficult to maintain acceptable food-hygiene standards. The Urban Council's Markets Select Committee is committed to an ambitious programme for reconstruction of many of the older markets in parallel with the provision of new markets, particularly in developing areas. The new North Point Market, which constituted an example of practical and modern market design, was completed in November 1969.

      An estimated 80,000 people earn their livelihood from hawking in the built-up areas of Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Terri- tories. Most of these hawkers sell vegetables and other foodstuffs in streets near public markets and shops where meat, fish and poultry are on sale. Others sell haberdashery and hardware. These hawkers meet a definite public demand, but some obstruct streets which are already congested, thereby creating health problems and even fire hazards in certain areas. The introduction in early 1969 of District Hawker Consultative Committees within the urban areas, chaired by City District Officers and with, hawker representa- tives, district Kaifong officials, ordinary citizens and Government officials connected with hawkers as members has already proved of value in providing opportunities for discussion and co-operation between hawkers and the authorities. The Urban Council's policy on hawkers is to work towards a reduction in street hawking by finding suitable off-street bazaars, into which the hawkers may be

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       moved. If there are no off-street sites available, then the hawkers are to be concentrated in streets of minor traffic significance where they can carry on their business with the minimum of inconvenience to other sections of the community. This policy has found growing support and acceptance from the public and its implementation is well supported by branches of Government concerned with hawkers.

       The enforcement of legislation governing hawkers should be carried out by the Hawker Control Force, established in 1960 to relieve the Police of this responsibility. The Force has an establish- ment of 530 officers and men who operate in 31 designated parts of the urban areas. Although in many districts, particularly of Kowloon, the Police still remain the sole authority for control, the Hawker Control Force is expanding gradually and provision for additional operational facilities are being planned in new market projects.

1969 saw the completion of a new abattoir costing $25 million at Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon. This abattoir can slaughter 3,600 pigs and 400 cattle a day, as can its counterpart at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island.

RESEARCH

       The collaborative work on the histological typing of salivary gland tumours and the joint study on respiratory virus infection in children under the auspices of the World Health Organisation continue. Study of the serological response of children given attenuated live measles vaccine in 1966 has been completed. Laboratory investi- gation related to the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, a joint under- taking with the Medical Research Council, is still proceeding, and in collaboration with the University Orthopaedic Unit a study of spinal tuberculosis is being carried out. Work on bacteriophage typing of non-cholera vibrios continues.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Now, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the responsi- bility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon foot-hills, called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories are mostly located in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them, with a few exceptions, are recorded in the Registrar General's Department. The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

      Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction. All land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. The realised premium is payable by a percentage of the upset price on the fall of the hammer and the balance within a short period after the sale, except in the case of industrial lots where it can be paid by instalments. However, a concession was introduced during the year in respect of sites of high value in Central Areas

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when the upset price of the site is $10 millions or more. This provides for payment by instalments with 10 per cent of the realised price being payable within one month of the auction, five per cent on each of the first and second anniversaries of the sale and 10 per cent on the next eight anniversaries. No interest is charged for this concession. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools up to the full market value and payment by instalments for public utilities.

      In order to assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, a concession has been introduced which, subject to certain conditions, permits the sub-letting of parts of the building without having to pay the outstanding balance of premium. Previously the balance of premium outstanding became payable in the event of any sub-letting.

      By a further concession the owners of such lots can now assign them before fulfilment of the building covenant or payment of the outstanding instalments of premium subject to the assignee under- taking these responsibilities. This concession enables undeveloped industrial lots to be brought into use when the original purchaser no longer wishes to develop the lot himself. It applies to any industrial lots acquired prior to January 1, 1967 and is operative for a period of two years from July 18, 1968.

In recent years, groups of 75-year non-renewable Crown leases granted chiefly in Kowloon, have been expiring. Terms and con- ditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of

cases.

      On re-grant, the boundaries of the lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines etc, but the leases will not be re- granted if the land is needed for a public purpose. In these cases the Government pays ex-gratia compensation for the buildings on the lot.

      A further concession in respect of non-renewable leases enables lessees who do not wish to pay the re-grant premium and redevelop to hold over for a period up to five years from 1968 at an annual rent equivalent to the net income arising from the property. This

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     concession is only applicable to property which in the opinion of the Director of Public Works is under-developed. Lessees of fully developed post-war property are not eligible for this concession.

The number of 75-year renewable leases falling due for renewal is increasing and during the year a Consolidated Statement of the terms and conditions for renewal of these leases was issued. The Statement divides lots into two groups: the first group being lots in the New Territories including those Survey District Lots in New Kowloon registered in a District Land Office. The second group comprises the lots on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon and New Kowloon together with the new grant lots in the New Territories registered in the Victoria Land Office.

Renewal of the leases of the first group of lots will be effected by means of legislation as from the expiration of the first term in 1973, without change in Crown rent. In the case of the second group, renewal may be effected under the legal option contained in the Crown lease or by means of one of four other ways offered by Government. The legal option contained in the 75-year renewable Crown leases gives right of renewal for a further period at a re-assessed Crown rent which is normally 'such rent as shall be fairly and impartially fixed as the fair and reasonable rental value of the ground at the date of renewal'.

The first way of effecting renewal other than by the legal option is for the lessee to apply for renewal at the expiry of the original lease term but, in lieu of paying an annual re-assessed Crown rent, to pay in a lump sum the capitalised value of such re-assessed rent. The second and third ways are designed specifically to meet the needs of lessees who wish to redevelop lots the leases of which have less than 20 years to run and provide alternative methods for the surrender of the existing lease and for the grant of a new lease for a non-renewable term plus the tag-end of the original term. Under the first method, the premium is calculated in the same way as if the lease were for a 75-year non-renewable term and is payable in a lump sum or by three equal annual instalments including interest at 10 per cent. By the second method the premium is replaced by a re-assessed Crown rent which is payable throughout the new term. Allowance is made in each case for the value of the tag-end of the original term.

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The fourth way caters for the lessee of an under-developed lot who does not wish to redevelop and allows him to renew his lease at a Crown rent lower than the full rental value of the land if he is prepared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal. The covenant can be modified at any time redevelopment is required subject to the payment of an appropriate fee.

      The demand for land continues unabated and future expansion must be in the New Territories. Outline development plans have therefore been prepared, or are under preparation, for building new towns and expanding existing market towns in areas best suited to industry and high-density housing. These are Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Castle Peak, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po, Shek Wu Hui, and Junk Bay. However, most of these development areas contain a high proportion of leased agricultural land and there is not enough Crown land to serve public purposes. As development proceeds, Crown lessees are invited to surrender agricultural and village or rural building land in exchange for a re-grant of building land with boundaries conforming to the development layout. Within planning layout areas these exchanges are normally negotiated on a foot-for-foot basis for building land surrendered, or on a five-feet-for-two-feet basis for the agricultural land surrendered, with a premium payable equal to the difference in value between the land surrendered and that re-granted. This system has proved acceptable to landowners and the capital commitment has been eased by the issue of letters (known generally as letters 'A' and 'B') entitling any landowner who voluntarily surrenders land at the time when it is required for a public purpose to a future grant of land when this becomes available. These entitlement letters are freely assignable and although economic factors have placed some strain on the system in recent years, the position is rapidly improving as the demand for building land and thus for entitlement letters returns to normal.

LAND SALES

During the year there was a marked revival of interest in land purchases, particularly industrial land. The demand for land was such that the system of sale by programme announced in advance

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was re-introduced in July. From that month onwards auctions were held, in the main, on two days each month; the sales being well attended and bidding keen. The market had been quiet since the period of over-development up to 1965, but prices realised since the sale programme re-started are back to the peak levels of 1964. The effects have also been evidenced in the increased numbers of applications received for modifications, re-grants of 75-year non-renewable leases and renewals of 75-year renewable leases as well as the increase in price and numbers of private transactions.

Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1968-9, totalled approx- imately $38,138,000, made up as follows: about $17,852,000 from 15 sales by auction and tender; $9,526,000 from private treaty sales; $2,620,000 from modifications of lease conditions, extensions, and exchanges; and $8,140,000 from re-grants of expired 75-year leases. Revenue from land transactions in the New Territories during the same period was $5,620,000.

Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant and may be occupied either on temporary annual permit or on short-term tenancy. The 1968-9 revenue from this type of tenure was approximately $6,715,000 in the urban area and $1,240,000 in the New Territories (the last figure includes modification of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, permits are cancelled and the number decreases year by year. Short-term tenancies, however, are increasing. Revenue derived in rent from the leasing of government-owned buildings in whole or part totalled $7,042,630.

Two matters of particular interest during this year have been the question of the provision of land for containerisation of shipping cargoes and the sale of a site in Kowloon for possible development as a hotel. It is proposed that a container terminal should be established at Kwai Chung and draft tender documents which would enable private enterprise to bid for leases for the various berths were in preparation at the end of the year. The 48,850 square-feet site in Kowloon suitable for a hotel was sold at a

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premium of $130 million in November 1969, this premium being payable by instalments over 10 years without interest as described earlier in this chapter.

SURVEY

      Land Survey in the Colony serves two main purposes; first the delineation of town planning layouts, the setting out of public works and the boundaries of private lots and government sites, etc, i.e. cadastral survey; and second the production of plans and

maps.

      Cadastral survey continued at a reduced tempo during the early part of the year, although there was a noticeable quickening of demand following the renewal interest in private development which occurred in the latter part of the year.

Plans at the very large scale of 50 feet to one inch (1:600) are now available for the whole of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon and many of these can be supplied with contours at five feet vertical interval. Over half of these plans were completely revised during the year and brought up-to-date.

Some seven hundred survey sheets have been ordered to cover the unmapped part of the New Territories at a scale of 100 feet to one inch (1:1,200), and most of these have been supplied. The contract will be completed by the end of next year.

A new drawing technique, in which lines are scribed on a plastic sheet, was introduced this year and the existing 1:2,400 scale series is being re-drawn. It is expected that this technique will be extended to both the 1:600 and 1:200 scale series in 1970.

Field-checking of the 1:10,000 scale map series produced by the Directorate of Overseas Survey in Britain continued during the year and it is expected that the full series of 62 sheets will have been published by early 1970. Special equipment for producing proof copies of coloured maps was purchased during the year to enable revision of the 1:10,000 scale series to be carried out and the first revised sheet will be printed early in 1970. The revision of this series will continue during next year and it is hoped also to produce during 1971 the first sheets of a dual language edition.

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      As the 1:10,000 scale map series nears completion, the Directorate of Overseas Surveys is reducing this series photographically to produce a 1:25,000 series. The first sheet of this new series, out of a total of 20 to cover the whole Colony, should be available in 1970.

Aerial photography continued during the year. This has been used to assist in the revision of maps and to provide photographic records for other departments, and has included coverage of reclamation areas and development sites for the Civil Engineering Office, harbour areas for Marine Department, catchment areas for Waterworks Office, and a record of fast-developing areas in the New Territories for the NT Administration.

      Dr P. M. Allen left the Colony in April having completed the Geological Survey of the Colony. To accompany the interim geological report, a geological map has been produced by the Crown Lands and Survey Office as a series of overlays at scale 1:25,000 (to be used with the existing L8811 topographic maps). No date has yet been fixed for the completion of the final report, but a brief digest describing the geological pattern of the Colony has been provided by Dr Allen.

TOWN PLANNING

Since 1953 plans have been prepared for the 37 planning areas which make up the main urbanised portion of the Colony and for 13 towns of various sizes in the New Territories. These plans are of two types: statutory plans prepared under the Town Planning Ordinance; and outline development and detailed layout plans which are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the re- development of private land but which have no statutory effect.

      The Town Planning Board constituted under the Town Planning Ordinance comprises seven official and three unofficial members. Plans of areas where development is likely to affect private land or interests are prepared on the instructions of the Governor under the board's direction. Statutory plans for 20 planning areas have been approved; of these, eight have been referred back to the Town Planning Board for amendment or replacement; a further 10 draft plans are under preparation.

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      The basic data for preparation of a Colony Outline Plan has been collated and the plan itself is under preparation. The plan, due to be completed in 1970, provides a basis for land development programmes, for long term transportation and other public or private planning and for a more balanced approach to the prepara- tion and review of statutory plans, outline development plans and detailed layout plans. The plan itself will require continuous review to maintain its effectiveness as a guide.

PRIVATE BUILDING

      The signs of renewed interest in private building development referred to last year were sustained in 1969. The year saw a marked interest in all sectors of the property market by both local and overseas investors, particularly noticeable in high-rental apart- ments, factories and hotels. The dramatic revival of interest in private building was borne out by the number of new building schemes processed and approved by the Public Works Department during the year. These amounted to 730 being more than double the number approved in 1968.

However, the total cost of new buildings in 1969, as reported to the Building Authority by architects on completion of their projects, fell to $386,384,858.08 which is the lowest level since 1962, reflect- ing the comparatively quiescent state of the construction industry over the last three years and highlighting the present scarcity of all forms of accommodation. In comparison with the $501 million spent on private buildings completed in 1968, the 1969 figure represents even less in actual buildings completed because of the considerable increases in the costs of labour and materials which have occurred over the year (estimated by some developers to have reached about 20 per cent by the end of the year). A small increase in capital expenditure is expected to be recorded next year on the basis of the increased number of buildings under construction this year.

      Additional checking procedures for new building schemes were introduced to ensure that Government's planning in the fields of Urban Renewal, Mass Transport and Road Construction were not frustrated by private development. Since this planning is essen- tially long-term, it has not always proved possible to give landowners

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immediate and precise information about the effect upon their own development schemes. The revival of the property market has also produced a marked increase in the number of plans submitted for approval. The result has been that delays are occurring in the processing of plans for the first time for many years but every effort is being made to keep these delays to a minimum.

The opening of the 800-bedroom Hong Kong Hotel linked with the Ocean Terminal shopping centre coincides with a renewal of interest in hotel construction. As jumbo-jets begin to supplant existing forms of air travel, it is expected that there will be a further large increase in the number of tourists visiting Hong Kong. In anticipation of the demand for accommodation a number of medium and large hotel schemes are known to be either in the planning stage or under construction on both sides of the harbour. In September a circular letter was issued clarifying the concessions announced in October 1968 under the Buildings Ordinance for hotel buildings. This letter defined more precisely the terms under which the Building Authority will permit more intensive develop- ment of sites for hotels.

      Amongst other private developments of note completed during the year was the $20 million, 28-storey, American Insurance Association commercial building. This is constructed with prestressed column-free floors and is prominently located above Happy Valley approximately two miles to the east of the main business area of Central Victoria. The new 24-storey St George's Building situated between the Mandarin Hotel and Union House costing about $40 million is easily identified by its bronze metal and glass curtain wall cladding.

The year was free of typhoons and the dangerous buildings divi- sion of the Buildings Ordinance Office was able to continue uninterrupted with its task of dealing with buildings which due either to dilapidation or to structural damage have become so dangerous that, in the public interest, they must be either demolished or made safe. The closure and demolition of 164 buildings mainly in the Western district of Hong Kong Island resulted in the eviction of 7,337 people. The steps taken by the Government to alleviate distress in these circumstances are described elsewhere in this

report.

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       Fires, in increasing numbers, are causing severe structural damage to post-war buildings, particularly reinforced concrete multi-storied flatted factories even though these buildings were designed in accordance with international standards for fire-resisting construction. Although complete demolition has rarely been found necessary, structural repairs can be costly and frustrating to factory

owners.

        The activities of the three control and enforcement sections of the Buildings Ordinance Office, which are responsible for Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories respectively, are now becoming more widely known, as indicated by the number of complaints received (over 823 in 1969) and letters to the corre- spondence columns of the local newspapers. The task of these sections, which is an onerous one, is to investigate and take action against illegal alterations in private buildings. Priority is given to the removal of those illegal works which present a significant fire, structural or health hazard. A total of 3,885 statutory notices affecting 601 buildings were served during the year.

URBAN RENEWAL

The 1965 Report of the Working Party on Slum Clearance proposed the creation of an Urban Renewal District and a smaller Pilot Scheme Area in the west central area of Hong Kong Island. In 1969 approval was given for the planning and engineering feasibility study prepared by the Public Works Department for the Pilot Scheme Area covering some 13 acres between Hollywood Road and Queen's Road Central. There are some 330 lots of private land within the Pilot Scheme Area which will have to be acquired. Nearly all post-war completed buildings and some buildings now under construction will be allowed to remain. It is proposed that the clearance and redevelopment should be staged over a number of years so as to minimise the effect on existing residents and to enable them to be rehoused, at least to some degree, within the existing area.

The larger Urban Renewal District comprises some 250 acres in the Western and Sai Ying Pun districts of Hong Kong Island. The Town Planning Board has been instructed to prepare an outline zoning plan for this area and it is hoped that it will be available for

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public inspection in 1970. In the meantime funds have been voted to enable Government to acquire sites which are considered essential to prevent further deterioration of the environment and to provide space for essential community facilities.

RESETTLEMENT

       Hong Kong's resettlement estates have attracted world-wide attention. Hundreds of thousands of people are being provided with homes by a building programme which, for speed and size, has few, if any, parallels. By the end of 1969 the Hong Kong Government had become, through this programme, the landlord of about 1,128,697 people or 28.2 per cent of the population.

The resettlement building programme is reviewed annually by the Housing Board to ensure that the needs of resettlement are balanced with those of other types of housing. The Government has accepted as a working basis the board's recommendations in its report for 1967-8. These include a recommendation that the balance between the resettlement and government low-cost building programmes should be adjusted to allow 425,000 individual units of resettlement accommodation and 410,000 units of government low-cost housing to be built between April 1, 1968 and March 31, 1974. This recommendation reflects the Government's policy of gradually shifting the emphasis of its housing programme from resettlement to government low-cost housing.

       In 1964 the original 7-storey resettlement block design in- troduced in 1954 was abandoned in favour of a new design. The new blocks were first of eight storeys and then of sixteen. They differ fundamentally from the older ones in that access is from a central corridor on each floor instead of from external common balconies. This makes it possible to give each room a private balcony. Other improvements include refuse chutes, the installation of electrical power and light points in domestic rooms (which had been the tenant's responsibility in the older designs), lifts in the 16-storey blocks and private lavatories and water taps in place of the former communal latrines and wash-houses. The latest design is being built to a larger room-grid to give effect to a Housing Board recommendation that families should be allocated 35 square feet of space for each adult on occupation. By the end of 1969, the

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total number of blocks of all types administered by the Resettlement Department was 480. Between them these blocks housed 1,071,129 people, some 49.3 per cent of them in the newer types.

      A pilot scheme was in progress during the year for converting a block in an old estate into self-contained flats, each with its own lavatory and water supply and some with their own balconies.

Rents are fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimburse- ment of the capital cost over 40 years (at 34 per cent interest), plus all annually recurrent expenditure including the cost of administra- tion and maintenance. Where appropriate, an element for water charges and rates is included in the rent. Rents vary according to the design of the block and the size of the room: the all-in rent of a standard room of 120 square feet in the oldest type of block is $18 a month (having been raised, for the first time, from $14 in 1965), while the all-in rent of a standard room of 135 square feet in a new block is $34. Despite the large population and the wide variety of rents charged, the number of tenants failing to pay is still extremely small. Of the total of $79 million due in rents for the year, only about 0.051 per cent had to be written off as irrecover- able arrears.

The resettlement estates are virtually townships (the population of Tsz Wan Shan estate, for instance, is around 129,620) and a wide range of community facilities must be provided. Some ground floor rooms are let as shops or workshops. Others are used by government departments or private welfare organisations as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops in the older blocks are put to use. Most of them have been allocated to voluntary agencies who operate primary schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. In the newer estates separate six-storey buildings (each with 24 classrooms) are provided for primary school accommodation and in the latest blocks provision has been made for self-contained kindergarten accommodation. Some estates have community centres and, in the latest ones, the tendency is to concentrate ancillary services into separate buildings for welfare services, restaurants and administration.

Provision is also made for the small factories which are often found in squatter areas or in areas under annual Crown land

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permits. To enable the operators of these factories to continue earning a livelihood when these areas are cleared for permanent development, multi-storey resettlement factory blocks have been built. Because of the need to use a simple design in order to keep construction costs, and therefore rents, as low as possible, a number of trades cannot be accommodated in the multi-storey factory blocks and consequently some factories can be resettled only if the owners are willing to change their trades.

       The latest factory blocks are seven storeys high and have units of 256 square feet. At the end of the year there were 22 resettlement flatted factory blocks, containing a total of 1,860,000 square feet of net working space, mostly situated in or near existing resettle- ment estates. Rents are calculated to cover administration costs and a return on capital within 21 years at five per cent interest. In the latest factories these rents vary from 55 cents a square foot a month for a ground floor unit to 25 cents for one on the top floor, all rents being inclusive of rates.

       There still remain 15 cottage resettlement areas in various parts of the urban area and the New Territories. The population of these areas has diminished as clearance for development continues and the occupants are resettled in multi-storey estates. However, cottage areas still house 57,568 people. Several of these areas contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types largely established by voluntary agencies which generously continue to maintain these facilities.

SQUATTER CONTROL AND CLEARANCE

       All squatting on Crown land is by definition unlawful, but illegal structures are 'tolerated' if they were included in squatter surveys made from time to time, the latest being in 1964. When the land on which they stand is needed for development they are then cleared and their occupants resettled into the estates. 'Untolerated' structures are demolished, as are extensions to tolerated huts. People who are genuinely homeless may apply for a site in one of the Resettlement Department's licensed areas, on which they can build a hut on payment of a small licence fee.

       The squatter population continues to decrease gradually and at the end of 1969 was estimated to be about 364,209 as compared

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with 463,000 in April 1965. Some 12,776 people were admitted to licensed areas during the year, and at the end of December the population of these areas stood at 32,645.

      Liaison Officers of the Resettlement Department maintain close contact with squatters and, where necessary, arrange for minor public works.

      The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettlement Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non-prohibited areas. In prohibited areas, such as the margins of roads, development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with permission from the District Office.

       The categories of persons eligible for resettlement were laid down in order of priority in the 1964 White Paper 'Review of Policies for Squatter Control, Resettlement and Government Low- Cost Housing' and subsequently revised on the recommendation of the Housing Board. These categories and the number of people resettled under each head during the year are:

Priority 1: Compassionate cases, including certain victims of natural disasters and persons recommended by the Director of Social Welfare 9,721.

Priority 2: Rent Advance Scheme for families displaced from

dangerous buildings 3,740.

Priority 3: Development clearances 23,646.

Priority 4: Relief from overcrowding 22,406.

Priority 5: Pavement dwellers, including rear lane dwellers

946.

       During the year revised rates of ex-gratia allowance were approved for pigbreeders on clearance and new rates were introduced for poultry farmers on clearance. A new proposal to pay a cash allow- ance to squatter shopkeepers on clearance in lieu of the allocation of a resettlement shop was approved during the year.

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       Clearances undertaken during the year freed 120.08 acres of land for development. A total of $275,373.86 was paid as ex-gratia compensation to people who had opened up land for cultivation without legal tenure before October 1954 and to pigbreeders. 326 shops and workshops were cleared, of which 211 were resettled and 115 were found to be ineligible for resettlement. In addition, 87 factories had to be cleared. Of these, 42 were resettled into resettlement factory estates, while 27 were not eligible for resettle- ment and 18 rejected resettlement.

HOUSING

       The most significant factor in the provision of housing in Hong Kong in recent years has been the steady increase in the proportion of the population living in government and government-aided housing, which is now about 40 per cent. On the other hand there has been a sharp decrease in the amount of private domestic build- ing during the past two or three years, as compared with the period of over-development up to 1966. As the demand for accommoda- tion of this kind has remained high, the number of unoccupied domestic premises has fallen steadily, from 14,496 in January 1968 to 7,282 in January 1969 and to 4,182 in August 1969, the lowest figure since 1963. The resulting shortage was reflected, in the latter part of the year, by some increases in rents, particularly for higher-grade accommodation, and on the tendency of landlords to recover premises at the end of a lease for sale. At the same time, there was evidence in the increasing number of new projects sub- mitted to the Building Authority and the increase in private land transactions that the property market was reviving rapidly. It can therefore be expected that there will be an appreciable increase in the amount of new domestic accommodation coming available in the reasonably near future and an easing in the present acute shortage of domestic premises.

       At the end of 1969, domestic accommodation in the urban areas (excluding resettlement and government-aided housing schemes) comprised 191,000 tenement floors, 56,200 small flats, 22,900 large flats, and 1,050 houses.

       The Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited was established in 1964 on the recommendation of the Finance of

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      Home Ownership Committee and with a share capital subscribed by the Government, the Commonwealth Development Corpora- tion and four banks. It provides long-term loans up to $50,000 each for the purchase of approved domestic flats by persons earning $700 to $2,500 per month. This agency is assisted by the Government in other ways including a guarantee for a series of bond issues. Up to the end of 1969 57 development containing 4,868 flats has been approved by the agency for loan purposes. During the year 1,266 loan applications amounting to $33.1 million were approved, compared with $51.5 million for the previous year. Outstanding mortgage loans provided by the agency amounted to $8.7 million at the end of 1969.

The Hong Kong Housing Authority, a statutory body created in 1954 by the Housing Ordinance (Chapter 283), aims to provide suitable accommodation for as many as possible of those residents living in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions. The authority had housed 167,405 people in 27,379 self-contained flats in eight estates by the end of the year. One of these, Wah Fu Estate, was three-quarters completed; the last phase was expected to be ready for occupation by spring of 1970. This is the largest estate ever built by the authority, providing 7,788 domestic flats for 53,740 people. Another estate under construction is Ping Shek Estate in Kowloon. On completion in July 1970, it will provide homes for 29,208 people in 4,566 flats. An estate containing 6,063 flats for some 41,500 people will be built at Ho Man Tin, and site formation started before the end of the year.

       When all the estates under construction and planning are com- pleted, the authority will house 218,595 people in 34,888 flats built at a capital cost of $331 million, $260 million from government loans and $71 million through self-financing. At the end of 1969, the authority had spent $244 million, and its rental income for the year was $32 million. The Government provides land at one-third of the estimated market value. Rents ranging from $53 a month for a four-person flat to $205 a month for a 13-person flat are calculated on the direct expenditure of each estate including a charge for amortisation of the cost of building and land, and a small budgeted surplus, which forms an element of self-financing for future building schemes.

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Government low-cost housing estates are built by the Public Works Department and managed by the Housing Authority on behalf of the Government. All expenditure, capital and recurrent, is met from government revenue. The first of these estates was completed in 1963, and at the end of 1969 there were 10 estates under management, including three partly completed. Another five projects were under development-one in Kwun Tong, one in Ho Man Tin and three in Kwai Chung. The estates under manage- ment have a total capacity of 160,771 people in 29,307 flats; by the time the eight estates are completed, about 430,000 people will have low-cost homes in the 15 estates. The government low-cost housing programme is reviewed annually by the Housing Board.

At the end of the year, the Housing Authority had under its management 27,379 flats with a total capacity of 167,405 people. Since April 1, 1969, the authority has maintained a combined waiting list from which to find tenants to fill vacancies in both Housing Authority and government low-cost housing estates, present or future. This list will remain open indefinitely and accepts registration of eligible applicants at any time, free of charge.

The Housing Authority flats cater for families with a family income from $400 to $1,250 per month; government low-cost housing flats, a family income not exceeding $500 a month. 'Family income' is defined for this purpose as the total of the main or permanent emoluments accruing to the principal wage earner, together with 50 per cent or such higher proportion as the authority might from time to time decide, of his casual earnings and of earnings of other members of the family. Applications are processed in the order of registration. At the end of the year, the waiting list con- tained 112,561 applications, of which 10,600 had been passed after investigation for allocation of flats.

       All the accommodation under the control of the Housing Authority is maintained and managed at a high standard. Its staff are all government servants working as the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. The authority reimburses all staff salaries to the Government, plus a percentage surcharge to meet indirect staff costs such as pensions and medical treatment.

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Voluntary organisations also contribute much in the housing field by building low-cost homes for lower and middle income groups. The largest of these is the Hong Kong Housing Society, a pioneer in the field of low-cost housing in existence since 1948. The first estate at Sheung Li Uk was built in 1952. Up to the end of 1969 the society had built 17,866 flats for 111,689 people in 14 estates including the partly completed 2,765-flat estate at Kau Pui Lung Road, Kowloon. During the year, 678 flats were completed to house 3,811 people. The development of an estate at Tai Hang Road was in progress and site formation started during the year. By the time these two estates are completed, the society will have housed 147,698 people in 23,544 flats. The housing schemes are financed from government loans as well as self-generated funds. Other voluntary bodies include the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation, Ltd, the Hong Kong Model Housing Society and the Hong Kong Economic Housing Society.

      The Government offers 15 per cent of the accommodation in government low-cost housing estates to junior local staff on the same tenancy terms as for the public. It also promotes home- ownership by the grant of loan funds to co-operative building societies formed by local officers; 225 societies with 4,695 members had received loans. Besides, two new housing estates consisting of 727 flats were being built by the Government for sale to local officers. 160 flats in the first stage of Lung Cheung Court were sold and occupied during the year.

      A number of commercial undertakings also provide quarters or housing loans for their staff. During the year, the Hong Kong Electric Co Ltd completed a block of 400 flats at Fortress Hill.

       The Housing Board is an advisory body first appointed in 1965 and reconstituted in 1968. Under the chairmanship of an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, it has five other unofficial members with housing or sociological experience and eight official members concerned with housing matters. The board keeps under review the building progress in all types of housing, assesses the present and future housing needs and the balance between types of housing, and advises on administrative measures to improve co-ordination between housing agencies.

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RENT CONTROL

       Rent control, instituted immediately after the war, was embodied in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance of 1947, which restricted rent by reference to pre-war levels, while exempting new and sub- stantially reconstructed buildings from control. By 1954 permitted increases in standard rents reached 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises; there have been no further increases for controlled premises.

       Redevelopment of controlled premises is covered by a provision in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance by which premises may be excluded from the provisions of the ordinance by order of the Governor in Council or the Governor, depending on whether or not an appeal has been made against the tenancy tribunal's recommendation, the payment of compensation to the tenants being invariably one of the conditions imposed.

       In addition, the ordinance was amended in 1968 to permit agreements by which a tenant of protected premises may accept compensation from his landlord in return for vacating the premises, subject to the agreement being certified as voluntary by the Secretariat for Home Affairs; 130 such agreements were certified during 1969. Further proposals in the field of rent legislation were under consideration at the end of the year.

       Since 1953 two tenancy inquiry bureaux, one each in Hong Kong and Kowloon, have operated as part of the Secretariat for Home Affairs to help in the smooth working of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. Their principal task is to supply factual information to tenancy tribunals when a landlord applies for an exclusion order, or when a pre-war building is declared dangerous by the Building Authority. Since 1964 the bureaux have also been responsible for paying advances of compensation to tenants who are required to vacate dangerous buildings.

       The bureaux also provide general advice and assistance in tenancy matters and perform statutory functions under various ordinances.

MULTI-STOREY BUILDING MANAGEMENT

       The problems caused by the multiple ownership of many of the large multi-storey buildings which have been built in Hong Kong

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and Kowloon in recent years have been under study for some time, and a draft bill, which will enable the individual owners in a building to form themselves into a corporation for the proper management of the common areas, was published in May for public comment. In general the bill has been welcomed, though consultations with a wide variety of organisations and individuals concerned with this problem have produced a number of comments and suggestions on points of detail, which were being studied at the end of the year.

LAND OFFICE

       The Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department, is responsible for the registration of all instruments affecting land other than those affecting New Territories land registrable in District Offices; the settling and registration of con- ditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases; the granting of mining leases; and advice to the Government generally on matters relating to land.

       The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any sub- sequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable considera- tion. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it.

The number of instruments registered during the year rose by 14.7 per cent from last year's total of 48,365 to 55,482. The figure included 1,238 assignments of whole buildings or sites (against 736 in 1968), 22,050 assignments of flats and other units in multi-storey buildings (against 20,826), 4,896 agreements for sale of such flats and units (against 2,799), and 12,479 mortgages (against 10,726). As a consequence of the increase in new building projects, the number of building mortgages registered during the year rose from 55 in 1968 to 121, and the number of orders excluding premises from the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which usually have to

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be obtained prior to redevelopment of the sites of old buildings, increased by 16 to 27. Orders requiring redevelopment of the sites of demolished buildings totalled 77. In 1968 there were 122. The number of searches, which, as a search must be made prior to every land transaction, provides a good index to the state of the property market, rose by 28.3 per cent from 58,810 to 75,446. Compared with 1968 the grand total of considerations recorded in all instruments registered rose by $877,000,000, or 38.8 per cent, to $3,139,000,000.

The volume of work in several other sections of the Land Office was influenced by the prevailing market conditions. During the year, 173 conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc were registered as compared with 110 in 1968. Consents granted to forward sales of flats in those cases where the conditions under which the land is held give the necessary power of control increased substantially by 79 to 134. The number of modifications and deeds of variation of lease conditions-often a prelude to multi-storey development-- fell by one to 38. Despite the increased activity in other spheres, 512 Crown leases were issued as compared with 466 in 1968.

      At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners contained the names of 171,947 people (an increase of 14,124 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being merely owners or part owners of small individual flats.

9

Social Welfare

THE Social Welfare Department is responsible for carrying out Government's policies for social welfare and it operates through four main divisions: the Group and Community Work Division, the Family Services Division, the Probation and Correction Divi- sion, and the Training Section. The first division aims at the develop- ment of responsible citizenship through promotion of regular and seasonal community activities; the second is responsible for a wide range of social welfare services to help individuals and families; the third provides probation services in the courts and rehabilitation in its correctional institutions for young offenders; and the Training Section provides in-service training for the staff of the department and of voluntary welfare organisations.

The Government is advised on all matters of social welfare policy and on applications from voluntary welfare organisations for sub- ventions by a Social Welfare Advisory Committee. This is a com- mittee appointed by the Governor consisting of leading unofficials, chaired by the Director of Social Welfare.

      The department maintains close contact and co-operation with many voluntary welfare organisations, which generally play a supple- mentary role in the overall provision of social welfare services. Appendix XLVI lists 86 voluntary welfare organisations which are affiliated to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Many of these organisations receive a government subvention but they also attract considerable financial support for their activities both overseas and locally. Local support may be gauged in the light of donations made particularly to the Community Chest of Hong Kong which raised some $6.5 million in aid of the work of 43 member organisations.

Social welfare services continue to grow and expand. Apart from increased spending for the maintenance of existing services and the establishment of new capital projects generally associated with normal progress, there have also been significant new developments,

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including extension of services into the newer resettlement communi- ties through the establishment of estate welfare buildings, the ex- periment of the District Community Office scheme, and a complete review of the Government's programme of public assistance.

GROUP AND COMMUNITY WORK

      Community development connotes a process by which people of an area are encouraged to acquire a better appreciation of local problems and to co-operate in solving them. This concept is inherent in the kaifong welfare movement in the urban areas, the rural committees in the New Territories and a host of district and clansmen's organisations, as well as other voluntary bodies which promote charitable and welfare activities.

      The Social Welfare Department plays a leading role in this activity and is responsible for the operation of eight community, social and youth centres, two more of which-for Chai Wan and Yuen Long-are under planning and construction. These centres help develop social consciousness among the population of develop- ing townships and encourage the formation of groups sharing com- mon interests, through which residents are encouraged to develop a sense of responsibility initially to the group and eventually to the community to which they belong. The centres also help to weld divergent groups into a more integrated community.

In February 1969 the first four District Community Officers were appointed on an experimental basis. Their appointments reflect a recognition that the need for community and group services is evident as much in the older, more established urban districts as in the resettlement areas and new townships. The four District Community Officers work in close relationship with the City District Officers of Yau Ma Tei and Sham Shui Po in Kowloon, and of the Western and Wan Chai districts on Hong Kong Island. Their task is to foster the growth of responsible attitudes towards citizenship and they achieve this by encouraging people to take a more active part in community projects.

       The Social Welfare Department works in close co-operation with voluntary welfare organisations such as the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, the Scouts Association, the Girl Guides, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the YMCA, the YWCA, the Duke

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of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, Caritas and many others in a variety of community activities. In co-operation with Government these organisations sponsored a Colony-wide programme of activ- ities during the summer in which upwards of 1.2 million children and young persons took part. The department's summer activities resulted in the formation of some 18 self-directing youth groups.

FAMILY SERVICES

      The family services of the department consist of a widespread network of nine casework offices and supporting services for child care, the welfare of women, relief of those in need and reha- bilitation of the disabled. The number of families and individuals receiving such services continued to increase and at the end of the year amounted to some 20,158.

      The child care services of the department are responsible for the co-ordination of day care centres provided mainly by voluntary welfare organisations and for adoptions. The department itself does not run any child care institutions, with the exception of a reception centre which provides temporary care for children found abandoned or wandering. The department is responsible, however, for the ad- ministration of subventions to some 77 non-profit-making nurseries and 17 play centres providing a total of 12,465 places at the end of the year, and maintains close liaison with the Child Care Institutions and Day Nursery Supervisory Committees of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service as well as with UNICEF. Legal adoptions of children, made in accordance with the provisions of the Adoption Ordinance, require investigations by the department in the first instance as to the suitability of the adoptive parents. Although some adoptions are arranged between families the majority are in fact made in respect of abandoned children and orphans for whom the department is responsible for finding suitable homes and parents either locally or overseas. A total of 340 adoptions were investi- gated during the year.

       Children and women in moral danger are assisted partly through counselling and guidance for the individual as well as his or her family, partly through the relief of such immediate anxieties as care and accommodation for unmarried mothers and partly through vocational training. This work is done by two reputable voluntary

:

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welfare organisations, the Congregation of Sisters of the Good Shep- herd and the Po Leung Kuk, and also by the department's two day-training centres.

      In the field of rehabilitation the aim of the department is to give disabled people, where possible, the opportunity of becoming independent and self-supporting members of the community. This generally involves three things: treatment to help the disabled to adjust to their disabilities; vocational training to encourage them to make the fullest possible use of their residual skills and their restora- tion to society through placement in remunerative employment or appropriate schooling. Rehabilitation services are provided through 19 centres and institutions and are supplemented by the work of more than a dozen voluntary welfare organisations. The continuing expansion of these services was marked by the opening during the year of the department's Kai Nang Training Centre and Hostel, and the Po Leung Kuk's annex for mentally retarded children. Various improvements were made to existing rehabilitation insti- tutions. Success in rehabilitating the disabled can be gauged by the department's success in getting them jobs. During the year suitable employment was found for 210 persons out of 270 applying for jobs.

      During the year 59 major and minor disasters, resulting from rainstorms, typhoons, fires, shipwrecks and the closure of dangerous buildings, etc, rendered some 11,120 persons homeless and destitute. The department provided emergency relief in the form of hot meals and temporary shelter as well as financial aid under the Community Relief Trust Fund, from which payments amounting to $766,983.83 were made.

One of the most important developments of the year was a review of policy for Government's programme of public assistance. Con- sideration is being given to the possibility of changing the present scheme of public assistance, which is based largely on the issue of dry rations to needy families with cash assistance in limited special cases only, to a scheme for cash payments directed towards enabling needy families to maintain a minimum subsistence level.

The first estate welfare building was opened in the Ham Tin Resettlement Estate in January, the second in Shek Lei Resettlement

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      Estate in Tsuen Wan in September, and the third in Sau Mau Ping in October. Three additional buildings are under construction and planning for yet another three is under way. These centres are being provided in a ratio of one to every 50,000 residents. They are each of six storeys and provide accommodation for non-profit day nurser- ies, libraries, group and communal activity areas, family planning clinics, general out-patients clinics and departmental family case- work offices.

PROBATION AND CORRECTION

      The probation and correction services of the department are concerned with the supervision of offenders on probation and the operation of juveniles in institutions. The probation service has a staff of 50 trained officers working with the courts. At the end of the year a total of 1,955 persons were under supervision on probation and a total of 484 social investigations had been carried out at the request of the courts, including cases referred for welfare assistance of some kind. The correctional service operates five institutions: The Castle Peak Boys' Home is a reformatory school for 150 boys aged 14 and below 16; the O Pui Shan Boys' Home, opened in June 1969, accommodates 140 boys aged below 14; a combined remand home and probation home in Yau Yat Chuen in Kowloon accommodates a total of 160 boys; and another combined home in Ma Tau Wei Road accommodates 45 girls. The fifth institution is a probation hostel at Kwun Tong for young men between the ages of 16 and 21 years who are ordered to reside there as a condition of their probation order. These young men go to work daily and pay for their upkeep at the hostel from their salaries. Voluntary welfare organisations which take a leading part in helping to prevent the spread of juvenile delinquency are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys' Centres, which give residential training to those who need help in finding a place in society or in overcoming difficulties of behaviour and personal relationships.

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

      The development of effective social welfare services depends a great deal on the employment of qualified and trained social workers. Professional social work training at the academic level, which is

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available in both local and overseas universities, is supplemented by training programmes directly organised or sponsored by the department. These provide training for social workers without sufficient academic qualifications as well as field work studies for social work students of the universities and opportunities for social workers employed in the Public Service and the voluntary welfare organisations to keep pace with new developments, methods and social changes all over the world.

      The promotion and co-ordination of training programmes for social workers is the work of the Advisory Committee on Social Work Training, on which the universities, certain voluntary welfare organisations and the department are represented. The committee also advises Government, the universities and the voluntary welfare organisations on matters concerning social work education.

      Funds for social work training through scholarships and bursaries are provided partly by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Cor- poration, partly by Government and partly by the Social Work Training Fund, which is controlled by a statutory committee of which the Director of Social Welfare is ex officio Chairman. Funds expended from these sources in 1969 amounted to some $198,000, enabling some 12 recipients to pursue various social work courses in both local and overseas universities.

