Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1968

Hong Kong

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1968

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LUNG KWU CHAU

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HONG KONG AND THE NEW TERRITORIES

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1914

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1660

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ISLAND

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LANTAU ISLAND

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IS.

KAU YĨ CHAU.

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SUNSHINE ISLAND

HEI LING CHAU

West Lamma Channel

CHEUNG CHAU

SHEK KWU CHAU

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Compiled & Drawn by Crown Lands & Survey Office, Hong Kong, 1968 Printed at the Government Press, Hong Kong.

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ISLAND

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Plover Cove Reservoir

Tolo Harbour

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Tolo Channel

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CHAU

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Sham Chung

1578

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Chek Keng

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香港中央

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HIGH ISLAND

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SHELTER IS.

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STEEP ISLAND

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SCALE OF MILES

MILES

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Railways Roads

Villages

Built-up Areas

Rivers & Streams, Reservoirs

Ferry Services

PING CHAU

Heights

in Feet

5 MILES

2000

1000

200

Sea Level

Crown Copyright Reserved

HONG KONG 1968

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03706905 3

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong,

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE 54, Pall Mall, London, SW1

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1969

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

Frontispiece: Hong Kong's fine natural har- bour has historically been of central import- ance to the Colony and it remains so today. This busy fleet of lighters clustered around an ocean-going vessel illustrates one aspect of the unique blend of traditional and modern methods by which Hong Kong maintains its reputation as one of the fastest turn-around ports in the world.

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year

1968

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1969

   The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all organizations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter to this Report. Particular acknowledgement is given to Professor

• D. J. Dwyer, B.A., Ph.D., of the University of Hong Kong, for the chapter on Geography, to Mr G. B. Endacott, M.A., B.Litt., Dip.Ed., for the History chapter, and to Dr P. M. Marshall, B.Sc., Ph.D., for the section on Wild Life.

    Unless otherwise mentioned, all illustrations in this Report are the work of official photographers. Photographs in the Precision Industry section are by Maynard Frank Wolfe. The 'Sampan' scenes in The Film Makers are reproduced courtesy of Terry Bourke. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustration should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

CONTENTS

Chapter

1 REVIEW:

2

3

PROGRESS

EMPLOYMENT: Occupations

Page

1

Industrial Training -

21

Wages and Conditions of Work-Labour Admin- istration and Industrial Relations - Safety, Health and Welfare.

Excise

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue and Expenditure-

Duties Rates Internal Revenue Currency Banking.

wwwwwwwwww

36

4

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: General Review

Industrial

49

Productivity Textiles

-

Light Industries

5

6

Trade Promotion

Heavy Industries - Land for Industry - External Trade

International Economic Relations Administration Trade and Industrial Organizations - Records.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Introduction · Land Utiliza- tion- Administration - Principal Crops - Vege- table Marketing Organization - Animal Industries Fish Marketing

Forestry Fisheries

Organization - Co-operative Societies - Mining.

EDUCATION: Pattern of Education Pre-primary, Primary, Special, Secondary and Higher Education Teachers and Teacher Training - Adult Educa- tion Examinations Education Overseas University Research.

7

HEALTH: General Situation

8

9

-

71

87

Administration

Com-

104

Health Service

municable Diseases · Port

·

Maternal and Child Health · Mental Health Hospitals-Specialist Services - Clinics - Den- tal Services - Ophthalmic Service - Training - Environmental Health Research.

-

LAND AND HOUSING: Land Tenure and Development - Land Sales Surveys- Town Planning - Private Building - Resettlement - Squatter Clearance - Housing Rent Control - Land Office.

-

SOCIAL WELFARE: Organization Group and Com- munity Work-Family Services - Probation and Correction Training and Research.

126

149

vi

Chapter

10

11

12

13

14

-

CONTENTS

Page

158

169

174

PUBLIC ORDER: Police-Crime-Traffic-Training Prisons Fire Services Preventive Service.

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM: Immigration - Tourism. PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES: Water Supplies - Buildings Drainage Port Works Land Development - Public Utilities.

COMMUNICATIONS: Shipping Civil Aviation

Kowloon-Canton Railway Roads Parking -

-

-

Public Transport- Ferry Services - Administra- tion Cross-harbour Tunnel Postal Services

Telecommunications.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA: Introduction

Press Radio

Television

ment Information Services

Service.

W

188

209

Films Govern- Public Enquiry

15

16

17

18

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES: The Armed Services Local Auxiliary Defence Services Essential Services Corps.

RELIGION AND CUSTOM: Chinese Beliefs and Practices Christian Churches -Jewish, Islamic and Hindu Communities.

RECREATION: Sport-Summer Recreation Programme

· Entertainment and the Arts Exhibitions Government Collections Libraries British Council.

220

226

234

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE: Topography and Geology 246

Royal Observatory Research-

-

POPULATION: Population Statistics and Groupings-

Births and Deaths - Marriages.

Climate

The Year's Weather.

19

256

222

NATURAL HISTORY: Wild Life - Flora.

260

HISTORY

268

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION:

Constitution

282

Judiciary Administration (including the New

Territories) - The Public Service.

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS

vii

Page

The Port at Work

1968

Frontispiece

between x-1

Precision Industry

between 24-5

Power

between 48-9

The Monkey Dancers

between 72-3

The Inheritors

between

96-7

The Firefighters

between 120-1

The Homemakers

between 144-5

The Guardians

between 168-9

4,000,000 in Motion

between 192-3

The Film Makers

between 216-7

Hong Kong Stamps

between 240-1

Festivals

between 264-5

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Victoria and Kowloon showing District Names

viii

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

I

II

III-V

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

LEGISLATION

EMPLOYMENT: Industrial Undertakings and Per- sons Employed-Factory Registrations and Inspections - Industrial and Occupational Accidents.

·

VI-XIV FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue - Expenditure

Statement of Assets and Liabilities · Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure - Public Debt - Colonial Development and Welfare -Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees - Development Loan Fund - Lotteries Fund Currency and Banking Statistics, Currency in Circulation and Bank Deposits. INDUSTRY AND TRADE: Composition

XV-

XXI

XXII

XXV

-

Value of

Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade - Imports Commodity Pattern - Principal Sources- Domestic Exports - Commodity Pattern - Principle Markets - Re-exports - Direction of Trade.

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

XXIII- PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Marketing Organization Statistics-Co-operative Societies - Produc- tion of Minerals.

Page

295

296

300

303

322

334

335

XXVI-

XXIX

EDUCATION: Categories of Schools, Enrolments, New Buildings, Classrooms and Places----- Educational Statistics - Hong Kong Students Pursuing Further Studies in Britain - Actual Expenditure on Education.

337

XXX-

XXXIII

HEALTH: Vital Statistics-Infectious Diseases Notified Hospital Beds --- Professional Medical Personnel.

341

XXXV

XXXIV- LAND AND HOUSING: Resettlement Estate

Statistics Housing as at March 31, 1968 - Premiums Received on Sales of Crown Land.

345

ix

CONTENTS

Appendix

XXXVII

XXXVIII COMMUNICATIONS:

Page

XXXVI-PUBLIC ORDER: Traffic- Serious Crime.

347

Statistics: Marine, Kowloon-

350

Canton Railway, Air Traffic, Vehicles, Postal Traffic, Telegraph and Radio Traffic.

XXXIX

THE PRESS: Leading Newspapers and Magazines.

352

XL

WEATHER: Climatological Summary.

353

XLI-

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION:

Executive

354

XLII

Council Legislative Council.

XLIII

CASES IN THE COURTS AND WORK IN THE

358

MAGISTRACIES

XLIV

URBAN COUNCIL

359

XLV

SOCIAL WELFARE: Hong Kong Council of Social

Service, Member Agencies.

360

INDEX

363

J

1968

Among many major works completed during the year was the 2,600-foot Lai Chi Kok Bridge, the longest ever built in Hong Kong. The new bridge, shown above, links Kowloon with the new industrial towns and the villages of the west- ern New Territories. It was officially opened in October

The products of Hong Kong's many industries went on show at the 1968 Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong Exhibition, shown here in an aerial view of the site on Hung Hom Reclamation.

רז

At left, the 26th annual CMA exhibition is declared open by the then Acting Governor, now Sir Michael Gass. Colourful flags (above) mark the official Government pavilion, which drew well over a million visitors. Below, a constant stream of Hong Kong residents and visitors passed through this spectacular entrance arch to the exhibition.

Hong Kong's dynamic overseas publicity pro- gramme continued to expand during the year, spreading news of our burgeoning industries, rising living standards and wide-ranging community achievements. Pictured at left is one such effort, the permanent Hong Kong display at the Common- wealth Institute in London.

The vast Plover Cove Reservoir, whose 37,000 million gallon capacity more than trebled that previously available in Hong Kong, came into full service during the year. Shown above is the dam wall which holds back the sea from this former tidal inlet.

1

Through this gate (above) water pours from the surrounding catchments into the $600-million Plover Cove complex-the costliest ever undertaken by the Hong Kong Government. The panorama below shows the storage at year's end.

NG PUBLI

The vast reclamations which Hong Kong continues to win from the sea are the scene of constant building, both public and private. Two community facilities completed during the year were this giant incinerator at Lai Chi Kok (above) and the modern $30-million abattoir at Kennedy Town (below).

1

Review

PROGRESS

LAST year's review ended by forecasting that

'the people of Hong Kong will continue to overcome whatever they may have to face and, with their inimitable energy, will drive Hong Kong on to new peaks of prosperity and progress.' Such peaks were indeed scaled in 1968. The Colony's progress in many sectors was so remarkable that there was again the familiar talk of a 'boom year'. Once again Hong Kong people demonstrated that they belong to a resilient, adaptable, and courageous community which can surmount the severest obstacles and emerge with credit from situations of difficulty. Morale rose higher and confidence in the future became all the stronger for the brushing aside of adversity, as all who know Hong Kong well would, indeed, have expected.

      Characteristic of 1968 was a livelier public discussion of the problems which were still to be overcome. In the press, on the radio and on television, there was more debate than in the past on a wide variety of public issues. While some solutions were advocated which were clearly beyond immediate means, other suggestions were valu- able and stimulating-and not only to the civil service. Debates in the Legislative Council became a typical instead of an infrequent feature of the council's business, with supplementary questions, adjournment debates, and impromptu interventions also more common. Urban Council proceedings also continued to be lively. When freedom of speech was under pressure in so many parts of the world, this liberty was one Hong Kong people were making more and more use of, and using with increasing vigour and so- phistication.

      Nevertheless, in spite of the greatly improved atmosphere, agita- tion by communist supporters continued on a number of issues, although in a minor key, in an endeavour to enlist support for an unpopular cause by attempting to exploit any grievance that could

2

PROGRESS

be found or invented. There was little or no public response to these efforts, and the police force, largely freed by the beginning of the year from more urgent duties, were able once again to turn their full attention to the prevention and detection of crime. Although there had been some increase in the lawlessness of criminal elements and in the number of offences committed under the cloak of a period of civil disorder, the resumption of normal police duties quickly helped to restore the position.

The basic aim of the Government continued to be to preserve law and order and to provide a place where people may live and work in peace. A threat to Hong Kong's economic progress had however developed in late 1967 when the pound sterling was devalued, and the beginning of the year was a time of much discus- sion about the effect of devaluation on the Colony. In November 1967 Hong Kong had adjusted to a new relationship with sterling and the US dollar by virtue of the final upward revaluation against sterling of the Hong Kong dollar, moving from $16: £1 to $14.54 : £1, and a devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar against the US dollar of about 5.7 per cent, giving a new rate of $6.06 : US$1. The devaluation of the pound cost the Colony about $700 million; the new parity finally adopted and the decision to compensate commercial banks for their exchange losses had the effect of meeting $450 million of the cost from public funds. It was evident, therefore, that measures were needed to protect Hong Kong's sterling holdings against any possible future adverse movements in the sterling exchange rate. The Governor and the Financial Secretary had discussions in London, and on June 1 the Governor announced to the people of the Colony that arrangements had been made for the issue of interest-bearing bonds expressed in Hong Kong dollars. These bonds could be purchased with the Colony's sterling reserve up to an amount equal to half the official external assets of the Colony, subject to a top limit of £150 million.

      The Colony was later covered by the arrangements negotiated by the British Government with the rest of the sterling area for a guarantee, in terms of US dollars, of all sterling held in excess of 10 per cent of their total external assets. This meant that 90 per cent of the Colony's sterling assets were covered by this arrangement. The Hong Kong dollar bond arrangement lapsed on the coming into force of the new guarantee on September 25. Thus the uneasiness

PROGRESS

3

which prevailed in the aftermath of Britain's devaluation had been largely removed and a new firmer basis of financial security had been obtained. The Colony still remained confident in the face of the renewed international monetary crisis and controversy over Deutsche marks and French francs in November. Britain's related fresh austerity measures and severer payment conditions for imports were regarded as no more than another of the difficulties regularly created in importing countries to irritate and disturb, but never to dishearten, Hong Kong's export traders and industrialists.

      The budget debate in the Legislative Council in February gave a clear indication of the strength and stability of the Colony's internal finances. The financial year 1967-8 ended with yet another surplus; this time of $133 million, which is the second highest on record. Curiously enough the disturbances, which had raised pro- ductivity by reducing labour mobility and man-hours lost through industrial disputes to astoundingly low figures, also contributed to the formation of the surplus by causing delays in public works spending, though more competitive tendering was another factor.

The Financial Secretary in presenting his estimates for 1968-9 conservatively forecast continuing growth in the general revenue of about four per cent. Expenditure was expected to reach almost $2,000 million, a figure twice that of six years previously. As 1968 proceeded, both income and spending followed a pattern similar to that of 1967. It became clear from returns under the Earnings and Profits Tax, which is based on the previous year, that the level of business during that year was very much higher than had been thought, while revenue from current activities had been particularly buoyant. There was continuation of the trend of underspending in the Public Works Non-Recurrent sector.

       Deposits in local banks increased steadily and in May overtook the previous record for any month. They reached a new record of over $10,000 million by the end of the year. Much of this was due to money flowing back to the Colony from overseas.

ECONOMIC GROWTH

      Undoubtedly pride of place in this review of a year of surging progress goes to the Colony's export performance. In the previous year there had been an overall increase in exports of 17 per cent

4

PROGRESS

despite the troubles and in the teeth of the pessimistic forecasts of some observers. In 1968 exporters went still further, with monthly figures showing average increases nearer 25 per cent. By any standards, and especially in the light of the high levels already attained, this further growth was quite outstanding. Clothing con- tinued to lead the export field in total value. Textiles, which formed the original foundation for Hong Kong's industrial era, were a good second. Particularly fast growth continued in the toy industry and in the fields of electronics and wigs.

There are many reasons for this progress, the details of which are too many for this short review. In essence, however, the principal factor was sheer effort by all concerned. Established factories either expanded their premises and labour force or improved productivity. One indication of this growth was the consumption of electricity for industrial purposes, which rose from an index of 100 in March 1967 to 130 in September 1968. The two electricity companies were involved in major expansion and development to meet the predicted demand in all sectors. In Kowloon, Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, where there is the greatest industrial development, installed power station capacity will have been doubled in six years by 1971 giving a maximum capacity of 1,142 megawatts. On the Island the comple- tion of an improved distribution system using overhead cables and, as in all developed countries, introducing the lattice pylon to virgin hillsides, will enable the power companies to meet the rising require- ments of the commercial and domestic sectors. As in all developed countries, there are two points of view about the aesthetic aspects of a grid, but only one about the need for the service.

There were some exceptions to the general trend of expansion. The lull in the building industry continued, although towards the end of the year there were signs of it picking up again. One particular result of this lull was less demand for the products of the steel in- dustry. This industry had, in recent years, overexpanded. It had difficulties in competing with products imported from Japan and China and little progress was made in finding new overseas markets. Thus the steel industry worked well below its full capacity. This industry however was an exception; in other sectors the planning of entirely new factories proceeded apace and others were established. One notable addition was a watch-band factory which will produce

PROGRESS

5

accessories for Swiss watches up to the traditional standards of excellence demanded by that industry.

'Quality at fair prices' came more and more to be an accepted fact behind the competitiveness of Hong Kong products. This was particularly so in high fashion, which made great impact in specialist international markets. In October the quality and design of Hong Kong's garments won acclaim during the Dusseldorf International Fashion week. Similarly with toys: international buyers at the Nuremberg Toy Fair in February were very impressed by the stand- ards and variety of the Colony's goods.

Behind the manufacturers' efforts and achievements have been the efforts of many allied organizations. The Trade Development Council continued its work of trade promotion in many countries through visits, fairs, exhibitions and consultations with all concerned. The Federation of Hong Kong Industries provided quality-testing facilities, and launched a programme to bring about greater product- design consciousness and expertise in manufactures. The Manage- ment Association and the Productivity Council worked hard to promote the most advanced techniques among industrialists. Just two years after its establishment, the Export Credit Insurance Corporation reported a 50 per cent annual increase in its number of policy-holders. The estimated annual value of exports covered rose from $560 million to nearly $800 million. The long-established banking facilities continued with their efficient, experienced services. The list is long, but it is upon this foundation of sound business infrastructure that the export-oriented economy continued to flourish.

      International recognition of Hong Kong's economic standing also grew during the year. A reputable business publication with world-wide distribution conducted a survey of the major cities of the Far East to analyse the facilities they offered as sites for the Asian headquarters of world wide companies. Hong Kong emerged at the top of the list. This survey in fact confirmed the choices exercised earlier by the many major international companies which were already in Hong Kong. During the year their volume of business increased: the Marine Department records showed that much greater use was made of the port's efficient cargo-handling and storage facilities by the manufactured goods of other countries,

6

PROGRESS

which were held in Hong Kong in readiness to meet quickly the orders expected from neighbouring parts of Asia. More shipping companies, too, adopted Hong Kong as a base for owning ships and controlling their movements. In October the Government announced that it would set up a skilled study to investigate whether a site at Kwai Chung would be capable of development as a container terminal. This feasibility study will produce for the benefit of pro- spective developers the scale of costs likely to be involved should. containerization come to Hong Kong as it has to other ports (in- cluding some whose industries and products are not yet wholly suited to the technique). In the meantime a quiet and locally relevant revolution proceeded during 1968 in the greater use of the palleti- zation of cargo. Thus, having long justified its reputation as one of the busiest and fastest turn-around ports in Asia, Hong Kong kept abreast of modern techniques which might enhance efficiency still further.

      As further evidence of Hong Kong's role in international com- merce, the Indo-Pacific Committee of the International Council for Scientific Management held its conference in October at the City Hall. Delegates paid tribute to the active role played by the Colony in the affairs of that council.

      There were also moves in the field of international finance during the middle of the year. An Act of Parliament was passed in West- minster which empowered Britain to provide the guarantees which are necessary for dependent territories to join the Asian Development Bank. It was likely that Hong Kong's formal application to join the bank would be made around the end of 1968.

      It is disappointing, but in current philosophies hardly surprising, that the spectacular growth in value and the steady improvement in quality of Hong Kong's exports of textiles and garments to the markets of the world should have generated still more requests from Governments overseas for additional restraints on those exports. Seven such requests were received during the year. On these and other matters, the Commercial Relations Division of the Commerce and Industry Department engaged in negotiations in Paris, Ottawa, Stockholm, Oslo, London and Cape Town, as well as at home in Hong Kong. An Australian delegation came for consultation in May and a two-week negotiation with a Benelux

PROGRESS

7

delegation took place in June. A delegation from London came in September. In addition a Hong Kong team went to Washington for the annual review of the operation of the five-year bilateral agreement on cotton textiles. In the talks with the two Scandinavian countries, it was possible to reduce the range of products in which Hong Kong agreed to restrain exports. Australia, on the other hand, dropped her request for restraints and it was agreed that the future development of trade would be kept under constant review. As far as the internal administration of trade was concerned, the Government began to contemplate the use of a computer to improve the complex procedures for the allocation of quotas and the issue of licences for textiles under restraint.

While export figures soared and industry expanded, the comple- mentary work of the Labour Department grew. Many pieces of legislation were under preparation and a major bill, the Employment Ordinance 1968, passed into law in September. This provided for the protection of wages and laid down requirements for the duration and termination of workers' contracts. A senior Labour Adviser began work on the promotion of consultative machinery in firms and factories to assist the development of better relations between management and employees. In contrast with many other industrial societies, Hong Kong still did not suffer the loss of many man- hours through industrial disputes. Those differences which did arise were quickly settled, either domestically or through the Govern- ment's conciliation services. Some important wage claims were thrashed out and settled. It was estimated that during the past four years the cost of living for wage-earners had risen 13 per cent while wages increased by 41 per cent. In round terms this indicated that there had been an improvement in the real earnings of workers of seven per cent each year.

The tourist industry too had an exceptional year, with record figures for arrivals, especially by air. 1967, after the summer's alarums and excursions, had ended with only a modest increase of four per cent in the number of pleasure bent visitors, but 1968 soon resumed the high rate of growth of the earlier years. Com- parative monthly figures showed increases of the order of 25 per cent to 30 per cent. October alone saw 66,500 tourists arrive-a total more than for the whole year in 1957. The Hong Kong Tourist Association worked not only to promote facilities in Hong Kong for visitors,

PROGRESS

but also to ensure that these amenities and attractions were known overseas. It has been the rapid and world-wide acknowledgement of Hong Kong as one of the most exciting modern tourist centres that has created a great need for more and still more hotel accom- modation. In 1968 there were approximately 6,000 hotel rooms which, on a few occasions, were unable to cope with the booming demand. However, there was firm promise towards the end of the year of the early availability of two more hotels, and consideration was being given by developers to the building of others.

BUILDING THE FUTURE

      A substantial part of the annual expenditure of public funds went on the building of homes, schools, roads, bridges, water supplies, new town developments and public buildings. The sum of $365 million which was being spent in 1968-9, though large in itself, does not give a true picture of the immensity of public works which were under way. Projects totalling $4,000 million were in the public works programme during 1968; of this amount $2,000 million had already been spent and the remainder will be spent over the next four to five years. There were no less than 400 different projects under construction while government engineers and architects were busily designing another 200.

      There was a wide variety of completed developments of which five typically disparate examples are worthy of mention. The 2,600- foot Lai Chi Kok bridge was finished, providing a link from north west Kowloon across Lai Chi Kok bay to meet the new fast six-lane coastal road to Kwai Chung, Tsuen Wan and the western New Territories. In Tolo Harbour, the 37,000 million gallon Plover Cove reservoir, which is three times the size of all the other Colony reservoirs put together, came into full service. At Kennedy Town a new, modern $30 million abattoir became operational. This complex included a wholesale livestock market and quarantine service. In the New Territories a Fire Services Training School, which is the largest of its kind in South-East Asia, was opened and put into service. The new town of Tsuen Wan received its first large sports arena, complete with running track and football field. Such was the variety of achievements in 1968 and, as the watchful can see from large display boards set up on many sites throughout

PROGRESS

9

the Colony, there will be many similar achievements completed in years soon to come.

Providing homes at low rentals for families in the lower income groups continued to be one of the Government's proudest achieve- ments. By the end of 1968 it was estimated that about 1,100,000 people were in resettlement estates, 170,000 in government low- cost housing and 125,000 had been housed by the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Hong Kong Housing Society. Very few, if any, communities of this size in the whole free world can match a record of well over one third of the total population in housing built from public funds. There will be more to come and at improved standards. The year saw certain problems in housing come more to the fore. It is no longer a matter of simply producing the maximum amount of accommodation. Accessibility, greater room for expanding families, and the provision of separate water supplies and toilet facilities for each home are assuming greater importance. Overcrowding has to be relieved in the older resettle- ment estates. With this in mind, measures were studied for convert- ing the earliest resettlement buildings to the improved standards of the later designs. With the filling up of the busiest parts of Hong Kong and Kowloon it was necessary to look further afield for housing sites. People began to show more reluctance towards moving away from central areas even it if did mean better accom- modation. Nevertheless, the industrial suburb of Kwun Tong continued to fill up and development work at Kwai Chung and Castle Peak proceeded.

One of the most striking achievements of the year in housing was the opening of the Housing Authority's new Wah Fu estate near Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island. This low-cost housing complex with all its finely planned amenities will eventually house about 54,000 people. Meanwhile in the private sector, large new estates at Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island and at Lai Chi Kok in New Kowloon received their first occupants during the year.

      Further progress was made in overcoming Hong Kong's consid- erable transport and traffic difficulties, which stem basically from established, central, high-density population coupled with the inevitable though gradual wider dispersal of people. Road widening,

10

PROGRESS

new roads, bridges and flyovers were frequently found under con- struction by Hong Kong motorists. Such improvements are necessary to cope with the swelling numbers of vehicles; private cars alone increased by 10 per cent during 1968. Though often large in them- selves, these road works are piece-meal and the continuous trend towards longer-term schemes continued during the year. Attempts were made by the Cross Harbour Tunnel Company to make adequate financial arrangements for the proposed tunnel between Hong Kong and Kowloon, but at the end of the year the project was still in doubt. The Mass Transport Report prepared by consultants was published in February. This recommended, at a cost of some $4,000 million, the construction of an underground railway system linking Hong Kong Island with Kowloon, Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, as well as a line along the north shore of Hong Kong Island. A modified scheme which concentrated on the cross-harbour link with a system serving the most densely populated parts of Kowloon, had emerged by the end of the year as being nearer the realms of early practical and financial possibility. The Passenger Transport Survey and Long Term Road Study were also published and became useful reference works in the planning of further improvements. Some of the proposals which emerged from the Long Term Road Study were already in the Government's public works programme and were due for completion during the next five years.

PEOPLE AND GOVERNMENT

The City District Officer scheme was introduced progressively during the year. For many years the Government has been consider- ing ways of putting the civil service in closer touch with the people of the Colony, especially in the urban area. In the interest of efficiency and economy most government services are arranged on a func- tional basis, each service separately and centrally administered by a different department. With the growing complexity and sophisti- cation of government machinery the workings of the civil service have tended to become more specialized and perhaps less concerned with the human background of its operations. Similarly, with government activities divided into compartments, it was not easy for the Government to learn of and deal with special problems and difficulties of different districts of the urban area-problems which might fall within the purview of several departments. Already

PROGRESS

11

District Officers in the New Territories had developed close and friendly contacts with people in the more rural areas and had successfully co-ordinated the activities of all aspects of Government within their districts for the general good of the residents. It was decided that a similar regional approach should be started in the urban areas.

In the City District Officer scheme the urban areas are divided into 10 areas, four on Hong Kong Island and six in Kowloon. There is a City District Commissioner on each side of the harbour to co-ordinate the work of the District Officers, each of whom has liaison and other staff amounting to around a dozen in all. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs has overall responsibility for the scheme as a whole.

At first four City District Officers were appointed and by the end of the year nine City District offices were staffed and functioning. Five permanent offices had been opened in premises designed to look more like shops than government offices, situated in ground floors in busy areas.

      Although the appointment of City District Officers was widely welcomed there was some doubt as to the exact functions of the scheme. Since no significant executive functions are as yet discharged by the City District Officer some found it difficult to assess the role he might play. Also there were some who thought that 'ombudsmen' were being appointed. Others again, understandably, had expecta- tions for the scheme which, though they may well eventually be realized, were not to be achieved in the early stages. The role of the City District Officer is two-fold. By being accessible at all times to members of the public or public organizations and also to each and every government department, his duty is to create greater understanding of the policies and actions of the Government by the people and similarly to communicate the problems and feelings of the people to government departments where they may help in the formulation or implementation of policies. He must look up, and down, and sideways, and carry explanations wherever he finds lack of understanding.

      Already many persons have been helped in their dealings with government departments. Local organizations, especially the Kai- fong Associations are already developing a close and effective

12

PROGRESS

working relationship with the newly appointed officers. Help has been given to the formation of new social organizations. Young people wishing to give community service in their local districts have begun to look to the City District Officer for guidance and ideas.

Imagination, energy and initiative are essential to the direction and operation of these new arrangements. The work will never become routine and in a sense it will always be experimental since there is virtually no limit to the variety of methods which can be adopted and adapted in pursuit of the basic objectives. But by the end of the year it was becoming apparent that the City District Officer scheme was performing a useful function for the outlet of grievances; in November the number of persons who consulted their City District Officer was four times the number which approached the Ward Offices of Urban Councillors.

     A fact which cannot be forgotten in Hong Kong is that 50 per cent of its people are under the age of 20. Partly because of this fact, and the trends of recent years, increased attention was paid during the year to the welfare of young people, including young workers, but especially school children. In the budget an extra $5.2 million was allocated to social welfare, a substantial share of which was devoted to more services for the youth of the Colony. Much time and energy was devoted to the training of youth leaders and the sponsoring of youth activities. However, mention must also be made of the prodigious efforts during the summer holidays by both permanent staff and an encouraging number of volunteers to provide recreational pursuits for school children with holiday time on their hands. Although most of the young people who participated were pupils, there was a small but encouraging break-through with young employees of firms. One firm released some of its staff to enable them to take part and it is hoped that more companies will feel able to do similarly in future years.

One thing is abundantly clear: it will be a long time before the provision of recreational opportunities can meet the tremendous demand for them. The summer of 1968 took a large step in the right direction; it remains for the many and various willing organizations and individuals to continue to develop the fresh impetus that has been started.

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13

It follows that with such a youthful population there is a great demand for education in Hong Kong. In 1968 approximately one third of the total population of the Colony was in attendance at teaching institutions, be it kindergarten, school, technical college or university. Sheer numbers and their rate of increase, plus a traditional very high regard for the importance of education, produce a constant need for more classrooms. The high rate of provision was maintained in 1968, especially in the primary sector where most new schools were built in conjunction with new building estates. It is the Government's aim to provide places by 1971, in govern- ment or government-aided schools, for all who are likely to seek them. This is believed to be 80 per cent of children between the ages of six and 12: in 1968 the figure of 69 per cent had been reached.

       To assist parents who have difficulty in meeting the costs of putting a child through school, the Government reduced primary school fees generally from $50 per year to $40 per year or from $40 to $30. It was also decided to give a textbook and stationery grant to the approximately 60,000 primary school children who already held free school places. By and large 50 per cent of students in secondary schools enjoyed some degree of fee remission. During the year 36 government and government-subvented schools with 820 class- rooms were completed at a capital cost of $34.3 million.

With Hong Kong's industries expanding there is a strong require- ment for technical training and more attention was paid to the introduction of new institutions for technical education. On the broader front it was decided to go ahead with the planning of educational television. Funds were voted in principle for staff and studios and it should be possible to bring the benefits of the best teaching skills in certain select subjects to serve as a tool for the teachers actually in the classrooms through this medium by 1970.

       In the field of medicine and health steady planned progress was made. The Queen Mary Hospital on Hong Kong Island continued its expansion which will eventually almost double the number of beds available. Planning also went ahead for a new general hospital in Kowloon. While tuberculosis remained the main single cause of death from disease, it became clear that as a result of giving babies BCG vaccination early in life, the incidence of the disease was at last being arrested. For two months in the middle of the year the Colony

14

PROGRESS

was hit by a travelling influenza epidemic which unfortunately led to 27 deaths before wending its way round the world by jet plane. It was in connection with another infectious disease, that of measles, that the Medical and Health Department organized a mass inocula- tion campaign in readiness for an expected cyclical increase in 1969 in the incidence of measles.

While Hong Kong could continue to be proud of a readily available, virtually free medical service for all who require it, there was an acute problem in 1968 because of an overall shortage of doctors. At the beginning of the year vacancies for government posts were above the 100 mark. Special efforts were made to recruit more doctors from Singapore and Malaysia and the University of Hong Kong Medical School produced nearly 80 newly-qualified doctors. By September the problem had eased only slightly. Despite great strains on existing staff, however, there had been no curtail- ment of services.

Perhaps the most spectacular achievement in 1968 in the provision. of specialist services was Hong Kong's first open-heart operation in July at the Grantham Hospital. This was soon followed by several other successful operations.

There were some major developments in the field of social welfare. The long awaited report by a working group of officials on Social Security was published, and members of the public were urged to discuss and make comment on the report's factual findings of what social security involved and on its suggestions. This important long-term document sets out many of the basic facts, and by indicat- ing some possible steps has also highlighted some of Hong Kong's very real difficulties in this field. In November private legislation was passed establishing the Hong Kong Community Chest, which will enable residents to make contributions to those 43 welfare organizations which are members through one annual donation. It is hoped by its sponsors that by the institution of this community chest much of the formerly high administration costs of charitable collections will be eliminated.

        There were several achievements in the field of rehabilitation. In September the Governor opened the World Rehabilitation Fund Day Centre which will provide vocational training and employment for 340 disabled persons. During the same month the 4th Pan

PROGRESS

15

Pacific Rehabilitation Conference was held in the City Hall, where international delegates discussed mutual problems in the field of rehabilitation.

Later in October a new training centre and hostel for 200 mentally retarded children and adults was completed. While much of this welfare work refers to work among young people, older citizens were not forgotton. During the year the Hong Kong Christian Service, together with the Social Welfare Department and the Hous- ing Authority, co-operated with an allocation from the government Lotteries Fund to start a scheme whereby aged citizens might be provided with individual furnished homes instead of the more usual institutional accommodation.

       The Government itself made significant administrative changes which are likely to improve achievements in social welfare, both domestically and generally for the people in Hong Kong. The Social Welfare Department consolidated its reorganization into three main divisions, and the Colonial Secretariat established a new Social Services branch to co-ordinate work in the fields of education, labour and health and welfare generally, including prisons and drug addict institutions.

Rarely does a year go by without some discomfort or disaster being brought upon the Hong Kong people by the weather. This year it was sudden flooding which came in June-strangely upon the same dates as the more extensive floods of 1966: 326 mm (12.84 inches) of rain fell in 48 hours, causing landslips and road blockages, especially on the steep slopes of Hong Kong Island. The greatest tragedy was the loss of 16 lives, mainly from among the families living in Ma Shan Village which perches above the Shau Kei Wan district of eastern Hong Kong Island. Relief workers from many different government departments as well as volunteers helped with rescue work. Afterwards the Community Trust Relief Fund gave financial assistance to those in greatest need. The Resettle- ment Department helped some families to re-establish themselves in more permanent and secure accommodation. Later in August, typhoon Shirley hit the Colony. Compared with other major typhoons, Shirley was relatively lenient, but there was still a con- siderable outlay of voluntarily-donated public funds and relief

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PROGRESS

effort in both the urban areas and among farmers and fishermen of the New Territories.

       The New Territories had a busy year which saw the election of a new Heung Yee Kuk (or Rural Consultative Council). In February the outgoing chairman of the Kuk and three other prominent members made a goodwill tour around England visiting various towns to see many of the 30,000 New Territories residents who are in Britain, mainly in the restaurant business. The remittances of these folk play a great part in the welfare and prosperity of the families who remain behind in Hong Kong. The Government not only sponsored this visit and provided a senior officer to accompany it, but also began the circulation of a free weekly newspaper con- taining a digest of news from Hong Kong, particularly from the New Territories. Subsequently another officer studied the needs of Hong Kong's own expatriates in Britain and his report was put under study.

Good progress was made in the building up of a system of public roads, drainage, schools and community centres in the New Terri- tories as well as of village amenities such as playgrounds, latrines, footpaths and water supplies. While the major engineering projects were undertaken by the Public Works Department, each District Office supervised the more local items. This year each District Officer had much willing help, financial and physical, from units of the 48 Gurkha Brigade stationed in the New Territories. An Army Information Unit paid regular visits to remote villages to provide cinema entertainment and technical first aid otherwise unavailable. Urban dwellers who may occasionally see large cere- monial parades or individual soldiers in mufti forget that military units and sub-units can make relationships of good friendship and mutual help with the country people among whom they encamp and train. It was typical that when a spectators' stand collapsed, to mar a tattoo held at Sek Kong in November (an accident for which a Commission of Inquiry was set up), the New Territories inhabitants were readiest to express sympathy with the army in their misfortune. The Hong Kong Police Force increased its coverage of the more remote parts to lend a greater sense of security to villag- ers who are, by virtue of geography, less able to call for help when it is required. It was steps such as these which ensured that each New Territories farmer, fisherman, housewife and child was kept

PROGRESS

17

in contact with those government services which are readily available to their urban counterparts.

In the field of agriculture the trend continued towards the culti- vation of horticultural crops and away from rice-growing. There was evidence of increasing interest in mechanization, particularly by sprinkler irrigation. Two irrigation dams were completed, as subsidiaries to the Plover Cove Water Scheme. The improved water supplies will allow more intensive land use. There was also a signifi- cant increase in the production of poultry-principally chickens- during 1968.

The opening of the Castle Peak Wholesale Fish Market in February has improved the coverage of marketing facilities for fishermen and brings the total number of wholesale fish markets operated by the Fish Marketing Organization to six. On the techno- logical side, steady progress was also maintained in the moderni- zation of the fishing fleet. Following on from the technical lead given and the financial assistance arranged by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, more of the modern clear-stern trawlers were built. Significantly, many were constructed without public assistance, indicating a newly-found confidence in the vessel's commercial viability.

During 1967 accurate information for members of the public was in greater demand than ever before and this need was well met from government sources by the Information Services Depart- ment and Radio Hong Kong. It was from this newly-increased demand that fresh impetus was derived and carried over into 1968. It was realized that much more could be done to meet the public's need for information, be it straightforward answers to an individual's questions or explanation and announcements about Government's progress or future planning.

The Public Enquiry Service doubled its staff and increased its number of enquiry centres from three to eight. These offices were mostly integrated within the new City District Officers' premises. Both because of their accessibility and because of the confidence which the reliability of the counter and telephone service inspired, the number of enquiries almost trebled over the previous year.

In March the Police Public Information Bureau was established to help create better understanding between the police and the

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PROGRESS

public, under the direction of a senior police officer. This unit began a busy life: within the first six months it had answered 12,000 enquiries, put out 1,500 press releases, introduced many police officers and their work to radio and television audiences and arranged for 10,000 school children to visit police stations.

       The Information Services Department put out more press releases, in both Chinese and English. More pamphlets, posters and window displays were prepared to illustrate particular events or policies. In December, Government's colourful and informative stand at the annual Chinese Manufacturers' Association Exhibition drew the interest of over a million visitors. But apart from such 'outdoor' means of passing information to keenly-interested residents, in- creasing attention was paid to the medium of television. During 1968 the number of television sets in people's homes more than doubled. It is possible for a million people to 'look and listen' any night. The main reason for this was the rapid initial growth of the second two-channel service by broadcast transmission which began towards the end of 1967. Nearly a quarter of a million homes had TV sets by the end of the year. In addition, many public TV sets were installed in parks and playgrounds in the urban areas and in many villages in the New Territories. These public sets regularly attracted and entertained quite large groups of spectators, thus providing an appropriate reward for the generous presentation of money by an anonymous donor and the work of the armed services which made the installation possible. Because of the rapidly-growing popularity and use of television Government decided to establish a Public Affairs Television Unit. This unit, which is expected to become operational in 1969, will produce television features and inserts, projecting and explaining government policies and activities for transmission within the normal programme schedules of the two commercial television companies. This, together with all the many other outlets for communication and discussion between the people and the Government, should make it much easier for every- one to know readily what is happening in the fast-moving society of Hong Kong.

LOOKING FORWARD

This review has dwelt mainly on the achievements of 1968. If this creates an impression of an unmitigated success story then it

PROGRESS

19

is near the truth, because even the most hardened cynics would find these achievements difficult to gainsay. The facts are for all to see. However, this is not the whole truth: there is, of course, much to be done. There are imperfections, shortcomings, unfilled crannies. While acclaiming Hong Kong's progress and indeed demanding some honest but modest acknowledgement of it, the Colony and the Government are too experienced to pretend that this is El Dorado- yet. For many people in the world life here would be relative para- dise, and, in fact, Hong Kong can now claim that it has the second highest standard of living in Asia, which is no mean achievement for a place which was left virtually in ruins after the 1939-45 war, but Hong Kong knows that it is still scaling mid-ranges. The efforts cannot be relaxed: to be smug or to accept a levelling off is to invite disaster. Export industries need to find still more new markets and new, attractive high-quality products, that innovate instead of merely improve and cheapen. People must adapt to the pressures for a wider dispersal of the population. More jobs, more school places, more amenities have to be placed within the reach of the expanding population but, above all, in this competitive world productivity has to be yet further increased. Better transport facili- ties need to be provided. Solutions to the mercurial difficulties faced or created by hawkers need to be found. The battle against drug traffic and the efforts to rehabilitate the addicted must continue. Some further devolution of administration may have to be devised. The aged and the mentally unfit need better care. The inventory is long, tough and costly and increasingly the challenges will be social. Many of these shortcomings are of course the result of the great influx of people into Hong Kong in the years since the war. While those immigrants provided an undoubted asset in many ways, they exerted heavy pressure on the various social and economic services provided by the Government.

       It is in the nature of the Hong Kong resident to be constantly aware of such things. Sometimes because he thinks more than he talks, he is accused of being blind to them. How then did the vast changes of the last two decades ever come to pass? It will be for the chroniclers in the years to come to record how, step by step, the Hong Kong people and its Government faced up to and over- came present-day problems and deficiencies almost entirely from the wealth they created themselves, with characteristic diligence,

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PROGRESS

ingenuity and hard work. It has been said that no underdeveloped territory can proceed to the economic 'take-off' stage without external aid but Hong Kong has got so far with negligible aid and in an intriguing atmosphere of free enterprise. If the chroniclers are objective, they will be bound to compare the changes and growth here with the progress of every other territory of 400 square miles, every other community of under four millions, half of whom are immigrants, every other war-ravaged and depopulated area and every other place whose natural resources are virtually confined to men and fish. And if they are objective they will wonder not that so little, but that so much, was done in the face of geographical and political discouragement. 1968 was not a year in which Hong Kong 'bounced back', but in which it rolled on, gathering substance with every turn, while its watchful eyes remained alert to the natural and man-made political and economic hazards which are constantly thrown up against its continued progress towards a higher standard of living for its people.

2

Employment

OF about one-and-a-half million people working in Hong Kong, 590,380 are in the manufacturing industries. This conclusion is reached from an estimate of figures recorded in the 1966 by-census. At that time, 1,454,730 persons were described as 'economically active' and 1,400,350 claimed to be working; of these, 55,350 were counted as employers and 136,300 were working on their own

account.

The general employment pattern in the 1966 by-census showed that about 47 per cent of the working population was engaged in construction, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities, about 24 per cent in various services, 17 per cent in commerce, seven per cent in communications and five per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern, the estimated employ- ment figures at the end of 1968 were: manufacturing 590,380, services 361,220, commerce 249,860, construction 92,370, agricul- ture, forestry and fishing 78,220, communications 102,560, public utilities 14,640, mining and quarrying 4,500. There were also some 5,740 in other work, making an estimated total of 1,499,490 employed.

These figures give a broader picture than that available from actual statistics collected by the Labour Department, which are confined only to voluntary returns from factories and industrial undertakings. They do not include out-workers, people in home industries, the building construction industry, agriculture and fishing, or in unrecorded factories and undertakings. They do not include people employed in commerce and community and personal services. In 1968, voluntary returns showed that 506,753 people were directly employed in factories and industrial undertakings, an increase of 62,781 compared with the 1967 figure. Those engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting, and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods accounted for a total of 211,791 and remained the largest section of this labour force. The plastics

22

EMPLOYMENT

industry, which also employs a large number of out-workers, remained the second largest employer.

      During the year under review, it appeared that the demand for labour in manufacturing industries exceeded the supply. There were 12,279 factories on record in the Labour Department at the end of the year. Many of them were small concerns. Of these, 8,454 were registered under the Factories and Industrial Under- takings Ordinance. The tables at Appendix III show developments in main industrial groups and selected industries.

       Industry in the New Territories is a comparatively recent develop- ment apart from traditional trades in the market towns and some pre-war textile factories in Tsuen Wan. In December 1968, the Labour Department had on record 1,029 factories in the New Territories with a labour force of 68,721. The bulk of this industrial population is concentrated in the new township of Tsuen Wan which is designed as a balanced community and includes factories, housing, recreational facilities, services, and other amenities. It has many modern textile factories and others producing metal- ware, enamelware, glassware, and plastics. There is also a govern- ment-owned flatted factory provided to meet the special requirements of small-scale silk weavers. On Tsing Yi Island, which is a part of the administrative district of Tsuen Wan, a cement factory has been established and a large generating plant is nearing completion. General boat yards which were formerly situated in Kowloon have been resited on the island and oil storage depots and an oil refinery are being developed in stages. Castle Peak and Sha Tin, two other areas in the New Territories, have been selected as sites for developing other large self-contained townships and work on the first stage of the development of Castle Peak has begun. Sawmills, timber yards, textile, carpet and other factories have already been opened at Castle Peak. There is some mining, mostly on a small-scale employing a labour force of 396, of whom 390 work at an iron mine at Ma On Shan. There are also several stone quarries in the New Territories with a total labour force of 318.

In many old market towns and fishing settlements in the New Territories, traditional village industries still provide employment in the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, bean-curd, soya sauce,

EMPLOYMENT

23

and preserved fruits, the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime, brick-manufacture, and boat building and repairing.

There are at present some 30,000 Chinese working in the United Kingdom, most of whom are from the New Territories. Remittances from these persons are of great importance to the economy of the New Territories. During the year under review such remittances in postal and money orders were estimated to be $31.3 million.

Although no current figures on unemployment are available, the increase in the number of people employed in registered and recorded factories and industrial undertakings since 1966 suggests that the number out of work at the end of the year was not materially different from the position in 1966 when, in the by-census, 22,930 persons claimed to be unemployed, and 31,450 stated they were looking for their first jobs. This unexpectedly high figure was due to the by-census taking place in August, just after the end of the school year.

As most countries maintain strict control over the entry of foreign nationals seeking employment, opportunities overseas for Hong Kong Chinese are limited. As Hong Kong itself is a good labour market, it is not easy to recruit workers for employment abroad unless the wages offered are particularly attractive. Prior to November 1, 1965, when the Contracts for Overseas Employ- ment Ordinance came into force, manual workers recruited for employment outside Hong Kong were subject only to administra- tive control. Since that date this ordinance has given legislative effect to relevant International Labour Conventions and requires every overseas contract for a manual worker to be in writing and signed by the employer or person acting on his behalf and the worker. The contract must be presented for attestation by the Commissioner of Labour before the worker leaves Hong Kong. The ordinance does not apply to anyone who is a crew member of a ship or aircraft or who holds an employment voucher issued under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 or who has been granted admission, on a permanent basis, to an overseas territory. The maximum period of service which may be stipulated in any such contract must not exceed two years if the worker is unaccompanied by his family or three years if the worker is so accompanied. On the expiry of the original contract, a worker may enter into a

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EMPLOYMENT

re-engagement contract if he does not wish to avail himself of immediate repatriation. A worker for overseas employment is also required to be medically examined before leaving Hong Kong, the cost of the examination and of all other formalities being borne by the prospective employer. In enforcing the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, the Labour Department works in close co-operation with the Immigration Department.

       During the year, 2,643 workers went overseas for employment as compared with 2,368 in the previous year and 2,002 in 1966. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants. The number of workers recruited for Malaysia and Brunei increased during the year, and these countries, which mainly require skilled and semi-skilled workers in the building trade, domestic servants, and fishermen continued to be the main receiving-areas. The British Phosphate Commission also recruited through a local agent 105 workers for Nauru and Ocean Islands. This figure again shows a decrease. Re-engagement contracts, as required under the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, numbered 1,607.

      Under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, which came into effect on July 1, 1962, the Labour Department has assumed responsibility for forwarding to the British Department of Employ- ment and Productivity applications for employment vouchers from local Commonwealth citizens seeking to enter Britain for unspecified employment. During the year, nine such applications were received and sent to the Department of Employment and Productivity and 21 vouchers were issued.

      At the request of the Department of Employment and Produc- tivity, the Labour Department also undertook to deliver 279 'Category A' vouchers issued under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act to local people of British nationality who had been offered specific jobs in Britain. Last year 190 vouchers were issued. The Department of Employment and Productivity also issued 672 labour permits to local residents of non-British nationality to enable them to work in Britain, mainly in Chinese restaurants.

      The Local Employment Service was further expanded and consolidated during the year and now provides the basic functions of a placement service introducing registered job seekers to prospec- tive employers and vice versa. During the year the service registered

Precision Industry

    As Hong Kong continues to develop as a sophisticated industrial economy, increasing numbers of precision manufacturers are realizing the benefits offered by the skilled and adaptable work force, liberal financial facilities and stable government of the Colony. Clockmaking is one such success story. The joint Hong Kong-American enterprise pictured here makes timepieces as accurate, durable and elegant as those produced anywhere in the world.

Below, a micrometer in skilled hands checks the tolerances of a clock pinion.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Quality control re- quires constant checks with powerful magni- fiers (left). Skilled

design teams (right) are constantly improv- ing the product.

K

PUBLIC

An operator tests parts in a modern spiromatic vibrating apparatus (left), while in the picture below a finish- ed movement is check- ed for accuracy against electronic vibro-

an

graph.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Spotless working conditions and stringent safety precautions ensure the safety of the workforce and the quality of the finished product. Above, this skilled operative wears a surgical mask as she operates a machine to luminise clock faces. Below, a special magnifying glass is used in one of the many quality checks carried out in this modern eight-storey factory in Hong Kong.

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25

14,809 workers, recorded 1,492 orders for workers from employers, and placed 1,522 workers in employment.

       A Youth Employment Advisory Service was established in February 1968. Work is initially confined to the preparation of career guides for youths and school leavers. When the guides have been completed in both English and Chinese the second phase will be introduced and talks and guidance interviews given to young people.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

In September 1965 the Government appointed an Industrial Training Advisory Committee, comprising representatives of industry, labour, other organizations, and the Government, under the chairmanship of the Commissioner of Labour. On its advice the Government appointed nine industrial committees to report on industrial training problems in the electronics, clothing, textiles, plastics, electrical apparatus and appliances, machine shop and metal working, automobile repairs and servicing, shipbuilding and ship repairs, and the building trades. The chairman and most of the members of the industrial committees are drawn from the industries concerned, although a small number of government officers also serve on them, with a Labour Department representa- tive as both member and secretary of each committee.

The industrial committees have completed their first task of classifying and describing the principal occupations and have, since late 1966, been identifying the present and future manpower needs of the industry or trades concerned by means of a series of manpower surveys. So far, seven such surveys have been carried out, covering the electronics, textiles, plastics, automobile repairs and servicing, machine shop and metal working, shipbuilding and ship repairs, and the building and civil engineering industries.

      Three separate reports incorporating the findings of these com- mittees and their recommendations on how to meet the training needs in the electronics, textiles, and plastics industries have been endorsed by the Industrial Training Advisory Committee and have been forwarded for consideration by Government. Other reports and surveys are in the course of preparation. Each of the industrial committees has begun to consider other important aspects such as training standards, examinations, and certification of skills.

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EMPLOYMENT

Responsibilities in the field of industrial training are divided among government departments. For the training of operatives, the principal responsibility for government's participation is dis- charged by the Labour Department in consultation with industry and with any government department which may have an interest. For craftsman training Government's participation is the responsi- bility of the Education Department where educational institutional training is concerned. Otherwise, it is the responsibility of the Labour Department, in consultation with such organizations as may be established to advise on such training, and with industry and other interested government departments. For technician and technologist training, the responsibility falls mainly on the Educa- tion Department. At technician level, a large part of the financial burden continues to rest upon the Government as far as recurrent expenditure is concerned although considerable capital resources have been supplied by industry for the development of the Hong Kong Technical College. At the technologist level, the provision of theoretical training remains in the hands of the Government so far as it is not provided by the universities.

       The Government has indicated that, while industry itself must be responsible for financing training at skilled and semi-skilled levels, it will assist by providing land free of premium for approved group training schemes organized by industry or by granting loans for the purchase of factory floor space for training purposes. The policy of granting land free of premium for operative training was extended in March 1967 to embrace any company whose employees need specialized training of a nature which cannot be included in a group scheme provided that there is an element of public interest involved. To date only one application for land free of premium has been received and approved.

Some industries have schemes for operative training although the scope and method vary widely. In the cotton spinning and weaving branches of the textile industry newly engaged workers without previous experience but with minimum qualifications serve a learnership of several months, finally becoming semi-skilled operatives. The same two branches of the industry also provide training at technician level for junior maintenance and shift engineers. This usually lasts two years depending on the requirements of

EMPLOYMENT

27

     individual mills. The garment manufacturing industry also has its schemes for the training of newly engaged operatives.

Training centres run by certain voluntary welfare organizations as well as by certain government departments offer various forms of vocational training, mainly for the seriously handicapped and physically disabled. These courses vary widely in standards and range from skilled trades to commercial training, domestic science, catering, and handicraft. A functional committee to co-ordinate these activities, where they have a vocational training content, was established under the Industrial Training Advisory Committee at the end of 1966.

      The Hong Kong Technical College is the principal government institution providing technical education at technologist, technician, craft, and pre-apprentice or pre-craft levels. There are, in addition, six government secondary technical schools, two government subsidized institutions, and one private school providing technical education for boys at secondary level. Seven government sub- sidized and thirty-two private schools also offer training along the lines of secondary modern schools. The courses, of varying stand- ards, are offered for aircraft mechanics, radio operators, radio technicians, typists, stenographers, book-keepers, dress-makers, painters, and motor-car drivers. The proposed Technical Institute will concentrate upon pre-apprenticeship, craft apprenticeship, and instructor training and will take over such courses at present being run by the Hong Kong Technical College, thus permitting the latter to concentrate on the higher levels.

      Apprenticeship systems in Hong Kong fall into either the traditional sector or the modern westernized sector. The latter system, based on the British pattern of craft apprenticeship, is followed by government workships and some of the larger in- dustrial concerns. A special feature is the award of overseas training opportunities to outstanding technical apprentices who have com- pleted local training. The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company of Hong Kong Limited, the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited, and the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited train substantial numbers of apprentices, while some public utility companies train a smaller number.

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EMPLOYMENT

In many Chinese factories run on traditional lines, the recruit- ment of apprentices is haphazard. No minimum qualifications are required, and apprentices are usually engaged through the introduc- tion of relatives or friends. Generally speaking, theoretical instruc- tion is seldom provided and little encouragement is given to apprentices to attend part-time classes in related technical subjects. They are left to pick up their skills by watching and imitating experienced artisans. Thus the skills acquired vary according to the apprentice's intelligence and the artisan's willingness and ability to teach and explain. Among the steps taken during the year to improve apprentice training are the establishment of three pilot apprenticeship schemes in medium sized Chinese engineering firms; the creation of a post for a Senior Training Officer (Apprenticeship) in the Labour Department; the endorsement by the Industrial Training Advisory Committee of recommendations put forward by the Apprenticeship Sub-committee on the contents of new legislation covering apprenticeship schemes and the replacement of the Apprenticeship Sub-committee by a functional committee responsible for investigating, advising, and making recommenda- tions on apprenticeship matters to the advisory committee.

On the recommendation of the Industrial Training Advisory Committee two experts were employed in 1967 to advise and assist Government in all matters relating to vocational and industrial training and in assessing the manpower resources and requirements of industry. The expert on manpower assessment left after seven weeks and the expert on vocational training who was employed initially for one year has agreed to stay in Hong Kong for a further period.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industry are on daily rates of pay, although piece-rates are common. Men and women receive the same rates of pay for piece-work but women are generally paid less when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis and are customarily paid weekly or twice monthly.

The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industry at the end of 1968 was $11 to $33 for skilled workers; $6.40 to $24 for

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29

semi-skilled; and $5.60 to $14.50 for unskilled. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, subsidized meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses, and paid rest-days as well as a lunar new year bonus of one month's pay.

       A consumer price index, intended as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, was published throughout the year. It varied from 111 to 118 (base of 100-period of September 1963 to August 1964). In December 1968 it stood at 112. The 1965 Salaries Commission recommended that a special index based on the expenditure of households spending less than $600 a month should be published and used as the basis for monthly adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. In accordance with this recommendation, a separate index, known as the Modified Consumer Price Index, was devised. A proportion of the wages of minor staff (Scale 1) in the public service is adjusted quarterly by reference to this index.

       The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance is the basis for the control of hours and conditions of work in industry. On December 1, 1967, amending legislation came into force which reduced the maximum standard working hours for women and for young people aged 16 and 17 years to nine-and-a-half hours a day and 57 a week as the first stage of a phased programme which will result in the reduction of the maximum standard hours for women and young persons to eight a day and 48 a week by December 1, 1971. The first stage of the programme was carried out without serious difficulties. The second phase of the programme came into force on December 1, 1968 and reduced the maximum standard working hours for women and for young persons aged 16 and 17 years to nine hours a day and 54 a week. In addition to providing for maximum daily hours, regulations made under the ordinance provide for limited overtime, weekly rest days, and rest periods for women and young persons.

       The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance provides for six annual holidays to be given to workers in industrial establishments and for sickness allowance up to 12 days a year. The ordinance was amended on May 24, 1968 to bring it generally in to line with general holidays provided under the Holidays Ordinance.

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EMPLOYMENT

Young persons between the age of 14 and 16 years may work only eight hours a day in industry with a break of one hour after five hours continuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry and no woman nor young person are allowed to work at night or underground in any mine. There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work ten hours a day or less. Government employees and those in concerns operating on western lines work eight hours. The restrictions on the hours of work for women, which were introduced in January 1959 and which have been amended to allow for the phased introduction of a 48 hours week, resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men in the same concern. By December 1, 1968, 203 factories were operating on eight-hour shifts. These consisted mainly of cotton spinning, cotton weaving, and silk weaving. It was estimated that 38,551 men and 43,024 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry. Except where continuous production demands a rotation of rest days, which are usually unpaid, Sunday is the most common rest day. Many male industrial workers do not have a rest day but it is customary to grant unpaid leave on request.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

       The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Governor on labour and industrial relations policies. All labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department which ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under International Labour Conventions are observed. The establishment of the department has been in- creased substantially and the organization of the department now provides for five divisions: Labour Relations, Development, Industry, Employment, and Industrial Health. Two labour advisers were appointed during the year to assist the Commissioner, one on labour legislation and the other on all aspects of industrial relations with particular reference to joint consultation.

       The Employment Ordinance 1968, which came into force on September 27, 1968 and which repealed and re-enacted, with certain amendments, the Employers and Servants Ordinance, was the most important piece of labour legislation enacted during the year. It lays down general provisions on the duration and termination

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31

of certain contracts of employment, provides for protection of wages of employees, and regulates the operation of employment agencies.

      With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, workers' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which bear allegiance to opposing political groups and which are registered as societies. Divided politically and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organizations.

      The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 65 affiliated unions were concentrated in shipyards, textile-mills, and public utilities. A further 16 unions, nominally independent, are friendly with the federation and participate in its activities. The other trade union federation, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathizes with the policies of the Taiwan authorities. Most of the members of its 65 affiliated unions and of the 31 nominally independent unions, which generally support the Trade Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Con- federation of Free Trade Unions. There are 74 independent unions, some of which continued to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

       The Labour Relations Division of the Labour Department dealt with 2,954 disputes, of which 418 involved large wage claims. This compared with 476 last year. There were a further 2,536 minor disputes compared with 2,881 in the previous year. Altogether there were 24 strikes and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 8,432 compared with 22,525 in 1967.

       The year saw encouraging signs of employers and employees getting together, on their own initiative and in a friendly manner, to talk about their mutual differences and to try to solve them. At the beginning of the year the employees of four large public transport companies, joined together to put forward, through their unions, proposals for increases in wages and allowances. The managements concerned responded by agreeing to negotiate

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EMPLOYMENT

with the unions. The negotiations were subsequently held directly and separately. By the middle of June settlement was reached in all the four organizations and mutually-agreed increases in basic pay and allowance were made retrospective from March 1. About 11,000 manual employees benefited from these wage adjustments. Some 2,000 stevedores negotiated through their union with their employers and received a 20-23 per cent increase in pay from June 1. The department has since 1958 advocated the establishment of joint consultation machinery. At least 10 large organizations are now known to have made joint consultative arrangements to provide better communication between management and workers on matters arising within the organization, such as health, safety, welfare, grievances, discipline, working arrangements and, in some cases, certain conditions of employment. To meet the greater need of industry for labour relations services, the advisory service and conciliation section of the department were combined to form the Labour Relations Service. To obtain a clear understanding of industrial relations in various establishments and to help firms develop better practices in communication, the labour adviser on industrial relations embarked on an extensive programme of visits.

      Major disputes in the year were due mainly to disagreement over piece rates (particularly in the woollen knitting industry), redun- dancy, dismissal, and insolvency. In an involved dispute at a woollen knitting factory, the department contributed to settlement by assisting both parties in creating a wage-fixing and wage- adjusting procedure for piece-work, which proved useful not only in this factory but later in other woollen knitting establishments.

The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are set out in the Trade Union Registration Ordinance and administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions. He deals with all applications for registration by new trade unions and trade union federations and registers any alterations to rules, changes of name, amalgamations, or dissolutions of registered unions. He also has the power to cancel the registration of a trade union in certain circumstances but the union has the right of appeal against his decision to the Full Court.

      Any person may be a member or an officer of a trade union provided he is ordinarily resident in the colony and habitually

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33

      engaged or employed in the trade or occupation with which the trade union is directly concerned. The appointment of union mem- bers to the executive must be made by decision of the members taken by means of secret ballot and members so appointed must not be less than 21 years of age. Except with the written consent of the Registrar, a person cannot, at the same time, be an officer of more than one registered trade union but this restriction does not apply to an officer of a trade union who simultaneously holds office in a registered trade union federation of which his union is a member. Any person convicted of crimes involving fraud, dishonesty, extortion, or membership of a triad society cannot be an officer of a trade union except with the consent of the Governor in Council.

       No registered trade union may be a member of any trade union or other organization established outside Hong Kong except with the consent of the Governor in Council.

       Registered trade unions are immune from actions in tort when acting in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute. In a like manner, individuals acting in agreement or combination are given protection from the law relating to conspiracy and tort provided that the act, if committed by one person, would not be punishable as a crime or not actionable if done without agreement or combina- tion. Peaceful picketing is allowed but violence, intimidation, and watching or besetting are prohibited.

       Registered trade unions are deemed to be corporate bodies for all purposes but, while two or more registered trade unions, irres- pective of their trade or industry, may amalgamate, membership of trade union federations is confined to registered trade unions within the same trade or industry.

       Registered unions are required by law to keep accurate accounts which must be audited by a person approved by the Registrar and to forward them to the Registrar within three months of the end of the union's financial year. Unions must also give to the Registrar, before April 1 each year, a return for the 12 months ended Decem- ber 31 in the previous year showing membership figures, the names and occupations of the principal officers, and the name of the auditor.

       The 318 unions on the register at the end of 1968 consisted of 251 workers' unions with a total declared membership of

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EMPLOYMENT

     166,653, plus 53 organizations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 5,461 and 14 mixed organizations with a total declared membership of 7,769.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

The Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department acts as an advisory service to Government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. The work of the division is pri- marily concerned with preventing occupational disease and protect- ing workers against health hazards in their working environment. Hazards to the health of workers are reported by the statutory notification of occupational diseases, by the factory inspectorate, or by officers of the division. Control is achieved by environmental and biological monitoring and the division has a laboratory with technicians trained in industrial hygiene.

The measurement of concentrations in the air of, amongst many, chromium, lead manganese, mercury, solvents, silica dust and sulphur dioxide, and the investigation of standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise, and lighting are a major part of the routine duties of the division. Medical examinations, including X-rays and pathological investigations, or workers exposed to risk of lead, radiation, or fluoride toxicity are also undertaken.

       Factories have always been encouraged to have adequate first aid facilities available for their workers and on August 23 statutory requirements for the number and contents of first aid boxes were made in the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (First Aid in Registrable Workplaces) Regulations 1968. These regulations also require that factories employing more than 100 employees must have at least one trained first aider. To meet the demand occasioned by this legislation 19 first aid classes for industrial workers were, arranged in conjunction with the St John Ambulance Associa- tion during the year. Employers' associations were also active in helping to arrange training for their members.

To encourage industry to provide occupational health services within the factories a booklet entitled 'Doctors in Industry' was published by the department and in December an evening course in occupational health, aimed at management and doctors, was arranged in conjunction with the Extra-mural Department of the University of Hong Kong.

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       The division also undertakes the clinical examination, case work, and medical assessment of injured workers under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. This important advisory service operates principally from the casualty departments of major government hospitals although many visits to homes and workplaces are made by the health visitors of the division.

       In May, a Smoke Abatement Adviser to the Commissioner of Labour was appointed following the recommendation of the Com- mittee on Air Pollution. This officer is in charge of the newly created Air Pollution Control Unit of the Labour Department which has as its primary responsibility the enforcement of the provisions of the Clean Air Ordinance. The unit has also taken over control of the 24 air pollution monitoring sites.

       Two surveys concerned with the causes and effects of industrial accidents were undertaken during the year and their results initiated a departmental programme to improve the standards of guarding to metal and plastic power presses.

The factory inspectorate of the Industry Division of the Labour Department is responsible, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, for the safety of workers employed in factories and industrial undertakings. Advice and assistance are given to management on ways and means of guarding dangerous parts of machinery, adopting safe working practices, and general layout of factories to achieve safe working conditions.

An important section of the Industry Division is the Industrial Safety Training Centre where the basic training of both the factory and labour inspectorates takes place and, additionally, refresher and advanced courses on industrial safety are held regularly. The centre also helps to organize safety committees and prepares book- lets and posters on industrial safety.

During the year, the scope and activities of the Industrial Safety Training Centre were expanded and, for the first time, courses on industrial safety were conducted for members of other government departments and nominated candidates from industrial undertakings. Lectures on industrial safety were also started at the Hong Kong Technical College and various vocational training centres.

3

Financial Structure

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies is still required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence to which it makes a substantial contribution. From 1958 to 1964 the sum was £1 million a year, but in 1964 an additional £6 million was made available over the years to 1970 as a contribution towards the cost of Army and Air Force building programmes. A new four-year Defence Costs Arrangement became effective in 1967-8 which superseded the previous measures. Under this arrangement, the contribution to recurrent defence expenditure has been increased to £3,925,000 a year, with a sum of £2,400,000 made available during the four-year period of the arrangement, for a services' capital works programme. At the same time, the main- tenance function of HBM Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in Hong Kong in respect of certain service property and the expendi- ture involved, has been taken over by the Public Works Department of the Hong Kong Government.

      Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies similar to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of the Colony other than 'below the line' operations of various official funds.

      A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after the war. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively, a series of surpluses, some of them substantial, have been accumu- lated. Figures for the past four years are shown in Appendix IX.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

37

The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic con- ditions which the Colony has had to face since the war is a consider- able achievement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. These annual capital spendings have been as high as $735 million; in 1967-8 they totalled nearly $461 million.

The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, is that exceptionally rapid increases in population generated internal economic activity which raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreciable increases in the rates of tax. Annual revenue expanded from $292 million in 1950-1 to $1,900 million in 1967-8. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend has been continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before Government could develop the public and social services necessary for the increased population. However, as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 50 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent. Consequently, in that year the surplus of revenue over expenditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure and an overall deficit of $45 million occurred. Subsequent budgets anticipated further and substantial deficits, but the actual results suggest that the economic strength and resilience of the Colony was underestimated, at any rate earlier on, for 1965-6 is the only year in which another deficit has been recorded.

       During the years 1960-1 to 1964-5 there was an upsurge in recur- rent revenue, arising mainly from the very active trading conditions prevailing in the Colony, with the result that, while recurrent ex- penditure increased to approximately the levels expected, it absorbed a smaller than anticipated proportion of the recurrent revenue. By 1963-4 that proportion was down to 65 per cent before the ratio again resumed its upward trend. At the same time capital expendi- ture, though rising substantially, was lower than originally forecast while there were substantial accruals of capital revenue, due mainly to heavy receipts from land sales. The year 1964-5 produced a

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surplus of $78 million, but ended on a somewhat restrained note. While the export trade remained buoyant the property market turned dull and this, to a degree, affected other sectors. The deficit of 1965-6 reflected this temporary set back and was due partially to special measures arising from it but mainly to substantial increases in civil service emoluments, some back-dated to the previous year, and to a large reduction in land sales revenue. 1966-7 saw a swing back into surplus which has persisted despite further falls in land sales revenue and the continuation of the upward trend in the recurrent expenditure/revenue ratio. The latter was 73 per cent in 1967-8 and is estimated at 79 per cent for the current financial year. The swing was assisted by a small increase in taxation but a more important factor was a falling-off in capital works expendi- ture as certain major projects, particularly the Plover Cove Reservoir Scheme and certain major land development schemes, neared or reached completion and were not yet replaced by new projects of comparable magnitude. The 1967-8 budget anticipated a deficit of $37 million but a surplus of $133.5 million was achieved in spite of civil disturbances which plagued half the year and cost $33 million in special expenditure. The main cause of the surplus was that although revenues were unaffected, these was a marked under- spending due to some degree of diversion of government activity to dealing with the disturbances. The Colony's General Revenue Balance did not, however, receive the full benefit of this surplus as some $43.2 million was absorbed in the loss its assets suffered from the devaluation of sterling in November 1967.

The budget for 1968-9 introduced no taxation changes but antic- ipated a $13 million deficit, while not taking into account salaries increases for the civil service, announced later in the year. This deficit, of course, indicates that revenue was not expected in this year to finance all the capital expenditure arising from Government's very heavy programme of non-recurrent public works mainly for more schools, medical facilities, housing and roads.

      Revenue and expenditure for the two previous years, together with the estimates for this financial year are detailed and compared in Appendices VI and VII. In 1967-8, revenue at $1,900 million was $14 million more than the original estimate. The head showing the largest excess was internal revenue up $23 million due mainly to

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

39

      higher salaries and corporation profits tax receipts which reflected the prosperity of the Colony during last year. There were short- falls on three recurrent heads (duties, fees of court and Kowloon- Canton Railway) but all other recurrent heads produced excesses. Again, as in the previous year, the biggest shortfall was in capital receipts from land sales which were below the estimate by some $33 million. Expenditure for the financial year 1967-8 was $1,766 million against the estimate of $1,923 million showing a shortfall of $157 million. Of the $446 million voted for civil engineering, water and building projects under public works non-recurrent heads of expenditure only $348 million was actually spent.

       At March 31, 1968, net available public assets were $926 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization Fund as a reserve against possible future deficits on current account. According to normal government practice, the statement of assets and liabilities excludes the public debt of the Colony from the liabil- ities. The debt at March 31, 1968 was $69.9 million or the equivalent of approximately $18 per head of population. Indebtedness decreased by $5.5 million during the year, owing mainly to the repayment of £200,000 of the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport. This loan is repayable in 15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on October 1, 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $26.7 million on March 31, 1968.

        In addition to the Assets and Liabilities referred to, there exists for special purposes the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund (see Appendix XIII). The Development Loan Fund, of $602 million, is used to finance social and economic development projects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes. At March 31, 1968 outstanding commit- ments from funds allocated exceeded liquid assets of $8 million by $156 million. The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is for the support and development of social welfare services in the Colony. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $8.7 million was credited during the period June 30, 1965 to March 31, 1968, by which date grants and loans

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FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

amounting to $12.43 million had been approved. A further sum of $2.2 million being unclaimed prize money as at March 31, 1968 is held in deposit. Details of Public Debt and Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are shown in Appendices X and XI.

      The audit of all public accounts and certain special funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Annual reports on the accounts by the Director of Audit and the Director General are presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

EXCISE DUTIES

      There is no general tariff and only five groups of imported com- modities-alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol-are subject to import duty. Excise duties are levied on the same products manufactured locally. All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture, or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed.

      The rates of duty are, in general, low. A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Commonwealth origin is at present levied at between 66 per cent and 89 per cent of the rate for non-Commonwealth liquor; Hong Kong produced beer enjoys a further preferential margin over Commonwealth beer. Duty on all types of liquor ranges from $1.60 per gallon, on Hong Kong brewed beer, to $73 a gallon for liquors and spirits of non-Commonwealth origin.

      The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $2.50 a pound for Chinese prepared tobacco to $11.25 a pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted for unmanufac- tured tobacco of Malawi origin and to cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth manufacture.

      The duties on motor spirits and other light or heavy oils now stand at $1.80 and 10 cents a gallon respectively. The duty on lique- fied petroleum gas is two cents a pound. The general rate of duty on diesel oils for road vehicles is $1.30 per gallon, although public omnibus operators and marine and industrial users pay reduced rates. The rates of duty on table waters and methyl alcohol are 48 cents and $7.50 a gallon respectively.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

RATES

41

       Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and part of the New Territories. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In those parts of the New Territories which are statutorily subject to rates, the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Com- missioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up to date. Revenue from rates has more than doubled over the last six years. The estimate for 1968-9 is $300 million.

       There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, chari- table and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments receive back the amount of rates paid in the form of either direct subventions or contributions toward rates.

INTERNAL REVENUE

      Income was first subjected to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 as a temporary war-time measure and no attempt was made to collect tax after the liberation of the Colony, although the ordinance was not repealed until 1947. However, a new source of revenue was by then essential and it was decided to impose a direct tax on earn- ings and profits as a permanent measure. Under the Inland Revenue Ordinance 1950, tax is charged only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside the Colony whether remitted to Hong Kong or not. The ordinance aims at simplicity and charges tax generally at source and at a flat rate rather than in the hands of the eventual recipients on a sliding scale. Thus there is no need to ascertain the total income of each individual.

      Income and profits are grouped in four categories, each of which is subject to a separate tax-Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. A fifth and aggregate tax known as Personal Assessment is chargeable on people who so elect. In that case, the individual's income, otherwise chargeable to the four separate taxes (but excluding Profits Tax in corporations), is aggregated in a single sum which is reduced by personal allowances and tax charged on

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FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

a sliding scale, granting reduced rate reliefs. The privilege of election is not available to non-residents. There is no tax on dividends distributed by corporations.

The standard rate of tax was raised to 15 per cent from April 1, 1966, having stood at 124 per cent for the previous 15 years. Business profits, interest received from loans and the interest element of pur- chased annuities are charged to tax at the full standard rate. However, where the profits of a non-corporate business are below $7,000 for any year, no tax is charged and tax chargeable on such a business is restricted to one-half of the amount by which the profits exceed $7,000. Property Tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building in the Colony with the exception of those in the New Territories and those wholly occupied by the owner as his residence. If the rent receivable is controlled by reference to the 1941 rental, the charge is at one-half of the standard rate, otherwise tax is payable at the full standard rate. Salaries Tax is charged on the total income from employment reduced by allowances which are at present: for the taxpayer, $7,000; for his wife, $7,000; for each of the first two children, $2,000; for each of the third to sixth children, $1,000; and for each of the seventh to ninth, $500. This makes a maximum allowance for children of $9,500. Premia paid for life insurance are allowed to an amount not exceeding one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. Tax is charged on a scale starting at 24 per cent on the first $5,000 of the net income and increasing at each subsequent $5,000 stage until at $45,000 the maximum rate of 30 per cent is reached. The total Salaries Tax payable by any individual is restricted to an amount not exceeding the standard rate on his gross income, that is to say 15 per cent. It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1968-9 will be $523 million.

7

Estate Duty generally follows the lines of the British tax of the same name. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong. The rates of duty range from three per cent on estates valued between $100,000 and $200,000 to 25 per cent on estates over $4 million. Yield for the year ending March 31, 1969 is estimated at $18 million.

      Stamp Duty is modelled on the British pattern and fixed duties are charged on various documents. The lowest is 15 cents on bills

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

43

of lading and receipts and the highest $20 on deeds. Ad valorem duty on various other documents ranges from 25 cents on $1,000 to $2 on $100. As from April 1, 1967, a fixed duty of $20 was substituted for the $2 per cent ad valorem duty on conveyance of land where the sale price does not exceed $20,000 and the stamp duty was reduced to $1 per cent ad valorem duty where the sale price exceeds $20,000 but does not exceed $40,000. A special duty at the rate of three per cent is payable on the first conveyance of any parcel of land after September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty during the current financial year is $60 million.

      Substantial revenue accrues from Entertainments, Dance Halls, Bets and Sweeps Taxes and it is estimated they will yield $57.6 million during the current year. Entertainments Tax is charged on the price of admission to places of entertainment, the rate varies with the amount charged but averages about 22 per cent. Certain types of entertainment given for charitable or educational purposes are taxed at a lower rate or may be exempt. Public Dance Halls Tax exacts a levy of 10 per cent on all dance halls charges. Bets and Sweeps Tax imposes 7 per cent on totalizator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

      The Hotel Accommodation Tax, introduced in July 1966, provides money for the promotion of tourism. The rate of tax is two per cent of the charge made for accommodation by the proprietor of any hotel containing 10 or more rooms normally available for guests. This levy is estimated to yield $2.2 million in the current

year.

Every business carried on in the Colony except one which is not carried on for the purpose of gain or one which is carried on by a charitable institution must be registered and pay an annual registration fee of $25. Where the business is very small, the Com- missioner may exempt it. These fees are expected to yield approx- imately $3.4 million.

CURRENCY

      When Hong Kong was founded in 1841, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade through- out the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar. By a proclamation of 1842, Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were

44

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

declared to be legal tender in the Colony although government accounts were kept in sterling until 1862. There were several un- successful attempts to change the monetary basis from silver to gold.

A mint was set up in 1866 and produced a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar, but the new coin was unpopular and the mint closed down two years later. (The machinery was later sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.)

      An Order of the Queen in Council, dated February 2, 1895, authorized the minting in India of a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar. In Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar although the latter still remained both legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first bank notes in the Colony, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation followed suit. Although not legal tender, these notes increasingly became the customary means of payment because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver. By 1890 they had become established by con- vention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks, (the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (now the Chartered Bank). By then the Oriental Bank had closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India had been reorganized. In 1911 this reorganized bank (now the Mercantile Bank Limited) was added to the list of author- ized note-issuing banks).

The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. The Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues in exchange for certificates of indebtedness.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

45

The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice has kept its assets in sterling and has operated in a similar manner to tradi- tional Colonial Currency Boards. The ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

At the same time the Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960, because of the heavy expense of keeping clean notes in circulation, a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a British florin was re-introduced. Although banks have been asked to withdraw all notes received in the course of business, many still remain unredeemed although few appear to be in active circulation. The dollar notes and coins are backed by security funds which maintain their assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents, and notes of the value of 1 cent.

The total currency in nominal circulation at December 31, 1968

was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins and notes

...

$1,983,661,000

$

13,953,487

68,251,934

64,659,251

      The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modi- fications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

The exchange value of the Hong Kong dollar was established in 1935 at approximately 1s 3d. On the setting up of the International Monetary Fund after World War II, the Hong Kong dollar was given its own gold parity at a rate reflecting this relationship. Hong Kong followed fully Britain's 1949 devaluation, like the greater part of the sterling area. This relationship with sterling was

46

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

     at no time a statutory one; it was established and maintained by the operations of the Exchange Fund in conjunction with the note- issuing banks. It came, however, to be generally regarded, in com- merce and banking, as a fixed relationship; while Hong Kong, as both a dependent territory and a member of the sterling area, was required in practice to keep its official reserves and the greater part of the reserves of the banking system (there being no central bank) in the form of sterling. Towards the end of 1967 Hong Kong's total sterling assets were of the order of £350 million.

     In consequence of this situation, when sterling was devalued by 14.3 per cent in November 1967, the immediate effect was a loss to the Colony which may be estimated at $700 million; and Hong Kong was faced with the dilemma of following the pound down and so letting the loss fall directly and fully on the standard of living of the people (by reason of their almost total reliance on imported food and other goods) along with a costly and completely unnecessary deterioration of terms of trade; or of not devaluing the Hong Kong dollar and taking the loss for the most part, directly on the reserves of Government and the commercial banks. After an initial devaluation which maintained temporarily the previous relationship with sterling, the Hong Kong dollar was revalued four days later by 10 per cent against sterling to a new rate of 1s 44d, equivalent to a 5.7 per cent devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar from its previous international parity. This decision cost Hong Kong public funds $450 million or nearly $120 per head of popula- tion. This sum included nearly full compensation paid from the Exchange Fund to commercial banks against their consequential losses.

These events finally made it clear that the old relationship with the pound was no longer appropriate to Hong Kong's present economic situation. On the other hand, it was not possible for Britain to allow any significant deversification of Hong Kong's sterling assets of £350 million into other currencies, in view of her own depleted reserves; while at this stage she was not prepared to offer guarantees of the international value of sterling reserves. Negotiations in London in April and May resulted in a novel arrangement whereby Hong Kong was given the right to use its sterling assets to purchase British Government bonds, of seven

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

47

years maturity, denominated in Hong Kong dollars. The rate of in- terest was per cent below the current cost of United Kingdom Treasury borrowing for seven years. These bonds were purchasable to a value of £100 million or 50 per cent of official reserves, which- ever was greater, up to an absolute maximum of £150 million. This arrangement went far to safeguarding the value of Hong Kong's reserves in terms of the Hong Kong dollar but safeguarded their international value only if it were possible to avoid for seven years a devaluation of the Hong Kong dollar.

In July 1968 with the backing of the so-called Basle arrangement whereby credits of £2,000 million were made available to Britain by the Group of Ten, Britain offered all members of the sterling area, including Hong Kong, a free guarantee in terms of US dollar value of all officially held sterling in excess of 10 per cent of each country's total official external reserves, in return for the under- taking by them to maintain a minimum proportion of their reserves in sterling (roughly the proportion existing when the offer was made; for Hong Kong this was 99 per cent). The guarantee is for five years from September 25, 1968. Hong Kong accepted this new scheme in place of the Hong Kong bond scheme. The scheme has many obvious advantages over the earlier scheme. It does, however, like that scheme, raise one problem. It applies only to officially held sterling, which represents only about half of Hong Kong's total sterling assets; a scheme was therefore being worked out towards the end of the year for bringing under the cover of the guarantee the greater part of sterling held by the banking system. When this has been done the Hong Kong dollar will be protected from the effects of any future change in sterling exchange rates so far as its capital assets are concerned. This does not mean, however, that the value of the Hong Kong dollar could necessarily be maintained if such an event was followed by substantial devaluations by Hong Kong's trade competitors to the detriment of her trading position.

BANKING

      Bank deposits in the Colony increased steadily to reach a record figure of $10,367 million at the end of the year, representing an increase of 27 per cent over the previous year's figure. Loans and advances increased by $694 million, and, as a percentage of bank

48

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

deposits, amounted to 58.2 per cent at the end of the year, compared with 65.5 per cent at the end of 1967.

     Banking business in the Colony is licensed by the Government and carried on subject to the provisions of the Banking Ordinance, which deals with the supervision of banks and requirements of minimum capital and reserves, liquidity ratios, limitations on the holdings of certain classes of assets, and control over the opening of branches. Monthly returns are made by all banks to the Com- missioner of Banking, who makes regular inspections.

     At the end of 1968 there were 71 incorporated banks in Hong Kong, the same number as at the end of 1967. A total of 349 bank- ing offices existed at the end of 1968, representing an increase of 18 during the year. Fifty-one banks are authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Many have branches and correspondents throughout the world and Hong Kong offers a comprehensive banking service of the highest order. Monthly clearings during the year averaged $6,164 million. The table at Appendix XIV illustrates the expansion of banking activities over the past 13 years.

Power

    Electric power provides the sinews for a modern industrial community as well as the amenities associated with rising living standards. Hong Kong's electricity consumption is growing apace (from March 1967 to September 1968 the industrial consumption index alone rose from a base of 100 to 130) and two new power stations are progressively being brought into commission to cope with the demand.

Below, Hong Kong's astonishing vertical perspectives make this worker stringing transmission cables on a hillside just a few feet from the ground appear to be floating amidst the downtown skyscrapers.

These pictures and that on the following page also show scenes from one of the major private engineering feats of the year, the stringing of overhead trans- mission lines right across Hong Kong Island to carry power from the new generating station at Ap Lei Chau to major population centres on the northern shore. Skilled Hong Kong workmen, working with an Australian con- tractor, completed the job on schedule to provide an additional 132,000 volts capacity to the Island's electric grid.

IGRARI

-

X

華瓊

門樂百

PARAMOUNT

The street illuminations (left) and eye-catching store window (above) show just two of the thousands of ways in which Hong Kong depends on electricity. Below, the new Ap Lei Chau Island generating plant, serving Hong Kong Island.

HONG

MONG PUBLI

PUBLIC LIBR

   Hong Kong's other new power station is nearing completion on Tsing Yi Island, off Kowloon Peninsula. It will eventually triple the power supply available to Kowloon and the New Territories. Below, the end product: In a scene typical of the age of electricity, two Hong Kong youngsters watch television by the soft glow of an electric lamp.

4

Industry and Trade

      HONG KONG's industrial and commercial sectors continued to forge ahead strongly in 1968. New record levels were achieved in produc- tion and exports, as detailed later in this chapter.

Hong Kong is an industrial territory with an economy based on exports rather than on its domestic market. At the same time it remains basically a free port. The change from dependence upon entrepôt trade has taken place over the past 19 years, although before that industry was not entirely new to Hong Kong. By the turn of the century, shipbuilding and shipbreaking industries had developed as a natural extension of port activities. Some light industries were established before 1939. But industrial development on a significant scale did not take place until political changes in China, followed by the Korean war and consequent trade restric- tions, signalled the end of the entrepôt trade as a basis for the economy. The simultaneous arrival of refugees from the Mainland brought in additional manpower and in some cases technical knowledge and capital. As a result, while the entrepôt trade declined, there was an increase in the manufacture and export of cotton textiles-a development which proved to be the foundation for subsequent light industrial expansion.

       United States regulations prohibiting the purchase of Chinese manufactured goods provided another stimulus to the manufacture of certain categories of products in Hong Kong for the American market. Certification procedures designed by the Commerce and Industry Department, in association with the United States authori- ties, were introduced to prevent the substitution of Chinese goods. This protected the interests of local manufacturers and permitted exports of Hong Kong products to the American market. Restric- tions in the trade in cotton textiles between Japan and the United States in the late 1950's caused American buyers to turn to Hong Kong as an alternative source of supply. Since then the United

50

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

States has become the largest market for Hong Kong products, particularly for textiles and garments.

Hong Kong's industrial economy thus derives from various circumstances, few of which originally appeared favourable. But with these circumstances-all of them outside Hong Kong's control and some of them fortuitous-must also be considered the political stability of the territory and its encouragement of enterprise. There has been a steadfast policy of preserving free competition, of generally refusing to accept demands for protection of particular industries or demands for retaliation against other countries' restrictive actions. Widespread skill in merchandising techniques inherited from the entrepôt era, plus highly developed banking insurance and shipping systems, have helped to make this policy successful. For Hong Kong the industries likely to survive and prosper are those whose products can either be exported without subsidy or be sold in the domestic market without protection. Hong Kong has therefore remained true to the traditions established when it was an entrepôt, with no tariffs and few restrictions on the entry of goods from any quarter of the globe.

In matters affecting internal and external trade, the Director of Commerce and Industry is assisted by advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. This is a body of unofficial senior repre- sentatives of commerce, industry, banking, etc, nominated by the Governor, of which the Director is Chairman. It meets regularly at least once a month. A more specialized board, the Cotton Advisory Board, first appointed in 1961, is consulted on matters affecting the cotton textile industry.

INDUSTRY

The general facility with which industry may be established and conducted in Hong Kong has attracted investors. Most indus- trialists are Hong Kong residents of Chinese race, and the greater part of their capital resources are self-generated. In recent years, however, overseas interests-in particular American, Japanese, British and Australian-have increasingly entered into licensing arrangements with Hong Kong firms and into other forms of industrial co-operation. The variety of goods produced in Hong Kong is now considerable. In general, while heavy industry such

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

51

as shipbuilding continues to be important, Hong Kong is best known for the competitive price and range of its light industrial products and their rapidly improving quality.

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIVITY

The rapid industrialization which has taken place in Hong Kong during the past 20 years has brought with it an increasing need to improve the utilization of all industrial resources, particularly that of manpower. Following intensive study by industry and Govern- ment and much preparatory work by a representative Working Committee and later a Provisional Productivity Council, the Hong Kong Productivity Council was established by statute in January 1967. The council comprises a chairman and 20 members, all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 members represent manage- ment, labour, academic and professional interests. The other 10 members represent government departments closely associated with productivity matters.

The terms of reference of the council are wide ranging and are aimed at promoting by all means possible increased productivity of industry in Hong Kong. To achieve this, the council works in close co-operation with other organizations active in this field, such as the Hong Kong Management Association. The council formally established a Productivity Centre on April 1, 1967 to continue and intensify the work initiated by a provisional centre established in April 1966. Over 50 professional and administrative officers had been appointed to the staff of the centre by the end of 1968 and recruitment continues. The new centre is located in Gloucester Building in the heart of the business district of Hong Kong.

      By the beginning of 1968 the provisional centre had established sufficient facilities to support an intensive programme of produc- tivity training and consultation for industry, and courses of training had commenced. During 1968, 22 training courses and study missions were arranged by the centre, involving participation by some 650 persons. Many of the local courses were run in conjunc- tion with the University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, while some of the overseas courses were organized in conjunction with the Asian Productivity Organization and the

52

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Japan Productivity Centre. To ensure the maximum advantage to participants, classroom training was followed up by practical work on the factory floor wherever possible.

      By the end of the year a number of consultancy projects were in hand. It is likely that this essential service to industry will be much expanded as further professional staff are employed.

      Hong Kong was host to the eighth Workshop Meeting of the Asian Productivity Organization in February 1968 and was represented at the ninth Governing Body Meeting of the APO in Tokyo in May 1968. At that meeting Dr the Honourable S. Y. Chung, OBE, Director for Hong Kong, was elected first Vice-Chairman of the Asian Productivity Organization.

TEXTILES

The textile industry not only dominates Hong Kong's economy, accounting for 60 per cent of its domestic exports and employing 42 per cent of its industrial labour force, but is also a significant factor in international trade in textiles (see International Economic Relations below). In all sectors, the manufacture and processing of cotton goods predominate. The cotton spinning mills, operating some 770,000 spindles, are among the most up-to-date in the world. Cotton yarn counts range from 10's to 60's carded and combed, in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1968 was estimated at approximately 322 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weavers. In the piecegoods weaving section, which has 23,700 looms, grey cotton drills, canvas, shirtings, poplins, ginghams and other bleached and dyed cloth and prints are the main items. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1968 was estimated to be approximately 780 million square yards. A con- siderable quantity of this was exported as cloth, but much of it was used by garment manufacturers.

The use of fibres other than cotton and new processes in the finishing and garment industries have assumed significance. Ten textile concerns are producing polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose yarn for weaving into shirting and other fabrics for which there is now a more rapid growth in demand than for comparable cotton products. The demand for woollen knitwear has continued to grow. The production of the woollen and worsted spinning industry goes

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

333

53

     mostly to the domestic knitting industry although some yarn is woven into cloth. Other woven products include silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, tapes, military webbing, lace, mosquito netting, carpets and rugs. The dyeing, printing and finishing sectors produce a wide range of multi-colour screen and roller prints, pre-shrunk and permanent-pressed fabrics by several processes under licence, and polymerized materials with drip-dry characteristics.

       The production of garments remains the largest sector within the industry, employing 71,700 workers. A wide range and variety of clothing, from high fashion dresses to cotton singlets, is produced for export all over the world. Embroidered blouses, beaded or sequinned woollen cardigans, silk and brocade, and evening coats have worldwide popularity while, in conformity with world trends, demand has increased significantly for permanent press garments. Custom and mail order tailoring, principally of men's suits, has developed rapidly in recent years as an important branch of in- dustry. Knitting mills produce towels, tee-shirts, underwear and nightwear, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool and other fabrics. From a total of $862 million in 1961, the value of exports of clothing has risen to $3,014 million in 1968, produced by some 1,240 factories.

OTHER LIGHT INDUSTRIES

      In the ever-widening range of light industry the most prominent, after textiles, is the manufacture of plastic articles. Skill in the cutting of moulds and dies, together with the ability to meet short orders, have resulted in increased exports of a very wide variety of products. These include artificial flowers, toys and dolls, house- hold ware, household furniture of polypropylene, and PVC sheeting and coated fabrics. The industry produced for export goods worth some $1,035 million during the year.

       There has been spectacular growth in the electronics industry. The manufacture or assembly of transistor radios began only in 1959 but since then exports of transistor radios have increased to reach a total of 16 million sets worth $329 million in 1968. The industry exports its products all over the world with its principal markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. The manu- facture of electronic components is also making rapid progress.

54

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

A number of leading American electronic manufacturers are established in Hong Kong. Silicon transistors and diodes, con- densers, transformers, capacitors, resistors, loudspeakers and printed circuit boards are produced and exported in substantial quantities. Other electronic products include television sets and tuners, transceivers, computer memory cores, integrated circuits, oscillating coils, transistor amplifiers and magnetic reed switches.

While the growth of the plastics and electronics industries illustrate how quickly Hong Kong can react to export opportunities, older established light industries of many varieties have continued to develop and expand. They include the manufacture of air- conditioners, aluminiumware, clocks and watches, cordage, elec- trical appliances and equipment, food and beverages, footwear, fibre glass products, light metal products-especially stainless steel ware-optical and photographic equipment, paint, vacuum flasks, furniture and furnishings. The manufacture of hair wigs has developed dramatically during the last few years, the principal market being the United States. Exports during 1968 were valued at $318 million. Some 13,930 workers are employed in their manu- facture.

HEAVY INDUSTRIES

Hong Kong's major shipyards are equipped to build ocean-going vessels of more than 10,000 tons deadweight and also to construct and install engines. At the other end of the scale, pleasure-craft and utility vessels of all kinds, including ocean-going yachts, vehicle and passenger ferries, sloops, cruisers, speed-boats of wood and fibre glass, yawls and steel lighters are regularly produced for local use and for export. The traditional Chinese junk, slightly modified from the basic design used for many centuries, has also been exported as a comfortable and stable pleasure-craft.