      The new Lady Trench Day Nursery and Training Centre was scheduled to be completed by March 1970, providing both theoret- ical and practical training for a far greater number of social workers than the department can train at present. The centre will be the first of its kind in South East Asia.

10

Public Order

As in 1968, the year was relatively free from serious incidents and the police force was able to continue to devote most of its time to training, to reviewing much of its administration, to planning and to normal constabulary duties.

Undoubtedly, the most significant event of the year as far as the police were concerned was the announcement by the Prime Minister in the House of Commons on April 17 that Her Majesty, the Queen, had accorded the title 'Royal' to the force. The title 'Royal' was also accorded to the Auxiliary Police Force and it was also announced that Her Royal Highness, Princess Alexandra had consented to accept, in an honorary capacity, the appointment of Commandant General of the two forces.

Some minor incidents did occur during the year and some tension arose with the development of labour disputes in two factories. One of the factory disputes required the police to protect Court Bailiffs who were evicting workers from the premises where they had been sitting in defiance of a court order, but the situation returned to normal when the workers decided to take legal action in respect of their dispute with the management.

      During August, after twelve-and-a-half inches of rainfall was recorded in 24 hours, the lower Shing Mun dam overflowed into the Pak Tin Valley near Sha Tin. Rescue operations were mounted by police, who evacuated approximately 1,000 persons and assisted in the relief measures. Despite extensive flooding and damage to crops and property only one hut was destroyed by the floods.

      During the year the emphasis on improving police public relations was maintained. As a new venture, a police exhibition on road safety and crime prevention was held at the City Hall. The three-day event proved extremely popular, attracting over 20,000 people. Three police 'open days' were also arranged, one in each of three of the police districts of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New

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Territories and these attracted over 40,000 visitors. For the second year running a series of six summer camps were held for secondary school boys who took part in outdoor activities on Outward Bound lines.

      To keep pace with the increasing operational requirements of the force, a reorganisation and expansion of the Planning and Research Division was undertaken. Planning continued for more police stations to meet the increase in population in several areas. A new police station was opened at Aberdeen in September and construction of a new 20-storey block for Police Headquarters began. Work progressed on plans for divisional stations at North Point, Cheung Sha Wan, Frontier and Kwai Chung and for sub- divisional stations at Ngau Tau Kok, Tsz Wan Shan, Shing Wo Road and Chai Wan as well as for various less important projects. Plans for the expansion of the Traffic Branch, CID Marine Police and the Police Dog Unit were under consideration at the end of the year and the expansion of the Police Tactical Unit was approved. A new base for the unit and a new headquarters for the New Territories were in the advanced planning stage at the end of the

year.

CRIME

      During the first eight months of the year crime statistics showed a slight increase on the year 1968. The increase occurred mainly in preventive arrests for crimes such as loitering and possession of unlawful instruments and was a clear indication of greater police effort and success in the field of watch and ward. On the other hand the offences of miscellaneous larcenies and larcenies from the person showed welcome decreases of six per cent and 11.8 per cent respectively and the detection rate increased slightly over the preced- ing year being 76.6 per cent as compared with 75.6 per cent in 1968.

Increases were recorded in robberies and in July-August there was a spate of carefully executed robberies in Kowloon of banks, gold- shops and security personnel escorting cash. However, arrests were made in the majority of these within two months of their being committed. There was a slight increase in the number of prosecu- tions involving young persons (16 years to 20 years) and a fairly appreciable increase involving juveniles (under 16 years). The former increased by 21.2 per cent and the latter by 26.5 per cent.

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The year has seen an increase in the number of crimes of violence such as robberies and serious assaults by young persons, many of them formed into gangs. The emergence of these gangs calls for continued police vigilance.

The Commercial Crime Office, besides investigating a number of complicated long term frauds, also prosecuted two cases of exporta- tion of gold without a licence, involving the confiscation of 40 kgs of gold. During the year a total of 251 reports were investigated by this office.

      The Narcotics Bureau continued to play a leading role in combating drug trafficking and the Bureau made a number of large seizures. During the year a total of 411.047 lbs of morphine 10,449.179 lbs of raw opium and 22.044 lbs of heroin were seized. The two largest seizures at Kowloon City and on board a junk in the Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter had a total retail value of more than 18 million dollars. The General Investigation Office successfully prosecuted several persons who were involved in either trafficking, possession or smoking of the drug Cannabis (marijuana).

      The year as a whole showed a slight increase in crime but with some excellent results in the breaking up of gangs of armed robbers, after protracted and complex investigation.

       The reorganisation and expansion of the Anti-Corruption Branch, not only to cope with the expected increase in work should the law on corruption be revised to give investigating officers wider powers but also to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the branch, was considered during the year under review. The year was one of the most successful ever experienced by the branch. Publicity con- cerning the lengthened hours during which the branch's offices were open, the availability of personnel after these hours and the fact that reports were received in confidence anywhere and at any time to suit the convenience of the informant all helped to achieve a considerable increase in the number of reports by members of the public, many of which have resulted in successful prosecutions.

TRAFFIC

       The increased industrial activity and rising standards of living in Hong Kong were reflected in the continued rise in the number of

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motor vehicles registered both in the commercial and private spheres. During 1969 the number of registered vehicles increased by 14.3 per cent compared with the figure at December 31, 1968 to a total of 127,132.

In spite of the larger number of vehicles using the limited road space available it was pleasing to record that there was not a parallel increase in the number of traffic accidents. In fact, while the improvement was only marginal, the numbers of both accidents and casualties decreased during the year. Proportionately, the greatest reduction was in the number of fatal casualties which fell from 333 in 1968 to 314, a reduction of 5.6 per cent. A total of 9,861 persons were injured, compared with 9,620 in 1968, an increase of 2.5 per cent.

Much emphasis was placed on road safety during the year and the first ever Far East International Road Safety Conference was held in January in Hong Kong. The conference was sponsored by the Road Safety Association and was attended by delegates from many countries in the region. An indication of its success was the fact that the delegates unanimously decided that it should become an annual event.

       In the field of road safety propaganda, the police force, with the assistance of the Government Information Services Department and the Government Printer, prepared and distributed over 21,000 posters and 825,000 handbills and the ready co-operation of the bus companies, ferry companies, oil companies and many govern- ment departments in exhibiting the posters on their premises, vehicles and vessels was greatly appreciated.

The Road Safety Section of the police was expanded on April 1 and re-deployed so that there was a section in each of the three land districts. Schools throughout the Colony were visited by officers of this section to give instruction to children in road safety matters. The School Safety Patrol expanded further and, at the end of the year, comprised 2,500 members from 53 schools.

On September 1, 1969 a new category of public transport, public light buses, was introduced. In the main, these vehicles were reclassified from the class known as dual-purpose vehicles which previously had been operating as public transport although the

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extent of the legality of their operation was doubtful. The general feeling was that these vehicles filled a real need in the pattern of public transport.

MANPOWER AND TRAINING

      The strength of the regular police force (excluding women police) at the end of the year was: 144 gazetted officers, 965 junior officers, 10,138 non-commissioned officers and constables. There were 520 women police of all ranks.

      The strength of the auxiliary police was 3,353 and there were 1,766 civilian staff employed in the force.

The teaching of English continued to receive much attention. The Third Intensive English course for specially selected constables began during the year although the course was reduced to five months instead of six and a few other modifications were made. The students on the first two courses made remarkable progress and a follow-up investigation showed that the majority were maintaining the high standard achieved during training. English was also taught during basic training and part-time classes were available for all those who wished to continue their studies.

      The major change in general in-service training which took place in 1968, integration of internal security and general duties instruction, went through a period of evolution during early 1969 and then began to consolidate later in the year. The change was primarily one born of expediency but it turned out to be an effective compromise.

       Whilst the broad object was still to build up to a tactical reserve of eight companies, it was clear at an early stage that these companies would rarely be wholly committed operationally. This being so, it was decided to put to good use the lengthy periods of reserve by using the companies for various forms of collective police action such as at race meetings, football matches, etc, in company exercises and in further training. While posted to the Police Tactical Unit which is the base of the tactical reserve of companies, every man undergoes further instruction, not merely in general duties, but in leadership, driving techniques, fieldcraft, outward bound train- ing, first aid, mountain-rescue, etc, all of which combine to

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     make him mentally and physically fitter for ordinary duties to which he returns after about 40 weeks. If during this period a company is extensively committed operationally, then the practical experience its members gain as a result is regarded as compensation for that part of the training programme its commander has been obliged to omit. By the end of the year, the unit had a complement of five companies.

      The scope of women police officers in the force was extended by introducing women police to take over duties in district and divisional control rooms to relieve male constables for outside duties. There was every indication that the scheme would prove successful.

      The auxiliary police force underwent their usual comprehensive basic and in-service training programme, the highlights of which are their annual camps. Over a period of years, they cover on a part-time basis as comprehensive a training programme as that given to regular constables and during the year continued to render valuable assistance.

PRISONS

      With Headquarters in Victoria, the Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the administration of 12 institutions in various parts of the Colony. These consist of a reception and classification centre for men at Victoria; a security prison for men at Stanley; two open prisons for men at Chi Ma Wan and Tong Fuk; a treat- ment centre at Tai Lam for men known to be drug-dependent on conviction; a three-purpose centre for women at Tai Lam; four training centres for young male offenders at Cape Collinson, Stanley, Lai Chi Kok and Shek Pik; a 'Half Way' house for en- vironmental rehabilitation; and a staff training school at Stanley.

      Adult male prisoners awaiting trial and on conviction are received at Victoria Reception Centre which has adequate hospital facilities and also a psychiatric observation unit manned by fully trained staff. Convicted prisoners appear before a classification board for assignment to an institution best suited to their needs.

      All women prisoners are received and housed at the new Tai Lam Centre for Women. Opened in early November it provides separate facilities for remand and convicted women prisoners, for

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The previous page shows one of the good things about Hong Kong's growing traffic problem-a charming mem- ber of the Courtesy Patrol operated by women members of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. Members of the patrol operate in Hong Kong's crowded downtown streets, helping to keep the flood of pedestrian and vehicle traffic flowing smoothly.

   This is just one of the growing range of tasks undertaken by Hong Kong's bright and efficient policewomen. In the picture opposite, a member of the force cares for an aban- doned baby before passing the child on to the Social Welfare Department. Two other duties from the daily round are illus- trated on the following page. In the first picture a woman police officer directs traffic from one of Hong Kong's dis- tinctive traffic pagodas; while one of her colleagues (bottom picture) makes a routine call during her assignment to a mobile patrol.

   The pictures, however, show only a brief cross-section of the extensive and vital duties undertaken by Hong Kong's 445 women police officers. These include welfare work, communications, prevention of crime and a hundred and one other tasks-all adding up to a vital contribution to the well-being of the community.

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convicted women prisoners found to be drug-dependent, and for young women between the ages of 14 and 21.

       The new centre replaced the outmoded Lai Chi Kok Women's Prison which is now being used as a remand and recall centre for young male offenders between the ages of 14 and 21.

On conviction young male offenders are housed under open conditions at the training centres or at Chi Ma Wan Prison. There is a thorough, and highly successful, system of statutory after-care for young men released from training centres and all are found employment before release. They then remain in the care of their after-care officers for a period which may be as long as four years from the date of sentence. The training centres had an average inmate population of 825 at the end of 1969.

      The open prison system is used whenever possible in Hong Kong as experience has shown that an environment where prisoners. lead healthy outdoor lives doing constructive work leads to more successful rehabilitation. Open prisons, with an average popula- tion of 1,767, are situated on Lantau Island in the New Territories and an immense amount of useful work has been done by prisoners on forestry and minor construction projects.

      The location and working of large numbers of prisoners and inmates in open conditions has its attendant escape risks and there has been an increase in escapes this year. There were 97 escapes during the year compared with the previous years' total of 40. However 73 were recaptured by the end of the year. A 12 per cent increase in prisoner/inmate population has been a contributing factor together with a new trend in group escapes.

      Those prisoners not considered suitable for open institutions are confined in Stanley Prison which is the Colony's main security establishment with an average daily population of some 2,524 inmates. This prison is also the main industrial centre where productive industries such as tailoring, shoemaking and rattanware are concentrated.

      A large percentage of convicted male prisoners are found on admission to be drug-dependent. The addiction treatment centre at Tai Lam offers special treatment facilities for drug-dependents

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and, through a unique programme developed since the centre was opened in 1958, has achieved encouraging results. All necessary phases of treatment are followed, including statutory after-care. A milestone in the field of treatment and rehabilitation of drug- dependents was reached early this year when the Drug Addiction Treatment Centres Ordinance 1968 came into operation whereby a court is able to order a person known to be drug-dependent to be detained in a treatment centre from 6 to 18 months in lieu of imprisonment. Detainees are subject to one year's supervision on release and may be recalled if the terms of the Supervision Order are not complied with. The centre carries out an extensive programme of research of which details are published annually. The average inmate population of the centre was 486 at the end of 1969.

This year has continued to be one of great activity in preparation for new institutions at Tai Lam (Women's Centre opened in November), Siu Lam (Prisons Department Mental Hospital) and Dragon's Back (Training Centre for young male offenders). Plans are also in hand for a new Reception and Classification Centre for men, an open prison for men and two additional training centres for young male offenders, one of which will be a maximum security institution.

FIRE SERVICES

The Fire Services Department is divided into four commands- Fire Services Headquarters, Fire Prevention Bureau, Hong Kong Island and Marine Command, and Mainland Command. Hong Kong Island and Marine Command are responsible for fire fighting and emergency operations on the island of Hong Kong, the off-shore islands, the harbour and surrounding waters. Mainland Command is similarly responsible for Kowloon and the New Territories.

      The service continued to expand during the year both in per- sonnel and equipment in order to keep pace with the Colony's industrial and social development. The current authorised establish- ment of 2,907 all ranks represents an increase of 259 over last year and places this service as the second largest in the British Commonwealth outside the British Isles.

      Whilst fire and emergency calls for the year remained at about the 1968 level the direct financial fire loss rose by approximately

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25 per cent to a record $20 million. This phenomenon is not peculiar to Hong Kong and is being generally experienced by most western countries as a concomitant of rapid industrialisation, export drives, technical progress and rising living standards. It is a disturbing commentary that in the past 10 years the total direct fire losses in Hong Kong, though well below the average for similarly developed communities, have amounted to around $90 million or sufficient to have financed the proposed airport runway extension.

      The known casualties from fire during the year were 28 deaths and 605 injuries including one fireman killed and 186 other mem- bers of the service injured in the execution of their duty. No less than 3,805 persons were physically rescued by firemen from fires and other calamities and several hundred more were led to safety from dangerous situations.

The Fire Prevention Bureau, which is statutorily responsible for the enforcement of fire safety regulations throughout the Colony, carried out an average of 18,000 advisory visits and inspec- tions per month to factories, shops, offices, schools, places of public entertainment, etc, and advised architects and engineers on a total of 3,000 development plans. By way of comparison in 1959, only 8,641 inspections were made during the whole of that year. The ever-increasing workload on the bureau has necessitated augment- ing staff in several of its units and the current accretion of the building industry is reflected not so much in the numbers of plans submitted but in the burgeoning cost and complexity of projects now underway.

The Ambulance Service, which since 1953 has operated under the Control of the Fire Services Department, now operates 62 ambulances throughout the Colony attending approximately 65,000 calls each year. New duty systems recently introduced have increased availability of ambulances during peak periods and at the same time enabled the working hours of crews to be reduced from 72 to 57 hours each week.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

      The Preventive Service of the Commerce and Industry Depart- ment is a uniformed and disciplined force of 908 officers responsible for those measures which in a customs-controlled port are handled

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by a Customs and Excise Department. Being a free port, Hong Kong imposes a duty on only five categories of imported goods (tobacco, liquor, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol). This is matched by an excise tax on the same items locally manu- factured.

      The service has a major responsibility in the field of narcotics smuggling and all vessels arriving in Hong Kong from ports which are suspected to be outlets for narcotic drugs are boarded and searched by specially trained teams and/or guarded throughout their stay in Hong Kong waters; similar attention is paid to aircraft arriving in Hong Kong. Selective searches are made of suspect cargoes and postal packets.

The Preventive Service enforces the legislation controlling the import and export of cargo and acts as a law enforcement agent for several other government departments.

11

Immigration and Tourism

THE great majority of visitors to Hong Kong, whether tourists or businessmen, are permitted to enter freely without a visa, and to remain for up to three months in some cases. Visas are, however, required of most persons coming to Hong Kong to reside or take up employment. As in other countries, the number of immigrants has to be restricted in order not to aggravate the already serious problems caused by overpopulation. Entry for employment or residence is normally only permitted to a person who has some special skill not readily available in Hong Kong, or who is likely to make a substantial contribution to the economy, or who has close family ties in Hong Kong.

These requirements have been applied to aliens for a number of years, but until 1969 they had not generally been applied to Com- monwealth citizens, who were normally allowed unrestricted entry. During 1969 it was found necessary to introduce controls on the entry of Commonwealth citizens in view of the increasing numbers of unskilled immigrants entering the Colony. Most Commonwealth citizens are now subject to the same controls as aliens, although persons still exempt from the controls include those born in Hong Kong or the United Kingdom, or naturalised or registered as British subjects in Hong Kong or the United Kingdom.

       Recorded movements of travellers in 1969 totalled 4,777,182, consisting of 2,393,481 arrivals and 2,383,701 departures, an increase of 19.2 per cent over 1968. The most noticeable increase in traffic continues to be at Kai Tak Airport, where the total number of passengers for 1969 represented an increase of 33.3 per cent over 1968. Travel between Hong Kong and China, and Hong Kong and Macau, also increased, but still remained below the pre-1967 level. It now accounts for only 62.8 per cent of total passenger traffic.

Hong Kong continues to attract more than its share of illegal immigrants not only from China and Macau, but also increasingly

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from other countries in South East Asia. These latter are pre- dominantly overseas Chinese who for one reason or another are anxious to leave their countries of domicile for the stable economic and political atmosphere of Hong Kong. They very often seek to achieve their goal by entering the Colony as visitors or tourists and failing to leave at the end of their permitted period of stay.

The demand for travel documents has continued its upward trend, although it is still below the records set during the disturbances of 1967; likewise the number of applications for naturalisation, which have remained fairly constant at between 50 and 60 a month, as opposed to the record number of 405 in June 1967. This continuing steady flow of applications reflects a growing awareness of the im- portance of nationality, and sense of belonging to Hong Kong. Efforts to reduce the backlog of outstanding naturalisation applica- tions have been largely successful.

TOURISM

Hong Kong's tourist industry goes from strength to strength with many new records set in 1969.

      The total number of visitors during the year, excluding military personnel on rest and recreation leave, was 765,213. This was a remarkable 23.7 per cent increase on 1968.

The principal sources, North America and Japan, continued to show good growth rates. Japanese visitors passed the 100,000 mark in October for the first time and the final total was 143,746. This was a 49.1 per cent increase over 1968. The number of American citizens was 211,990, a 33.4 per cent increase.

Asian regional traffic to Hong Kong also showed very good increases as the Hong Kong Tourist Association opened new links with eight Asian areas through an arrangement with the Cathay Pacific Airways offices in Singapore, Western Australia, Thailand, East and West Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, South Vietnam and Korea.

The percentage of arrivals in Hong Kong by air (92.6 per cent) continued to rise in proportion to sea traffic.

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        An Economic Tourism Committee was set up to co-ordinate the efforts of government departments and the Tourist Association in promoting tourism and expanding Hong Kong's tourist facilities.

Owing to the large increase in visitors some difficulty was experi- enced in finding sufficient hotel rooms at certain periods of the year. However the Hong Kong Hotel with 800 rooms was opened and this brought the total available rooms to 7,743. More hotels are being built and planned and the Tourist Association, which has been actively promoting further hotel development, has now initiated a comprehensive accommodation research study to provide informa- tion to potential developers.

      Abroad, the association expanded further its activities based on its network of overseas offices. The Japanese office was expanded during 1969 and the volume of work handled by the United States offices continued to increase.

       In Europe a second successful 100-day mobile exhibition covered Scandinavia, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and the UK.

       Australia continues to be a productive market for visitors to Hong Kong. The total number last year was 41,466.

       The HKTA office in Canada was extremely busy in 1969 with the great Canadian interest being shown in Asia because of Expo '70 in Osaka.

       The Head Office of the association during 1969 produced two new promotional films, one in Japanese for television usage and a 20-minute film with English commentary. The association also hosted a series of familiarisation visits by European travel agents; gave seminars for many visiting travel agent groups; participated in the preparatory work for the tourist section of the Hong Kong Pavilion for Expo '70; continued its visitor survey for the fourth year; expanded its successful student ambassador scheme to include more than 400 students; agreed to revise and update the Convention and Exhibition viability study originally undertaken in 1965 and organised many other promotional activities.

      Hong Kong in 1969 was selected as the site of the third World Congress of the Universal Federation of Travel Agents' Associations. Host and organiser of the week-long congress was the Hong Kong

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Association of Travel Agents. The congress brought more than 500 European travel agents to Hong Kong, many for the first time.

      Hong Kong was also selected as the site for the second Travel Research Seminar of the Pacific Area Travel Association. This brought to Hong Kong more than 100 experts for an intensive three-day session on travel market research.

       The 1969 convention of the American Society of Travel Agents drew more than 3,000 delegates to Tokyo, many hundreds of whom visited Hong Kong and were briefed on available facilities.

      An important step for the future was taken when the association was asked to assist in the creation of a Tourism and Travel Department of the proposed Polytechnic.

During the year, a Hong Kong Tourist Association poster won an international graphic art poster competition from a field of 155 posters entered by 54 countries attending the annual general assembly in Dublin of the International Union of Official Travel Organisa- tions, the world body of tourism. The Hong Kong poster featured a painting by the well-known Hong Kong artist, Mr David Lam, who now lives in Vancouver.

      The growth of tourism in Hong Kong during the 1960s exceeded all expectations and confidence remained high within the industry that the 1970s would produce developments that will contribute even more materially and effectively to the economy.

12

Public Works and Utilities

     THE programme of Public Works, Hong Kong's largest single financial commitment, ranges from the formation and reclamation of land, the building of resettlement estates, schools and hospitals to the construction of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs. Capital expenditure for the financial year 1969-70 is estimated at $309 million or about 15 per cent of the annual estimates. Of this sum $89 million is to be spent on resettlement and government low-cost housing, $49 million on roads, and $38 million on water supplies.

WATER SUPPLIES

      Whilst the year 1968 could be regarded as a year of promise for the Waterworks, 1969 was a year of fulfilment. On January 20, 1969, His Excellency the Governor inaugurated the $520 million Plover Cove water supply scheme marking the culmination of 10 years work. On January 1, 37,000 million gallons of water was held in store, more than double the amount stored in January 1968. Of this total 28,291 million gallons were stored in Plover Cove. Although the rainfall during the year totalled only 74.63 inches com- pared with an average of 85.39 inches, this was sufficient to replenish the stocks of water in every reservoir and the Plover Cove reservoir overflowed for the first time on the morning of August 11. This brought the total storage in the Colony up to the maximum potential of 54,000 million gallons.

Over the period October 1968 to June 1969 the Chinese Authori- ties supplied 15,004 million gallons of raw water by way of their Sham Chun reservoir and the supply was resumed on October 1, 1969 in accordance with the current agreement with the Peoples Council of Kwangtung Province.

A full 24-hour supply was maintained throughout the year and the supply area was extended to villages near the township of Tai Po and a number of other isolated area including some in Hong

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Kong and New Kowloon, while materials were ordered for exten- sions in the Sai Kung area.

The demand for water reached a new peak of 193.6 million gallons per day in the unusually hot summer weather. This indicated an annual increase well in excess of the seven per cent anticipated; the 1968-9 winter average of 135 million gallons per day was 18 per cent more than the figure recorded during the winter of 1967-8 and the average for the whole year was 14.5 per cent higher than that for 1968.

      During the year a total of 56.982 million gallons of water were supplied which indicated an increase of 7,136 million gallons over the 1968 figure and represented an average per capita' consumption for the year of 155.8 million gallons per day excluding water consumed for water borne sanitation which is normally obtained from wells or from the salt water distribution system which supplied 10,800 million gallons in the year 1969.

This increase reflects the general healthy state and the growth of industry throughout the Colony as well as increasing affluence and standards of living. The total number of metered connections rose from 280,000 at the end of 1968 to 360,000 at the end of 1969.

      With the virtual completion of the Plover Cove scheme the emphasis of the construction programme was upon the provision of additional filtration and distribution capacity to ensure continued adequate supplies of good water.

Local distribution problems were eased with the completion of the 30 million gallons capacity Shek Kip Mei service reservoir and the first section of the Ho Man Tin (East) service reservoir with a current usable capacity of 14 million gallons.

Two fresh water service reservoirs, of 14 million gallons and 1.5 million gallons capacity, two salt water service reservoirs, of 750,000 gallons and 150,000 gallons capacity together with a small pumping station were completed to augment the water supply facilities already provided for the rapidly developing Tsuen Wan area.

      Irrigation works continued with the construction of 22,000 feet of irrigation channels, 13 irrigation dams and the sinking of a 200 feet deep well at Fung Yuen to accommodate an eight-inch diameter submersible pump.

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       To control plant and insect growth in Plover Cove reservoir until a natural fish population develops there, 636,500 fish, mainly silver, mud and common carp, have been introduced and their progress is being studied. Other ecological studies revealed that, in the early spring, with a greater depth of water in the reservoir, there developed in the lower levels stable layers of water at low temperature which would inhibit the mixing of this water with surface water. Water temperatures, chemical content and biological condition are being carefully observed to determine the effect of these layers on water quality.

       At the beginning of the year the water stored in the Plover Cove reservoir had stabilised at a salinity a little over 500 ppm sodium chloride but with the influx of fresh water during the summer rains the salinity dropped to a minimum of 290 ppm sodium chloride at the draw off point, comparing very favourably with the normal taste threshold which is in the region of 330 ppm sodium chloride.

Coupled with site investigations in preparation for raising the Plover Cove spillway and dams by 12 feet was a proposal to acceler- ate flood discharge by means of a siphon spillway. This will enable the water retention level to be further increased and bring the total storage capacity up to about 50,000 million gallons without reducing the safety margin provided to allow for waves.

       Tenders were invited from selected contractors for the supply of a 50,000-gallon-per-day experimental desalting plant designed to be installed and operated at several different sites to test various plant configurations and to assess the effect of sea water with differing chemical characteristics upon the various materials of construction -a prelude to providing and operating a desalting plant of higher output within the next decade or so.

Recommendations for investigations into detailed design work for the High Island Water Scheme were approved in July. This scheme, if proceeded with, will yield about 60 million gallons per day and include another large 'Plover Cove' type impounding reservoir at High Island. The scheme is designed to develop the water resources of the Sai Kung peninsula, possibly with other catchments. The High Island reservoir itself will be created by placing rock filled dams at each end of the shallow sea passage between the Sai Kung

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Peninsula and High Island and the fresh water lagoon thereby created will contain between 50,000 million gallons and 75,000 million gallons storage depending on the final details of the scheme.

      Continuing the progressive development of the distribution system, 82 miles of fresh and salt water mains were laid for exten- sions in new development areas, for renewal of mains in existing urban areas and for further improvements to salt water flush- ing supplies in Hong Kong Central, Kowloon, Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan. New service reservoirs for fresh water at Shau Kei Wan, Red Hill and Mount Nicholson on Hong Kong Island and for salt water at Sau Mau Ping were completed while a large pumping station for salt water at Kwun Tong was brought into service. The total expenditure on the development of the system amounted to $19 million.

BUILDINGS

      The most significant occurrence in the building industry this year was the sudden increase in prices of materials and rates of wages. Cement, steel and timber were the main basic materials affected and prices increased between 20 per cent and 40 per cent in the course of about two months from May, while building opera- tives wages rose by an average of some 25 per cent. With tight profit margins these increases could not be absorbed by the con- tractors and building costs therefore rose proportionately. The cause of these increases has been attributed to the resurgence of private building in Hong Kong resulting in a shortage of labour in the industry coupled with a reduction in the supplies of materials available from abroad and a substantial increase in the world price of steel.

      The pace of construction of government buildings was generally maintained although the programme was, to some extent, affected by the continuing financial difficulties of some contractors. Private architects, private quantity surveyors and consulting engineers continued to assist in the public building programme. A steady programme was again maintained in the construction of new buildings for HBM Ministry of Public Building and Works and in the maintenance of existing British Armed Forces buildings. Expenditure during the year amounted to approximately $35

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million on resettlement estates and their associated schools; $45 million on government low-cost housing; and $76 million on all other projects.

       A new design for resettlement housing blocks with rooms built to a larger grid which will enable initial alterations to be made at about 35 square feet for each adult was completed and the first contracts for the new designs were let. Seventeen eight- and 16- storey resettlement blocks, two 20-storey, eight 15-storey and one 12-storey government low-cost housing blocks were completed; sufficient for the accommodation of 123,600 people. Nine 24-class- room primary schools were also completed in resettlement and government low-cost housing estates. At the end of the year work was continuing on 39 resettlement blocks and 48 low-cost housing blocks (which will provide accommodation for 334,000 people) in addition to 35 estate schools, providing a total of 840 classrooms.

During the year four estate administration buildings and three estate welfare centres were completed and two further welfare centres and one estate administration building were under con- struction. Preparatory works were in hand on six sites for estates with a future total capacity of 136,000 people and planning was in progress to provide accommodation for a further 146,000 people on five new sites. Improvements in electrical wiring in Marks I and II blocks were continued and the provision of individual water supplies in all the existing Mark III and older Mark IV blocks was completed during the year.

Projects completed on Hong Kong Island included the Tang Shiu-kin Hospital with the help of a donation from Sir Shiu-kin Tang, and a two-storey market with roof playground at North Point. Several playgrounds and public amenity areas were also completed and others were under construction. Projects completed in Kowloon included a further extension to Kai Tak Air Terminal Building, a new studio and office building for Radio Hong Kong, Morse Park (with an area of 44 acres) for which the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club provided funds, and Kowloon Park in the former Whitfield Barracks site. The site formation and substructure work for the Secondary Technical School at Kwun Tong were also completed. In the New Territories work completed included a customs examination shed at Shek Wu Hui for goods imported from China by road,

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     a dental clinic at Tong Fuk on Lantau Island, an approved school for boys at Kau Wah Keng, a recreation and sports ground at Yuen Long and a playground at Luen Wo Hui, a meteorological station at Cheung Chau, a women's prison at Tai Lam and the Yuen Long Town Hall. The first stage in the programme for the floodlighting of parks and playgrounds in the New Territories was completed.

      Projects under construction at the end of the year included various extensions at Kai Tak Airport; three projects for technical education donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club-a technical institute at Morrison Hill, a secondary technical school at Kwun Tong and a secondary technical school at North Kowloon; two fire stations and the Fire Services district headquarters in Canton Road; multi-storey car parks at Rumsey Street and at Yau Ma Tei; site formation and substructure for Lai Chi Kok Hospital; the redevelopment of medical institutions at Sai Ying Pun; site formation work for a new vaccine institute at Pok Fu Lam; a hospital for the mentally sub-normal at Siu Lam for which the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club is providing funds; the Lady Trench Children's Day Nursery and Training Centre with the help of a donation from Sir Shiu-kin Tang, and various playgrounds, sports grounds and other recreational facilities including the swim- ming pool complexes at Morse Park, Kwun Tong and Lei Cheng Uk for which the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club is providing funds. The 24-storey government office block on the former Murray Barracks site was nearing completion.

Work was in hand at the close of the year on design, working drawings and contract documents for some 150 projects including alterations and additions to Grantham College of Education, three fire stations, two 13-storey blocks of departmental quarters and a training school for the Preventive Service, a second block of government offices on the former Murray Barracks site, a mental hospital, a mortuary, three clinics, two of which will be donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, government office blocks for Tai Po and Tsuen Wan, a depot for the Police Tactical Unit, a new general post office, warders' quarters at Chi Ma Wan for the Prisons Department, a maximum security training centre and a reception centre for the Prisons Department, six markets and

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several hawker bazaars, a crematorium, a community centre and various parks, playgrounds, recreation areas and public swimming pools.

DRAINAGE

All the urban areas and the newly-developing townships now have water-borne sewerage systems although, in a few areas, there are buildings which are not yet connected to the sewers. Progress on the programme of works, begun a few years ago, to duplicate and replace existing sewers in older areas of the system which are now of inadequate capacity and to construct large intercepting sewers connecting the present outfalls to suitable submarine out- falls continued.

      When the programme is completed, all sewage, after preliminary treatment, will wherever possible be discharged through sub- marine outfalls into the main tidal currents around the Colony. In this connection an extensive marine survey of the waters of Tolo Harbour, Victoria Harbour and the associated tidal waters past Tsuen Wan and Castle Peak was begun early in 1969 and continued into 1970. Work commenced on the dredging of the sea bed in Victoria Harbour for two new submarine outfalls, one to serve Wan Chai West and the other to serve Sham Shui Po.

      Sewerage systems are also being constructed in the new towns now being developed in the New Territories. Consulting Engineers were appointed to design, construct and study the operation of a pilot sewage treatment plant at Shek Wu Hui. In addition to improving the sanitary conditions of the area this project will provide information on which to base designs of future treat- ment works.

Work continued on the construction of stormwater culverts in conjunction with the Wan Chai reclamation project, and several culverts were constructed in the Aberdeen area. In order to alleviate dangers from landslides, the stormwater drainage serving village areas in Shau Kei Wan is being improved. River training works were in hand at Sha Tin and started on part of the Tung Chung River on Lantau Island as flood control measures; and at Tsuen Wan and Yuen Long in the New Territories extensive sewerage and stormwater drainage systems are being laid. A large culvert at Kwai

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Chung and extensions to two large culverts in the Kai Tak area are under construction.

PORT WORKS

      The production of an engineering report on a proposed con- tainer terminal at Kwai Chung involved extensive site investigation work including sounding surveys, marine borings, a geophysical survey, a survey of tidal currents, wave measurements and observa- tions, silt load measurements, investigations of possible borrow areas and test piling. The report was published in July.

At Aldrich Bay breakwater, which is being constructed to form a typhoon shelter, most of the rock core was completed and the protective surface of armour rock is being placed. Work started on a new pier at North Point for the Fire Services Department and a landing was built at Tai Long Pai to service a navigational beacon.

In Kowloon, a seawall at Tai Wan was completed, as was a new salt water pumping station at Yau Ma Tei to serve the south Kowloon flushing system and the air-conditioning plant of the Yau Ma Tei government offices.

      All the civil engineering work for the refuse disposal incinerator at Lai Chi Kok, including the construction of a turbo-alternator house, was completed. The incinerator itself was commissioned and formally opened in February. Consulting engineers were appointed, and plant ordered, for a second incinerator on an adjacent site.

At Tai Kok Tsui, a new passenger ferry pier is being built and an area of seabed is being reclaimed to provide land for a bus and ferry concourse. The pier replaces a pier at Mong Kok which will be absorbed in another reclamation for an extension to Tong Mei Road. A new passenger ferry pier is under construction at Kwun Tong.

In the New Territories, at Yim Tin Tsai, Sai Kung, a breakwater is being built to provide a typhoon shelter of about 28 acres. The rock core has been finished and armour rock protection is being placed. Work continued on 1,000 feet of seawall in Castle Peak Bay and a start was made on a 250 feet long extension to Cheung Chau Praya. The seawall at Pillar Island, Kwai Chung, with associated

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     site formation for a sewage treatment works, was completed. A new pier for use by villagers at Chek Keng, Long Harbour, was started, further navigational beacons were erected at Siu A Chau, Po Toi and Lo Chau.

The materials testing laboratory operated by the Civil Engineer- ing Office of the Public Works Department carried out approximately 67,229 tests on building materials. About 4,969 of these were for private firms.

LAND DEVELOPMENT

Progress at the two new towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan included the formation of 47 acres of land and 18.3 acres of reclama- tion. At Kwun Tong, 15.7 acres of terraced sites were formed, completing the present planned development there, while 9.3 acres were reclaimed from the adjacent Kowloon Bay for industrial development. At Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung, 31.3 acres of land were formed, comprising 22.3 acres of formed hillside sites and adjacent roads for government low-cost housing and 9.0 acres of reclamation at Gin Drinker's Bay.

      In Kowloon, development of land for low-cost housing, schools, government and institutional uses included about 4.8 acres of terraced sites at Ho Man Tin, 10.6 acres at Lung Cheung Road and 4.5 acres at Pak Tin. One acre was formed at Tai Kok Tsui for a bus terminus, 3.5 acres at Tai Wan for an open space and 2.6 acres at Kai Tak for government use.

      On Hong Kong Island, the Wan Chai reclamation continued with 20 acres being filled between Arsenal Street and Percival Street. In connection with the Waterfront Road project, a further acre was reclaimed between Percival Street and Victoria Park at the Causeway Bay typhoon shelter. Work was completed on a site formation above Tin Hau Temple Road, creating 11 acres of sites for schools and private residential development. This work provided additional filling material for the Causeway Bay and Wan Chai reclamations. At Wong Chuk Hang, 0.75 acres of terraced sites were formed for government low-cost housing, and at Hing Wah, 5.4 acres were formed for a resettlement estate.

In the first stage of the new town at Castle Peak, 28 acres of hill sites were formed and 60 acres of land reclaimed. 3,000 feet of river

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     training walls, 2,000 feet of new roads, three major culverts and a footbridge spanning the river channel were built; 4,000 feet of trunk sewer were laid. Work continues on the remaining site formation, river walls, roads and drains.

Preparatory work for development at the new town of Sha Tin is in progress. The first stage of the project involves the reclamation of about 32 acres with associated road works for Government and private housing for some 30,000 people together with the forma- tion of another 10 acres for industrial use.

QUARRYING

      It is Government's present policy to concentrate stone produc- tion by private enterprise in large contract quarries. There are now four private contract quarries operating with a fifth coming into operation. There are also 15 private quarries operating under Crown land permits. It is expected that most of the permit quarries will cease operating before the end of 1971.

Government quarries are operated at Diamond Hill in Kowloon and at Mount Butler on Hong Kong Island to provide aggregate and road making material for government projects, and also to ensure a supply of stone should commercial supplies become difficult or expensive. Dust suppression equipment was brought into success- ful operation at Mount Butler Quarry in August 1969, and similar equipment is being ordered for Diamond Hill quarry. These plants will enable the effectiveness of dust suppression equipment to be demonstrated to private quarry operators with the aim of reducing dust nuisance and the associated incidence of silicosis to reasonable levels.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

      China Light and Power Co Ltd supplies electricity to Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of outlying inlands. In 1969 the peak load was 617 MW, which was 15 per cent more than in 1968, and 108 per cent more than in 1964.

      Generation of electricity is carried out partly by China Light, and partly by Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd, an enterprise owned and financed by Esso and China Light. The generating

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station at Hok Yuen, Kowloon Bay, has a capacity of 662 MW, of which 422 MW is owned by China Light and 240 MW by Peninsula Electric.

The new power station at Tsing Yi, owned by Peninsula Electric, was opened by the Governor, Sir David Trench, on April 22, 1969 with the commissioning of Hong Kong's first 120 MW set. Five similar 120 MW units are due to be installed at varying intervals before the middle of 1973. Peninsula Electric's generating stations are constructed and operated by China Light.

The electricity supply in Kowloon and the New Territories is 50 cycle alternating current, normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 11 kV and, in some locations, at 6.6 kV.

At September 30, 1969 there were 499,459 consumers, seven per cent more than a year earlier and total output was up 18 per cent to 3,198 million kWh.

After extensive studies, a new tariff system was adopted in 1969 which replaced the former separate lighting and power tariffs by a single 'General Tariff', while a maximum demand tariff ('Bulk Tariff') was designed which will be available to all bulk users from 1970.

      The Hongkong Electric Company supplies power to Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma.

      Electricity is generated by plants at North Point, which has an installed capacity of 345 MW, and at Ap Lei Chau, which has an installed capacity of 120 MW. Two 125 MW sets are on order for Ap Lei Chau to keep pace with expanding consumer demand.

The transmission system has been reinforced by three 132 kV overhead lines carrying supplies to the west, north and east of Hong Kong Island and 132 kV underground cables have been laid as part of development in the city and built-up districts. Both these lines and cables will operate initially at 66 kV. Secondary distribu- tion voltages are 346 volts, three-phase and 200 volts, single-phase.

      Maximum demand on the company's generating plant rose to 274 MW in 1969, an increase of 9.2 per cent over 1968. The number

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of consumers increased by 4.2 per cent during the year, and sales of electricity amounted to 1,113.1 million kWh, an increase of 13.1 per cent. These were made up of: domestic and residential, 289.2 million kWh; commercial, 580.7 million kWh; industrial, 236.9 million kWh; street lighting, 6.3 million kWh.

      The Cheung Chau Electric Company Limited supplies electricity to Cheung Chau Island which contains some small industries and a population of fisherfolk. It was founded in 1913 as a community project and is now operated by commercial interests. It supplies power on a 50-cycle, three-phase, four-wire system of 200/346 volts for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes.

      The charges for electricity have been gradually lowered by modernising and increasing the efficiency of the generating plant. Current rates are 52 cents per unit for lighting and 23 cents per unit for domestic and industrial power. Special rates are given to bulk consumers.

      The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited supplies Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. Town gas is available throughout the urban areas, including Repulse Bay on the Island, and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan in Kowloon. Liquefied petroleum gas (or bottled gas) is offered to customers who are out of reach of the town gas supply.

      The total quantity of gas sold in 1969 was 1,694 million cubic feet (7.7 million therms) compared with 1,590 million cubic feet (7.3 million therms) in 1968. The number of consumers rose from 26,573 to 28,580.

13

Communications

     HONG KONG is noted throughout the world as a port providing all the requirements of modern shipping. The two major dockyards, not to mention the numerous small organisations, are able to offer a round-the-clock service of repair and maintenance work, which is both fast and efficient, combining the old Chinese reputation for skilled engineering with the most modern management techniques.

      During 1969, Taikoo Dockyard enjoyed a particularly brisk demand for modernization and conversion, having performed three major side-port conversions, two 'Victory Class' vessel conversions to full containerization and commenced a major passenger ship conversion for the Hong Kong/Keelung service. In addition, two 10,000 ton dumb barges and a roll-on roll-off ferry were among the new building contracts. Major repairs were another feature of the year including large scale bottom repairs, fire damage and major boiler repairs.

      The Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company situated on the opposite side of the harbour on Kowloon Peninsula, also had a busy year during which three vessels were fully converted for the carriage of containers. These, together with major steelwork repairs to another vessel and the usual wide range of engineering and shipbuilding work, catered for customers throughout the shipping industry and helped to ensure Hong Kong's place in the lead of this very competitive field.

      The full impact of the 'Container Revolution' has yet to be felt in Hong Kong's shipping circles although the use of containers is undoubtedly increasing. Although container terminal facilities are presently being developed on a limited scale by private interests to cater for self-sustaining ships, there are no terminal facilities for non- self-sustaining ships. Consideration is, however, currently being given to the building of a container terminal at Kwai Chung, an area ideally situated in the approaches to Rambler Channel and the entrance to Gin Drinker's Bay.

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      Hong Kong is one of the world's most popular tourist attractions and the Port of Victoria has a modern passenger terminal capable of handling the largest passenger ships engaged in cruising or scheduled voyages. Opened in 1966, it contains more than 100 shops situated on two floors, together with restaurants, night clubs, car parks, exhibition areas and other tourist facilities such as booking and travel services. The ground floor comprises 7 acres of wharf and transit shed space with a further 190,000 square feet of apron space on the marine deck.

      In addition, berths at private wharves alongside and at government buoys, offer cargo handling facilities comparable with the most modern ports. This coupled with a labour force free of industrial disputes results in high cargo handling rates.

      The Director of Marine controls the waters and ports of the Colony and under his guidance the Marine Department effects the measure of supervision so necessary in an area in which upwards of 20,000 small craft operate in addition to the 6,816 ocean-going ships which visited the port during 1969. This coupled with a total of 11,236,066 million tons of overseas cargo and 1,371,015 million tons of internal cargo handled during the year, indicates the thriv- ing complexity of Hong Kong. (Further details are shown at Appendix XXXVIII).

      To cope with the vast numbers of steamers, ferries, junks, lighters and sampans, the port has a comprehensive modern system of navigational aids and communications, the latest of which is the Port Operations Service based on the International Maritime VHF agreement of the Hague Conference (1957), and introduced during June of this year. A pilotage service is available, and although not compulsory, is recommended on account of traffic density and ever changing harbour construction programmes.

      Quarantine and Immigration facilities are available on a 24-hour basis at the Eastern anchorage and from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the Western anchorage. Ships are cleared on arrival and the larger passenger vessels are processed en route to the berth. Medical clearance may be obtained by radio thus reducing delays, particularly for oil tankers.

      The harbour is patrolled by Marine Department launches for the effective control of fairways, typhoon shelters and cargo areas.

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      Constant contact is maintained with the Port Control Office who are thus able to initiate any action required in emergency. A fleet of modern fire-fighting vessels operated by the Fire Services Depart- ment is kept in constant readiness, with units stationed on either side of the harbour. These facilities were severely tested during June of this year when fire broke out aboard a vessel in Kowloon Bay undergoing conversion and repairs; unfortunately, this resulted in the loss of 12 lives. These and other government vessels are also equipped with emulsifier sprays for dispersing oil pollution.

Macau continues as a great attraction to both tourists and residents, with an ever-increasing number of visitors. A brisk demand for passages aboard the four conventional steamers and the 10 much faster hydrofoils, more than justified the improvements being undertaken at the Hydrofoil and Ferry terminal, which are expected to be completed early in 1970. (Passenger figures are quoted at Appendix XXXVIII).

Hong Kong seamen play an important role in international ship- ping with over 29,000 serving aboard British and foreign ships. The Seamen's Recruiting Office and the Mercantile Marine Office combine to register and supervise the employment of seamen aboard such vessels. A Mariners' Club managed by the Port Welfare Com- mittee, perhaps one of the most modern of such clubs in the world, provides recreational and welfare facilities to seamen of all nationalities.

      Hong Kong is situated in an area frequently affected by typhoons during the summer months. Fortunately, 1969 proved to be a year free from severe storms and work in the harbour was stopped on only one occasion. This occurred with the passage of typhoon Viola north of the Colony on the evening of the July 28, when winds of 28 knots with gusts of 73 knots were recorded on the airport runway. Despite this comparative calm, there was a total of 11 inquiries into casualties involving British registered ships resulting in the appointment of six Marine Courts.

CIVIL AVIATION

      The Civil Aviation Department, with headquarters administration in the hub of the Victoria business district, supervises all aspects of Civil Aviation in Hong Kong and its Flight Information Region.

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More than 350 scheduled services to all parts of the world are provided each week by 27 international airlines in addition to many charter and non-scheduled flights. A total of 1,895,105 passengers passed through the Terminal Building during the year and passen- gers, freight and mail figures showed an increase over last year of 31.4 per cent, 39.6 per cent and 8.8 per cent respectively.

      Hong Kong International Airport at Kai Tak is a major airport of modern design situated only three miles from the busy hotel and commercial centre of Kowloon. Facilities offered by Kai Tak for operators, passengers and cargo are second to none in the Orient. Full operational services are provided, including Air Traffic Control, Communications, Air/Sea Rescue, Airport Fire Crash and Rescue Service, Aeronautical Information Service, and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an Aeronautical Meteorological Service.

Route expansion by the airlines now using Kai Tak has continued and more airlines started scheduled services during the year. Hong Kong is achieving a growing importance as a transit and a stop-over point for other Asian destinations and in recognition of increasing use an extensive programme of modifications is now in progress at the airport to convert the Passenger Terminal, built in 1962, from a handling capacity of 720 to 2,200 passengers an hour. In addition to extensive additions to the Terminal Building, mechanical baggage handling and distribution systems are being added and shopping and restaurant facilities are being extended. Improved facilities for speedy handling of rapidly increasing air cargo traffic are also essential; work is well advanced on modifications to the Cargo Terminal designed to double its present capacity, and Con- sultants have been engaged to advise on the type of cargo handling complex required to meet Hong Kong's long-term need. Final decision on extending the 8,350 feet single runway to 11,130 feet, was still to be taken at the end of the year but this did not hold up planning in other areas of operation. Plans are underway to provide 20 aircraft parking bays and two apron taxiways by 1971. Air bridges for the rapid loading and unloading of aircraft up to the size of the Boeing 747 are now being installed and piers are being built to permit nose-in parking of aircraft.

Airport Terminal operations are assisted by the Hong Kong Air Terminal Services Limited, who provide a centralised system of

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公共圖

上圖素

香港:

HO

ES

ne of the most spectacular and well-known sights in world aviation is the gleaming finger of Hong Kong's

Kai Tak Airport runway jutting out into the blue waters of Kowloon Bay (see picture on previous page). It is also a monu- ment to Hong Kong's big-thinking public works planners who, faced with the problem of lack of space for a runway, solved it by tearing down a mountain and dumping it in the sea. Then they built their runway on it. Kai Tak is now being expanded and up-graded to meet the challenge of the new era of jumbo jets and supersonic transports.

More than 27 international airlines operate some 350 scheduled services through Kai Tak each week, carrying more than a million and a half passengers to and from Hong Kong each year. The following pages show something of the constant round of activities which keep this vast communi- cations complex operating smoothly.

   The picture opposite shows air traffic controllers with some of the sophisticated electronic aids used to guide air- craft in and out of Hong Kong.

--

..

IC

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One of the most complex organisational problems of a major airport is the prepara- tion of thousands upon thou- sands of in-flight meals for dozens of flights each day. Pre- vious page shows kitchens of Kai Tak's Air Caterers Ltd, where skilled chefs work day and night to uphold Hong Kong's high culinary reputa- tion. (below) Another vital behind the scenes activity at Kai Tak is the maintenance and servicing of aircraft. Here skilled technicians work on a modern jet engine in the han- gars of Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd.

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KO

IES

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baggage handling processing and transportation of passengers on the Terminal Apron. Aircraft maintenance in Hong Kong is provided by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd, which offers over- haul and repair facilities for a wide range of aircraft of all types. The Company is now in the process of completing a new hangar capable of accommodating aircraft of Boeing 747 size.

      Two private flying clubs operate at Kai Tak airport, the Hong Kong Flying Club and the Aero Club of Hong Kong, and there is an increasing interest in private flying for pleasure. The Far East Flying Training School offers full time courses of training in Aeronautical Engineering and Radio and Electronics Maintenance Engineering and also Wireless Operator training. The school, established in 1934, is well known throughout the Far East and has already trained over 3,000 students.

      Cathay Pacific Airways Limited, the Hong Kong based airline operates frequent scheduled services to Calcutta, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Phnom Penh, Saigon, Djakarta, Kota Kinabalu, Manila, Taipei, Fukuoka, Osaka, Tokyo and Seoul, using their fleet of Convair 880 aircraft.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

      The British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon Peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Sham Chun where it joins the Chinese railway system, the northern bank of the Sham Chun River forming the international boundary at this point. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains at the border between the Colony and China and walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads, however, travel through without transhipment.

      There are 17 daily passenger trains each way operating on the British Section and an average of five goods trains per day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at week-ends and public holidays, especially in winter time. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin Station which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon at Tsim Sha Tsui and the border station at Lo Wu is about one hour.

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A new railway terminus is to be built at Hung Hom to replace the existing terminal station at Tsim Sha Tsui. The first stage of the project has been completed; land was reclaimed from the sea at Ho Tung Lau, Sha Tin and a workshop complex was built on it to replace the old railway workshops in Kowloon, and at the Hung Hom terminus site some maintenance facilities for rolling stock have been provided. The second stage of the project is still on the drawing board.

ROADS

       With the large and continuing increase in vehicle ownership, the rapid build-up of road traffic and near saturation of the road system, particularly in Kowloon, new road routes are being planned and work is going ahead on many major improvements to existing roads. In planning and designing these improvements, the Hong Kong Long Term Road Study Report together with the Mass Transport Study Report provide a guide to future requirements.

On Hong Kong Island, work on the Garden Road complex continued and traffic flow between the central business district and mid-levels improved as its staged implementation progressed. The widening of Upper Albert Road including the improvement of its junction with Garden Road commenced and the last remaining section of Cotton Tree Drive from the Helena May Institute to MacDonnell Road was almost completed.

The construction of the high capacity Waterfront Road, which is designed to link Central District with the cross-harbour tunnel and North Point proceeded on schedule and the three flyovers at Arsenal Street, Fleming Road and Causeway Bay were nearing com- pletion. The extension of Canal Road flyover and adjacent road- works to give direct access to the cross-harbour tunnel also com- menced. Six pedestrian footbridges crossing the Waterfront Road at regular intervals were in various stages of construction, the widen- ing of Wing Hing Street commenced and contract documents for Tsing Fung Street flyover were finalised.

       The realignment and widening of sections of Chai Wan Road and Stubbs Road were completed while roadworks at Aberdeen, Chai Wan and the areas above Tin Hau Temple Road continued in conjunction with new building development. Preliminary planning was started for a primary distributor road running through North

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Point and Quarry Bay as an extension of the Waterfront Road Scheme.

      In Kowloon, the construction of the flyover at Chatham Road/ Gascoigne Road was completed while substantial progress was made on the Pui Ching Road/Fat Kwong Street intersection which, when completed, will further improve traffic flow on the major traffic link between Tsim Sha Tsui and the eastern New Territories via Lion Rock tunnel.

       The detailed design of the full North East Kowloon corridor scheme to improve the existing road network which carries 100,000 vehicles per day between Kowloon and the new town of Kwun Tong was nearing completion. This scheme commenced with the award of the first contracts for the $40 million flyover complex at Kowloon City and Prince Edward Road/Choi Hung Road round- abouts. The planning was well under way on the extension of Lung Cheung Road/Ching Cheung Road which will form an important link between Kwai Chung in the New Territories and San Po Kong in east Kowloon. Preliminary planning was started for a primary distributor road along the western Kowloon waterfront to link Lai Chi Kok and Yau Ma Tei areas.

       Extensive road reconstruction continued throughout Kowloon to remedy the deterioration of roads which were built shortly after the war and which were not intended to carry the heavy traffic loads now common in the urban areas. Progress was also made on a number of new projects and improvements in the New Territories.

To make the most of the existing road network, traffic management techniques continued to be applied. Good progress was made in the installation of traffic light signals to improve traffic operations at road intersections and pedestrian crossings, a total of 182 sets being in use by the end of 1969. In addition, approval was given for the commissioning of the 'TRANSIT' computer programme to calculate the best settings and phasings of the Nathan Road Linked Signals. The improvement and extension of the public street lighting system continued with total of 1,843 new lamps being installed during the year.

       Further studies of a scheme for a Mass Transit system commenced, to assess the effect of revised population projections on the recom- mended system, to ascertain the most suitable alignments and first

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stage, and to prepare more detailed estimates of the cost and revenue of the project.

      The Traffic and Transport Survey Unit carried out transportation surveys for various government departments. These included studies of the public transport requirement of The Chinese University of Hong Kong at Sha Tin, pedestrian reaction to the 'walking man' pedestrian traffic signals, traffic generation of the proposed con- tainer terminal at Canton Road and bus operating characteristics. An extensive investigation was also made into the projected increase in ground traffic generation at Kai Tak Airport and its effect on the road network in the vicinity of the airport arising from an increase in air passenger and cargo traffic. In the urban areas on both sides of the harbour, the actual demands for parking spaces are being surveyed to provide factual data for the formulation of a future parking policy.

To eliminate errors which have continued over past years, the Colony's road network was completely remeasured. The reassessed total number of miles of roads maintained by Government is 593.0 of which 200.7 are on Hong Kong Island, 171.2 in Kowloon and 221.1 in the New Territories. A total of $35.9 million was spent on major projects together with $10.0 million on road improvement and maintenance during the year.

PARKING

There are four government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 2,281 cars. In addition 1,647 parking spaces in five temporary open air car parks, also managed by the council, have been established on Crown land awaiting development. Construction of two multi-storey car parks at Rumsey Street and Yau Ma Tei, each of which will accommodate about 900 cars on completion, is expected to be completed in early 1970. In addition, there is a total of 6,635 parking meters installed in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

With the exception of the Kowloon-Canton Railway whose activities are fully described in an earlier section of this Report, public transport is operated by private enterprise. There are five

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major public transport companies operating scheduled services under ordinances which grant monopoly rights but require the provision of adequate services. These are: The China Motor Bus Co and the Hong Kong Tramways Co which operate scheduled services on Hong Kong Island; the Kowloon Motor Bus Co which has the exclusive scheduled bus franchise in Kowloon and the New Territories; the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co and the Star Ferry Co which operate ferry services on specific routes across the harbour. Appendix XXXVIII lists the traffic carried annually by each of the public transport undertakings between the years 1959 and 1969.

Scheduled bus services in Kowloon and the New Territories are operated by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited which at the end of 1969 had a fleet of 970 vehicles. The significant . development for KMB during the year was the initiation of a large programme to re-equip its bus fleet. At the end of 1969 there were either on order, under construction or newly introduced into service 465 new buses. One hundred and fifty of these are single-deck buses and 315 are double-deck.

      Scheduled bus services on Hong Kong Island are operated by the China Motor Bus Company Limited which at the end of 1969 had 487 vehicles. Also on the Island, Hong Kong Tramways Limited operate an electric tramway service. The total fleet is 162 tramcars and 22 single-deck trailers. Through the city area the frequency is a car every 30 seconds in each direction.

       As from September 1, 1969 new categories of licensed vehicles known as public and private light buses were introduced. By the end of the year 3,458 public light buses and 1,088 private light buses were registered. Public light buses (minibuses) plying for hire are free to set their own routes and fares but there are certain areas or stretches of congested roads where they are not allowed to operate or where they are forbidden to set down or pick up passengers. Private light buses are not allowed to carry fare-paying passengers unless the buses are owned and operated by schools or other educational establishments. The estimated number of passen- gers carried by public light buses during the first four months of their operation is well over half a million per day.

      Taxis are licensed for specific use on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon or the New Territories, and fares vary with each area.

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On Hong Kong Island fares are $1.50 for the first mile or any part of it and 20 cents for every subsequent fifth of a mile. In Kowloon the fare is $1 for the first mile and 20 cents for every subsequent quarter of a mile. At the end of the year, there was a total of 3,428 licensed taxis in the Colony; 2,235 in Kowloon, 1,171 on Hong Kong Island and 22 in New Territories.

Public and private omnibuses operate bus services other than those provided by the major bus companies and the light buses. Such services include sight-seeing tours, limousine services provided by hotels and school-bus services. At the end of the year there were 524 public omnibuses and 369 private omnibuses. Public omnibuses are hired for the carriage of passengers under a contract or at a distinct fare for a predetermined route in accordance with the licence granted. Private omnibuses are not allowed to carry, passengers for hire or reward.

FERRY SERVICES

The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited operates a fleet of 63 diesel-engined ferries, 14 of which are vehicle ferries. The company maintains 10 routes in the harbour between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, as well as services to the New Territories and outlying islands.

The Star Ferry Company Limited runs a passenger ferry service across the harbour between Victoria City on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. The company uses 10 vessels on this service. Supplementary services were introduced to cope with the daily peak hour traffic and to relieve congestion at the ferry concourses.

ADMINISTRATION

      The Transport Advisory Committee formed in 1965, has now a membership of four official members and six unofficial members, with one of the latter as its chairman. It advises the Governor or the statutory authority (who in most cases is the Commissioner for Transport) on all aspects of transport and traffic policy, with the exception of external sea and air communications.

      The Transport Department provides a secretariat for the Trans- port Advisory Committee and carries out a wide range of executive

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functions including vehicle licensing, driving tests and vehicle inspection. As the statutory authority, the Commissioner for Transport is also responsible for regulating public transport services and co-ordinating action between other departments in the trans- port field.

       The number of registered motor vehicles at the end of 1969 was 125,364, an increase of 14 per cent over the previous year. (Vehicle statistics are given in Appendix XXXVIII). The demand for driving licences continued to rise and during the year 207,966 driving tests were conducted and 40,586 driving licences were issued. (Driving licences statistics are given at Appendix XXXVIII).

       The system of compulsory annual inspection of taxis and public cars, instituted in June 1966, was extended to all public light buses and all omnibuses first registered before 1962 to ensure that these vehicles comply with basic safety requirements.

       The 4,677-foot Lion Rock Tunnel, which was formally opened to traffic on November 14, 1967, and provides a shorter alternative route between Kowloon and Sha Tin, is managed and operated by the Transport Department. The tunnel is the first and only toll road in the Colony. The tolls charged are $1 for buses, goods vehicles and dual purpose vans, and 50 cents for private cars and motor cycles. During the year a total of 2,322,000 vehicles used the tunnel and $1,310,000 was collected in tolls, an increase of 16 per cent over the previous year.

CROSS HARBOUR TUNNEL

      Agreement in principle was reached in London, in April, 1969, between the Cross Harbour Tunnel Company and Lloyds Bank for the provision of a loan of just over $200 million for the construc- tion of the tunnel: the loan is guaranteed by the Export Credits Guarantee Department of the United Kingdom Government.

      During June, 1969, the Cross Harbour Tunnel Ordinance was enacted and at the same time Legislative Council approved the purchase by the Hong Kong Government of 25 per cent of the ordinary shares and loan stock issued by the Cross Harbour Tunnel Company. Very shortly afterwards, in the same month, the con- tract was awarded for the construction of this four-lane vehicular

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tunnel between Hung Hom and Causeway Bay. The value of the contract is $272,533,333 and is the largest single contract ever awarded in the history of the Colony.

      On the September 1, 1969, the Governor broke the ground and unveiled a plaque at Hung Hom commemorating the start of work on the tunnel. Preliminary works were then put in hand and the fabrication of steel tunnel units has commenced.

POSTAL SERVICES

      The development of Postal services continued in 1969 with post- ings to all destinations of more than 165.8 million postal articles, representing an increase of more than 11 per cent over postings for the previous year. Items delivered locally exceeded 130 million and over 1.6 million were handled in transit. Total Postal statistics are given at Appendix XXXVIII.

       Counter business at all Post Offices includes the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels, and the issue and payment of money orders and postal orders. Special services, used mainly by the business community, such as business reply facilities, cash on delivery parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for bulk postings, are available. There are two postal deliveries a day, excluding Sundays, in all but the most remote rural areas.

      A high percentage of mail posted is destined for abroad and since separate despatches to individual countries are established whenever justified by the volume of mail availabe for despatch, direct despatches are actually made up to more than 203 different places overseas. The train services between Kowloon and Lo Wu form the main link for the conveyance of mails to and from the People's Republic of China.

       Three new post offices were opened during the year, bringing the total of offices to 57 including one Mobile Post Office operating in the New Territories. Of the three new post offices two were established on Hong Kong Island at Happy Valley and Hennessy Road; the other was opened in the New Kowloon at the Sau Mau Ping Resettlement Estate. Temporary post offices were provided for the 3rd World Congress of the Universal Federation of Travel

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Agents' Association, the 27th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products and the Festival of Hong Kong Stamp Exhibition.

Three postage stamp issues were made during the year. As part of a series of stamps to commemmorate the Lunar New Year, two stamps in values of 10 cents and $1.30 were issued in February to commemorate 'the Year of the Cock'. In August there was an issue of a single 40 cents stamp to mark establishment of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. A $1 stamp was issued in September to coincide with the opening of the Satellite Earth Station on Stanley Peninsula. First Day Covers were sold on each occasion. There appears to be a growing interest in Hong Kong postage stamps.

     In addition to the popular pictorial Christmas aerogrammes of last year, a new design was prepared by a Hong Kong artist and placed on sale on November 24.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

The Telecommunications Division of the Post Office licenses and inspects telecommunication installations operating under the Tele- communication Ordinance; investigates interference to telecom- munication services and monitors radio transmissions to ensure that they comply with the conditions of licence. The division also acts as adviser to government departments on telecommunication matters and co-ordinates their telephone service requirements.

      Overseas communications are provided by Cable and Wireless Limited. Hong Kong is linked by an 80-channel submarine telephone cable westwards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam from where telegraph, telex and telephone circuits extend to all parts of the world.

In addition to the undersea cables a satellite earth station working via the Pacific Intelsat III satellite provides circuits to Japan, USA, Thailand and Australia. Other destinations will be added as and when necessary. A second Earth Station working to the Indian Ocean Satellite is planned to be operational by the end of 1970.

HF Radio circuits connect to 14 countries providing, in com- bination with undersea cable and satellite links, a total of 264 telegraph and 174 telephone circuits terminating in Hong Kong.

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       In order to handle the increasing volume of telegraph traffic, a computer was installed during 1969. The computer can store 130,000,000 telegraph characters and by the end of 1969 was hand- ling 2,000,000 messages a month.

      To provide for increased telex demand a new fully automatic telex exchange providing many additional facilities will be installed during 1970.

Telephone services in the Colony are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company, Limited, a public company operating under a Government franchise. In collaboration with Cable and Wireless, Limited, it also provides telephone communication to most overseas countries and to ships at sea and moored in the harbour.

The telephone system is fully automatic and consists of more than 500,000 working telephones operating through 40 exchanges. Exchange line rentals are on a flat rate basis of $350 a year for business lines and $235 a year for residential lines. There is no charge made for local calls and the telephone service in Hong Kong is one of the cheapest in the world.

       The abolition in 1968 of call charges for calls to and from the New Territories and outlying islands has greatly stimulated the demand for telephones in these areas.

      Some 70,000 new lines were installed during 1969 compared with 65,000 in 1968. Two additional telephone exchanges were commis- sioned in 1969 together with extensions to existing exchanges and the necessary cable schemes associated with this expansion of the system.

      The overall demand has continued at a high rate and the annual growth rate of about 20 per cent has been maintained for some

years.

      The Government's Advisory Committee on Telephone Services reviews the operation, improvement and expansion of telephone services, examines complaints and suggestions from the public, and makes periodical reports to the Governor in Council. Under the chairmanship of an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, it includes five other unofficial members, the Postmaster General and the Deputy Economic Secretary.

14

Press, Broadcasting and Cinema

THE year was one of expansion and progress for Hong Kong's communications media.

       There was a net increase of 14 in the number of daily newspapers published in the Colony, bringing the total to 76. A number of new magazines also appeared. In television, the big event was the opening of a satellite receiving station which will enable Hong Kong viewers to watch direct telecasts from the United States and other countries. The year also saw the opening of Broadcasting House-Radio Hong Kong's new permanent headquarters-and the tenth anniversary of Commercial Radio.

       In addition to all the usual sources of news, both local and international, all these media receive a constant flow of news releases, radio bulletins, films and photographs from the Govern- ment Information Services, informing the people of the Govern- ment's actions, views and intentions. The department maintains a 24-hour service and provides news coverage of all major public

events.

PRESS

The Chinese and English language press in Hong Kong currently produce 243 publications, including 72 Chinese and four English daily newspapers. It is estimated that, between them, the Chinese and English language newspapers have an overall circulation of some one-and-a-half-million copies a day. Some of the leading newspapers and magazines are listed in Appendix XXXIX. The Wah Kiu, Sing Tao and the Kung Sheung are three of the Chinese daily newspapers which are commonly recognised as seeking to give an objective representation of the world's news as well as a full picture of local events. The English morning dailies are the South China Morning Post and the Hong Kong Standard; the Post's afternoon companion is the China Mail and The Star is the other afternoon paper. The Standard and The Star each publish a Sunday

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edition, while the South China Morning Post Limited produces the Sunday Post-Herald which has its own editorial staff.

      Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 18 members and three associate members. The society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in matters affecting the interests of all Hong Kong newspapers, the society or its members.

A notable event of the year was the formation of the Hong Kong Chinese Press Association on August 26, 1969 by some 16 of the smaller Chinese newspapers.

Hong Kong is the base of South-East Asia operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies are represented by the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Reuters and United Press International.

BROADCASTING FACILITIES

Hong Kong is served by four broadcasting organisations produc- ing between them four television channels (two English and two Chinese) and eight sound channels (two English, one background music, and five Chinese channels). Three of the four organisations are commercial and the other is a Government operated station.

SOUND BROADCASTING

       In March, Radio Hong Kong, the Government station, moved into its new Broadcasting House at Broadcast Drive, Kowloon. This was a particularly significant event because for the first time since broadcasting began in 1928, Radio Hong Kong has its studio centre, with all facilities accommodated in a single building designed solely for broadcasting. The new building, of approximately 52,000 square feet, has 16 studios which cater for all the various requirements of sound broadcasting.

      Radio Hong Kong is financed from general revenue and carries no advertising. The aim of the Government broadcasting service is to provide balanced programmes with emphasis on information and public affairs programmes. Government broadcasting also aims to be of assistance in developing better mutual understanding

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of the problems and attitudes of the different communities who make up the Colony's society. In addition to public affairs programmes there are many serious and light music programmes included in the schedules, with comprehensive news and weather services throughout the day. Transmission hours for both English and Chinese programmes are from 7 a.m. to midnight daily, although the total number of transmission hours is increased as a result of using medium wave and FM transmissions for different programme purposes during certain times of the day.

I Commercial Radio celebrated its Tenth Anniversary on August 26. To commemorate this occasion, the company established a $100,000 Memorial Fund for educational purposes in memory of the late Lam Bun and Lam Kwong Hoi whose murder in 1967, horrified and grieved the people of Hong Kong. Special programmes were put on by both English and Chinese services to commemorate the Tenth Anniversary of the station, and birthday cakes were given to children who were born on the same day 10 years ago.

       Commercial Radio's Chinese services this year began broad- casting their own news bulletins from studios in Yau Yat Chuen instead of relaying the news from Radio Hong Kong.

      The wired sound service of Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd-a locally controlled subsidiary of the organisation which operates in Britain and in many other Commonwealth countries-is dis- tributed throughout the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon and to many outlying villages in the islands and New Territories by more than 1,500 miles of main trunk lines and another 4,000 miles of installation cabling.

       At the end of the year there were 35,000 loudspeakers connected to these sound services which offer a choice of four programmes.

TELEVISION

      Hong Kong had the distinction of being the first British colony to operate a television service when the network of Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd (RTV) was established in 1957. The station now has a Chinese and an English programme channel. There are about 95,000 subscribers to this wired service. The station provides

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commercial facilities for programme sponsorship and spot advertis- ing on both channels. The two channels now provide some 152 viewing hours each week.

Television House, the company's new multi-studio centre at Broadcast Drive in Kowloon is a modern production centre equipped with 19 studios. Of these nine are television studios, eight are audio studios and two are dubbing suites.

Hong Kong Television Broadcast Ltd (HK-TVB) began regular programming on two wireless networks-Jade (Chinese) and Pearl (English) on November 19, 1967. It is registered and controlled in Hong Kong under the Television Ordinance (1964).

HK-TVB employs the UHF, 625 line PAL colour system. Its main transmitters are on Temple Hill. The company also maintains translator stations in various parts of the Colony.

Jade Network programmes are designed primarily for Chinese audiences (principally Cantonese), but they also attract a large number of viewers who cannot speak any Chinese dialect. The programmes of the Pearl Network are designed to attract both European and Chinese viewers.

HK-TVB also maintains an independent news service with its own editorial staff and reporters. HK-TVB staff is almost entirely Chinese and includes a number of talented youngsters who returned from abroad to work for the station.

FILM INDUSTRY

      Hong Kong's thriving film industry this year maintained its position among the top three or four volume producers in the world. An estimated 280 feature films were produced by local studios during the year. There was also renewed interest by major overseas producers in Hong Kong location shooting and a continued upsurge in the numbers of advertising films and commercials made here for both local and international clients.

      The two principal Hong Kong companies are Shaw Brothers and the Cathay Organisation, and they control the bulk of 28 shooting stages. A number of smaller independent companies have studio complexes. Most of the Mandarin films are widescreen and in lavish colour-Shaw Brothers' films are renowned for their outstanding

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      colour and the company now operates its own highly-automated colour laboratories. Cantonese films, which are produced almost exclusively for the Hong Kong domestic market, are usually in black-and-white but some of the more ambitious productions have ventured into colour. Costs rose throughout the industry during 1969. An average Mandarin film now costs approximately $900,000 and a Cantonese black-and-white production about $400,000.

      On the latest count there were 41 directors, 40 script-writers, 102 contracted and 26 independent stars, a 1,300 man technical force of carpenters, plasterers, brick-layers, painters, electricians, camera- men, sound-recordists and projectionists employed full-time in local film production. A further 800 employees are involved in full-time subsidiary activities with exploitation of locally-made pictures in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong films are popular throughout Asia and have recently been increasingly well received overseas both in film festivals and at the box office.

       There are 104 cinemas in the Colony, with total seating capacity of 122,287. Attendance figures are among the highest in the world per head of population.

Costs for location shooting in Hong Kong, where some unparal- leled scenery is to be found, are still considerably lower than in other leading international centres such as Spain, Italy and Mexico. Labour costs are extremely economical, yet international standards in services are consistently provided. These advantages, combined with Hong Kong's unique story possibilities, drew a number of American and European producers to the Colony during the year and several others have announced firm plans to film part or all of coming productions in Hong Kong.

       Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censorship in accordance with the law and must be viewed by the film censors panel. A total of 5,376 films were submitted for censor- ship during the year, including 160 local productions.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

       The task of the Government Information Services is to keep the people of Hong Kong and the rest of the world accurately informed

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of the Government's aims and achievements. The department is linked by teleprinter to 65 newspapers, news agencies, broadcasting and television stations as well as City District Offices.

      The department is organized in three Divisions-News, Publicity and Public Relations, with certain services common to all three. The News Division operates in two main sections-press and radio news. The press section channels information to newspapers and deals with press enquiries 24 hours a day while the radio news section specialises in the preparation of world and local news for the Colony's broadcasting stations and Rediffusion Television. Fifteen radio news bulletins in English and Chinese are prepared daily, ranging in length from full 10-minute bulletins to one-minute summaries. The radio news room moved to Broadcasting House on March 2, 1969 to be near its customers in 'Radio City' in Kowloon. It is in constant contact with the press section in Beaconsfield House, Hong Kong, through teleprinter, facsimile and telephone links.

To introduce the press section's facsimile service to Chinese newspapers, the machine was connected to the Sing Tao Pao in early October 1969 for a period of one month. The machine was then transferred to the Wah Kiu Po and the Kung Sheung Po respec- tively for the next two months. The exercise was being extended to the two television stations at the end of the year.

The special responsibilities of the recently formed Public Rela- tions Division are to maintain contact with Hong Kong people living overseas, especially those living in Britain, and at home to improve understanding between the public and the Government. This latter function involves keeping the Government informed of the current state of public opinion, explaining government activities and intentions to the people, and sorting out situations which may provide potential sources of misunderstanding. Much of this work is done through the news media, especially the Chinese language press. Continuous contact is also maintained with departments, such as the Resettlement Department and City District Offices, which are themselves in daily contact with large numbers of the public.

A special Chinese newspaper for Hong Kong residents abroad, Hong Kong News Digest, produced by the Public Relations Division, was enlarged and expanded in scope during the year. The division

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      has also initiated or assisted the provision of film and sound-tape information and entertainment for Hong Kong people living in Britain.

       The Publicity Division has local and overseas commitments, and it produces magazine and newspaper feature articles, photographs, newsreels, booklets and posters. Locally, the division is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all government departments. The editorial section provides written material for a worldwide press syndication service and for most booklets and leaflets pro- duced in the department.

       The monthly newspaper, The World of Hong Kong, was replaced during the year by a weekly digest of events in the Colony, widely circulated to readers overseas. Other publications produced during the year included Coming to Hong Kong, A Brief History of the Hong Kong Waterworks, a booklet on the Plover Cove Water Scheme, a colour folder dealing with Government Low-Cost Housing, Hong Kong-Girl in the Crowd and A Career With the Hong Kong Government.

       The Film Unit concentrated its efforts again this year on their monthly film Hong Kong Today. This three-minute newsreel style film is screened regularly in about 60 local cinemas and on both the local television channels. Since April this year the film has been shot in colour. Other projects during the year included a widescreen colour film of a traditional Chinese dance for the New Year and a 10-minute documentary on the work of the Tai Lam Treatment Centre for drug dependents.

      The Design and Display Section in 1969 again increased its production of art work, posters, advertisements and displays in addition to creating more than one hundred window displays for the City District Offices, the Government Publications Centre and Beaconsfield House.

The distribution section undertakes the distribution of all pub- licity material. More than 750,000 copies of various publications and posters were sent out during the year through regular channels. Some 5,000 films were issued on loan and seen by an estimated audience of more than half a million. A further 600,000 were reached by the mobile teams which show films in remote villages, resettle- ment estates, schools, churches and kaifong associations.

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The exhibition section continued planning and preparing through- out 1969 for Hong Kong's Pavilion at Expo '70. By the end of the year, the pavilion was completed and most of the interiors installed. Staff had been chosen and detailed briefing on their duties had commenced.

       Government participation in the Annual CMA Exhibition which opened on November 28 was again organised by the exhibition section. The pavilion aimed to show in broad terms what Govern- ment does for the benefit of the community at large.

       The information section of the Hong Kong Government Office in London works in close collaboration with the Government Information Services. Press relations form an important part of the work, and releases for the British press are prepared from in- formation bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. The information section also acts as a distributing agency in Britain for photo- features prepared by the Government Information Services and these, together with press releases, play a major role in informing the British public about Hong Kong and its achievements through the medium of newspapers and magazines.

15

The Armed Services and Auxiliary Services

THE British Armed Forces are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the Hong Kong Government to maintain security and stability in the Colony. All three Services are represented, under the operational command of the Commander, British Forces who, as the unified Commander in Hong Kong, is responsible to the Commander-in- Chief, Far East. The Commander British Forces is the Governor's Adviser on matters affecting the security of the Colony.

      Army units predominate in Hong Kong. The land forces are part of the Far East Land Forces Command which has its head- quarters in Singapore. Royal Navy ships in Hong Kong are under the direct operational control of the Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong. They are all units of the Far East Fleet, which has its head- quarters in Singapore. The Commander, RAF, commands the RAF station at Kai Tak, and, in addition, has a squadron of Whirlwind helicopters under his command (No. 28 Squadron). This RAF support is a part of the overall backing provided by Far East Air Force, based in Singapore, which includes fighter and ground attack aircraft, operating frequently from Kai Tak.

The Auxiliary Units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Hong Kong Regiment and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, are administered by the Hong Kong Government, but they come under command of Commander British Forces, and his appropriate single-service subordinate commanders, for operations, and train- ing for operations.

The Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong, commands the Naval force in the Colony and Colony waters. During the year, as part of the redeployment of the Far East Fleet, the force of frigates and Mine Countermeasures vessels in Hong Kong has been reinforced by the permanent transfer to the Colony of the 6th Mine Counter- measures Squadron comprising HM Ships Maxton, Bossington, Kirkliston, Sheraton, and Hubberston.

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       HMS Tamar is the Naval Shore Establishment in Hong Kong. It is the Headquarters of the Commodore-in-Charge and the Base for the squadron of ships. It also provides essential services to frigates assigned for duty in Hong Kong and to other ships of the Far East Fleet and Commonwealth Navies visiting Hong Kong for maintenance or recreation. Major warships which visited the Colony in 1969 included the Commando Ship HMS Albion, Assault Ships HMS Intrepid and HMS Fearless and the Guided Missile Destroyer HMS London. HMS Tamar recruits and trains Hong Kong Chinese Naval ratings for service in the Naval base and in the Western and Far East Fleets. HMS Tamar is also the agency for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary Service and operates a licenced crew department for the recruitment of Hong Kong Chinese seamen for RFA vessels world- wide.

       Under command of Headquarters Land Forces, there are two Army formations, 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, which has its head- quarters at Sek Kong in the New Territories, and 51 Brigade which commands units both in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island, and which has its headquarters in Kowloon. Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island. Units which have been stationed in the Colony during 1969 include C Squadron, the Queen's Own Hussars, 18th Light Regiment Royal Artillery, 25th Light Regiment Royal Artillery, 1st Battalion the Royal Welch Fusiliers, 1st Battalion the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, 4th Battalion the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers; and from the Brigade of Gurkhas, 1st and 2nd Battalions 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles (who subsequently amalgamated and became the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles), 1st and 2nd Battalions 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles, together with squad- rons of Engineer, Signals and Transport units of the Brigade. In addition tours of duty have been served in the Colony by A Squadron, 15th/19th the King's Royal Hussars and 200 Hovercraft Squadron Royal Corps of Transport; and from the Royal Marines, A Company 40 Commando and a Special Boat Section of Number 1 Raiding Squadron.

The Royal Air Force Station at Kai Tak is a separate enclave alongside the civil airport and uses the airport's runway and control services. The RAF has its own radar and signal facilities for the

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long distance control of military aircraft approaching Hong Kong. These facilities are shared by the Director of Civil Aviation to help ensure the safety of civil aircraft operating within the Hong Kong flight information region.

       No. 28 Squadron, based permanently at Kai Tak, is equipped with Whirlwind helicopters maintained primarily for the rapid movement of troops and supplies. In addition it provides a standby aircraft for search and rescue in the Colony and the near waters and assists in the evacuation of casualties from the islands and New Territories (37 service and civilian patients were airlifted to the main hospitals in the first nine months of 1969). Squadrons of the Far East Air Force continued to come to Hong Kong for training and the year saw the first visit by Vulcan strike aircraft from the United Kingdom. RAF transport aircraft activity has again increased, supplemented by training by Belfast freight air- craft from their United Kingdom base.

The continuing secure and stable situation in Hong Kong in 1969 has enabled the Armed Forces to extend their contribution of providing help of all kinds to the local community. This has varied between providing recreational activities on a large scale for the young, assistance to a number of charitable organisations for the poor and the physically handicapped, help with community proj- ects in villages, and specialised engineering works in remote areas; all making good use of the special facilities, qualifications and equipment of the Services.

      The primary task of the British Armed Forces in Hong Kong remains, however, to be ready at all times to give instant support to the Hong Kong Government and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, should this be necessary. To this end, the Services have maintained a high standard of training and alertness.

       An essential part of this operational commitment is, jointly with the New Territories Administration and the Police, to ensure that stable conditions are maintained on the borders of the Colony, and that the security forces in the border area are progressively placed in a better position to meet all likely contingencies. In various ways this process has advanced steadily since 1969.

      The joint police and military patrolling of remote areas, which has done much to bring the security forces in close touch with

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isolated communities, and to engender confidence, has continued at a high frequency.

LOCAL AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

The local auxiliary defence services, the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force and the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Police (dealt with in Chapter 10) have a total strength of over 4,000 volunteers. These Services are raised and administered under local legislation and are financed by funds allocated by the Legislative Council. The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force comprises the Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force.

The Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) has a strength of about 600. It is a light reconnaissance regiment and comprises a headquarters squadron, four reconnaissance squadrons (three equipped with landrovers and one with scout cars) and a Home Guard squadron. The regiment is fully mobile and its role is to operate in support of the regular army battalions stationed in Hong Kong with tasks which make use of the volunteers' detailed knowl- edge of the Colony and the people.

      The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force has a strength of 85 volun- teer members and operates two Alouette helicopters and four Auster aircraft. The main functions of the force are internal security, search and rescue, casualty evacuation, aeromedical services and conveyance of government officers to remote areas. Some 50 casualty evacuations were carried out during the year under review and sorties were flown to assist the Marine Police locate missing yachts and vessels carrying illegal immigrants. The aircraft have also been used to deliver weekly newspapers to remote villages in the New Territories and the outlying islands.