Activity in the shipbreaking industry, which had declined consid- erably since 1961, showed a slight improvement during the year as the tonnage of ships broken up increased somewhat. Steel rolling mills which used to depend primarily on the scrap obtained from ship- breaking, are now more dependent upon imported steel billets and locally collected scrap. These mills produce mild steel bars, window sections, angles and channels and other metal products used in building construction. Several rolling mills produce brass and

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

55

aluminium sheets and circles, most of which are used for the manufacture of consumer goods. Although some rods and bars are shipped abroad, principally to South-East Asian countries, the steel mills rely heavily on domestic sales which have suffered from the decline in the building industry. For some time the industry has had to face severe competition from imported bars and rods selling at low prices; and, as a result, many mills are operating at reducing capacity. All available data seems to indicate that the capacity of the industry considerably exceeds existing and future probable demand and that it will need to contract to achieve economic viability.

      Hong Kong's separation from its principal markets and lack of indigenous raw materials are among the factors which have produced a concentration of resources on light industry, while heavy industry has developed only where a domestic market was available.

      In similar fashion, the expansion of light industry has stimu- lated the manufacture of machinery and parts. Hong Kong-made machinery built originally for domestic industry is now exported to many overseas markets. Of particular importance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines, power presses, lathes and planing machines.

      Aircraft engineering is another important industry; one large establishment provides maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines using Hong Kong Airport. Facilities are available for complete airframe and engine overhaul, and work has been received from countries as far afield as Australia and Canada.

LAND FOR INDUSTRY

      Government land development programmes include the provision of land for industrial use. At Kwun Tong 641 acres have been provided of which 154 are solely for industrial use. At the end of the year 642 factories were already operating, employing 63,000 workers or over 14.7 per cent of Hong Kong's industrial work force. At Kwai Chung a substantial area of land has already been formed and a number of new factories are already in operation in the northern part of the town. The opening in October of a new coastal road between Lai Chi Kok and Kwai Chung should influence

56

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     development in this area. The first state of a new reclamation scheme is now in progress at Castle Peak. Planning is also in progress for a limited first stage of reclamation at Sha Tin.

      In the development areas of the Tsuen Wan complex, Kwun Tong and neighbouring Sam Ka Tsuen, purchasers of industrial land leases can pay by instalments over 20 years. Purchasers of industrial land elsewhere in the Colony can pay in four equal interest-free instalments spread over two years. During 1968 there was greater demand for land for industrial development and nine industrial sites were auctioned. Towards the end of the year, sub- stantial interest was shown by industrialists in purchases of land in the Kwai Chung area.

EXTERNAL TRADE

Hong Kong's external trade in 1968 advanced to a record level; the combined value of imports, exports and re-exports of merchan- dise trade reached $23,042 million, an increase of $3,812 million or 20 per cent over that for 1967. This was due to remarkable rises in domestic exports and imports of 26 per cent and 19 per cent respectively. Cargo tonnage by all means of transport totalled 11.9 million tons. Trade statistics, including a breakdown by coun- tries and commodities and comparisons with previous years, are contained in Appendices XV to XXI.

Imports were valued at $12,472 million. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, most of Hong Kong's foodstuffs have to be imported, and food was the principal import, valued at $2,468 million, representing 20 per cent of all imports. The chief items of edible imports were rice and other cereals, fruit and vegetables, live animals, fish and fish prepara- tions, meat and meat preparations, and dairy products and eggs. Imports of raw materials and semi-manufactured goods for industry included textile yarn and fabrics, raw cotton, base metals and plastic moulding materials. Capital goods imported included machinery and transport equipment, while mineral fuels were also imported in large quantities.

      The sources of imports are determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade relationships. Japan overtook China as Hong Kong's principal supplier in 1968, providing

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

57

22 per cent of all imports. Of imports from Japan 37 per cent were textile yarn and fabrics; the rest was made up of electrical apparatus and appliances, photographic goods, watches, plastic materials and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from China, the second largest supplier, accounted for 19 per cent of imports from all sources, and 49 per cent of all food imports. Other items imported from China included crude animal and vegetable materials, textile fabrics, paper, china ware, clothing and base metals. Imports from the United States registered an increase of $316 million or 22 per cent. The principal imports from the United States were raw cotton, tobacco, machinery, fruit, plastic materials and medicinal and pharmaceutical products. Imports from the United Kingdom showed a considerable increase and were mainly machinery, motor vehicles and textile fabrics.

The value of domestic exports reached a total of $8,428 million, an increase of 26 per cent over the previous year. Products of the textile and garment manufacturing industries accounted for 48 per cent by value, and miscellaneous manufactured articles, mainly plastic goods, toys and dolls, and wigs, made up a further 22 per cent. Other light industrial products such as transistorized radios and electronic components, footwear, and manufactures of metals were also important exports.

The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is influenced by such factors as the advantages of preference in Britain and several smaller Commonwealth markets, and economic conditions and commercial policies in overseas markets. During the year 57 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to two markets-the United States and the United Kingdom. The United States, remain- ing the largest market, took 41 per cent by value and increased her purchases by $982 million or 39 per cent. The value of all goods sent to the United Kingdom was $1,343 million, 16 per cent of all domestic exports. The Federal Republic of Germany, which remained the third largest market, purchased Hong Kong manu- factures worth $500 million during the year. Other growing markets of importance included Canada, Australia, Japan and Singapore but domestic exports now go to practically every country in the world.

The entrepôt trade has sustained its role in external trade. The value of re-exports in 1968 totalled $2,142 million, an increase

58

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

of three per cent over 1967. This was 20 per cent of the total combined value of exports of Hong Kong manufactures and re-exports of imported goods. During 1968 Japan remained the most important re-export market, followed by Indonesia, Singapore, the United States, Taiwan, and the Philippines. The principal commodities in the re-export trade were textile fabrics, diamonds, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, and crude and vegetable materials.

TRADE PROMOTION

This was the second full working year of the Trade Development Council. Established as a statutory corporation under an independent chairman, it is composed of two representatives each from the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association; the Chairmen of the Hong Kong Tourist Association and the Exchange Banks Association; two senior government officials-the Director of Commerce and Industry and the Director of Information Services; and four members appointed by name. The council has a permanent secretariat under an executive director and it is financed by sub- vention from the Government's general revenue, plus a levy on the value of trade imposed on the commercial and industrial community. Its head office is in the Ocean Terminal, Kowloon, where it maintains a permanent display of Hong Kong products. The council also maintains five offices overseas, in London, New York, Brussels, Sydney and Nairobi, each headed by a Resident Representative, who is responsible for the promotion of Hong Kong trade in the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe, Australasia, and East and Central Africa respectively.

The programme of active promotion during the year leant more towards attendance at trade fairs than on selling missions. The year's work started with the Toy Fair at Nuremberg at which use was made of the motorized caravan which was designed last year for the East African Safari. International Fairs at Milan in April, Brussels in April/May and Vienna in September followed, and in October Hong Kong took part in the 79th Dusseldorf International Fashion Week. One selling mission was sent to Britain during the year. This was mounted jointly by the Exporters' Association and the council and, like the fairs, produced satisfactory business and

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

59

many worthwhile contacts. Two missions came from Denmark, mainly importers, and one from Sweden whose members were both importers and exporters. Good business was reported.

       At the London offices of the council several specialized displays were held which attracted buyers from Europe and the United Kingdom. In America, the now familiar participation in Department Stores Festivals took place with an enlarged and varied team visiting stores, mainly in the Middle West and New York areas.

       In efforts to plan better services for the exporter and exporting manufacturer the council organized the collection, analysis and distribution of market information, provided guidance and assist- ance to local firms and developed means of contact with overseas buyers. A number of Surveys in the EEC countries were produced for the council by the Economist Intelligence Unit on the market potential for selected Hong Kong products. The full reports were copied and sent to a number of Trade Associations for use by their members and summaries were also made for those interested only in a particular product.

A number of publications were produced during the year and Hong Kong Enterprise, the monthly magazine, continued its popularity with overseas businessmen. A new version of the CIF Directory called Investment Hong Kong was produced in conjunc- tion with the Industrial Development Branch of the Department of Commerce and Industry and the series of product brochures called Made in Hong Kong were brought up-to-date. During overseas promotions a number of smaller booklets were produced in appropriate languages and Hong Kong for the Businessmen was reintroduced in a larger and updated form. Several of these publica- tions were produced in conjunction with the Information Services Department.

       In December the council took part in the 26th Chinese Manu- facturers' Association Exhibition of Hong Kong products, sharing a display with Department of Commerce and Industry as part of the government pavilion. The council's Chief Designer was also called on for advice in designing the Government's pavilion at Expo '70 to take place in Osaka.

       The Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation, which provides protection against those risks in overseas trading which

60

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

are not normally insurable commercially, has now been in operation for two years. Its current liabilities are in excess of $400 million and represent an estimated annual export turnover of nearly $800 million. Exports to some 120 different markets have been covered and business continues to grow at a steady rate as more and more of Hong Kong manufacturers and exporters find it necessary to offer credit terms to their overseas customers to retain existing markets and develop new ones. The corporation has established itself as a significant factor in the development of the Colony's export trade.

Claims paid have underlined the value of this type of government- guaranteed insurance. They have ranged from the inability of im- porters in industrialized countries hit by successive credit squeezes to meet their commitments to losses arising from the shortage of foreign currency in countries affected by war or internal strife. To date the corporation has been able to cover its claims payments and administration expenses out of its premium and investment income.

      The corporation's facilities are available for all those who carry on export business in Hong Kong and it is noteworthy that the corporation numbers amongst its customers several overseas companies who have recently set up operations in Hong Kong and who have been accustomed to making use of credit insurance facilities in their home countries.

      The corporation has applied for membership of the Berne Union which is an international association of credit insurance organizations. The regular exchange of information on technical problems and on underwriting experience in particular markets and with particular risks which takes place amongst members should prove extremely valuable for the corporation and, indirectly, for Hong Kong's exporters as well.

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

      As the United Kingdom acceded to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on behalf of Hong Kong, the Colony's exports attract most-favoured-nation tariff treatment in the majority of its overseas markets and are protected from discriminatory import restrictions. Nevertheless, difficulties do occur from time to time.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

61

During the past year Hong Kong made representations, outside the field of cotton textiles which are covered by their own particular arrangements, to the Governments of South Africa, Austria, France and the Republic of Ireland.

Hong Kong continued to follow closely developments in the European Economic Community, particularly in regard to the free movement of goods within the community. On July 1, all internal customs duties were abolished and restrictions on the movement of industrial goods between members states were formally removed. As the community already provides the Colony with a market worth about $700 million a year, Hong Kong is particularly concerned that the process of creating the Common Market should not result in limitations on the community's external trade.

       The Second United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop- ment (UNCTAD) was held in New Delhi in February and March. A Hong Kong official attended the conference as a member of the United Kingdom Delegation. The main topic of interest to Hong Kong at this conference concerned proposals for a general scheme to give preferential entry to the exports of developing countries to the markets of developed countries. What emerged from the conference was a resolution that developed countries should grant such preferential tariff treatment. No substantive scheme was form- ulated, however, but a Special Committee on Preference was set up to consider the issues in detail. This committee met for the first time in December 1968. Its deliberations were mainly of a pro- cedural nature on that occasion, substantive discussion being post- poned until early in 1969.

      The Australian scheme of preferences for imports from less- developed countries, introduced under a waiver granted by the Contracting Parties to the GATT in 1966, was continued and slightly expanded during the year. Hong Kong was excluded from preferential treatment on certain of the two hundred odd items now encompassed by the scheme on the grounds that it was already sufficiently competitive; but, after representations had been made to the Australian Government, was reinstated on all but nine of them.

Some of the initial tariff reductions agreed upon during the Kennedy Round of Trade Negotiations, concluded in 1967, were

62

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

implemented during the year. The remainder are due to be introduced in stages and to be completed by 1972. In accordance with an agreement reached in the Kennedy Round, Hong Kong introduced on July 1, 1968 an excise duty rate on unmanufactured tobacco which eliminated the Commonwealth preference margin, with the exception that tobacco of Malawi origin continues to attract a preferential rate of duty.

In the textiles sector, the renewed GATT Arrangement regarding International Trade in Cotton Textiles commenced its first year on October 1, 1967. In the course of the year, Hong Kong's exports of cotton textiles to the United States, Canada, Norway, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Benelux and Sweden were restrained, to a greater or lesser extent, as a result of agreements reached in accordance with the provisions of the arrangement or the so-called Long Term Arrangement which preceded it. In February, the Australian Government requested restraint under the arrangement on a limited range of fabrics but, after consultations had been held in Hong Kong, withdrew their request.

      Exports of cotton textiles to the United States continued to be restrained under the five-year Hong Kong/United States agreement. The restraint limit for the third year of the agreement, which ended on September 30, 1968, was 371.31 million square yards; for the fourth year this figure was increased to 389.86 million square yards.

The three-year Hong Kong/Canada bilateral agreement on cotton fabrics, which provides for an annual export restraint limit of 11.09 million square yards, entered its third year on October 1, 1968. Exports of certain items of cotton apparel which were restrained during the year ending September 30, 1968 were the subject of a new agreement signed in September, following discus- sions in Ottawa with the Canadian authorities. The new agreement, effective for one year from October 1, 1968, was similar to the previous one other than for a three per cent increase in the export limit for one of the restrained categories, improved flexibility provisions and the addition of a new category-cotton woven towels and industrial wiping cloths.

Hong Kong also extended for a further year its unilateral under- taking to restrain exports of certain garments made from polyester or polyester/cotton blends to Canada. The items involved, shirts,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

63

      blouses and trousers, and their respective restraint limits of 75,000, 40,000 and 55,000 dozens, were unchanged from the previous under- taking to which, however, a new flexibility provision was added.

       In June, consultations were held in Hong Kong with representa- tives of the Benelux Governments on Hong Kong's exports of cotton textiles to the Benelux countries. These negotiations resulted in the conclusion of a comprehensive bilateral agreement whereby Hong Kong agreed to restrict exports of all cotton textiles, except yarns, to a limit of 3,153 metric tons for the period July 1, 1968 to December 31, 1969. During the three months from July 1 until the expiry on September 30, 1968 of the 1967 Undertaking to the Benelux Governments, covering restraint on exports of six categories of cotton woven textile products, the balances available for shipment under the earlier undertaking were not affected by the new com- prehensive agreement.

       In March, the Norwegian authorities requested the Hong Kong Government to restrain exports of all garments of all fibres to Norway. After a series of consultations, an agreement was reached in September under which Hong Kong would limit exports of five categories of cotton garments to 143,000 dozens per annum during a two-year period commencing October 1, 1968. The new agreement susperseded the understanding of May 1967 regarding Hong Kong's exports of cotton woven nightwear to Norway and includes both growth and swing provisions. At the same time, Hong Kong also undertook unilaterally to limit exports to Norway of women's woollen and acrylic knitwear and woven blouses of certain man- made fibres to 68,000 dozens and 31,000 dozens respectively for a period of twelve months commencing October 1.

      In April, the Swedish Government requested consultations with a view to the limitation of Hong Kong's exports of all types of wearing apparel. An agreement was finally concluded in July whereby Hong Kong undertook to limit exports of five categories of cotton garments to 5.37 million pieces during the period June 1, 1968 to May 30, 1969. In the course of the same consultations, Hong Kong also undertook unilaterally to restrict exports to Sweden of women's woollen and synthetic knitwear and men's anoraks and similar jackets of synthetic fibres to 1.67 million pieces and 180,000 pieces respectively for one year from July 1, 1968.

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     Outside the ambit of the Cotton Textiles Arrangement, Hong Kong's exports to Britain of cotton yarn, cotton woven piecegoods, garments and made-up articles are limited under an agreement reached in 1966. This agreement, which runs for five years, provides in 1968 for the export of 6.43 million pounds of cotton yarn and the equivalent of 191.13 million square yards in the piecegoods, garments and made-ups groups combined. In September, con- sultations were held with the Board of Trade concerning Hong Kong's exports of wide cotton sheeting and sheets, and, as a result, slightly revised categorization arrangements will apply in 1969.

      The year also saw the continuation of Hong Kong's export restraint agreements with the Federal Republic of Germany relating to cotton woven textile products, and woollen knitted outerwear. The cotton restraints were negotiated under the Cotton Textiles Arrangement and the aggregate limits for 1968 and 1969 are 66.65 million square yards and 67.65 million square yards respectively, with the flexibility provisions of swing, anticipation and carryover. The limits on woollen knitted outerwear for 1968 and 1969 are 875,000 dozens and 925,000 dozens respectively, and the agreement provides for three per cent carryover per annum.

DOCUMENTATION OF EXPORTS

      Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations and the spirit of free trade. Complex procedures have had to be established, however, to ensure that Hong Kong's responsibilities in respect of restraints on cotton textile exports are discharged.

      With the growth in exports of Hong Kong products in absolute and relative terms, certification of Hong Kong origin has become vitally important to the economy. Since Hong Kong has practically no raw materials, the origin of manufactured goods is established by the nature of the work carried out in Hong Kong factories in transforming imported raw materials into a wide range of what are essentially consumer goods. The Commerce and Industry Department is responsible for ensuring that Hong Kong certificates of origin remain fully acceptable to overseas customs authorities and, to this end, the department has established a close system of liaison in certification matters with the four non-government

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

65

issuing bodies approved for this purpose-the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong. During the year, exports of goods under Standard Certificates of Hong Kong Origin issued by the Commerce and Industry Department were valued at $1,954.6 million.

      The department also issues certificates to enable Hong Kong products to claim preferential rates of duty on entry into Britain and a number of other Commonwealth territories which grant preference to Hong Kong. Commonwealth preference certificates are issued against, either legal undertakings by manufacturers to use Commonwealth raw materials, or detailed cost statements for each type of product, prepared by public accountants approved for the purpose. Exports covered by Commonwealth preference certificates were valued at $1,417.4 million.

United States law prohibits the importation of certain classes of goods presumed to originate from the People's Republic of China, North Korea or North Vietnam, unless evidence is produced to the contrary. As Hong Kong manufacturers produce many goods in these categories, the department issues comprehensive certificates of origin under special certification procedures agreed with the United States authorities. During the year, goods valued at $1,308.6 million were exported to the United States and its dependencies under Comprehensive Certificates of Origin. The total value of Hong Kong products certified under departmental certification procedures in 1968 was $4,680.6 million, representing over 55.5 per cent of total exports of locally manufactured products.

ADMINISTRATION

The Commerce and Industry Department's responsibilities in- clude overseas commercial relations, industrial development, certifica- tion and trade controls.

There are two Commercial Relations Divisions, one concerned with Europe and the other with the international bodies, such as GATT, UNCTAD and ECAFE, and with the rest of the world. These divisions collect and disseminate information on trade policy measures by other countries which may affect Hong Kong

66

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     and keep in touch with the activities of the international organiza- tions.

      They are also responsible for preparing for Hong Kong's trade negotiations with other Governments and for implementing the agreements reached, generally under the international Cotton Tex- tiles Arrangement. This involves calculation and allocation of quotas and the operation of the export control procedures.

     The provision of secretariats for the Cotton Advisory Board and the Trade and Industry Advisory Board is also a Commercial Relations responsibility.

      The department's four overseas offices-in London, Washington, Brussels and Geneva-are almost entirely concerned with commercial relations work, the first two in the countries that are our biggest markets, the third in the EEC's headquarter city and the fourth with the United Kingdom Mission to the GATT and other interna- tional bodies in Geneva.

      The Industry and Certification Division provides a liaison between industry and other government departments, answers industrial enquiries from overseas and deals with specific industrial problems. It also operates certificate of origin and Commonwealth preference procedures. An industry inspection service enforces these procedures through the regular inspection of factories and goods and the prosecution of those suspected of contravening the regulations.

      The Dutiable Commodities and Licensing Division deals with trade licensing (other than for textiles), with dutiable commodities and with the control of certain reserved commodities, including rice. It administers the Preventive Service, a uniformed and disci- plined organization whose role in revenue protection and the control of narcotics traffic is described in Chapter 10. The Chief Preventive Officer commands the service which has an establishment of 11 gazetted officers, 315 inspectors and 569 rank and file.

TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS

      The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the oldest trade association in the Colony. Founded in 1861, it now has a membership of over 1,400 representing all branches of commerce and industry. Membership is open to firms and people of all races

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

67

and nationalities interested in the trade of Hong Kong. The Chamber is represented on a number of important government boards and committees. It is an organizing member of the British National Committee of the International Chambers of Commerce and a member of the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Com- merce. Other chambers and trade associations in the Colony include the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce and the Hong Kong Exporters' Association. The Exporters' Association has 87 members who are representative of more than one-third of the Colony's range of exports. It works in consultation with other commercial and official bodies for the promotion and protection of Hong Kong's export trade.

The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by ordinance in 1960, promotes the interests of Hong Kong industry as a whole, and its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. In the promotion of internationally accepted standards for locally manufactured goods, the federation is respon- sible for a textile testing service, launched in consultation with the Retail Trading Standards Association in Britain. It is also studying ways and means to promote the adoption of standards of other industrially advanced countries. In 1966 the federation concluded an agreement with the Federation of Swiss Watch Manufacturers for their 'tested quality' label to be made available to Hong Kong watch-case manufacturers whose products measure up to their standards. The federation also concluded arrangements with the International Wool Secretariat which enabled Hong Kong manu- facturers whose products meet the required standard to use the world-known 'woolmark'. During the year the federation expanded its chemical testing and certification services to industry.

       Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 1,460 factories. Member firms represent factories of all sizes and industries. The association has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong.

TRADE MARKS AND PATENTS

Trade Marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in the United Kingdom or any other country, must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 2,297 applications were received and 1,715 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,570 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

United States of America 395

Hong Kong

Japan

United Kingdom

Switzerland

***

West Germany

The Netherlands Australia

90

23

22220

385

210

183

Italy

...

...

92

France

18

     The total number of marks on the register at December 31, 1968 was 22,641.

Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong. A total of 376 patents were registered during the year, compared with 371 in 1967.

COMPANIES

The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies incor- porated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. The Companies Law Revision Committee, however, was reconsti- tuted during the year, and is actively considering the relevant legislation with a view to recommending revision thereof.

On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1968, 1,675 new companies were incorporated, 436 more than the total incorporated in 1967. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1968 totalled

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

69

$539,942,678, 17.8 per cent than the corresponding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, nine had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. At the end of the year there were 12,929 local companies on the register compared with 11,631 on December 31, 1967.

      Companies incorporated outside Hong Kong are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in the Colony. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 40 such com- panies were registered and 32 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 607 companies registered from 42 countries in- cluding 160 from the United States, 94 from the United Kingdom and 59 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local com- panies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance, respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Act 1958 (as amended by the Companies Act 1967) in Great Britain, or in the case of fire and marine insurance-by maintaining adequate deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. There are altogether 206 insurance companies, including 51 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

      The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partner- ships and money-lenders.

BANKRUPTCIES AND LIQUIDATIONS

      In Hong Kong the number of business failures which had to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always comparatively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down.

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

    Nevertheless, during the year 12 petitions in bankruptcies and 26 petitions for the winding up of companies were presented to the court, and the court made four receiving orders, two orders for the administration in bankruptcy of the estates of deceased debtors, and 21 orders for the winding up of companies. For many years past the Official Receiver has become trustee or liquidator in almost every case, and this was so again in 1968, during which the assets realized by the Official Receiver amounted to approximately $11,396,000. In addition to the foregoing compulsory windings up, 155 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year, 147 by members' voluntary winding up and eight by creditors' voluntary winding up.

5

Primary Production

LACKING natural resources, Hong Kong depends heavily for its livelihood on a wide range of manufacturing industries using imported raw materials. As a result, a comparatively small propor- tion of the working populace is concerned with primary production. The 1966 By-census showed just under 73,500 people as directly employed in farming and fishing, and another 4,200 in mining and quarrying. Plans for new satellite towns at Castle Peak, Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung are well advanced, but so far little more than 10 per cent of Hong Kong is actually built up and the industrial explosion, however dramatic, has by no means overwhelmed the traditional life of the farmer and the fisherman. Indeed the vigour of the farming and fishing industries is best demonstrated by the way in which they too are adapting to changed conditions.

      The population influx of the nineteen-fifties had its effect upon the countryside as well as the city. While the growth of the urban population created new demands for the produce of the farms, new people and new methods were moving in to meet them. There has been a steady reduction in the number of people growing rice on their own land and an increase in the number of recent im- migrants renting land for intensive vegetable production or poultry farming. At the same time rice farmers have been encouraged to diversify by planting vegetables after the harvesting of a second rice crop. These trends, and parallel improvements in the fishing industry, are in line with government policy to stimulate the production of food where this is compatible with the best use of the resources of land or sea.

LAND UTILIZATION

From a farmer's viewpoint almost all of the readily cultivable land in Hong Kong is being exploited and what is left, apart from land alienated to industrial and urban use, is marginal or inacces- sible. Pressure comes on land from two directions-the continued and steady demand for land for industry and housing, and the

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

need to meet the growing requirements of the rural community. It is important to remember that 77 per cent of the total area of the territory is marginal land, in differing degrees of subgrade character. The arable land and fish ponds already exploited comprise only 13 per cent of the total area and the expanding urban areas (the remaining 10 per cent) tend to encroach more directly on arable rather than on marginal land. It is unavoidable that agricultural land will be lost to urban development, or at least that agriculture in some areas will be confined to market gardening. This trend is, however, being offset by more intensive production and by develop- ment of marginal land.

      There has been a continuing study of land use by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department since the completion of a survey in 1955. Much work has also been done by independent researchers. The general picture of land use today is indicated by the following table:

Approximate

Class

area

(square miles)

Percentage of whole

Remarks

(i) Built-up (Urban Areas)

40

10.0

Includes roads railways.

and

(ii) Woodlands

53.3

13.4

...

Natural and established woodlands.

(iii) Grass and scrub lands

233.7

58.6

Natural grass and scrub.

(iv) Badlands

14.1

3.5

...

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable of re- generation.

(v) Swamp and mangrove

lands

5

1.3

Capable of reclamation.

(vi) Arable...

49.3

12.4

Includes

orchards

and

market gardens.

(vii) Fish ponds

3.1

0.8

Fresh and brackish water fish farming.

POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilization and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with all matters concerning the economic, social and technological developments of Hong Kong fisheries, especially those aspects which directly involve the fishermen, and the administrative organization of co-operative societies of all types. The conservation of water and soil, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is important. Afforestation is largely undertaken by the department

The Monkey Dancers

     The monkey has always been a creature of good omen in Chinese tradition and so it has proved again for Hong Kong in The Year of the Monkey-a year marked by progress on all fronts.

Appropriately enough, one of Hong Kong's most famous dance troupes, the Monkey Dancers, chose the year of their Zodiacal namesake's ascendancy for a successful tour abroad.

    The following pages show the dancers going through their paces in Hong Kong's Tiger Balm Gardens before embarking for North America.

S

         Elaborate make-up plays a key role in the dance, which depicts the colourful adven- tures of the Monkey God, Suen Hau Tsz, a popular divinity renowned for finding ways out of difficult situa-

tions.

After a performance (top) of split-second acrobatic timing, a well-earned break for refreshment (bottom picture).

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

73

and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

       Afforestation is directed primarily towards soil and water con- servation within the Colony's water-sheds. Forest produce occupies a secondary and incidental role. In the immediate post-war years considerable emphasis was placed upon the establishment and improvement of village plantations, principally for the production of firewood, but a progressive change over to other forms of fuel has now rendered this aspect unimportant.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND DEVELOPMENT

In seeking to increase production and improve the economic status of farmers, the Agriculture and Fisheries Department en- courages diversified production to mitigate the effects of seasonal market 'gluts' and trade recessions. To this end technical and credit facilities are available through the extension service provided by the department. For the purpose of administration, the Colony is divided into three districts, sub-divided into 29 areas according to the density of farming population, intensity of farming, acces- sibility and farming potential. Each district is administered by a District Extension Staff, supported by teams of specialists trained to deal with farming, livestock and co-operative problems. Close contact with the farming community is maintained through a farm adviser stationed in each area and by liaison with local co-operative societies and rural associations. As at December 31, 1968, there were 107 agricultural co-operatives registered with a total member- ship of 12,415.

       Loans are available to farmers and the farming community through four separate loan funds: the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund, the World Refugee Year Loan Fund, the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, which are all administered through the department. The J. E. Joseph Trust Fund was founded in 1954 by a legacy from the late J. E. Joseph to which a government contribution was added in 1957, with the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries as the Trustee. The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund started in 1955 by the Government with generous donations from two

74

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Hong Kong businessmen, Messrs Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie, under the Trusteeship of the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries, who is also the Chairman of the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund Committee. As at March 31, 1968, the total loans issued and recovered since inception of the four funds were in the order of $40 million and $36 million, respectively. The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, a philanthropic organization founded by the Kadoorie brothers, makes grants to farmers who cannot find enough capital on their own or are in genuine hardship. The general policy of the Association is to help those who are prepared to help themselves and, although not a government-sponsored organization, it works closely with the Agriculture and Fisheries Department which offers technical assistance and advice to it and to similar organizations concerned with the affairs of the rural community.

      In the rural education programme this year, over 860 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out in which 160 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. Over 125,000 visits were made to farmers by both profes- sional and technical officers during the year. Farmers also visited government experimental farms and farming projects.

PRINCIPAL CROPS

Within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern in Hong Kong. Paddy cultivation was formerly the most important aspect of agriculture in the New Territories, but there has been a steady increase in market gardening and pig and poultry production. Most of this has been at the expense of rice growing land but there is also some development of marginal land. In addition more than 30 per cent of the two-crop paddy land is now used for winter season crops. Most of this land formerly remained fallow during the winter season.

The area of land under market gardening has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 8,860 acres in 1968 of which 8,360 acres were under cultivation for vegetables and 500 acres for flowers and flowering shrubs. Six to eight crops of vegetables are harvested annually from intensively cultivated land. The main crops are

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

75

white cabbage, flowering cabbage, lettuce, Chinese kale, radish and leaf mustard which grow all the year round. A considerable quantity of string bean, water spinach, cucumber and many species of Chinese gourd are produced in summer and excellent quality tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, celery and water cress in winter. The main types of flowers are chrysanthemum and gladiolus which grow all year round; dahlia, snapdragon, aster, carnation and rose in winter, and ginger lily and lotus flower, in summer. The peach blossom is specially grown for the Chinese New Year. This intensive production on both fertile and comparatively infertile land is made possible by heavy dressings of manure. The traditional use of nightsoil is being replaced or supplemented by pig and poultry manure, peanut cake, duck feathers, bone meal and compost. The use of artificial fertilizers is increasing, usually in addition to organic manures. The widespread use of insecticides is an important feature of farming, as is the increasing use of selected crop varieties.

       Since 1954 the area of land under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,190 acres to 12,490 acres. A further 1,980 acres are used for one-crop paddy in brackish water. The first crop is sown into the nurseries in early March, transplanted in April and harvested in June and July. Seed for the second crop is sown in June for planting out the seedlings by the end of July and the crop is harvested during October and early November.

       Some 2,900 acres of drier lands are under field crops such as sweet potatoes, peanut, millet, soy bean and sugar-cane, which are cultivated mainly for local consumption. Fruit production, which includes lychee, longan, wampei, local lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, and pineapple, covers about 1,600 acres. There is a small but useful export trade in some fruit and field crops to overseas Chinese.

The value of crop production was: Vegetables $80 million, Flowers $3.5 million, Rice $13 million, Field Crops $5 million and Fruit $4.8 million.

VEGETABLE MARKETING ORGANIZATION

Vegetables produced in the New Territories for the urban areas are sold through a marketing scheme which was set up in 1946 on the lines of the successful fish marketing scheme. The Vegetable

76

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Marketing Organization operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing (the Director, Agriculture and Fisheries Department) who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property and use the assets of the organization for the development and encouragement of vegetable farming. It provides also for a Marketing Advisory Board composed of unofficials to assist the organization. The controls imposed by the ordinance, however, apply only to the New Territories and Kowloon area, for there is little vegetable cultivation on Hong Kong Island.

      The organization has established depots in the main vegetable cultivation areas of the New Territories. From these depots, and from vegetable marketing co-operative societies, vegetables are collected daily by hired commercial vehicles and taken to the central wholesale market in Kowloon where three sales are held every day. The sales are conducted by the organization.

      The organization is a non-profit-making concern and obtains its revenue from a 10 per cent commission on sales in its Cheung Sha Wan wholesale vegetable market. Vegetables are sold in the market by the organization but with considerable practical assistance given by the vegetable marketing co-operative societies which now. handle over 80 per cent of locally produced vegetables sold through the market. Thirty per cent of the commission is therefore refunded to the marketing co-operative societies in recognition of the market- ing responsibilities they assume in respect of their own produce. Sales are by negotiation rather than auction, since up to 30,000 separate lots a day may be sold to nearly 4,000 registered buyers, making sales by auction impracticable.

      During the year 1,595,074 piculs (96,476 metric tons) of vegetables, valued at $48,395,531 were sold through the organization. This amounted to an overall average of 4,382 piculs of vegetables (265 metric tons) handled daily by the organization.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

       Since there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared in the Colony for food; cattle are used mainly for draught purposes. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

77

pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common. The Agriculture and Fisheries Department maintains the main purebred herds of exotic breeds-Berkshire, Middle White, Large White and Large Black-and also a herd of the Local Chinese breed for dis- tribution to pig breeders and for experimental purposes. A similar herd of good quality local Chinese animals, also to breed stock for distribution to farmers, is maintained by the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association on its farm at Pak Ngau Shek. Pig-keeping in the villages often follows traditional practice, but an overall improve- ment in management is taking place as a result of extension and advisory services. Besides supplying breeding stock, the department provides an Artificial Insemination service; and during the year this service was further expanded. 6,580 sows were inseminated with a total conception rate of 83.35 per cent and a first service conception rate of 73.32 per cent. In 1968, 273,512 pigs of local origin were slaughtered in local abattoirs, compared with some 240,000 in 1967. The figure represented more than 13 per cent of the total number of pigs slaughtered. The value of pig production during the year amounted to some $29.5 million.

Policy proposals designed to stimulate the pig industry to expand its production have been accepted in principle by the Legislative Council; and the recommendations will be implemented in progressive stages. The first stage has been to reduce and in some cases abolish prices for artificial insemination and vaccines.

       As part of its 'Food for Peace' programme, the United States Government donated a substantial quantity of feed grain to assist Hong Kong's pig raising industry by providing feed at reduced prices, thereby allowing farmers to improve their methods of production and raise the quality of their stock. This scheme was operated in Hong Kong by an organization called 'Operation Feedbag Limited' in close co-operation with the Agriculture and Fisheries Department and the New Territories Administration. After operating for a period of four years and covering most of the New Territories the scheme was discontinued. During its operation the scheme did much to help the small farmer develop pig raising.

       Many of the larger poultry farmers are now producing their own hatching eggs, and this is important in helping to stabilize the indus- try, which produced $63 million worth of poultry this year. In the

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wetter areas ducks are raised for home consumption and for export. The rearing of ducks for the local market has become increasingly important in recent years and was worth about $8.8 million this year. Pigeon-keeping is practised on a limited scale and prices in 1968 averaged $8 for a pair of squabs. The total value of squabs marketed during the year was estimated at $3 million. The most popular type of table bird is the White King crossed with the Homer.

      Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes and surplus stock is sold for slaughter. Chinese brown cattle are particularly well suited to the local environment and management. The dairy cattle in Hong Kong are mainly Friesians and are kept in isolation on one large farm on Hong Kong Island and in smaller farm groups on the outskirts of Kowloon and in the New Territories. All dairy animals are regularly tested and must pass the single intradermal (comparative) test for tuberculosis. During 1968 pro- duction was about 14.5 million pounds of milk, valued at $1.20 a pound.

      The Colony continued to be free from rabies and rinderpest. The incidence of foot-and-mouth disease was not serious, though there were some 310 outbreaks of a mild type in both cattle and pigs. About 1,373 cattle and pigs were inoculated against foot- and-mouth disease types 'O' and 'A', 60,763 pigs against swine fever and some 4,348 cattle against rinderpest, with locally produced vaccine. In all, 29,502,000 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and 1,898,000 doses of intra-nasal-drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease in poultry.

FORESTRY

      The Agriculture and Fisheries Department is responsible for forestry generally, and for the direct afforestation of water catchment areas, protection of vegetation on Crown lands, assistance to village forestry and amenity planting in catchment areas. Hillsides are predominantly grass covered, with a thicker cover of shrubs in some places and patches of scrub forest in remoter and less accessible areas. Thickly-wooded areas also occur where the vegetation has been protected against cutting and fire, as on Hong Kong Island and around villages. Villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice,

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combined with the prevalent hill fires of the dry season, has brought about soil erosion in many parts of the Colony. Villagers often have forestry lots on the lower hill slopes, but the trees, mostly pine, are generally so scattered and lopped that they rarely alter the barren aspect of the land. In certain localities however there are substantial stands of dense village pine woods, some established with govern- ment assistance 10 to 15 years ago, which could now provide useful yields of poles and small-sized timber.

       Government afforestation areas are mostly co-extensive with the watersheds. The main ones are the mountain range from Tai Po in the east to Castle Peak in the west and the catchments of the Kowloon reservoirs, the Hong Kong Island reservoirs, Shek Pik reservoir on Lantau Island and the Shap Long peninsula. These areas total 47 square miles of which 19 square miles have been planted to date. The principal species planted in the past has been Pinus Massoniana but in recent years more use has been made of the American slash pine, Pinus elliottii. Of the hardwood species, Tristania conferta, Acacia confusa and Casuarina stricta are the most successful.

      Planting usually starts in spring and continues until June or July. Trees planted after July usually have too short a period to become well established before the onset of the dry season. 1968 was particularly favourable for planting; the rains in February and March enabled an early start of planting and the bulk was com- pleted by the end of July. The operation involved 510,000 trees mostly in plantations destroyed by fire in the past few years.

Fire is an annual hazard to the forest and each year considerable areas are damaged or destroyed. Although fires caused by careless picnickers are a constant hazard, the greatest dangers lie in rural and traditional practices ceremonies at hill graves, burning weed growth on farms, and deliberate lighting of hill vegetation to obtain fresh grazing. To combat the threat of hill fires during the dry winter months, forestry fire crews equipped with portable high-pressure fire pumps and vehicles are mounted at 13 protection posts in the New Territories and islands. These are connected by field telephone to lookout posts on hill tops where in times of hazard a constant watch is kept for the outbreak of any fires.

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Crews work as units in accessible localities in the plantations during the day and stand by overnight at the protection posts.

Although not as disastrous as the previous year, the 1967-8 winter fire season was one of the most serious on record, with 337,000 trees destroyed or damaged in government plantations alone. Hill fires are normally rare during the mid-summer months but in the last two years there were a number of outbreaks even in July.

FISHERIES

Marine fish is one of Hong Kong's main primary products and in 1967-8 total landings amounted to 1,033,683 piculs (62,496 metric tons) valued at $79,945,651. The fishing fleet of the Colony is one of the largest of any port in the Commonwealth. The number of fishermen was estimated at 56,000. The govern- ment's aim is to foster the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of those engaged in the industry. The Fisheries Branch of the Agricul- ture and Fisheries Department operates in two main divisions; development and extension (including marketing, credit, co- operation and education), and fisheries research.

The fishing fleet consists of some 6,800 fishing junks of various sizes and designs of which more than 5,000 are mechanized, and five pairs of Japanese-type trawlers, all of which are British registered. The fishing population consists chiefly of Tanka people, and the main fishing centres are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, and Castle Peak, Tai Po and Tolo Channel area, Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung, Tai O and Cheung Chau in the New Territories. Junks are built locally from imported timber. Hardwood from Borneo is the most popular material. Most of the fleet is owner-operated, while the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

      Purse-seiners, gill-netters, shrimp-trawlers and other inshore vessels operate mainly to the south of the Colony within the 20- fathom line. A number of the more adventurous owners of medium-

size mechanized boats are now fishing around Taya Island about 220 miles south-west of Hong Kong. The larger junk-type

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trawlers and long-liners have gradually extended their operations and now work mainly in 30-70 fathoms off the coast of Kwangtung. Although a few of the larger mechanized boats are capable of fishing in the Gulf of Tonkin (some 500 miles away) the war in Vietnam does not encourage the use of these grounds. Landings by the local fishing fleet in 1968 were generally good and wholesale prices were satisfactory.

      A major breakthrough in local fisheries development was achieved in 1965 with the successful introduction of a prototype 66-foot wooden stern otter trawler, designed by the Fisheries Branch and built under the supervision of its technical staff in a local boatyard. Seven more of these modern boats have since been built. All were financed by loans from the Fisheries Development Loan Fund. This change-over from the traditional two-boat, or 'pair', trawling method of fishing to modern single-boat trawling has been widely adopted and 25 such vessels have been built with private funds. In all of these cases technical assistance and training were freely provided by the Fisheries Branch. A new class of 86-foot wooden long-liner was introduced by the depart- ment. One vessel of this type designed by the department was constructed with the assistance of a loan from the Fisheries Development Loan Fund.

       Extension work includes investigations into and demonstrations of fishing techniques; the promotion and sound development of a mechanization programme; the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as masters and engineers; the instruction of local fishermen in navigation and fishing methods; and certain duties in connection with the culture of pearls. Over-fishing and the con- servation of fish resources are current problems and legislation provides for comprehensive protection measures, particularly against the use of explosives and toxic substances.

       Close contact with the fishing community is maintained through the extension service and by liaison with fishermen's co-operatives. A large number of these co-operative societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which continue to grow in size and effectiveness. The position of registered fishermen's co-operative societies as at December 31, 1968 is shown in Appendix XXIV.

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The department administers the Fisheries Development Loan Fund, which is allotted specifically for the development of the Colony's middle and distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organization, which administers two other funds and investigates applications for loans from all three. Together they provide capital of more than $8 million for the development of the industry.

The Fisheries Research Division with its main office in Aberdeen is engaged in biological and oceanographic research in the South China Sea, using the 240-ton research trawler Cape St Mary. The main biological effort is directed towards population study of Muraenesox, Upeneus and Psenopsis, toxonomic analysis of com- mercial fauna, and culture of aquatic organisms and exploration. A handbook on Hong Kong fishes has been completed, and another on squids, cuttle-fish and octopus is in preparation. In order to describe the marine environment in which the exploited fish stocks are located the hydrographic survey of the continental shelf off Hong Kong has continued; this work also constitutes the United Kingdom contribution to the Co-operative Study of the Kuroshio (CSK), a multi-ship international expedition organized by the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission. The Division has two sub-stations, one at Kat O, Mirs Bay, where investigations are conducted into the commercial feasibility of culturing marine oysters and fishes, and one at Au Tau where methods of freshwater fish culture, freshwater fish breeding experimental work and the culture of the Lau Fau Shan brackish oyster are studied.

      Fish ponds are still increasing and now cover 2,000 acres, mostly along the Deep Bay coastline near Yuen Long. The most important species reared is the grey mullet which requires water with a salinity above 0.1 per cent, and fry are found in local coastal waters in February and March. Fry of four other important species -about 4.7 million silver carp, grass carp, big head and mud carp-were imported from China between May and August. The common carp and the edible goldfish are bred locally and some 2.1 million fry of these species were raised to meet trade require- ments. The edible goldfish require freshwater (less than 0.4 per cent salinity), while the common carp tolerates up to 1.0 per cent salinity.

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Total pond fish production for the year was estimated at 1,600 metric tons valued at some $9.7 million, which represented about six per cent of the local consumption of pond fish. Fry of various species re-exported during the year totalled $2.8 million.

Edible oysters have been cultivated in the waters of the Colony for some 700 years. The principal area of cultivation is Deep Bay where 143.6 metric tons of oyster meat, valued at approximately $1.1 million were produced from about 6,000 acres along the New Territories' shores of the bay. Some of this was processed into dried meat or oyster juice and exported to markets overseas.

FISH MARKETING ORGANIZATION

The present Fish Marketing Organization grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War. Interest-free loans and grants were made and a fish-marketing scheme was introduced with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. From this beginning developed the present non-government trading organization con- trolled by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries. The organiza- tion is a non-profit-making concern which finds its revenue and pays its expenses from a six per cent commission on all the sales in its wholesale markets. It operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance 1956, which provides among other things for a Fish Marketing Advisory Board composed of unofficials to assist the organization.

The organization runs six wholesale fish markets at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon, and Tai Po, Sha Tau Kok and Castle Peak in the New Territories. The new market of modern design at Cheung Sha Wan which was completed in 1966, was financed jointly by the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund and the Fish Marketing Organiza- tion. In the New Territories, the new market at Castle Peak was opened at the beginning of the year. Another new market at Sai Kung is planned. Five fish-collecting depots have been set up in other fishing centres and the organization provides sea and land transport from these to the wholesale markets. The depots also serve as liaison offices for the organization.

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At the wholesale markets, fish is sorted and sold by public auction to licensed retailers. Fishermen may collect the proceeds from their sales directly after the sale or the organization may send the money back to the depot which serves their areas. A further service is the transportation of fish to the buyers' establish- ment in the urban areas. There were no significant changes during 1968 in the quantities of fresh and salt or dried marine fish marketed, and exporters seeking other outlets for salt and dried marine fish have met with little success in the face of increasing competition from other countries in the region.

      The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important services offered by the Fish Marketing Organization to local fishermen. The organization's revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made loans totalling $27,300,526. Of this, some $23,788,000 had been repaid at the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was stabilized at $3.5 million in 1968. In 1957 the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere donated $31,000 to form a revolving loan fund for shrimp fishermen, which was increased to $92,400 by a further donation in 1962. This fund is administered by the organization and loans totalling $516,662 have been made; repay- ments total $440,339.

      A further important side to the organization's development programme is the provision of schooling facilities for the children of fishermen. Fourteen schools have been established and approxi- mately 4,000 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools with a further 630 attending other schools (including secondary) on scholarships provided by the organization. All Fish Marketing Organization schools have advisory committees com- posed of leaders of the fishing communities served by the schools. In recognition of the importance of vocational training, a secondary practical school has been built at Aberdeen where fishermen's children are able to continue their general education beyond the primary level and at the same time receive instruction in vocational subjects geared to the requirements of a modern fishing industry. An adult education class is also conducted at Shau Kei Wan, one of the fishing centres on Hong Kong Island.

      The organization may one day be run by the fishermen themselves as a co-operative enterprise, but the previous lack of education is

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      a problem that only time and the existing educational programme can solve. As it is, the success of the organization has attracted world-wide interest and many overseas visitors and students come to study its operation.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND CREDIT UNIONS

Since the appointment in 1950 of a Registrar of Co-operative Societies, the co-operative movement has made steady progress. It is being accepted by a growing number of people, particularly peasant farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. An important development has been the growth in the number of co-operative building societies, which are at present formed-with one exception-of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and established with funds loaned by the government. Another development of interest is the increasing appreciation by rural communities of the improvements they may make in their way of life by co-operation and the formation of 'better living societies'. Several of these societies have successfully completed water supply and housing schemes, as well as community centres for their members.

During the year nine co-operative societies were registered and one was liquidated, bringing the total on the register to 424. At present there are 14 different types of societies. A table showing the number of societies in being at December 31, 1968 with details of their membership, share capital and deposits will be found in Appendix XXIV.

During the year the Credit Unions Ordinance was introduced, appointing a Registrar of Credit Unions and providing for the incorporation and regulation of credit unions including the Credit Union League of Hong Kong. This gives legal protection for the existing 20 credit unions already established over the past few years. It allows for further expansion among the section of the population who find it difficult or impossible to borrow other than at high rates of interest.