ESSENTIAL SERVICES CORPS

      The Essential Services Corps comprises four autonomous serv- ices-the units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Services and the Auxiliary Fire Service. The Corps proper consists of some 60 units which can be mobilised during severe emergencies to maintain public utilities and

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     other essential services. Approximately half the units are formed from government departments and the other half from commercial organisations. The total strength is about 11,000. Each unit is principally staffed by persons who have undertaken voluntarily to continue with their normal work under severe emergency condi- tions. When called out for service members become subject to special legal obligations and also become entitled to substantial benefits appropriate to the abnormal conditions of service.

      The Auxiliary Medical Service has a strength of approximately 5,200 members who are trained to reinforce the Medical and Health Department and the Fire Services in time of emergency. The officers and members are divided into two groups, one trained to work in hospitals, convalescent units or dressing stations and the other trained to assist the Fire Services as drivers, ambulance crews or mobile first aid parties. During the outbreak of cholera this year members of the Auxiliary Medical Service staffed the Chatham Road Quarantine Centre, which was used as an observation unit for the contacts of cholera patients.

       The Civil Aid Services with a strength of over 4,000 members is Hong Kong's Civil Defence Corps and multi-purpose auxiliary force. Volunteers from all walks of life are trained in warden duties, search and rescue, communications and as heavy-duty vehicle drivers. Some members are also trained as tram or bus drivers or as wharf machine operators in order to assist the public utilities in emergencies. The Civil Aid Services also provide and train the personnel for Hong Kong's mountain rescue teams. The members of these teams undergo vigorous mountaineering training and are ready to respond to any call for help at any time.

      The junior wing of the Service, the Civil Aid Services' Cadet Corps, expanded during the year from the two original pilot units to a total of eight units by the end of 1969. The Corps aims at providing boys between the ages of 14 and 17 with an exciting and varied programme of activities in order to develop character and civic responsibility.

       The 650-man Auxiliary Fire Service provides a valuable reserve of trained manpower willing and able to take a prime role in fire fighting and rescue work when the regular Fire Service is under stress during major fires, typhoons or other natural disasters.

16

Religion and Custom

A BRIEF account of religious practices in Hong Kong must embrace such diverse subjects as Taoism, the religious aspects of Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and a kaleidoscope of Christian sects. It is easy to be misled by the entirely different appearances of religious observance, particularly between the tradi- tional Chinese practices and those of the Christian churches, and even to assume a relative lack of religion in Chinese life. It is true that Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are churches in the City of London, but there are likely to be at least as many signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, as in its Western counterpart. Almost every Chinese shop has its 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines, and the traditional religious rites of birth, marriage and death are still widely observed.

There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years mainly due to immigration from China. Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people.

      Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries, nunneries and hermitages. Because of their accessibility, those at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, some of the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and unspoilt parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is much visited at week-ends and holidays.

      Sightseers as well as devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories such as Ching Shan Tsz and Tsing Chung Koon at Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor and Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen near Tsuen Wan and Sai Lam at Sha Tin. At Tao

RECREATION

Hong Kong is by no means all hard work and rising pro- duction figures. It is also blessed with one of the world's most beautiful settings, a balmy climate and a population keen to take full advantage of both.

   The preceding page shows youngsters enjoying themselves at one of Hong Kong's ever-popular public swimming pools. This one is at Victoria Park on Hong Kong Island, which also contains football fields, tennis courts, basketball courts, a skating rink and facilities for many other sports. The follow- ing pages provide a further cross-section of some of Hong Kong's leisure-time activities.

   Physical training is also an important part of Hong Kong's educational system. Picture (facing page) shows students using an outdoor trampoline at one such class.

Football is probably Hong Kong's most popular spectator sport. This exciting action shot was taken during a match at the Government stadium.

The packed stands in this shot of Hong Kong's picturesque Happy Valley racecourse aptly illustrate another major enthusiasm-the racing season which runs from October to May.

SI. DUNAVEN

Every youngster likes to watch a brass band but for these young Hong Kong musicians it's even more fun to play in one. They provided the musical accompaniment for a sports outing during the year for children from resettlement estates.

It might not be the Hong Kong Open but these youngsters playing on an Urban Council mini-golf circuit are giving it all they've got anyway-and who knows, for one of them one day it might be.

The age-old art of Tai Chi Chuan retains its appeal for thousands of Hong Kong resi- dents of all ages who crowd the parks each day to prac- tise its graceful, health-giving routines. The exercises are based on the movements of ancient Chinese martial arts.

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Fong Shan, near Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture, where the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on for many years. To meet the demands of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may often be found in the same temple. Many of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port, and, except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been tradi- tionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers). Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of righteousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau), and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors). Many Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay, but other Tin Hau temples are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations made since they were originally established close to the shore.

       Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, which is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. In recent years by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin, in New Kowloon, and the Che Kung temple at Sha Tin. In the New Territories, where traditional clan organisa- tion has been preserved to a great extent many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the

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secular life there. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also to be found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

      The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are ex- changed among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain.

       The fact that Chinese may follow one or other of these ways or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, has often made Christianity, with its exclusive claims, seem uncongenial to the Chinese spirit. Nevertheless Christianity is rooted deeply and growing rapidly in Hong Kong.

Its roots go back indeed to the earliest days of the Colony. St John's Cathedral was founded in 1842, and established as a Cathedral by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. A rep- resentative of the London Missionary Society arrived at about the same time. St Andrew's Church was consecrated in October 1906. There is an annual increase of four per cent in communicant church membership. New churches and chapels in housing estates and satellite towns are constantly being built. It is estimated that there are now 261 churches and chapels in the Colony. The number of Christians in Hong Kong is estimated at slightly over 400,000- about 10 per cent of the total population.

While about 12 churches in the Colony hold services in English, the great majority of the congregations are Chinese speaking, mostly Cantonese. There are some churches using Kuo-yu (Mandarin). Christians in Hong Kong are notable church-goers. The major

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world denominations are represented in the Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists and Pentecostals, while churches of a Presbyterian type are joined in the Church of Christ in China. There are, in addition, a number of undenominational churches.

The churches are responsible for approximately 164 primary schools and 101 middle schools and colleges in the Colony, a number which may be expected to increase with the growing population. They also sponsor hospitals, clinics, orphanages, and social service centres. While some funds for social service are locally raised, generous contributions are received from outside the Colony, many of them channelled through the Hong Kong Christian Service.

       Churches which are in relationship with the World Council of Churches come together with missionary societies, YMCA, YWCA, and other groups in the Hong Kong Christian Council. The council's new headquarters, the Christian Centre, houses the offices of the Hong Kong Christian Service, the Audio Visual Evangelism Com- mittee and the Chinese Christian Literature Council and there is an Ecumenical Library and conference room. A near neighbour in the same building is the old-established Chinese Churches Union, in which churches are linked on a congregational basis.

The Hong Kong Christian Council was established in 1954. Its membership is by Denomination, Association or Mission. It now has a membership of 22 major church bodies and Christian organisa- tions (12 Churches, six Christian Organisations and four Missions). Hong Kong Christian Council members represent 75 per cent of the total Protestant Church membership in Hong Kong.

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong dates also back to the beginning of the Colony. The first priests to arrive were chaplains with the British Army. On April 23, 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first prefect. He built a permanent church, established a seminary to train Chinese priests, and brought in religious sisters to start schools and welfare institutions.

The Most Rev Francis Hsu, who had been consecrated Auxiliary Bishop of Hong Kong a year earlier, was formally installed on October 26, 1969, the first Chinese bishop of the 130-year old Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong.

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In the field of education, expansion continued. The La Salle Brothers are running the new Chan Sui Ki (La Salle) College in Ho Man Tin. New primary schools opened are: Ka Ling School of the Precious Blood Sisters and Ping Sek Catholic Primary School, both in Kowloon, Shek Lei and Tsuen Wan Catholic primary schools, both in Tsuen Wan. Extensions were made to Sung Tsun Middle School, Sai Kung and Ying Yin School, Yuen Long.

Catholics as in September 1969 number 241,813, over 90 per cent of them Chinese, spread out in 27 parishes on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and in 15 rural districts of the New Territories.

Church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 345 priests, 109 religious brothers and 761 religious sisters, 38 religious Orders and congregations rep- resenting 32 nationalities.

There are at present 157 Catholic primary and secondary schools with an aggregate enrolment of 211,548 students.

Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at a synagogue in Robinson Road constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory of his mother Leah and it is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 300 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States, South Africa and Israel.

There are more than 8,000 followers of Islam in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese who have come to the Colony during the past two decades. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Persia and from neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street and Wongneichong Road Mosques, on Hong Kong Island, and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is the co-ordinating body for all religious affairs and is also responsible for the mosques and cemeteries. This board is in the process of being incorporated and

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will be known as the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Com- munity of Hong Kong. Much charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial help to the needy, hospitalisation and assisted education, is being done by welfare committee set up in recent years by a group of public-spirited women.

       The Hindu community numbers more than 8,000 and their religious and social activities centre round a temple in Happy Valley. The community has been associated with Hong Kong since earliest times and the temple itself is considered to be one of the finest in the Far East. In addition to visits by saints, swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holi Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Diwali. The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes open to all communities, and for the teaching of Hindi to the Indian community.

17

Recreation

      HONG KONG is a crowded and busy place where leisure is precious. Add to this the traditional Chinese enthusiasm for nature and the result is a community that appreciates its parks, gardens and playing fields more than most. From before sunrise on a typical morning in Hong Kong people of all ages can be seen out in the open air performing the slow, graceful routines of Tai Chi Chuan, a system of physical fitness derived from ancient Chinese martial arts but now practised almost exclusively for health reasons. Early morning strollers walk among them, often carrying a pet songbird out together with its cage for a breath of fresh air. Throughout the day playgrounds and pools are thronged with children. And not even the coming of dark brings a halt. The lights come on over football arenas, basketball pitches and swimming pools, while the less active gather at the mahjong tables, watch television or flock out to sample the almost endless variety of diversions Hong Kong offers for both rich and poor.

All of this activity goes on to the accompaniment of an energetic government programme to provide recreation facilities of all kinds. This effort has been gathering pace in recent years.

       Hundreds of parks, playgrounds and sportsgrounds, a number of big swimming pool complexes and extensive beach facilities have already been completed and more are being built each month.

The Urban Council and the Urban Services Department expanded their public entertainment activities during the year. Cantonese operas, variety shows, film shows, swimming parties, 'pop' dances and band concerts were arranged, both in the urban areas and in the New Territories. Attendance at these functions exceeded 500,000. In drawing up the programme, particular emphasis was placed upon the needs of young people. Many activities were made available for youngsters living in resettlement estates.

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During the year a number of recreational facilities of a type not previously known in Hong Kong were completed: A rest garden for the blind at Pok Fu Lam containing scented plants with Braille labels; two obstacle golf courses at Shek O beach and Kowloon Tsai Park and a sculpture playground at Shek Lei resettlement estate, Kwai Chung. Construction of Hong Kong's first 'safety town', designed to teach road safety, was started at Sau Mau Ping resettlement estate. Preparation of the first stage of Kowloon Park continued, the Yuen Long Sports Ground was completed and detailed planning undertaken for a proposed indoor stadium at Hung Hom.

       Swimming continued to be one of the most popular pastimes in summer and the existing public swimming pools at Victoria Park and Kowloon Tsai registered more than 1.49 million admissions during the year. Public bathing beaches were equally popular. Regular life- saving services continued to be provided by the Urban Services Department and, at the height of the season, teams from the St John Ambulance Brigade and the Hong Kong Life Guard Club, as in previous years, attended the swimming pools and the more popular beaches. Two major groups of swimming pools at Lei Cheng Uk and Kwun Tong are due to be completed this year. Another swimming pool is now being built at Morse Park. Planning is also now under way for new swimming pools at Hung Hom, Morrison Hill and Tsuen Wan.

During the year well over 100,000 trees, shrubs and seasonal flowers were planted in parks, playgrounds and other public places. An illustrated booklet 'Hong Kong Trees', produced by the Urban Council and the Urban Services Department, was published in August as the first in a series to assist members of the public in the identification and fuller enjoyment of local flora.

       The Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Depart- ment, builds and administers recreational facilities in the urban areas. In the New Territories, this responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services working closely with the District Com- missioner. The Recreation and Amenities Division of the Urban Services Department now manages a total of 1,347 acres of public open space. Appendix XL shows the facilities provided and their increase in recent years.

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SUMMER RECREATION PROGRAMME

One of Hong Kong's biggest community efforts, the organisation of summer activities for young people, continued to expand during the year. An estimated 750,000 young people-by far the biggest number so far-took part in the recreational and community projects organised throughout the summer months.

       This year's expanded programme involved government depart- ments, schools, voluntary agencies business houses and more than 40,000 volunteer workers from all walks of life, all co-operating to make the summer a memorable and productive one for the youth of Hong Kong.

      The programme included all forms of sporting activities, organised camping trips, variety shows, dances, art competitions and training

courses.

Increased emphasis was given this year to educational training and community service. Groups of young people visited old people's homes, formed work parties to renovate schools run by charitable bodies, helped in tree planting and took courses in community leadership. Other courses were provided in languages, commercial subjects and crafts of various kinds. Tours were arranged to show young people the workings of various industries and government departments.

ENTERTAINMENT AND THE ARTS

      The performing arts play an important part in the cultural life of Hong Kong. The centre of these activities, which include con- certs, plays and operas both Western and Chinese, is the City Hall, which had another year of intensive and varied use in 1969.

The facilities at the City Hall include a 1,488-seat concert hall, an intimate 470-seat theatre, a museum, an art gallery and several halls and rooms for exhibitions, lectures and conferences. Both local performers and overseas artists are presented regularly in the two major auditoria. As a result, nearly every branch of music, drama and Chinese opera has flourished.

The City Art Gallery in the City Hall organises regular temporary exhibitions from its own collections and loan material. These

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exhibitions cover a wide field of interests reflecting the rich and complex cultural background of the people of Hong Kong. The exhibitions held in 1969 ranged from Chinese paintings in the traditional style to 'psychedelic' posters accompanied by pop music.

An exhibition of great local interest was that of the paintings by the local artist Wong Po-yeh. Mr Wong, who died in 1968 at the age of 67, worked for most of his life in Hong Kong and was a sensitive painter of Hong Kong landscapes.

This year also saw the Fifth Exhibition of Children's Art of Hong Kong. The exhibits in this colourful display, consisting of paintings, drawing, prints and three-dimensional craftwork, were selected from thousands of entries from school children of Hong Kong.

An exhibition of Contemporary Art of Hong Kong was shown in December. The best works in both these exhibitions were selected for display in the Hong Kong Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka.

A novel exhibition for Hong Kong, entitled 'Design: the Begin- nings' was mounted in the months of August and September. This exhibition consisted of works by the students of the design classes organised by the Chinese University Extra-Mural Department and the students attending the recently established design course at the Hong Kong Technical College. The exhibition demonstrated the various stages of training of the students as well as showing some of the best efforts at creative design produced by the Extra-Mural students at the end of the two-year evening course.

The permanent exhibition of Chinese antiquities in the City Museum was revised and enlarged during the year. The exhibits now include small but representative selections of Chinese bronzes, jades, lacquer and cloisonne, in addition to the main display of pottery.

The City Museum and Art Gallery's collections of historical pictures consist of the Ho Tung, Chater, and Law and Sayer collec- tions. There are more than 700 items including paintings, prints, engravings and photographs which form a unique pictorial record of Sino-British contacts in the 18th and early 19th centuries and provide interesting illustrations of life in Hong Kong, Macau and

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other ports on the China coast in those days. The limited space in the Art Gallery does not allow a permanent display of these collec- tions, but exhibitions of material from them are arranged from time to time.

The collection of paintings, prints and sculptures by Hong Kong artists has grown continually since the opening of the City Art Gallery in 1962.

In the past few years, the City Museum's collection of Chinese antiquities has been expanding at a rapid rate. The most significant development this year was the formation of a collection of Chinese carved jades from the earliest historical periods down to the 18th century. This collection now includes two important pieces both dating to the Ming period (AD 1368-1644).

       The collection of local archaeology received some important additions as a result of the discovery and excavation of several neolithic sites on Hong Kong Island and Tung Ku and Sha Chau, two of the smaller islands in the waters of Hong Kong. The City Museum also houses the Maglioni collection of archaeological material from South China, donated to the Hong Kong Government in 1955.

During the year the City Museum also received a representative collection of specimens of Hong Kong rocks from the Geological Survey of Hong Kong. The Museum's collection of ethnographical material relating to the local fishing and farming communities was also increased. The acquisitions included a six foot model of a trawler (Ha Kau Tor).

       The City Museum and Art Gallery this year took over administra- tion of the tomb at Lei Cheng Uk, dating from the Later Han period (1st-2nd century AD), which was discovered in 1955 in the course of construction of one of Hong Kong's first resettlement

estates.

       Plans are in hand to convert the tomb and an adjoining display room into a branch of the City Museum and Art Gallery where temporary exhibitions will be shown and where the finds from the tomb will also be displayed to greater advantage. A full report on the tomb has been prepared by the City Museum and Art Gallery and will be published in the near future.

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LIBRARIES

       The Urban Council's public libraries at the City Hall and Cam- bridge Court, Kowloon, provide a lending and reference service available to all residents of Hong Kong, free of charge. Each consists of an adult lending library, junior library, reference library, newspaper and periodicals room and a private study section for students.

       The City Hall Library has a total stock of 198,990 volumes, including the Kotewall collection of 15,237 volumes in both English and Chinese and the Hok Hoi collection of rare Chinese classics of 34,571 volumes. In addition, it possesses 2,074 music scores and is building up a collection of gramophone records in preparation for a future service. The Kowloon Public Library has a total stock of 83,172 volumes. Almost two-thirds of the books in both libraries are in Chinese.

       The libraries subscribe to 388 titles of periodicals and 49 of news- papers in both English and Chinese, while the Microfilm collection of 2,572 reels contains back-runs of selected early English and Chinese newspapers of Hong Kong and South China, as well as rare books in the National Library, Peking.

       The usage of both libraries has continued its upward trend, and during the year under review 1,114,895 books were issued, 32,495 persons registered as new members, 253,485 reference books issued and 23,006 reference enquiries served, while the private study sec- tions of both libraries providing 410 seats opened for 198 additional hours during the examination months in order to meet the increasing need by students for a quiet place to study.

       Extension activities in the form of book exhibitions, organised school visits, children's story hours and a Christmas card competi- tion have been regular features of both libraries. During the year a start was made on the building up of a comprehensive Hong Kong collection of books and other material pertaining to all aspects of life in the Colony.

       The Colonial Secretariat Library houses 11,529 volumes. These include many government publications, books written especially about Hong Kong (including publications by local authors), ref- erence books on such subjects as public administration, sociology,

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economics and political science and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and of the countries of South-East Asia. Apart from being a departmental reference library, it is a useful source for research workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available to members of the public by arrangement.

       The Hindu Association has set up 'Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Library and Reading Room' in the Hindu Temple, Happy Valley. The books and journals which are being kept in the library relate to religion and cultural heritage of India. The library is open to all citizens of Hong Kong of every nationality and religion, and books are issued to interested persons without charge.

THE BRITISH COUNCIL

The British Council continued to make a valuable contribution to the educational and cultural activities of the Colony during 1969. The London Shakespeare Group gave two performances for university students at the Loke Yew Hall of the University of Hong Kong, and the council also sponsored the return of the London Philharmonic Orchestra for two highly successful concerts at the City Hall.

       Assistance was given to government departments and the Chinese University to enable staff members to visit British universities and other institutions and to attend specialist courses. Eight British Council scholarships (six for training in the Teaching of English as a Second Language) and three Sino-British Fellowship Trust scholar- ships were awarded for post-graduate studies in the United Kingdom with a further two grants-in-aid. In addition, the council arranged two visits to the UK under the Commonwealth University Inter- change Scheme. Seventeen specialists visited the Colony under council auspices for lecture engagements and consultations with government departments and local experts in their fields. Subjects included Juvenile Courts, Rehabilitation, Parliamentary Procedure, Volun- tary Community Service, Structural Design, Town Planning, Athletics, Civil Service Reform, Architecture, Art, Literature, Law, Mathematics, Science Teaching, Theatre, and Conservation and Development. Among visiting specialists were Sir Saville Garner, former Head of the British Diplomatic Service; Lord Holford, Professor of Town Planning at University College, London; Lord

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Diplock, Lord of Appeal in Ordinary; and Professor Sir Ronald Nyholm, President of the Chemical Society.

The combined book stock in Victoria and Kowloon libraries reached 32,000 and membership was well over 8,000; the great majority of these are university and secondary school students for whom the libraries especially cater.

      Book presentations to a total value of $47,000 were made to the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Extra-Mural Department of the University of Hong Kong and various secondary schools.

      An important part of the council's work is to give advice and information to students who leave for higher studies in the UK. In addition to the many students assisted during the course of the year the council offered an 'Introduction to Britain' course in the summer which was attended by 100 students. Close co-operation was maintained with Education Department and some 940 students were assisted and met by the British Council on arrival in London.

18

Geography and Climate

THIS chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present a background against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report may be viewed.

      The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37'N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon, on the mainland, stand on either side of the harbour, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony to within less than 24 hours of Britain, while the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

      The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles of which Hong Kong Island itself, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprise 29 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another three-and-three-quarter square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

      Hong Kong is situated on the edge of an eroded mountain chain- which extends along the south coast of China. The main com- ponents of the chain are folded and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks with younger intrusions of granitic rocks nearly all of which formed during the Jurassic Period.

      The oldest rocks in the Colony are marine sedimentary rocks forming the Tolo Harbour Formation. This formation is exposed on Ma Shi Chau and contains fossils that have been dated as most probably Permian in age. The stratigraphic relationships of this

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formation are uncertain. The oldest sedimentary formation about which there is no doubt is the Tolo Channel Formation exposed on the north shore of Tolo Channel where it contains fossil am- monites of Lower Liassic age.

Mineralisation associated with the intrusion of the granitic rocks has been economically beneficial to the Colony. Ores of lead, zinc and tungsten have been mined, while molybdenum, beryllium, tin and copper have been found in small quantities. Iron ore, formed by the pyrometasomatic alteration of limestone during the emplace- ment of one of the granitic intrusions, is profitably mined. Other minerals associated with the granites are feldspar and kaolin. Graphite, which formed by thermal metamorphism of coal, has also been mined.

Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area has any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for under- ground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall regime of the area alone accounts for many of the water shortages.

Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia, although more profitable crops have increasingly dis- placed this form of land utilisation. Market garden cropping, including the cultivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is becoming increasingly important. Vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. The upland areas, which are predominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilisation of these areas is principally through afforestation, vigorously pursued since 1945.

CLIMATE

Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season unusual for tropical countries.

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The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight it is often fairly persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and although it can occur from mid-April until September it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm (35.48 inches) in 1963 and 3040.7 mm (119.71 inches) in 1889 but the mean value is 2168.8 mm (85.39 inches).

      The mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever recorded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to over seven hours in mid-July and late October.

       Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force, when damage and loss of life may occur.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY

209

       The main function of the Royal Observatory today is the provision of meteorological services. Weather forecasts and tropical cyclone warnings are prepared in the Central Forecasting Office at the Royal Observatory in Kowloon while services for aviation are provided at the Airport Meteorological Office.

       Close liaison is maintained with all ships that visit Hong Kong and about 60 selected ships are provided with instruments by the Observatory to assist them to transmit regular and accurate weather reports which are of great value in the locating of tropical cyclones and the preparation of forecasts for shipping. About 75 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two radio stations. They are re-broadcast to other centres. In addition about 5,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received each day from other countries. They are all plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and for fishermen, and all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are given briefings, written forecasts and weather charts.

       One of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory is to issue warnings of Tropical Cyclones. Whenever a Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm or Typhoon is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly non-local warnings are issued. These provide information on the maximum winds, the position and movement of the centre and the forecast position for 24 hours ahead. Reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the Royal Observatory direct from meteoro- logical satellites help to locate the storm.

       When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Statements and announcements about necessary precautions are also broadcast at frequent intervals whenever local signals are displayed.

The Observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a three cm radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms and a 10 cm radar, for locating tropical disturbances up to 240 miles away. The latter radar can also be used to estimate

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the intensity of rainfall and provides valuable information for the preparation of local thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings as well as for local hydrological purposes.

The Observatory is also responsible for the Colony's time service. Six pip signals obtained from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95 MHz and are relayed by the various radio and television stations.

The Observatory operates 12 seismometers, prepares bulletins of all earthquake tremors recorded, and participates in the Pacific Tidal-wave Warning Service. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum-Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However a few tremors are felt each year by residents in favourable locations such as on balconies of high buildings. One tremor occurred on July 6, 1969 and the intensity was five in the modified Mercalli Scale.

The general level of atmospheric radio activity in the Colony is monitored at King's Park, where routine measurements of Beta and Gamma activities of fallout, airborne particles near the ground, rainfall and ordinary tap water are carried out.

      The Observatory acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of a great many projects that may be affected by meteorological conditions. Technical notes and other publications are prepared to provide detailed information on various aspects of the climate of Hong Kong and a wide variety of related subjects.

RESEARCH

      Many investigations and analyses were carried out during the year on meteorological problems for numerous shipping and airline com- panies, for commercial and industrial firms and for other government departments. Efforts were made to improve the techniques used to forecast seasonal and five-day rainfall for the planning of water supply and the control of reservoirs. Radar time-lapse pictures of rainstorms which affected the Colony were analysed.

Revised mean maps showing the air flow at the various standard upper levels up to 12 km were prepared for use in aviational planning and weather forecasting. Several investigations on the summer and

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211

winter monsoons were completed and published. Objective techni- ques for forecasting the movement of tropical cyclones continued to be tested and improved. In an attempt to reduce the number of accidental grass fires caused by members of the public, an investi- gation into the relationship between the occurrence of these fires and various meteorological parameters were carried out. Warnings were issued by the Royal Observatory whenever necessary.

The Royal Observatory continued to co-operate with several other overseas scientific institutes in many special research projects in seismology, radio-activity, marine climatology and atmospheric chemistry.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

      Slightly less than the normal number of tropical cyclones occurred in the western Pacific and the South China Sea during the year and many of the Pacific typhoons recurved towards the north-east near Taiwan or the Philippines. Consequently, although local storm signals were hoisted on four occasions, no gales were experienced in Hong Kong. The year, in general, was warmer, sunnier and drier than usual. The annual rainfall, 1895.5 mm (74.63 inches) was only 87 per cent of the normal amount.

      Dull and humid weather persisted during most of January and February. Altogether seven cold fronts passed through the Colony in these two months and the most intense one brought the air temperature down to 4°C at the Royal Observatory on February 5. On the same morning, a minimum temperature of -5.5°C was recorded on top of Tai Mo Shan and -2.3°C at Tate's Cairn; some hillsides were white with rime.

      March and April were colder than usual. Thunderstorms were experienced on several occasions during the first 11 days of March and were followed by alternating spells of foggy and cold weather. On April 4, a late burst of the winter monsoon caused a sharp drop in temperature and humidity and the minimum tem- perature of 9.9°C on April 5 was the lowest on record for that month. Moreover the minimum relative humidity of 23 per cent was the second lowest ever recorded in April. On April 12, warm moist air from the south brought heavy showers and thunderstorms to Hong Kong and flooding was reported in many places. During

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the latter part of the month, widespread fog was experienced on many days and as a result, 24 incoming aircraft were diverted from Hong Kong Airport.

      Five troughs of low pressure passed the Colony in May and were all accompanied by rain or thunderstorms. However, these systems did not stay long over Hong Kong and the total rainfall for the month was below average.

       Although unsettled weather with occasional showers and wide- spread thunderstorms affected Hong Kong for 11 consecutive days during June, there was no serious flooding or landslides. The month's weather was quite normal in every respect.

Rain was reported on every day of July and this sets a new record of rain days for the month. Four tropical cyclones formed in the western Pacific and the South China Sea but only one, Typhoon Viola, came close enough to cause strong winds in Hong Kong.

       Typhoon Viola formed on July 22 about 340 miles south of Guam. It moved north-westwards at first and then turned west-north-west, entering the Bashi Channel on July 27. The typhoon crossed the China coast about 120 miles east of Hong Kong the next morning and turned onto a more westerly track. It weakened slowly overland and, in Hong Kong there were strong south-west winds for several hours as Viola passed by about 60 miles to the north.

       Although no tropical cyclones affected the Colony directly in August, the heavy rain on the 10th and 11th of the month could be attributed to typhoon Betty which crossed the coast of China near Foochow on August 8 and persisted as an area of low pressure over central China during the next two days. 220.8 mm (8.69 inches) of rain fell on August 11 and this is the second highest daily amount recorded in any August. On the same day the strong monsoon signal (the black ball) was hoisted for almost 13 hours to give warning of the south-westerly monsoon. Gusts of 51 knots were recorded at both Waglan Island and Tate's Cairn.

       No. 1 local storm signal was hoisted on three occasions in Septem- ber and early October but none of the tropical cyclones came close enough to affect the Colony. The total rainfall for September and

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213

October was well below normal while the mean temperature, the mean maximum temperature, and the mean minimum temperature for September, were all the highest on record. On September 9, the afternoon temperature reached 34.7°C which is the second highest temperature recorded in any September.

      October was predominantly fine and dry. Seventy per cent of the month's total rainfall fell during two hours of thunder- storms associated with a cold front which passed Hong Kong on the morning of the October 18.

      The last two months of the year were sunny, dry and warm and no measureable rain was recorded from November 22 until the end of the year. The total rainfall during November and December amounted to only 0.5 mm (0.02 inch) which is the lowest ever recorded in any two consecutive months.

A

19

Population

THE total estimated population of the Colony at the end of 1969 was 4,039,700. About 98 per cent could be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin.

The population, from about 600,000 at the end of the Japanese occupation, grew rapidly and at the 1961 census was 3,133,131, including 3,483 transients. The 1966 census showed the total popula- tion to be 3,716,400, including 3,787 transients. During 1969 the population increased by 65,000 to reach the estimated total of 4,034,700. This increase is made up of 63,226 excess of births over deaths, plus an inward balance of migration estimated at 1,790.

Urban Population: At the time of the 1966 census, 31,405 persons, excluding transients, claimed to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong. Of these, 26,065 resided in the urban area. According to information provided by the Aliens' Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than three months and children under 16 years old) the figure at the end of 1969 was 15,806. The largest groups were: American 4,799, Portuguese 2,196, Japanese 1,809, German 820, Dutch 569, French 535, Italian 394.

Approximately 56 per cent of the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most of these and the greater part of the immigrant population originate from Kwangtung province. The urban Chinese population also includes a Fukien community and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

New Territories: Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo make up the indigenous population of the New Territories. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. These people differ from each other in physical appearance, dress and customs. The usual village community consists of a single clan, but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur.

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215

By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan, but as far as is known intermarriage between land and boat-dwellers is rare.

      The Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Territories. They occupy the best parts of the two principal plains in the north- western section of the New Territories and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages -those of the Tang clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement dating from the late eleventh century. Others date back to the late thirteenth century.

      The Hakka people (their name, if it is really Chinese, means 'strangers') began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. The latter were, however, the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, along foothills, and generally on poorer land. The balance was later restored by heavy immigration, and relations between Hakka and Cantonese, which have endured periods of strife, are now peaceful. Intermarriage is not now uncommon and the two groups share some villages.

      The Tanka people have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the last five years, young men and women of this community have begun to take factory jobs, and thirty or forty thousand people of Tanka origin are believed to be now living ashore.

      The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations. The influx of people into the New Territories from China in recent years has been so great that only in the Sai Kung district is the truly indigenous population still in the majority. The newcomers are mostly from Kwangtung province.

A mid-term census was taken in the summer of 1966. The boat people were counted between June 18 and 22 and the remainder of

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POPULATION

the population between July 19 and August 2. The results showed a 26 per cent reduction in the marine population and a considerable slowing down of the rate of increase of the land population.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

      The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout the Colony. The General Register Office is situated at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are maintained. Sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts, while in outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

      The statutory period during which a birth should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days from the date of birth. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth, the birth may be registered upon payment of a fee of $2. During the year 79,329 live births and 18,730 deaths were registered, compared with 82,992 and 19,319 respectively in 1968. These figures, when adjusted for under- registration, give a natural increase in population for 1969 of about 64,565. Only 97 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry.

      A birth which has not been registered within one year after the date of birth may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a fee of $15. During the year 1,998 such births were post-registered including 636 in the New Territories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there was a fair number of cases where non-registration was due to the fact that facilities for registration were not available until 1932. There were also a number of cases relating to births in the war years when there was no registration of births. However, in most cases during the last year applications for post-registration have been in respect of minors. The New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub-registries or by mobile registration teams. All applications for post-registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

ין

AERIAL VIEWS

Wi

'ith_its_spectacular scenery, unique contrasts and colourful customs, Hong Kong is in many ways a photographer's paradise. It is from the air, however, that one feels the real impact of this extraordinary territory, with its cluster of more than 230 tiny islands sprinkled around an imposing peninsula overlooking the South China Sea.

These million-dollar views are just an added bonus for the hundreds of thousands of travellers who fly in and out of Hong Kong each year. To those not so fortunate, however, the next few pages are dedicated in the hope that they may one day come to see the real thing for themselves.

   The first picture (preceding page) shows Hong Kong's thriving commercial and business heart, the Central District of Hong Kong Island. The picture opposite shows a photog- rapher of the Hong Kong Government Information Services in the process of capturing the same view from a helicopter.

13

Something of the density of Hong Kong's downtown de- velopment can be gauged from this view of the densely popu- lated residential areas of Wan Chai and Causeway Bay.

歲寶寶

MIHAILE

Ships of many nations con- stantly enter and leave Hong Kong's spectacular harbour. Here one of them is unloaded by lighters in mid-stream.

HER

This picture shows the rail, bus, ferry and taxi terminals at Tsim Sha Tsui, one of the vital links in Hong Kong's vast public transport network.

E

A peaceful New Territories scene with traditional Chinese walled village in the fore- ground.

• The majestic sweep of High Island, scene of a proposed major new reservoir.

E2

POPULATION

MARRIAGES

217

All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done very rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

       Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at any of the 10 full- time marriage registries and four part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 18,559 marriages were performed in the registries and 1,825 at licensed places of worship. The total was 1,416 more than in 1968. All marriage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian customary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not have to be registered. No statistics of such marriages are therefore available, but it is believed that the number has steadily decreased in recent years as registered marriages have become more and more popular. The position with respect to these unregistered marriages has long been recognised as being very unsatisfactory. During the year Government published a Bill containing provisions relating to such marriages, but the Bill had not been enacted by the end of the year.

STATISTICS

A new department to handle all government statistics was set up in December 1967. The nucleus of this department was made by fusing the Statistical Planning Office of the Colonial Secretariat with the Statistics Branch of the Commerce and Industry Depart- ment. It was not, however, until May 1969 that the two halves of the new department could be brought physically together into one building.

20

Natural History

TIGERS padding through the rain forest of Hong Kong Island, the bellow of crocodiles in the creeks at Aberdeen, elephants trampling the rushes of Kowloon peninsular-such was the exotic scene that greeted the first Chinese settlers when they arrived in this region in the time of the early Sung Dynasty, about one thousand years ago.

       Most of the big game, of course, vanished long ago as the settlers steadily cut away the great forest which then covered the area, replacing it first with paddy fields and villages and later with the skyscrapers and factories of a thriving modern community.

      Hong Kong, however, has clung to its countryside heritage with surprising success. By far the greater part of the Colony's land mass is still rolling fields, quiet wooded hills, lush valleys and beaches. Here can be found the rich animal and plant life of Hong Kong.

       Government's interest and concern in conserving nature is demonstrated both by legislation and by the activity of its con- servation staff. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. In 1969 the report of a provi- sional council for the use and conservation of the countryside was tabled before Executive Council. New Legislation is being prepared to control the trade through Hong Kong of certain animals and birds which are in danger of extinction, and the law covering the protection of local fauna is also being revised.

WILD LIFE

       With increased urbanisation and greater use of the countryside by an urban population many wild animals, particularly mammals, are declining in numbers. Indigenous mammals which no longer occur are the Crab-Eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, the Tiger and the Leopard. The last definite record of a Tiger was in 1947 and the last recorded sighting of a Leopard in 1957. The Eastern Chinese Otter, once abundant, is now a rare visitor, and

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219

      of the carnivores, the South China Red Fox and the Chinese Leopard Cat have all but disappeared from the Colony.

The Barking Deer and the Wild Pig were once plentiful all over the Colony. Both are now rare in the New Territories and the remaining Barking Deer on Hong Kong Island are confined to a few areas, particularly the forests about the Peak.

Of the larger indigenous mammals, the Chinese Pangolin (Scaly Anteater) which grows to three-and-a-half feet and is protected by horny scales, may occasionally be seen. Monkeys are to be seen on the hillslopes and the more daring ones on the motor roads although they confine most of their activities to the forest reserves. The South China Red Fox has not been sighted for some years.

       Smaller mammals are abundant in the Colony, and the Woodland Shrew and the House Shrew are fairly numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in some areas of the New Territories. One was last sighted in 1968 on Hong Kong Island.

       There is ample opportunity in Hong Kong for either serious study, or simple enjoyment, of bird life and the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society holds approximately 12 field outings each year. Nearly 350 species, representing more than 60 different families, including resident and migrant birds, have so far been recorded in the Colony.

The largest species is undoubtedly the Spotted-billed Pelican which comes in small numbers as a winter visitor to the Mai Po Marshes. Among the smallest are the insectivorous White-eyes, of the wooded areas, and the Yellow-bellied Wren Warbler of the reed beds. The Chinese Blue Magpie, with royal blue plumage and orange beak, and the Crow Pheasant of dark brown plumage with light brown wings, can frequently be seen on the shrubby and wooded hillsides. The Crow Pheasant is neither crow nor pheasant, but a cuckoo and has a haunting call of descending notes which can be heard in spring and early summer. The bulbuls and the minute Tailor Bird, with its insistent 'tch tch' call, are common birds in urban areas, and the beautiful song of the Wah Mei delights hikers and residents in the countryside.

       Snakes, lizards and frogs are well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapin and turtle. Most of the

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snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are: the Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait with black and white bands; MacClelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black transverse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the very rare Mountain Pit Viper and the White-lipped Viper or Bamboo snake. The Bamboo snake is bright green, and although less venomous than the others, is more often seen and is more likely to attack if accidentally disturbed. The Hamadryad preys almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snake, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but, fortunately, do not commonly attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Chinese newt. The Hong Kong variety has not been recorded anywhere else in China.

       There are nearly 200 species of butterfly in the Colony. Of the many moths two are outstanding for their size. These are the Atlas and Moon moths with wing spans of nine and six inches respectively. Apart from butterflies and moths there is a great variety of insects, many brilliantly coloured. They include many species of dragon fly and damsel fly and metallic-coloured beetles and solitary wasps. The beautiful Candle Fly or Lantern Fly has delicately coloured wings like those of a butterfly, but is more closely related to the cicada. It lives on lychee trees and is remarkable in that its forehead is almost as long as its body, hence the Chinese name which trans- lated means the elephant-nosed bug. The adults of several species of cicada emerge during spring and summer. They range from the rare three-and-a-half inches Tacua to the small grass cicadas less than a half an inch long.

       Land molluscs of note are the Giant African Snail, measuring about five inches long, which was introduced (and is now a con- siderable pest), and a large black slug, Veronicella, a species sufficiently distinct from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

FLORA

The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. After centuries of cutting and burning most of the original arborescent vegetation on the mountainsides has been

NATURAL HISTORY

221

replaced by a herbaceous cover, but in the ravines and on sheltered northern slopes a flora rich in flowering shrubs, low trees and ferns persists. Few high trees are to be found except in the fine fung shui groves preserved around many villages in the New Territories.

       A great variety of plants in Hong Kong bear flowers of exceptional beauty or fragrance. Some are easy to place in their correct families -for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like, and is related to, the camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers and star-shape fruits, and a Tutcheria with large camellia- like flowers, white tinged with gold and bearing masses of tangerine orange stamens. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is reminiscent of the Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododen- dron grow wild in the Colony. Of these the red one is extremely abundant, while another with large pale pink flowers is so rare that it is known to exist only on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea, with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers borne in profusion on leafless branches.

       The Bauhinia Blakeana, which grows on a medium-sized ever- green tree known as the Hong Kong orchid tree, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. Named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, it was discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

       There are several species of camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia Hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues

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NATURAL HISTORY

until the middle of March. A new and distinct camellia was dis- covered in 1955 and named Camellia Granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee reser- voir, bearing handsome white flowers five-and-a-half inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been distributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

       More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

       In 1968 the following new discoveries were made in the Hong Kong flora: Polygala nimborum, Magnolia fistulosa and Goodyera cordata. Also several orchids suspected to be new species have been sent to Kew for identification. The latest addition to the flora is Ailanthus fordii, a plant collected by Charles Ford over 80 years ago but only recently described as a distinct species and one which is not recorded from outside Hong Kong.

       Ford, a noted botanist, was the first Superintendent of the then Botanical and Forestry Department and founder of the Hong Kong Herbarium. The herbarium survives to this day and now contains some 30,000 specimens representing 2,346 indigenous species and 2,500 related species from adjacent regions.

By regulations, made under the Forestry Ordinance, special pro- tection is given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, magnolias, orchids, and azaleas.

21

History

Hong Kong a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the 19th century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a

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HISTORY

prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

Trade relations between Britain and China originally centred on Canton. The first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese was the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699.

       In 1839 Chinese alarm over the growing opium trade culminated in the appointment by the Emperor of Special Commissioner Lin Tse-hsu with orders to stamp it out.

       Lin surrounded the foreign factories in Canton with an armed force and demanded the surrender of all opium supplies for destruc- tion. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents. But Elliot refused to allow anyone to sign the bond and, much to Lin's annoyance, all British trade was stopped until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by commer- cial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a

* The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public

park near original site.

HISTORY

225

settlement in relations between Britain and China. He demanded either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by enforcing measures against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and Keshen, a Manchu commissioner who had replaced Lin after his exile in disgrace, resulted in agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty-the Convention of Chuenpi-on January 20, 1841. By it, Hong Kong was to be ceded. The island was formally occupied by a naval party on January 26, 1841, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a 'barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships. and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

... •

       Pottinger visited Hong Kong Island during the winter of 1841-2 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's

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HISTORY

Road'. Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supple- mentary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 the Chinese were allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed, British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

      The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, prob- ably malaria, decimated the Europeans and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, while build- ings in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000, with a further 2,000 living afloat. The first report on population in June 1845 gave the total as 23,817, of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

      At first the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium, as had been predicted, trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parlia- mentary committee of enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts that Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

      Shortly after Hong Kong's foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to South-East Asia and the countries bordering the Pacific. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco. In 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration of labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses connected with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing reasonable standards of food, space and medical atten- tion. This tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports, but Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

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227

The Tai Ping Rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting in thousands seeking refuge in the Colony. By 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated and is significant among the factors which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

       The Treaties of Tientsin at the conclusion of the Second Anglo- Chinese War of 1856-8, gave Britain and France the privilege of diplomatic representation at Peking. However, the first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had served as Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong in 1844-5, was met by armed Chinese opposition at Taku Bar on his way to the Chinese capital. In the ensuing hostilities, Kowloon peninsula was occupied and used as a camp for the British forces and Sir Harry Parkes, at Canton, secured from the Viceroy there the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking, 1860, converted the lease into an outright cession.

By the Convention of Peking of 1898, negotiated with China because of rivalry between the western powers over concessions in China and because of fear of French and Russian ambitions in the Far East following the alliance of these two powers in 1893, Hong Kong's boundaries were again extended by a 99-year lease of the mainland north of Kowloon, together with some 235 islands in the vicinity. This extension soon acquired the name New Territories. The British take-over in April 1899 met with some initial ill-organised armed opposition, but Sir Henry Blake based the administration on the maintenance of Chinese law and custom, in co-operation with village committees and headmen, and by extensive visits to the villages to explain his policy in person he was able to build up confidence. Steps were taken to improve economic conditions and check widespread malaria, so that the population of the New Territories has gradually increased from about 100,000 to nearly half a million as shown by the 1961 Census.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

       The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion in trade and population, and of consequent material and social improvements.

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HISTORY

The old traditional practice of European and Chinese communities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. Each pursued his own way of life largely independent of the other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education there could be little Chinese participation in government, western com- merce or the professions. There have been, however, Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

       In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by missionary bodies, who have received grants or subsidies since 1873 and have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai, with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of its first graduates was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

      Undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding in 1911 of the University of Hong Kong, which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis of its faculties of medicine and engineering. The university was made possible by the enthusiasm of Sir Frederick Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody who met the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the university has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking university in a Chinese environ- ment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and South- East Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community.

       The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials, but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle,

HISTORY

229

       and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected.' The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. It was changed again this year to Secretary for Home Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body representative of responsible Chinese opinion.

The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building and Queen's Road approxi- mately follows the line of the original settlement. Expansion could only take place on the slopes of the Peak-as for example Stanley Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable area or by reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously over-crowded and insanitary. It was this which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

       The earliest reclamation was the filling of a small creek in 1851, to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land. The most important reclamation was that in the Central District, begun in 1890 and completed in 1904, which added Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclamations were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

Increasing urbanisation led also to the problem of water, and the start of a century-long race between water supply and population demand. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugurated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung (1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935, named in honour of the silver jubilee of King George V's reign.

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HISTORY

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first world war was followed by strong nationalist and anti- foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

Japanese plans for political aggrandisement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first world war to present her 'twenty one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and South-East Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December

HISTORY

231

       18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were over- whelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

       British civilians were interned at Stanley while the Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating con- ditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organising mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Terri- tories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional Government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military Government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

       From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000 rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. A by-census taken in 1966 showed a population figure of 3,716,400.

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HISTORY

      Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied the growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has played, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. Low-cost housing schemes and multi-storey resettlement estates have called for a heavy investment of public funds; schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided on a huge scale. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon is the largest general hospital in the Common- wealth. The Chinese University of Hong Kong has been created from a federation of post-secondary colleges. Despite the substan- tial progress made, however, the demand for more services continues and is still far from being satisfied.

       Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernised much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. In Kowloon and Tsuen Wan particularly, industrialists have opened many large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export to all parts of the world. To meet the demand for land for industry and housing the Government has continued to carry out many new reclamation schemes, principally in the Central District, Causeway Bay, at various points on the northern shores of the harbour, and by Kwai Chung. The investigation of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Impressive schemes to improve the water supply were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957, and at Shek Pik in 1963; the Plover Cove scheme, which opened in 1968, trebled the amount of water available. Following a period of unparalleled drought in 1963-4, an arrangement was made with the Kwangtung Provincial Authorities to purchase 15,000 million gallons of water annually.

      The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops, coupled with the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques, have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with produc- tivity and trade promotion, and with technical and vocational training.

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233

The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network; more rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in the face of public demand for transport serv- ices and the big increase in the number of private cars. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. The airport has a runway 8,340 feet long, built on a promontory reach- ing out into Kowloon Bay and capable of meeting the needs of the biggest aircraft yet in service. Further extensions are planned to cope with the coming Jumbo jets. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sightseeing and shopping facili- ties, and night-time entertainment.

        Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Wired and wireless radio and television has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment. There are many modern cinemas. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

      A pulsating tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life. But it is the growth of local industry, which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, that has been the most significant feature-after population growth- in the Colony's history in the post-war years. Recent developments in this field are detailed in Chapter 1.

22

Constitution and Administration

      HONG KONG is a British Crown Colony, and this chapter describes the way in which the Hong Kong Government is organised to administer the Colony. The policy of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom is that there shall be no major constitutional change; nor is there much popular pressure for it. The Governor and the members of Executive and Legislative Councils are keenly aware that internal political stability, upon which economic progress is dependent, demands adjustment of policy to conform with the changing attitudes and values of the population.

THE GOVERNOR

The office of Governor is the central feature of the Government of Hong Kong. The Governor is the representative of the Queen and is in a real sense the head of the Government. He presides at meetings of the Executive Council, whose advice he must seek on important policy matters. He is the President of the Legislative Council, in which he has a casting vote. His assent is required before any bill passed by the Legislative Council can become law. Save where an enactment otherwise provides, he remains responsible for every executive act of the Government.

The Governor, who is appointed by the Queen, derives his authority from the Letters Patent, which were passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom and create the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Hong Kong. The Letters Patent require him to observe the laws of the Colony as well as such Instructions as may from time to time be issued to him by the Queen or by the Secretary of State. Among the more important of such Instructions are the Royal Instructions and Colonial Regulations.

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

The Royal Instructions provide that the Executive Council shall consist of five ex officio members (namely the Commander

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

235

British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs and the Financial Secretary) and such other persons as are from time to time appointed by the Queen, or by the Governor on the instructions of a Secretary of State. At present there are, in addition to the ex officio members, one nominated official member and eight nominated unofficial members.

      The Executive Council usually meets once a week throughout the year, though if urgent business arises additional meetings are held. The Governor presides at meetings of the Council, although he is not a member of it. The Council is primarily a consultative body with the duty to advise the Governor, who is required by the Letters Patent to consult it on all important matters of policy except:

(a) those which are of such immediate urgency as to preclude

prior consultation (in which case the Governor must inform the Council as early as practicable thereafter of the measures adopted and the reasons therefore);

(b) cases in which the interests of the Colony would be

prejudiced by such consultation;

(c) where the appointment, disciplinary control or removal

from office of a public officer is involved.

The Governor in Council (that is, the Governor acting after receiving the advice of the Executive Council) is also the statutory authority for making regulations, rules and orders under numerous Ordinances. The Governor in Council also considers appeals, petitions and objections under Ordinances which confer such a statutory right of appeal.

The decision on any question which comes before the Council is that of the Governor. If he decides to act in opposition to the advice given by a majority of members he is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State in London.

Only the Governor may summon a meeting of Executive Council, and he alone is entitled to submit a question to it for advice. However, if he declines to submit a question when asked by a member of Executive Council to do so, a record of the request and refusal must be entered in the minutes of the Council.

236

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

       By virtue of the Royal Instructions, the Governor is a member of and presides over the Legislative Council. This Council consists of four ex officio members (namely the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Home Affairs and the Financial Secretary), eight other officials and 13 unofficials. All members, except the ex officio members, are appointed by the Queen or by the Governor on the instructions of a Secretary of State.

       The main functions of this Council are to enact legislation and to control the expenditure of public funds. A bill passed by the Legislative Council does not become law until the Governor gives his assent to it. The Governor may refuse to assent to the bill, in which event it does not become law. After assent, the bill becomes an Ordinance, and is then submitted to the Queen, who has power to disallow it.

       It should be noted that, in addition to the Legislative Council, laws having effect within the Colony may be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and by Her Majesty by Order in Council, in exercise either of prerogative powers or of powers conferred by an English Act of Parliament.

Procedure in the Legislative Council is in many respects similar to that of the House of Commons, with provision for public debates and for questions. During the year the number of questions asked and the number of adjournment debates initiated by the unofficial members were both greater than in previous years. The annual debate on the budget has always been an occasion for a general debate; a change made in the Standing Orders at the end of 1968 has created a second occasion for a debate on policy, which took place for the first time when the new session of the Council opened with an address by the Governor on October 1, 1969. It is intended that the budget debate in March of each year should be concerned primarily with financial and economic matters and the debate on the opening of the new session with social progress and government policy generally.

       The Legislative Council meets in public about twice a month on Wednesday afternoons. The Finance Committee of the Council, which consists of the Colonial Secretary (who is Chairman), the

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

237

Financial Secretary, the Director of Public Works and all unofficial members of the Legislative Council, considers requests for supple- mentary provision of funds and meets fortnightly in private.

JUDICIARY

      Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Supreme Court Ordinance, the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge and the puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent issued under the Public Seal by the Governor on instructions from the sovereign given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State; district judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by instrument under the Public Seal or by warrant. The qualifications of puisne judges are prescribed in the Supreme Court Ordinance and those of district judges in the District Court Ordinance.

       The function of the Judiciary is to try all prosecutions and to determine civil disputes, whether between individuals or between individuals and the Government. The principle of English consti- tutional law, that, in the performance of their judicial acts, members of the Judiciary are completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the Government, is as fundamental in Hong Kong as it is in most other countries of the Commonwealth. The English common law and the rules of equity are in force in Hong Kong, so far as they may be applicable to local circumstances. English Acts of Parliament are in force in the Colony only if applied to Hong Kong by the Application of English Law Ordinance or by their own terms or by an Order in Council. The locally enacted laws of the Colony are consolidated and revised periodically; the last edition of them was published in loose leaf form in 1967.

      The courts of justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Coroners Courts and the Tenancy Tribunal. In 1969, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, six puisne judges, eight district judges, 36 magistrates, two Coroners and a President of the Tenancy Tribunal. District judges sit in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. Magistrates sit at the Central, Causeway Bay and Western Magistracies on Hong Kong Island, and at the South Kowloon, North Kowloon, Fanling,

238

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Tsuen Wan and Kwun Tong Magistracies on the mainland. In addition, Justices of the Peace sit several afternoons a week. The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, the Demolished Buildings (Re-development of Sites) Ordinance and the Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1968; its work is described in Chapter 8.

      Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. In the case of indictable offences, however, their powers of punishment are restricted generally to a maximum of two years' imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may impose some higher penalty. Cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by mag- istrates when trying two or more offences together may not exceed three years.

Magistrates hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer criminal cases to the District Court for trial, on the application of the Attorney General. The two coroners, who sit in Hong Kong and Kowloon, derive their powers from the Coroners Ordinance.

      The District Court, established in 1953, provides a simpler method of trial of civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter is under $10,000, or $5,000 in the case of land, and also tries criminal cases transferred to it by the magistrates. It exercises appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals and in Tenancy Tribunal matters, and ordinary jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance and the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by a judge sitting alone; he may not award more than five years imprisonment.

      The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1965-9 will be found in Appendix XLV).

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

239

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court, which sits when required and is composed of two or three judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal in England. Appeals may be brought from the Full Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

       Legal aid in both civil and criminal matters is administered by the Director of Legal Aid under the aegis of the Judiciary.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

       The foreign relations of the Administration of Hong Kong are the responsibility of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, but in the sphere of external trade a considerable degree of latitude is in practice permitted to the Hong Kong Government and Hong Kong's dependence on external trade makes it necessary for the Hong Kong Government to maintain offices in London, Washington, Geneva and Brussels to deal with commercial rela- tions.

LONDON OFFICE

During the year, the various Hong Kong Government Agencies in Britain were brought together and co-ordinated within one organisation under the control of a senior officer whose official title is the Administrative Commissioner for the Government of Hong Kong in London. This senior officer will provide a point of direct contact in London between Hong Kong and various departments of the British Government. Since the new organisation is a projection of the Hong Kong Government in London, it is now part of the Colonial Secretariat and the Administrative Commissioner is directly responsible to the Colonial Secretary.

      The reorganised London Office remains at 54 Pall Mall and continues to keep British commercial, economic and industrial developments and official thinking on world-wide trade policies under review and to advise the Hong Kong Government of the likely repercussions of these developments on Hong Kong. The office will also continue to operate its already well-developed

240

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

publicity services aimed at projecting Hong Kong's image to the British public including the Chinese community in Britain, and generally to look after the interests of Hong Kong students and residents in Britain.

ADVISORY COMMITTEES

Such bodies as the Board of Education, the Medical Advisory Board, the Social Welfare Advisory Committee, the Labour Advisory Board, the Trade and Industry Advisory Board, the Housing Board, the Transport Advisory Committee and many others of a similar nature, constitute effective consultative and advisory machinery which enables unofficial opinion to be brought to bear on policy formation. In addition to unofficial members of both Executive and Legislative Councils, members of the public are appointed to many boards, councils and committees.

URBAN COUNCIL

The Urban Council consists of a maximum of 26 members, six ex officio, 10 elected unofficial members and not more than 10 unofficial members appointed by the Governor. The term of office of an unofficial member (which term includes both elected and appointed members) is four years. Of the ex officio members, the Chairman (who is appointed by the Governor) is usually the Director of Urban Services Department, while the Vice-chairman is the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services in charge of the health division of that department. The other ex officio members are the Secretary for Home Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Social Welfare and the Commissioner for Resettlement.

      The Council meets monthly though most of its business is dealt with by 17 select committees which meet at frequent intervals. The chairmen of all select committees are unofficial members, who are in the majority in all such committees.

      The main responsibilities of the Council are sanitation and hygiene, licensing and inspection of food premises and factories, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries, running of markets and abattoirs, licensing and control of hawkers, management of cemeteries and crematoria and control of funeral parlours,

BROADCASTING

"LUTINA

Nin

ine out of ten Hong Kong homes are reached by broad- casting services and approximately one in three has a television set. This makes for a lively broadcasting scene and the constantly growing demand is met by a total of four television channels and eight sound channels. Three of the four broadcasting organisations are commercial and the other (Radio Hong Kong) is operated by the Government.

Television is the fastest growing field of entertainment, having amassed an audience of almost one million in its first twelve years of operation. It received another boost during 1969 with the opening of Hong Kong's first satellite earth station, enabling direct telecasts between Hong Kong, the United States and other countries.

The opening picture in this section (see previous page) shows a television camera-eye-view of a group of artists and producers during the making of a television variety show at one of the local studios.

   The picture opposite shows the $40-million satellite earth station opened during the year at Stanley on Hong Kong Island.

NI T

N

N

ZZZZZZ

N

Two popular local artists (below) stage a mock sword fight for the TVB cameras. (opposite page) A tropical island scene is re-created dur- ing a variety programme in the studios of Hong Kong's other television station, RTV.

RÁDIO HONG KONG

RADIO

HONG

KONG

露香

台電播廣

A contrast in styles at the studios of Radio Hong Kong: Two traditionally made-up Chinese opera singers (top) and a modern pop-singer (below).

I

     Under the watchful eye of a control booth operator, a group of actors give a dra- matic performance in the studios of Commercial Radio.

   Hong Kong doesn't simply watch television, it also makes and sells increasing numbers of sets. This girl is shown test- ing a new receiver in a modern Hong Kong factory.

1

-

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

241

management of the City Hall and public libraries, management of government multi-storey and open-air car parks and the control and maintenance of places of public recreation, such as bathing beaches, swimming pools, tennis courts, squash courts and parks and playgrounds in the urban areas. The Urban Council is also the competent authority for the management of resettlement cottage areas and estates and resettlement factories in the urban areas. Execution of the Urban Council's policies and decisions is carried out by the Urban Services Department, the work of which is explained elsewhere in this report, and, in respect of resettlement estate management, by the Resettlement Department.

COLONIAL SECRETARIAT

The Colonial Secretary is the Governor's principal adviser on policy, the chief executive of the Government, the head of the civil service and the chief Government spokesman. His office (known as the Colonial Secretariat) is under the general direction of the Deputy Colonial Secretary and co-ordinates and supervises the work of all government departments.

The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and for the overall supervision of departments primarily involved in this field. The Establishment Officer deals with personnel matters; the Defence Secretary advises on defence and internal security in collaboration with the Police and Her Majesty's armed forces stationed in the Colony, co-ordinates the work of the local forces and the civil aid services and maintains liaison with Her Majesty's armed forces.

A Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office advises on the external political aspects of government policies.

Principal Assistant or Assistant Colonial Secretaries head the other main branches of the Secretariat, dealing with general matters, social services, buildings and lands, Councils and legal matters, finance and economics.

GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

The administrative functions of the Government are discharged by about 40 departments, most of which are organised on a functional basis and have responsibilities covering the whole

242

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Colony. This form of organisation, rather than one based on authorities with responsibilities in a limited geographical area only, is suitable for this small, compact territory and has enabled the Government to provide services without regard to the capacity of residents of various districts to pay taxes.

SECRETARIAT FOR HOME AFFAIRS AND NEW

TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The two government departments most closely concerned with the reactions of the people to government policies and plans are the Secretariat for Home Affairs, which controls the City District Officers in the urban areas, and the New Territories Administration under which come the District Officers stationed in the New Territories. Hong Kong Island has four districts, Kowloon six and the New Territories five. A primary function of both departments is to assess the impact of contemplated, new policies upon the inhabitants and, when they are adopted, to explain these policies to the public. They also report on trends of public opinion in the districts. In this general connection it has long been the practice of these two departments to foster links with a variety of private organisations including, in the urban areas, the Tung Wah Hospitals, Po Leung Kuk, Kaifong Associa- tion, district and clansmen's associations, multi-storey building associations and religious organisations and youth groups.

The City District Officer scheme, modelled on the long-established District Officer system, was introduced in 1968. District Officers, exercise a local co-ordinating function, explain policies, test public opinion, watch for sources of grievance and tension, and in general try to soften the impact upon the man in the street of the measures adopted by a specialised and sophisticated administration; they also deal with individual complaints, answer enquiries, provide information and mediate in a variety of disputes.

The former Public Enquiry Service has now been fully integrated into the City District Officer Scheme. In addition to enquiry services provided at all the City District Offices, where enquiry counters are combined with the reception facilities, two Information Centres are maintained in the Central Government Offices and in Tung Choi Street, Mong Kok. The primary objects of the enquiry

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

243

services are to give the man in the street information and guidance on the services provided and functions performed by government departments, to explain rules and procedures, and to supplement broadcast information during tropical storms and other emergencies. During the year the enquiry services handled a total of 355,488 enquiries of all kinds.

In the New Territories the District Commissioner and his five District Officers also exercise political and co-ordinating responsi- bilities, and in addition perform certain executive functions, principally in relation to land administration, with which the City District Officers are not concerned. The arrangements for consul- tation with the people are more formalised to the extent that there is a village representative system. More than 900 Village Repre- sentatives are chosen from over 600 villages. Villages are grouped under 27 Rural Committees, each of which has an executive committee which is elected by secret ballot every two years by Village Representatives. The Rural Committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the Government, receiving a small monthly subvention to cover their expenses. Within its own area the Rural Committee acts as spokesman for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Adminis- tration and the people.

The chairmen and vice-chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 Special Councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the Heung Yee Kuk whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum of New Territories opinion from which the Government seeks advice on New Territories affairs. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, the Kuk has an Executive Com- mittee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice- chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

244

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

GRIEVANCES

      No administration is likely to claim that it functions so well that injustices do not concur. In Hong Kong several channels exist for the examination of complaints by members of the public of maladministration. Probably the most commonly used channel is an appeal or complaint to the department concerned, which will ensure a review, at a higher level, of the decision taken. Another method is a letter to the Governor or the Colonial Secretary, which will also ensure that the matter is reconsidered. Complaints are also dealt with by the office run by unofficial members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, commonly referred to as the UMELCO office, and by members of the Urban Council, who have a ward system through which the urban councillors receive complaints from members of the public and bring them to the attention of the appropriate government department or raise them formally in the Urban Council.

City District Officers and District Officers in the New Territories also receive complaints. The absence of statutory powers of investigation is offset by a lack of restriction on the type of complaint they can receive and investigate; their experience and the close relationship that they maintain with other government departments enable them to deal effectively with many grievances.

PUBLIC SERVICE

      The Public Service provides the staff for all government depart- ments, sub-departments and other units of the administration, and on April 1, 1969 the total number of posts in the Public Service (or its establishment, as it is generally called) was 77,609.

      This indicates that about one person in every 50 in Hong Kong is employed by the Government. There is a large proportion of labouring staff, and nearly 32,600 of the total establishment of the Public Service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Public Service of the Hong Kong Govern- ment is somewhat unusual in that it includes the staff for certain activities which in other territories and administrations are carried out by people who do not belong to the Civil Service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities,

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

245

urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central Government. In Hong Kong, the establish- ments of the Medical and Health Department (9,927 posts), the Public Works Department (9,733 posts), the Urban Services Department (13,235 posts) and the Royal Hong Kong Police Force (14,064 posts) account for a total of 46,959 posts or about 61 per cent of the total establishment of the Service.

      The growth in the size of the Service from just over 17,500 in 1949 to about 45,000 in 1959 and now to its present total strength of over 77,500 reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population. However, in recent years, there has been some slowing down of the rate of expansion and it now stands at about three per cent per annum.

      The cost of the Public Service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1969-70 the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, excluding pensions, is about $796 million. This represents approximately 48 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure, or approximately 38 per cent of the estimated total expenditure included in the Budget.

      The establishment of each post in the Public Service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its Establishment Sub-Committee, which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilised and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

      Recruitment and promotions to the Public Service are, with certain exceptions, subject to the advice and overall scrutiny of the Public Services Commission, a body independent of the Government, set up in 1950. Sir Charles Hartwell, CMG, is the full-time chairman of the Commission, and local leading citizens are appointed as members of the Commission on a part-time voluntary basis.

      Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training and conditions of service in the Public Service is exercised by the Establishment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

The responsibilities of the Government Training Division now include the overall surveillance and co-ordination of training within Government, particularly where it leads to the implementation of the policy of localisation at the recruitment level, and the main- tenance and improvement of efficiency within the Service. In the period under review, the Division awarded 23 Scholarships under the Government Training Scholarship Scheme to enable local officers to obtain qualifications not available locally, but which are necessary for senior posts in the Service. In addition 92 courses for General and Departmental Grades were arranged and attended by 1,800 trainees. 160 local officers were sent to undertake post- graduate study overseas. Such training continues to be important in the maintenance of high standards of service to the public.

CONCLUSION

It will be seen that this system of public administration is unusual in a sophisticated community such as Hong Kong, but it is well suited to local conditions and the economic and social progress made since the war indicates that it works with a substantial degree of efficiency. The Government, though prevented by its peculiar situation from following a normal pattern of constitutional develop- ment, nevertheless attaches the greatest possible importance to ascertaining and, as far as practicable, meeting public aspirations and needs.

       The structure of the Government is by no means static, and institutional and organisational developments still continue on a pragmatic basis to meet the needs of an exceptionally resilient and robust community.

       The government of a Colony unique in the twentieth century poses problems to which neither history nor practice elsewhere provide solutions, but which will continue to be tackled in a vigorous and imaginative way.

Appendices

249

Appendix I

Weights and Measures

        The weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

Length*

UNIT

EQUIVALENTS

Domestic

British

Metric

1 fan

0.146 in

3.715 mm

:.

1 tsun (Chinese inch)

10 fan

1.463 in

3.715 cm

1 chek (Chinese foot)

10 tsun

14.625 in

37.15 cm

1 cheung

10 chek

4.063 yd

3.715 m

1 lei (Chinese mile)

706-745 yd

646-681 m

Area

1 đau chung

1 mow

Weight

1 fan

1 tsin or mace

1 leung or tael

1 kan or catty

1 tam or picul

:

:

806.7

sq yd

.6745 hec

1,008

sq yd

.8431 hec

0.013 oz

3.78

dg

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78

g

10 tsin

1.333 oz

37.8

g

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8

g

100 catty

133.333 lb

60.48

kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the chek (foot) is 14 in but the chek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14 in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

250

Appendix

II

251

ORDINANCES

Legislation

Agricultural Products (Marketing) (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Animals and Birds (Restriction of Importation and Possession) Ordinance 1969 Appropriation Ordinance 1969

Bank Notes Issue (Amendment) Ordinance 1969 Banking (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Corporate Bodies Contracts Ordinance 1969

Council of the Diocesan Girls' School Incorporation Ordinance 1969 Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Cross-Harbour Tunnel Ordinance 1969

Diocesan Boys' School Committee Incorporation Ordinance 1969

Diocesan Preparatory School Council Incorporation Ordinance 1969

Disposal of Uncollected Goods Ordinance 1969

District Court (Extended Civil Jurisdiction) Ordinance 1969 Dollar and Subsidiary Currency Notes Ordinance 1969

Evidence (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Evidence (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1969

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Fire Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Hong Kong Baptist College Board of Governors Incorporation Ordinance

1969

Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce Special Relief Fund Ordinance

1969

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children Incorporation Ordinance

1969

Housing (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Inland Revenue (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Inland Revenue (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1969

Inland Revenue (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1969

Interpretation and General Clauses (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Judicial Proceedings (Adjournment During Gale Warnings) Ordinance 1969 Law Revision (Miscellaneous Repeals) Ordinance 1969

Law Revision (Miscellaneous Repeals) (No 2) Ordinance 1969

Lion Rock Tunnel (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Medical Clinics (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Mental Health (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Midwives Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1969 Mining (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Misrepresentation Ordinance 1969

New Territories (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

New Territories (Renewable Crown Leases) Ordinance 1969

Offences against the Person (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Offences against the Person (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1969

Partition Ordinance 1969

Penicillin (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance 1969

Police Forces (Change of Title) Ordinance 1969

Legislation

Portuguese Community Schools Incorporation (Amendment) Ordinance 1969 Preventive Service (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Prisons (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Public Transport Services (Hong Kong Island) (Amendment) Ordinance 1969 Public Transport Services (Kowloon and New Territories) (Amendment)

Ordinance 1969

Public Transport Services (Kowloon and New Territories) (Amendment)

(No 2) Ordinance 1969

Registrar General (Establishment) Ordinance 1969 Resettlement (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Road Traffic (Amendment) Ordinance 1969 Stamp (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Stamp (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1969

Summary Offences (Amendment) Ordinance 1969 Supplementary Appropriation (1968-9) Ordinance 1969 Town Planning (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance 1969

SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Abattoirs (Amendment) By-laws 1969

Administrative Appeals Rules 1969

Agricultural Products (Vegetable) (Marketing) (Amendment) Regulations

1969

*Air Transport (Licensing of Air Services) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Ancillary Dental Workers (Dental Hygienists) Regulations 1969

Arms and Ammunition Ordinance (Amendment of Second Schedule) Regula-

tions 1969

Auxiliary Forces Pay and Allowances (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Exemption) Order 1969

Building (Administration) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Building (Construction) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Building (Lifts) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Building (Planning) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Census Order 1969

Conservancy (Amendment) By-laws 1969

Coroners (Forms) (Amendment) Rules 1969

Coroners Rules 1969

Cremation and Gardens of Remembrance (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Dangerous Goods (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Dangerous Goods (Shipping) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Defences (Firing Areas) Ordinance (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 1969 Diplomatic Privileges Ordinance-Notification under section 2 declaring the Asian Development Bank to be an organisation to which the Ordinance applies

Drug Addiction Treatment Centres Regulations 1969

Dutiable Commodities (Marking and Colouring of Hydrocarbon Oils)

(Amendment) Regulations 1969

Duties of the Fire Services Department Notice 1969

252

Appendix II- Contd

253

Legislation

Emergency (Committee of Review) (Revocation) Rules 1969 Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1969 Emergency (Principal) Regulations (Discontinuance) Orders 1969

Emergency (Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance) (Amendment)

Regulations 1967 (Repeal) Order 1969

Emergency Regulations (Repeal) Orders 1969

Excluded Ferries (Ma On Shan and Ho Tung Lau) (Amendment) Regulations

1969

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1969 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Blasting by Abrasives) Special Regula-

tions 1969

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (First Aid in Registrable Workplaces)

(Amendment) Regulations 1969

Fire Services Department (Welfare Fund) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Food Adulteration (Artificial Sweeteners) Regulations 1969

Food and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Food and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) (Amendment) (No 2) Regula-

tions 1969

† Fugitive Offenders Act 1967 (Commencement) Order 1969 †Fugitive Offenders (United Kingdom Dependencies) Order 1969

Hong Kong Air Navigation (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Ordinance--Ordinary Resolu-

tion increasing the capital of the bank

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Ordinance Special Resolu-

tion amending the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Regulations Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation Ordinance-Legislative Council Resolution determining the maximum contingent liability of the Corporation

Hoseinee Society of Hong Kong Incorporation Ordinance-Resolution

amending the constitution of the Corporation

Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Importation (Coffee) Regulations (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 1969 Importation (Coffee) Regulations (Amendment of Second Schedule) Order

1969

Inland Revenue Ordinance-Prescription of Form under section 86 Inland Revenue (Retirement Scheme) (Amendment) Rules 1969

Lai Chi Kok Training Centre Declaration 1969

Laundries (New Territories) Regulations 1969

Legal Aid in Criminal Cases Rules 1969

Legal Aid in Criminal Cases (Amendment) Rules 1969

Lion Rock Tunnel (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Magistrates (Forms) (Amendment) Rules 1969

Mental Health (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Merchant Shipping (Control of Ports) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Merchant Shipping (Control of Ports) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1969

Merchant Shipping (Fire Appliances) Regulations 1969

Merchant Shipping (Minimum Passenger Space) Regulations 1969

Merchant Shipping (Typhoon Shelters) Regulations 1969

Merchant Shipping (Miscellaneous Cancellations) Order 1969

Legislation

Midwives (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1969

Military Installations Closed Areas Order 1969

Penicillin (Penicillin and other Substances) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Pensionable Offices Order 1969

Poisons (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Poisons List (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Preventive Services Ordinance (Amendment of First Schedule) Orders 1969 Prison (Amendment) Rules 1969

Prisons (Discontinuance of Use of Lai Chi Kok Prison) Order 1969

Prisons Order 1969

Protected Places Declaration Order 1969

Public Conveniences (Charges) (Amendment) Order 1969

Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance (Amendment of Fourth

Schedule) Orders 1969

Public Latrines (Cancellation) By-laws 1969

Public Services Commission (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Quarries (Safety) Regulations 1969

Reformatory School (Establishment) Order 1969

Resettlement (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Revised Edition of the Laws (Correction of Error) Orders 1969

Road Traffic (Construction and Use) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Road Traffic (Driving Licences) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Road Traffic (Parking and Waiting) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Road Traffic (Public Omnibus and Public Car) (Amendment) Regulations 1969 Road Traffic (Registration and Licensing of Vehicles) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1969

Road Traffic (Registration and Licensing of Vehicles) (Amendment) (No 2)

Regulations 1969

Road Traffic (Roads and Signs) (Amendment) Regulations 1969

Road Traffic (Taxis, Public Omnibuses and Public Cars) (Amendment)

Regulations 1969

Road Traffic (Taxis, Public Omnibuses, Public Light Buses and Public Cars)

(Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1969

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) Rules 1969

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1969

Stamp (New Territories) (Exemption and Modification) (Amendment)

Regulations 1969

Statutes of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Statutes 1969 Statutes of the University (Amendment) Statutes 1969

Swimming Pools (New Territories) Regulations 1969

Tai Lam Addiction Treatment Centre Order 1969

Tai Lam Drug Addiction Treatment Centre for Women Order 1969

Tai Lam Training Centre Declaration 1969

Tai Lam Women's Prison Order 1969

§Visiting Forces Act 1952 (Arrest of Members of United States Forces) Order

1969

* Made under the Civil Aviation Act 1949.

† Made under the Fugitive Offenders Act 1967.

Made under the Colonial Air Navigation Orders 1961 to 1968.

§ Made under the Visiting Forces Act 1952.

254

Appendix

(Chapter 2:

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in

main industrial groups

III

Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

255

United Nations

standard

industrial

classification

United Nations

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

numbers

1968

1969

1968

1969

standard

industrial

classification numbers

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

1968

1969

1968

1969

14

19

20

21

23

24

26

28

31

2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 * 7 * 2 2 2 2 3 1 3 8 8 8 6 2 2 2 2 6

12

Metal mining

2

2

396

368

23

Manufacture of textiles

Clay pits and quarrying.

36

30

917

Cordage, rope and twine

677

32

35

664

775

Cotton spinning

33

34

21,670 21,814

Non-metallic mining

12

11

83

92

Cotton weaving

260

265 31,609 31,432

Finishing

233

Food manufacture

266 9,194 10,249

543

582

9,601

9,935

Knitting

752

1,038

42,131

43,535

Beverages ...

28

25

2,077

2,155

Wool spinning ...

11

13

3,181

4,150

22

Tobacco manufacture

224

5

5

1,221 1,176

Footwear and wearing apparel

Footwear except rubber footwear

134

156

2,782

3,174

Manufacture of textiles

1,664

2,085 116,957 121,573

Made-up textile goods except wearing

apparel

86

112

1,813

1,990

Footwear and wearing apparel

1,761

2,252 94,834 106,284

Wearing apparel except footwear

1,541

1,984

90,239

101,120

25

Manufacture of wood and cork

403

442 5,118

5,383

31

Chemicals and chemical products

Chemicals

16

16

437

453

Manufacture of furniture

414

484

4,524

4,958

27

Matches

Medicines

1

1

155

132

Paper

272

340

4,512

5,308

39

46

966

1,062

Paints and lacquers

11

11

864

870

Printing and publishing .

895

973

15,885

17,179

34

29

Leather and leather products

43

54

888

857

35

30

Rubber products...

284

303

12,592

12,789

Basic metal industries

Rolling mills

Metal products

Aluminium ware

19

16

1,466

1,426

Chemicals and chemical products

127

146

4,129

4,459

Electro-plating...

Enamelware

32

Products of petroleum and coal

3

1

16

9

Hand torch cases

33

Non-metallic mineral products ...

102

109

3,021

3,155

Metal toys

Pressure stoves and lanterns

34

Basic metal industries

142

135

2,995

2,953

Tin cans

Vacuum flasks ...

35

Metal products

1,651

1,993 40,844 44,098

Wrist watch bands

36

Manufacture of machinery

605

677

7,014 7,518

37

Electrical apparatus

37

Electrical apparatus

Electronics

312

389

109

42,368

50,690

Hand torch bulbs

So Awww

35

344

34 1,838 1,867

151

192 2,015 2,303

19

21

2,421

2,361

42

47

3,989 4,028

38

57

1,777 1,889

32

31

2,006

1,979

46

48

1,000 1,062

7

6 1,172 1,184

95

108

4,675

5,470

146

30,607 37,417

55

59 3,956

4,020

38

Transport equipment

198

244

16,477

17,594

38

Transport equipment

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

2,420

3,094

91,569 111,821

Aircraft repair

2

2

1,914 1,853

Repair of motor vehicles

149

188

2,962 3,908

51

Electricity and gas

10

10

4,402

6,172

Shipbuilding and repairing

31

37

9,979

9,914

61

Wholesale and retail trade

13

13

598

628

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

Bakelite ware

37

36

1,343

1,307

71

Transport ..

30

30

10,514

10,288

Cameras

10

13

2,368

2,431

72

Storage and warehousing

28

28

4,164

4,290

Manufacture of watches and clocks

48

64

2,636

3,448

Plastic flowers

368

426

16,699

16,445

73

Telephones

1

1 4,535 4,472

Plastic toys and miscellaneous

products

1,474

1,871

47,408

55,839

84

Motion picture industry...

11

16

85

Laundry and dry cleaning

264

1,961

280 2,541 2,558

2,124

Wigs

197

347

15,088

25,486

71

Transport

Totals

12,279

14,754

506,753 561,563

Motor buses

Tramways

7

7

8,528

8,307

1

1,614

1,639

256

Appendix IV

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections, 1969

Applications received for registration

Registration Certificates issued

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

Applications withdrawn

***

Factories closed and Registration Certificates surrendered Places of employment registered at December 31 *Factories 'recorded' at December 31

...

...

...

...

:

:

...

3,098 2,027

19

...

277

570

9,911

Routine visits by inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health and

      welfare provisions Inspections in connection with industrial or occupational accidents

and workmen's compensation

***

Visits about employment of women and young persons

4,843

59,548

2,420

Visits for wage enquiries

365

25,324

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

...

...

18,080

Visits in connection with enforcement of the Industrial Employment

(Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance

* Undertakings which are in the course of registration and those which are not registrable but

are inspected by the Labour Department staff.

2,820

Appendix V

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1969

Persons involved

Deaths

...

Persons injured in registrable workplaces Deaths in registrable workplaces

*Total Accidents reported and investigated

(1968 total 9,241)

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1968 rate 10.49)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1968 rate 0.061)

:

:

:

:

:

12,295

181 7,070

22

12,295

12.97

0.040

* An accident involving two or more persons is recorded as a separate accident for each person

involved.

Appendix VI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue

257

1967-8

1968-9

1969-70

Head of Revenue

Actual

Estimated

Actual

Estimated

$

$

1. Duties

2. Rates

320,681,015 333,300,000 335,750,196 345,500,000

280,467,373 300,200,000 297,432,347 300,000,000

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences and Franchises

5. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties

6. Fees of Court or Office ...

7. Water Revenue

8. Post Office

9. Kai Tak Airport and Air Services

10. Kowloon-Canton Railway

11. Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc

628,440,069 628,300,000 704,029,167 726,900,000

104,010,167 94,300,100 99,461,909 99,908,400

11,329,859 8,680,000 10,358,589 10,320,900

120,913,232 132,623,300 138,069,268 142,158,400

67,902,660 74,508,000 76,561,377 79,358,000

103,442,068 101,985,000 121,286,603 122,513,000

34,156,690 37,294,000 45,752,725 47,820,800

11,533,339 16,116,500 13,734,475 16,894,000

170,710,244 168,928,000 194,195,164 205,939,400

1,853,586,716 1,896,234,900 2,036,631,820 2,097,312,900

12. Land Sales

13. World Refugee Year Grants

14. Contributions towards Projects

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

42,445,806 40,490,000 39,915,655 55,230,000

401,687

69,800

7,986

39,500

3,079,983 15,530,000 4,562,720 19,028,000

13,307

244

Total Revenue

1,899,527,499 1,952,324,700 2,081,118,425 2,171,610,400

258

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

VII

Structure)

259

Expenditure

Expenditure

Head of Expenditure

1967-8 Actual $

1968-9

Estimated $

Actual $

1969-70

Estimated $

1967-8

1968-9

Head of Expenditure

Actual $

Estimated $

Actual $

1969-70 Estimated $

21.

HE the Governor's Establishment

769,095

833,000

796,110

902,100

22. Agriculture and Fisheries

56.

Department

12,005,818

23.

Audit Department

24.

Census and Statistics Department

25.

Civil Aviation Department

13,619,900 13,381,272 15,416,100 1,679,173 1,816,100 1,930,110 2,086,300 726,456 2,987,500 2,473,033 3,757,000 7,035,180 10,632,100 9,302,043 11,152,500

55. Prisons Department

Public Debt

57. Public Services Commission

...

26.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

27.

Commerce and Industry

Department

28. Defence: Hong Kong Regiment

(The Volunteers)

16,374,541

16,889,570

1,968,747

29. Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

2,029,343

18,603,700 17,024,435 19,597,800

18,285,700 17,660,243 20,105,400

2,388,500 2,059,539 2,385,500

1,585,700 1,629,273 1,824,800

58. Public Works Department

59. Public Works Recurrent

60. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Headquarters

61. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Buildings

62. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Civil Engineering

63. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Waterworks

17,724,695 19,863,500 5,332,960 5,041,710 161,171 209,100 95,018,759 107,630,500 85,922,654 100,127,200 92,588,718 106,871,000

20,806,920

23,047,100

5,019,021 205,505 110,570,214

5,019,030

212,800

123,114,400

64.

Radio Hong Kong

30. Defence: Essential Services

65.

Rating and Valuation

Corps and Directorate of Manpower

Department

419,462

31. Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service 32. Defence: Auxiliary Medical

347,759

Service

33. Defence: Civil Aid Services

34.