MINING

Iron ore, wolframite and, at times, graphite are mined under- ground, and kaolin, feldspar, and quartz by opencast methods.

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Iron ore concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan, wolframite to the United States, Britain, and Japan and kaolin to Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines. All the feldspar and quartz and about 22 per cent of the kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance. The Commissioner of Mines is empowered to issue prospecting and mining licences and the Land Officer to issue mining leases. Prospecting licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years. Mining licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years, but may be extended further with the consent of the Governor. Mining leases are granted for periods up to a maximum of 21 years. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of 1968 there were three mining leases, 17 mining licences, and five prospecting licences valid for different areas in the territory. They were mainly controlled by individuals or small mining companies.

The Superintendent of Mines grants mine-blasting certificates and certifies the origin of minerals in respect of which comprehensive certificates of origin are required. He is responsible for assessing royalties on mineral sales, at a rate of five per cent of value, and for issuing demand notes for royalties, rents, premia, and fees for licences and leases. The Mines Department inspects mining areas and surveys land affected by applications for licences and is also responsible for enforcement of legislation governing the conveyance, storage, manufacture, packing, and use of explosives and fireworks. Strict security controls imposed in relation to commercial explosives and fireworks at the time of the 1967 disturbances were continued throughout 1968.

6

Education

DEPARTMENTAL policy has been concerned with implementing recommendations made in the 1965 government white paper on education. There has been a further increase in the number of aided primary school places and it seems likely that the target of providing government or subsidized primary school places for all children of the right age who seek them can be reached by 1970-1.

Primary education in Hong Kong is neither free nor compulsory. However, in government and government-aided primary schools fees are low and, since September 1968, the fees in government primary schools and a large number of subsidized primary schools outside resettlement estates have been reduced from $50 to $40 per annum, while those in all subsidized primary schools in resettle- ment estates have been reduced from $40 to $30 per annum. In rural villages the fee is only $10 per annum. The reduction of fees, coupled with complete or partial fee remission of 20 per cent of primary school places for the government and subsidized schools, ensures that no child is deprived of a place in a public school solely through the inability of his parents to pay the fees. It is declared policy that if at any time it should appear that existing funds are inadequate to meet the demand for remission of fees in public primary schools in all cases of genuine hardship, the Government will authorize further expenditure, even if it means that the rate of remission is raised to 30 per cent or higher.

       With effect from September 1968, a scheme of textbook and stationery grants for holders of free places, based on $20 per pupil per annum, has been introduced into all public primary schools.

       Under the Education Ordinance, the Director of Education is charged with the superintendence of matters relating to education in the Colony. He directly controls all government schools and almost all others are required to be registered under the ordinance, which provides the Director with the necessary powers to ensure that acceptable standards are maintained.

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       The number of students in all areas of education continues to increase. Detailed figures are given in Appendix XXVI, but some idea of this expansion can be gained from the fact that enrolment at the end of September in primary schools was 724,450 and in secondary schools it was 253,458 compared with 689,561 and 235,387 respectively in 1967. Altogether 1,133,041 pupils were enrolled in 2,594 schools, colleges and education centres, 91,561 more than last year's figure.

Recreation plays an ever-increasing role in the work of the Physical Education Section of the department. A recent survey has shown that outdoor pursuits are by far the most popular aspects of recreation with school children in Hong Kong. Competitions, galas and sports days were organized and some 40,000 school children took part in these activities. A series of summer refresher courses in physical education for over a thousand teachers was conducted during the summer vacation; the Physical Education Section also organized a series of coaching schemes for school children.

The growth in the scope of musical education in recent years has been maintained. The 20th Annual Schools Musical Festival again broke all records and an estimated 35,000 competitors took part in the 344 available classes. Adjudicators from the United Kingdom and Australia commented favourably on the overall standard of achievement reached by school and individual entries in both music and speech classes and no less than eight public prize-winners concerts were held after the competition.

      The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, with over 90 players, con- tinued to give public concerts of works from the standard orchestral repertoire and the expanding instrumental music scheme now covers 42 classes involving nearly 500 pupils.

Music in the primary schools has received an impetus with the publication of the new music syllabus and of the third volume of song books for primary classes.

      Four examiners from the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music conducted the Practical Examinations, for which entries reached the record number of 4,478, making Hong Kong the second largest centre among all Commonwealth countries served

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by the Board. Entries for the theory examinations totalled 1,708 and 42 candidates entered for the Trinity College of Music Examina- tions. Children's examinations of the Royal Academy of Dancing attracted 463 entries.

      The Art work of Hong Kong children reaches a high standard and was constantly requested by overseas institutions for exchange purposes. It was on display in the exhibition entitled 'World School Art' in Luxemburg during Whitsuntide, and in the Inter- national Exhibition of Children's Paintings, which was held in Mexico during the 19th Olympiad on the theme, 'A World of Friendship'.

      A sculpture competition, the first of its kind for local school children, was held as part of the summer recreation activities. Lectures on various aspects of art and design, with emphasis on their importance in modern industrial life were delivered at secondary schools and colleges of education. The picture loan library run by the Art Section continued its monthly circulation of framed pictures to selected schools.

With the advice and assistance of the Centre for Educational Television Overseas, London, an Education Television Unit was created in February 1968 as a new section of the Education Depart- ment headed by an Assistant Director of Education. Though not yet in operation, the planning is at an advanced stage and a produc- tion team of twelve subject specialists has been recruited. Other staff (administrative and technical) have been, or are being recruited. In addition to sending these specialists abroad for basic television training, an extensive survey of schools is being conducted with a view to determining television teaching syllabuses.

PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION

Kindergartens, providing pre-school education for the under- sixes, continue to increase in number and there is a strong demand for this type of education from all sections of the community. These institutions are not maintained or run by Government but they are registered with the Education Department and advised by the Inspectorate. Private kindergartens rose in number from 518 in the previous year to 628 in September 1968 and enrolment increased from 69,069 to 92,952. Government plays a significant part in meeting

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the need for expansion of kindergartens and gives assistance in the form of grants of Crown Land to reliable bodies, provision of accommodation in government low-cost housing estates and the waiving of rents in resettlement estates.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

      The great majority of primary schools cater for Chinese children, with Cantonese as the language of instruction. English is studied. as a second language from the second year of the course. Five government primary schools cater for children whose first language is English.

      The total primary day school enrolment in September was 695,428 which exceeds the number of children in the six to eleven-year inclusive age group. In addition, 29,022 pupils attended primary night schools and special afternoon classes. Since many school places are occupied by over-age children, further expansion is continuing, particularly in developing areas. In new resettlement estates the 24-classroom estate school has become the standard form of primary provision.

During the year 53,320 new primary places were provided, compared with 45,600 in the previous year.

      In order to cope with the rapid development and expansion of primary education, the Education Department has, with effect from June divided the Colony into five educational areas (two on Hong Kong Island, two in Kowloon and one in the New Territories) for the purpose of administration. This will bring about closer contact between the department and the schools and enable it to make a more accurate assessment of the educational needs of a particular

area.

SPECIAL EDUCATION

      Twenty-four special schools cater for blind, deaf, physically handicapped and mentally handicapped children. In addition, there are sixteen experimental classes for slow-learning children in govern- ment primary schools. Over 200 physically handicapped children under the supervision of the Special Education Section are attending ordinary government and subsidized primary schools. With the further addition of trained staff, the Special Education Section is

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now able to provide diagnostic services which include audiologic testing, psychological testing, educational assessment, and speech screening, as well as remedial services in auditory training and speech therapy. An audiometric screening programme in govern- ment primary schools was started in January 1968. During the year the section has assisted approximately 4,000 children under these services. One-year in-service training courses for teachers of the blind, teachers of the deaf, and teachers of the physically handi- capped, as well as short introductory courses on the teaching of slow-learning children and on speech therapy in the classroom were held during the year.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

There are four types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools. The 223 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have an enrolment of 149,921 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination (English). Instruction is in English and Chinese is taught as a second language. This type of secondary education is in demand because a good knowledge of spoken and written English is desirable for entry to the professions, government service and commerce. Successful Cer- tificate of Education candidates may enter sixth forms for two years to prepare themselves for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the General Certificate of Education (University of London), at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition there are 30,727 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

The 123 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 50,596 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Certificate of Education (Chinese). Instruction is in Chinese and English is taught as a second language. In addition, a number of Chinese middle schools offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to The Chinese University of Hong Kong. For those who pass the Certificate of Education in English or Chinese, higher education is available at the colleges of education and the Technical College.

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      Nine secondary technical schools give a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Six of the schools are government, two are subsidized and one is private. Their total enrolment is 6,192. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools they prepare their pupils for the Certificate of Education Examination (English) and suitable candidates can continue their studies either in Form VI or at the Technical College. Five subsidized secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,611 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also 12 private and two subsidized secondary schools, with a total enrolment of 2,904, which offer some form of technical or trade training not leading to the Certificate of Education examination.

There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools operated during the day. In Septem- ber there were 213,224 such students compared with 198,972 in the previous year. During the school year 5,815 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings.

HIGHER EDUCATION

      The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the Government and endowments which have since. been increased. Substantial grants are also made by the Govern- ment towards the university's annual recurrent and non-recurrent expenditure.

Faculties and enrolments are: arts, 887; science, 437; medicine, 596; engineering and architecture, 479; social sciences, 248. In addition, the Chinese Language School has 40 language students, the education diploma and certificate courses 94 students, and the social study courses seven students. Of this total of 2,788 students, 323 are part-time, 13 are external and 776 are women. Most of the undergraduates are Hong Kong Chinese, but many other nationali- ties are represented, particularly from South-East Asian countries. A total of 751 undergraduate places were available for new students in the academic year 1967-8.

The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstra- torships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year 1968-9 was 363. In addition, the Chinese Language School has 12

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full-time instructors. All the university's degrees in professional subjects (medicine, architecture, and civil, electrical and mechanical engineering) are on the same professional footing as those of universities in Britain.

      A new Centre of Asian Studies has replaced the former Institute of Oriental Studies and Institute of Modern Asian Studies, and a Language Centre was established at the beginning of the academic year 1968-9.

      The Department of Education of the University of Hong Kong offers to graduates a one-year full-time course leading to a Diploma in Education and a two-year part-time course leading to a Certificate in Education. The department also provides a one-year part-time qualifying course for candidates who seek to enrol for the MA (Ed) degree and to successful students offers the MA (Ed) either as a six-term part-time course spread over two academic years, or as a one-year full-time course. As in other departments, the PhD is also available for specially qualified and selected candidates.

      The Department of Extra-mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong provided over 211 evening and day-time courses for adult students in 1967-8. During the period July 1967 to June 1968, 4,727 attended regular courses and 702 attended public lectures, seminars and conferences. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from Oriental Studies through a full range of liberal arts and language courses to economics, law and commerce, and include rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including the LLB of the University of London and a newly-instituted Diploma in Manage- ment Studies which is recognized by the British Institute of Manage- ment. The latter is a 3-year post-graduate course on production management and is especially designed to meet a need for instruction at University level for present and future managers, executives and administrators who are working at higher middle levels. A popular series of free public evening lectures on The Hong Kong Economic Scene was also given.

      The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level examination. Entry to the university is generally

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dependent upon successful results in this examination. In May 2,664 candidates entered for the examination, of whom 1,270 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in October 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It comprises Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. At present the university has no cen- tralized campus: the three colleges are situated in three different parts of the Colony, while the central administrative and academic units are located in four separate buildings in downtown Kowloon. However, a campus site covering 273 acres in Sha Tin, New Territories, adjoining the present Chung Chi campus, has been allocated to the university by the Government. The Ground-Breaking Ceremony to mark the beginning of the capital programme in the new campus site was held in December 1967. The construction of the first university building, the Benjamin Franklin Centre, was started in the same month. It is expected that by 1970, the construc- tion of several buildings will have been completed.

The university has few endowments or funds of its own but receives contribution of funds from outside sources to establish scholarships and bursaries, as well as financial support given by international establishments for research. The colleges are also in receipt of certain other small endowments and grants from outside sources but government grants provide the main sources of income.

The Chinese University has at present three faculties and the total undergraduate enrolment in June 1968 is 1,961. The enrol- ment in each faculty is: arts 605; science 575; commerce and social science 781.

This year, a total number of 481 graduates of the university will receive Bachelor's degrees, including 15 with the distinction 'magna cum laude', and 68 with 'cum laude'.

The matriculation examination of The Chinese University of Hong Kong is designed to select candidates of approved standard for admission to first-year courses in any of the constituent colleges. Candidates are limited to those who have completed six years of secondary school education in an approved secondary school and have passed a qualifying examination such as the English or Chinese

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School Certificate examination. Passes in at least five subjects, including Chinese and English, are normally required for entry to the university and there are additional requirements for admission to various undergraduate courses.

In the matriculation examination held in the summer of 1968, a total of 2,809 candidates sat and 1,061 passed. The total number of Freshmen for the academic year 1968-9 is 630.

The Graduate School of the university was established in Septem- ber 1966, and admits students for two years of postgraduate studies in arts, science, commerce, and social science leading to a Master's degree. Up to October 1968, 30 students have been awarded the Master of Arts degree. There were 45 students in the school in June 1968.

The School of Education, inaugurated in September 1965, offers a one-year diploma course of professional training to university graduates. Its third class of students completed the course in sum- mer 1968. In September 1967, a two-year part-time evening course for serving teachers, also leading to a Diploma of Education, was introduced.

      The Lingnan Institute of Business Administration was inaugurated in November 1966. The institute provides facilities for graduate study and research in the broad area of business administration, and offers a two-year curriculum leading to the degree Master of Commerce.

      A Computing Centre was established in February 1967. Its facili- ties include an IBM 1,130 Computer and a set of IBM Unit Records Machines. The main purposes of the Centre are for faculty research and for student instructions. A limited number of survey or research projects conducted by non-profit-making institutions have also made use of the facilities of the Centre.

      The Department of Extra-mural Studies of The Chinese University of Hong Kong offered 278 courses and had an enrolment of 7,710 during 1967-8. In addition to general courses, certificate programmes in Chinese literature, advanced translation, Chinese history, libra- rianship, applied design, computer fundamentals and programming, the teaching of modern mathematics, and tourism: promotion and

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techniques are provided in the autumn of 1968. The majority of the courses are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin.

THE TECHNICAL COLLEGE

The Technical College has a total enrolment of 16,670 students in 101 courses, comprising 1,666 full-time students in 63 classes, 502 part-time day students in 21 classes and 14,502 evening students in 456 classes distributed in 23 centres. The college has eight depart- ments; building, surveying and structural engineering; commerce and management studies; electrical engineering; mechanical, pro- duction and marine engineering; textile industries; nautical studies; mathematics and science; and industrial and commercial design. These provide full-time courses leading to the college's own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the associate membership examina- tions of many British professional institutions, a number of which have granted exemption from certain parts of their examinations to students in the higher diploma courses. The academic standard required for entry to most of these full-time classes is a Hong Kong Certificate of Education with passes in specified subjects.

In addition to the higher and ordinary diploma courses, the electrical engineering department offers courses for first and second- class radio officers, and a 3-month course in radar maintenance which gives training to qualified seagoing officers and technicians. The department of nautical studies operates courses for masters and mates of foreign-going vessels and also courses for radar observers. The department of commerce and management studies offers, mainly for girls, secretarial courses. The department of mechanical, production and marine engineering operates a produc- tivity centre. Since its inception in 1961, 36 productivity courses have been offered to more than 538 managerial and supervisory staff from local factories, representing some 15 different industries. Full-time courses at craftsman and pre-apprentice levels are also offered in the building, electrical and mechanical trades. Approval has now been obtained for the college to conduct the alternative training scheme for marine engineers and recognition has been given to the course. The department of industrial and commercial design, which was opened in 1967, conducting evening classes on commercial and basic design, now operates a full-time 3-year Higher

The Inheritors

A tiny territory that can earn a name for itself among the leading trading nations of the world must have its own formula for success. Hong Kong does.

The secret is people-skilful, adaptable, hard-working, irre- pressible.

The following pages give a glimpse into the daily life of a vital sector of the community-the Youth of Hong Kong. It is they who stand to inherit the good life their parents are build- ing and they who, in their turn, must one day take up the task of building for the future. In the meantime, however, the vast summer recreation programme mounted by the Hong Kong Government and voluntary agencies provides a popular annual outlet for their youthful exuberance.

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School plays a central part in every child's life, whether immersed in books (opposite page); sprinting round the playground (above) or exploring the technical mysteries of modern electronics (below).

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    The richly cosmopolitan flavour of modern Hong Kong is reflected in the musical tastes of the young: (left) A youthful choir concentrates on the serious business of interpreting traditional songs; (above) huge crowds flock to one of a series of pop concerts organized by the Urban Council on Blake Pier; (below) young cellists perform a classical work at the Schools Music Festival.

A dramatic blue-water shot (preceding pages) captures the excitement of a group of youngsters on their first yacht trip. Yacht outings were among many examples of private clubs and indi- viduals pitching in to help provide a memorable summer holiday for Hong Kong school children.

Active bodies and healthy appetites are inseparable, as these scenes show. They were taken at one of the many recreation camps organized throughout Hong Kong last

summer.

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A tug of war team strives valiantly under the enthusiastic eye of a volunteer youth leader-one of the many (including 200 civil servants) who willingly gave up their free time to supervise the estimated 341,418 children who took part in this year's summer programme.

Leisure activities included swimming parties (above) and canoeing (below). There was also a full programme of hiking, camping, sports, photographic excursions-even a Colony-wide crossword competition.

RIMIT

A farewell wave from a throng of happy young holidaymakers (above) and a

warm welcome to three of this year's newcomers (below).

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Diploma course in industrial design. This is a form of training which is utilized by industry in all advanced countries.

The eight departments also provide part-time day and evening courses. These lead to college certificates and to City and Guilds of London Institute and other qualifications in a range of technical and commercial subjects at professional, technicians' and crafts- men's levels. A two-year part-time in-service course for training teachers of technical subjects, an eleven-week part-time day-release course for workshop and trade instructors, and a plumbing and pipe-fitting part-time craft course, are also offered.

       Whenever there is a need for courses on specific subjects of current interest to local industry or to a sufficient number of indi- viduals, the college is prepared to operate short courses to meet the demand. During the year, the college operated a number of short courses of this nature in all departments.

Local and overseas firms, organizations and individuals support the work of the college by generous donations of materials, equip- ment, scholarships and funds for specific projects. Gifts of books to the college library were made by the Asia Foundation, United States Information Agency, Royal Institution of Chartered Sur- veyors, and by individuals.

       Firms in Britain and Australia continue to offer places for practical training to students who have completed three-year higher diploma courses, and 24 students took advantage of such oppor- tunities this year. The Cotton Spinners' Association donated a scholarship worth $24,000 to enable two holders of the textile higher diploma to further their studies abroad. Some students of marine engineering and of the deck officer cadet course are sponsored by local shipping interests.

The college continues to offer its facilities for testing purposes. During the year 14,543 concrete blocks were tested for the building and civil engineering industry, and over 3,000 textile tests were made on behalf of government departments.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER TRAINING

In March there were 30,222 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools, of whom

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7,765 were university graduates and 13,942 were trained non- graduates. Another 5,093 teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 145 were in special schools. At the end of the 1967-8 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of primary and secondary day schools was 31.4:1.

       Most teacher training is carried out by the Education Department's three Colleges of Education-Northcote, Grantham and Sir Robert Black. All three colleges are now offering full-time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers qualified to teach in primary schools and the lower forms of secondary schools. Normal one-year courses have been discontinued. A special one-year course is offered at Northcote College of Education for diploma holders from certain other post-secondary institutions. Specialist third year courses are offered from September 1968 to train specialist teachers in mathematics, domestic science, music, and art. These courses are intended to train teachers for secondary schools.

       The colleges also organize in-service courses of training for un- qualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, in either Chinese or English, of two years' duration. Successful students are awarded a certificate granting qualified teacher status.

Fees for full-time two-year and special one-year courses are $400 a year, but students may apply for interest-free loans not exceeding $1,200 per annum; in addition, maintenance grants of up to $1,600 per annum may be made to needy students. Students of full-time specialist third year courses pay no tuition fees; they receive mainte- nance grants of $2,000 per annum and may also apply for interest- free loans not exceeding $1,200 per annum if they are new graduates, or receive full pay if they have been serving teachers.

In September there were 1,095 students in the two-year courses, 23 in the special one year course, 43 in the specialist third year course and 842 in the in-service training course.

ADULT EDUCATION

       Adult education is provided by the Education Department for adults to make up for educational deficiencies, to improve employ- ment prospects and to develop a fuller and richer life.

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       The Evening Institute offers English courses from elementary to post-Certificate of Education level; teachers' classes for art, music, handwork, wood-work, physical education, modern mathematics, modern educational dance and the teaching of English, secondary school courses leading to the Certificate of Education, both English and Chinese. A three-year post-primary extension course providing additional training, with a practical bias is also available for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level. Rural literacy classes and general background education classes provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical background education classes give adults an opportunity of learning wood-work, housecraft, sewing and knitting. Adults now have a complete educational ladder from the literacy level to post-secondary studies. The total number of classes organized under the Evening Institute is 727 in 70 locations in both the urban and rural areas.

       The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers to holders of the English or Chinese School Certificate, or the Certificate of Education (English or Chinese), a three-year course in general arts leading to an Education Department diploma. Subjects include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology and English language and literature. Most of the students are primary school teachers.

       At the twelve Adult Education and Recreation Centres, education and recreation are combined in activities ranging from music appreciation and physical education to group study of art, pho- tography and dramatics. Activities are often organized jointly for a number of centres.

       Apart from its regular activities, the Adult Education Section has from time to time designed various schemes which aim at serving the community at large. In conjunction with the Prisons Department, several classes giving instruction in general subjects with a moral and civic emphasis are organized for inmates at different locations. Classes are also held at the Aberdeen Rehabili- tation Centre in co-operation with the Social Welfare Department.

EXAMINATIONS

There are five local public examinations for schools, one conducted by the Education Department, one each by the Boards of the Hong

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Kong Certificate of Education, English and Chinese, one by the University of Hong Kong and one by The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

      The Secondary School entrance examination is a competitive examination to select pupils for places in government and aided secondary schools, and for subsidized places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to advice on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate. Entries from each school are normally limited to 60 per cent of its primary six pupils, but this percentage may be increased to 100 per cent where justified by previous examination results. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

      The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (English) examination is conducted by a board of representatives from participating schools, the University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the Education Department. The University of Hong Kong, the University of London and some overseas universities now recognize grade C and above in individual subjects as equiva- lent to ordinary level passes in the London General Certificate of Education.

      The Hong Kong Certificate of Education (Chinese) examination is also conducted by a board. It is similar to the Certificate of Education (English) examination, but is of course conducted in Chinese. Both certificate of education examinations were changed in 1968 from a group to a subject basis in order to give more flexi- bility and to meet more closely the need of an expanding secondary system.

       The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations at standards comparable with those in Britain. Of these examinations, the General Certificate of Education is open to both school and private candidates who hold a local certificate of education of the required standard, and to private candidates of 25 years of age or over.

      London University degree examinations are also conducted annually in May and June. Appendix XXVII shows the more

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important examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

EDUCATION OVERSEAS

       The Hong Kong Students' Office in London is responsible for keeping records of all officially recommended Hong Kong students in the United Kingdom, for assisting them to find places in univer- sities and other institutions of higher education of their choice in Britain (except private schools or colleges), for making arrangements for them to be met and accommodated on arrival and for helping them over personal or educational problems. The office also maintains close relations with the Education Department in Hong Kong, the Ministry of Overseas Development and other government offices, the British Council, and educational establishments and hospitals where Hong Kong students are receiving training.

       There are 4,555 students, including government servants, appren- tices and nurse trainees, undergoing a wide variety of courses.

During the year under review, 1,966 Hong Kong students left for further study to the United States, 1,118 went to Canada and 224 to Australia.

Government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain, under the control of a board of governors appointed by and responsible to Government. It accommodates some 80 students and serves as a focal point and meeting place for many more.

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

During the year, a wide range of research programmes was conducted by both universities in various fields of study. Many projects were related to community needs and some were investiga- tions of specific local problems which can only be undertaken in Hong Kong, such as squatter and resettlement housing.

In view of the number of projects undertaken, it is not possible to describe them all in detail in this chapter. The following serve to illustrate some of the research completed or in progress during 1968 which has particular relevance to the Hong Kong community.

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In the University of Hong Kong, the establishment of the Centre of Asian Studies in November 1967 generated a number of inter- departmental research projects-among them, an investigation into rehousing policies in Hong Kong and their relevance to other Asian cities and gave rise to inter-disciplinary seminars such as those on 'Asian Urbanization: a Hong Kong Casebook', and on 'The Overseas Chinese in Vietnam'. In the Arts and Social Sciences Faculties, studies are under way of economic developments in Hong Kong and in China; of the Cultural Revolution in China; of Hong Kong's geology and physical geography; of comparative linguistics and comparative phonetics, relevant to Cantonese; of the teaching of both English and Chinese, and of school curricula and examinations in Hong Kong. Among the Medical Faculty's researches have been a study of the constituents of local plants of medicinal interest, a survey of maternal and perinatal mortality in Hong Kong, and an investigation into the cause of neonatal jaundice, while the child development studies begun in 1967 have continued. In the fields of science, engineering and architecture, work has been carried out relevant to pest and rodent control, on the determination of trace elements in plant material for the assessment of soil deficiences, on the thermal conductivity of Hong Kong soil, and on the design and structure of multi-storey housing in the Hong Kong context. The Physical Education Department has taken advantage of the Basic Foundation Course in Physical Education adopted by most Faculties of the university as part of their curriculum, to carry out a study of the physical fitness of undergraduates.

       In The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Research Centres have been set up under the university's three Research Institutes (the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities, the Institute of Science and Technology and the Institute of Chinese Studies). These provide a wide range of research and training opportunities for staff and students of the university.

Among the very many projects in the Social Studies and Human- ities field, for instance, there are studies on Hong Kong consumer expenditure and behaviour; on urban life; on the evaluation of a family planning programme; on rural towns; on kaifong associa- tions; on functional land use in urban areas; and on the demand

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and supply for agricultural products. Examples in Science and Technology are the ecology of Hong Kong marine fauna and the chemical analysis of Chinese medicinal plants. Examples of Chinese studies are projects, on the dialects of Kwangtung Province; of overseas Chinese; of ancient Chinese bronze inscriptions, together with projects such as the compilation of a dictionary of Chinese words, a translation of Professor Y. R. Chao's 'Grammar of spoken Chinese' and studies on a graded vocabulary of Chinese characters and words.

7

Health

THE people of Hong Kong continued to enjoy, in the main, good health during the year 1968, and the Colony remained free from cholera and other quarantinable diseases for the second consecutive year. However during the months of July and August a widespread epidemic of influenza occurred causing considerable morbidity amongst all segments of the population. Although it was estimated that around 10 per cent of the population suffered an attack of influenza during the epidemic period the disease fortunately carried a low mortality and the number of deaths, mostly in the very young and in the older age groups, during the epidemic was 27. Notifica- tions of diphtheria and of malaria continued to decline while the incidence of poliomyelitis remained satisfactorily low. Measles incidence during the last two months of the year did not show the expected biennial rise, due, in part at least, to the immunization campaign.

      Utilization of the facilities offered at casualty departments con- tinued to rise during 1968 with an increasing proportion of cases being non-traumatic in origin. The trends established in recent years of decreasing numbers of domestic and industrial accidents whilst traffic accidents increase has continued. The mortality pattern remained one in which fewer deaths were due to communicable diseases and more resulted from the diseases of later life, predomin- antly cancer and cardiovascular conditions. Tuberculosis remained a major health problem, accounting for more sickness and deaths than all other forms of communicable disease combined.

       During the year two new standard clinics and maternity homes were opened, the first at Castle Peak to serve the residents of the developing township and the second at Chai Wan to cater for an expanding resettlement area. Work on a five-phase alteration pro- gramme of the central building at Queen Mary Hospital continued throughout the year. The first three phases were completed and in use at the end of the year and the fourth was well under way. The

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alterations, when completed, will increase the hospital's bed capacity from 632 to 1,140 beds. Alterations to the Government Institute of Pathology, Sai Ying Pun, were completed to make more labora- tory space available, particularly for tuberculosis bacteriology, and the Medical Examination Board moved to new and improved premises. Substantial progress was achieved in the planning of many other government projects, including a large general hospital and a large mental hospital in the Lai Chi Kok area, an extension of almost 600 beds to Kowloon Hospital, and a rehabilitation and health centre in the Sai Ying Pun district. Construction work on Tang Shiu Kin Hospital at Morrison Hill, which will provide a second casualty department for Hong Kong Island, was almost complete.

      The general state of health of the population, as demonstrated by the Colony's vital statistics set out in Appendix XXX, was well maintained. Rates particularly indicative of the trends are the infant and neonatal mortality rates, which were 23.03 and 15.03 per 1,000 live births respectively, and the maternal mortality rate which was 0.14 per 1,000 total births, maternal deaths totalling 12. The crude death rate was 4.9 per 1,000 population. Based on actual registration of births and deaths, there was a reproductive increase of 63,673 people during the year, a total of 82,992 live births was registered as compared with 88,171 in 1967 and the crude birth rate fell further from 23 to 21.1 per 1,000 of population.

ADMINISTRATION

      Statutory responsibility for administering the services which safeguard public health in Hong Kong rests with the Director of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Director of Urban Services, the Commissioner of Labour and the District Commissioner, New Territories. The Medical and Health Depart- ment provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease. In addition, doctors are seconded to the Urban Services Department, the Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department, the Criminal Investigation Department of the Police and to the Prisons Department.

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       The estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department for the financial year 1968-9 is $134,938,600. To this should be added substantial subventions to many medical institutions and organizations, including particularly the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Grantham Hospital, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nether- sole Hospital, the Caritas Hospital and the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association. These subventions total an estimated $54,608,800 for the year under review and the combined estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Depart- ment and medical subventions represents 9.64 per cent of the Colony's estimated total expenditure. The estimated capital ex- penditure for the Medical and Health Department during 1968-9 in respect of hospital and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $13,095,989.

There are five statutory bodies which deal with the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, and mid- wives respectively. The Medical Council of Hong Kong is responsible for the registration of medical practitioners and has disciplinary responsibilities under the Medical Registration Ordinance; it is not an examining body. The Dental Council, Pharmacy Board, Nursing Board and Midwives Board all maintain registers, regulate training, hold examinations leading to registration and have dis- ciplinary powers.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

       Hong Kong has remained free from cholera since the single case reported in November 1966. However, in view of the continuing incidence of the disease in nearby areas, special preventive measures were continued and strict quarantine restrictions were maintained in respect of various neighbouring countries declared infected. Bacteriological investigation was carried out of all specimens sent to the government laboratories from cases of gastro-enteritis and there was daily sampling of nightsoil and routine sampling of seawater, well water and food-stuffs liable to be sources for trans- mission of the vibrio. All such samples proved to be negative for cholera organisms. A mass prophylactic immunization campaign against cholera started in April and by the end of the year a total of 1,385,272 inoculations had been given.

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      Tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem and due to the high density of population in Hong Kong it will probably be many years before the disease is completely controlled.

      It is believed from the figures which are available that approx- imately one per cent of the population of Hong Kong are suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis requiring treatment. However, this one per cent is not spread evenly throughout the population: males are affected at least twice as commonly as females, the disease being especially common in elderly men, while drug addicts are a group particularly prone to it. Tuberculosis in the young is now relatively uncommon and the former large numbers of acute and often fatal cases of tuberculosis in infants are now no longer seen.

Government either by subvention or directly through the Govern- ment Chest Service spends more than $16,000,000 yearly on control measures. The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, while certain other organizations, including the Tung Wah Group and the Caritas Medical Centre also provide treatment facilities, maintained mainly with the aid of substantial government subventions. The Government Chest Service operates six full-time clinics equipped with radiological facilities and 17 subsidiary centres throughout the Colony. Co-ordination is achieved through a committee inaugurated in 1965.

BCG vaccination is regarded as being a most important measure and it is believed that the widespread use of this prophylactic has led to the precipitate fall in tuberculosis in the very young in Hong Kong. During the year 94.1 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 72 hours of birth. Bearing in mind that certain babies, e.g. the underweight, the jaundiced, cannot be given BCG, this represents an almost 100 per cent coverage of eligible babies. Vaccine is issued free to all doctors, midwives and hospitals. Tuberculin testing and BCG vaccination where necessary are accepted by about two-thirds of all school entrants, and children aged from two to five attending maternal and child health centres are also tested and vaccinated where necessary.

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       The cornerstone of treatment in Hong Kong is ambulatory chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. The position with regard to the treatment of tuberculosis in the last 15 years has changed com- pletely and the disease can now nearly always be cured provided that the patient is co-operative and takes his treatment regularly. The drawback however is that the course of treatment is long, usually one-and-a-half to two years. In this connection there is a strong team of health visitors guiding and directing Health Auxi- liaries so that, if default from treatment does occur, immediate action in the way of home visiting can be taken.

       All diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is free and medical social workers connected with this work maintain social histories, operate a tuberculosis assistance fund for those in need of financial or material aid while under treatment, and help with certain aspects of rehabilitation and resettlement.

       In the past, due to the large number of cases of tuberculosis attending chest clinics voluntarily, case finding was considered to be pointless, making an already difficult treatment situation more difficult. This position has now changed, due on the one hand to the fact that the tuberculosis problem is slowly but steadily being overcome and, on the other, to the improved outpatient facilities being offered by Government.

       The Colony has 1,737 beds available specifically for the treatment of tuberculosis and 6,163 patients were admitted to them during the year. The Government provides 146 of these beds in Kowloon Hospital and St John Hospital on Cheung Chau Island, but the ma- jority are in government-assisted hospitals, notably those managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Asso- ciation. This association offers a total of 979 beds distributed between Grantham Hospital, Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home. The Grantham Hospital has 619 beds of which 576 are maintained by the Government on a daily fee-paying basis, while the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home between them have 360 beds. These hospitals also offer approved training courses leading to the British Tuberculosis Association's certificate in nursing. The Junk Bay Medical Relief Council has 261 beds at its Haven of Hope Sanatorium. In addition, this organization has facilities for the rehabilitation of patients and for the observation of child contacts with positive tuberculosis reactions. The Tung Wah

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      Group has a variable number of beds for the treatment of the more chronic forms of the disease, while the Sandy Bay Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home deals especially with bone tuber- culosis in children and with other forms of childhood orthopaedic ailments.

       Thiacetazone is a cheap and easily administered drug which has been found to be very effective in many parts of the world. Un- fortunately a joint study with the Medical Research Council of the UK has revealed that this drug is too toxic for routine use amongst the Chinese of Hong Kong. At present a large scale trial is underway with the Medical Research Council to evaluate the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy in Hong Kong, i.e.: six months of Strep- tomycin, PAS and INAH followed by PAS/INAH for 18 months. Technical advice is also being obtained from the World Health Organization with regard to BCG and tuberculin testing.

Venereal diseases are diagnosed and treated free at clinics main- tained in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. The recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis, which rose to its maximum in 1963 and fell steeply in the succeeding four years, remained low in 1968, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. Latent and late syphilis and gonorrhoea have stayed comparatively unchanged and the incidence of chancroid and lymphogranuloma remained very low. The maintenance of this satisfactory position is due, at least in part, to energetic epidemic control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine ante-natal blood tests.

Leprosy remains a public health problem of almost negligible proportions. Twenty out-patient sessions are held weekly solely for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while other sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. Surgical appliances are fitted to patients with limb deformities. Prejudice against employment or rehabilita- tion of cured leprosy patients is gradually disappearing and wide- spread publicity is leading to a more humane and progressive ap- proach to the problem by the community. The Leprosy Mission--- Hong Kong Auxiliary, with the aid of a government subvention, maintains accommodation for 540 persons at Hei Ling Chau Lepro- sarium for the treatment of infectious cases and a small number of patients requiring reconstructive operations are also accepted.

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       Malaria continues to occur on a very limited scale, being restricted to certain uncontrolled rural areas of the Colony. Most of the cases during the year were reported from isolated parts of the Tai Po district of the New Territories. The important carriers of malaria are Anopheles minimus, found breeding in hill streams, seepages and irrigation ditches, and A. jeyporiensis var. candidiensis, which breeds in rice cultivation, fallow rice fields, pools in rice stubble and water flowing through grass. Other anopheline species found in the Colony play little or no part in malaria transmission. Plasmodium vivax is the predominant parasite.

      Malaria prevention in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti- larval measures consisting of draining and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. Areas under active control are the populated portions of the whole of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, extending from Kwai Chung, in the west, to Lei Yue Mun in the east, in addition, Cheung Chau Island and Rennie's Mill Village, in the New Territories, are similarly protected. Larvicidal oil con- tinues to be employed as the main larvicide, but malathion, diazinon and gamma-BHC were used on a limited scale in areas where the application of oil was not suitable. These anti-larval operations against anopheline breeding afford protection from malaria to approximately 80 per cent of the colony's population. None of the few cases appearing in the urban areas during the year could be attributed to breakdown of these control measures. In the greater part of the New Territories where the background is essentially rural, the adoption of anti-malarial mosquito measures described above is not feasible at present and screening of buildings, use of mosquito nets and chemoprophylaxis constitute the main protection against malaria. All anti-mosquito measures for the prevention of malaria are carried out by the Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department. Clinical aspects of malaria control such as malaria surveys and chemotherapy are the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department.

      Diphtheria continued to occur mainly among children under 10 years of age, predominantly within the 'pre-school' age-group. An intensive immunization campaign which has been in progress since 1959 has brought the disease under control and it is pleasant to report that for the first time a four week period was recorded

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without one case of diphtheria during the four consecutive weeks ending September 7, 1968. Immunizations are offered at all government medical institutions while mobile teams of inoculators visit schools, squatter and other crowded areas, and conduct house to house visits in resettlement estates. Every effort is made through the available media of health education to inform parents of the dangers of the disease and to encourage them to insure that their children are protected. The results of these efforts can be seen when it is observed that there has been a steady decline in the number of cases notified annually and in 1968 only 113 cases were recorded (the figure for 1967 was 226), and represented 5.41 per cent of the corresponding figure for 1959. The case fatality ratio was 8.85 in 1968. Most deaths occurred in non-immunized children who showed advanced laryngeal or pulmonary complications due to delay in seeking proper medical attention. The vaccine used in the mass campaign combined immunization against diphtheria with active anti-tetanus prophylaxis.

      Typhoid fever incidence showed the usual seasonal variation tending to be higher during the summer months. In Hong Kong it is generally mild and is frequently associated with neglect in personal and community hygiene. Free inoculation is offered and the usual control measures are enforced, special attention being paid to the detection of carriers among food handlers.

      Bacillary dysentery also showed the customary seasonal pattern with a somewhat higher than average number of cases being recorded during the summer months of 1968.

       Poliomyelitis remained a disease of low incidence with only 15 cases being reported during the year. This satisfactory position is mainly due to the combined vaccination programme consisting of one dose of Type I poliovaccine soon after birth, followed by a full course of two doses of 'balanced' trivalent vaccine at three and five months of age. Approximately 77 per cent of new-borns received one dose of Type I poliovaccine; more than half of these children subsequently received two doses of the 'balanced' trivalent vaccine at maternal and child health centres, while a further proportion received this further protection in the course of annual Colony- wide campaigns.

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       Measles is most prevalent during the cooler months and epidemics are characteristically biennial, the last one occurring in the winter of 1966-7. After an investigation lasting eighteen months into the value of modified live vaccine under Hong Kong conditions, a Colony-wide immunization campaign commenced in December 1967. It is as yet too early to determine the overall effect of this measure but cases during the last two months of 1968 were en- couragingly lower than had been expected. The high case fatality ratio among notified cases reflects the incompleteness of notification; furthermore, a high percentage of the deaths were reported from public mortuaries, indicating that majority of the cases did not seek early medical attention. Death was due mainly to bronchop- neumonia encountered too late for treatment to be effective, but continuing efforts are made to encourage parents to seek early medical advice.

      Influenza was of particular importance as an epidemic occurred in the summer of 1968. It commenced in the second week of July and followed the characteristic pattern of influenzal outbreaks in urban communities i.e. abrupt start and rapid spread. The peak was reached during the week ending July 27 and the epidemic was over by the end of August. It was estimated that some 10 per cent of the Colony's population were affected, and 27 persons died as a result of the disease, these deaths occurring amongst the very young and the very elderly. The aetiological agent proved to be a virus of the influenza A2 type which had undergone a considerable change in its antigenic structure. It subsequently spread beyond Hong Kong to involve other countries in the South-East Asian and Pacific areas.

PORT HEALTH SERVICE

       The Port Health Service is responsible for enforcing the Interna- tional Sanitary Regulations as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance, with the aim of ensuring the maximum security against the spread of quarantinable diseases with the minimum of interference to traffic. The following facilities are provided by the service: vaccination centres for travellers and other members of the public; free medical advice to ships at sea and assistance to emergencies in the harbour and the airport. Rigid vigilance and appropriate measures are adopted concerning arrivals

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from declared infected areas. A regular exchange of epidemiological intelligence is maintained with the International Quarantine Service of the World Health Organization in Geneva, the Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization in Manila and several neighbouring health administrations.

       The Port Health Service is also responsible for the sanitary control of the port and airport areas and these areas were kept free from Aedes aegypti (yellow fever vector) throughout the year under review. There is regular supervision of the purity of water supplied by dock hydrants and water boats, and of the airport catering service. Ships arriving with expired deratting or deratting exemption certificates are inspected and if necessary, new certificates are issued after the required measures have been taken. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and returns of rats destroyed, and epidemiological examination for plague, are submitted monthly to the World Health Organization's International Quarantine Service.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

There is increasing public understanding of the value of Hong Kong's maternal and child health facilities. Most babies are born either in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes and confinements at home attended by government or private midwives now represent only about 1 per cent of total deliveries. The Govern- ment Midwifery Service has 30 district centres, one of which provides a domiciliary service, while maternity beds available for deliveries in government clinics and health centres total 488. There are 118 registered midwives practising privately in 77 maternity and nursing homes, which are inspected regularly by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff to ensure that conditions of registration are observed and that a high standard is maintained by registered midwives not working under the direct supervision of a doctor.

The government Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 29 centres, 17 of which are full-time. Clinics are held for infants and for children between two and five years old, and ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also conducted. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinics are visited at home, and health visitors also go to the homes of newborns whose names

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appear in monthly birth returns. Health education forms an im- portant part of this work and includes practical demonstrations, talks, film shows and individual advice to mothers. Immunization against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuber- culosis and measles is offered at all centres.

       There is an increasing liaison with the Family Planning Associa- tion, which conducts increasing numbers of sessions in the full-time centres.

SCHOOL HEALTH

       The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Essentially, the scheme offers a service whereby participating school children receive medical treatment from private medical practi- tioners for the small sum of $7 a year. This per capita fee does not meet the cost of the service, and the Government contributes an equal sum as well as the cost of administrative expenses. At the end of the year 43,693 students attending schools were enrolled in the service and 202 private medical practitioners were participating.

       The School Health Service, which has been in existence since 1927, continues as a government responsibility and is concerned with the sanitary condition of school premises, the control of communicable diseases and the health education of children, teachers and parents. In August 1966 the work of the School Health Service was taken over by the area health officers who, apart from their normal duties, act as medical officers of schools.

MENTAL HEALTH

      The Castle Peak Hospital for psychiatric patients, planned with a bed capacity of 1,242 beds, was required to accommodate an average of some 1,600 patients daily during most of the year, and psychiatric cases from the whole Colony are admitted to the hospital, mostly as voluntary patients. Outpatient treatment is available on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and in the New Territories, and day patients are treated in the Psychiatric Day Centre on Hong Kong Island as well as the modern Yau Ma Tei Psychiatric Centre, which occupies one-quarter of the clinical floors of the Yau Ma Tei Polyclinic. The latter Centre also provides special facilities for the

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observation of disturbed children. A Psychiatric Observation Unit is operated in the Victoria Reception Centre for remand prisoners, and there is one ward for very low-grade mentally subnormal children in the Tung Wah Hospital. Other cases of mental sub- normality are in the care of the Social Welfare Department where they receive occupational training. Certain voluntary agencies, working in close co-operation with the Mental Health Service, assist in re-orientation of patients before their return to full social and economic activities in the community.

      Drug addicts who volunteer for treatment and rehabilitation are treated in a drug-free environment at a rehabilitation centre on Shek Kwu Chau Island; their stay varies from four to six months. This institution, which is able to treat up to 250 addicts at a time, is run by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts, a voluntary organization receiving a substantial government sub- vention. A building programme has commenced to increase treatment facilities to 500. The society maintains an office in the urban area where addicts can apply voluntarily for admission to the centre and, after a medical examination and socio-economic investigation, successful applicants are admitted for treatment and rehabilitation. Following their discharge, the society provides further assistance in their rehabilitation. A group of some 300 addicts formerly treated in the Castle Peak Addiction Centre is being followed up by staff of the Mental Health Service for as long as possible for research purposes.

HOSPITALS

      The 14,899 hospital beds available in Hong Kong represent 3.79 beds per thousand of the population (see Appendix XXXII). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes, but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds 12,842 are in govern- ment hospitals and institutions and in government-assisted hospitals, while the remaining 2,057 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and for the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases, there are 11,651 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity, giving a ratio of 2.97 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the hospitals, but in some cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used exten- sively whenever the need arises.

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      Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as the main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories and has 1,523 beds, with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. It also contains the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Radio- logy which incorporates the most modern equipment for radio- therapy and is probably the most comprehensive centre in South- East Asia for the treatment of malignant diseases.

       The Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. There are 500 beds of which 171, linked with thoracic surgery and pulmonary function units, are allocated to the care of patients suffering from tuberculosis and other diseases of the chest. Construction work is continuing on the additional block of 600 beds which, when completed, will give a total of 1,100 beds at this hospital.

      On Hong Kong Island Government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary Hospital, which performs the same functions for the island as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital does for Kowloon, and is also the teaching hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of Hong Kong. A phased programme of alterations, designed to add 508 beds and bringing the hospital's bed complement to 1,140, continued during the year, and is expected to be completed by the end of 1969.

      Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialized purposes. Apart from the Castle Peak Hospital, they include two infectious disease hospitals (one of which also accommodates convalescent patients from the two acute emergency hospitals), a maternity hospital of 241 beds, where the teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out, and a small hospital for the treatment of skin diseases in women and children. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also established in the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries.

       The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is a charitable organization founded 98 years ago and managed by a board of directors elected annually. It operates three general hospitals, the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah with a total of 2,904 beds,

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     and a convalescent hospital of 503 beds at Sandy Bay. These hospitals, whose recurrent expenditure is met mainly by a large subvention from the Government, provide a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernized and expanded. In addition, the Tung Wah Group is helping to meet the growing demand for beds for long-term patients by the phased construction of a large infirmary at Wong Tai Sin. The first phase providing some 350 beds, was completed in September 1965, and construction work was in progress during 1968 to provide a further 450 beds.