Defence: Registration of Persons

Office

35. Defence: Miscellaneous

Measures

36.

Education Department

37.

Fire Services Department

38. Immigration Department

436,400 505,000

1,399,508 1,753,600 1,731,220 2,417,400

1,516,463 1,719,500

79,191,543 254,052,149 24,898,377 6,654,678

322,427

364,200

66.

Registrar General's Department

333,591

485,000

67.

Registry of Trade Unions

388,899

68.

1,300,599 2,564,647

1,787,000

Resettlement Department

34,067,345

2,574,700

69. Royal Observatory

70.

39.

Information Services Department

...

40. Inland Revenue Department 41. Judiciary

42. Kowloon-Canton Railway

1,725,576 1,779,400

81,140,100 78,284,033 83,141,900 288,604,300 279,315,183 327,811,500 33,189,000 30,332,595 37,075,500 7,932,600 8,061,279 9,629,200 4,610,447 6,948,000 6,988,664 14,940,500 9,150,440 10,534,100 10,583,404 14,271,300 9,596,230 11,187,800 11,227,202 12,526,600 8,486,865 9,271,400 8,630,561 10,924,800

71.

72.

Secretariat for Home Affairs Social Welfare Department Government Supplies

Department

13,085,305 6,629,000 3,745,338 6,642,000

170,117,164 186,357,300 152,574,867 185,212,600

89,800,797 96,091,900 68,870,353 78,778,300

87,796,545 76,431,000 67,254,524 38,406,000 4,081,522 4,441,200 4,476,003 5,651,400

2,851,104 3,742,500 4,827,450 5,741,600 414,100 42,398,800 42,572,061 3,055,797 3,507,200 3,675,797 3,873,600 2,736,426 3,326,600 5,278,810 7,672,200 12,964,978 15,857,900 16,914,720 19,880,900

3,790,052

5,431,429 425,886

4,374,200

6,181,900

437,500

47,629,400

73. Subventions: Medical

75.

76.

74. Subventions: Social Welfare

Subventions: Miscellaneous

Transport Department

77. Treasury

78.

Universities

11,604,999 21,278,800 15,575,609 46,341,311 54,608,800 52,457,856 62,085,600 7,814,429 9,888,400 9,350,870 11,625,100 21,450,056 22,287,000 22,728,733 25,339,100 964,233 3,406,100 4,489,378 4,756,400 5,147,746 5,511,000 35,253,068 68,084,000 65,888,639 77,728,000

21,139,800

79.

43. Labour Department: Labour

Division

Urban Services Department and

Urban Council

4,063,966

44. Labour Department: Mines

Division

392,321

45. Legal Department

3,362,697

46. Marine Department

47.

48.

Medical and Health Department Miscellaneous Services

...

49. New Territories Administration

50. Pensions

51. Police Force: Royal Hong Kong

Police

52. Police Force: Royal Auxiliary

Police

53. Post Office

54. Printing Department

5,203,500 5,465,271 6,528,100

545,600 659,686

470,500 3,865,000 4,302,623 4,279,900 19,259,669 21,709,900 20,931,492 24,976,300 120,524,934 134,938,600 133,582,644 147,858,900 73,417,608 44,348,600 42,708,284 44,536,800 12,813,344 13,448,700 13,596,287 15,471,900 46,657,149 49,132,000 53,267,385 56,729,000

124,194,709

1,449,931 55,755,229 7,099,479

144,759,600 143,344,769 158,668,100

83.

3,653,700 59,293,200 8,523,200

3,972,674 4,452,100 71,191,111 73,618,700

World Refugee Year Schemes Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

Total Expenditure

8,014,405 8,976,200

81.

82.

80. Urban Services Department:

City Hall Urban Services Department:

Housing Division Urban Services Department: New Territories Division

Secretariat for Home Affairs:

Public Enquiry Service Defence: Hong Kong Royal

Naval Reserve

...

-

60,178,378 68,005,600 68,552,706 80,364,800

3,029,273 4,068,200 3,468,953 3,999,200

7,463,285 9,739,400 9,000,980 13,060,300

7,458,556 8,594,100 8,574,577 9,777,500

348,089 377,300

89,875

60,186

1,765,948,679 1,965,312,110 1,872,963,445 2,118,146,430

60,424

12,937

40,900

11,510

49,400

1,766,022,040 1,965,353,010 1,872,974,955 2,118,195,830

260

DEPOSITS:

Unspent Grants

Public Works Department:

Contract Retentions

Private Works

Water Deposits

Other Deposits:

Control of Publications

Government Servants

Post Office

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

:

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Statement of Assets and

VIII

Structure)

Liabilities as at March 31, 1969

LIABILITIES

$ 5,085,662.28

$ 9,287,059.53

2,845,519.07

29,433,397.64

41,565,976.24

1,200,000.00

2,059,671.73

ASSETS

CASH:

In Treasuries, in transit, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong

With the Crown Agents

FIXED DEPOSITS:

Local

Sterling

INVESTMENTS: (1)

Malayan

1,087,132.15

Sterling

43,250.47

21,966,644.84

26,356,699.19

$ 73,008,337.71

SPECIAL FUNDS:

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

:

:

A

:

261

$ 62,131,957.58

15,971,567.09 $

78,103,524.67

670,085,000.00

76,363,636.36

746,448,636.36

21,715,859.60

304,631,688.55

326,347,548.15

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies-Deposits

220,104.33

ADVANCES:

Personal-Imprests

138,024,760.94

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE: (ii)

As at April 1, 1968

787,644,564.48

Add:

Surplus from April 1, 1968 to March 31, 1969

208,143,470.67

995,788,035.15

Less:

Depreciation on Investments

46,510,160.09

949,277,875.06

Notes:

$1,160,531,078.04

Personal-General

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

:

:

:

:

(i) Does not include 16,290 shares of a nominal (ii) There are contingent liabilities in respect of-

(a) The Colony's capital participation in the (b) A guarantee on notes issued by the Hong (c) The contracts of the Hong Kong Export (d) The accumulated deficit of $133,015.01 of

value of $100 each held in Associated Properties Limited.

Asian Development Bank.

Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited.

Credit Insurance Corporation.

the $ Note Security Fund.

577,291.48

7,266,429.74

342,888.74

1,294,758.90

150,000.00

9,481,368.86

$1,160,531,078.04

262

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

IX

Structure)

and Capital Income and Expenditure

263

Recurrent

Actual 1965-6 $

Actual 1966-7 $

Actual 1967-8

Actual 1968-9 $

Estimate 1969-70

Actual 1965-6

Actual 1967-8 $

Recurrent Revenue

. 1,514,339,155 1,717,615,435 1,794,823,131 1,998,689,360 2,072,605,700

Personal Emoluments

Pensions

Actual 1966-7 $

523,227,308 573,972,981 625,243,893 722,600,313 795,631,700 30,644,023 43,515,917 46,657,149 53,267,385 56,729,000

Actual 1968-9 $

Estimate 1969-70 $

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (excluding Unallocated Stores)

***

Recurrent Subventions

Public Works Recurrent

Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

158,208,485

195,924,014

70,332,146

178,051,064 186,682,062 222,236,251 257,676,400

236,985,765 258,446,702 301,057,356 340,491,500

91,505,753 85,922,654 92,588,718 106,871,000

56,122,372

1,034,458,348

Transfer to Capital Revenue 479,880,807

Surplus

1,514,339,155 1,717,615,435 1,794,823,131 1,998,689,360 2,072,605,700

57,209,115 102,183,738 104,250,912 109,709,530

1,181,240,595 1,305,136,198 1,496,000,935 1,667,109,130

524,679,890 356,181,474 294,544,955 352,082,000

11,694,950 133,505,459 280,143,470 53,414,570

1,514,339,155 1,717,615,435 1,794,823,131 1,998,689,360 2,072,605,700

Capital

Estate Duty

18,952,039

19,450,595 18,327,217 15,401,589 18,000,000

Departmental Special

Expenditure

Excess Stamp Duty (3%

on Assignments)

9,892,715

10,219,200

7,778,047

9,308,096

Private Contribution

towards Government Schemes

Capital Subventions

Public Debt (excluding

interest)

29,848,197 32,206,622 26,587,538 28,049,617 60,356,100

25,845,748 16,877,567 18,110,809 31,257,244 56,654,100

4,252,000

3,809,600

3,700,000

3,409,091

3,409,100

3,115,862

Loan Repayments...

6,622,028

Land Sales

73,355,395

6,064,626

6,653,784

48,454,617

3,079,983

7,081,291

42,445,806

4,562,720 19,028,000

6,664,749 3,707,200

39,915,655 55,230,000

Public Works Non-

recurrent

...

587,398,574

479,893,230

360,799,811 292,445,082 309,038,900

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

637,625

371,252

12,937

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

586,539

World Refugee Year Grants

2,032,480

Taxi concessions

2,805,000

365,648

13,307

161,882

401,688

8,775,765 25,577,029

244

7,986

6,568,026

Miscellaneous Capital

Expenditure

79,272,502

85,226,332

52,058,373 18,351,335 19,579,100

39,500

3,000,000

World Refugee Year

Schemes

2,794,831

410,316

60,424

11,510

49,400

Unallocated Stores

Accounts...

4,622,643

6,031,088

Cr. 444,050

3,450,141

2,000,000

Contribution from

Recurrent Revenue

Deficit

117,362,058 100,146,117 104,704,368 82,429,065 99,004,700

479,880,807 524,679,890 356,181,474 294,544,955 352,082,000

137,429,255

734,672,120 624,826,007 460,885,842 376,974,020 451,086,700

734,672,120

624,826,007 460,885,842

376,974,020 451,086,700

264

Appendix X

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Public Debt of the Colony at March 31, 1969

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8 ...

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

:

:

$

45,998,000.00

20,363,636.36

66,361,636.36

Appendix XI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Colonial Development and Welfare

Details of locally administered schemes in progress during 1969 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme Number

Title

Maximum grant available

CD & W Share of approved expenditure

Estimated expenditure

up to

December 31, 1969

CD & W

Total

Share

£

%

£

£

D 5365

Extension to University Hall for the

University of Hong Kong

101,875

62

5,496

1,433

R 1731

Pesticides Research ...

390

100

390

390

R 1817

R 1817A}

TB in the Tropics Research

7,566

100

4,000

4,000

R 1873 Leprosy in Hong Kong

2,925

100

2,925

2,925

Appendix XII

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees*

265

1966-7

1967-8

1968-9

1969-70

Actual Revenue

Actual

Revenue

Actual Revenue

Estimate

1. Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils ... 103,712,960 108,120,836 117,337,293 131,000,000

2. Import Duty on Intoxicating Liquor...

3. Import Duty on Liquor other than

Intoxicating Liquor

4. Import Duty on Tobacco

5. Duty on Locally Manufactured

Liquor

6. Duty on Table Waters

63,940,637 62,055,754 69,379,458 81,000,000

1,922,351 1,742,451 2,097,809 2,200,000

118,235,613 121,503,206 118,784,951 126,500,000

19,453,051 19,221,883 19,960,586 18,600,000

7,296,648 8,036,885 8,190,099 10,000,000

314,561,260 320,681,015 335,750,196 369,300,000

* These figures represent net revenue collected, f.e. after deducting refunds and drawbacks

of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

1. Hydrocarbon Oils

2. Liquor

3. Tobacco

4. Miscellaneous

:

193,172

193,455

194,900

198,000

3,013,939 3,128,505 3,323,900 3,470,000

861,764

851,268

884,000

887,000

28,425

32,709

32,800

33,500

4,097,300 4,205,937 4,435,600

4,588,500

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

Denaturing

381,969

411,386

405,300

280,000

2. Factory Inspection and Supervision...

15,476

253

3. Anti-narcotic Smuggling Guards

8,610

10,710

1,400

4.

Bonded Warehouse Supervision

347,229

331,034

326,600

377,600

753,284

753,383

733,300

657,600

266

I

267

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Approved

XIII

Structure)

Loan Fund

Projects as at March 31, 1969

Allocation

of Funds

Total Expenditure to 31.3.69 $

Total Repayments to 31.3.69

Balances at 31.3.69

DETAILS

LOAN PROJECTS

- Housing Loans:

1.

2.

Housing Authority (i)

Hong Kong Housing Society:

(b) Kennedy Town Scheme

(a) Completed Schemes

3.

Local Government Officers {

(a)

(b)

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans (ii)

5. Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited

6. Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited:

7.

(a) Share Capital

(b) Initial Loan Fund (iii)

The Hong Kong Round Table

II Educational Loans (ii)

III

:

:

:

2.

The Mother Superioress of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

Medical Loans:

1. The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

IV - Miscellaneous Loans:

1. Hong Kong Football Club

--

2.

South China Athletic Association

3.

Ocean Terminal

4.

Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited:

University of Hong Kong

5.

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund

V

-

Fisheries Loans (i)(v) ...

Grand Total (iv)

:

:

260,000,000

237,719,130.55

121,518,214 24,500,000

121,518,212.04

24,500,000.00

176,000,000

134,774,217.88

8,095,711.84 202,814.64

31,051,281.12

27,500,000

11,356,262.93

210,000 10,000,000

210,000.00

237,719,130.55

113,422,500.20

24,297,185.36

103,722,936.76 11,356,262.93

171,044.46

9,500,000.00

38,955.54 9,500,000.00

600,000 15,400,000 20,000

635,748,214

130,000,000

300,000.00 6,904,000.00

300,000.00 6,904,000.00

20,000.00

546,801,823.40

85,730,574.20

20,000.00

39,540,852.06

32,490,473.09

507,260,971.34

53,240,101.11

:

3,750,000

3,750,000.00

1,250,010.00

2,499,990.00

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

802,942.45

1,197,057.55

5,750,000

5,750,000.00

2,052,952.45

3,697,047.55

550,000 600,000

550,000.00

427,850.63

122,149.37

600,000.00

359,681.34

240,318.66

26,900,000 220,000 500,000

26,900,000.00

2,690,000.00

24,210,000.00

28,770,000

5,000,000

500,000.00

28,550,000.00

3,000,523.00

3,477,531.97

500,000.00

25,072,468.03

3,000,523.00

10,000,000

10,000,000.00

815,268,214

679,832,920.60

10,000,000.00

77,561,809.57

602,271,111.03

(i) These loans constitute revolving funds and are therefore (ii) Includes balances of loans originally made from General

1, 1959.

(iii) On the December 16, 1968 the Fund's liability to

of a debenture for $6,904,000.

(iv) Projects totalling $9,252,934.69 have been finalized and (v) See Note (iv) to Statement of Assets and Liabilities as

shown net.

Revenue but taken over by the Development Loan Fund on October

contribute to the Initial Loan Fund was extinguished with the issue

are not included in this statement.

at March 31, 1969.

VI - Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

Notes:

268

ASSETS

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Assets and

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Loan Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1969

LIABILITIES

Development Loan Fund:

As at April 1, 1968

Add: Kwun Tong Reclamation Land Sales, 1968-9

Per Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Less: Loss due to irrecoverable loans (iv)

:

$602,474,840.07

1,100,081.38

24,975,175.29

628,550,096.74

Cash:

445,442.00 $628,104,654.74

In Treasuries and Banks in Hong Kong

With Hong Kong Government (iii)

Fixed Deposits

Investments:

Local

...

Kwun Tong Reclamation:

Outstanding premia (i)

:

Outstanding Loans and Capital Projects (ii) for:

Housing (ii)

Educational

Medical

Fisheries (iv)

Export Credit Insurance (ii)

Miscellaneous purposes

:

269

$ 1,301,866.42

542,510.24 $ 1,844,376.66

10,000,000.00

:

:

:

:

507,260,971.34

53,240,101.11

3,697,047.55

68,670.00

13,920,497.05

3,000,523.00

10,000,000.00

25,072,468.03 602,271,111.03

Notes:

$628,104,654.74

(i) Does not include the value of seven unsold Kwun Tong (ii) The Capital Projects comprise 6,000 shares (each of Building and Loan Agency Limited and $10,000,000 in (iii) Being an amount received by Government but paid over (iv) The Fisheries Loans are understated by $7,133 being the relevant adjustments are in the 1969-70 accounts.

Summary of Receipts and

Reclamation lots.

$100 of which $50 per share has been paid up) in The Hong Kong the Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation.

to the Fund after the close of these accounts.

recovery of an amount included in the $445,442.00 written off. The

Payments for 1968-9

1. Receipts:

Loan repayments

Interest on Loans

Interest on Investments and Balances

Interest on Land sales premia

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong Reclamation

LESS

2.

Payments:

Loans and Capital Projects (Net)

3. Surplus

:.

:

:

:

:

::

:

$628,104,654.74

$15,278,233.32 23,401,388.47 643,821.60 929,965.22 2,711,371.66

$42,964,780.27

:.

38,999,940.29

$ 3,964,839.98

270

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Fund

Statement of Approved Grants and

DETAILS

Loans as at March 31, 1969

Allocation

of

Funds

Total Expenditure to 31.3.69

Total Repayments to 31.3.69

271

21

Balances

at 31.3.69

$

I-GRANTS:

1.

Yuen Long Community Centre:

(a) Capital expenditure

1,000,000

57,520.00

(b) Recurrent expenditure

250,000

2.

Capital assistance to Voluntary Agencies

200,000

35,774.45

3.

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals-Home for the Aged, Aberdeen

200,000

4.

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups-Alterations to and equipment for existing youth

centres

-

16,800

7,450.00

5.

Director of Medical and Health Services-Campaign to assist the disabled travelling by public

transport

10,000

4,000.00

6.

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

for Female Drug Addicts:

(a) Capital expenditure

214,064

(b) Recurrent expenditure

659,934

214,064.00 36,944.00

7.

Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Gymnasium at Pelletier Hall

309,000

8.

The Lady Trench Nursing and Training Centre

1,250,000

9.

Maryknoll Fathers-Social Service Centre, Ngau Tau Kok

340,000

10.

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Expansion of Shek Kwu Chau

Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

2,000,000

1,000,000,00

11.

Poh Yeh Ching Shea-Home for the Aged, Tai Po ::

200,000

12.

13.

Children's Playground Association-Repairs and improvements at MacPherson Stadium Boy Scouts Association:

45,000

| | | | | | | |

| | | | | |

| ││││_ | ||

14.

15.

16.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

24.

TRE DE 123 I

(a) Gilwell Projects, Phase B

(b) Tai Tam Project

Po Leung Kuk-Annexe to main building

Christian Children's Fund-New children's home in Tai Po

100,000

33,880.08

300,000

400,000

287,500.00

300,000

300,000.00

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups-Youth Centre at Yau Ma Tei

40,000

40,000.00

17. Save the Children Fund-Alterations to the Nursery at Kwun Tong Community Centre

The Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Equipment for Centre for Teenage Girls at Brick Hill,

Aberdeen

8,100

7,306.92

1 1 1 1 1 1

100,000

100,000.00

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Equipment for three children's libraries at playgrounds Research Sub-Committee of the Action Committee against Narcotics-Survey on community

attitudes towards drug addiction

Foster Parents' Plan Inc-An enlarged Hong Kong Office in Chai Wan

Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Two additional storeys on the Rotary Centre for the Blind... 23. Social Research Project

Children's Playground Association-Silver Mine Bay Holiday Camp

25. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Equipment for a library at the Ham Tin resettlement

estates

St Christopher's Home-Replacement of dilapidated accommodation Tung Lam Nien Fah Tong Limited-Home for the Aged, Tsuen Wan Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Equipment for combined clubs Hong Kong Christian Service-Housing for the elderly at Wah Fu estate Chinese YMCA-Youth Centre

21,000

21,000.00

25,600

25,600.00

56,440

53,609.48

140,000

131,022.39

1,000,000

1,000,000.00

30,000

30,400

30,399.94

60,000

38,670.80

220,000

132,438.49

30,000

29,998.40

32,750

32,661.35

600,000

600,000.00

Total Grants

10,189,088

4,219,840.30

JI

LOANS:

Chinese YMCA-Youth Centre

xxx

1.

2.

YWCA-Anne Black Centre

3.

Hong Kong Resettlement Estates Loan Association-Loan Capital

Total Loans

Grand Total

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

110,000.00

1,890,000.00

2,000,000

100,000

100,000.00

100,000.00

4,100,000

14,289,088

2,100,000.00

6,319,840.30

110,000.00

1,990,000.00

110,000.00

1,990,000.00

Note: Projects totalling $1,562,535.85 have been

finalized and are not included in this statement.

272

1967 and earlier

Unclaimed Prize Money-1968 Lotteries

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

Statement of Assets and

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1969

LIABILITIES

423,112.00 2,189,448.00

Cash at Bank

$ 2,612,560.00

Fixed Deposits

Loans*

ASSETS

273

$ 361,611.22

15,500,000.00

1,990,000.00

Lotteries Fund:

:

As at April 1, 1968

13,612,784.68

Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Recurrent Payments

. $4,862,158.43 3,235,891.89

1,626,266.54

15,239,051.22

$17,851,611.22

$17,851,611.22

* In addition Grants totalling

$5,782,376.15 have been made.

Statement of Receipts and Payments

for the year ended March 31, 1969

DETAILS

Approved Estimate

Actual Receipts/ Payments

$

$

Recurrent:

Proceeds of Government Lotteries:

Gross Receipt

Less: (a) Prize money

(b) Running expenses

RECEIPTS

Interest on Balances

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities...

Non-Recurrent:

Loan Repayments...

:

Total Receipts

PAYMENTS

Recurrent:

Grants

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities ...

Non-Recurrent:

Loans

Total Payments

:

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

::

:..

:

:

7,500,000 --4,500,000

600,000

11,544,000.00

-

- 6,926,400.00

758,828.61

2,400,000

3,858,771.39

739,000

1,003,387.04

3,139,000

4,862,158.43

100,000

3,239,000

110,000.00

4,972,158.43

3,337,000

3,337,000

3,235,891.89

3,235,891.89

2,000,000

5,337,000

3,235,891.89

274

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Currency and

Currency in Circulation

XIV

Structure)

Banking Statistics and Bank Deposits

275

Date

Number of reporting banks

Notes and coins in circulation (HK$ million)

Deposits (HK$ million)

Index of Deposits

December 31, 1955=100

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

31.12.1955

31.12.1956

31.12.1957

31.12.1958

31.12.1959

31.12.1960

31.12.1961

31.12.1962

31.12.1963

31.12.1964

31.12.1965

78

31.12.1966

31.12.1967

31.12.1968

31.12.1969

2 L L L ≈ 8 9 ☺ ☺±±wwww

34

771.7

1,137

852

152

133

100

100

100

100

34

783.3

1,267

928

173

166

111

109

114

125

35

812.6

1,412

955

267

190

124

112

176

143

36

827.6

1,583

988

351

244

139

116

231

183

41

896.2

2,056

1,205

482

369

181

141

317

277

47

984.0

2,682

1,393

752

537

236

163

495

404

59

1,026.7

3,367

1,470

1,234

663

296

173

812

498

63

1,123.7

4,311

1,664

1,768

879

379

195

1,163

661

67

1,229.8

5,425

1,997

2,283

1,145

477

234

1,502

861

69

1,399.5

6,568

2,237

2,810

1,521

578

263

1,849

1,144

1,739.8

7,251

2,532

3,099

1,620

638

297

2,039

1,218

76

1,852.4

8,405

2,681

3,742

1,982

739

315

2,462

1,490

75

2,307.7

8,162

2,658

3,324

2,180

718

312

2,187

1,639

75

2,130.5

10,367

3,144

4,432

2,791

912

369

2,916

2,098

73

2,260.9

12,297

3,714

5,216

3,367

1,082

436

3,432

2,532

Banking

Assets

Date

Number of reporting banks

Cash (i.e. legal tender notes and coins in hand) (HK$ million)

NET balances with other banks (including Head Offices or Branches outside Hong Kong)

& other short

Loans and Advances (HK$ million)

Investments (HK$ million)

Index of Loans and Advances December 31, 1955=100

'Liquidity Ratio' (i.e. cash and net balances with other banks expressed as

percentage of total deposits)

term claims (HK$ million)

31.12.1955

34

144

12.7%

459

40.4%

632

55.6%

96

8.4%

100

53.3%

31.12.1956

34

97

7.7%

541

42.7%

769

60.7%

98

7.7%

122

50.4%

31.12.1957

35

118

8.4%

578

40.9%

865

61.3%

101

7.2%

137

49.3%

31.12.1958

36

84

5.3%

730

46.1%

919

58.1%

121

7.6%

145

51.4%

31.12.1959

41

86

4.2%

775

37.7%

1,373

66.8%

133

6.5%

217

41.9%

31.12.1960

47

136

5.1%

930

34.6%

1,720

64.1%

166

6.2%

272

39.7%

31.12.1961

59

114

3.4%

1,041

30.9%

2,334

.69.3%

232

6.9%

369

34.3%

31.12.1962

63

162

3.8%

1,482

34.4%

2,849

66.1%

191

4.4%

451

38.1%

31.12.1963

67

210

3.7%

1,831

33.8%

3,642

67.1%

187

3.4%

576

37.5%

31.12.1964

69

238

3.6%

1,577

24.0%

4,586

69.8%

271

4.1%

726

27.6%

31.12.1965

78

221

3.0%

2,133

29.4%

5,038

69.5%

527

7.3%

797

32.5%

31.12.1966

31.12.1967

31.12.1968

...

31.12.1969

K K K R

76

232

2.8%

2,862

34.1%

5,380

64.0%

537

6.4%

851

36.8%

75

333

4.1%

2,347

28.8%

5,343

65.5%

590

7.2%

845

32.8%

75

310

3.0%

3,860

37.2%

6,038

58.2%

636

6.1%

955

40.2%

73

333

2.7%

3,927

31.9%

7,884

64.1%

670

5.4%

1,247

34.6%

Figures in Italics=

percentage of total deposits.

276

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

XV

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International

1967, 1968 and 1969

277

1967

IMPORTS 1968 $

Food

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

1969 $

1967 $

EXPORTS

1968

$

1969 $

1967

$

RE-EXPORTS 1968 $

1969

$

365,420,619

356,037,870

460,255,037

74,746

29,060

724,949

1,033,734

1,902,252

3,110,059

206,191,547

251,851,920

283,967,836

1,790,012

1,822,156

1,398,003

3,796,663

7,488,295

4,442,918

Dairy products and eggs

189,765,808

202,207,150

238,029,453

379,124

467,789

355,025

12,577,188

15,212,157

9,291,735

Fish and fish preparations

238,624,110

250,663,686

273,014,534

54,287,196

74,544,132

104,377,772

26,179,507

22,268,240

34,394,958

Cereals and cereal preparations

637,119,748

602,642,353

597,707,218

34,279,175

41,069,245

27,862,734

20,053,890

30,562,063

25,787,469

Fruits and vegetables

437,975,870

507,641,825

553,637,328

22,791,447

25,016,679

23,963,688

64,759,157

74,989,099

95,456,494

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

67,703,436

91,463,579

95,543,669

10,389,611

16,168,301

15,943,615

12,044,548

16,537,130

22,411,574

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures

thereof

89,105,694

97,500,195

175,921,532

1,107,242

1,230,131

1,272,531

59,793,387

59,212,621

102,732,128

Feeding stuff for animals (not including

unmilled cereals)

28,518,306

32,745,212

41,497,997

4,526,724

2,893,346

2,231,442

2,818,690

Miscellaneous food preparations

68,253,183

75,524,660

84,430,432

22,747,122

26,311,181

31,180,799

10,242,217

990,181 6,815,302

2,525,630

7,470,571

2,328,678,321

2,468,278,450

2,804,005,036

152,372,399

189,552,020

209,310,558

213,298,981

235,977,340

307,623,536

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

90,749,335

96,651,707

119,676,277

2,573,207

2,554,991

3,196,206

8,619,327

8,298,831

10,086,133

123,260,074

129,665,811

150,662,386

32,958,040

26,369,670

35,323,963

7,781,707

10,144,331

7,905,323

214,009,409

226,317,518

270,338,663

35,531,247

28,924,661

38,520,169

16,401,034

18,443,162

17,991,456

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

10,547,676

14,327,456

20,888,928

2,498,445

2,696,591

3,008,765

5,836,829

3,119,054

4,270,394

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

38,349,685

41,240,873

35,874,195

15,872,515

17,291,447

16,485,407

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

40,207,590

26,936,721

=

37,504,322

18,665,709

1,478,738

1,575,857

Wood, lumber and cork

51,996,296

66,097,587

71,962,607

4,034,287

7,695,071

15,284,924

9,185,908

11,306,426

7,986,705

Pulp and waste paper

380,961

304,672

146,605

9,730,200

8,785,472

15,248,763

453,973

75,812

60,418

Textile fibres and waste

578,098,345

840,216,182

717,699,283

10,096,088

12,296,024

12,037,825

6,567,831

7,039,491

12,292,804

Crude fertilizers and crude minerals,

excluding coal, petroleum and precious stones

14,465,399

22,988,215

25,959,882

1,130,597

1,180,551

2,043,037

2,616,895

1,660,681

4,260,305

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

32,369,891

39,023,019

36,821,010

72,173,273

80,188,232

94,835,754

5,581,909

6,115,999

8,935,229

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible,

not elsewhere specified

219,528,085

210,312,417

222,025,302

25,236,414

28,056,132

31,099,763

90,284,967

95,399,865

101,566,255

985,943,928

1,261,447,142

1,168,882,134

124,899,304

140,898,073

173,558,831

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Coal, coke and briquettes

Petroleum and petroleum products

364,498,992

Gas, natural and manufactured

10,264,031

6,766,507

409,723,191

9,658,407

9,147,567

6,075,872

28,330

3,110

463,745,163

10,655,508

155,066,536

15,215 35,822,153 551,549

143,487,513

157,433,374

108,960 36,774,126 401,012

153,448

40,379,109

610,450

Electric energy

-

381,529,530

428,529,165

480,476,543

28,330

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Animal oils and fats

750,092

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

74,971,390

1,235,274 76,517,779

864,814 84,175,037

Animal and vegetable oils and fats, processed,

and waxes of animal or vegetable origin

885,408

1,196,589

1,150,397

152,670 2,940,243

4,800

3,110

17,856 2,905,277

36,388,917

37,284,098

41,143,007

410,772 3,926,598

10,475

16,405

76,606,890

78,949,642

86,190,248

3,097,713

2,933,608

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

165,464,163

203,921,716

206,884,475

2,686,751

4,067,924

4,353,775

3,985,594

Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal,

petroleum and natural gas

289,608

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Medicinal and pharmaceutical products Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet,

110,594,157

162,976,757

80,853 138,851,586 201,707,023

156,965

158,747,461 238,471,103

19,454,221

19,620,710

23,857,966

24,155,847

24,945,778

32,570,502

39,708 5,574,647

486,357

6,100,712

37,066,420

186,006 44,441,944 136,073,800

327,532 5,124,554

29,142

7,369,263

270,776

5,722,862

137,805

7,536,210

40,281,331

38,071,659

6,350 55,617,156 176,241,162

5,638

59,012,810 210,383,227

polishing and cleansing preparations...

87,040,880

107,265,676

125,720,478

6,621,957

14,795,842

20,567,553

Fertilizers, manufactured

3,672,185

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

23,139,634

3,338,784 21,458,729

3,680,008

26,768,544

24,814,763 240,451 28,453,312

19,947,958 28,575

25,655,339

30,827,980

34,914,025

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and

artificial resins

268,299,645

311,541,845

370,575,485

7,753,982

14,454,260

17,459,058

22,914,990

20,989,454

23,277,752

Chemical materials and products, not

elsewhere specified

39,443,266

860,920,295

52,485,885

1,040,652,097

64,769,654

1,780,201

2,313,857

1,195,774,173

62,452,959

80,198,371

2,500,175

100,940,848

17,499,248

18,432,280

28,564,007

311,690,934

362,372,246

419,884,457

278

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

XV.

Contd

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International

1967, 1968 and 1969

279

1967 $

IMPORTS

1968

$

1969 $

1967

$

EXPORTS

1968 $

1969

$

1967 $

RE-EXPORTS

1968 $

1969

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere

specified, and dressed furs

38,904,062

49,144,217

59,479,189

5,525,986

5,458,160

6,451,006

4,770,801

2,509,123

3,594,749

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified Wood and cork manufactures (excluding

furniture)

34,616,095

43,470,065

46,906,267

1,845,722

3,650,694

4,100,499

11,897,715

5,967,434

6,733,845

37,697,853

48,467,016

54,960,801

9,338,090

13,105,087

17,590,794

3,282,363

5,039,649

5,598,332

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related

products

244,370,100

318,065,988

355,609,723

8,463,366

12,670,147

14,378,963

30,166,794

22,468,358

28,953,880

1,562,601,450

2,108,065,097

2,555,682,908

935,521,284

1,035,124,781

1,126,205,105

444,529,994

416,735,296

402,820,956

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not else-

where specified

714,667,358

852,849,356

1,161,592,251

57,493,326

71,825,886

91,410,853

371,420,884

386,977,192

608,311,711

Iron and steel

239,829,108

227,663,131

315,528,502

51,153,881

49,439,056

45,900,309

25,592,900

10,591,924

16,385,567

Non-ferrous metals

141,224,661

207,376,507

218,446,239

15,006,853

22,126,830

26,509,062

22,584,685

40,593,497

27,032,803

Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified

122,784,832

121,395,526

144,198,911

3,136,695,519

3,976,496,903

4,912,404,791

200,344,948

1,284,693,456

239,746,551

291,657,494

30,454,463

17,692,758

22,895,362

1,453,147,192

1,624,204,085

944,700,599

908,575,231

1,122,327,205

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

415,981,218

481,588,537

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliance Transport equipment

756,397,859

922,309,988

647,966,779 1,310,029,208

36,312,487

57,637,157

60,846,812

78,718,336

75,932,045

98,305,667

589,925,287

771,977,349

174,467,597

200,490,593

279,629,270

43,223,048

1,346,846,674

1,604,389,118

2,237,625,257

669,460,822

47,821,557

877,436,063 1,173,521,855

1,058,312,032 54,363,011

37,392,682

41,341,105

113,679,709

30,257,987

25,646,342

26,731,926

146,369,005

142,919,492

238,717,302

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures

and fittings

23,492,502

Furniture

21,210,803

25,944,586 23,854,685

32,852,033 30,058,800

132,662,737

148,868,356

156,984,573

2,857,203

2,453,563

3,142,879

58,260,520

60,483,878

70,319,643

3,154,801

2,898,490

3,890,528

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles Clothing

14,401,014

17,021,616

24,165,707

80,400,708

124,780,945

143,481,070

704,185

1,109,733

1,851,096

162,735,566

205,314,067

231,258,674

2,316,548,117

3,013,920,424

3,827,579,952

29,254,637

42,486,836

46,538,294

Footwear

42,226,288

53,300,400

53,602,753

218,850,764

271,418,746

295,174,502

11,313,459

16,355,546

9,190,856

Professional, scientific and controlling instru-

ments; photographic and optical goods, watches and clocks

408,590,634

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not else-

where specified

427,346,602

1,100,003,409

526,143,866

514,149,611

1,365,728,831

715,986,471

623,419,164

1,711,343,602

89,957,113 136,742,133 183,433,112

1,453,220,628 1,880,198,108 2,495,215,554

4,349,900,587 5,636,412,590 7,172,188,406

100,639,050

114,191,912

147,580,127

93,842,312

92,210,268

140,480,454

241,765,647

271,706,348

352,674,234

Commodities and transactions not classified according

to kind and transactions in gold and coin Commodities and transactions not classified

according to kind

17,911,748

Transactions in gold and current coin

385,704,041

403,615,789

20,758,429 254,748,967

275,507,396

25,977,260 448,359,588

474,336,848

17,551,002

18,906,811

21,429,616

17,551,002

18,906,811

21,429,616

9,344,526 358,084,007

367,428,533

15,423,894 164,428,249

13,799,847 183,731,062

179,852,143

197,530,909

Total Merchandise

GRAND TOTAL

10,449,145,723 12,471,547,295 14,893,017,707

10,834,849,764 12,726,296,262 15,341,377,295

6,699,987,819 8,428,412,499 10,518,028,143

6,699,987,819 8,428,412,499

2,081,126,891 2,141,912,186

2,679,130,628

10,518,028,143 2,439,210,898 2,306,340,435 2,862,861,690

280

Appendix XVI

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

1969

1968

$ million $ million

% increase or decrease

Imports... Exports Re-exports Total trade

1969 1968

Cargo Tonnages

Appendix XVII

14,893

12,472

+ 19%

10,518

8,428

+25%

2,679

2,142

+ 25 0

28,090

23,042

+ 22%

13.3 million tons

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Commodity Pattern

1969 total value $14,893 million

       Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Chemicals

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

12.0 million tons

% of total imports in 1969 33%

19

15

119

89

8%

1969

1968

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-metallic mineral manufactures

      Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Iron and steel

Non-ferrous metals

-

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

Food and live animals

Cereals and cereal preparations

Fruit and vegetables

Live animals...

4,912

3,976

2,556

2,108

1,162

853

356

318

316

228

218

207

144

121

2,804

2,468

598

603

554

508

460

356

Meat and meat preparations

284

252

Fish and fish preparations...

273

251

Dairy products and eggs

238

202

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

176

98

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

96

91

Miscellaneous food preparations

84

76

Machinery and transport equipment

2,238

1,604

Electrical machinery

1,310

922

Non-electric machinery

648

482

Transport equipment

280

200

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

1,711

1,366

++++++++|+++++++++++++

24°

+21

+36

+ 80

4

+ 12

+ 39

+421

+35

39

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

716

526

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

623

514

Clothing

231

205

Footwear

54

53

Chemicals

1,196

1,041

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

371

312

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

238

202

Chemical elements and compounds

207

204

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

159

139

Essential oils and perfume materials

126

107

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

1,169

1,261

Textile fibres

718

840

Crude animal and vegetable materials

222

210

Wood, lumber and cork

72

66

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

38

27

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

37

39

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels...

36

41

||+++||++++++++++

+ 36%

+21

+139

19

+15%

+19

18

Appendix XVIII

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1969 total value $14,893 million

% of total imports in 1969

281

By country

By Commonwealth Countries

% of total imports in

1969

Japan

23%

Commonwealth Countries

17%

China

18

Asia

55%

USA

13

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom

8

United Kingdom)

21%

Federal Republic of Germany

4

North America

14%

Taiwan

3%

1969

1968

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Japan

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Electrical machinery

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial

3,484

2,717

+ 28%

1,309

1,006

+ 30%

415

310

+ 34%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

resins

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Non-electric machinery

283

208

+ 36%

191

139

173

135

153

90

Iron and steel

132

93

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

132

113

China

2,700

2,429

+++++ +

+ 11%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

431

430

Live animals...

388

301

Fruit and vegetables

268

261

Meat and meat preparations

178

165

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

175

127

Fish and fish preparations...

165

150

Cereals and cereal preparations

147

167

Dairy products and eggs

117

103

Clothing

99

87

15

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

90

70

29

Crude animal and vegetable materials

87

88

1%

USA

2,002

1,727

+ 16%

Electrical machinery

472

312

+ 51%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

265

196

+35

Non-electric machinery

160

112

+43

Fruit and vegetables

108

81

34

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

100

89

13

Textile fibres...

96

217

56

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

91

48

+ 88

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

90

75

+ 21%

United Kingdom

1,201

1,083

+ 11%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

155

135

+ 15%

Electrical machinery

154

153

+

1%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

147

110

Transport equipment

133

83

Non-electric machinery

87

123

+349

61 29%

Federal Republic of Germany

544

402

+ 35%

Non-electric machinery

104

51

+105%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

65

36

82

Electrical machinery

57

37

55

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials...

52

46

Chemical elements and compounds

46

45

Transport equipment

40

32

Talwan

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Electrical machinery

Plastic material, regenerated cellulose and artificial

resins

Fruit and vegetables

502

413

+ 22%

184

170

+ 8%

54

24

+129%

::

50

37

+ 35%

46

34

+ 34%

282

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Domestic

XIX

and Trade)

Exports

283

Commodity Pattern

1969 total value $10,518 million

% of all exports in

1969

By country

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Electrical machinery

Footwear

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

36%

% of all exports in 1969

240

119

USA

42%

109

United Kingdom

140

39

Federal Republic of Germany

70%

Japan

3

Canada

Principal Markets

1969 total value $10,518 million

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

Commonwealth Countries

North America

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom)

% of all exports in 1969

27%

45%

1969

1968

% increase

or decrease

$ million $ million

Clothing

3,828

3,014

+ 27%

Australia

Singapore.

Sweden Netherlands

Asia Australasia

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers,

knitted

745

612

+ 22%

1969

1968

% increase or decrease

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

other than knitted

$ million

$ million

553

460

+ 20%

Shirts, other than knitted

USA

463

389

+ 19

4,428

3,486

+ 27%

Outer garments, knitted

273

188

+ 45%

Suits, jackets, uniforms and overcoats, other than

knitted

272

150

+ 82

Gloves and mittens of all materials

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Electrical machinery

1,497

1,219

+ 23

1,475

1,115

+32

753

542

+39

192

148

+ 30

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

261

251

Shirts, knitted

174

141

+ 23

Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

164

142

+ 15

United Kingdom

1,465

1,343

+ 9%

Skirts, dresses, frocks, gowns and house-coats, other than

knitted

Clothing

644

567

158

123

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

+ 14%

285

219

Outer garments, other than knitted

+ 30%

127

87

+46

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

272

273

16

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not embroidered Underwear and nightwear, knitted

104

90

161

Footwear

109

114

469

103

97

+

Electrical machinery

55

57

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

2,495

1,880

+ 33%

Federal Republic of Germany

765

Plastic toys and dolls

711

666

+16%

Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc.