The Pok Oi Hospital, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, is another long-established charitable organization operating with the assistance of a government subvention. During recent years the Board of Directors has been undertaking a programme of moderni- zation, and in 1968 plans were drawn up for the replacement of obsolescent services and quarters.

A number of the general hospitals are maintained by missionary and other charitable organizations. Several receive substantial government subventions, and during the year major extensions have been undertaken at Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, Caritas Medical Centre at So Uk, Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital and Sandy Bay Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in anaesthet- ics; chest surgery; dentistry; ear, nose and throat diseases; eye diseases; general medicine; general surgery; neurosurgery; obstet- rics and gynaecology; orthopaedic surgery; psychiatry; pathology; radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy. There are also specialized clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, together with specialist services offered by the Government Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory. The Government Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals maintain blood banks and the Hong Kong Red Cross Society operates a blood- collecting service for voluntary blood donation; laboratory work for these blood banks is carried out by the Institute of Pathology.

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The Government Chemist is responsible for an analytical laboratory which undertakes a wide range of investigations concerned with food, narcotics and medico-legal work, as well as a considerable amount of commercial and other non-medical investigation.

      Open heart surgery for the treatment of various types of congenital and acquired heart diseases has become available in Hong Kong since the middle of this year. The combined efforts of the Medical and Health Department, the University of Hong Kong, the Anti- tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and some private individuals have made this project possible. Patients are admitted to the Queen Mary Hospital for preliminary investigation and, if indicated, transferred to the Grantham Hospital for operation.

OUTPATIENT CLINICS

To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services, provided mainly by the Govern- ment, and also by subsidized organizations and private agencies, are developing steadily. Many charitable and missionary clinics provide treatment either free or at a nominal cost and numerous organizations, particularly the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, continue to take an active interest in medical and health problems. A large number of outpatient clinics are supported by kaifong, district and clansmen's associations and commercial concerns and trade unions also operate clinics for their members.

       Government now maintains 43 clinics for general outpatients, and specialist facilities, available in the major centres in the urban areas, are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Terri- tories, especially the isolated villages on the eastern and western coasts. Other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

Since the Medical Clinics Ordinance came into effect in January 1964, 437 private clinics have been granted registration, of which 360 were exempted from employing registered doctors. Under the Medical Clinics (Amendment) Ordinance of 1966 the power of the Registrar of Clinics to register clinics with exemption was extended for a further three years as from January 1967, and all clinics,

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whether registered or registered with exemption, are required to be re-registered annually. The Ordinance also prohibited the re- registration with exemption of any mobile clinic after December 31, 1967, and these have been replaced with properly equipped clinics in resettlement and low-cost housing authority estates. In allocating these premises registered doctors are given priority.

DENTAL SERVICES

The Government Dental Service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 30 government dental clinics, including one mobile unit which supplements static clinic facilities.

Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. The rate of enrichment is one part of fluoride per million throughout the year. It is considered that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalance of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will be more marked in the future.

Many voluntary bodies and welfare organizations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Society and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped mobile dental clinics.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

Based upon three full-time outpatient centres, including one in the new Yau Ma Tei Polyclinic, equipped with operating, investigation and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the New Territories. Additionally, ophthalmic surgery is performed in two government hospitals in which 30 beds are reserved for ophthalmic cases. The staff of the Ophthalmic Service also deal with ophthalmic emergen- cies at three casualty departments situated at the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Kwong Wah Hospitals.

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In 1953, 80 per cent of the blind population of the Colony had become blind before reaching the age of 10. With the application of modern drugs, special attention to the condition of avitaminosis and free treatment to children under 12 years, the position is now comparable with conditions in advanced countries with the onset of blindness occurring after the age of 50 in 80 per cent of cases.

TRAINING

The degrees of MB, BS, conferred by the University of Hong Kong, have been recognized for registration by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. During recent years the Medical Faculty has expanded to cope with an annual intake of 120 medical students to meet the increasing needs of the Colony for doctors. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain, and is supervised by a panel for post-graduate medical education, consisting of university and government staff members. Due mainly to this programme, almost all of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department are now held by locally-recruited staff.

Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry, but a government dental scholarship scheme each year enables a number of students from Hong Kong to study dentistry overseas and ulti- mately to qualify as dental surgeons.

There are three government hospital schools of nursing. Those at the Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary Hospitals are general schools, while the one at the Castle Peak Hospital is a psychiatric nursing school. Training at government schools and at the Caritas Hospital school is in English, but there are also approved schools at Tung Wah Hospital, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital and Caritas Hospital where instruction is in Cantonese. Examinations are held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board and there is full reciprocity of registra- tion between the Hong Kong Board and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales. Most female nurses, on completion of general nursing training, take a midwifery course of one year which qualifies them for entry to the examinations held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The course is conducted in English at

The Fire Fighters ·

港公

**

Hong Kong's Fire Services Department, which is renowned as one of the most efficient and effective in the world, proudly celebrated its Centenary during the year. The occasion was marked by the opening of a modern training school (below) at Sek Kong, where these pictures were taken.

7

TIT

    This unusual perspective shows some of the sophisticated equipment ready for instant action at Hong Kong's 39 fire stations.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES

1

K

METANDEN GRAN

-PEI

"......

"

HUWAI

   The previous two pages show the fireboat Alexander Grantham, at 352 gross tons probably the largest of its kind in the world. It is one of six powerful units capable of handling any kind of major fire in the harbour or waterfront

area.

...

   The picture (above) shows a simulated escape-part of the detailed training undergone by Hong Kong's elite force of more than 2,500 firemen. As well as fighting fires, units are fully trained and equipped for rescue work, fire preven- tion and building inspections. The department also administers the Colony's ambulance service, whose 56 ambulances last year carried an average of more than 6,000 patients a month.

And here is the end result of all that training. A blaze on the upper floor of a Kowloon factory block is quickly controlled before it can endanger surround- ing premises. Below, a scene from the Fire Services Centenary Review in November.

NG

火防

The fire prevention poster (above) is one of the many issued by the depart- ment in its constant campaign to eliminate hazards and dangerous practices. The people of Hong Kong are being made increasingly aware of dangers they themselves can help eliminate. Special campaigns were mounted during the year against obstructions in stairways and illegal building alterations.

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government hospitals and in Cantonese at the other approved schools. For student midwives who are not registered nurses, a two-year course of training at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital (and to a limited extent at the other approved training schools) is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examinations. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate prac- tical training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is not at present possible.

Government conducts a continuous post-graduate training pro- gramme for nurses to obtain experience overseas; subjects during 1968 included nursing administration, nursing education, paediat- rics, thoracic and open heart surgery and dietetics.

       A nine months' course for Health Visitor training was held during the year. The health auxiliaries, who are to supplement the Health Visitor service, continued the two-year training in health education and in public health nursing, including maternal and child health work, the tracing and keeping of records of infectious diseases in general, and of tuberculosis, leprosy and venereal disease in particular.

       The Hong Kong Examination Board of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Diploma for Public Health Inspectors, the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors and the Certificate for Health Visitors and School Nurses. Training for the Diploma for Public Health Inspectors and the Diploma in Tropical Hygiene for Public Health Inspectors is carried out within the Urban Services Department. In September 1968 the first examination for the Diploma in Public Health Inspection for General Overseas Appointments was held, and training for this diploma was also carried out within the Urban Services Department.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

       Responsibility for environmental health services in the urban areas rests with the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories, the Director of Urban Services is responsible.

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      More than 6,000 employees of the Urban Services Department are engaged in street cleansing and the removal of refuse and night- soil. Over 2,000 tons of refuse and 100 tons of nightsoil are collected daily. About 650 tons of refuse from Hong Kong Island are normally disposed of daily in the oil-fired incinerator at Kennedy Town (operated by the Public Works Department). Refuse from the main- land is conveyed by vehicle to Gin Drinker's Bay, Tsuen Wan, in the New Territories, for disposal there by controlled tipping. A second incinerator came into use at the close of the year at Lai Chi Kok in Kowloon. Planning is in hand for two more incinerators for Kowloon.

The mechanization of cleansing services continued in 1968, four new mechanical street sweepers being added to the fleet. Some 138 refuse collection vehicles were in use daily, supplemented by 29 prime-movers and 81 trailers. In addition, 29 street-washing vehicles were employed to clean roads, lanes, gutters, footpaths, bus stops and hawker areas.

      The change in social and living conditions over the past few years has resulted in a switch from wood-burning stoves in houses, tenements and restaurants, to the use of kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas and town gas. This in turn has resulted in an accumulation of junk formerly burned as fuel and now dumped in public places. To cope with this problem, six specially designed 'pantechnicon' lorries, each with an increased capacity for junk removal, were added to the fleet. These vehicles, with three refuse collection vehicles, six lorries and four tippers working a total of 26 shifts per week, were employed to remove a daily average of 120 lorry loads of boxes, crates and other household junk for disposal.

The nightsoil collection service continues to diminish gradually as pre-war property is demolished and replaced by modern buildings with waterborne sanitation. 16,730 gallons of nightsoil were collected daily from 18,055 floors with dry latrines and from 2,178 temporary latrine compartments on building sites, squatter and licensed reset- tlement areas. Thirty-four specialized vehicles and three tanker- barges were employed on this service.

An important task of the Hygiene Division of the Urban Services Department is the regular inspection of some 5,639 licensed premises such as restaurants, fresh provision shops and food

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     factories. All new applications for licences for food premises, laundries, offensive trades, commercial bathhouses, funeral parlours and swimming pools are dealt with by a Central Licensing Unit in order to eliminate delay. Hygiene inspection of domestic premises is carried out at intervals depending on the type of premises. The health staff of the Urban Services Department work in close liaison with the Medical and Health Department in the investigation and control of infectious diseases and food poisoning. Health staff are also responsible for investigating complaints of sanitary nuisances from the public and for the prevention of fly and mosquito breeding. Attention is being paid to the need for more stringent hygienic control over the increasing number of vending machines for the sale of food and drinks in the Colony. A great variety of frozen meat and meat products, including poultry, is imported into Hong Kong and special food-inspection staff is engaged in the inspection of these products and other imported foods and in the health certification of foods for export.

       A pest control section carries out measures for the control of rats, mice, cockroaches, ants, fleas, bed-bugs, biting-midges and, in the New Territories, flies and mosquitoes. The section is also engaged in work to prevent the breeding of malarial mosquitoes in Hong Kong Island, the built-up areas of Kowloon and New Kowloon and, in the New Territories, Kwai Chung, Rennie's Mill village and Cheung Chau Island.

      The health education section continued to organize publicity campaigns on various health topics and to run food hygiene training courses for food handlers. Over 684 food handlers from restaurants, cooked food stalls and government canteens were trained during the year. Cleanliness courses for caretakers in multi-storey buildings continued to be held.

To assist in the dissemination of health knowledge and the pro- motion of health education among the younger generation, school health talks are given by staff of this section to government primary schools in Hong Kong. School health quizzes and health education oratorical and song contests are held each year.

       The supervision of hawkers, markets and slaughterhouses has an important bearing on public health and the Urban Services Department employs a large staff on these duties. There are 65

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public retail markets (42 in the urban areas and 23 in the New Territories) where housewives can buy meat, fish, poultry and vegetables. Many of these markets are old and out-moded, making it difficult to maintain acceptable standards of hygiene. The Urban Council aims to reconstruct many of the older ones and to provide new ones, particularly in developing areas, and the Department devoted much time to the planning of new projects during the year when one new market was opened, adjoining Yue Man Square in Kwun Tong.

      Hawking provides a livelihood for an estimated 80,000 people in the built-up areas of Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Terri- tories. The great majority of these hawkers sell vegetables and other foodstuffs in streets near markets and shops selling meat, fish and poultry. Other hawkers sell haberdashery and hardware. Although they meet a public demand, hawkers obstruct streets which are already congested, hinder public cleansing work and create a health problem. The policy of the Urban Council is to concentrate them in off-street bazaars where possible or in minor streets where they can carry on their business with the minimum of inconvenience to other sections of the community.

The enforcement of the regulations governing hawkers is carried out by the Hawker Control Force, established in 1960 to relieve the Police of this responsibility. The Force has an establishment of 514 officers and men who operate so far in only 31 designated parts of the urban areas. The Force is expanding gradually but in many districts, particularly of Kowloon, the Police remain still the sole authority for control.

The Urban Services Department operates two public slaughter- houses, one on Hong Kong Island and one in Kowloon. In October, a newly constructed abattoir of modern design became fully operational and replaced the obsolete building previously in use at Kennedy Town (on the Island). In Kowloon, the old slaughter- house at Ma Tau Kok will be replaced early in 1969 by a similar new building at Cheung Sha Wan.

      The disposal of the dead is the responsibility of the Urban Council in the urban areas and of the Urban Services Department in the New Territories.

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Nine public cemeteries and two public crematoria are directly controlled by the department; 27 private cemeteries and one private crematorium are under its general supervision. Three funeral parlours and 26 undertakers are licensed by the Urban Council to arrange funeral services and rites. In addition, Govern- ment provides free of charge two farewell pavilions for the per- formance of last rites, and transport of coffins to certain public cemeteries for interment.

RESEARCH

Liver disease, particularly recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and its effect on the intrahepatic bile ducts, has been the subject of closer study. The collaborative work on salivary gland tumours and the co-operative study on respiratory virus infection in children under the auspices of World Health Organization continue. The serological response of children given attenuated live measles vaccine in 1966 is being followed up for the second year. Laboratory investigation related to the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, a joint undertaking with the Medical Research Council, is still proceeding, and there is collaboration with the University Orthopaedic Unit in studies of spinal tuberculosis. Preliminary work in bacteriophage typing of non-cholera vibrios revealed three groups of phages isolated from non-cholera vibrios belonging to Heibery Group I.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Now, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

       Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the responsi- bility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon foot-hills, called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories are mostly located in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them, with a few exceptions, are recorded in the Registrar General's Department. The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

The Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction; all land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools up to the full market value for public utilities, the latter being payable by instalments.

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To ensure that scarce land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee undertakes to develop up to a certain rateable value within a specified period. The amount he must spend depends on the location and the type of development allowed. In addition to the covenant, new leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, to accord with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent.

The relaxation of time limits on building developments announced in November 1965, was again continued in the year under review. This concession applied to developers owning land which was either the subject of an exclusion order (see the section of this chapter on 'Rent Control') made before July 1, 1965, or held from the Government under conditions of sale or grant executed before July 1, 1965, and on which development had not begun or had not been completed. These developers became eligible to apply for an extension of one year-free of either penalty or premium-of the time limit by which they were bound to begin or complete their approved development scheme, or to fulfil their building covenant. On application, a further free extension of 12 months was granted to those developers who had availed themselves of the previous concession. It was felt that this concession, which will be the final one, was still appropriate at this time when, in certain categories of domestic and other premises, supply still exceeded demand. At the end of this concessionary period, the original covenant period will start to run again.

       In order to assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments a concession permits the sub-letting of parts of the building without having to pay the outstanding balance of premium subject to certain conditions. Previously the balance of premium outstanding became payable in the event of any sub-letting.

        A further concession to owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, was introduced during the year. This entitled owners to assign their lots without having to fulfil the building covenant or pay off outstanding instalments of premium prior to the assignment, subject to the assignee under- taking to fulfil the building covenant and pay the instalments of

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premium. This concession was given to assist bringing into use undeveloped industrial lots where the original purchaser no longer wished to develop the lot himself. The concession applies to any industrial lots acquired prior to January 1, 1967 and is to operate for a period of two years from July 18, 1968.

      Sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land in accordance with the terms of the lease gets the right to do so and that the community receives the maximum return in cash. As the rent reserved in the lease is low, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable the Government to obtain direct financial gain from any increase in the value of the land after it has been sold. For this reason the increase in land values in recent years has resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since most of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long leases.

       In the earlier part of this century the leases of lots lying in the better residential districts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon often included restrictions on the type and height of buildings. These restrictions have served their purpose well but the demands of an increasing population now require more intensive development. It has now become the practice for these conditions to be modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which preserve the amenities of each district while allowing more intensive develop- ment. Modifications of this sort are subject to the payment of a premium.

In recent years groups of 75-year non-renewable Crown leases granted in the Colony's early days, chiefly in Kowloon, have been expiring. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases. Premiums for the new leases may, subject to certain conditions, be paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over an agreed number of years, which is the method preferred by most lessees. Terms announced in 1960 provide for a maximum of 21 annual instalments and interest of 10 per cent.

In cases where a building in multiple ownership exists on the lot at the date of application for re-grant, payment by instalments can continue even if further sales of undivided shares should take place. Prior to the introduction of this concession the premium

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had to be paid by lump sum if sales had taken place within five years of date of application; similarly, where the premium was payable by instalments, the outstanding balance of premium had to be paid up on any sale taking place after re-grant.

On re-grant, the boundaries of these lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines, etc, and, where land is needed for major replanning schemes, the leases will not be re-granted. In these cases the Government pays ex-gratia compensation for build- ings. For churches and temples already on non-renewable leases, which were originally granted free of premium, new leases may also be granted free of premium.

Churches and temples held on unrestricted non-renewable leases for which a full-value premium had been paid, may be granted new leases at a premium payable by instalments, and amounting to two-thirds of the full market value of the lot at the date of expiry of the lease.

       A further concession was introduced during the year in respect of non-renewable leases to enable lessees who had not or did not wish to pay re-grant premium and redevelop, to hold over for a period up to five years from 1968 at an annual rent equivalent to the net income arising from the property. This concession is only applicable to property which in the opinion of the Director of Public Works is under-developed. Lessees of fully developed post- war property are not eligible for this concession.

An increasing number of 75-year renewable leases are falling due for renewal. In these cases, under terms announced in 1963, the Crown lessee of an under-developed lot has two alternatives. He may renew either at a Crown rent based on the full rental value of the land without added lease covenants, or at a lower Crown rent if he is prepared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal.

Lots held on 75-year renewable leases, registered in the New Territories District Land Offices will be renewed at the expiration of the first term in 1973 without change in Crown rent. Other New Territories leases recorded in the Registrar General's Department will be renewed at a re-assessed rent on the same terms as urban lots. A further concession, applicable to all these lots which are

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subject to re-assessment of Crown rent, permits owners intending to develop, and whose leases have less than 20 years to run, to surrender their existing leases and be granted new ones at a premium payable either by lump sum or by three annual instal- ments. Alternatively, an owner who waits until the year of expiry of the first term of his lease, may then pay either an annual re- assessed Crown rent or a lump sum premium in lieu.

With the increasing need to seek sites for major schemes in the New Territories, outline development plans have been prepared, or are under preparation, for building new towns and expanding existing market towns in areas best suited to industry and high- density housing. These are Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Castle Peak, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po, Shek Wu Hui, and Junk Bay. How- ever, most of these development areas contain a high proportion of leased agricultural land and there is not enough Crown land to serve public purposes. As development proceeds, Crown lessees are invited to surrender agricultural and village or rural building land in exchange for a re-grant of building land with boundaries conforming to the development layout. Within layout areas these exchanges are normally negotiated on a foot-for-foot basis for building land surrendered, and a five-feet-for-two-feet basis for the agricultural land surrendered, with a premium payable equal to the difference in value between the land surrendered and that re-granted. This system has proved acceptable to landowners and has been eased by the issue of letters entitling any landowner, who voluntarily surrenders land at the time when it is required for a public purpose, to a future grant of land when this becomes available. Certain economic factors have, however, placed some strain on the system, but it is likely that the position will improve when demand for building land catches up with supply and investors regain confidence.

LAND SALES

      The property market started to revive in the second quarter of the year and a firm undertone of demand developed through the latter part of the year. This engendered a revival in interest in development and redevelopment of vacant sites already in private ownership and produced a number of applications to purchase

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Crown land, mainly for industrial purposes. Following this trend more applications for modification of leases were received and more lessees of expiring 75-year non-renewable leases were willing to pay re-grant premium and take up new leases. As a result, there was an increase in the volume of cases dealt with.

       Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1967-8, totalled approx- imately $31,932,000, made up as follows: about $9,671,000 from nine sales by auction and tender; $14,882,000 from private treaty sales; $1,269,000 from modifications of lease conditions, extensions, and exchanges; and $4,770,000 from re-grants of expired 75-year leases. Revenue from land transactions in the New Territories during the same period was $11,854,000. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available, or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant, but may be occupied either on temporary annual permit or on short-term tenancy. The 1967-8 revenue from this type of tenure was approx- imately $6,371,000 in the urban area and $1,321,000 in the New Territories (the last figure includes modification of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, permits are cancelled and the number decreases year by year, although this does not apply to short-term tenancies. Revenue derived in rent from government- owned buildings totalled $4,452,000.

SURVEYS

       Land Survey in the Colony serves two main roles: the delineation of town planning layouts, boundaries of private lots, government sites, etc, and the production of plans and maps.

       Plans at the very large scale of 50 feet to one inch are now available for the whole of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon and most of these can be supplied with contours at five feet vertical interval. Over half of the 700 sheets involved have been supplied under the air survey mapping contract with Hunting Surveys Ltd which commenced in 1963.

       This contract is still producing plans of the New Territories at a scale of 100 feet to one inch with contours at vertical intervals of 10 feet. Over 700 sheets cover the New Territories and by the

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     end of the year about half of these had been supplied. It is expected that the whole contract will be completed by mid-1970.

The tasks of supplying the many hundreds of ground-control points for the aerial mapping and field-checking the advance plotted sheets has fully occupied a large proportion of the surveying and cartographic staff of the Crown Lands and Survey Office during the year.

In addition, over 400 sheets of the New Territories, previously surveyed by ground methods are being contoured under the contract. An extensive revision and re-drawing programme is now taking place to bring these sheets up-to-date and produce combined detail and contour plans.

Plans at smaller scales which have been revised and brought up- to-date include 53 sheets at scale 200 feet to one inch (of the urban areas); 44 sheets at scale 400 feet to one inch and 10 sheets at scale 800 feet to one inch (of the New Territories) and seven sheets at scale eight inches to one mile (of the urban areas).

Production of the new topographic maps of the Colony by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys in the United Kingdom continues. Some 20 plotted sheets at 1/10,000 scale (about six inches to one mile) were received during the year for field-checking and comple- tion by surveyors of this office.

      About 20 sheets of the new series have now been published, some of which are already on sale in local bookshops.

The complete series will comprise 62 sheets which are printed in five colours and plotted on the same local Cassini grid as the large scale plans published by the Crown Lands and Survey Office. It is anticipated that the majority of the new sheets will be available by the end of 1969.

The first of the new 1/25,000 scale series, each of which is produced by photographic reduction of four 1/10,000 sheets, are now being compiled and should be available in 1970. At this scale 20 sheets will cover the whole Colony.

Dr E. A. Stephens, who instituted the Geological Survey Unit in 1967, returned to the United Kingdom in March, leaving Dr P. M. Allen to finish the geological mapping of the Colony.

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As an interim measure only, the geological map is first being produced as a series of overlays, on the scale of 1/25,000, to be used in conjunction with the existing Series L8811 topographic maps. The overlays are being drawn in the local survey office and more than half have been produced. The reconnaissance geochemical sampling programme has been finished and a series of maps showing sub-surface geological data for the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon has been produced.

TOWN PLANNING

       Since 1953 plans have been prepared for the 37 planning areas which make up the main urbanized portion of the Colony and for 13 towns of various sizes in the New Territories. These plans are of two types: first, statutory plans prepared under the Town Planning Ordinance; second, outline development and detailed layout plans which are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the redevelopment of private land but which have no statutory effect.

       The Town Planning Board which is constituted under the Town Planning Ordinance comprises seven official and three unofficial members. The plans of certain areas, where planning schemes are likely to affect private land or interests, are prepared under the board's direction and then published for public objection or comment for a period of two months. The board considers the objections and comments and may invite interested parties to a meeting to discuss their cases with the board. The board may then decide to amend the plan or submit it to the Governor in Council without amendment. The Governor in Council may approve the plan, refuse to approve it, or refer it back to the board for further consideration or amendment. He may also refer statutory plans back to the board for replacement or amendment if this becomes necessary owing to changing circumstances or requirements.

Statutory plans for 19 planning areas have been approved, four are under preparation and a further six have been referred back to the board for amendment or replacement.

The preparation of the Colony Outline Plan is now nearing completion. When completed it will provide a basis for land.

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development programmes and a more balanced approach to the preparation and review of statutory, outline development and detailed layout plans.

PRIVATE BUILDING

The declared cost of building works resulting in new buildings in 1968 was $501,685,809 which, as expected, was less than the figure for last year.

Proposals for building development, however, showed a slight increase over the total for 1967 and in all 308 approval permits were issued.

Among other signs of renewed interest in development is the increase in balcony fees paid to Government: these fees are paid immediately before building work commences and relate to domestic buildings usually of the tenement type.

      Renewed interest was shown in proposals for new cinemas, five such schemes having been approved, thereby showing a return to near 1965 levels after a severe drop in the figures for 1966-7.

Although no new hotel projects were approved during the year, informal discussions have been held on a number of schemes and the Building Authority has agreed with the Hong Kong Tourist Association that some concessions to permit additional floor area in hotels might be given on certain conditions including, for example, better provision for the loading, unloading and parking of vehicles within the hotel site.

      A notable building in the domestic field completed during the year was the 29-storey Tai On Building at Shau Kei Wan, which comprises 1,856 domestic units in addition to shops, offices and a restaurant. In the public utility sector the new power station at Ap Lei Chau was completed at a cost of approximately $30,000,000 while the Wong Tai Sin Telephone Exchange, believed to be the largest of its kind in the world, was also finished. Another large telephone exchange at Lai Chi Kok estimated to cost about $8,000,000 is at present under construction, completion being expected in August 1969.

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       The control and enforcement sections of the Buildings Ordin- ance Office continued to investigate illegal building works and material changes of use in private buildings. As the majority of such unauthorized changes create fire, structural or health hazards to the occupants of the buildings, direct and immediate action is generally required. Investigation was made in respect of a total of 835 reports of illegal works from public and private sources during 1968 which resulted in 3,850 statutory notices being served, requiring remedial works. 2,944 statutory notices were complied with while the balance remains subject to continued action.

       The City District Officers, working in liaison with the Buildings Ordinance Office staff, have proved to be of great assistance by explaining to owners and occupiers what the notices require.

       The dangerous buildings division continued to deal with emer- gencies and complaints from the public and government depart- ments and progress was made, as time permitted, on planned building-by-building surveys covering selected areas of old buildings in the Colony.

       The repair or demolition of many old buildings whose ownership has reverted to the Crown continued to be carried out. 129 redevelopment orders and 173 redevelopment notices were issued during the year, requiring owners to demolish and redevelop dangerous buildings while protecting the compensation rights of tenants.

During the year a greater number of orders was issued for the repair of buildings than for complete demolition. One of the reasons for this change in emphasis was that a greater number of reinforced concrete framed pre- and post-war buildings are now coming under review, such buildings being more susceptible to repair than the older load-bearing brick- or stone-walled buildings.

       During the year the Appeal Tribunal was called upon on two occasions to determine appeals by owners whose buildings had been made the subject of demolition orders. In one of these cases the Appeal Tribunal, while accepting that the buildings were dangerous, upheld the appeal of the owners and substituted orders for ex- tensive repairs.

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During 1968 the Building Authority declared 209 buildings dangerous, obtained closure orders by application to a Magistrate and ordered demolition of the buildings. In 49 cases it was necessary for the Building Authority to arrange contracts and supervise demolition, in default of compliance by the owners with the statutory orders to demolish. As a result of these operations, a total of 8,959 persons were evicted from their homes and places of business.

RESETTLEMENT

Hong Kong's resettlement estates have attracted world-wide attention. Hundreds of thousands of people are being provided with homes by a low-cost housing programme which, for speed and size, has few, if any, parallels. By the end of 1968 the Hong Kong Government had become, through this programme, the landlord of about 1,092,500 people or over a quarter of the popula- tion. Present building plans aim at accommodating about 1.6 million by 1972. The programme is reviewed annually by the Housing Board to ensure that the needs of resettlement are balanced with those of other types of housing.

.

      The Government has accepted as a working basis the board's recommendations in its report for 1966-7. These, in brief, are that the balance between the resettlement and government low-cost building programmes should be adjusted to allow 650,000 individual units of resettlement accommodation and 350,000 units of govern- ment low-cost housing to be built between April 1, 1966 and March 31, 1972, and that a new type of resettlement block should be designed to increase the space standard on first allocation from a minimum of 24 square feet to 35 square feet for an occupant over the age of ten. The board's report for 1967-8 was still under consideration at the end of the year.

      When the Resettlement Department was formed in 1954, the earliest type of multi-storey accommodation built was in the form. of 'H' shaped blocks with communal washing and latrine facilities on each of the seven floors. Back-to-back individual rooms, acces- sible by communal balconies surrounding each floor, varied in size from 86 square feet to 152 square feet, with the majority 120 square feet and designed to house a family of four or five adults.

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     Twenty-four square feet for an adult was taken as the minimum requirement for health. With minor modifications (the most im- portant of which was the provision of a number of self-contained flats with private balconies in the later blocks), and with an improved external appearance, 240 of these blocks (known as Marks I and II) had been built before the design was superseded in 1964.

       In 1964 the original H-block was abandoned in favour of a new design. The new blocks were first of eight storeys (Mark III), and then of 16. The first versions of the 16-storey design were known as Mark IV, and during the year these began to be superseded by a development known as Mark V-essentially similar to the earlier design, but with room sizes more closely related to family sizes. The new design, from Mark III onwards, differs fundamentally from the older one in that access is from a central corridor on each floor instead of from external common balconies. This makes it possible to give each room a private balcony. Other innovations include refuse chutes, the installation of electrical power and light points in domestic rooms (which had been the tenant's respon- sibility in the older designs), lifts in the 16-storey blocks, private lavatories in place of the former communal latrines and wash- houses, and, in Mark V and the later Mark IV blocks, a private water-tap. A programme to install individual water-taps in the early Mark IV, and Mark III, blocks was started during the year. The new blocks cost more to build but they represent a considerable advance as they provide better facilities and ventilation, more privacy and more open space between the buildings. The latest design, Mark VI, will be built to a larger room-grid to give effect to the Housing Board's recommendation that families should be allocated 35 square feet of space per adult on occupation. By the end of 1968, a total of 142 Mark III, 62 Mark IV and 22 Mark V blocks had been built, bringing to 466 the number of blocks of all types administered by the Resettlement Department. Between them these blocks housed 1,024,600 people, some 46 per cent of them in the newer types.

       A pilot scheme was approved at the end of the year for converting blocks in the old Mark I and II estates into self-contained flats, each with its own lavatory and water supply and some with their own balconies.

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       Rents are fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimbursement of the capital cost over 40 years (at 3 per cent compound interest a year), plus all annually recurrent expenditure including the cost of administration and maintenance. Where appropriate, an element for water charges and rates is included in the rent. Rents vary according to the Mark and the size of the room: the all-in rent of a standard room of 120 square feet in a Mark I or II block is $18 a month (having been raised, for the first time, from $14 in 1965), while the all-in rent of a standard room of 135 square feet in a Mark V block is $39. Despite the large population and the wide variety of rents charged, the number of tenants failing to pay is still extremely small. Of the total of $72 million due in rents for the year, only about 0.036 per cent had to be written off as irrecover- able arrears.

       The resettlement estates are virtually townships (the population of Tsz Wan Shan estate, for instance, is around 124,000 and greater than one or two members of the United Nations) and a wide range of community facilities must be provided. Ground floor rooms are let as shops or workshops to settlers who operated similar businesses in clearance areas. Shops sizes vary. Those of 240 square feet in the Mark I and II estates are divided into four grades and are available at all-in monthly rents of $200, $150, $115 or $80 according to locality. (These rents are being raised by two stages and on April 1, 1969 will be $249, $188, $130 and $90 respectively.) In the Mark III and IV estates the sizes vary again and, as with domestic rooms, rents are higher. A shop of 258 square feet in a Mark IV estate, for instance, attracts a rent ranging from $268 a month to $109.50, depending on locality. Rents include rates and the gradings are subject to annual review. Some shop spaces are used by government departments and private welfare organizations as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops in Mark I and II blocks are put to use. Most of them have been allocated to voluntary agencies who operate primary schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. In some of the Mark III blocks the top floors are used for schools, while in estates incor- porating Mark IV and V buildings separate six-storey buildings (each with 24 classrooms) are provided for primary school ac- commodation. In the latest blocks provision has been made for self-contained kindergarten accommodation. Some estates have

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community centres and, in the latest ones, the tendency is to con- centrate ancillary services into separate buildings for welfare services, restaurants and administration.

       Provision is also made for the small factories which are often found in squatter areas or in areas under annual Crown land permits. To enable the operators of these factories to continue earning a livelihood when these areas are cleared for permanent development, multi-storey resettlement factory blocks have been built. Because of the need to use a simple design in order to keep construction costs, and therefore rents, as low as possible, a number of trades cannot be accommodated in the multi-storey factory blocks and consequently some factories can be resettled only if the owners are willing to change their trades.

The first factory blocks, dating from 1957, were five storeys high and provided industrial working space in units of 198 square feet. A later version has units of 256 square feet, an arrangement repeated in the latest blocks of seven storeys. At the end of the year there were 22 resettlement flatted factory blocks, containing a total of 1,860,000 square feet of net working space, mostly situated in or near existing resettlement estates. Rents are calculated to cover administration costs and a return on capital within 21 years at five per cent per annum compound interest. These rents vary from 38 cents a square foot a month for a ground floor unit to 23 cents for one on the top floor in the older factories, and from 55 cents, on the ground floor, to 25 cents on the top floor in the new factories. All rents are inclusive of rates. In administering these factory ten- ancies, the Resettlement Department checks machinery and electri- cal and floor loading. There is liaison with the Labour and Fire Services Departments to secure satisfactory working conditions and safety from fire and other hazards.

      There still remain 15 cottage resettlement areas in various parts of the urban area and the New Territories; a new cottage area, at Fo Tan in the New Territories, was occupied during the year. The population of these areas has diminished as clearance for development continues and the occupants are resettled in multi- storey estates. However, cottage areas still house 68,000 people. Several of these areas contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of

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various types largely established by voluntary agencies which generously continue to maintain these facilities.

SQUATTER CONTROL AND CLEARANCE

All squatting is by definition unlawful, but illegal structures are 'tolerated' if they were included in squatter surveys made from time to time, the latest being in 1964. When the land on which they stand is needed for development they are then cleared and their occupants resettled into the estates. 'Untolerated' structures are demolished, as are extensions to tolerated huts. People who are genuinely homeless may apply for a site in one of the Resettlement Department's licensed areas, on which they can build a hut on payment of a small licence fee and where they will remain until they are eventually cleared and resettled. Certain licensed areas are designed for those who are entitled to resettlement but who cannot take it up immediately. Entrants to licensed areas include, among others, boat squatters from typhoon anchorages; people not eligible for resettlement, left behind after squatter clearance and resettlement operations; squatters from demolished new huts; victims of natural disasters and fires; street sleepers; overspills from congested squatter huts; people affected by tenement redevelopment, and people from dangerous tenements either not eligible, or not opting for, the rent advance scheme (see below). The squatter population continues to decrease gradually, and at the end of 1968 was estimated to be about 402,000 as compared with 463,000 in April 1965. Some 19,200 people were admitted to licensed areas during the year, and at the end of December the population of these areas stood at 23,218.

The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettle- ment Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non- prohibited areas. In prohibited areas, such as the margins of roads, development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with permission from the District Office.

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The categories of persons eligible for resettlement were laid down in order of priority in the 1964 White Paper Review of Policies for Squatter Control, Resettlement and Government Low- Cost Housing. These categories and the number of people resettled under each head during the year are:

(i) former domestic tenants of buildings, demolished as dan- gerous and subject to the Demolished Buildings (Redevel- opment of Sites) Ordinance, who have made an advance payment of rent for resettlement accommodation (which is returned to them in the form of a reduced rent over the first 125 months of their tenancy) 2,060 persons;

(ii) special compassionate cases (the number to be determined annually by the Urban Council) and certain victims of natural disaster 3,825 persons;

(iii) the present occupants of cottage resettlement or resite areas

needed for permanent development 13,690 persons;

(iv) people presently occupying tolerated structures on Crown

land required for development 20,081 persons;

(v) the tenants of overcrowded resettlement rooms 21,917

persons;

(vi) pavement dwellers occupying tolerated structures 3,600

persons.

Clearances undertaken during the year freed 54.6 acres of land for development. $145,586 was paid as ex-gratia compensation to people who had opened up land for cultivation without legal tenure before October 1954 and to large scale pigbreeders. 811 shops and workshops were cleared, of which 471 were resettled and 340 were found to be ineligible for resettlement. In addition, 136 factories had to be cleared. Of these, 60 were resettled into resettlement factory estates, while 42 were not eligible for resettlement and 32 rejected resettlement. A further two factories will be resettled provided they change their trade to one suitable for operation in resettlement factories.

HOUSING

Hong Kong with a large population in a small area has long had housing problems and these have been increased in recent years by

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immigration, natural increase, and the demand for better housing generated by rising incomes. In the older urban areas tall multi- storey structures are progressively replacing old pre-war three and four storey tenements. The most significant change in the past decade has been the increase in Government's participation in housing. Government's first direct venture into public housing was the resettlement programme begun in 1954 now, only 14 years later, roughly one person in every three lives in accommodation provided by Government or government aided agencies. This does not signify a lack of activity in the private sector, which, on the contrary, has played a substantial part in new housing development over the last few years. In 1968 production by the private sector showed a sharp decrease from the high levels achieved in previous years but there were signs in the second half of the year that investors were beginning to renew their interest in the real estate market.

At the end of 1968 domestic accommodation in the urban areas (excluding resettlement and other government housing schemes) comprised 188,800 tenement floors, 51,800 small flats, 22,500 large flats, and 1,050 houses. In January 1968 there were 14,496 un- occupied domestic premises compared with 16,389 in January of the previous year.

In 1964, the Government in conjunction with the Commonwealth Development Corporation and four local banks set up the Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited to facilitate home owner- ship. Further support to the agency was given by the Government in 1968 in the form of guaranteed backing for a series of security issues by the agency to raise further funds. The agency offers long- term mortgage finance at reasonable rates to prospective owner- occupiers in the $700 to $2,500 per month income group with loans up to a maximum of $50,000. At the end of the year 55 blocks containing 3,640 flats were approved by the agency for loan purposes. In 1968, 2,130 applications were approved for a total of $51.5 million, compared with 804 approvals for $19 million in 1967.

The Hong Kong Housing Authority, formed in 1954, provides accommodation for those with family incomes ranging from $400- $900 a month who are in need of low-cost housing. The authority had housed 149,006 people in 24,588 flats in eight estates by the end

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      of the year. The largest estate, now more than half completed, at Wah Fu near Pok Fu Lam on Hong Kong Island, covers more than 24 acres. It will accommodate 53,740 people in 7,788 flats at a capital cost of $86.2 million. The estate has four schools, kin- dergartens, 40 shops and a market, clinics, a post office, a public library, party rooms and other amenities. The whole estate is due to be completed in 1970. A new estate now under construction at Ping Shek, in Kowloon, will be completed in 1970. It will have five 28-storey blocks, and two low blocks to house 29,208 people in 4,596 flats.

      When all the estates now being planned are completed the authority will house 218,425 people in 34,918 flats at a capital cost of $331 million; $260 million from government loans and $71 million through self-financing. By the end of 1968 the authority had spent $286 million and its rent roll had reached $29 million. Sites for estates are provided by the Government at one-third the estimated market value. Rents are calculated on the basis of estimated working expenses and capital expenditure on buildings and land is amortized over 40 years at five per cent per annum compound interest. Rents range from $48 a month for a four-person flat to $139 for a 14- person flat. Tenants are selected on the basis of housing need.

       In 1962 the authority undertook to manage all properties built by the Public Works Department under the government low-cost housing programme for people with family incomes of less than $500 a month and who are living in insanitary or overcrowded conditions. These estates consist of multi-storey blocks of flats, each flat containing a living-room, private balcony, cooking place and a water point. Rents range from $35 a month for a four-person room to $80 for 10-person room. At the end of the year nine low-cost housing estates-seven completed and two partly com- pleted-provided accommodation for 126,500 people in 23,272 flats. Three new estates are under construction and plans for another two were announced during the year. One of these, Kwai Shing, will be the largest so far built, accommodating 81,000 people. This pro- gramme, which is dependent on the availability of finance and of suitable sites, is subject to annual review by the Housing Board.

Maintenance and management of authority and government low-cost housing estates is of a high standard. The staff of the

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authority are all government servants working in the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. The authority reimburses all staff salaries to the Government, plus a percentage surcharge calculated to meet indirect staff costs such as pensions, housing and medical treatment.

      A number of voluntary organizations have built housing for lower and middle income groups during recent years. The largest of these is the Hong Kong Housing Society, a pioneer in the field of low-cost housing in the Colony. The society now has 17,193 flats for 107,878 people on 12 estates. The rents of these flats are $39 a month for a small room with communal facilities, and a maximum of $170 a month for a larger room with adjoining kitchen, toilet and balcony. The estates are well laid out with playgrounds and gardens and are managed by trained and qualified staff. During the year the addition of 934 flats completed the new estate at Kwun Lung Lau, Kennedy Town. A new estate at Kau Pui Lung Road, Kowloon with 2,789 flats is under construction and will be completed in 1969. And a further phase is being planned. There are also plans for an estate at Tai Hang Road, Hong Kong. Funds for the society's schemes have been provided by the Government at low interest rates and by self-financing.

      Other voluntary organizations have made contributions; these include the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation which has 1,339 flats and the Catholic Relief Services which has new projects at Aberdeen and Wong Tai Sin under construction.

A number of employers provide flats or dormitory-type accom- modation for their staff, and some provide housing loans. Since 1950 land has been made available by the Government at one-third of its estimated value to encourage non-profit-making housing projects for workers. During 1968 the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf & Godown Co Ltd and Hongkong Electric Co Ltd had new workers housing schemes under construction.

The Government reserves 15 per cent of all domestic accommoda- tion in government low-cost housing estates for its junior local staff. Rents and other conditions of tenancy are the same as those for other members of the public. Local civil servants, on the pen- sionable establishment, have formed co-operative building societies

The Homemakers

    Housing is one of Hong Kong's proudest achievements. It is probable that no other community of similar size and situation throughout history has ever equalled Hong Kong's post-war record in housing its millions. Well over one-third of the total population now lives in subsidized housing (more than one million of them in the towering resettlement estates alone).

    The picture below shows part of this year's most striking housing achievement, the Housing Authority's new Wah Fu estate, which will eventually house about 54,000 people.

Above, one of the sections housing the amenities within the estate, which includes shops, restaurants, schools, gardens and playing areas (opposite page). Below, a panorama of Wah Fu, on its headland near Aberdeen.

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The lucky inhabitants of Wah Fu estate enjoy one of the best views in the world at subsidized rentals in modern blocks towering above the South China

Sea. This view from the water indicates the size of the estate, which was invi

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igurated during the year.

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   Here are some of Hong Kong's dozens of other major public housing projects. Above, Cheung Sha Wan estate and, below, Choi Hung, both in Kowloon.

1171921

    The scene (above) shows a typical interior in one of the modern, airy flats in the new Wah Fu estate. Below, North Point estate on Hong Kong Island.

Above, an aerial view of the vast Fuk Loi estate at Tsuen Wan.

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through which they receive loans from the Government to buy land and build flats; 220 societies with 4,563 members have received loans, and of these 206 societies with 4,065 members have com- pleted their buildings. A new scheme has been introduced by which the development of sites and the construction of multi-storey blocks of flats is being carried out by the Government itself. Two sites are at present under-development. Ten per cent of the funds for the revised scheme will be reserved for building co-operatives organized on existing lines by groups of senior officers. The Govern- ment also provides accommodation for its overseas staff and for many of its local staff, including police and fire service officers, nurses and resident staff on government installations.

The Housing Board is an advisory body first appointed in 1965 for a three-year term. In October 1968 the board was reconstituted for its second term. Under the chairmanship of an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, it has five other unofficial members with housing or sociological experience and eight official members concerned with housing matters. The board is required to keep under review, and to report annually, progress in all types of housing construction; to assess present and future housing needs, not excluding ancillary social and employment facilities and the balance between types of housing; and to advise on co-ordination in executing housing policies.

RENT CONTROL

Rent control, instituted by proclamation immediately after the war, was embodied in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance of 1947, which restricted rent by reference to pre-war levels, while exempting new and substantially reconstructed buildings from control. By 1954 permitted increases in standard rents reached 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises; there have been no further increases.

Redevelopment of controlled premises is covered by a provision in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance by which premises may be excluded from the provisions of the ordinance by order of the Governor in Council, on the recommendation of a tenancy tribunal. Tribunals recommend awards of compensation to tenants on the basis of the hardship which dispossession will cause them, and

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     must view the rate of compensation in relation to the enhanced value of the site which can then be redeveloped. The falling off in the rate of redevelopment since 1964 is reflected in the small number of exclusion orders made, 25 in 1966, 17 in 1967 and 11 in 1968.

       Since 1953 two tenancy enquiry bureaux, one each in Hong Kong and Kowloon, have operated as part of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to help in the smooth working of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance. The principal task of the bureaux is to supply factual information to tenancy tribunals when a landlord applies for an exclusion order, or a tenant seeks reduction of rent. During the year the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance was amended to permit agree- ments by which a tenant of protected premises may accept com- pensation from his landlord in return for vacating the premises, subject to the agreement being certified as voluntary by the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. This task is undertaken by the tenancy enquiry bureaux, which also give general advice and assistance to the public on tenancy matters, particularly on the legislation. Since 1964 the bureaux have been responsible for paying interest-free loans to tenants of pre-war premises which are declared dangerous and closed by the Building Authority. This scheme helps such tenants to meet the expenses which inevitably arise out of eviction at short notice, pending the eventual award by a tenancy tribunal of compensation payable by the landlord under the Demolished Buildings (Redevelopment of Sites) Ordinance. Loans for this purpose totalled $1,015,020 in 1968; the number of cases of this kind has also dwindled considerably in recent years, as relatively few old buildings still remain.

The Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance 1952, gave three- year security of tenure to tenants of post-war buildings who had paid lump sum premiums on their first occupancy. This security was extended to five years for new tenancies beginning after July 1, 1963. General increases in rents of post-war buildings resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance 1962, which required six months' written notice to be given for termination of tenancies. Control of rent increases in respect of domestic premises was instituted in 1963 when new accommodation was scarce and rents were high. This control was removed in 1966 as the situation had eased considerably by that time.

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LAND OFFICE

       The Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department, is responsible for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases; the granting of mining leases; and advice to the Government generally on matters relating to land.

      The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any sub- sequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable considera- tion. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it.

The number of instruments registered during the year rose by 10.3 per cent from last year's total of 43,866 to 48,365. The figure included 736 assignments of whole buildings or sites (as against 526 in 1967), 20,826 assignments of flats and other units in multi- storey buildings (against 19,002), 2,799 agreements for sale of such flats and units (against 3,935), and 10,726 mortgages (against 8,363). As a consequence of the decline in new building projects, figures remained low in the registrations of building mortgages (55 as in 1967), and in orders excluding premises from the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which usually have to be obtained prior to redevelopment of the sites of old buildings (11 against 16). Orders requiring redevelopment of the sites of demolished buildings totalled 122 (against 174). The number of searches, which, as a search must be made prior to every land transaction, provides a good index to the state of the property market, rose by 24.9 per cent from 47,092 to 58,810. Compared with 1967 the grand total of considerations recorded in all instruments registered rose by $72,000,000, or 3.3 per cent, to $2,262,000,000.

        The volume of work in several other sections of the Land Office was influenced by the prevailing market conditions. During the year, 110 conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc were registered

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as compared with 118 in 1967. Consents granted to forward sales of flats in those cases where the conditions under which the land is held give the necessary power of control, fell by two to 55. On the other hand the number of modifications and deeds of variation of lease conditions-often a prelude to multi-storey development- rose by five to 39. The reduced activity in some directions enabled further progress to be made in the issue of Crown leases, and 466 were issued as compared with 448 in 1967.

      At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners contained the names of 157,823 people (an increase of 15,518 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being merely owners or part owners of small individual flats.

9

Social Welfare

SINCE its re-organization in June 1967 the Social Welfare Department has discharged its functions through four main divisions: the Group and Community Work Division, the Family Services Division, the Probation and Corrections Division, and the Training Section. Three of these represent, with comparatively little change, similar units that existed before. The largest, the Family Services Division, is an amalgamation of services provided in the past by units working separately on problems relating to the welfare of children, the protection of women and girls, the relief of the destitute and the rehabilitation of the disabled. Their amalgamation under one divi- sion was intended to provide advice and assistance to persons in need on a family-wide basis rather than an individual basis.

The process of re-organization was coupled with measures taken to make the department's family services more readily available to the public through the establishment of district offices, of which there are at present four. The first district office came into operation in 1965; situated in the Western Magistracy, it serves the needs of the population living on Hong Kong Island west of Garden Road and of those on the offshore islands. The second, opened in 1966 and situated in the Causeway Bay Magistracy, caters to the needs of people living east of this boundary. The third and largest is the Kowloon District Office, which was opened in 1967 and provides services for the remainder of Kowloon including the New Terri- tories. The fourth, operating from the Un Chau Street Post Office Building since September 1968, serves the population of North West Kowloon.

       Close co-operation between the department and the many voluntary agencies which play so important a part in the provision of social welfare services has continued during the year under review. Appendix XLV lists 81 agencies which are member organizations of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Many of these receive government subvention but substantial sums

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are also raised locally to support welfare programmes, while large sums continue to be made available through international agencies for a wide variety of social work. Towards the end of the year, 43 voluntary agencies joined the newly-formed Community Chest of Hong Kong. This was set up by Ordinance as a central fund- raising organization for all the member agencies, so leaving the staff of each agency free to concentrate on welfare work.

        The Government is advised on all matters of social welfare policy and on applications from agencies for subventions by a Social Welfare Advisory Committee. This is a body of leading unofficials, chaired by the Director of the department, which plays an important part in guiding development of both policy and practice in the welfare field of the social services.

Much of the expansion of social welfare services will continue to be in new housing areas, and an important aid to this was a decision to construct welfare buildings in new resettlement estates at the rate of one building to 50,000 people. This new type of construction-similar to the annex buildings developed for school- ing-will replace ground floor and rooftop accommodation previously available in scattered locations, and will afford op- portunities for better co-ordination and more effective service. Much of the space will be available for voluntary agencies; the Social Welfare Department will set up an intake service in each building and will act as co-ordinator and provide assistance where appropriate. The first of these welfare buildings was completed in November 1968 at the Ham Tin Resettlement Estate and became operational in the following month. Others have been planned for the Shek Lei Estate in Tsuen Wan, and for the Sau Mau Ping and Tsz Wan Shan Estates in New Kowloon.

GROUP AND COMMUNITY WORK

Community development connotes a process by which the people of an area are encouraged to acquire a better appreciation of the problems which affect them both as individuals and as members of the community to which they belong, and by mutual co-operation to promote their well-being and common interests. The concept is not new to the residents of Hong Kong: the 63 kaifong welfare

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       associations in the urban areas and the 27 Rural Committees in the New Territories represent some of the channels through which the gap between individuals and between various sectors of the com- munity and the Government can be bridged.

The Social Welfare Department plays a leading part in this sphere of activity and is responsible for the operation of four community and two social centres; two more, to be provided for Yuen Long and Chai Wan, have reached the final stages of plan- ning. These centres provide facilities such as day nurseries, libraries, clubs for all ages, a communal hall as well as a casework service and various forms of vocational training. Their purpose is two-fold: first, to provide the population of developing townships with a centrally located building constructed specifically for group and communal activities; and, second, to encourage the predominantly youthful population of Hong Kong to take part in healthy and rewarding pursuits, which will give them a sense of mutual co- operation and civic responsibility and encourage their capacity for leadership. In other words, community centres are a means of bringing people together into more integrated communities.

Community development and group work is not confined, how- ever, to either community centres or the efforts of the Social Welfare Department. Voluntary agencies such as the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, the Scouts Association, the Girl Guides, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the YMCA, the Duke of Edinburgh's Award and many others play an important part, through the organization of regular programmes of activities which provide opportunities for their youthful participants to test their capabilities and their character. These are supplemented by other special activities, organized jointly by various government depart- ments and voluntary organizations, which mobilize volunteers for both Colony-wide and localized projects. A local public cleanliness campaign was organized in Kwun Tong in April; over 60 schools and unofficial organizations in Wong Tai Sin sponsored the for- mation of a 'multipartite committee' to co-ordinate cultural and recreation activities in the area; many students volunteered their services during their holiday period to form task forces and work camps and these were assigned to help in the construction of local public works projects in various parts of the New Territories.

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FAMILY SERVICES

Services for child care, the welfare of women, the relief of those in need, the rehabilitation of the disabled and family casework generally are provided on a regional basis through the Social Welfare Department's district offices and subsidiary family services centres, the organization of which has been described at the begin- ning of this chapter. The number of families receiving such services at the end of the year amounted to 14,584. Other specialized services and facilities, such as the adoption of children and the provision of institutional care, are provided on a Colony-wide basis by the department as well as by many voluntary welfare agencies.

       Many voluntary agencies provide residential child care and day care centres for young children of working mothers. Seven new non-profit-making nurseries were opened during the year, and the total places available in day care centres rose from 13,500 in 1967 to 13,613. Many of these agencies receive government subventions towards their work. The Social Welfare Department has been maintaining close liaison both with individual child care institutions and with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service's Child Care Institutions Committee and a Day Nursery Supervisory Committee. These Committees enable the directors and workers of institutions caring for children to meet regularly for discussions on ways and means of improving child care standards.

       A children's reception centre, run by the department, cares for children who are found abandoned or wandering. Their physical and psychological needs are investigated and their behaviour and growth observed and recorded, as background to a plan for each child's future. Of 187 children who left the centre during the year, 28 were adopted into families, 17 in Hong Kong and 11 overseas. The steady fall in recent years of the number of babies abandoned seems to be levelling out. The number for 1968 was 34 compared with 38 last year and 48 in 1966. Altogether 1,465 adoptions have been registered in the Adopted Children's Register since the first entry was made on July 22, 1957. Where possible, children are kept in institutions only for short-term care, in the hope of the early return of children to their own families or their adoption by new ones. Residential homes for babies and children, maintained by voluntary institutions, provide 3,167 places for orphans or

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children whose parents cannot care for them. An experimental foster care scheme, introduced towards the end of 1967 as part of the services provided by the International Social Service, made considerable headway. If the scheme should prove successful, its introduction on a permanent basis will provide a valuable new feature in child care service in Hong Kong.

Work among women and children in moral danger is continu- ous but rarely spectacular. Practical help and assistance through counselling and guidance, both to the girl and to her family, aims to restore stability and create understanding. An unmarried mother's most pressing need may be for accommodation and medical atten- tion, which the caseworker is often able to arrange. In this way the girl's immediate anxiety is relieved and she is better able to act in a responsible way towards herself and her baby, and even- tually to return to life in the community.

The Sisters of the Good Shepherd maintain a modern home which provides for about 160 girls in need of training and prepara- tion for a new life. A second home for 150 teenage problem girls, completed in April 1967, is planning for an extension. The Po Leung Kuk, one of the oldest of Hong Kong's charitable organizations, offers institutional care to women, girls and their children. The department maintains two day-training centres in which some 200 young women are given instruction in cooking, tailoring, knitting, embroidery, beading and laundering and are helped to use their leisure time profitably. Engagements in socially more acceptable employment can generally be found for these women, although experience has shown that very rarely is it possible to rehabilitate the older and more hardened prostitutes. The Social Welfare Department also offers counselling service for husbands and wives with marital problems ranging from causes such as deep-rooted incompatibility to other more transient and superficial conflicts.

      Hong Kong this year became the focal point of international interest in the work of rehabilitating the disabled. A seminar on mental health, sponsored by the World Federation for Mental Health and the Hong Kong Mental Health Association, was held in April and attended by participants from Hong Kong and from south-east Asian countries. This was followed by the opening in

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the City Hall on September 1 of the 4th Pan Pacific Rehabilitation Conference which was jointly sponsored by the International Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. The Conference, working on a theme entitled 'New Talent for the Community', explored various new employment outlets for the disabled.

       Considerable progress was made in the provision of additional institutions and homes for the rehabilitation of disabled persons. On September 5, His Excellency the Governor opened the World Rehabilitation Fund Day Centre, which provides vocational training and employment for about 340 disabled persons. The Kai Nang Training Centre and Hostel, which was planned to provide hostel accommodation and vocational training for about 200 mentally-retarded children and adults, was completed in October. With financial assistance from the Lotteries Fund worth $874,000 the Society for the Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts was able to purchase and furnish five flats and to establish a pilot town centre for the treatment and rehabilitation of women drug addicts. A scheme to provide approximately 120 aged people with furnished homes instead of institutional accommodation was launched by the Hong Kong Christian Service, the Social Welfare Department and the Housing Authority; the scheme was assisted by a grant of $30,000 from the Lotteries Fund for the purpose of furnishing 36 flats in the Wah Fu Estate. Other projects included the recruitment of volunteers for rehabilitation work: volunteers from the Hong Kong Red Cross Junior Groups ran summer schools for retarded children, whilst the Interact Club of Queen's College built a skating rink for deaf children in Chai Wan.

       During the year the number of disabled persons registered with the Social Welfare Department was 14,444; of whom, 293 were found employment with the assistance of the Department.

       Public Assistance aims at alleviating distress and relieving the hardship of individuals and families during the time that they need to re-establish their financial independence. Such assistance is given in the form of dry rations and cooked meals. In certain categories of cases, it is given in the form of small cash grants with which the recipient can meet his and his family's immediate needs. Cash

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assistance is also available from grants made from the Li Po Chun Charitable Trust Fund which is administered by the Director of Social Welfare. The number of families who received public assist- ance during the year was 6,775, as compared with 4,648 in 1967. A number of voluntary agencies including the Catholic Relief Services, the Children's Meal Society, Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, Hong Kong Christian Service and the Seventh Day Adventists Welfare Service, operate supplementary feeding schemes for those in need.

A number of natural disasters occurred during the year, and a number of those who sustained damage or loss to their property were given assistance in cash from the Community Relief Trust Fund, for which the Director of Social Welfare Incorporated is the trustee. There were altogether 36 fires, 46 closures of build- ings in danger of collapse, one shipwreck during the year; as a result 5,465 people were registered for relief and payments from the Community Relief Trust Fund totalled $1,213,512. The worst disasters during the year were a fire which broke out in February in a factory building at Shun Ning Road which caused 19 deaths; a heavy rainstorm in June causing landslides at Shau Kei Wan and Tai Hang which caused 22 deaths and made hundreds homeless; and typhoon Shirley, which struck Hong Kong in August and caused heavy losses to farm land, crops, livestock and buildings in the New Territories.

Public assistance and emergency relief is administered by the Family Services Division. Public assistance officers also assist the Director of Legal Aid by making enquiries into the financial circumstances of those who apply to him for legal aid. During the year 1,065 cases were investigated, compared with 1,103 in 1967.

PROBATION AND CORRECTIONS

The Probation and Correction Services of the Social Welfare Department have a dual role: the supervision of offenders on probation and the correction of juveniles in institutions. The Probation Service, with a staff of over 45 trained officers, served all levels of courts in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. At the end of the year a total of 1,788 persons were under supervision on probation. A total of 6,261 social investi- gations were carried out at the request of the courts, including

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cases referred for welfare assistance of some kind. The Correctional Service operates four institutions. Three of these institutions are for juveniles, of which one is a reformatory school for 150 boys at Castle Peak, the second a combined Remand Home and Probation Home in Kowloon for 60 and 100 boys respectively, and the third another combined Home also in Kowloon for 45 girls. The fourth institution is a probation hostel at Kwun Tong for young men between the ages of 16 and 21 years ordered to stay there as a condition of their Probation Order. These young men go to work daily and pay for their upkeep at the hostel from their salaries. A new reformatory school for 150 male juveniles is under construction and is expected to open early next year. Voluntary agencies which take a leading part in helping to prevent the spread of juvenile delinquency are the Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys' Centres, which give residential training to those who need help in finding a place in society or in overcoming difficulties of behaviour and relationship.

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

      A total of 51 students completed courses in social work at the two universities during the year. In the 1967-8 academic year, the University of Hong Kong created a new Faculty of Social Science and dispensed with the two-year certificate course. In its place, there is a three-year Honours Course leading to a degree in Bachelor of Social Science. The post-graduate one-year diploma course in Social Science has, however, been retained. Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Scholarships have been granted to eight students for both universities and 52 have been awarded bursaries, of which 47 were from Government. The Social Work Training Fund has granted $155,375 for local or overseas training for seven people.

      The Advisory Committee on Social Work Training, which is responsible for the promotion and co-ordination of the training of social workers, runs a course for experienced senior social workers in conjunction with the Extra-mural Departments of the two universities. The Social Welfare Department is represented in an advisory capacity on five other committees connected with the training of welfare workers. A delegation of twelve persons, con- sisting of representatives from government, voluntary welfare

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agencies and the universities, attended the XIV International Congress of Schools of Social Work held in the latter half of August in Helsinki.

       The Training Division of the Social Welfare Department has an approved establishment of eight officers. During the year it organ- ized various courses on the running of nurseries, on group and community development work, and on the correctional services; these courses were attended by staff of several government depart- ments including the Prisons, Medical and Health and Fire Services Departments, and by staff of various voluntary agencies. The division also ran two six-day residential seminars for superintend- ents of nurseries and play centres. A summer work programme for students of The Chinese University of Hong Kong proved successful and is likely to continue in future. During the year 10 students of the same university completed their field work placement with the department; an additional student unit was created in the division to supervise students from the University of Hong Kong.

10

Public Order

THE year was relatively free from incidents and thus presented the Hong Kong Police Force with an opportunity to examine methods of dealing with internal security problems in the light of the experience gained in 1967. Partly as a result of this the Police Tactical Unit was formed, and a scheme of advanced train- ing was introduced, whereby general and internal security training were combined.

      There was a sharp increase in illegal immigration during the first three months of the year, during which 1,708 persons were arrested. This was followed by an equally sharp decline over the next four months. During August and September 28 fishing junks with almost 300 people on board were located by marine police in the waters off Cheung Chau Island. These fisherfolk, who hailed from Yeung Kwong in China, about 150 miles west of Hong Kong, had fled to the Colony in the hope of better living conditions.

      A gruesome task faced officers of the marine district between June and September when 60 dead bodies, 46 of which were bound with rope or rattan, were recovered in the western and southern parts of Colony waters. These bodies appeared to have drifted eastwards into the Colony from neighbouring waters.

      The programme to improve police-public relations gained impetus with the opening of a Police Public Information Bureau in March. The bureau, which is commanded by a chief superintendent and staffed by police officers assisted by two information officers of the Government Information Services Department, assumed the func- tions formerly undertaken on behalf of the force by GIS. The pur- poses of the bureau are two-fold: to disseminate information about the police force and to foster and maintain good relations between police and public at all levels. A satisfactory start was made; and the services of the bureau are much appreciated by the press and other agencies who make use of its facilities.

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As part of the programme to improve relations between police and public, hundreds of school children were invited to police stations throughout the year. In addition, as a new venture, the force ran a series of six camps for secondary school boys during the summer holidays at which outdoor activities on Outward Bound lines were arranged. It is hoped to continue this programme in future years and to increase the number of participating students.

Recruitment, with a target of 100 officers and 900 constables, was carried on during the year under the control of the Commandant of the Police Training School. Response to the various recruitment drives was good.

As in the past the auxiliaries assisted and augmented the regular police. A new auxiliary division was formed at Yuen Long, com- plementing the only other auxiliary formation in the New Territories at Tsuen Wan. Recruiting for the Auxiliary Police was also in- troduced in the outlying islands for the first time. Membership of the Auxiliary Police increased at an encouraging rate, and this can be taken as an indication of the high regard in which the police force is held by the community.

As a result of the expansion of the force, provision has been made or is being sought for a number of new building projects in the Public Works programme. A new police station, due for com- pletion early in 1969, will provide improved facilities in the Aberdeen area of Hong Kong Island. Construction of further stations is planned over the next six years at other areas where there have been increases in population, i.e. Ngau Tau Kok, Cheung Sha Wan, Shing Wo Road, Tsz Wan Shan, North Point, and in the New Territories. A new depot is also planned for the Police Tactical Unit; and construction of a new office block for police headquarters was about to begin towards the end of the year.

CRIME

During the first two months of the year crime statistics continued to rise in the wake of the political disturbances which had abated towards the end of 1967. The police, who had reverted to their normal duties, soon came to grips with the criminals, and the number of offences dropped steadily. By April offences known to the police were back to the level which existed prior to the

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disturbances. The rate of crime detection improved considerably and by the end of the year reached an all time high. The average rate of detection for the year was 75.6 per cent as compared with 67.8 per cent in 1967.

      Despite the fact that there was no appreciable increase in reported crime, robberies rose by approximately 50 per cent over last year's figure, and larceny from vehicles rose by 20.6 per cent. Cases of loitering rose from 1,485 to 2,147, indicating vigilance by detectives and uniformed officers on the ground. A total of 11,616 persons were arrested compared with 11,501 in 1967.

There was a welcome decrease in the number of prosecutions involving young persons (16 years-20 years) and juveniles (under 16 years). The former decreased by 14.3 per cent and the latter by 29.9 per cent.

      One of the more spectacular cases during the year was the murder of an Indonesian woman and her child whose bodies were revealed bricked up in a wall during repairs to a Hong Kong flat. An Indonesian was later arrested and charged with murder in Indonesia. This case was marked by effective detective work and excellent co-operation between the police forces of Hong Kong and Indonesia.

      The commercial crime office prosecuted several large scale forgery cases involving Philippine currency and British national health stamps. It also played a leading role in the smashing of a large international gold smuggling syndicate operating in the Far East, as a result of which one of the ringleaders was sentenced to four years' imprisonment.

The Narcotics Bureau made some large seizures during the year, a total of 259 lbs of morphine, 2,898 lbs of raw opium and 66 lbs 6 ozs of heroin being seized all together. The retail value of one of the largest seizures, which was made at Sai Kung in the New Territories in August, amounted to four million dollars. Helicopters were used in the search for the drugs.

      A new Dangerous Drugs Bill, which was gazetted in November to operate from January 17, 1969, gives increased powers to police officers and officers of the Preventive Service to board and detain ships and aircraft entering the Colony. In addition, penalties for certain existing offences were increased and a new offence of trafficking in drugs was introduced.

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      The year saw a return to normal criminal investigation operations following the disruption occasioned by the previous year's disturb- ances. Excellent results were achieved by all units of the CID and there was only a slight increase in the crime rate.

TRAFFIC

Pre-occupation with duties connected with confrontation during 1967 reduced enforcement of road traffic legislation with the result that by the beginning of 1968 the general standard of road behaviour of both motorists and pedestrians had deteriorated considerably. In the early months of the year enforcement returned to the pre- confrontation level but, in spite of this, accident figures continued to rise.

In an attempt to reach the public and improve their conduct on the roads an education campaign was held during part of March and April. During this period 19,100 motorists were served with warning letters for minor traffic violations in lieu of summonses. The campaign also concentrated on pedestrians, and 3,600 were warned by letter for jay walking. In spite of this campaign, the number of traffic accidents rose even further, and stricter enforce- ment was resumed. A particular point of interest was the increase in the number of accidents involving buses, which gave rise to public comment.

       Considerable use was made during the year of publicity through the press, radio and television net-works to bring home to the public the road casualty toll and the importance of road safety consciousness.

       The road safety section of the traffic branch continued to teach road safety methods in schools and remained responsible for the organization, training and supervision of the highly successful school safety patrols. A total of 48 schools were active participants in this scheme; and there were 2,300 patrol members whose job it was to marshal school children across busy thoroughfares near their schools and to teach road safety behaviour by example to the younger children. A further 268 school crossing permits were issued during the year.

      Despite these efforts in the cause of accident prevention, traffic accidents claimed 349 lives and injured a further 11,596 persons

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during the year, compared with 294 killed and 11,323 injured in 1967. This represented an increase of 18.7 per cent in the number of fatalities and 2.3 per cent increase in the number of persons injured.

MANPOWER AND TRAINING

The strength of the regular police force (excluding women police) at the end of year was: 132 gazetted officers, 908 junior officers, 9,524 non-commissioned officers and constables. There were 445 women police of all ranks.

Inspectors are recruited locally and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries. Constables are recruited locally. On enlistment, all ranks are given a 26-week course of initial training in the Police Training School at Aberdeen.

There was this year a major development in the teaching of English to constables. In co-operation with the Government Training Division, a six-month full-time English language course was introduced for selected PCs, in which use was made of the latest language laboratory techniques. In addition, there were marked improvements in the teaching of English during basic training. Part-time English classes also remained available at all levels for those who wished to attend.

One of the effects of the 1967 confrontation was the need to build up a reserve striking force at the expense of in-service general training, which was suspended for several months. Previously general police training and internal security training had been separate phases of the early training of all ranks. However it became clear that it would be impracticable to resume this arrangement, and it was decided that the two types of training should be fused into a single, integrated plan. Some teething troubles were experi- enced and resolved, and the indications were that this major change in training practice would prove successful.

Briefly, the changes made were these. Whereas the Police Training Contingent formerly had a dual role, i.e. training in internal security duties and also the provision of an immediate riot striking force, this was reduced to the second function only and the Contingent was re-named the Police Tactical Unit (PTU). The other function was taken over by the Police Training School (PTS), where personnel

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also received continuation training of a general nature. Under the new arrangement, two companies undergo training in the PTS at any one time and three fully trained companies are available in the PTU. The intention is to increase the total number of com- panies to eight, but this target may take several years to reach.

The length of time personnel stay in the PTU is to some extent variable as it depends on the recruiting figures three years earlier. However the total period spent in the PTS and the PTU is not likely to exceed 40 weeks. Although they may be used for all forms of collective police duty, it is unlikely that these reserve companies will be fully committed operationally throughout their stay in the PTU and a flexible programme has therefore been devised for them. They are stationed successively in the two main urban areas and in the NT, during which time they undergo special training, e.g. in motor-cycle driving, mountain-rescue, first-aid, life-saving, etc. They also undergo a series of company exercises.

       The Auxiliary Police successfully underwent their annual training with the usual emphasis on internal security duties.

      A major feature of the year's training was a joint seminar on the subject 'Riot', held under the auspices of the University of Hong Kong. This was attended by senior police and army officers, together with a selection of other interested persons. The social and psychological aspects of rioting were studied in some depth, with special reference to the causes, prevention and suppression of public disorder.

PRISONS

      The Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the administration of 11 institutions in various parts of the Colony with headquarters in Victoria. These consist of a reception and classification centre for men at Victoria; two security prisons, one for men at Stanley, the other for women at Lai Chi Kok; two open prisons for men at Chi Ma Wan and Tong Fuk; a treatment centre at Tai Lam for convicted male prisoners found to be drug-dependent; three training centres for young male offenders at Cape Collinson, Stanley and Shek Pik; a 'Half Way' house for environment rehabilitation; and a training school at Stanley for staff.

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      Adult male prisoners awaiting trial and all male prisoners after conviction are received at Victoria Reception Centre. Convicted prisoners on completion of reception procedure including a thorough medical examination appear before a classification board for assign- ment to an institution best suited to their needs. The centre has adequate hospital facilities and also a psychiatric observation unit staffed by fully trained personnel under a consultant psychiatrist.

      All women prisoners are received and housed at Lai Chi Kok Prison, which had an average inmate population of 162. This institution will be replaced in the early part of 1969 with a new prison at Tai Lam.

      The open prison system, which has continued to be very successful in Hong Kong, is used whenever possible; experience has shown that an environment in which prisoners lead healthy outdoor lives, doing interesting work of a constructive nature, leads to more successful rehabilitation. Open prisons with an average population of 1,792 are situated on Lantau Island in the New Territories and a considerable amount of beneficial work has been done on com- munity, forestry and building projects of various kinds.

      Stanley Prison is the largest security establishment in the Colony, with an average prison population of 2,894, and houses all prisoners not considered suitable for the treatment centre or the open institu- tions. It is the main industrial centre where, among other productive industries, tailoring, shoe-making, rattanware, metalware and car- pentry are concentrated. The value of industrial production at Stanley in 1968 amounted to over $1,923,000.

      A large percentage of convicted male prisoners are found on admission to be drug-dependent. The treatment centre at Tai Lam offers special facilities for drug-dependents and it has achieved encouraging results, through a unique programme, developed since 1958 when the centre was opened. All necessary phases of treatment are followed, including after-care. An extensive programme of research is also carried out, details of which are published yearly. The average inmate population of the centre is 562. The Drug Addiction Treatment Centres Ordinance 1968 marked progress in the field of treatment and rehabilitation of drug-dependents. A court is now able to order a person known drug-dependent person to be detained in a Treatment Centre from six to 18 months in lieu of

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imprisonment. The residents are subject to one year supervision on release and may be recalled if the terms of a Supervision Order are not complied with.

This year has seen the introduction of a new measure in the field of rehabilitation, namely a 'Half Way House'. This consists of a 3-storey building run on hostel lines with accommodation for 24.

With the introduction of the Drug Addiction Treatment Centres Ordinance the 'Half Way House' will play an important role pro- viding a link between complete detention and freedom.

      Residence will be compulsory for a short period as part of the terms of supervision although supervisees will be able to take up normal employment in the usual way.

      Young male offenders between the ages of 14 and 21 are housed under open conditions at three training centres on Hong Kong and Lantau Islands. Remand accommodation for males between 14 and 21 is provided at the Stanley Training Centre; the object of this arrangement is to ensure that unconvicted boys do not enter the environment of a prison during their period of remand. The three training centres have an average inmate population of 652.

       The new Staff Training School at Stanley was opened in February and provides enhanced facilities for training recruits, refresher and special courses. Emphasis on staff training has enabled the depart- ment to expand and maintain a fresh outlook in the treatment of offenders.

       This year has continued to be one of great activity in preparation for new institutions at Tai Lam (Women's prison), Siu Lam (Prisons Department Mental Hospital) and Dragon's Back (Training Centre). Work is also in hand on plans for a new Reception and Classifica- tion Centre, an open prison for adult males and two additional Training Centres.

      Ten years ago, the daily average prison and training centre population was 4,211 with only a daily average of 1,032 in fully open conditions. In 1968 the figures were 6,736 and 3,006 respectively.

FIRE SERVICES

The Fire Services Department is divided into four commands- Fire Services Headquarters, Fire Prevention Bureau, Hong Kong

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Island and Marine Command, and Mainland Command. Hong Kong Island and Marine Command are responsible for fire-fighting and emergency operations on the island of Hong Kong, the off-shore islands, the harbour and surrounding waters. Mainland Command is similarly responsible for Kowloon, the New Territories and the airport.

      For the past decade or so emergency calls on the Hong Kong Fire Services have continued to increase each year and this has necessitated repeated adjustment of deployments and organizational structure. It has been necessary this year, for example, because of mounting traffic densities and the intensification of residential and industrial development, to reorganize operational command struc- tures, to increase the existing four territorial divisions to six in order to maintain the capability of reaching all fires within six minutes, and to form separate search and rescue units for each division. It is believed that Hong Kong is the only Commonwealth territory which has a full-time professional Search and Rescue Organization as part of its Fire Service.

The current authorized establishment of the Fire Service is 334 officers and 2,416 other ranks and this is supported by a reserve force of some 720 auxiliaries. It has 232 modern operational vehicles carrying the most up-to-date fire-fighting and rescue equipment. The service also maintains a fleet of six powerful fireboats capable of handling any major fires on board ships lying in the port. The largest of these vessels is the Alexander Grantham of 352 gross tons which is probably the largest fireboat in the world.

The Fire Prevention Bureau is statutorily responsible for the enforcement of fire safety regulations throughout the Colony and for advising and assisting all sections of the community in the abatement and elimination of fire hazards. During the year, the bureau, which maintains a round-the-clock service, made 88,181 inspections of premises and dealt with 1,971 building plans. It also conducted 66 Fire Prevention Courses attended by 3,457 members of the public. In association with kaifongs, Rural Committees and other community agencies the bureau held frequent fire prevention exhibitions and demonstrations.

This year fire prevention campaigns and appeals have been prin- cipally focused on the removal of hazards created by obstructions to

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     means of escape. In October 1968 a Means of Escape Unit of the bureau was created to carry out a physical survey of the means of escape from all domestic buildings. It is expected that the survey will take two years to complete and the intelligence and experience accumulated by the unit will then be reviewed to determine the need or otherwise for a permanent Means of Escape Unit.

      The department controls the Colony's ambulance service which is a semi-autonomous division. The service has 56 ambulances and during the year it carried an average of more than 6,000 patients each month.

      The Fire Service building programme initiated in 1960 was con- tinuing during the year, and one fire station was completed. A modern well-equipped training school with a throughput of over 500 students a year was commissioned in March and officially opened by the Governor in July.

      The department celebrated its centenary by holding a ceremonial review of fire appliances, equipment and contingents representing all branches of the service in November. A Centenary Ball was held in December, and many guests from various sections of the local community attended.

      In the technological field, nine members of the service were successful in the 1968 examinations for the diploma of the Institu- tion of Fire Engineers. There are now 53 holders of this diploma in the service.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

The Preventive Service of the Commerce and Industry Department is a uniformed and disciplined force of 895 officers responsible for those measures which in a customs-controlled port are handled by a Customs and Excise Department. Being a free port, Hong Kong imposes a duty on only five categories of imported goods, (tobacco, liquor, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol). This is matched by an excise tax on the same items locally manufactured. The Preventive Service enforces legislation controlling the import, export and manufacture of dutiable commodities.

      The service has a major responsibility in the field of narcotics smuggling. Because of Hong Kong's geographical and commercial

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position it has, in the past, become a trans-shipment point for narcotic drugs. All vessels arriving in Hong Kong from ports which are known to be outlets for narcotic drugs are boarded and searched by specially trained teams and are guarded throughout their stay in Hong Kong waters; similar attention is paid to aircraft arriving in Hong Kong. Selective searches are made of suspect cargoes and postal packets. During 1968, a total of 858 ships were guarded, 914 ships were searched and 1,228.014 lbs of narcotics of all kinds, valued at $663,000, were seized.

      The Preventive Service enforces the legislation controlling the import and export of cargo and acts as an agent for other govern- ment departments in the supervision of items which are controlled by them, particularly in the fields of arms and ammunition (for the Hong Kong Police) and plants, animals and dangerous insecticides (for the Agriculture and Fisheries Department).

The Guardians

    Building a successful community like Hong Kong requires contin- uous, co-ordinated effort in every aspect of daily life. It is the vital task of the men and women featured in the following pages to keep the life of the community running smoothly, to uphold the laws by which it governs itself, to protect its members and-when necessary to rehabilitate them.

    The picture below shows young traffic wardens helping their young charges across one of Hong Kong's busy streets.

LEGE

Road safety gets an imaginative boost from Police Inspector Philip Chan as he sings his own composition advising youngsters on the rules of the road. The song has also been recorded by a local pop group.

   STOP CHILDREN CROSSING

A WISE WARNING

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Sports training and supervising gymnastic displays are among the many_com- munity projects undertaken by the men and women of the Hong Kong Police Force (above). The picture (below) shows one of the regular press conferences given by the newly established Police Public Information Bureau.

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Protection of the community does not stop at the water's edge. In the picture (above) is shown one of the many routine checks made regularly on vessels using Hong Kong's waterways and, on the following page, one of the Marine Police's fast patrol boats. Below, a police band entertains lunchtime crowds in the city.

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An innovation in the field of rehabilitation this year was the opening of this 'Half Way House' (above) to help drug victims re-establish themselves in the community, while still receiving help. (Below) This library is one of the many educational aids provided in Hong Kong's modern open prisons.

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This centre (above) on a rolling hillside at Tai Lam in the New Territories, is typical of Hong Kong's rehabilitation policy of providing a healthy outdoor environment with opportunities for constructive work and training. (Below) Classrooms such as these equip inmates with new skills to help them build a new life.

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An active construction programme goes hand in hand with enlightened prison administration. Shown above is the new women's prison at Tai Lam, which was approaching completion at the end of the year. (Below) Trade skills of many types are taught to inmates. These men are learning rattan work.

11

Immigration and Tourism

     FOLLOWING the unprecedented work pressures experienced generally throughout the Immigration Department in 1967, this year has seen some respite, particularly in the demand for travel documents. However, nationality questions are obviously still a matter of some concern to many residents of the Colony, and applications for naturalization, in particular, have been at a high level.

       Recorded movements of travellers during 1968 totalled 4,143,396, consisting of 2,078,129 arrivals and 2,065,267 departures. This compares with a total of 3,703,756 in 1967. Contrary to the previous pattern, however, main lines of movement are no longer between Hong Kong and Macau, and Hong Kong and China, but by air by overseas visitors to the Colony. Illegal immigration continues to present a problem, though increased vigilance on both sides of the border have been a factor in keeping numbers down. There continues to be some illegal traffic to the Colony through Macau.

        The British and Commonwealth Section and the Naturalization Section again experienced the greatest pressure but this was largely due to the very great backlog of work that had built up during the 1967 disturbances, particularly in respect of applications for naturalization. The Chinese Section was less busy, but as the political and economic stability of Hong Kong was confirmed, so applications from overseas Chinese to be allowed to enter the Colony for permanent stay increased, and there is now a backlog on this work. During the year, the department transferred respon- sibility for Singapore visa and passport work to the Singapore Commissioner's office. The liberalization of the visa-waiver scheme, which was announced last year, brought a noticeable decrease in requests for extension of stay.

       The pattern of emigration to the USA, Canada, and to a lesser extent, Britain and elsewhere, continued at a brisk rate, and clearly much of the youth of the Colony is anxious for an education abroad.

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IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM.

      Following some relaxation of policy last year, the number of alien residents in Hong Kong has continued to grow, and at the end of 1968, there were 13,807 alien residents registered in Hong Kong, the largest group consisting of citizens of the USA, number- ing 4,705, followed by 2,012 Portuguese, 1,452 Japanese, 768 Indonesians, 711 Filipinos, and 485 Dutch. During the year, 10 White Russian refugees entered the Colony from China, and 17 left for settlement in other countries, under the sponsorship of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. At the end of the year, there were still 22 refugees in this category in Hong Kong awaiting placement.

The political situation in China continues drastically to affect movement of travellers over the Sino-British Border at Lo Wu, and the daily average movement is now about 1,702. The numbers temporarily increased in April to May and October to November, when the Canton Trade Fairs were held. During the year, 308,034 people left Hong Kong for China, while 313,161 entered the Colony from there.

There has been little change in the situation in Macau and the movement of people between Hong Kong and Macau is generally at quite a low ebb. Traffic to Macau for the Grand Prix motor race in November, although up by some 51 per cent compared with the previous year, was still down 83 per cent compared with the figures for 1966.

There are now four steamers and 11 hydrofoils employed on the Macau run, and these craft during the year took 1,003,331 passengers to Macau and brought 1,032,787 into Hong Kong. This represents an increase in traffic of 2.8 per cent on the 1967 figures. During the year, the Harbour Section cleared 7,880 ocean- going ships, 13,144 native craft, and 17,047 Macau ferries and hydrofoils, and handled a total of 1,058,781 arriving and 1,029,928 departing sea passengers.

      The greatest increase in traffic has been felt at Kai Tai Airport. During the year, 1,433,492 passengers and 34,039 aircraft were dealt with an increase of 15 per cent in passenger traffic and 10 per cent in aircraft on the previous year. An experiment was introduced in April of segregating arrival passengers into three categories, i.e. Hong Kong residents, aliens and British and Commonwealth subjects.

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

TOURISM

171

      At the beginning of the year tourism was still suffering to some extent from the after effects of the 1967 disturbances. The end of the year presented an entirely different picture. The total number of visitors to the Colony in 1968 was 618,410 who stayed an average of 3.9 days. This compared with a total of 527,365 in the previous year representing an increase of 17.26 per cent (these figures do not include servicemen of all nationalities visiting Hong Kong on leave and recreation).

It is interesting to note a changing pattern of travel movement which shows a decrease in arrivals by sea, but strong increase in group travel, which is expected to continue to expand even more rapidly in future years. One tour operator alone brought in nine groups in 1967, 22 in 1968 and has confirmed 42 groups for 1969. There is, however, a need continually to encourage visitors from wider range of countries in order to offset the risks of loss due to international disturbances and economic difficulties. In this context it is encouraging to see new airlines starting to operate into Hong Kong. During the year a service by East African Airlines was inaugurated which, by providing a direct link with the African Continent, will contribute one more spoke in Hong Kong's wheel of travel. Other possible newcomers are Trans- International who propose to operate charter flights, and Varig Brazilian Airlines who hope to commence operations in the near future. It is also hoped that increased calls by ships of the Orient Overseas Lines will help to bring more passengers by sea into Hong Kong.

The promotion of Hong Kong as a tourist centre requires constant revision and change to adapt to circumstances and the Hong Kong Tourist Association has placed much more emphasis on special promotion and public relations during 1968. In Europe, a mobile exhibition has visited many of the main cities of Scandinavia, Belgium, Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria. Facilities have been provided for the Trade Development Council and Cathay Pacific Airways as a part of this mobile exhibition, so as to assist them in their promotional operations. An office has been opened by the Tourist Association in Geneva which will cater for the needs

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of the European travel industry. The association also participated directly in special events in West Berlin, Zurich, Geneva, Basle and Oslo and arranged visits throughout the length and breadth of Europe to promote the Hong Kong tourist image.

       In the United States of America the interest in travel to the Orient seems greater than ever and the number of tourists visiting Hong Kong reached a new record of 158,915 despite a cut-back early in the year when wide-ranging travel curbs were imposed by US authorities. In Canada there has been an increase in interest marked by a growth in the number of Canadian visitors to Hong Kong.

The number of tourists from Japan totalled 96,387 in 1968 and was second only to those from the United States. The increasing popularity of special chartered flights to bring parties of tourists to Hong Kong is having a marked effect in swelling the number of Japanese visitors to the Colony. The holding of the Annual Conference of the American Society of Travel Agents in Tokyo in September 1969, and the opening of Expo '70 in Osaka in 1970 are both expected to lead to further rapid expansion in the number of Japanese tourists coming to Hong Kong. The number of visitors from other Asian countries has also increased; the most notable increases being from Malaysia 23.4 per cent, Philippines 33.2 per cent, Singapore 52.7 per cent, Thailand 36.4 per cent, and Korea 55.1 per cent.

In the United Kingdom in spite of the current restrictions on foreign travel satisfactory results have been achieved. Familiariza- tion visits arranged for groups of travel agents from the United Kingdom and the Continent proved most successful. Hotels, travel agents, tour operators and all members of the Colony's travel industry co-operated in presenting the many facets of Hong Kong to the visiting agents.

The number of tourists from Australia and New Zealand in- creased by 24 per cent. Representatives of the Tourist Association made special visits to Australia and New Zealand for promotion purposes and also to attend the Tauranga Trade Fair and the Annual Conference of the New Zealand Travel and Holiday Association. In addition, the association's representatives attended a series of seminars throughout New Zealand and Australia.

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      In the international field, Hong Kong has continued to contribute to the work of the travel industry in the spheres of research, promo- tion and development through the Pacific and East Asian Travel Commission and the specialist commissions of the International Union of Official Travel Organizations, recognized by the United Nations as the official body representative of world travel. Full assistance has been given to the Pacific Area Travel Association and to the chapter of that organization in Hong Kong. The Tourist Association is also an active member of the recently formed East Asian Travel Association. This association has undertaken studies on trends in air fares and their implications in East Asian countries and the European Market, which have been well received in international travel circles.

      In Hong Kong the Tourist Association has been active in bringing the importance of the tourist industry to the attention of the general public through the supply of information to the press, radio and television and this year the association participated, for the first time, in the annual exhibition of the Chinese Manufacturers' Association. Much interest was also shown in an exhibition of travel posters displayed in the City Hall, arranged jointly by the Tourist Association and the Museum and Art Gallery of the Urban Council. During the six weeks that the posters were on view, some 13,748 people came to the exhibition.

During the latter half of the year a shortage of hotel accommoda- tion made itself felt. One hotel with 250 rooms was completed. A new hotel with 800 rooms is expected to open on July 1, 1969 but even this addition will only provide temporary relief in face of the present increasingly serious shortage of rooms.

12

Public Works and Utilities

     HONG KONG'S programme of public works-ranging from the formation and reclamation of land, the building of resettlement estates, schools and hospitals to the construction of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs-is the Colony's largest single financial com- mitment. Capital expenditure is estimated at $366 million or 19 per cent of the annual estimates for 1968-9. Of this sum $76 million is to be spent on water supplies and $111 million on resettlement and government low-cost housing.

WATER SUPPLIES

The year under review was one of promise for the Water Authority, contrasting dramatically with the previous year during which the problems presented by the mass walk-out of labour followed by a severe drought had to be faced. The summer of 1968 will be re- membered for very high temperatures (the highest for 68 years), record water storage reserves and for peak demands exceeding 170 million gallons per day.

      Full supply to consumers was maintained throughout the year. A favourable storage position early in April permitted a 24 hours supply to be maintained but with a marked drop in the salinity of water by discontinuing supplies from Plover Cove.

The Chinese Authorities continued the supply from their Shum Chun reservoir, and during the period from October 1967 to June 1968, 15,023 million gallons were purchased from them. The supply was resumed on October 1, 1968 in accordance with the current agreement with the Peoples Council of Kwangtung Province.

      The main interest and activity again centred on the Plover Cove scheme which neared culmination, at a cost of nearly $600 million, ten years after the idea of a reservoir from the sea was conceived. Finishing off operations on the main dam and pumping station were in hand for final completion of the scheme by the end of the

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year. Water from the Plover Cove reservoir was used for supply purposes during the 1967-8 winter when some 5,000 million gallons were abstracted for this purpose. During March practical considerations associated with the rapidly increasing water salinity, when weighed against the very favourable overall storage position, led to a decision to discharge to waste the bulk of the 7,000 million gallons of saline water remaining, before the onset of the summer rains. When impounding recommenced the 37,000 million gallons capacity reservoir held just over 1,000 million gallons.

       Proposals for the further development of the Plover Cove scheme were completed, including detailed proposals for the raising of the dam by 12 feet to increase the reservoir capacity by 10,000 million gallons to 47,000 million gallons, as well as the installation of permanent facilities to extract reservoir water down to 23 feet below mean sea level.

       Throughout the year the reservoir was under surveillance by the department's marine biologist and chemists. Regular surveys were conducted on hydrology, benthos, marine and freshwater fish and algae. An experimental pilot fish stocking exercise, successfully completed during April, preceded a major stocking programme which was in hand towards the end of the year. Fish introduced included the silver, common and mud varieties of carp and edible goldfish.

All outstanding trunk mains to integrate the Plover Cove supply with the earlier systems were completed and the last of the associated service reservoirs, at Shek Kip Mei and at Ho Man Tin, approached completion as water from Plover Cove became available for supply to all principal concentrations of population.

Plant installation at the 200-million-gallons-per-day River Indus pumping station completed the final pumping scheme, at a total cost of $28 million, but full potential was not realized owing to mechanical and electrical teething problems. The full capability of this station is usable only during the period of heavy summer rainfall when the river water is pumped to Plover Cove for storage.

       The Tung Chung scheme, which added some 3,000 acres of catchment to the earlier completed Shek Pik catchment area by intakes and a tunnel system, was completed at a cost of $34 million.

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      Government's programme for the provision of fully treated supplies to centres of population in the New Territories was. further implemented by the completion of the new treatment works at Tai Po Tau. This plant, which serves the northern areas, between Tai Po and the border has an initial capacity of six million gallons per day and was laid out to allow for future phased extensions to 24 million gallons per day as and when required. Cost of the treatment works, four million gallons capacity service reservoir, mains and pumping plant was $11 million.

Work was well under way on a scheme, of similar capacity but with provision for greater long-term development, to serve the Castle Peak development area in particular and to augment the supply to the western New Territories in general. Driving of a 34-mile long tunnel system to carry raw water from the Tai Lam Chung reservoir was completed and, initially, will be available for increasing the output of the existing treatment works at Yuen Long, on which work commenced to increase the capacity from two to four million gallons per day.

At Sha Tin treatment works conversion of the controllers and associated equipment, to permit higher filtration rates and uprate the plant capacity from 80 to 110 million gallons per day, was in hand. Proposals for further extensions to treat 175 million gallons per day, by 1972, were being finalized.

      Meanwhile, the progressive development of the distribution system continued. The programme for the year included over 60 miles of fresh and salt water mains in extensions to new development and for urban area main renewal, together with the provision of additional pumping stations, service reservoirs etc. Total expenditure on these works against the recurrent and non-recurrent votes was over $20 million.

In the consumer services field, the work load increased sub- stantially as the separate metering programme gained momentum, particularly on the government-aided housing projects but also, to a lesser degree, in the private sector as the availability of this facility became better known. During the year 50,917 meters were installed, bringing the total number in service to 279,969.

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The waste detection section was fully operational throughout the year and again proved its effectiveness. Repair of leaks detected resulted in total savings of over four million gallons per day.

       The Water Authority continued to assist the Director of Agricul- ture and Fisheries in implementing improvements to the traditional irrigation systems in the New Territories and in the provision of new irrigation schemes associated with the Plover Cove and Tung Chung major water schemes. During the year 28,000 feet of irrigation channels and 66 diversion dams were constructed.

The year produced some interesting statistics. 49,522 million gallons of water were supplied, an increase of 5,763 million gallons, on the quantity supplied during 1966, the last year in which a full supply was maintained throughout. Mean daily con- sumption was 135.5 million gallons, a peak daily figure of 173.1 million gallons being recorded on August 27. This compared with the previous record of 160.4 million gallons recorded on May 31, 1967, when on a 16-hour supply. The 'per capita' figure for the year was 34.5 gallons per day, a figure which it should be noted, for making external comparisons, does not include any element for sanitary purposes. This requirement is generally met independ- ently, from private wells, or the Government's sea water flushing systems. 10,738 million gallons of salt water were supplied from the government systems during the year. Completion of the Plover Cove reservoir brought the capacity of the authority's storage reservoirs to 54,000 million gallons. The Colony now has a total of 18 storage reservoirs. They are (with storage capacity in millions of gallons in brackets): Pok Fu Lam (66), Tai Tam (312), Tai Tam Increased (50), Wong Nai Chung (30), Tai Tam Bye Wash (22), Tai Tam Intermediate (196), Kowloon (352), Tai Tam Tuk (1,406), Shek Lei Pui (116), Reception (33), Aberdeen (Upper) (173), Kowloon Bye Wash (185), Aberdeen (Lower) (107), Shing Mun (Jubilee) (2,921), Tai Lam Chung (4,500), Shek Pik (5,400), Lower Shing Mun (900), Plover Cove (37,000). Peak quantity stored reached 44,392 million gallons, on September 19, of which 28,717 million gallons were held at Plover Cove. The maximum quantity impounded at Plover Cove was 29,356 million gallons at a salinity of 478 ppm sodium chloride on October 18.