Clothing

520

341

647

318

+103

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit (plastic)

366

308

+19

Toys and dolls (not plastic)

110

85

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Footwear

113

40

Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)

100

95

Japan

355

Metal watch bands

58

53

Fish and fish preparations.

80

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

1,126

1,035

+ 9%

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

62

Cotton grey sheeting

...

114

116

2%

Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered

104

107

3%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

45

44

Cotton yarn

88

72

Electrical machinery

32

Cotton canvas and ducks, grey

62

64

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

28

Cotton grey drills

59

53

Cotton flannels, other than grey

Canada

352

48

45

+ 89

Cotton grey twill and sateen

45

49

7%

Clothing

172

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

96

Electrical machinery

1,058

772

+ 37%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

19

Transistorised radio receiving sets

472

329

+ 44%

Transistors and thermionic and electronic tubes and

valves

Australia

286

232

148

+ 57%

Footwear

295

271

+ 9%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

102

71

54

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles

133

130

+ 3%

Plastic footwear

62

56

+ 12%

Singapore

228

213

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

292

240

+ 22%

Domestic utensils of other metals

59

49

+21

Locks, padlocks and keys and key chains

49

44

+ 10

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

71

41

19

Domestic utensils of iron and steel, enamelled

44

41

Sweden

208

Other

Clothing

156

Handbags, wallets, purses and similar articles

103

Watches, complete

81

Prawns and shrimps, fresh or frozen

78

Electric torches

65

6438

87

+ 18

+ 75

Netherlands

166

122

53

46

Clothing

92

62

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

26

OFUM AMMAKAN 8287 2254 22 22 289

500

3%

+ 53% + 53%

+ 72%

+ 28%

232

+ 53%

+ 52%

+ 17

+ 51 +74

+ 65

+ 27%

+ 24% + 27%

+ 20

8%

+ 18%

+ 10% +25°

+ 19%

+ 7%

+ 6% +6

35

+ 37%

+ 37%

19

+ 37% + 55% + 37%

284

Commodity Pattern

1969 total value $2,679 million

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry Re-exports

XX

and Trade)

Principal Markets

1969 total value $2,679 million

285

% of all re-exports in

By country

% of all re-exports in

1969

1969

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of all re-exports in

1969

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

42%

16%

13%

Japan Singapore Indonesia

19%

Commonwealth Countries

25%

12%

Asia

67%

11%

Western Europe (including

11%

USA

8%

United Kingdom)

10%

9%

Taiwan

5%

North America

9%

6%

Republic of Vietnam

4%

Africa

5%

Belgium and Luxembourg

% increase

4%

1969

1968

or decrease

1969

1968

% increase

$ million $ million

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

1,122

909

+ 24%

Japan

503

352

+ 43%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

608

387

+ 57%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

183

120

+ 53%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

403

417

3%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

29

22

+ 29%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products. Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

87

75

+ 16%

48

27

+ 75%

Non-ferrous metals...

27

41

33%

Manufactures of metal, n.e.s.

23

18

+ 29%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof Crude animal and vegetable materials

Iron and steel

16

11

+ 55%

Fruit and vegetables

2220

36

19

+ 86%

23

17

+ 36%

15

+ 35%

Chemicals

420

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

210

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

59

Chemical elements and compounds

38

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

35

Chemical materials and products...

29

Essential oil and perfume materials

26

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

23

Miscellaneous manufactured articles ...

353

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

148

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

140

Clothing

47

༆༤༤༤༠བསླུ 8¥

+ 16%

Singapore

318

231

+ 38%

176

+ 19%

+ 6%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

69

-

5%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

64

42

+ 13%

Fruit and vegetables

41

31

18

+ 55%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

27

+ 29%

Electrical machinery

17

84

50

+ 39%

+ 51%

+ 32%

17 + 60%

4

+291%

+ 11%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

15

+-421%

Indonesia

+ 30%

288

114

+ 29%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-electric machinery

114

+ 52%

+ 10%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Transport equipment

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

Food and live animals

308

236

...

+ 30%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

103

59

+ 73%

USA

Fruit and vegetables

95

75

+ 27%

Fish and fish preparations

34

22

+ 54%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures Explosives and pyrotechnic products

165

Cereals and cereal preparations

26

31

16%

Taiwan

125

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

22

17

+ 36%

Machinery and transport equipment

239

143

+ 67%

Electrical machinery

Non-electric machinery

114

41

+175%

98

76

+ 29%

Transport equipment

27

26

+ 4%

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

157

143

+ 10%

Crude animal and vegetable materials

102

95

+ 6%

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels Textile fibres

16

17

5%

12

7

+ 75%

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Crude animal and vegetable materials

Republic of Vietnam

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-electric machinery

Belgium and Luxembourg

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

101

103

::

8 200 2022 E 28

336

14%

183

-

38%

21

7

+199%

17

12

+ 42%

15

15

+ 1%

12

+ 57%

137

+ 53%

104

+ 59%

18

14

+ 28%

19

100

18

+ 24%

+ 2%

13

6

+107%

12

13

10%

66

+ 53%

27

14

+ 93%

11

10

+ 7%

10

6

+ 71%

62

+ 65%

100

60

+ 65%

286

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past two years:

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

XXI

and Trade)

Direction

of Trade

Domestic

Exports

The principal markets during the past two years

for the Colony's exports were as follows:

287

Re-exports

The principal markets for the Colony's re-exports during the past two years were as follows:

1968

Japan

China

USA

$

2,716,769,524 3,484,033,713 2,429,419,409 2,699,985,374

1,727,059,469 2,002,375,159

1969

$

USA

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany...

United Kingdom

1,083,408,289

Federal Republic of Germany... Taiwan

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

Australia...

Thailand

Singapore

Belgium and Luxembourg

Pakistan

Brazil

France

Italy

Netherlands

Israel

...

Republic of South Africa

Republic of Korea

Iran

Indonesia

Canada

1,200,726,134

402,142,598 544,182,699 412,759,685 501,952,129 265,624,735 412,485,738

312,372,166 357,296,712 268,816,270 350,077,316

265,763,409 282,349,965

208,859,979 262,782,023 301,139,334 230,827,485 65,641,863 183,184,200

115,265,913 173,059,007

147,877,169 170,261,301

161,810,086 161,553,691

104,151,718 156,033,216

125,312,511 143,037,250

84,627,370 127,117,538

103,189,386 121,922,214 96,351,309 120,824,046

Japan

Canada

Australia

Singapore

Sweden

Netherlands

Republic of Vietnam

Republic of South Africa

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

New Zealand

Thailand

Indonesia

Denmark and Greenland

Taiwan

Malaya

Italy

Norway

Kuwait

100,545,301

103,401,617

France

India

Saudi Arabia and Yemen

Tanzania (Tanganyika)

Cambodia

Philippines

72,167,755 92,254,892

57,166,162 72,295,611

100,918,491 70,841,538 50,635,057 58,226,851 28,238,466 56,548,274

US Oceania

Belgium and Luxembourg

Panama

Venezuela

Philippines

Uganda

26,769,961

Denmark and Greenland

Macau

Other Countries...

39,194,916

48,901,761 45,517,748 548,647,233 607,969,556

50,664,521 49,230,189

Sabah

Mexico

Austria

Other Countries

Total

12,471,547,295 14,893,017,707

Total

:

1968 $

$

3,486,026,119 4,428,462,811 1,343,347,856 1,464,757,398 499,713,128 764,676,040 232,253,393 354,695,766 285,074,107 352,359,197 242,581,168 286,312,059 213,212,240 227,821,428

152,224,323 207,984,316

121,545,673 166,316,231

62,840,861 127,402,544

85,418,106 111,811,064

64,332,208 98,110,988

89,279,384 93,232,518

99,560,090 91,177,646 106,329,089 89,906,108

57,220,312 87,680,472 65,088,202 87,174,847

68,089,659 74,001,887

48,288,263 70,944,407

41,051,120 60,453,607

47,087,663 50,664,150 31,596,987 47,255,655

35,996,288 45,282,605

31,321,865 43,635,902

37,323,265 41,545,246 38,208,739 41,489,466

52,909,516 40,886,092 29,553,342 38,033,505

19,157,495 32,786,113

19,643,970 32,092,966

722,138,068 859,075,109

8,428,412,499 10,518,028,143

1969

1968

$

1969

$

Japan

351,972,190

Singapore

231,022,871

502,670,894 317,870,673

Indonesia

335,626,539 287,927,480

USA

Taiwan

Belgium and Luxembourg Republic of Vietnam Republic of Korea United Kingdom

Thailand ...

Philippines

Macau

Australia

136,940,950 208,862,371

100,138,919 124,594,225

62,160,871 102,866,291

65,762,245 100,688,871

61,853,525 97,551,614

63,529,146 71,797,948

56,325,983 63,725,025

71,433,700 62,369,193

60,927,790 61,768,773

49,060,088 49,794,506

Israel

Nigeria

31,220,166 49,564,011

44,288,454 48,640,340

Malaya

39,958,763 43,553,870

Switzerland and Liechtenstein.

19,240,372 36,799,746

Sabah

20,879,023 32,030,207

US Oceania

28,766,397 30,774,531

China

35,929,826 30,438,818

Canada

Ghana

Federal Republic of Germany.

Cambodia

Panama

21,517,506 24,260,123

20,168,582 23,751,110

16,956,495 22,502,617 24,687,767 22,380,362 21,422,435 21,604,252

Morocco

Netherlands

Republic of South Africa

Pakistan

France

Other Countries...

3,259,894 14,311,733

6,774,121 11,501,521

9,059,364 10,574,289

10,828,650

9,556,146

6,681,167

9,369,535

133,518,387

185,029,553

Total

2,141,912,186 2,679,130,628

288

India New Zealand

Singapore

Australia Britain

Canada Pakistan

***

Countries

Appendix XXII

Overseas Representation

I. Commonwealth Countries

Represented by

Commissioner Commissioner

Commissioner

II. Foreign Countries

Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner

Countries

Represented by

Argentina

Consul-General

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Cambodia

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Cuba

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

France

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Germany

Indonesia

Italy

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Japan

Korea

Mexico

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Netherlands

Consul-General

Norway

Consul-General

Panama

Consul-General

Peru

Consul-General

Philippines

Consul-General

Portugal

Consul-General

Republic of South Africa

Consul-General

Sweden

Consul-General

Switzerland

Thailand

United Arab Republic

United States of America

Uruguay

Vietnam

Venezuela

Greece

Israel

Bolivia

Consul

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Burma

Columbia

Costa Rica

Denmark

El Salvador

Finland

Guatemala

Honduras

Irish Republic Lebanon

Monaco Nicaragua

Spain

Honorary Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Vice-Consul

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident in

London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, Denmark, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade

Commissioners.

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Appendix XXIII

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Marketing Organisation Statistics

Fisheries Products sold through the Wholesale Markets Quantities and Values

289

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

891,820

53,939

63,422,927

846,892

51,221

64,205,249

958,241

57,956

72,864,447

1,178,974

71,306

91,052,177

1,269,800

76,799

111,295,765

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Fresh Fish

Salt/Dried Fish

$0.70

$0.85

.76

.70

.76

.85

.77

.90

.87

1.25

Vegetables sold through the Wholesale Markets

Quantities and Values

Locally-produced

Piculs

Metric Tons

1965

1,220,965

73,846

Value $ 34,454,322

1966

1,215,389

73,508

34,412,750

1967

1,305,015

78,929

39,588,234

1968

1,298,481

78,534

40,006,788

1969

1,213,756

73,410

45,920,730

Imported

1965

253,743

15,347

5,414,239

1966

296,615

17,940

6,286,024

1967

296,157

17,912

7,870,360

1968

296,653

17,942

8,388,743

1969

322,841

19,526

10,706,192

1965 1966

1967

1968

1969

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Locally-produced

Imported

$0.28

$0.21

.28

.21

.30

.27

.31

.28

.38

.33

290

Appendix XXIV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

as at December 31, 1969

Mem-

Num-

Paid-up

Societies

ber-

Share

ber

ship

Capital

Loans granted

Loans repaid*

Deposits

$

$

$

$

Rural Societies:

Federation of Vegetable

Marketing Societies...

1

+29

5,900

Vegetable Marketing

31

9,134

112,266

719,744

629,308

174,900

Federation of Pig

Raising Societies

1

+$39

950

60,000

60,772

Pig Raising

36

1,624

112,525

811,940

749,713

75,665

Agricultural Credit

12

Better Living

Farmers' Irrigation

2313

352

37,550

443,542

445,226

48,751

1,039

18,690

5,000

10,785

23,525

68

340

118

2,340

4,320

5,844

22,576

:

98 12,403

290,561

2,044,546

1,901,648

345,417

Thrift and Loan

Sub-total

Fishermen's Societies:

Federation of Fisher-

men's Credit Societies

Credit

Consumers

Better Living

Credit and Housing Fish Pond

Sub-total

Urban Societies:

Apartment Owners' Building/Housing Consumers

Salaried Workers'

:

61

452927

+54 1,604

5,275

31,240

5,564,541

5,092,349

2,817,942

97

3,980

589

10,280

1,900

110

670

68,500

3,678 116,080

144,973

70,403

1

118

590

79

2,572

52,035

5,634,941

5,212,107

3,033,318

སཧྨ

2

143

228

4,857

10,586 1,373,200

$3,500,611

6,287,288

9

2,472

14,085

Thrift and Loan

3 664

6,450

282,874

290,324

180,157

Sub-total

242 8,136

1,404,321

3,783,485

6,577,612

180,157

TOTAL

419 23,111

1,746,917

11,462,972

13,691,367

3,558,892

* Including repayment of loans issued during previous years.

† Members Societies.

Including 7 Agricultural Credit Societies.

§ Loans made by Treasury direct.

Appendix XXV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Production of Minerals 1969

Mineral

Production in long tons

Value in $

Feldspar

1,090.14

71,593

Graphite 72-80% fixed carbon

50% fixed carbon

134.80

86.70

21,433

6,936

Iron ore 56% Fe

163,324.92

6,451,334

Kaolin

4,341.45

543,670

Quartz

6,218.09

105,708

Wolframite 65% WO3

Government

Appendix XXVI

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

Number of Schools (As at September 1969)

Total Enrolment (As at September 1969)

291

Number of Teachers (As at March 1969)

5,301

134

137,994

Grant

22

21,703

866

Subsidised

669

473,211

12,304

Private

1,877

560,829

19,213

Special Afternoon

Classes

449

46

Special Education

28

2,115

156

2,730

1,196,301

37,886

Kindergarten

Primary

Enrolments

(Figures are shown as at September 30, 1969, with the previous year's figures in brackets)

Secondary ...

Post-Secondary

Adult Education

Special Education

:

:

:

:

Enrolment

112,774

( 92,952)

752,171

( 724,450)

264,056

( 253,458)

11,522

( 10,484)

53,663

( 50,329)

2,115 ( 1,368)

1,196,301

(1,133,041)

New Buildings, Classrooms and Places

October 1, 1968-September 30, 1969

Number of Schools and Extensions

Increase in Number of Classrooms Primary Secondary

Increase in Number of Places

Primary Secondary

Government

Aided

44

511

190

46,710

7,420

Private

4

77

720

3,520

48

511

267

47,430

10,940

292

Appendix XXVII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Educational Statistics

Overseas Examinations 1969

Entries

Examination

1967

1968

1969

University of London General Certificate of Education

11,277

11,767

12,980

University of London External Degree

119

132

99

London Chamber of Commerce

8,529

9,962

10,529

Pitman Shorthand

788

1,226

1,289

Pitman Typewriting

194

460

520

Pitman Single-Subject

204

164

Cambridge Diploma in English Studies

1

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English

109

128

37*

Cambridge Lower Certificate in English ...

54

55

26*

Institute of Bookkeepers

28

14

7*

...

Chartered Institute of Secretaries ...

190

234

133*

Association of International Accountants

657

1,003

533*

Association of Certified and Corporate Accountants

277

370

254*

Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers

15

12

10

Institute of Fire Engineers...

72

49

71

College of Preceptors

7

Commological Association

British Federation of Master Printers

Society of Engineers (Graduateship)

Institute of Export

The Australian Institute of Cartographers

Royal Society of Arts (Shorthand)

Institute of Company Accountants

4

13212

9

11

5

4

3

1

1

32

89

2

1

Queensland Agricultural College

1

Institute of Transport Association

1

West London College Ordinary National Diploma

Institute of Public Cleansing

10

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)

1,488

5,492

10 4,493*

The School of Mines and Industries Annual Examination

1

Canadian Scholastic Aptitude Test

1,206

Canadian English Language Achievement Test

1,206

Indian School Certificate Re-examination

1

Sydney University Deferred Examination

...

1

Total

23,832

31,185

33,686

* As at September 30, 1969.

New Awards made by Government during 1969

Type

Maintenance Grants

Commonwealth Scholarships

Tenable at

Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools Chinese Middle Schools

Number

Awarded

Total Value ($ per annum)

419

137,800

170

55,800

University of Hong Kong and The

Chinese University of Hong Kong ...

69,800

Total

263,400

Appendix XXVIII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Further Studies in the United Kingdom

Number of Hong Kong Students arriving in the United Kingdom:

1960-1

1961-2

1962-3

...

1963-4

1964-5

1965-6

1966-7

1967-8

1968-9 (1.10.68 to 30.9.69 inclusive) ...

...

293

434

479

***

568

750

889

...

1,161

...

1,248

1,176 938

Distribution of Course by Hong Kong Students in the United Kingdom:

September

September

Course

September

1967

1968

1969

Accountancy Architecture

***

:

59

72

98

60

39

***

27

Arts

42

48

43

Commerce

61

59

53

Dentistry

7

8

12

Economics

25

29

31

Education

44

43

33

Engineering

366

444

454

General Certificate of Education

856

1,308

1,329

Law

127

128

120

Medicine

126

115

121

Meteorology

Music

2

1

3

37

24

19

...

Nursing

Science

Secretarial

749

891

967

121

135

197

99

109

104

Social Science

Textiles

Others

...

14

17

17

16

29

25

::

228

315

292

3,039

3,814

3,945

School Children

1,061

741

578

4,100

4,555

4,523

294

Appendix XXIX

(Chapter 6: Education)

Actual Expenditure on Education

for period August 1, 1968-July 31, 1969

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Maintenance and Repairs of Schools

(B) Capital Expenditure:

Total $

$ 82,895,728 18,320,977

Buildings (Public Works Department) ... 1,677,131 102,893,836

(1) Equipment and Furniture for Government

Schools and Headquarters

(2) New School Buildings, including Furniture

and Equipment (Public Works Department)

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

(1) Grant Schools (i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(2) Subsidised Schools (i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(3) Private Schools

(i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

::

::

$

630,795

2,872,677

3,503,472

$ 18,857,057

480,713 19,337,770

$156,349,023

11,501,578 167,850,601

$ 8,851,046

2,190,869

11,041,915

(D) Grants to University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University

of Hong Kong:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(E) University Grants Committee:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Capital

$ 50,144,250

11,613,751 61,758,001

$

176,878

36,822

90,677

304,377

$366,689,972

(F) Expenditure by Other Departments:

(1) Medical and Health Department (2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(3) Agriculture and Fisheries Department

$ 4,321,520 357,982 129,178

$ 4,808,680

Appendix XXX

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics - Hong Kong

1960 - 1969

295

BIRTHS

DEATHS

Crude

Crude death

Infant

Estimated

Regis-

birth

mortality

Neo-natal Maternal mortality mortality

tered rate

Regis- rate

Year

mid-year population

live (per 1,000 births

tered (per

rate

rate

popula- tion)

deaths 1,000

(per 1,000

(per 1,000

live

popula-

tion)

births)

live births)

rate

(per 1,000 total births)

1960

1961

:

2,981,000 110,667 37.1

19,146 6.4

41.5

20.9

0.49

3,174,700* 108,726 34.2

18,738 5.9

37.7

21.0

0.45

1962

3,346,600* 111,905 33.4

20,324 6.1

36.9

21.2

0.48

1963

:

3,503,700* 115,263 32.9

19,748

56

5.6

32.9

18.9

0.29

1964

3,594,200* 108,519 30.2

18,113 5.0

26.4

16.6

0.38

1965

3,692,300* 102,195 27.7

17,621 4.8

23.7

15.2

0.33

1966

:

...

3,732,400 92,476 24.8

18,700 5.0

24.9

15.3

0.43

1967

***

3,834,000 88,171 23.0

19,644 5.1

25.6

15.9

0.30

1968

:

...

3,926,500 82,992 21.1

19,319 4.9

23.0

15.0

0.14

1969

...

3,987,500

79,329 19.9

18,730 4.7

21.8

14.9

0.15

* Figures adjusted after 1966 By-census.

Tuberculosis Statistics

TB death

Estimated

% TB

% TB deaths

Year

mid-year population

rate (per 100,000 population)

deaths

under 5

of total

years

deaths registered

Total number of TB

Under

treatment Government

beds

clinics

1958

... 2,748,000

83.77

19.63

11.20

1,765

20,678

1968

:

3,926,500

37.77

1.15

7.68

1,737

25,225

1969

3,987,500

36.87

0.95

7.85

1,852

25,012

296

Appendix XXXI

(Chapter 7: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths 1965-1969

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

Cholera

1

9

Amoebic

dysentery

173

16

220

24

154

21

117

12

85

7

Bacillary

dysentery

(including

unspecified

dysentery)

537

4

766

10

829

7

869

6

736

5

Cerebro-spinal

meningitis

19

10

7

55

16

22

32

14

23

4

Chickenpox

1,552

-

600

4

1,257

10

900

1

445

Diphtheria

581

37

307

27

226

18

113

10

62

10

Enteric fever

(typhoid and

para-typhoid)

658

14

686

728

11

552

8

546

7

*Leprosy

102

I

160

2

148

164

127

Malaria

143

1

127

65

2

19

Measles

5,459 217 2,360 384 4,726

654

1,138

རེ། །

11

46 994

21

Ophthalmia

neonatorum

215

-

203

191

www.

203

|

76

-

Poliomyelitis ...

140

17

32

1

5

3

15

2

16

3

Puerperal fever

3

2

2

2

1

1

1

I

1

1

Scarlet fever

12

I

37

64

8

1

4

Tuberculosis

9,927 1,278 11,427 1,515 15,253 1,493

9,792 1,483 11,072 1,470

Typhus (mite-

borne)

2

2

Whooping

cough

339

108

40

88

3

Total

19,862 1,595 17,048 1,983 23,742 2,240 14,001 1,583 14,210 1,528

†Influenza

896

21 1,220 30 4,923 25 8,493 45 3,232 14

Remarks: * Notifiable since June 1965.

↑ Voluntary Notifications.

         The above table omits rabies, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the year.

297

Appendix XXXII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1969

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

Institutions

A. Hospitals

Number of Hospital Beds

Castle Peak

**

1,242

Kowloon

Lai Chi Kok

Queen Elizabeth

Queen Mary

Sai Ying Pun

500

492

1,525

1,076

88

South Lantau

15

St John

100

Tang Shiu Kin

76

Tsan Yuk

241

6 Prison Hospitals

294

5,649

B. Dispensaries

Aberdeen

26

Anne Black

11

Castle Peak

24

Chai Wan

Cheung Sha Wan Ho Tung

Hung Hom

24

24

6

14

7

Kam Tin

Kennedy Town

Kwun Tong .

Lady Trench Polyclinic

Li Po Chun Health Centre

Lions Club Government MCH Centre

Maurine Grantham MCH Centre

North Lamma

Peng Chau

Robert Black Health Centre

28

22

26

6

28

Sai Kung

Sha Tin

Shau Kei Wan

Shek Wu Hui

Silver Mine Bay Stanley Tai O

Tai Po

Wang Tau Hom

Yuen Long

GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED HOSPITALS

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Caritas Medical Centre

7

24

26

31

6

6

19

27

26

32

493

350

850

Grantham

619

Haven of Hope TB Sanatorium

318

Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium

540

Hong Kong Society of Rehabilitation Kwun Tong Rehabilitation Centre

80

Kwong Wah

1,542

Maryknoll Mission

220

Nam Long

120

Pok Oi

162

Ruttonjee

Sanatorium

360

Sandy Bay Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home

200

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital

503

Tung Wah

673

Tung Wah Eastern ...

Wong Tai Sin Infirmary

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Adventist Sanatorium

Baptist Hospital

Canossa

Evengel Medical Centre

Fanling

Hong Kong Central

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

Matilda and War Memorial

Precious Blood

St Paul's

St Teresa's

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

PRIVATE NURSING HOMES

338

681

7,556

150

93

180

47

54

120

377

52

120

252

286

1,731

348

58

GRAND TOTAL

15,835

298

Appendix XXXIII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

as at December 31, 1969

Registered Medical Practitioners (including 432 Government Medical Officers) Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

Government Medical Officers (including 33 seconded to Tung Wah Group etc) Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dentists)

1,844

136

558

399

Government Dental Surgeons

68

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists) Government Pharmacists

145

18

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

3,027

Government Nurses

1,570

Registered Male Nurses (excluding Government Male Nurses)

50

Government Male Nurses

Government Midwives

Government Male Nurses (Psychiatric)

Government Female Nurses (Psychiatric)

213

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives)

2,482

247

118

69

Students or Probationers in Training

as at December 31, 1969

Number

Length of

Course

1st 2nd 3rd 4th year year year year

+

who successfully completed training during year

Student Radiographer {(Diagnostic)

3

10

12

6

6

(Therapy)

3

6

1

1

1

Student Physiotherapist

3

14

13

8

2

Student Dispenser

4

16

11

9

11

3

4

2

5

3

Student Laboratory Assistant

4

4

1

Student Medical Laboratory Technician

4*

23

21

11

2

Student Male Nurse (General)

3

23

27

10

15

Student Nurse (General)

3

127

150

155

98

Student Male Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

17

7

30

18

Student Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

11

14

25

2

Student Midwife (Registered Nurse)

1

147

136

Student Midwife (Non-Registered Nurse)

2

22

24

19

Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

2

13

7

22

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

2

39

5

67

Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

2

7

13

14

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

2

19

17

Student Health Visitor

1

10

-

Male Student Health Auxiliary

2

8

8

Student Health Auxiliary

2

6

12

13

Medical Social Worker

1

15

4

Student Assistant Orthopaedic Appliance

Technician

4

3

1

1

* With effect from February 1969 the training period was reduced to three years.

299

A. Population

Appendix XXXIV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Resettlement Estate Statistics

Cottage Areas (one storey

January 1, 1969 December 31, 1969

57,568

buildings)

67,948

Multi-storey Estates (6-7-8- and

16-storey buildings)

...

1,024,624

1,071,129

1,092,572

1,128,697

B. Premises of various types on December 31, 1969

(The number on December 31, 1968 are shown in brackets)

Domestic cottages and huts

Self-contained flats...

:

Cottage Areas Multi-storey Estate

9,397 (10,805)

467 ( 467)

End bay flats

Domestic rooms

Shops of various kinds

:

Restaurants (general and light

refreshment)

Workshops

Factories

...

:

2,292 (2,292)

200,777 (190,330)

277 (283)

8,281 ( 7,136)

:

6 (

6)

552* (

519)

59 ( 72)

1,615 ( 1,448)

19 (

25)

1,901 ( 1,789)

Schools

35 (

40)

314 (

305)

Clinics and Welfare Centres

29 ( 33)

234 (

234)

* Including 6 annexe general restaurants.

300

Appendix XXXV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Housing as at March 31, 1969

(Extract from Appendix C of the Housing Board Report for 1968-9)

Increase/ Decrease

Persons

Domestic units

accom-

over

modated

31.3.68

Permanent

Housing Authority

27,400

163,500

10,200

Housing Society

17,400

109,400 (note)

15,100

Government low cost housing

24,500

130,300

27,000

Resettlement estates and cottage

areas

216,600

1,098,100

57,900

Government quarters

12,500

60,800 (note)

18,100

Residual (mainly private)

323,400

1,608,400

66,400

Temporary

Squatters (urban).

67,500

352,300

- 19,800

Squatters (New Territories)

39,800

155,000

- 32,000

Occupants of licensed/resite areas

6,500

33,600

600

Permittees

34,200

159,000

10,400

Marine

21,400

102,800

791,200

3,973,200

66,700

Note:

The reduced numbers are mainly due to more accurate survey information available to the Housing Board.

Premiums received on sales of Crown Land

from 1851 to 1969

      The system of disposing of leasehold land by public auction for a premium began in 1851 in accordance with the Secretary of State's Despatch No 222 of January 2, 1851. Where premiums are payable by instalments, only the amounts actually received have been included in the annual totals.

Period

1851

1901

1921

1900 (50 years)

1920 (20 years)

1941 (25.12.41)

1946-7 - 1955-6 (10 years)

1956-7 1960-1 (5 years)

1961-2 (1 year)

1962-3 (1 year)

1963-4 (1 year)

1964-5 (1 year)

1965-6 (1 year)

1966-7 (1 year) 1967-8 (1 year) 1968-9 (1 year)

:

:

Total 4,223,058.44

5,655,048.87

29,989,868.03

67,617,711,64

177,375,655.35

107,225,301.38

234,402,780.18

207,157,985.13

143,295,983.24

75,859,685.12

50,623,349.27

43,785,984.08

43,757,254.32

$1,190,869,665.05

Appendix XXXVI

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic

Comparative figures for the six calendar years are as follows:

Fatal

Serious injury

Slight injury

Accidents

301

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

P

263

268

264

284

333

314

:

:

:

2,581

2,624 3,065

3,556

3,759

3,970

6,348 5,975

5,732

6,108

5,843

5,891

Total

9,192 8,867 9,061 9,948 9,935

10,175

Number of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Number of registered vehicles

Number of licensed drivers

Provisional (Learner) licences

issued

Driving tests conducted

83,091 87,768 92,966 99,444 109,736 125,596*

160,152 176,340 197,180 227,093 250,948 291,486

38,810 31,393 29,664 48,286 55,274 63,178

97,088 110,594 126,147 160,146 178,265 207,966†

* This number does not include 804 rickshaws, and 732 pedal tricycles.

†This number includes written test, the number of practical tests conducted is 152,006.

302

Appendix

XXXVII

(Chapter 10:

Public Order)

Serious Crime & Narcotic

Offences in 1969

303

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Reported

Prosecuted

Reported

Crime

1969

1968

1969

Crime

1969

1968

Under

16 years

Under

16 years

and over

16 years

Prosecuted 1969

and over

16 years

Against Public Order Perjury

Escape and Rescue

Unlawful Society

Other Offences Against Lawful

Authority

53

80

162

58

65

23

183

Forgery and Coinage

266

535

1

66

Bribery and Corruption

113

14

110

46

10

70

Possession of Arms and Ammunition

46

12

530

282

19

448

Conspiracy

23

18

...

Breach of Deportation

13

8

36

43

:

223

Other Crime

207

280

228

71

58

49

54

12

89

Total

668

867

3

333

Total

809

598

52

789

Serious Narcotic Offence

838

225

5

950

Rape and Indecent Assault

427

274

25

113

Grand Total

Other Sexual Offences ...

326

211

13

163

25,488 23,299 1,364 11,596

(Percentages of Crime Detected: 1968-75.6%; 1969-75.6%).

Total

753

485

38

276

NARCOTIC OFFENCES

Murder and Manslaughter

55

50

Attempted Murder

2

2

Serious Assaults

1,266

1,060

63

Abortion

|

7

9-81

54

6

*Manufacturing Dangerous Drugs

5

3

964

Kidnapping

Criminal Intimidation

Other Offences Against the Person

Total

Robbery with Firearms

2

34

36

137

146

21

28

*Importing Dangerous Drugs *Dealing in Dangerous Drugs *Possession of Large Quantities of

Dangerous Drugs

1

3

73

153

1

716

87

759

66

4

855

...

59

:

:

Opium

Possession of Opium ...

1,542

1,350

1,309

1,494

1,303

76

1,111

Possession of Equipment

142

227

50

Keeping a Divan

38

78

38

4

2

Smoking Opium

2,137

1,846

2,175

Other Robberies

Demanding with Menaces

2,323

1,801

246

985

Other Opium Offences

15

18

5

393

354

34

134

Heroin

Burglary and Breaking Offences

Larceny from Person

Other Larcenies

---

Embezzlement and Fraudulent

Conversion

Fraud and False Pretences

Receiving Stolen Property

1,506

1,556

49

375

Possession of Heroin ...

9,220

10,077

29

7,478

1,543

1,569

75

641

Possession of Equipment

112

85

58

8,919 8,931

662

2,636

Keeping a Divan

3

11

3

A

Smoking Heroin

1,674

2,019

3

1,489

:

464

735

3

779

651

4

228

56

85

2

225

74

Other Heroin Offences

102

36

5

37

Other Dangerous Drugs

Malicious Injuries to Property

194

212

9

103

Possession

750

1,165

302

Unlawful Possession

504

634

Smoking

27

10

30

379

Other Offences

11

1

22=

25

11

Possession of Unlawful Instrument

1,700

1,146

40

195

Loitering and Trespass

2,541

2,147

36

2,348

Total

16,611

17,148

37

13,898

Total

20,926

19,821

1,190

8,137

*These offences are classified as Crime and are also shown under Serious Narcotic Offence.

304

Marine

Appendix

(Chapter 13: Communication

for the year ending

Mechanised vessels under

XXXVIII Communications) Statistics

December 31, 1969

Passenger Journeys by Public Transport: Annual

Traffic by Undertakings (Millions)

305

Ocean- going

River

steamers

Junks

300 tons

1959

1960*

Passengers carried

Passenger kilometres

Freight carried (in metric tons)

Total revenue

Vessels entered Tonnage entered Passengers landed* Cargo tons landed

Vessels cleared Tonnage cleared

Passengers embarked

Cargo tons loaded

* Includes 365 Emigrants.

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section*

Length of line

Main points of call...

Main line-22 miles

Total length of line-38 miles

New Territories (Hong Kong)

9,992,889

181,186,237

885,215.8

$15,660,307.58

6,816

10,674

22,277,138

2,660,267

8,347 1,298,995

4,719

1961

379,900

1962

23,410 8,431,358 6,793 22,386,558

1,142,472

1963

14,163 10,656

22,105 2,804,708

2,651,670 1,126,202

833,568 8,373 1,318,019

376,115

1964*

4,648

1965

1966

370,287

1967

1968*

6,027

139,818

1,324

1969

Total

KMB CMB HKT HYF 721.332 322.077 87.180 172.763 97.186 37.039 809.447 380.712 106.288 175.332 101.983 39.384 890.716 435.515 120.120 180.585 106.765 974.777 481.569 134.196 189.000 1,032.576 515.172 143.026 190.920

546.579 1,090.195

158.209 182.454 144.611 1,162.710 593.221 169.256 181.767 155.499 1,237.516 643.120 186.561 181,589 161.180 56.332 1,054.590 515.539 169.151 154.117 158.524 48.625 1,196.631 610.752 201.107 157.995 166.830 1,225.837 611.463 212.879 162.052 174.407

* February figure is adjusted to 28 days.

SFC

KCR

5.087

5.748

41.864

5.867

117.228

46.630

6.154

126.990

49.196

7.272

50.460

7.882

54.491

8.476

8.734

8.634

50.986

55.819

8.961 9.217

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas (Millions)

1959

1960*

1961

1962

1963

1964*

(9,638,651)

1965

(167,784,640)

1966

(

810,404.6)

1967

986.046

($14,852,737.54)

1968*

1,196.631

1,119.582

Net operating revenue

Capital expenditure

$

$ 5,157,657.18 338,217.26

($ 4,536,324.03)

1969

1,225.837 1,146.340

Urban

HK Total

Kowloon Area

Island 721.332 689.942 259.943 298.352 809.447 772.756 281.620 353.155 137.981 36.691 890.716 840.066 300.705 394.500 144.861 50.650 974.777 913.101 323.196 430.678 159.227 61.676 1,032.576 961.483 333.946 456.698 170.839 71.093 1,090.195 1,007.695 340.663 478.123 188.909 82.500 1,162.710 1,072.985 351.023 518.924 203.038 89.725 368.150 568.817 210.239 90.310 1,237.516 1,147.206

323.268 462.559 200.219 1,054.590

68.544 359.102 549.892 210.588 77.049 222.704 79.497

Cross

New

Harbour Territories

131.647 31.390

374.931 548.705

($

294,583.79)

(*)

Figures for 1968 are shown in brackets.

February figure is adjusted to 28 days.

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas

(Index Numbers: Base 1959=100)

Urban

HK

Cross

New

Air Traffic

Total

Kowloon

Area

Island

Harbour Territories

1959

100

100

100

100

100

100

1960

112

112

108

118

105

117

In

% increase

Out

1961

123

122

116

132

110

161

over 1968

1962

135

132

124

144

121

196

Aircraft

Passengers

Freight (kilos)

Mail (kilos)

19,269 930,776 13,946,536 1,352,636

19,266 964,329 37,075,574

+ 14.9%

1963

143

139

128

153

130

226

+ 31.4%

1964

151

146

131

160

143

263

1965

161

156

135

174

154

286

+ 39.6%

2,032,291

+ 8.8%

1966

172

166

142

191

160

288

1967

146

143

124

155

152

218

1968

166

162

138

184

160

245

1969

170

166

144

184

169

253

Private Cars

Motor Cycles

Motor Tricycles

Taxis

Vehicles

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on December 31, 1969 was 127,132. This represented an overall increase of 15,860 over 1968. There is now a density of 214.4 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Value of remittance business (Money Orders and Postal Orders issued

and paid)

Tons of mail despatched by air

Bags conveyed by Kowloon-Canton Railway

Postal Traffic

1968

1969

Number of post offices

54

57

Total revenue

$117.6 m

$138.9 m

$ 61.7 m

Buses

Public Light Buses

Private Light Buses

Goods Vehicles

Public Cars

Crown Vehicles

Rickshaws

Pedal Tricycles

Trailers

Total

:

:

80,209

1,822 320,715

12,922

113

Telephone and Telegraph

1968

1969

3,428

Telegrams accepted for transmission

1,367,214

1,413,037

2,365

Telegrams received

1,531,479

1,666,786

3,458

Telegrams handled in transit

1,068,764

1,186,450

1,088

Telex calls-outward minutes

730,807

1,389,451

18,017

Telex calls-inward minutes

794,505

1,019,641

851

International telephone calls-outward minutes

2,274,806

2,908,317

2,913

International telephone calls-inward minutes

3,019,885

3,587,038

804

Pictures transmitted

3,022

3,401

732

Pictures received

17,629

17,260

232

Harbourphone calls

867,110

978,087

Press broadcasts and reception services-number of hours

22,835

16,800

127,132

Meteorological broadcasts and reception services-number of hours Inland telegrams

79,921

89,406

6,467

8,783

$ 69.1 m

1,995 374,560

306

Appendix XXXIX

(Chapter 14: Press, Broadcasting and Cinema)

Leading Newspapers and Magazines

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Monthly

Daily

South China Morning Post

Far East Builder

Hong Kong Standard

(including Sundays)

China Mail

The Star

(including Sundays)

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Asian Weekend

Far Eastern Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

Asia Magazine

Hong Kong Telegraph

Daily (Morning Papers)

Far East Engineer

Far East Medical Journal Asian Industry

Young Hong Kong Reader's Digest (Asia Edition)

CHINESE LANGUAGE

Alternate Days

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

Tien Wen Toi

(Observatory Review)

Fai Po (Express)

Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao (Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Po

Chiu Yin Pao

Sin Sang Yat Po (Gentlemen Daily News)

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Ching Po Daily

Weekly

Kung Kao Pao

Tung Fung (East Pictorial) Châu Mut Pao

(Week-end News)

Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom) Chinese Student Weekly Economic Reporter

Tin Tin Yat Po

Ming Tang Yat Po

Ming Pao

Hong Kong Daily News

     Wah Sing Pao Daily Pictorial

Yuet Wah Daily News

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao (New Evening Post)

Chan Pao (Truth Daily)

New Life Evening Post

Seng Weng Evening News

Cheng Wu Pao

Nam Wah Man Pao

World Evening Express

The Star (Chinese Edition)

Every 10 days

Kar Ting Sang Wood

(Home Life Journal)

Fortnightly

Children's Paradise

Monthly

Cosmorama Magazine Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial) Sing Tao Pictorial

Woman Today

Reader's Digest

(Chinese Edition)

307

Appendix XL

(Chapter 17: Recreation)

Some Trends in Recreation and Amenities Development

Number of acres of public open space

administered by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department

Number of recreational facilities managed by the Urban Council and Urban Services Department in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories as at:

30.9.57 30.9.62 30.9.66 30.9.67 31.12.68 31.12.69

Facilities

Children's playgrounds

Parks and gardens

Active recreation facilities, including games

pitches, tennis courts, running tracks,

beaches and swimming pools

259

610

1,099

1,177 1,251

1,347

9

41

101

133

185

217

16

121

220

251

283

307

20

70

25

156

267

318

392

461

Service facilities, including car parks,

pavilions, changing, camping, picnicking and refreshment facilities

122

241

338

313

323

362

Appendix XLI

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate)

Climatological Summary 1969

Air Temperature

Wind

Pres- sure at Mean

Abs Mean Sea Level Max Max

Mean

Mean Abs Min Min

Rela- Dew tive Point Hu-

midity

Amount

Sun-

Rain- Pre-

of Cloud

shine

fall

vail-

Mean

ing

direc-

Speed

tion

milli- bars

°C °C °C °C °C

°C

% % hours

mm points knots

January 1016.6 26.7 19.5 16.9

15.2

8.7

14.2 84

February

17.9 24.7 16.9 14.4

12.3

4.0

11.0 81

March

16.6 27.2 19.9 16.9

14.8

11.2

13.8 83

April

May

June

14.3 29.6 24.3 21.1 08.3 32.5 29.7 26.7 06.4 33.7 29.9 27.1

18.8 9.9 17.7 82

24.4 21.9 23.2 81

July

August

25.3 23.1 23.9 84 04.9 33.8 31.9 29.0 26.6 23.7 25.4 81 07.5 33.3 31.8 28.7 26.5 23.8 24.8 80 September 07.2 34.7 32.1 29.0 26.7 23.6 23.3 72 October 14.0 30.2 27.9 25.2 23.1 21.8 18.7 68 November 18.8 28.6 23.9 20.6 18.0 12.5 December 21.4 25.0 20.6| 16.9 14.0

12.9 62 9.6 8.5 60

88822KEGA

89

54.2 68.3 E

74.6 24.2 E

78.6

86.7

138.5 150,4

72

57

47

184.7 209.8 148.9 400.7 217.1 434.8 55 271.0 338.9 221.6 215.1

105.5

75.7

42

232.0

0.5

DIDOLSILLO

3.9

5.8

7.5

6.9

6.6

5.2

5.7

3.5

3.3

6.0

5.9

236.3 Trace

8.2

Mean,

total or

extreme

for year 1012.8 34.7 25.7 22.7 20.5

4.0 18.1 77

64

2072.6 1895.5 E

5.7

(Sept 9)

(Feb 5)

Normal or

extreme 1012.6 36.1 24.9 22.3 20.2

(Aug

0.0 18.5 79 (Jan

68

1963.1 2168.8 E

7.9

19,

18,

1900)

1893)

308

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1970

Appendix XLII

(Chapter 22: Constitution

and Administration)

The Executive Council

Remarks

Type of appointment

Names of Members

Remarks

on January 1, 1970

309

(Presided over by His Excellency the Governor)

Sir Hugh (Selby) NORMAN-WALKER, KCMG, OBE, JP, assumed the office of Acting Governor during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

Ex officio

"

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander British Commodore Philip Roger Canning

Forces

Lieutenant-General Sir Basil Oscar

Paul EUGSTER, KCVO, CB, CBE, DSO, MC

HIGHAM appointed to act as Com- mander British Forces from 21.4.69 to 1.5.69, 11.5.69 to 31.5.69, 6.8.69 to 23.8.69 and from 14.9.69 to 22.10.69.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary Mr Geoffrey Cadzow HAMILTON, CBE,

Sir Hugh (Selby) NORMAN-WALKER,

KCMG, OBE, JP

JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 23.1.69 to 28.3.69.