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       The final report of the Water Resources Survey, which continued into its fourth year was awaited. In the meantime, the development of the extensive catchment areas on the Sai Kung peninsula is being investigated.

BUILDINGS

       The pace of new building work recovered to approximately the level attained in 1966 and although there was restriction on the use of explosives for blasting purposes this did not materially affect the progress of building work generally. Private architects, quantity surveyors and consultants continued to play a part in the public building programme and a steady output was also maintained in the construction of new buildings for HBM Ministry of Public Building and Works and in the maintenance of existing British Forces buildings. Expenditure during the year amounted to approximately $64 million on resettlement estates and their asso- ciated schools and factories; $39 million on government low-cost housing; and $52 million on all other projects.

       Twenty-two 16-storey resettlement blocks, seven 20-storey, one 12-storey and one 7-storey government low-cost housing blocks were completed, providing accommodation for 138,000 people. Seventeen 24-classroom primary schools were completed in resettle- ment and government low-cost housing estates.

       At the end of the year work was continuing on 25 resettlement blocks and 46 government low-cost housing blocks (which will provide accommodation for 307,000 people) in addition to 31 estate schools, providing a total of 744 classrooms. During the year eight single-storey restaurant buildings and an estate welfare centre were completed and two further welfare centres and four estate administra- tion buildings were under construction. Preparatory works were in hand on nine sites for estates with a future total capacity of 240,000 people and planning was in progress to provide accommodation for a further 147,000 people on eight new sites. Improvements in elec- trical wiring and the provision of individual water supplies in the early resettlement blocks were well in hand.

On Hong Kong Island completed projects included an abattoir at Kennedy Town which was opened in September, conversion of

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the Old French Mission Building into Victoria District Court, two 12-storey blocks of Police Inspectorate quarters, a number of additional quarters for fire stations, floodlighting of the Supreme Court building, an urban clinic and maternity home at Chai Wan, motor vehicle inspection facilities at So Kon Po, a beach building at Turtle Cove and improvements to Cape Collinson military cemetery. Substructure work for the Technical Institute at Morrison Hill was nearing completion by the end of the year. Other works completed included several playgrounds and public amenity areas and work was in hand on many others.

       In Kowloon projects completed included a two-bay fire station at Hung Hom, two extensions to Kai Tak Air Terminal building, a combined training centre for mentally defective children and adults at Kwun Tong, a temporary market at Kwun Tong, a number of additional quarters for fire stations, several parks and playgrounds, including Morse Park (funds for which were provided by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club), modernization of St. George's School and an RAF welfare centre at Sunderland Road. Substructure work for the new convalescent ward block at Kowloon Hospital was completed and work on the main building was started. The new Radio Hong Kong building was nearing completion.

In the New Territories work completed included a secondary school at Yuen Long built from funds raised by the Heung Yee Kuk, quarters for railway workers at Sha Tin, quarters for the Electrical and Mechanical Office at Fan Gardens and a maintenance depot at Silver Mine Bay, a police station at Man Kam To, motor vehicle inspection facilities at Tsuen Wan, Cheung Chau Middle School, dormitory accommodation at Shek Pik Training Centre, a dental clinic at Tong Fuk, and several sports grounds, playgrounds, rest gardens and other amenities, a post office and fire station at Rennie's Mill, animal pounds at Sha Tin, departmental quarters and school at Au Tau, and various improvements to junior ranks clubs at army camps.

       Projects under construction at the end of the year included the 24-storey government office block on the former Murray Barracks site, the prison staff training school at Stanley, a women's prison at Tai Lam, an abattoir at Cheung Sha Wan, a technical institute at Morrison Hill and a secondary technical school at Kwun Tong,

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multi-storey car parks at Rumsey Street and at Yau Ma Tei, several types of government staff quarters, a market at North Point, further alterations to Queen Mary Hospital, the new con- valescent ward block at Kowloon Hospital, site formation for Lai Chi Kok Hospital, Yau Ma Tei government slipway buildings, a cargo examination shed at Shek Wu Hui, various extensions at Kai Tak Airport, St John's Hospital outpatient clinic at Cheung Chau, Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, three large swimming pool complexes at Kwun Tong, Morse Park and Lei Cheng Uk, a recreation and sports ground at Yuen Long, Police Training School at Aberdeen, Siu Lam Hospital, two fire stations and a police station, an approved school for boys at Kau Wah Keng and the Fire Services district headquarters in Canton Road.

Work was in hand at the close of the year on design, working drawings and contract documents for about 80 projects including the 1,300-bed Lai Chi Kok Hospital, Sir Robert Black Training College, two fire stations, a fisheries marine licensing station, a training centre, a meteorological station, a polyclinic, a further swimming pool complex, two magistracy buildings, police head- quarters, several government and military staff quarters, further major alterations and extensions at Kai Tak Airport, government television studios, a mental hospital, a public mortuary, a vaccine institute, a medical department laundry, several police buildings, a new general post office, a transit mail sorting office, a community centre, indoor sports stadium and a number of parks and playgrounds.

DRAINAGE

All the urban areas and the newly-developing townships have water-borne sewerage systems in various stages of development. In many of the older areas the sewers were constructed 50 or more years ago and are no longer adequate to serve the large blocks of flats now being built. To bring these systems up to modern standards a programme of works, begun a few years ago, involving duplication and replacement of existing sewers and the construction of large intercepting sewers was continued.

      When the programme is completed all sewage, after preliminary treatment, will discharge through submarine outfalls into the main tidal currents around the Colony, wherever possible. Current

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observations are used to assess dispersal patterns to ensure that the coast line is not contaminated. Observation of the submarine outfalls now in use has shown this method of disposal to be satisfactory. At three submarine outfalls, sewage is partly treated in screening plants prior to discharge. Four submarine outfalls with similar facilities, to serve sewerage districts at Lai Chi Kok, Sham Shui Po, Wan Chai East and Wan Chai West, are now being planned.

Sewerage systems are also being constructed in the new towns now being developed in the New Territories. Following considera- tion of a report prepared by consulting engineers on sewage treat- ment and disposal facilities for development centres in the northern New Territories, it has been decided to undertake hydrological surveys of Tolo Harbour and of Victoria Harbour with its associated tidal streams past Tsuen Wan and Castle Peak, to determine their capacity to accept sewage without causing con- tamination of the coast. Arrangements were made to commence the design of a pilot sewage treatment works at Shek Wu Hui. In addition to improving the sanitary conditions in the area, this project will provide information on the use of various forms of treatment suitable to conditions prevalent in Hong Kong which will form the basis for the planning of treatment works in the future.

On Hong Kong Island work was in progress on the extension of stormwater culverts in conjunction with the Wan Chai reclamation project. The last section of the Albany nullah between Helena May Institute and Kennedy Road was culverted to facilitate construction of the new road, Cotton Tree Drive, as part of the Garden Road complex. Improvements to existing sewerage systems were continued at Tai Hang, Wan Chai, Central district, Western district on Hong Kong Island and Tai Kok Tsui, Sham Shui Po and Lai Chi Kok on Kowloon whilst improvements for other areas were being planned. Extensions to main stormwater culverts across Cheung Sha Wan reclamation were completed.

PORT WORKS

On Hong Kong Island the construction of the main seawall for the Wan Chai reclamation scheme continued and a cargo-handling basin was completed at the eastern end of it to cater for the ever- increasing demand for cargo loading and unloading areas. The

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supply of filling material from public dumping improved over the year and, together with the filling material from two site formation projects in the Tin Hau Temple Road area, enabled good progress to be maintained on this reclamation. The area formed is required for the construction of the new waterfront road.

      At Aldrich Bay, the construction of a breakwater progressed well. The dredging for its foundation was completed and the depositing of the foundation material commenced. The two break- waters constructed in the southern entrance to Aberdeen Channel to form a typhoon shelter, were completed.

      A new spring fendering system was provided at Queen's Pier in the Central reclamation to allow for the berthing of larger craft and to minimize the cost of maintenance.

In Kowloon, work continued on the construction of a salt water pumping station at the northern breakwater, ex-naval camber, Yau Ma Tei. This pumping station will serve as the main supply to the South Kowloon flushing system and the air-conditioning plant of the Yau Ma Tei government offices. The marine structures of the new government dockyard at Yau Ma Tei, including three slipways and a concrete pier, were completed while the installation of the necessary machinery continued.

The Tai Wan seawall which will form the frontage of a water- works pumping station site and an open area for recreational purposes was completed and reclamation behind it was under way. In Kowloon Bay, another 1,250 feet of seawall was completed which will retain a further 50 acres of reclaimed land for storage and light industrial development.

      At Lai Chi Kok, the building and civil engineering works for the Lai Chi Kok incinerator were completed including a refuse collection pier and a salt water pump house. As part of the overall project, the construction of a turbo-alternator house continued. Planning for a second incinerator plant in the same area was also undertaken.

In the New Territories at Pillar Island, Kwai Chung, work started on the construction of a seawall and the formation of a site for sewage works.

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       In Castle Peak Bay, a start was made on the construction of a 1,000 feet long seawall foundation and the dredging of a 4,500 feet long approach channel to the future cargo handling basin which forms part of the Castle Peak New Town project.

Near Sai Kung, the first stage in the construction of a typhoon shelter at Yim Tin Tsai was commenced. This typhoon shelter, when completed, will provide a sheltered area of approximately 28 acres for craft based in the Sai Kung area.

The construction of a new pier for use by the islanders started at Ap Chau, Crooked Harbour and further navigational beacons were erected at Tai O Creek and Northwest Tsing Yi Island.

       The materials testing laboratory, operated by the Port Works Division of the Public Works Department, carried out approximately 49,180 tests on building materials. About 3,465 of these were for private firms.

LAND DEVELOPMENT

Progress at the two new towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan- Kwai Chung included the formation of 66.5 acres of land and 15 acres of reclamation. At Kwun Tong, 37.5 acres of terraced sites were formed while 12 acres were also reclaimed from the adjacent Kowloon Bay for industrial development. At Tsuen Wan- Kwai Chung, 32 acres of land were formed, comprising 29 acres of formed hillside sites and adjacent roads for government low-cost housing at Kwai Chung North and three acres of reclamation at Gin Drinker's Bay.

       In Kowloon, development of land for housing, schools, govern- ment and institutional uses included about 5 acres, 3.5 acres and 6.7 acres of terraced sites formed at Ho Man Tin, Lung Cheung Road and Pak Tin areas respectively. 0.7 acres of land were reclaimed at Cheung Sha Wan for light industries, 1.6 acres were reclaimed at Tai Wan for an open space and one acre was reclaimed at Cha Kwo Ling for the coastal road.

On Hong Kong Island, the Wan Chai reclamation continued with 16 acres being formed as part of the priority areas between Arsenal Street and Percival Street for the waterfront road and cross-harbour tunnel schemes. In connection with the waterfront

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road scheme, a further four acres were reclaimed between Percival Street and Victoria Park at the Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter. Work is near completion on a site formation above Tin Hau Temple Road to create 11 acres of level sites for schools and private residential development, and to provide earth and rock for filling the Causeway Bay and Wan Chai reclamations.

      Central reclamation stage II between Star Ferry and Jubilee Street was completed.

At Wong Chuk Hang, 12 acres of terraced sites were formed for government low-cost housing, while at Chai Wan, six acres of terraced sites were formed for a resettlement estate.

On the first stage of the new town at Castle Peak a further 16 acres were reclaimed and nine acres were formed to levels in excava- tion areas. 2,400 feet of river wall and 2,000 feet of new road were completed. Work is in progress on the remainder of the site formation work, main drainage, river training walls, roads and a new bridge over the river channel.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

      China Light and Power Company Limited supplies electricity to Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of outlying islands. The demand for power has risen considerably over the years; in 1968 the peak load was 536 MW, which was 18 per cent more than in 1967, and 117 per cent more than in 1963.

The generating station at Hok Yuen, Kowloon Bay, has reached its ultimate capacity of 662 MW. During 1968, one 60 MW set was commissioned the fourth such unit owned by Peninsula Electric Power Company Limited, the generating enterprise owned and financed by Esso and China Light.

China Light's construction team is now erecting, on behalf of Peninsula Electric, a new power station on the southern shore of Tsing Yi Island. Two 120 MW units being built for it are due to provide electricity in 1969. Two additional 120 MW units have been ordered for commissioning in 1971, whilst a further two 120 MW units will follow in later years.

      China Light's main transmission and distribution system is growing in line with additional load requirements. The highest

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tension employed is 132 kV, and future transmission will be largely at this voltage. The distribution mains are being standardized at 11 kV and, with the conversion from 6.6 kV of the Tsuen Wan and Sha Tin areas completed in 1967, only outlying districts remain at the lower voltage. By September, the main network comprised 479 miles at 33 kV or more, and 671 miles at 11 kV or less.

       The electricity supply in Kowloon and the New Territories is 50 cycle alternating current, normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 11 kV and, in some locations, at 6.6 kV.

       In the year ending September 30, there were more than 468,000 consumers, 9.4 per cent more than in the previous 12 months. In the same period, 2,718 million kWh were generated, an increase of 13.5 per cent; 2,355 million kWh were sold, comprising 398 million kWh private lighting, 12 million kWh public lighting, 963 million kWh ordinary power, and 982 million kWh industrial bulk power.

       The following basic rates per kWh were in force at the end of the year: lighting, 27 cents, less a rebate of 1.6 cents; ordinary power, 13.6 cents; domestic cooking, 11.5 cents. There are special rates for industrial bulk power.

The Hongkong Electric Company supplies power to Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma.

Electricity is generated by plants at North Point, which has an installed capacity of 345 MW, and at Ap Lei Chau. The first 60 MW generating unit at Ap Lei Chau was brought into operation early in 1968; a second similar unit will be commissioned in early 1969 and further extensions to keep pace with expanding consumer demand are in the planning stage.

       Extensions of the transmission system include three 132 kV overhead lines designed to reinforce supplies to the west, north and east of Hong Kong Island. The first line was completed early in 1968 and the second and third lines will be completed by the end of 1968 and early in 1969. As part of development in the city and built-up districts, 132 kV underground cables were laid. Both these lines and cables will operate initially at 66 kV.

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      The system transmission voltages are 66 kV and 33 kV. Primary distribution is carried out at 11 kV and 6.6 kV. The secondary distribution voltages are 346 volts, three-phase, four-wire and 200 volts, single-phase. The frequency of the system is stabilized at 50 hertz a second. The obsolescent 6.6 kV system is gradually being replaced by 33 kV and 11 kV systems. Maximum demand on the company's generating plant rose to 251 MW in 1968, an increase of 14.2 per cent over 1967. The number of consumers increased by 6.9 per cent during the year, and sales of electricity amounted to 983.9 million kWh, an increase of 10.5 per cent. These were made up of: domestic and residential, 293.2 million kWh; commercial, 520.2 million kWh; industrial, 164.4 million kWh; street lighting, 6.1 million kWh.

For domestic, commercial and small industrial consumers, the company has separate block tariffs ranging from 25 cents to 12.4, 14 and 12 cents per unit respectively, depending on quantity con- sumed. Special rates are quoted for bulk supplies of electricity.

      The second stage of the company's re-housing scheme for its workmen will be completed early in 1969.

The Cheung Chau Electric Company Limited supplies Cheung Chau Island which contains some small industries and a population of fisherfolk who founded the company in 1913 as a community project. It is now operated by commercial interests and it supplies power on a 50-cycle, three-phase, four-wire system of 200/346 volts for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes.

The charges for electricity have been gradually lowered by modernizing and increasing the efficiency of the generating plant. Current rates are 57 cents per unit for lighting and 25 cents per unit for domestic and industrial power. Special rates are given to bulk consumers.

The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited supplies Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. Town gas is available throughout the urban areas, including Repulse Bay on the island, and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan in Kowloon. Liquefied petroleum gas (or bottled gas) is offered to customers who are out of reach of the town gas supply.

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Town gas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok in Kowloon. The island is supplied by two submarine gas mains across the harbour. The total installed production capacity of the Ma Tau Kok station is approximately nine million cubic feet per day. Tsuen Wan is supplied by an independent station of 900,000 cubic feet per day capacity. To ensure that gas installation work is maintained at a high standard the company has its own installation department which is assisted, when necessary, by authorized sub- contractors. Where building developers provide an internal town gas installation, the company installs gas services, up to the meter positions, free of charge. In addition to dealing with normal maintenance calls, the company provides a 24-hour emergency service.

Gas is sold on a thermal basis (one therm=100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of town gas in the urban area is 455 British thermal units per cubic foot. However, in the Tsuen Wan area the calorific value of the gas is 650 per cubic foot. The tariff incorporates a standing charge which is dependent upon the size of meter installed. It includes the cost of the first three therms of gas consumed. The scale of charges is:

$10.60 or $24.10

First

3 therms

Next

7 therms (up to Next 40 therms (up to Next 75 therms (up to

10 therms)

2.86 per therm

50 therms)

2.81 per therm

125 therms)

2.74 per therm

Next 125 therms (up to

250 therms)

2.62 per therm

Next 250 therms (up to

500 therms)

2.51 per therm

Next 500 therms (up to 1,000 therms) Consumption over 1,000 therms

2.40 per therm

2.30 per therm

       Special rates are offered on an individual basis for large industrial and commercial consumers. The total quantity of gas sold in 1968 was 1,590 million cubic feet (7.3 million therms) compared with 1,488 million cubic feet (6.8 million therms) in 1967. The number of consumers rose from 24,746 to 26,573.

13

Communications

IN the days when Hong Kong lived largely by entrepôt trade, its position on the China Coast was its greatest advantage. Changed conditions have now placed the emphasis on industrial production and imports and exports, but that position is still of vital importance. Today as always the Colony relies upon an efficient system of com- munications.

The Port of Victoria is a fine natural harbour possessing all the facilities required by modern ship operators. Berths at government buoys, private wharves and piers permit a continual flow of ocean and coastal shipping to pass through the port with a minimum of delay. Modern cargo-handling equipment at the wharves ensures a rapid turn-around of ships berthed there. The services of ship contractors, repairers and chandlers specializing in maintenance, painting, victualling, watering and refuelling are readily available.

      The Director of Marine is responsible for the control of the navigable waters and ports of the Colony. The Marine Department maintains close liaison with shipping and commercial interests, through the Port Committee and the Port Executive Committee, to ensure that port facilities and services keep pace with the ever- changing needs of Hong Kong and of shipping companies of all

nations.

      A comprehensive system of navigational aids in the harbour and approaches allows safe entry to the port by day and by night, and improvements are constantly being implemented or are under review by the Marine Department. The fairway buoys are all fitted with radar reflecting devices, and in the harbour itself the lead mooring buoys at the eastern end of the lines of mooring buoys are identified by quick flashing lights. A depth of 36 feet can be carried by vessels entering port via the eastern approaches through Lei Yue Mun Pass, whilst in the western approaches through Sulphur Channel or south of Stonecutters Island the depth is 28 feet. There are no factors limiting the draft of tankers which proceed

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direct to terminals, other than the limiting draft at the berths them- selves. Although pilotage is not compulsory, it is recommended on account of the density of traffic, new reclamations and harbour works.

       Quarantine and immigration formalities are carried out at the eastern and western quarantine anchorages. Port health and immi- gration launches are on duty day and night in the eastern anchorage, and from 6.30 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. in the western anchorage. Ships are cleared as soon as they arrive and, in the case of large passenger ships, immigration processing is continued en route to the berths to reduce inconvenience to passengers. Radio pratique is granted in certain cases. This concession is of prime importance to the operators of oil tankers as it allows discharge to start as soon as the ship is berthed.

The signal stations at Waglan Island and in the harbour are manned continuously, and all ships movements are reported to the Port Control Office, where staff are on constant call to deal with queries and emergencies. The signal stations in the harbour are connected to Port Control by a teleprinter system, whilst the Signal Station at Marine Department Headquarters is connected to Cable and Wireless Limited and the Royal Observatory on the teleprinter circuit. The signal stations are also in contact by radio-telephone with Marine Department and Port Health launches, and with other government departments by landline. Ships at buoys are able to hire radio-telephones from Cable and Wireless Limited which link up with the public telephone service. Ships at the main commercial wharves can be connected direct to the Telephone Company's lines. It is hoped that during the first half of 1969 a modified Hague Plan, Port Operations Service will be introduced to Hong Kong.

       As a port service, a fleet of fire floats is operated by the Fire Services Department. It includes the fireboat Alexander Grantham, possibly the largest of its kind afloat. These fire boats in addition to their routine duties have proved invaluable in combating oil pollution by dispersing emulsifying chemicals in times of emergency. Many government and commercial tugs are also fitted with fire- fighting equipment. A fleet of scavenger sampans, controlled by a mother ship equipped with a radio telephone on the Marine Depart- ment net work, operate in the harbour collecting refuse and debris.

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4,417 tons of refuse were collected by these craft, during 1968 in 289 working days.

Overall port activity as regards ocean shipping and cargo move- ments was generally lower during the first half of 1968 than in the same period of 1967, and higher in the latter half of 1968 as compared to 1967. These figures were influenced by the disturbances during 1967, having begun to be felt in respect of shipping movements just about the middle of the year. The closure of the Suez Canal in June 1967 and subsequent re-scheduling of some liner services to the Far East from Europe also affected the number of shipping move- ments through the port in 1968 but the general trend throughout the year was for a steady increase in the number of vessels using the port, a total of 599 ocean-going vessels entering in December.

      Details of vessels entered and cleared during the year, together with figures of cargo loaded and discharged, are in Appendix XXXVIII, which also shows the number of passengers dealt with, including transit emigrants. Regular and frequent services are main- tained by many well-known and old-established shipping lines. Some 20 companies provide regular sailings to Europe, and a similar number to the North American continent. There are regular services to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, South America and other countries in the Far East. Frequent and fast services are maintained to Macau by ferries and hydrofoils.

The completion of Stage I of the development of the Hong Kong and Macau Hydrofoil and Ferry Terminal has greatly improved passenger convenience at the terminal and has enabled passenger clearance facilities to be centralized with consequent savings in staff of the operating departments. Plans are in hand to effect further improvements to the existing facilities and it is expected that these improvements will be completed by early 1970.

Passenger traffic increased from a total of just over one million in December 1960 to a maximum of 2,600,000 in December 1966. The total number of passengers passing through the terminal 1968 was 2,061,000 an increase of 60,000 over the previous year when move- ment of passengers between Hong Kong and Macau was consider- ably curtailed due to the disturbances in both territories.

      The Marine Department maintains 69 moorings for ocean-going freighters. Of these, 42 are classified as suitable for use by vessels

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of up to 600 feet in length and 27 for vessels of up to 450 feet. When the Port Buoyage Improvement Scheme has been fully implemented, 73 moorings for ocean-going shipping will be available. Commercial wharves can accommodate ships not exceeding 1,000 feet in length and with draughts of up to 36 feet.

       The ocean terminal, opened in 1966, is one of the best-equipped in the world. Its self-contained shopping centre has more than 100 shops on two floors. It also has night clubs, car parks and exhibi- tion areas and visitors and passengers are catered for by banking, travel, telegraphic and typing services. At ground level there are seven-and-a-half acres of wharf and transit shed space. The terminal provides berthing for four ocean-going liners and has 190,000 square feet of apron space on its marine deck for cargo handling. Wharf and godown companies have a total cargo storage capacity, for all types of goods, of more than a million tons. Transhipment cargo facilities and services are also provided. Most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage transported by lighter or junk, and an adequate number of this type of craft is always available for hire.

      It became apparent early in 1966 that great impetus was being given to the development of container cargo services throughout the world. A Container Committee was appointed under the chair- manship of the Director of Marine, comprising representatives of manufacturing, exporting and shipping organizations, and of the relevant government departments. It has been discussing the prob- lems and ramifications for Hong Kong of containerization since late in 1966 and has submitted four reports to Government concern- ing the development of facilities to accommodate container vessels in Hong Kong. During the year work was started on an engineering feasibility study of the site at Kwai Chung recommended by the committee for development as a container terminal. Government has also entered into discussion with wharf and godown operations in the Colony to ascertain if some interim development of existing facilities to handle container cargoes on an increasing scale is feasible.

       Officers of the Mercantile Marine Office supervise the engagement and discharge of seamen serving in British ships and also the crews of ships whose countries have no consular representative in Hong

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Kong. The Seamen's Recruiting Office, which was established in 1966, is responsible for the registration of all seamen engaged in Hong Kong for service in foreign-going vessels. A shipping informa- tion unit, formed within the Marine Department last year, has been busily engaged in countering the effects of stoppages of work by some seamen and in furnishing information on conditions in Far East ports to the Hong Kong Government, overseas Governments and other interested parties. This unit, together with the Seamen's Recruiting Office, has done much to establish normal conditions. following last year's disturbance.

       A Port Welfare Committee disburses government subventions and other monies to religious and other organizations which minis- ter to the needs of crews of ships visiting Hong Kong. The committee manages the Merchant Navy Club in Kowloon. During the year, $217,000 was provided for port welfare purposes.

       The Colony's principal dockyards continued to be employed on repairs conversions and new building. The Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited carried out extensive bottom damage repairs to several vessels and special survey repairs to one motor tanker included renewal of 550 tons of structural steelwork.

       Two steel dumb palm oil lighters were built for owners in Taiwan, and a steel 550 tons twin screw motor tanker also delivered. The company has received an order for a 2,260 deadweight ton bitumen tanker for United Kingdom owners and during the year construc- tion of the Mid Yard Quay was completed, providing a new berth 550 feet in length.

      The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company of Hong Kong Limited were engaged in extensive 'ship surgery' during the year, lengthening three vessels and carrying out extensive modifications to one of them. Major bottom damage repairs were undertaken on one dry cargo vessel and side port modifications made to five vessels. A new diesel engine tug of 1,030 BHP and 14 tons bollard pull came into service during the year and orders have been received for a 76-foot self-propelled lighter for local owners. The dockyard's extensive repair, drydocking and slipping facilities have been heavily committed throughout the year.

      The Hong Kong Registry of Shipping lists 456 vessels under the British flag, totalling 770,324 gross tons, 463,024 register tons, of

H

4,000,000 in Motion

    Nowhere is the bustle and vitality of Hong Kong reflected better than in the colourful and varied means of transport employed by its citizens in their daily round. From sampans to cable cars, mini- buses to diesel locomotives, all are integrated into a frenetic but surprisingly effective network throughout the Colony. With tram and ferry fares starting at 10 cents, it is also one of the world's cheapest. Below, a typical street scene, showing Hong Kong's distinctive red double-decker buses with a stream of cars.

אר

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

BI

S

Hong Kong's stately two-storey trams run only on the island and are very popular with tourists as well as local people. There are few better vantage points for candid photographs of Hong Kong's unique street panoramas.

THE "STAR" FERRY

HONG KONG

TO

A community bisected by a busÿ seaway depends heavily on water transport. Above, one of the world-famous Star ferries which ply back and forth between Hong Kong and Kowloon every few minutes. The picture (below) shows the swift vehicular ferries which enable a motorist to reach almost any corner of the Colony without leaving his seat.

6

is Mi

  Every day, seventeen passenger trains and an average of five goods trains make the one hour journey between Kowloon and the China border station at Lo Wu, serving both local commuters and international traffic (picture above). Below, the hydrofoil to Macau sets off up the harbour.

HONG

RIES

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193

which 111 ships are over 500 tons gross. The number of shipping companies owning British ships in Hong Kong is 107. Vast number of small craft operate in the harbour and create special problems. There are more than 19,000 vessels in this category and some 9,400 are mechanized. It is mandatory for persons in charge of mechanized craft to possess a local certificate of competency as master or engineer.

Trade continued with Macau and adjacent Chinese ports, though there was a decrease with previous years. Cargoes from these areas are transported mainly by towed lighters or junks. Details of trade tonnage may be found in Appendix XXXVIII. A brisk internal trade is carried on between the harbour area and outlying districts. The shipbreaking industry improved, and ships notified as coming to be broken up in Hong Kong up to the end of the year totalled 38, compared with only 34 last year.

The American vessel Columbia Trader grounded on Waglan Island on August 7, 1968 and due to the rupturing of two of her fuel tanks, a quantity of black oil was released to the sea. On August 8 some Colony beaches were polluted with oil and large oil slicks were reported in the Tathong Channel. Marine Department launches and Fire Services vessels sprayed emulsifiers and high pressure water jets on the contaminated areas and in a week long operation, 6,423 gallons of emulsifier were used in clean up operations including 1,315 gallons used by the Urban Services Department in cleansing the beaches. The Columbia Trader was refloated for repair at a local shipyard on August 11.

A number of casualties occurred in the China Sea during the year and a number of casualties occurred in Colony waters also. The British vessel Eastern Lion went ashore in January off Chinwangtao promontary on the coast of China and another British vessel the Victoria Bay grounded on Breaker Point near Swatow in April 1968. Both vessels were refloated. Another British vessel, the Yung- futary went ashore on the coast of Fukien province on July 26 and was subsequently abandoned. A Panamanian vessel, the Wing Lien in collision with a Chinese lighter, the Yuet Hong 2001 subsequently sank in Tathong Channel on the morning of April 6 and on August 6 a dredger under tow to the Colony capsized and sank after having been towed into Tai Tam Bay. Typhoon signals were

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      hoisted at various times during the year but the only major storm to effect the Colony was typhoon Shirley which passed over Hong Kong Island on the night of August 21. One vessel broke away from a harbour mooring and subsequently grounded on the western tip of the Stonecutters Island but was eventually refloated. A few other incidents and minor damage to vessels in the port occasioned by the storm were reported but in general the harbour and local craft escaped very lightly. A number of fires occurred on ships of the port during the year, the most serious of which occurred on a tanker being broken up in Junk Bay which spread to another vessel alongside and in which five people died.

CIVIL AVIATION

      Hong Kong Kai Tak International Airport today is one of the major international airports in the world and forms an important link on the main air routes of the Far East. More than 300 scheduled services to all parts of the world are provided each week by 23 international airlines, in addition to many charter and non-scheduled flights and some 1,471,679 passengers passed through the terminal building during the year. The importance of the airport to the Colony is high-lighted by the fact that tourism is now the Colony's second largest industry and more than 90 per cent of visitors travel by air.

      The runway is presently 8,350 feet long and plans for its extension are under study. The latest navigational and approach aids have been installed and an instrument landing system, surveillance radar, precision approach radar and a pattern of radio beacons contribute greatly to the safety and regularity of air services. Modern airport and approach lighting provides for safe night operations in spite of the surrounding hills.

      The phenomenal growth both in passenger and cargo traffic has necessitated urgent measures for the expansion of the airport's facilities. The terminal parking apron has recently been increased in size, now providing accommodation for 16 large aircraft, and further enlargement is planned. An extension to the passenger terminal building has been brought into use, and work has already commenced on a further extensive programme of modification, due for completion in 1970, which will provide for improved passenger flow, mechanical baggage handling and distribution, improved

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      shopping and restaurant facilities, and the provision of air-bridges for the rapid loading and unloading of aircraft up to the size of the Boeing 747.

Improved facilities for the expeditious handling of rapidly in- creasing air cargo traffic are equally essential, and work is already well advanced on extensive modifications to the existing cargo terminal, designed almost to double its present capacity. This is however looked upon as an interim measure only, and consultants have been engaged to advise on the type of cargo handling complex best suited to Hong Kong's long-term need.

Responsibility for the supervision of all aspects of civil aviation in the Colony rests with the Director of Civil Aviation. Full operational services are provided, including air traffic control, telecommunications, air sea rescue, airport fire service, aeronauti- cal information service, aircraft registration and certification of airworthiness, personnel licensing and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an aeronautical meteorological service.

       There are two flying clubs in the Colony. The Hong Kong Flying Club operates a Beechcraft Musketeer and the Aero Club of Hong Kong a Cessna 172E Skyhawk and a Piper PA-28-140. The Far East Flying Training School offers full time courses of training in aeronautical engineering and electronics. Aircraft maintenance in Hong Kong is provided by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited, who offer overhaul and repair facilities for a wide range of aircraft including the latest jet airliners. Cathay Pacific, the Colony's own airline, offers services to India, Japan, Malaysia, Sabah, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Korea using Convair 880 aircraft. During the year passenger, freight, and mail figures showed increases over the previous year of 19.72 per cent, 37.84 per cent, and 8.62 per cent respectively.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

       The British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon Peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Lo Wu where it joins the Chinese railway system, the northern bank of the Sham Chun River forming the international boundary at this point. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains at

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the border between the Colony and China and walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads, however, travel through without transhipment.

      There are 17 daily passenger trains each way operating on the British Section and an average of five goods trains per day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at week-ends and public holidays, especially in winter time. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin Station, which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon at Tsim Sha Tsui and the border station at Lo Wu is about one hour.

      The greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year, was 121,357 on Friday, April 5, 1968-the Ching Ming Festival day when many visitors paid their respects to their ancestors in the cemeteries at Wo Hop Shek and Sandy Ridge in the New Territories.

Fares vary from $3 (1st class for the whole distance) to 40 cents (1st class minimum); 1st class fares are one third more than 2nd class fares and twice as much as 3rd class fares. Rail fares are slightly more than the corresponding bus fares except between Kowloon and Sha Tin. Children under 12 years of age pay half fare. Quarterly and monthly tickets at cheap rates are available for all stations. For a quarterly ticket, the fare is the sum of 75 ordinary single fares and for a monthly ticket-30 ordinary single fares. Holders may use their tickets on any train and as many times as they like on any day.

      Rolling stock in the British Section comprises nine diesel-electric locomotives, one rail-bus, 70 passenger coaches and 147 goods.

wagons.

      The planning and design of a new terminal station for the Kowloon-Canton Railway to be situated at Hung Hom adjacent to the proposed Cross-Harbour Tunnel is at present in progress. However, the new railway workshops at Ho Tung Lau, Sha Tin, and the new running and temporary carriage washing sheds at Hung Hom were completed and put into service in the middle of the year under review.

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ROADS

There are 618.9 miles of road in the Colony maintained by Govern- ment of which 203.3 are on Hong Kong Island, 183.5 in Kowloon and 232.1 in the New Territories. To cope with the ever increasing traffic demands resulting from improvements in social and economic conditions and to reduce the level of traffic congestion on the existing road network, a large programme of road construction and improvement has been necessary. A total of $29.2 million was spent on major projects and $13.8 million on road improvement and maintenance during the year.

      On Hong Kong Island, the Garden Road complex, comprising the duplication of Garden Road with grade separation of cross routes to improve traffic flow between the central business district, mid-levels and the Peak area progressed satisfactorily. Cotton Tree Drive, as the road parallel to Garden Road is now known, was extended to the Helena May Institute and construction of the last stage to Macdonnell Road was started, as was the design of the flyovers required at the Upper Albert Road junction.

Substantial progress was made on the Waterfront Road scheme to provide a high capacity road link between Harcourt Road and King's Road. Construction of the flyovers at Fleming Road, Cause- way Bay, Canal Road and Arsenal Street was under way, whilst the design of the Tsing Fung Street flyover was completed. The new Wan Chai ferry concourse and access road were completed in conjunction with the opening of the new ferry piers.

The re-alignment and widening of certain sections of Pok Fu Lam Road, Kennedy Road and Victoria Road were completed whilst similar work on Stubbs Road and Chai Wan Road was well advanced. Roadworks at Morrison Hill, Brick Hill and areas above Tin Hau Temple Road continued in conjunction with new building development.

In Kowloon, the half-mile long Lai Chi Kok Bridge was completed and opened to traffic in October. The bridge and newly completed Kwai Chung Road provide a fast direct link between western Kowloon and Kwai Chung/Tsuen Wan, thereby relieving congestion on Castle Peak Road with its relatively steep gradients.

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As part of a programme to improve the major traffic link between Tsim Sha Tsui and the eastern New Territories via Lion Rock Tunnel, work started on the construction of flyovers at the Chatham Road/Gascoigne Road and Pui Ching Road/Fat Kwong Street intersections, together with reconstruction works in Waterloo Road.

Extensive road reconstruction took place throughout Kowloon to remedy the continuing deterioration of roads which were built shortly after the war and were not intended to carry the heavy traffic loads now common in the urban areas. Several bus termini were completed to meet the needs of the ever-growing number of bus routes.

In the New Territories, work was started on improvements to some three miles of roadway between Lam Tei and Ping Shan to bring it up to dual-carriageway standards. Extension of Tai Mei Tuk Road for a distance of about two miles to Chung Mei was almost completed, whilst the construction of Junk Bay Road, Stage I, from Lei Yue Mun Road to Sau Mau Ping continued.

A report prepared by consulting engineers (Messrs Scott, Wilson, Kirkpatrick and Partners) on the improvement of the Tsuen Wan- Castle Peak Road to dual carriageway standards was received and as a result this scheme was re-examined with a view to staged implementation by PWD staff. Investigations into the most suitable alignment for a by-pass round Tsuen Wan were completed and a report prepared.

The application of traffic management techniques continued, in an endeavour to make the most of the existing road network. Very good progress was made in the installation of traffic light signals to control traffic at intersections, a total of 153 sets being in use by the end of 1968.

The Traffic and Transport Survey Unit carried out transporta- tion surveys for various government departments. These included studies of bus operating characteristics, the level of service provided by taxis, the use of 'water-taxis' in the harbour and the parking conditions prevailing in various types of housing estate. Investi- gations were also made into the benefits resulting from the installa- tion of linked signals in Nathan Road and changes in travel habits due to the existence of the Lion Rock Tunnel route, opened in November 1967.

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Three major transportation reports were released, namely, the Hong Kong Passenger Transport Survey, 1964-6, the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study and the Hong Kong Long Term Road Study. These reports will constitute a blueprint for the future and already they have been used in planning the biggest road project in Kowloon, the North-East Corridor Scheme. This scheme involves the duplica- tion of the major traffic route linking central Kowloon with Kwun Tong, with grade separation at all major intersections. The traffic design was substantially completed during the year.

The new government quarry at Diamond Hill came into full production with the completion of the new plant installation, replacing the old quarry at Hok Yuen. On the Island, the mechani- zation of Mt Butler Quarry was completed and the installation of a new asphalt mixing plant and dust suppression equipment was in progress.

PARKING

There are four government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 2,282 cars. In addition 1,680 parking spaces in five temporary open air car parks, also managed by the council, have been established on Crown land awaiting development. Construction work was started on the two multi-storey car parks at Rumsey Street and Yau Ma Tei during the year and each of them will accommodate about 900 cars on completion. Fees for parking remained unchanged in 1968. For multi-storey car parks the charges are calculated at 60 cents an hour for most of the day, with a minimum charge of $1.50. For temporary car parks the fee is $1.50 for half a day, or $3 for the whole day. A monthly parking pass, valid at both types of car parks, costs $120.

The Government's policy is to provide car parks only in the main commuter areas. In areas of mixed commuter and residential development, where there is a greater demand for car parking than can be satisfied by metered kerbside parking, it is intended that land shall be sold by tender for car parking and other activities that can be conveniently combined with it.

At the end of the year, there was a total of 5,033 parking meters installed in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. Work

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on repairing and replacing the 2,500 or so meters damaged, stolen or written off during the 1967 disturbances was completed in July, and a programme for the installation of an additional 2,000 meters in areas where there is a high parking demand was drawn up. It is hoped this will be carried out early in 1969.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

      Public transport in Hong Kong, with the exception of the railway, is operated by private enterprise. The Government retains powers designed to ensure efficient operation. There are five major public transport companies which operate under ordinances which grant monopoly rights, but require the provision of adequate services.

      On Hong Kong Island two public transport companies have exclusive franchises to operate bus and tram services. In Kowloon and the New Territories another company has the exclusive bus franchise. Two large ferry companies have monopolies to operate services on specified routes across the harbour. Other minor cross- harbour services operate under licence.

During the year, 1,200 million people travelled on all public transport services. This was an increase of 14 per cent on the 1967 figure. Passengers on urban transport services, including bus services on both sides of the harbour, trams on Hong Kong Island, cross- harbour ferries and local passengers on the railway, totalled 1,123 million which was an increase of 14 per cent. In the New Territories 77 million passengers were carried on buses, trains and ferries, an increase of 13 per cent. It is, perhaps, unrealistic to compare transport statistics for 1968 with those of the preceding year since the operations of all five major public transport companies were affected in varying degrees by stoppages during the 1967 disturb- ances. Appendix XXXVIII provides a better guide to progress in that it lists the traffic carried annually by each of the public trans- port undertakings between the years 1959 and 1968.

,

Bus services in Kowloon and the New Territories are operated by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited. At the end of 1968, its fleet totalled 1,050 vehicles, comprising 625 double- deck buses and 425 single-deck buses. During the year one single- deck bus was taken out of service. The fleet's total passenger-carrying capacity at the end of the year was 79,349. All double-deck buses

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are equipped with power-operated doors. During the year 612.3 million passengers were carried and 40.1 million miles were covered by the company's buses. At the end of 1968 a total of 65 routes (42 in Kowloon and 23 in the New Territories) were operating. Towards the end of the year, negotiations were started between the company and Government on the need to revise the financial terms of the franchise in the light of the company's plan to increase its carrying capacity by 50 per cent over the next two or three years by the purchase of 465 new buses.

       Kowloon Motor Bus Company, which was the hardest hit of all the transport undertakings by the 1967 disturbances, was operat- ing only 75 per cent of its normal services by the end of that year, but by a complete reorganization of its services, the capacity offered to the travelling public at the end of 1968 was greater than the pre-disturbance capacity.

       Bus services on Hong Kong Island are run by the China Motor Bus Company Limited which has 483 vehicles, made up of 365 single-deck and 118 double-deck buses. The total passenger-carrying capacity at the end of the year was 30,165. The company operates a total of 30 routes and two special services on race days. In 1968 the buses carried 201.6 million passengers and covered 18.7 million miles. As a result of the 1967 disturbances, the company was operat- ing 77 per cent of normal services at the end of that year. Delivery of new vehicles during 1968 enabled the company to expand its services so that by the end of 1968 the capacity offered was greater than that offered by the end of 1967.

With a few exceptions both bus companies charge two fares within the urban areas. The lower fare of 10 cents is for a stage of roughly one mile. For journeys exceeding this distance within the urban area, the fare is usually 20 cents. There is a provision for school children's and other concessionary fares.

       On the Island, Hongkong Tramways Limited operate an electric tramway service over 19 miles of track running between Kennedy Town and Shau Kei Wan, with a branch line round the racecourse in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the city of Victoria. The tramcars are three-and-a-half-foot gauge, 500 volts DC, four- wheeled double-deckers. The total fleet is 162 tramcars and 22 single-deck trailers, and the normal daily service operated by the

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company in 1968 was 156 tramcars and 22 trailers at peak periods. This gave a car in each direction every two minutes on all routes. Through the city area the minimum frequency was a car every 30 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried was 158.4 million. Fares are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route and are 20 cents first class and 10 cents third class, the maximum length of a route being six-and-three-quarters miles. The company also issue monthly and concessionary tickets.

The Peak Tramways Company Limited runs a funicular railway service up the Peak. The present haulage system has been in use since 1925 and cars are drawn along the track by nearly two miles of steel cable. During the year, two million passengers were carried. The tramway climbs Victoria Peak to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in two. It is reputed to be the steepest funicular railway in the world using a steel wire rope as its sole means of haulage.

Taxis are licensed for specific use on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon or the New Territories, and conditions and fares vary with each area. The Government continued to open the way for new companies to enter the taxi business and, in accordance with this policy, 250 new urban taxi licences (235 for Kowloon and 15 for Hong Kong Island) were put out to public tender in September. On Hong Kong Island fares are $1.50 for the first mile and 20 cents for every fifth of a mile, or 25 cents for every subsequent quarter of a mile. In Kowloon the fare is $1 for the first mile and 20 cents for every subsequent quarter mile. Taxis licensed for the New Territories may carry passengers to any place in Kowloon, but may only pick up passengers in Kowloon at special taxi stands for destinations in the New Territories. They may not ply for hire within the urban area of Kowloon. At the end of the year, there was a total of 3,894 licensed taxis in the Colony: 2,235 in Kowloon, 1,171 on Hong Kong Island and 488 in New Territories.

Public omnibuses operate transport services excluded from the monopolies of the major bus companies. They include coaches for sight-seeing tours, those provided by hotels for their guests and those used for school-bus services. At the end of the year there were 351 public omnibuses licensed by the Commissioner for Transport. Some public cars operate under similar franchises and

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      differ only in that they may seat a maximum of nine passengers, but most vehicles registered in this category are hired out for self- drive and do not require a franchise. At the end of the year there were 919 public cars licensed. No scale of fees is laid down for the hire of public cars or omnibuses.

FERRY SERVICES

      The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited operates a fleet of 67 diesel-engined ferries, 14 of which are vehicle ferries. The company maintains 10 routes in the harbour between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, three of which are vehicle ferry routes. These three consist of a combined passenger-vehicle link between the central district of Hong Kong Island and Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon, a route for vehicles only between North Point and Kowloon City, and a double-decker vehicle ferry service between the central district and Yau Ma Tei. Ferries to outlying districts call at Ma Wan, Castle Peak, Tung Chung, Sha Lo Wan and Tai O; Peng Chau, Silver Mine Bay, Chi Ma Wan and Cheung Chau; Tsing Yi Island and Tsuen Wan, and Sok Kwu Wan and Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island. There is also a service from Tai Po Kau to Tap Mun in Tolo Harbour. During 1968, 167.3 million passengers and 4.9 million vehicles were carried. The Kowloon City-Wan Chai service, the only one of the company's 11 cross-harbour routes which was suspended during the 1967 disturbances, remains suspended pending a decision on the cross-harbour tunnel.

       The Star Ferry Company Limited runs a passenger ferry service across the harbour between Victoria City on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. The company uses 10 vessels on this service with a total passenger- carrying capacity of 5,500. A supplementary service was introduced in October to cope with the daily peak hour traffic and to relieve congestion at the ferry concourses. During 1968, 51.113 million passengers were carried. The Hung Hom-Edinburgh Place route remains suspended pending a detailed examination of its usefulness.

ADMINISTRATION

       The Transport Advisory Committee was formed in 1965 with a membership of six official members and nine unofficial members,

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with one of the latter as its chairman, to advise the Governor or the statutory authority, who in most cases is the Commissioner for Transport, on all aspects of transport and traffic policy, with the exception of external sea and air communications. In order to expedite the business of the committee and with the purpose of assisting the more effective discussion of the wide range of transport and traffic matters which come before it, it was decided to reduce the official membership to four and the unofficial membership to six, with one of the unofficial members continuing as chairman, with effect from December 1. The new committee now consists of, on the official side, the Director of Public Works, the Commissioner of Police, the Commissioner for Transport and the Deputy Economic Secretary. These, together with the six unofficial members, including the chairman, are all appointed by the Governor.