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

*"

The_Honourable the Attorney_General Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP,

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS,

CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for Home

Affairs Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG,

CBE, MC, ED, JP

appointed to act as Attorney General from 14.7.69 to 17.9.69.

Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 13.6.69 to 16.8.69 and from 13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

The Honourable the Financial Secretary Sir John (James) CowPERTHWAITE,

KBE, CMG, JP

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-CAVE, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 9.4.69 to 12.4.69, 19.6.69 to 9.8.69 and from 19.9.69 to 29.9.69.

Nominated

Dr The Honourable TENG Pin-hui,

CMG, OBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

Nominated

"

"

"

22

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable Sir Albert RODRIGUES,

CBE, ED, JP

The Honourable Sir Cho-yiu KWAN,

CBE, JP

The Honourable John Douglas

CLAGUE, CBE, MC, QPM, TD, JP

The Honourable FUNG Ping-fan,

CBE, JP

The Honourable Sidney Samuel

GORDON, CBE, JP

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE, JP

The Honourable John Anthony Holt

SAUNDERS, DSO, MC, JP

The Honourable TANG Ping-yuan,

OBE, JP

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appoint- ed provisionally during the absence of Sir Cho-yiu KWAN from 5.3.69 to 22.3.69 and from 17.7.69 to 28.8.69.

Mr Herbert John Charles BROWNE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 20.6.69 to 12.9.69.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 15.9.69 to 25.9.69.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 24.3.69 to 16.4.69 and from 8.9.69 to 15.10.69.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr GORDON from 23.6.69 to 15.8.69.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 17.5.69 to 12.6.69.

Mr Michael Alexander Robert HERRIES, OBE, MC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 23.6.69 to 5.8.69 (5 p.m.).

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 2.11.69 to 13.11.69 and from 17.11.69 to 27.11.69.

Mr SZETO Wai, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TANG from 25.8.69 to 7.10.69.

310

Type of appointment

Names of Members

on January 1, 1970

Appendix XLIII

(Chapter 22: Constitution

and Administration)

The Legislative Council

Remarks

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1970

Remarks

311

Ex officio

..

Nominated

"

"

"

PRESIDENT:

His Excellency the Governor

Sir David (Clive Crosbie) TRENCH,

GCMG, MC

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Sir Hugh (Selby) NORMAN-WALKER, KCMG, OBE, JP, assumed the office of Acting Governor during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary | Mr Geoffrey Cadzow HAMILTON, CBE,

Sir Hugh (Selby) Norman-WALKER,

KCMG, OBE, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil Roberts,

CBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for

Home Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG,

CBE, MC, ED, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Sir John (James) COWPERTHWAITE,

KBE, CMG, JP

Dr the Honourable TENG Pin-hui,

CMG, OBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

The Honourable Robert Marshall

HETHERINGTON, DFC, JP (Commissioner of Labour)

The Honourable Terence Dare SORBY, JP (Director of Commerce and Industry)

JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 23.1.69 to 28.3.69. Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG, CBE, MC, ED, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General from 14.7.69 to 17.9.69.

Mr Paul Tsur Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Home Affairs from 13.6.69 to 16.8.69 and from 13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

Mr Charles Philip HADDON-Cave, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 9.4.69 to 12.4.69, 19.6.69 to 9.8.69 and from 19.9.69 to 29.9.69.

Mr Arthur Patrick RICHARDSON, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr HETHERINGTON from 3.5.69 to 20.9.69.

Mr David Harold JORDAN, MBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SORBY from 8.4.69 to 8.9.69.

The Honourable David Richard Watson Mr Brian Denis WILSON, JP, appointed

ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

(Director of Urban Services)

The Honourable George Tippett

Rowe, JP

(Director of Social Welfare)

The Honourable Donald Collin Cumyn

LUDDINGTON, JP

(District Commissioner, New

Territories)

The Honourable James Jeavons

ROBSON, JP

(Director of Public Works)

The Honourable John CANNING, JP

(Director of Education)

provisionally during the absence of Mr ALEXANDER from 19.7.69 to 29.8.69.

Succeeded Mr Kenneth

Strathmore

KINGHORN, CBE, on 23.4.69.

Succeeded Mr Alec Michael John

WRIGHT, CMG, on 29.3.69.

Succeeded Mr William David GREGG,

CBE, on 7.6.69.

Nominated

身穿

114

""

*

"

"

+9

59

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE, JP

The Honourable FUNG Hon-chu,

OBE, JP

The Honourable TSE Yu-chuen,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Kenneth Albert

WATSON, OBE, JP

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen,

OBE, JP

The Honourable SZETO Wai, OBE, JP

Mr ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 19.5.69 to 12.6.69.

Mr Oswald Victor CHEUNG, QC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr WATSON from 14.5.69 to 24.10.69.

Mr ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SZETO from 18.4.69 to 17.5.69.

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Sien-bing, OBE, JP

The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui,

OBE, JP

Mr ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP, continued to act provisionally during the absence of Mrs Li to 5.1.69.

Mr Oswald Victor CHEUNG, QC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mrs Li from 12.12.69.

The Honourable Wilson WANG

Tze-sam, JP

The Honourable Herbert John

Charles BROWNE, JP

Mr Oswald Victor CHEUNG, QC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr BROWNE to 27.1.69.

Mr Gerald Mordaunt Broome Salmon, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr BROWNE from 20.12.69.

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Michael Alexander Robert HERRIES, OBE, MC, JP

Mr Gerald Mordaunt Broome SALMON, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr HERRIES from 15.9.69 to 7.11.69.

The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, OBE, JP |Mr ANN Tse-kai, OBE, JP, appointed

provisionally during the absence of Mr LEE from 1.7.69 to 26.7.69.

312

Type of appointment

Appendix XLIV

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1970

Remarks

CHAIRMAN:

Ex officio

"

""

The Director of Urban Services

The Honourable David Richard

Watson ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Vice-Chairman

Deputy Director of Medical and

Health Services

Dr Edward Noel Frazer BROWNE

The Honourable the Secretary for

Home Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CMG,

CBE, MC, ED, JP

The Director of Public Works

The Honourable James Jeavons

ROBSON, JP

The Director of Social Welfare

The Honourable George Tippett

ROWE, JP

The Commissioner for Resettlement

Mr John Philip Aserappa, JP

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE,

QC, JP

Elected

;,

Mr Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, JP

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT

"

"

Mr Solomon RAFEEK, BEM

Mr Brian Denis WILSON, JP, appointed as Chairman during the absence of Mr ALEXANDER from 17.7.69 to 28.8.69.

Succeeded Dr CHEUNG King-ho on

15.12.69.

Mr Paul TSUI Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, acted as Secretary for Home Affairs from 13.6.69 to 16.8.69. and from

13.10.69 to 13.12.69.

Succeeded Mr Alec Michael John

WRIGHT, CMG, JP, on 28.3.69.

Mr Lawrence Edwin Arthur HOLT- KENTWELL, MBE, JP, acted as Director of Social Welfare from 27.7.69 to 12.9.69.

from

Mr Peter BISHOP, JP, acted as Com-

missioner for Resettlement 29.3.69 to 7.5.69.

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa

+7

Mr Woo Po-shing

99

Mr Raymond KAN Yat-kum

"

Nominated

Mr Peter CHAN Chi-kwan

Mr Henry WONG

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira SALES,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Wilson WANG

Tze-sam, JP

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE, JP

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, JP

">

19

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, JP

22

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP

Mr Derek John Renshaw BLAKER, JP

$9

""

Mr James Wu Man-hon, JP

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun

"

Mrs Catherine Joyce SYMONS, JP

Succeeded the Honourable Ellen Li

Shu-pui, OBE, JP, resigned on 27.3.69.

Appendix XLV

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal 1965-9

313

Supreme Court

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Civil appeals

78

59

52

36

47

Criminal appeals ...

585

612

711

758

912

Original jurisdiction

2,917

2,493

1,983

1,651

1,642

Miscellaneous proceedings

522

487

316

296

246

Adoptions

89

160

134

224

292

Divorce

82

136

164

144

222

Criminal sessions

65

65

64

51

53

Admiralty jurisdiction

14

16

62

31

30

Probate grants

939

989

1,080

1,101

1,240

Lunacy

2

2

Bankruptcy

44

26

26

Company winding-up

Total

19

28

:

5,356

5,073

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

216

215

Civil jurisdiction...

10,962

12,890

Workmen's compensation

214

250

Distress for rent

1,119

1,362

Total ...

12,511

14,717

123

18,892

158

175

1,314

1,255

20,487

17,179

305

15,444

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

796

749

580

702

759

Exemption cases

83

24

18

13

62

Demolished building cases

272

286

173

164

132

Total ...

1,151

1,059

771

879

953

བཉྫུ།། ༞ཥྞཱིཀྐཎྜཙྪི།

2

11

10

26

21

4,331

4,715

Work in the Magistracies for the Years 1965-9

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

Total number of summary matters (charges, summonses and appli- cations, etc)

Total number of adult defendants

361,811 399,907 338,666 412,960

316,177 441,461 478,711 342,101 435,120 486,753

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

322,516

384,620 310,668

399,685

445,211

Total number of juvenile defendants Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

16,281

12,325

9,368

12,711

9,587

...

16,127

12,072

9,111

12,539

9,077

Total number of charge sheets issued Total number of summonses issued Total number of miscellaneous

proceedings issued

145,277

155,311

113,451

161,785

175,498

184,221

236,123

199,136

274,332

295,915

5,204

4,800

3,590

5,344

7,298

314

Appendix XLVI

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Member Agencies

1. American Women's Association of Hong 42. Hong Kong Life Guard Club

Kong

2. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

3. CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

4. Canossian Mission (Welfare Services) 5. Caritas Hong Kong

          6. Catholic Relief Services-USCC 7. Catholic Women's League

8. Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare

Advancement Association

           9. The Cheshire Home 10. Children's Meals Society

11. Children's Playgrounds Association

12. Christian Children's Fund, Inc 13. Christian Family Service Centre

14. Church of Christ in China, Hong Kong

Council, Social Welfare Department

15. Conference Board of Christian Social

Concerns of the Methodist Church

16. Convent of Good Shepherd

17. Diocesan Welfare Council of the Diocese

of Hong Kong and Macau

18. Duke of Edinburgh's Award

19. Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind 20. The Endeavourers

21. Evangel Children's Home

22. Family Planning Association of Hong

Kong

23. Five District Business Welfare Association

24. Foster Parents' Plan, Inc

25. Girl Guides' Association

26. Hans Andersen Club

27. Heep Hong Club

28. Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel 29. Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society 30. Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and

Thoracic Disease Association

31. Hong Kong Catholic Social Welfare

Conference

32. Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council 33. Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club 34. Hong Kong Council of the Boys' Brigade 35. Hong Kong Council of Women 36. Hong Kong Christian Service

37. Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid

Society

38. Hong Kong Family Welfare Society 39. Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups 40. Hong Kong Housing Society 41. Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

43. Hong Kong Red Cross

44. Hong Kong Red Swastika

45. Hong Kong School for the Deaf

46. Hong Kong Sea School

47. Hong Kong Social Workers' Association 48. Hong Kong Society for the Blind

49. Hong Kong Society for the Protection of

Children

50. Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation 51. Hong Kong University Social Service Group 52. International Rescue Committee

53. International Social Service

54. Junk Bay Medical Relief Council 55. The Leprosy Mission

56. Lutheran World Service

57. Maryknoll Sisters

58. Mennonite Central Committee

59. The Methodist Women's Association

60. Neighbourhood Advice Council

61.

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation

Association

62. North Point Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

63.

64.

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief Po Leung Kuk

65. Project Concern, Inc

66. Rennies Mill Student Aid Project

67. Resettlement Estates Loan Association 68. The Salvation Army

69. Save the Children Fund

70. Scouts Association

71. Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese

Methodist Church

72. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of

Drug Addicts

73.

74.

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children Society of Boys' Centre

75. Society of St Vencent de Paul

76. Spastics Association of Hong Kong

77. St James' Settlement

78. St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

79.

80. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals 81. World Council of Churches

82. World Vision, Inc

83. Yang Memorial Social Service Centre 84. YMCA (Chinese Speaking)

85. YMCA (English Speaking)

86. YWCA

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

Index

Abattoirs, 111

Aberdeen, 22, 218, 223 Accidents, industrial, 254-6 Administration, Government,

234-46 Adoption, 135

Adult education, 89-90

Advisory Committees, 178, 240 Aero Club of Hong Kong, 169 Agriculture, 68-72`

policy and administration, 69 Air Pollution Control Unit, 34 Air traffic, 149, 168, 304-5 Aircraft engineering, 51, 169 Airport, 38, 149, 157, 167-9

loan, 38

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Hospital, 104

Aliens, 149

Ambulance service, 147 Anglican Church, 195 Animal industries, 72-3 Apprentices, 20, 25, 28-9 Archaeology, 202, 223 Armed Services, 36, 187-90 Art Collections, 201-2 Art in schools, 91-2

Arts, the, 200

Asian Development Bank, 49

Index

Asian Productivity Organisation, 15,

49, 63

Assets and liabilities, 38-9, 257-75 Auxiliary Fire Service, 191

Auxiliary Forces, 190

Auxiliary Medical Service, 191

Aviation, 167-9

Banks, 13, 17, 36, 46-7

Banking, 257-75

Banknotes, 44, 257-75

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 66-7

Baptist Church, 195

Basle Agreement, 45

Bathing and beaches, 199

Bauhinia Blakeana, 221

BCG vaccine, 97

Benelux Countries, the, 56 Bets and Sweeps Tax, 43 Bibliography, see footnote to this

Index

Birds, 219

Birth and death registration, 216 Black, Sir Robert, College, 88

Blake, Sir Henry, 227 Blood banks, 104 Bonds, 45

Border, 12, 169 Botany, 222

Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 134 Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association,

135 British-

Council, 204-5

Government, 234, 239 Red Cross Society, 104 Broadcasting, 180-1 Broadcasting House, 180 Bruce, Sir Frederick, 227 Buddhism, 192-4

Budget, 17, 36-9, 257-75 Building-

Authority, 119 development, 115, 156 Ordinance, 121

Bus services, 173-4 Business registration, 43 By-Census, 255-7

Cable and Wireless Ltd, 177 Cantonese, 94, 214-5

Car parks, 172

Cargo tonnages, 166, 304-5 Caritas, 104

Castle Peak, new town, 115, 161-2 Castle Peak Hospital, 101

Cathay Pacific, 169

Catholic Church, 195-6

Cattle, 72

Census, 214

Centre of Asian Studies, 93

Certificates of Origin, 58-9 Chai Wan, 22

Chater Collection, 201

Chemist, Government, 104

Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 164 Chi Ma Wan Prison, 144

Child welfare, 135

Children, abandoned, 135

China, 13, 149, 153, 169, 223

China Light and Power Co Ltd, 162 China Mail, 179

China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 173 Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

1, 16, 64

Chinese Middle Schools, 81

Chinese People's Republic, 32, 58

318

Chinese Press Association, 180

Chinese University, The, 79, 83, 85,

93, 205

Ching Ming, 194

Cholera, 95, 96

Christians, 192, 194-6

Chuenpi, Convention of, 225 Chung Chi College, 85 Chung Yeung Festival, 194 Church of Christ in China, 195 Churches, 192-7 Cinemas, 183

City District Officers, 242-3, 244 · City Hall, 200-3

Civil-

Aid Services, 191

Aviation, 167-9

Defence, 190

Service, see Public Service

Climate, 207-13

Cleansing, 107-8

Clinics, 104-5

Clinics, Floating, 105

Coinage, 43-4

Collections, government, 201

Colonial Development and Welfare,

257-75

Colonial Secretariat, 203, 241

Commerce and Industry Department,

14, 49, 59, 147-8 Commercial Radio, 181 Commercial wharves, 165-6 Commonwealth preference, 40, 53 Communicable diseases, 96-100 Communications, 165-78, 304-5 Community centres, 134 Community Chest, Hong Kong,

133

Companies Registry, 66

Computers, 171

Confucius, 192

Constitution, 234-6

Consular corps, 288

Consumer price index, 29

Container Cargo Services, 18, 160,

165

Convention of Peking, 227 Co-operative societies, 76-7 Cotton Advisory Board, 5 Cotton, see Textiles

Courts, 237-9, 312

Credit Unions, 76-7

Crime, 140-1

Crops, 70-1

Cross-harbour tunnel, 175-6

Crown land, 22, 112-7, 299-300

CTA, 55

Currency, 36, 43-6

Customary marriages, 217

Dance Halls Tax, 42 Death rate, 95

Deaths, 216

Defence, 187-91

Defence expenditure, 36

Defence (Finance) Regulations, 44 Dental services, 105

Design-

Governor's Award for Hong

Kong Design, 64

Federation Award, 64

Devaluation, 13-4, 44, 45

Development Loan Fund, 39, 257-75

Diphtheria, 95, 99

Disabled, the, 136

Diseases, 96-100

District Community Offices, 134 Disturbances, 1967, 13

Dockyards, 165

Dollar coins, 43-4

Domestic exports, 1-2, 48, 52-4, 58,

276-87

Dragon Boat Festival, 194

Drainage, 159-60

Driving licences, 175

Drug addiction, 102, 141

(see Narcotics)

Ducks, 72

Dutiable commodities, 39-40, 257-75

Earnings and profits tax, 41 East India Company, 224 ECAFE, 48

Economic Growth, 1-3 Economic Policy, 16

Education, 20, 79-94, 291-4

adult, 89-90

educational television, 90 examinations, 90-1, 291-4 higher, 20, 83-6 music and art, 91-2

number of schools and pupils,

79, 291-4

overseas, 92

pre-primary, 80

primary, 20, 80-1

research, 93-4

scholarships and bursaries, 79

School Health Service, 101

School Medical Service, 101

secondary, 81-3

special, 81

technical, 20-1, 86-8

Electricity, 18, 162-4

Electronics industry, 11-2, 51

Elliot, Capt C, 224

Emigration, 27

319

Employment, 26-35, 254-6

holidays with pay, 29

Local Employment Advisory

Service, 27

migration for, 27

New Territories, 26

Ordinance 1968, 19, 31

safety, health and welfare, 33-5

wages and conditions of, 19, 29-31 working hours, 19, 30 Entertainment, 200

Entertainment Tax, 42

Entrepôt trade, 48, 54

Essential Services Corps, 190-1

Estate duty, 42

European Economic Community,

55-6

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 89

Exchange control, 44.

Exchange Fund, 45

Excise duties, 39-40

Executive Council, 234-5, 308-11 Expenditure and revenue, 36-9,

257-75

Explosives, 78

Export Credit Insurance Corporation,

15, 61-2

Export promotion, 14-5, 60-1 Exports, 1-2, 3, 14, 48, 52-4, 58,

276-87

External trade, 52-4

Factories and industrial undertakings,

26, 123-4, 232, 254-6 Ordinance, 30-1

Factory registration and inspection,

254-6

Far East Flying Training School, 169 Farming, 68-72, 207

Fauna, 218-20

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

15, 58, 64

Federation of Youth Groups, 134 Ferries, 167, 174

Festivals, Chinese, 194 Film censorship, 183 Film industry, 182-3

Films, government, 185 Finances, public, 36-9 Fire prevention, 73, 147

Fire Services, 146-7, 167, 168, 191 Fish, 73-5

marine, 73

     Marketing Organisation, 74 ponds, 75

Fisheries, administration, 74

Development Loan Fund, 74 research division, 74-5

Fishing fleet, 74 trawlers, 74

Flatted factories, 124 Flora, 220-2

Fluoridation, 105

Flying doctor service, 105 Flyovers, 170

Food inspection, 108 Footwear, 11, 53 Forces, local, 190 Foreign Relations, 239 Forestry, 73

Fruit, 71, 222

Fukien, 214

Garden Road Complex, 170

Garment industry, 9, 49-50

Gas, 163-4

GATT, 5, 48

Geography, 206-7

Geology, 206-7

Government Aid to Industry, 16-8

Government Chemist, 104

Government Information Services, see Information Services Department Government Printer, 142 Government Training Division, 246 Governor in Council, 235 Governor, office of, 234

Grantham College of Education, 88 Grantham Hospital, 98

Hakka, 214

Handicapped, the, 136 Harbour facilities, 165 Hawker Control Force, 111 Hawkers, 110-1

Health, 95-111, 295-8

dental services, 105 education, 109

environmental, 107-10

industrial, 33-5

inspectors, 108

mental, 101-2

ophthalmic service, 106

outpatient services, 104-5

specialist services, 104 statistics, 295-8

training, 107

Heavy industries, 11, 51-2

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium, 99 Helicopters, 187

Herbarium, Hong Kong, 222 Heung Yee Kuk, 243

High Island Water Scheme, 155 Hindu community, 197 History, 223-33 Hokio, 214

320

Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering

Co Ltd, 169

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and

Thoracic Diseases Association, 97 Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, 190 Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission

to Lepers, 98

Hong Kong Building and Loan

Agency, 127

Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd,

164

Hong Kong Christian Council, 195 Hong Kong Christian Service, 195 Hong Kong College of Medicine, 228 Hong Kong Council of Social Service,

133

Hong Kong Enterprise, 61

Hong Kong Exporters' Association,

64

Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 32

Hong Kong Federation of Youth

Groups, 134

Hong Kong Flying Club, 169

Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 64

Hong Kong House, London, 92 Hong Kong Housing Authority,

127-8

Hong Kong Housing Society, 129 Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 32

Hong Kong Life Guard Club, 199 Hong Kong Long Term Road Study,

170

Hong Kong Management Association,

15

Hong Kong Mass Transport Study,

170

Hong-Kong Regiment, 187 Hong Kong Settlers' Housing

        Corporation, 129 Hong Kong Standard, 179 Hong Kong Students' Office, 92 Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd, 178 Hong Kong Tourist Association,

150-2

Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, 92 Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 163 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 138

      Hongkong Tramways, Ltd, 173 Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co

Ltd, 165

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co

Ltd, 174

Hospitals, 102-4, 295-8 Hotels, 43, 117, 120, 151

Ho-tung Collection, 201

Housing, 21, 126-30, 299-300

Authority, 127-8 Board, 129

co-operatives, 129

low-cost scheme, 21, 126-9, 157 rents, 126 Society, 129 Hsu, Bishop, 195 Hydrofoils, 167

Hygiene, environmental and food,

107-11

Immigration, 149-50, 166 Immigration, illegal, 19, 149, (see

also refugees)

Imports, 3, 39, 48, 52-4, 276-87 Incinerators, 108, 160 Income tax, 40-2

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 64 Industrial-

accidents, 33-5

employment, 7, 19, 25, 26-35 health, 33-5

land, 52

policy, 16

productivity, 4, 15, 25, 62-4

progress, 1-25, 14, 25

relations, 19, 31-3

safety, 33-5

training, 19-21, 25, 27-9

Training Advisory Committee,

20, 27, 29

undertakings, 4, 25, 26, 31, 34,

254-6

wages, 19, 29-31

welfare, 19, 33-4

Industry and trade, 48-67, 276-87 Influenza, 100

Information Services Department,

142, 179, 183-6

Insurance, 15, 48, 61-2 INTELSAT III, 177

Interest tax, 41

Internal revenue, 37, 40-3

International Confederation of Free

Trade Unions, 32

International economic relations, 4-5, 8, 12, 16, 25, 48-9, 54-8 International trade negotiations,

4-5, 48, 54-8

International Union of Official Travel Organisations, 152 Investment, 23

Iron ore, 77

Islamic community, 196

Japanese occupation, 231 Jewish community, 196 Joseph Trust Fund, 70

Judiciary, 237-9

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, 98

Junks, 166

Juvenile Care Centre, 137

Juvenile crime, 137, 140

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 70

Kaifong welfare associations, 134 Kindergarten schools, 80 Kowloon-Canton Railway, 169-70,

304-5

Kowloon Hospital, 95, 98, 103 Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

173

Kung Sheung Yat Po, 179

      Kwai Chung, 21, 52, 115, 116, 160, 165 Kwangtung, 214, 223 Kwong Wah Hospital, 103 Kwun Tong, 22, 52, 161

Labour-

administration, 18-9, 31-3 Department, 15, 26, 31-3 disputes and stoppages, 19, 32 hours of work, 19, 30-1 legislation, 19, 30-1 policy, 18-21

Lady Trench Day Nursery and

Training Centre, 138, 158 Lai Chi Kok Hospital, 95, 158 Lai Chi Kok Prison, 144 Land, 112-7, 131-2

administration, 22, 112 agricultural, 68-9, 207 arable, 69

area, 206

auctions, 22, 112, 116-7

Crown, 112-7

for industry 22, 52

Office (Registrar General), 131-2

revenue, 116

sales, 22, 115-7

surveys, 117-8

tenure, 112-7

transactions, private, 116

utilisation, 69, 207

Light industries, 49-51 Lin Tse-hsu, 224

Lion Rock tunnel, 171 Liquidations, 66-7 Livestock, 72-3 Lo Wu, 169

Loans, 37, 38-9, 70, 79

London Missionary Society, 228 London Office, Hong Kong

Government, 239-40 Long-Term Cotton Textile

Arrangement, 5, 55

Lotteries Fund, 39, 257-75

321

Low-cost housing, 21, 122-30, 157, 232 Lugard, Sir Frederick, 228 Lutheran Church, 195

Macau, 149, 167

ferries, 167

Magistracies, 238, 312 Malaria, 95, 99, 226

Mammals, 218-20

Management Studies Diploma, 84

Manufacturing industry, 1-25

Marine Department, 166-7

Marine fauna, 220

Market gardening, 68, 207 Marketing, 71-2, 75-6, 289-90 Marriages, 217

Maryknoll Hospital, 104

Materials Testing Laboratory, 15, 64 Maternal and child health, 100-1 Matriculation, 82

Measles, 95, 99

Measures and weights, 249 Medical-

and Health Department, 95-6 Clinics Ordinance, 105

finance, 96

personnel, 106-7

research, 111

specialist services, 104

training, 106-7

Mental health, 101-2

Mercantile Marine Office, 167

Meteorological research, 210-1

Meteorology, 209-13

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, 130 Methodist Church, 195

Law courts, 237-9

Law, Department of, 84

Law and Sayer Collection, 201

Leases, Crown, 112-7

Legal Aid, 239

Legislation, 234-6, 250-3

Legislative Council, 236-7, 308-11

Lei Cheng Uk, Tomb, 202 Leprosy, 98

Letters Patent, 234

Libraries, 203-4

Mid-Autumn Festival, 194

Midwives, 107

Minerals, 77-8, 207, 289-90 · Mines Department, 77

Mining, 26, 77-8

Missionaries, 194, 228

Monasteries, 192-3 Moral welfare, 135

Morrison Hill Technical Institute,

20, 87-8 Museum, 201-2

322

Music, 91-2, 200

Muslim community, 196-7

Narcotics, 102, 141

    Natural history, 218-22 Navigation, 165-7 New Territories-

Administration, 69, 242-3 employment, 26 health services, 105 Heung Yee Kuk, 243 land tenure, 69, 112 land utilisation, 18, 23, 68 parks and playgrounds, 199 population, 214

squatters, 125

New towns, 18, 21-2, 26, 115 News agencies, 180

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong,

180

Newspapers, 179-80, 184, 306

Northcote College of Education, 88 Nurses, 106-7

    Occupational health, 33 Occupations, 26

Ocean Terminal, 18, 166 OECD, 48

Official Receiver, 67

Open Heart Surgery, 104 Opium, 141

Orchids, 222

Outdoor activities, 198, (see also

      Summer Recreation Programme) Overseas representation, 288 Oyster farming, 75

Pacific Area Travel Association, 152

Pacific Tidal Warning Service, 210

Paddy, 68, 70, 207

Palmerston, Lord, 224

Parcel post, 176

Parkes, Sir Harry, 227

Parking, 158, 172

Parks and playgrounds, 158-9, 198,

307

Patents, 64-5

Peking, 225

Peking, Convention of, 227

Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd, 162

Personal assessment, 41

Pest control, 109

Pig-raising, 72

Pilotage, 166

Pirates, 223

Plants, 220-2

Plastics, 11, 26, 50-1

Plover Cove Scheme, 37, 153, 232 Po Leung Kuk, 136

Police, 139-44

anti-corruption branch, 141 Auxiliaries, 144

Commandant General, 139 CID, 140

manpower and training, 143-4 Traffic Branch, 141-3 women, 144 Poliomyelitis, 95 Polytechnic, 21, 79 Pond fish production, 75 Population, 1, 26, 214-6

New Territories, 214-5 non-Chinese aliens, 214 urban, 214

Port, 165-7

Control Office, 167

health, 100, 166

Welfare Committee, 167

works, 160-1

Postal Services, 176-7 Pottinger, Sir Henry, 225

Poultry, 72

Presbyterian Church, 195 Press, 179-80, 184

Preventive Service, 60, 147-8 Primary production, 68-78

Prisons, 144-6, 158

Private building, 18, 119-20, 156 Privy Council, 239

Probation, 133, 137

Productivity, 15, 25, 62-3

Centre, 15, 63

Council, 15, 62-3

Profits Tax, 41

Property Tax, 41

Protestant churches, 194-5

Public-

administration, 16, 24, 234-46

assistance, 134, 136

assets, 36-9

debt, 17, 257-75

health administration, 96

light buses, 143, 173

order, 139-48

Service, 244-6

Services Commission, 245

transport, 172-4, 304-5

utilities, 162-4

works, 153-62

Works Department, 161

Public Enquiry Service, 242-3

Public Relations, 184

Quarantine, 96, 100, 166 Quarrying, 26, 162

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 102, 104,

106, 232

Queen Mary Hospital, 95, 103, 106

323

Rabies, 73

Radio, Commercial, 181

Radio Hong Kong, 157, 179, 180-1 Radio news, 179, 180, 181, 184 Radioactivity, measurements, 209-10 Railway, 169-70, 304-5

Rainfall, 139, 208, 211, 213, 307 Rates, 40

Rating and Valuation Commissioner,

40

Reclamations, 52, 153, 159, 160, 232 Recreation, 198-205, 307

Red Cross, 104

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd, 181 Refugees, 12, 230, 231

Refuse collections, 107-8

Registrar of Co-operative Societies, 77

Registrar General, 64

Registrar of Trade Unions, 33

Registration, companies, 65-6

Rehabilitation, 102, 136

Rehabilitation Loan, 39 Religion and Custom, 192-7 Rent control, 130-1 Rescue service, 191 Research-

Chinese University, The, 93 fisheries, 74

medical and health, 111 meteorology, 210-1

University of Hong Kong, 93

Reservoirs, 13, 153-6, 232 Resettlement, 21, 122-4

cottage areas, 124

flatted factories, 123-4 rents, 123, 124

schools, 123, 157

statistics, 299

Revaluation, 45

Revenue and expenditure, 36-9,

257-75

Revenue Equalisation Fund, 38 Rice, 68, 70, 207 Rinderpest, 73

Road safety, 142

Roads, 170-2, 233

Rodent control, 109

Roman Catholic-

Church, 195

schools, 196

Royal Air Force, 187, 188-9

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, 190 Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, 157,

158

Royal Instructions, 234

Royal Navy, 187-8

Royal Observatory, 168, 209-10 Rural Committees, 243 Ruttonjee Sanatorium, 98

Sai Ying Pun Clinic, 95 Salaries tax, 41

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital,

103

Sanitary services, 107-8 Satellite Earth Station, 177 Savings, 19, 46 School(s)-

Anglo-Chinese grammar, 81 for blind, 81

Chinese middle, 81

for deaf, 81 evening, 89

fishermen's children, 76

Health Service, 101

Junior Technical, 20-1, 79 Medical Service, 101

music festival, 91

number of schools and pupils,

79, 291-4

primary, 80

secondary, 81-2

special, 81

subsidised, 81

technical, 19-21, 79, 86-8

Seamen's recruiting, 167

Secretariat for Home Affairs, 130,

235, 242-3

Seismology, 210

Sewerage, 159

Sha Tin, new town, 115, 162

Shek Kwu Chau Rehabilitation Centre,

102

Shek Pik, 232

Shipbreaking, 51

Shipbuilding and repairing, 11, 51,

165

Shipping, 165-7

Silver currency, 43-4

Sing Tao newspapers, 179 Slaughterhouses (see abattoirs) Snakes, 219-20

Social services, 37, 195

Social Welfare, 133-8

training, 137-8

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

of Drug Addicts, 102

Society of Boys' Centres, 137 Soil, 68, 207

South China Morning Post, 179 Specialist health services 104 Sports and recreation, 198-205, 307 Squatters, 124-5

St Andrew's Church, 194

St John Ambulance Association and

Brigade, 34

St John's Cathedral, 194 St John's Hospital, 98 Stamp duty, 42

324

Standards testing, 15 Stanley Prison, 144 Star Ferry, 174

'Star' newspaper, 179

Statistics, Department of, 217 Steel, 51

Sterling, 13, 43-6

Stonecutters Island, 206, 227 Street cleansing, 107-9

Strikes and stoppages of work, 19,

32

Student loans and grants, 79 Students in Britain, 92, 205

Summer Recreation Programme, 200 Sun Yat-sen, 228, 230 Sunday Post-Herald, 179 Sung Wong Toi, 224 Supreme Court, 237-9 Survey, 117-8

Sweeps tax, 42

Swimming, 198, 199

Swimming pools, 159, 199

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering

Co Ltd, 29, 165

Tai Lam Treatment Centre, 146 Tai Ping Rebellion, 227 Tang clan, 223

Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, 95, 103,

157

Tanka, 214-6

Taoism, 192-3

Taxation, 16, 37, 40-3 Taxis, 173

Teachers and teacher training, 88-9 Technical Training, 20-1, 25 Technical College, 28, 79, 82, 86-8 Telecommunications, 177-8, 233 Telephones, 18, 178 Television, 181-2, 233

Broadcasts Limited, 182

Rediffusion, 181-2

Telex, 178, 304-5

Temperatures, 208, 307

Temples, 193-4

Tenancy inquiry bureaux, 130 Tenancy tribunals, 130, 237

Textile Restraints, 10, 12-3, 55-8 Textiles, 4-10, 26, 49-50

Textiles Advisory Board, 49

Time signals, 210

Tin Hau, 193

To Fung Shan Monastery, 192

Trade-

administration, 59

and industrial organisations, 64 and Industry Advisory Board, 49 Commissioners, 288

Development Council, 14, 60-1 external, 52-8 international, 54-8

Marks and Patents Registries, 64-5 promotion, 14, 60 restrictions, 55-7 statistics, 276-87 Trade unions, 31-3

Traffic, 141-3, 170-2, 233, 304-5 Traffic accidents, 142, 301

Traffic and Transport Survey Unit, 172 Training-

industrial, 19-21

health, 106-7

teachers, 88-9

Tramways, 173

Transistor radios, 51

Transistors, 51

Transport, public, 18, (see Hong Kong Mass Transport Study Report) 172-4, 304-5

Transport Advisory Committee, 174 Transport Department, 174 Travel documents, 149 Treaties of Tientsin, 227 Treaty of Nanking, 225 Treaty Ports, 226

Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, 107 Tsuen Wan, 21, 26, 52, 115, 192, 196,

232

Tuberculosis, 72, 97-8, 111

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 97,

103, 193

Typhoons and tropical storms,

209-12, 226

UMELCO, 244

UNCTAD, 48, 55

UNDP, 48

UNIDÓ, 48

University of Hong Kong, 20, 79,

83-5, 90, 93, 106, 205, 228

University, The Chinese, 20, 79, 83, 85-6 Urban-

Council, 107, 198-204, 240-1, 313 population, 214

renewal, 121-2

Utilities, public, 162-4

Tong Fuk Prison, 144

Topography, 206-7

Tourism, 150-1

Town planning, 118-9

Town Planning Board, 112, 118

Toys, 11, 50

Vegetable(s)

co-operatives, 76-7

cultivation, 70-1, 207

Marketing Organisation, 71-2 production, 70-1

Vegetation, 69, 220-2 Vehicle ferries, 174

Vehicles and drivers' licences, 175, 301

Venereal diseases, 98 Victoria Park, 199

Visas, 149

Vital statistics, 96, 295-8

Vocational training, 232

Voluntary agencies,

129, 133, 135,

137, 138, 314

Volunteers, The, 190

Wages, 19, 29-31

Wah Fu Estate, 127

Wah Kiu Yat Po, 179

Wan Chai Reclamation, 159, 161

Watches, 53

Water, 13, 18

consumption, 154

from China, 13, 153, 232

Waterfront Road, 161, 170, 171 Weather, 211-3, 307

forecast, 209-10

Weights and measures, 249

Welfare of women and children, 135 Wigs, 11, 51, 53

Wild life, 218-20

Working hours, 30-1

325

Workmen's Compensation Ordinance,

238

X-ray examinations, 97, 98

YMCA, YWCA, 135, 195, 314 Yoga, 197

Youth Employment Advisory Service,

27

Zoning of land, 22, 52, 118-9 Zoology, 218-20

HONG KONG BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Bibliography last appeared in this Report in 1963. A revised edition, 'A Hong Kong Bibliography 1965' by J. M. Braga, is available as a separate publication priced at HK$1.00 per copy, obtainable from the Printing Department, 81-115 Java Road, North Point, and the Government Publications Centre, Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong.

Printed and Published by S. Young, Government Printer, at the Government Press

Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1970

SUỀN, WAN

KWAI CHUNG

TSUEN WAN

DISTRICT.

Lower Shing Hun

Reservair

RAMBLER CHANNEL

NEW TERRITORIES NEW KOWLOON

Shek Lei Pui

Reservoir

fecration

Reservoir

Kowicea Reservoir

HONG FU SHEK TAMAN ROCK

LẠI CHI KOK

CHEUNG

WAN

LUNG

SHA TIN

TAI PO

DISTRICT

LION SOCK

WONG TAI SIN

TSZ WAN

DIAMOND MELA

SHAN

JUNCTION

KOWLOON TONG

SAN PO KONG

SO UR

SHEK KIP MEN

الحمل

HANG YAU YA SUEN

NEW KOWLOON.

KOWLOON ΤΑΙ

KOK

MONG

STONECUTTERS.

ISLAND

TAK

HONG

KONG

AIRPORT

MAN

KO

TO KV

PARK

KINGS

KOWLOON CITY

RUNWA

LOAD

CHAINAM

HOM

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YAU

THE PEAK

City District Office Boundary

Locality

MA ΤΕΙ

PORDAN

GREEN

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SAI YING

SHEK TONG TSUL

PUN

SHEUNG WAN

MOUNT DAVIS

TILE DY TOWN

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POK FU LAM

Pak Lam

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MY KELLIST

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WAN

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(KAI LUNG

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Aberdeen

Reservoirs WESTERN

ONG CHICK MANDI

WONG CHUK

HANG

EAST LAMMA CHANNEL

ISLANDS DISTRICT

LAMMA ISLAND

PICNIC

BAY

AP LEI CHAU

DEEP WATER

BAY

JARDINE'S LOOKOUT

MLODLE

REPULSE

BAY

MI PAKTER

MT BUTLER

For Tam

Hai Chung Reservoir

CHUNG HOM WAN

Reservoir

EASTERN

fat Tam intermediate,

Reservoir

Tel Tam Tub

HONG KONG, KOWLOON

AND ADJACENT NEW TERRITORIES

0

Scale in Miles

15

2

Reservoir

YAU TON

LEI YUE MUN

SHAU KEI WAN

\TAI TAM HARBOUR

TAI TAM

DAY

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CAPE COLLINSON

Crown Lands & Survey Office. Hong Kong. 1969

*一九六九年

"