      At the same time it was decided to make the Transport Office, which had functioned as a branch of the Colonial Secretariat from its inception on December 1, 1965, a separate department from December 1, 1968. The more compact committee in conjunction with an independent Transport Department will be better able to develop the sort of expertise which will be necessary if the many major problems concerning Government in the transport and traffic field are to be effectively and rapidly resolved.

      The Transport Department provides a secretariat for the Trans- port Advisory Committee besides carrying out a wide range of executive functions such as vehicle licensing and registration, driving testing and licensing and vehicle inspection. As the statu- tory authority, the Commissioner for Transport is also responsible for regulating public transport services and co-ordinating action between other departments in the transport field.

      The number of registered vehicles at the end of 1968 was 111,272, an increase of 10.2 per cent over the previous year. (Vehicle statistics are given in Appendix XXXVIII). The demand for driving licences continued to rise and during the year 178,265 driving tests were conducted and 23,922 driving licences were issued.

The system of compulsory annual inspection of taxis and public cars, instituted in June 1966, was extended to all dual purpose vans registered before January 1, 1964 to ensure that these vehicles

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     comply with basic safety requirements. There are two vehicle inspec- tion centres, one on each side of the harbour, and a third will be opened early in 1969.

       The 4,677-foot Lion Rock Tunnel, which was formally opened to traffic on November 14, 1967, and provides a shorter alternative route between Kowloon and Sha Tin, is managed and operated by the Transport Department. The tunnel is the first and only toll road in the Colony. The tolls charged are $1 for buses, goods vehicles and dual purpose vans, and 50 cents for private cars and motor cycles. During the first full calendar year of its operation, a total of 1,998,000 vehicles used the tunnel and $1,143,000 was collected in tolls.

CROSS-HARBOUR TUNNEL

       A resolution approving in principle the grant of a franchise to the Victoria City Development Company, to construct and operate a tunnel across the harbour between Wan Chai and Hung Hom, was approved in principle by the Legislative Council in 1965, subject to certain conditions, one of which was that the tunnel had to be completed by 1970. With the approval of the Government, the company assigned all its rights and obligations to the Cross- Harbour Tunnel Company on May 17, 1966. In November 1966 the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company issued tender documents for the construction of the tunnel to contractors with the necessary experience. During the year negotiations arising out of the tenders submitted by the contractors continued, but no final conclusions were reached.

POSTAL SERVICES

       The development of postal services continued in 1968 with post- ings to all destinations of more than 149.5 million postal articles, representing an increase of more than one per cent over postings for the previous year. Items delivered locally exceeded 132 million and over two million were handled in transit. Postal statistics are given at Appendix XXXVIII.

      Counter business at all post offices includes the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels, and the issue and payment of money orders and postal orders. Special services, used mainly by the business community, such as business reply facilities,

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cash on delivery parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for bulk postings, are available. There are two postal deliveries a day, excluding Sundays, in all but the most remote rural areas.

A high percentage of mail posted is destined for abroad and since separate despatches to individual countries are established whenever justified by the volume of mail available for despatch, direct despatches are actually made up to more than 198 different places overseas. The train services between Kowloon and Lo Wu form the main link for the conveyance of mails to and from the People's Republic of China.

Three new post offices were opened and three other offices were closed. There is at present a total of 54 offices in the Colony includ- ing one mobile post office operating in the New Territories. Of the three new offices, two were established on Hong Kong Island, one at Des Voeux Road Central and one at the Wah Fu low-cost housing estate; the other was opened in the New Territories at the Rennie's Mill Village. On the opening of Des Voeux Road Post Office, the Man Yee Arcade Post Office situated on the upper ground floor level of a commercial building less than quarter of a mile from the General Post Office was closed. The Tai Nan Street Post Office closed down on October 12, 1968. This office was opened in February 1964, to provide temporary relief for the Sham Shui Po Post Office. With the opening of Cheung Sha Wan Post Office the continued need for this office was not justified. During the past eight years, nine new offices have been established in areas in the New Terri- tories hitherto served by two mobile post offices. Because of this, one mobile post office was taken out of service on January 15, 1968 and the routing of the other adjusted to provide a more economic coverage of the sparsely populated areas.

Three postage stamp issues were made during the year. The first in January commemorated the Lunar New Year, the 'Year of the Monkey', and comprised two stamps in values of 10 cents and $1.30. The second in April was a pictorial issue of six stamps featur- ing various craft commonly seen in Hong Kong Harbour, in values of 10 cents, 20 cents, 40 cents, 50 cents, $1 and $1.30. The third which marked 'International Human Rights Year 1968' comprised 10 cents and 50 cents values and was released in November. In

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      addition, the 65 cents and $1 values of the definitive set were replaced in September by new stamps. Both stamps depart from the standard 'Annigoni Portrait' of the other values.

       The 65 cents stamp depicts the Hong Kong flower emblem, the Bauhinia Blakeana, and the $1 value the Armorial Bearings of the Colony. Each is a multicolour production of high quality. A new style Christmas Aerogramme, designed by a local artist, was manu- factured in Hong Kong for sale to the public at 10 cents. New postage stamp issues are growing increasingly popular with collectors and post offices were crowded with people wishing to post first-day covers on the first day of each issue.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

         The Telecommunications Division of the Post Office licenses and inspects telecommunication installations operating under the Tele- communication Ordinance, investigates interference to telecom- munication services and monitors radio transmissions to ensure that they comply with the conditions of licence. The division also acts as adviser to government departments on telecommunication matters and co-ordinates their telephone service requirements.

      Overseas communications are provided by Cable and Wireless Limited. Hong Kong is linked by an 80-channel submarine telephone cable, westwards to Singapore and eastwards to Guam, from where telegraph, telex and telephone circuits extend to all parts of the world.

       In addition to the underseas cables, HF radio circuits connect to 16 countries in the region giving a current total of 205 telegraph and 134 telephone circuits terminating in Hong Kong.

       In order to handle the increasing amount of telegraph traffic, a computer has been installed in Mercury House during 1968. This has a capacity of 12,000 messages per hour and can store 130,000,000 telegraph characters. The message switching computer will be on line in January 1969.

       Cable and Wireless Limited is also installing a Satellite Earth Station to work initially with the INTELSAT III Satellite over the Pacific. The Earth Station is situated on Stanley Peninsula and should be ready for service by the middle of next year. It will have

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     a capacity of 300 voice channels and be capable of handling tele- vision programmes. Provision has also been made for a second Earth Station to work with the Indian Ocean Satellite.

Telephone services in the Colony are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited, a public company operating under a government franchise. In collaboration with Cable and Wireless Limited it also provides services to most overseas countries and to ships at sea and moored in the harbour.

The telephone system is fully automatic and comprises more than 425,000 working telephones operating through 38 exchanges. Exchange line rentals are on a flat rate basis of $350 a year for business lines and $235 a year for residential lines, these rates probably being as low as any in the world. Call charges for calls to and from the New Territories were abolished during 1968, and this has led to a considerable increase in demand for telephones in these areas.

The new microwave system connecting the major outlying islands to the rest of the Colony's system has proved beneficial and demand for telephones from the islands has exceeded expectations.

65,000 new lines were installed during 1968, compared with 53,000 in 1967. Five additional exchanges were commissioned during 1968, together with extensions to existing exchanges and associated cable schemes.

      The overall demand has continued at a high rate and the growth rate of the system has been about 20 per cent for some years.

      The Government's Advisory Committee on Telephone Services reviews the operation, improvement and expansion of telephone services, examines complaints and suggestions from the public, and makes periodical reports to the Governor in Council. Under the chairmanship of an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, it includes five other unofficial members, the Postmaster General and the Deputy Economic Secretary.

14

Press, Broadcasting and Cinema

IF communications are the lifeblood of a modern society, then Hong Kong must surely be one of the healthiest communities in the world.

An astonishing total of 62 daily newspapers circulate throughout the Colony; four television channels (two of them in colour) deliver a rich variety of entertainment and information programmes into an ever-increasing number of homes; there are an estimated one million radio receivers and 100 cinemas.

       In addition to all the usual sources of news, both local and international, all these media receive a constant flow of news releases, radio bulletins, films and photographs from the Govern- ment Information Services, informing the people of the Govern- ment's actions, views and intentions. The department also maintains a 24-hour news vigil and provides actual news coverage of all major events.

PRESS

The Chinese and English language press in Hong Kong currently produce some 200 publications, including 58 Chinese and four English daily newspapers. It is estimated that, between them, the Chinese and English language newspapers have an overall circula- tion of some one-and-a-half-million copies a day. Some of the leading newspapers and magazines are listed in Appendix XXXIX. The Wah Kiu Yat Po, Sing Tao Jih Pao and the Kung Sheung Yat Pao are three of the Chinese daily newspapers which are commonly recognized as seeking to give an objective representation of the world's news as well as a full picture of local events. The English morning dailies are the South China Morning Post and the Hong Kong Standard; the Post's afternoon companion is the China Mail and The Star is the other afternoon paper. The Standard and The Star each publish a Sunday edition, while the South China

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Morning Post Limited produces the Sunday Post-Herald which has its own editorial staff.

Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 18 members and three associate members. The society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in matters affecting the interests of all Hong Kong newspapers, the society or its members.

A major journalistic event of the year was the formation and inaugural conference in Hong Kong of the Chinese Language Press Institute. Ninety-two delegates from more than 80 papers with combined circulation exceeding three million attended the con- ference in November, some coming from as far afield as the United States.

The Institute's first chairman, Hong Kong publisher Miss Aw Sian, announced at the end of the three day meeting that the Ins- titute had resolved to compile a handbook for translating and editing in the Chinese language, to draw up a code of press ethics and to work towards standardized Chinese terms in translation from other languages.

      Work was also begun on the tasks of setting up an information centre and press library and on the introduction of modern print- ing techniques.

Hong Kong is the base of South-East Asia operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies are represented by the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Reuters and United Press International.

SOUND BROADCASTING

     There are three sound broadcasting organizations in Hong Kong: Radio Hong Kong, Commercial Radio and Rediffusion. In all there are eight different wireless and wired sound services.

      This year Radio Hong Kong celebrated its 40th Anniversary and two important developments, which took place during the year, will considerably improve its services. In February, work began on the new Broadcasting House, which is being built on the site at Broadcast Drive, Kowloon, in the general area which already

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accommodates the studio centres of Rediffusion and Hong Kong Television Broadcasts.

This new building, of approximately 52,000 square feet, has 16 studios ranging from a music studio of some 3,000 square feet down to studios for self-recording of 150 square feet each. The building is scheduled for completion in March 1969, and Radio Hong Kong will then have its own accommodation incorporating all services together for the first time in its history.

The other important event of the year was the commissioning of the new Medium Wave Transmitting Station at Golden Hill in the New Territories. This station is comprised of two pairs of 10 KW transmitters fed into a single 300 feet mast radiator which gives a total power output of 20 KW into the two programme channels.

      Radio Hong Kong is a government department financed from general revenue and the station carries no advertising. Both the English and the Chinese Services cover the full range of programmes expected of a public service broadcasting station. Considerable emphasis is placed on public affairs broadcasts, with information, comment and discussion programmes on the many issues which are of interest to Hong Kong listeners. Many serious and light music programmes are also included in the schedules. Transmission hours for both Chinese and English programme services are from 7 a.m. to midnight daily, and it is estimated that there are now well over 1,000,000 radio receivers in use in the Colony.

There are frequent bulletins of world and local news and both programme services broadcast news magazine programmes twice daily.

In January it was decided that Radio Hong Kong should also establish a Public Affairs Television Production Unit. This unit will also be accommodated in Kowloon and will produce documen- tary and other public affairs programmes for transmission by the authorized television companies of the Colony.

      This year the English Programme of Commercial Radio completely reorganized its evening programmes to suit the requirements of a basically young community and to provide the strongest possible alternative to television. Taped programmes were cut down to approximately three hours a week to establish a 'live' image.

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      The building of a special news studio in Hong Kong enabled more to be done in the way of local coverage and news bulletins. A public service Morning Report was inaugurated consisting of daily reports from the Essential Services, i.e., the Police Force, the Fire Services, the Marine Department, and Civil Aviation, broad- cast by members of the departments.

'Dateline Hong Kong', an evening news magazine programme, was extended as was the service to investors on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. A summary of the previous day's closing from the New York Stock Exchange was broadcast at 8.30 a.m. and 9 a.m. direct from New York.

From the end of April, a Pop Music format was adopted daily between 4 p.m. and 10 p.m. in which local groups and artists took part. Serious music was not neglected, however, and the nightly recorded concert, Symphony Hall, continued to build its audience. Many broadcasts of visiting and local artists were done 'live' from the City Hall.

There was emphasis in the 2nd Chinese Service on programmes for youth. For example, a 120-minute 'Youth Time' was broadcast from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. Mondays to Fridays. Relays of Cantonese operas, Music Festival prize-winning concerts and the concert given by the Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, continued to be extremely popular.

A series of 120 half-hour programmes on Chinese, English and Mathematics were broadcast early this year. Text-books covering the whole 120 courses were sold to the public at cost, and 29,214 copies of same were sold within two months. Local leading Chinese newspapers carried the text of 'Practical Mandarin'.

The wired sound service of Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd is dis- tributed to practically all the urban areas and to many outlying villages in the islands and the New Territories by more than 1,000 miles of main trunk lines and another 3,000 miles of installation cabling. At the end of the year there were 30,000 loudspeakers connected to these sound services which offer a choice of four programmes. The three Chinese programmes broadcast a total of 45 hours daily. The Silver and Gold networks each broadcast 17 hours daily, offering news, music and other programmes in a variety of dialects. The third Chinese programme broadcasts from 7 a.m.

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to 5 p.m. from Monday to Friday and from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays, and provides comprehensive school pro- grammes in Cantonese. The English service operates from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. from Monday to Friday, and from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. Just under a quarter of Rediffusion sound programmes are commercially sponsored.

TELEVISION

Hong Kong was the first British Colony to operate a television service and the network of Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd (RTV), which was established in 1957, now has two channels. By the spring of 1968 there were 100,000 subscribers to this television service. The television services carry advertising, and a number of shows on both channels are commercially sponsored. The two channels provide some 105 viewing hours each week. While both channels carry popular filmed shows from Britain and America, the Chinese programme in particular includes many live shows from fully equipped studios.

Television House, the company's new multi-studio centre at Lung Cheung Road, Kowloon, is now completed and the official opening took place in November. It is equipped with 19 studios, nine of which are television studios, eight are audio studios and two are dubbing studios. In television, as in radio, outside broad- casts are playing their part in creating among viewers a greater understanding of current events in the Colony and almost every day Rediffusion's cameras are out covering local news and obtaining material for current affairs programmes. The network now reaches out from the urban areas to Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Clear Water Bay, Sha Tin and Castle Peak in the New Territories, and further developments are under way.

Hong Kong Television Broadcasts Ltd (HK-TVB) began regular broadcasts on two networks on November 19, 1967. Independent market research established that there were almost 70,000 wireless receivers in use by June 1968, and the estimate for the end of the year was 120,000 receivers.

       HK-TVB features colour, FM sound, live productions and out- door broadcast programmes. It is also being received by some thousands of sets in the Portuguese Province of Macau.

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Television Broadcasts Ltd is registered and controlled in Hong Kong, and a resident board of directors is responsible for policy. It is licensed to operate for a period of 15 years, subject to renewal at the end of every five years. The company also has exclusive right to broadcast commercial TV programmes for the first five

years.

HK-TVB employs the UHF 625-line PAL colour system to broadcast over the two networks. The Jade Network basically uses Cantonese and Pearl Network is in English. Each network employs at the moment five transmitters.

      The main transmitters are on the top of Temple Hill, which command a panoramic view of Hong Kong, Kowloon and part of the New Territories.

HK-TVB operates from a modern studio complex near the mouth of the Lion Rock Tunnel. The Jade Network has a high percentage of local live programmes and one programme alone employs 500 acts a month. The Pearl Network has begun to present many live programmes in addition to well-known television series purchased from the United Kingdom and the United States. About 90% of the Pearl Network shows are in colour.

HK-TVB also maintains an independent news service with its own editorial staff and reporters. Extensive news programmes in both English and Chinese are presented daily and, as with the other broadcasting organizations, non-stop transmission is provided for the public during periods of emergency, notably typhoons.

FILM INDUSTRY

      Hong Kong has been among the top four film production centres throughout the world over the past six years in terms of output, and 1968 saw Hong Kong produce more than 200 features, just behind the leaders, India and Japan.

The two principal companies are Shaw Brothers and the Cathay Organization (formerly Motion Picture and General Investment Company), and they control the bulk of 28 shooting stages. Six smaller independent companies have studio complexes. Most of the Mandarin films are widescreen and in lavish colour-Shaw Brothers' films are renowned for their outstanding colour. The

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Cantonese films are usually in black-and-white but some of the more ambitious productions have ventured into colour.

An average Mandarin film costs $500,000 (US$84,000), and a Cantonese production about $300,000 (US$50,000).

On the latest count there were 41 directors, 40 script-writers, 102 contracted and 26 independent stars, a 1,248 man technical force of carpenters, plasterers, brick-layers, painters, electricians, cameramen, sound-recordists and projectionists employed full-time in local film production. A further 800 employees are involved in full-time subsidiary activities with exploitation of locally-made pictures in Hong Kong.

       Hong Kong has 51 independent production companies, all making films for domestic consumption (Hong Kong and Asian countries -Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Macau and Bangkok).

      Independent producer Terry Bourke's Sampan was a Hong Kong feature produced in 1968 specifically for worldwide distribution. Filmed in Mandarin with a cast of unknowns, Sampan had its world premiere in Hong Kong and international premiere on the island of Guam, a United States Trust Territory. Gem Productions (Guam) were associate producers of the film.

       Shaw Brothers released the Taiwan-made Dragon Inn, also with a cast of unknowns, and it grossed $2,146,336 (US$357,723), a record high for Hong Kong. The Sound of Music ($2,048,312, US$341,388) had held the record for two years. Dragon Inn was an action-packed Mandarin swordplay film, and headed the box-office triumphs of these films in the wake of the James Bond and super-spy spoofs.

There are 102 cinema houses in the Colony. Hong Kong has 33, Kowloon 48 and the New Territories 21. The total number of seats available in all of them is more than 116,000. Plans have been announced to install Hong Kong's first Cinerama theatre.

       Costs for location shooting in Hong Kong, where some unparal- leled scenery is to be found, are still considerably lower than in other leading international centres such as Spain, Italy and Mexico. Labour costs are extremely economical, yet international standards in services are consistently provided. This year the Argentine pro- duction Coffin From Hong Kong and Japan's Dusk At Dawn, among others, had extensive location work in the Colony.

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More than 30 advertising and independent studios specialize in commercials for cinema and television, and in 1968 they produced nearly 250 commercials for clients in Hong Kong and most Asian centres. Ten commercials were made for Australian clients, and at least three major international airlines shot location commercials in Hong Kong.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

      The task of the Government Information Services is to keep the people of Hong Kong and overseas accurately informed of the Government's aims and achievements. The department is linked by teleprinter to 46 newspapers, news agencies and radio stations.

The department is divided into two main divisions-news and publicity-both staffed by specialist professional officers. The News Division operates in two main sections-press and radio news. The press section channels information to newspapers and deals with press enquiries generally, while the radio news section specializes in the preparation of world and local news bulletins for the Colony's broadcasting and television stations. Fourteen radio news bulletins. in English and Chinese are prepared daily, ranging in length from full 10-minute bulletins to one-minute summaries.

The Publicity Division has local and overseas commitments, and it produces magazine and newspaper feature articles, photographs, newsreels, booklets and posters. Locally, the division is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all government departments. The editorial section provides written material for a worldwide press syndication service and for most booklets and leaflets produced in the department. It also provides scripts and commentaries for documentary films and newsreels made by the film unit.

The production of a monthly newspaper, The World of Hong Kong continued to be the major commitment in the publications field, over 22,000 copies of this tabloid now being distributed all over the world. Other typical publications included a revised edition of Hong Kong-An Introduction, a third edition of The Port of Hong Kong, colour folders on the work of the Resettlement Department and Housing Authority, and a booklet on the Tai Lam drug treat- ment centre. Also well in hand at the year's end was a booklet on the Plover Cove Scheme.

The Film Makers

    Hong Kong is one of the world's leading movie capitals. As a production centre it ranks ahead of Hollywood and among the world's top four in volume of output. Hong Kong's population also ranks among the keenest of cinema audiences. Some estimates put the attendance rate at the highest in the world per head of population. This demand is met by more than 120 film stars, hundreds of supporting players and a technical force estimated at more than 1,200. This pool of acting and technical talent is also drawn upon by the increasing number of overseas companies using Hong Kong's colourful locations.

Below, a dramatic sequence from 'Sampan', one of this year's productions.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

The funeral scene (above) is also from 'Sampan', a contemporary romantic drama. Below, a Show Brothers set becomes an ancient castle as Hong Kong beauty Cheng Pei-pei (in close-up on facing page) slashes her way through another swordfight epic.

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Another major Hong Kong film company, the Cathay Organization, also contributed to the wave of costume dramas, whose martial heroines, richly decorated sets (above) and action-packed stories drew capacity crowds.

The serene, classical beauty of popular star Chen Man-ling provides an in- triguing contrast to her swashbuckling roles. Like many other Hong Kong actors and actresses she studies swordfighting along with the more conven- tional dramatic arts.

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This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Just as vital to Hong Kong's high standing as a production centre are the army of men behind the cameras, seen here (above) zeroing in on a moment of peak action. Below, a last minute focus check before the cameras run on a luminous close-up of actress Ting Pei.

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    Above, this elaborate outdoor set of a great house and garden provided the background for one of a number of contemporary films produced during the year. Below, two of Hong Kong's 102 well-patronized cinemas,

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Another aspect of film-making-the Government Information Services docu- mentary film unit shoots some location footage. Below, the Governor, Sir David Trench, and other visitors tour an ancient Chinese village reconstructed on a Shaw Brothers set.

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       The film unit concentrated its efforts during the year on a monthly newsreel style film, Hong Kong Today. This short feature is screened regularly in up to 87 local cinemas. Other projects during the year included an agricultural instruction film, a documentary on the Yau Ma Tei Clearance, and films on the Year of the Ram, and Industrial Safety. A number of television newsclips were also issued.

Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censorship in accordance with the law and must be viewed by the department's film censorship section, which has two theatres for this purpose.

      The Design and Display section in 1968 more than doubled its production on the previous year, particularly in the field of exhibi- tions and displays. These included a display at the 14th International Conference on Social Work at Helsinki, Finland. The section also maintained a constantly changing series of window displays for the City District Offices, the Government Publications Centre at the Star Ferry Concourse and the GIS window at Beaconsfield House.

The distribution section is responsible for the distribution of all pamphlets, booklets, posters and films produced by the Government Information Services or received from the Central Office of Infor- mation in England. Last year, over one million copies of various publications were distributed both locally and overseas. In addition, 110,000 copies of posters, in connection with campaigns launched by government departments, were issued. This section also operates a film-lending library which has a stock of over 600 titles, mostly English-language 16 mm films, either supplied by the Central Office of Information or produced by the film unit. Some of these films have been dubbed in Cantonese to meet local requests. During last year, films were loaned out 5,000 times to various organizations for showing to an estimated audience of 700,000. Films with tele- vision rights were forwarded to Rediffusion and Hong Kong Tele- vision Broadcasts for screening.

       Open-air film shows were given by the Government Information Services mobile film unit in resettlement estates. Special showings also continue to be held at the request of schools, kaifong associa- tions and other institutions.

An exhibitions section has been set up within the department and is now engaged in designing the Hong Kong Government

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Pavilion at Expo '70, Japan. The contract was placed at the end of October for construction to start at the end of the year. In addition to the building itself and its displays, there will be a considerable programme of events taking place everyday. The detailed planning of these was virtually completed by the end of the year.

       The Government participated for the second time in its official capacity at the Annual CMA Exhibition which opened on December 3, 1968. The pavilion was designed by Mr W. N. Chung and the planning and co-ordination were undertaken in the exhibition section. The government pavilion aimed to show some of the plans and future developments which will be of benefit to those living in Hong Kong.

The Hong Kong Government Office in London is administratively part of the Commerce and Industry Department, but its information section works in close collaboration with the Government Informa- tion Services. Press relations form an important part of the work of the London office, and releases for the British press are prepared from information bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. Major news items, despatched by press cable, are processed immediately and passed on to newspapers and news agencies. The information section also acts as a distributing agency in Britain for photo- features prepared by the Government Information Services and these, together with press releases, play a major role in the continu- ing effort to inform the British public about Hong Kong and its achievements through the medium of newspapers and magazines.

PUBLIC ENQUIRY SERVICE

The object of the Public Enquiry Service is to maintain a close link between the Government and the people. Its primary business is to give the man in the street quick and clear guidance to, and an explanation of, the various services and functions performed by government departments, and to help him understand government rules and procedures, particularly when they affect him personally. It also supplements broadcast information about typhoons. When local storm signal No 1 is hoisted, a 24-hour service goes into operation and any member of the public can telephone an enquiry centre at any hour to confirm the latest weather position and related topics, such as damages and casualties, suspension of public trans- port services and postponement of public functions.

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These centres handled a total of 400,795 enquiries in 1968, includ- ing 27,720 resulting from typhoons. During the year, 2,049 questions were answered by two separate listeners' letter box programmes produced by the Public Enquiry Service in conjunction with the Chinese service of Radio Hong Kong and Commercial Radio. In its work and organization, the service bears some similarity to advice bureaux in other parts of the world. The centres are manned by trained staff, speaking English and Cantonese, as well as other Chinese dialects. Results show that the service is a valuable instru- ment for improving the Government's relations with the public.

15

The Armed Services and Auxiliary Services

THE British Armed Forces, which are stationed in Hong Kong to assist the Hong Kong Government to maintain stability and security in the Colony, are under the operational command of the Com- mander, British Forces, who is responsible to the Commander- in-Chief, Far East. The Commander British Forces is also the Governor's adviser on matters affecting the security of the Colony.

Army units predominate in Hong Kong, and are under the direct command of the Commander British Forces, who has the additional appointment of General Officer Commanding, Land Forces. The land forces are part of the Far East Land Forces Command which has its headquarters in Singapore. Royal Navy ships in Hong Kong are under the direct operational control of the Commodore-in- Charge, Hong Kong. They are all units of the Far East Fleet, which has its headquarters in Singapore. The Commander, RAF, commands the RAF station at Kai Tak, and, in addition, has a squadron of Whirlwind helicopters under his command (No 28 Squadron). This RAF support is a part of the overall backing provided by Far East Air Force, based in Singapore, which includes fighter and ground attack aircraft, operating frequently from Kai Tak.

The Auxiliary Units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Hong Kong Regiment and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, are administered by the Hong Kong Government, but they come under command of Commander British Forces, and his appropriate single-service subordinate commanders, for operations, and training for operations.

HMS Tamar is the Naval Shore Establishment in Hong Kong. It is the headquarters of the Commodore-in-Charge. It provides essential base services to the force of frigates and mine counter- measures vessels assigned for duty in Hong Kong and to other ships of the Far East Fleet and Commonwealth navies visiting

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Hong Kong for maintenance or recreation. Amongst the major warships which have visited Hong Kong during 1968 have been the aircraft carriers HMS Eagle and HMS Hermes, the Com- mando ship HMS Albion, and the assault ship HMS Intrepid, with their supporting frigates and Royal Fleet Auxiliaries. HMS Tamar also recruits and trains Hong Kong Chinese Naval ratings for service in the Naval base and the Fleet, and is the agency for Chinese crews of Royal Fleet Auxiliary ships world-wide.

Under command of Headquarters Land Forces, there are two Army formations, 48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, which has its headquarters at Sek Kong in the New Territories, and 51 Brigade which commands units both in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island, and which has its headquarters in Kowloon. Headquarters Land Forces is at Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island. Units which have been stationed in the Colony during 1968 include B Squadron the Life Guards, C Squadron the Queen's Own Hussars, 18th Light Regiment Royal Artillery, 4th Battalion the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, 1st Battalion the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, 1st Battalion the Welch Regiment; and, from the Brigade of Gurkhas, 1st Battalion 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, 1st and 2nd Battalions 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles, and 1st Battalion 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles, together with squadrons of Engineer, Signals and Transport units of the Brigade. In addition short tours of duty have been served in the Colony by C Squadron 15/19th the King's Royal Hussars, 2nd Battalion the Parachute Regiment, and 2nd Battalion 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles.

The Royal Air Force Station, Kai Tak, is a separate enclave alongside the civil airport, and it makes use of the airport's runway and control services. The RAF has its own radar and signal facilities for long distance control of military aircraft approaching the Colony. These facilities are shared by the Director of Civil Aviation to help ensure the safety of civil aircraft operating within Hong Kong's flight information region. In April 1968, a squadron of RAF Whirlwind helicopters was added to the permanent garrison of the Colony and was given a number familiar to those who remember the Hunters which were stationed in Hong Kong until January 1967, No 28 Squadron. During 1968, the flow of RAF

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Air Support Command and Far East Air Forces transport aircraft in and out of RAF Kai Tak increased considerably compared with previous years.

       With a more tranquil situation in the Colony during 1968, there have been fewer calls on the Services for direct support of the Police in active operations. The Armed Forces have, however, remained in a high state of readiness, and have had many commit- ments in ensuring stable conditions on the border, and in patrolling the more remote areas of the Colony.

In these ways, and in joint exercises, the close co-operation between the Government, the Police and the Armed Forces, which was so effective in the 1967 operations, has been maintained.

The more peaceful situation which existed in 1968 also enabled all three Services to make a much larger contribution to providing assistance of all types to the local community, varying from numerous recreational activities to providing isolated villages with their first electric light.

LOCAL AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

       The local auxiliary defence services, the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police (dealt with in Chapter 10) have a total strength of about 3,600 volunteers. These Services are administered by the Government, and are financed by funds allocated by the Legislative Council. The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force consists of the Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force.

The Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) has a strength of about 600. It is a light reconnaissance regiment and comprises a headquarters squadron, four reconnaissance squadrons (three equipped with landrovers, and one with scout cars) and a Home Guard company. The regiment is fully mobile, and its role is to operate in support of regular Army units, making use wherever possible of its members' detailed knowledge of terrain and people.

The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force has a strength of 85 volunteer members and operates two Alouette helicopters and four Auster aircraft. The Force maintains flying operations on a six-day basis. The main functions are internal security, search and

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rescue, casualty evacuation flights from remote areas and aeromed- ical services. A 24-hour emergency call service is also provided.

       Some thirty casualty evacuations were carried out this year. Sorties have been flown to assist the Marine Police in the location of refugee junks, and the Criminal Investigation Department with drug trafficking. The aircraft have also been used to deliver weekly newspapers and medical pamphlets to remote villages in the New Territories and the outlying islands. One of the Austers has been fitted with a vertical survey camera and carries out weekly photo- graphic sorties for government departments. Many visiting VIP's and local civil dignitaries were flown by the aircraft.

ESSENTIAL SERVICES CORPS

The Essential Services Corps consists of some 60 units which can be mobilized during severe emergencies to maintain public utilities and other essential services. Approximately half of the 11,000 strong corps is formed from government departments and the other half from commercial organizations. Each unit is prin- cipally staffed by volunteers employed by the departments or organization concerned. Comprehensive plans for the operation of each unit have been prepared and co-ordinated with the police and military. Since in an emergency most members perform their normal duties, the need for training does not on the whole arise. However, co-ordination exercises are held from time to time. The corps is primarily designed for operations in serious emergencies when there is a risk of essential services breaking down unless staff are specially organized to meet such circumstances. It was not necessary to mobilize the corps during the disturbances in 1967.

       The Auxiliary Fire Services, with a strength of some 700, provide a first line reserve for the regular Fire Service. Members carry out weekly training and stand by at various stations each week-end for operational experience. They frequently reinforce the regular Fire Service during major fires and natural disasters such as typhoons and landslides. The Auxiliary Fire Services Band gave a number of concerts in parks and playgrounds and provided military music for Fire Services ceremonies on many occasions. Sixty Auxiliary Fire Services officers were awarded the Civil Defence Long Service Medal during the year. In May, an initial unit of the

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new Emergency Rescue Service, with a strength of some 100, was established in Tsuen Wan to provide a reserve force of men and women to reinforce the regular fire-fighting rescue and medical services of the New Territories when required. This is a combined auxiliary service composed of elements of Auxiliary Fire Service, Auxiliary Medical Service and Civil Aid Services, and is under the control of the Director of Fire Services.

The Auxiliary Medical Service, with a strength of approximately 5,200 serves as an emergency reinforcement unit for the Medical and Health Department and the Fire Services. The officers and members are divided into two groups, one trained and allocated to work in Hospitals, Convalescent Units or Dressing Stations, and the other trained to work as First Aid Parties and Ambulance Teams to assist the regular Ambulance Service and Rescue Services at the scene of any major disaster. In the event of a large number of casualties the AMS is trained and equipped to set up convalescent units. All members allocated to hospital duties carry out training in hospitals annually. During the year members of the Service assisted at large fires, traffic accidents and during typhoons.

The Civil Aid Services, is a general, multi-purpose auxiliary force designed to serve the community in peace time emergencies. It developed out of the wartime Air Raid Warden Service and has, since its inception in 1951, maintained an active strength of over 40,000 volunteers. It helps local kaifong and welfare associations in their various activities, such as crowd control on occasions involving large attendances. It is available at all times to support and supplement government services and public utility companies, by providing manpower, both skilled and unskilled, to deal with natural disasters and any other emergencies. During this year, some 500 members were given specialist training in tram and bus driving, ferry handling and wharf and godown machine handling. Two officers of the training staff completed a three month bomb disposal training course at the Army School of Ammunition, Central Ammunition Depot, Bramley, England.

       The CAS consists of a large Warden Service for general duty tasks, a Command Unit and Rescue Service on both sides of the harbour and several Administrative Units. All CAS sub-units have headquarters located at convenient points throughout the

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Colony, from which operational control during emergencies is exercised, and where a certain amount of part-time training of unit members is carried out. These sub-unit headquarters are linked together by efficient radio and telephone communication networks, and supported by a despatch rider service equipped with motor cycles and scooters.

In an effort to serve the community better, the CAS has also ventured into the field of mountain rescue, a task formerly under- taken by a Royal Air Force team. There are now 30 members proficient in this useful life saving technique. A CAS Cadet Corps has been established, on a trial basis, to offer recreation and training in civic duties for boys between 14 and 17 years old. Two hundred of these Cadets made an impressive debut at the Annual Field Day parade in the Hong Kong Government Stadium in October.

16

Religion and Custom

A BRIEF account of religious practices in Hong Kong must embrace such diverse subjects as traditional Chinese beliefs, Taoism, the religious aspects of Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and a kaleidoscope of Christian sects. In seeking one idiom to express all this it is easy to be misled by the entirely different appearances of religious observance, particularly between the traditional Chinese practices and those of the Christian churches, and even to assume a relative lack of religion in Chinese life. It is true that Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are Wren churches in the City of London, but there are likely to be at least as many signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, as in its Western counterpart. Almost every Chinese shop has its 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines. Whether the devotion before such symbols is intense or perfunctory there is an unmistakably religious element in Chinese culture. It may find expression in traditional ancestral ceremonies encouraged by Confucius or through a wide variety of Taoist rituals.

        There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people. The Hong Kong Buddhist Association is their main organization in the Colony, although a Taoist Association has now also been formed.

Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries and nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Because of their accessibility, hermitages at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and scenically pleasing parts of the New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong

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Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is much visited at week-ends and holidays.

Sightseers as well as devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories such as Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor, Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen and Sai Lam. At To Fung Shan, a hill in Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture which engages in study and discussions of issues and problems in the Chinese religious world. The work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on there for many years. There is also a unique organization, the Hong Kong Red Swastika Society, which seeks to cultivate together under one roof Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. To meet the demand of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban

areas.

As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may sometimes be found in the same temple. The subsidiary deities of one temple may, however, be the major ones of another. Almost all of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port. It is difficult to classify these deities according to religions or ways of life. Except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been traditionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of righteous- ness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau), and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building con- tractors).

       Perhaps the oldest, and certainly one of the most popular, of Hong Kong's temples is the one dedicated to Tin Hau at Causeway

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      Bay. Other Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to most fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Many of these Tin Hau temples are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations made since they were originally established close to the shore.

       Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, which is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. In recent years by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin, in New Kowloon, and the Che Kung temple in Sha Tin. In the New Territories, where traditional clan organization has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular life there. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also to be found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

       The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. This is also a time for refurbishing family graves.

       The fact that Chinese may follow one or other of these ways, or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, has often made Christianity, with its exclusive claims, seem uncongenial to the Chinese spirit. Nevertheless Christianity is rooted deeply and growing rapidly in Hong Kong.

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       Its roots go back indeed to the earliest days of the Colony. St John's Cathedral was founded in 1842, and established as a Cathe- dral by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. A representative of the London Missionary Society arrived at about the same time. St Andrew's Church was consecrated in October 1906. There is an annual increase of four per cent in communicant church membership. New churches and chapels in housing estates and satellite towns are constantly being built. It is estimated that there are now 261 churches and chapels in the Colony.

       The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity was again the occasion for fellowship between the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches. In addition to a joint meeting for prayer and exposition of a passage from the Bible held at the City Hall, combined services were held in churches in both Hong Kong and Kowloon.

       While about 12 churches in the Colony hold services in English, the great majority of the congregations are Chinese speaking, mostly Cantonese. There are some churches using Kuo-yu (Man- darin). Christians in Hong Kong are notable church-goers. The major world denominations are represented in the Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists and Pentecostals, while churches of a Presbyterian type are joined in the Church of Christ in China. There are, in addition, a number of undenominational churches.

       In a community like that of Hong Kong, where problems of live- lihood and development are acute, it is natural that the churches should wish to make their contribution to social service. This takes the form of educational and welfare services. The churches are responsible for approximately 164 primary schools and 101 middle schools and colleges in the Colony, a number which may be expected to increase with the growing population. They also sponsor hospi- tals, clinics, orphanages, and social service centres. While some funds for social service are locally raised, generous contributions are received from outside the Colony, many of them channelled through the Hong Kong Christian Service.

      Churches which are in relationship with the World Council of Churches come together with missionary societies, YMCA, YWCA, and other groups in the Hong Kong Christian Council. The council's new headquarters, the Christian Centre, houses the offices of the

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Hong Kong Christian Service, the Audio Visual Evangelism Com- mittee and the Chinese Christian Literature Council and there is an Ecumenical Library and conference room. A near neighbour in the same building is the old-established Chinese Churches Union, in which churches are linked on a congregational basis.

       The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong dates back to the beginning of the Colony. The first priests to arrive were chaplains serving the spiritual needs of British soldiers. On April 23, 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first prefect. He built a permanent church, established a seminary to train Chinese priests, and brought in religious sisters to start schools and welfare institu- tions. The Colony's first trade school, the West Point Reformatory for Homeless Boys, was also established by the Catholic Church.

       In 1867, the Prefecture of Hong Kong was entrusted by the Holy See to the Pontifical Institute of Foreign Missions (PIME), whose fathers have worked in the Colony ever since. The first bishop, Msgr Timoleon Raimondi, was consecrated in 1874 when the pre- fecture was raised to an Apostolic Vicariate.

       The cultural life of the Church took a big step forward in 1928 when Kung Kao Po, the Chinese Catholic weekly, was started. Ricci Hall, the Catholic hostel of the University of Hong Kong, was opened in 1929 and the Catholic Truth Society was founded in 1933 to publish Chinese literature.

       After the second World War much rebuilding of church premises was needed. The Catholic Centre was started, initially to provide a reception and information centre for the Liberation forces and old residents returning to the Colony. It now houses the Catholic Press Bureau with its three weeklies (Kung Kao Po, Sunday Examiner and Adveniat), the Catholic Truth Society, office of the Lay Aposto- late, the Chinese Catholic Club, a lending library, a book centre and a chapel.

       In 1946, the Vicariate of Hong Kong was raised by Pope Pius XII, to the status of a diocese with Msgr Henry Valtorta, PIME as the first diocesan Bishop. He was succeeded in 1951 by Msgr Lawrence Bianchi, PIME. Under his administration, the Catholic community in Hong Kong has risen from some 43,000 to 235,937 today. Over

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90 per cent of them are Chinese, spread out in 26 parishes on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon and in 14 rural districts of the New Territories.

In 1958, the Catholic Church set up a Social Welfare Bureau (Caritas - Hong Kong) to meet the need for a central directing and planning body of Catholic charities. Thanks to contributions from international charity agencies, many welfare and training schemes have been launched.

The rebuilding of parishes entered a further phase with the com- pletion of St Joseph's Church on Garden Road, which was blessed and inaugurated on June 1. Construction of a new parish church started in Tsuen Wan in the spring of 1968 to meet the needs of that fast-growing industrial town.

In the field of education, expansion has been energetically con- tinued. The Chinese Precious Blood Sisters inaugurated on January 26 the new, impressive building of Tack Ching Middle School in Sham Shui Po and officially opened the Anglo-Chinese Trinity College in the same area on May 17. The St Joseph Anglo-Chinese School in Kwun Tong inaugurated its new building on February 2. Other new schools opened during 1968 include St Antonius School (primary) in Yau Tong Bay, Kowloon; the Catholic Primary School in Yau Ma Tei, Kowloon; and St Joseph's Primary School on Queen's Road East. Extensions of school buildings were made by Raimondi College and Wah Yan College, Kowloon.

Catholic social services were further expanded during the year. The Social Centre on Caine Road, its three-block completed in the summer, was opened by Mr Irving Gass, the Acting Governor, on November 4. The Social Centre neighbouring St Teresa Church on Prince Edward Road was opened in November 8. Both offer vocational training, language classes, youth amenities, hostels and canteens.

Along with Caritas - Hong Kong, the diocesan Lay Apostolate and the parishes have taken increasing interest in youth activity. The Diocesan Youth Centre on Pok Fu Lam Road, with its spacious grounds and conference rooms and dormitory facilities, has been much in demand by youth groups of all creeds. The idea of "Tea House', a sort of youth club, has been successfully exploited in

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several areas, among them the San Po Kong parish, showing how parish facilities can be put to the service of the youth in the evening.

Among Catholic hospitals, the biggest, Caritas Medical Centre in So Uk Tsuen, completed its plan of providing 850 beds last year. St Teresa Hospital on Prince Edward Road has started construction of a new wing.

       Church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 342 priests, 110 religious brothers and 756 religious sisters, 33 religious Orders and congregations representing 30 nationalities.

      There are at present 225 Catholic primary and secondary schools with an aggregate enrolment of 191,477 pupils.

       Today the Catholic Church operates six hospitals with a total of 1,962 beds and 30 clinics, spread out in various parts of the Colony, including one boat clinic that serves the fishermen of Aberdeen. It runs five multi-purpose social centres, seven vocational training centres, three youth holiday centres, five children's play centres, 18 day nurseries, four orphanages and 15 hostels and homes. Construction costs of most of these projects have been met by grants from overseas bodies both Catholic and non-Catholic, while day-to-day running expenses are raised locally.

       Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at a synagogue in Robinson Road constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory of his mother Leah and it is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 200 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, and the United States.

       There are more than 8,000 followers of Islam in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese who have come to the Colony during the past two decades. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Persia and from neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street Mosque, on Hong Kong Island, and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

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The Shelley Street Mosque dates back to the early days of the Islamic faith in Hong Kong in the 1880's. The mosque in Kowloon was originally built for the use of Muslim troops in the former Indian Army and stands at present within the boundaries of Whitfield Barracks. Two places have been set aside by the Government as burial grounds for the Muslim community. One is at Happy Valley and the other at the new Cape Collinson Cemetery, Chai Wan, contains a beautifully designed mosque built by the Government.

A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is the co-ordinating body for all religious affairs and is also responsible for the mosques and cemeteries. This board has recently been incorporated and is now known as the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community of Hong Kong. Much charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial help to the needy, hospitalization and assisted education, is being done by welfare committee set up in recent years by a group of public-spirited women.

       The Hindu community numbers more than 5,000 and their religious and social activities centre round a temple in Happy Valley. The community has been associated with Hong Kong since earliest times and the temple itself is considered to be one of the finest in the Far East. In addition to visits by saints, swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holy Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Deewali. The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes open to all communities, and for the teaching of Hindi to the Indian community.

17

Recreation

IN the early post-war years claims on public funds to establish essential social services left little for the lighter side of living, and it has been only in the last 10 years or so that serious attempts have been made to provide the public of Hong Kong with adequate facilities for recreation. As a result of a series of ambitious pro- grammes, the community is being provided at an ever increasing pace with an attractive range of parks and playgrounds, swimming pools and bathing beaches.

      Swimming in fact provided one of the biggest sporting events of the year, the 56th annual cross-harbour swim. Six hundred and twenty-eight swimmers-97 more than last year-cascaded into the harbour at Kowloon Public Pier for the 1,550 yard pull through choppy water to Queen's Pier on Hong Kong Island. The race was won for the second year in succession by 16-year-old Ronnie Wong Man-chui, with a time of 21 minutes 31.6 seconds. The women's section was won by Helena Tso Wong-hing (who was placed third in the previous year). Her time was 28 minutes 31.2 seconds. Despite rough conditions and a strong current, only 25 swimmers failed to complete the course and were picked up by escorting craft.

      Hong Kong sent a small contingent of six yachtsmen, three swimmers and three marksmen to the Mexico Olympic Games. There were no medals but the team performed creditably, several recording their best-ever individual performances.

      In recent years traditional favourites such as mahjong have been joined by an ever-widening variety of diversions in Hong Kong. Indoor bowling of the ten-pin variety, for instance, has proved very popular in the few years since it was introduced.

      Horse racing at Happy Valley attracts many thousands during the racing season which runs from October to May. The growing popularity of golf in the Colony was reflected in this year's Hong Kong Open Championship which, with prizemoney totalling

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$90,000, topped the 1968 Far East circuit and drew a world class field of 84. It was won by a 22-year-old Australian professional, Randall Vines.

       Almost every sport and team game is played in Hong Kong but the one which enjoys by far the greatest popularity is association football. Fans turn up 20,000 strong at the Government Stadium, and football in Hong Kong has all the partisan fervour traditionally associated with the game.

       The 11th annual Festival of Sport was held from February 25 to March 2 and the extensive programme drew between 60,000 and 70,000 spectators. An estimated 5,000 young people took part in events ranging from athletics to folk dancing.

The Inter-Varsity Games between the three universities of Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore, which take place every two years, were held in the Colony in August. Being the host, the Students' Union of the local university had to meet most of the costs, but the Government donated a sum of $10,000 to assist with the expenses. Although the major honours eluded the local undergraduates, several notable performances were put up and the games provided a welcome opportunity for some Commonwealth undergraduates to meet in friendly rivalry on the field of sports.

The Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Depart- ment, is responsible for providing recreation facilities in the urban areas. In the New Territories, the responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services, working closely with the District Commissioner. The Recreation and Amenities Division of the Urban Services Department now manages a total of 1,274.7 acres of public open space. Facilities, many of them flood-lit to ensure maximum usage, include 309 parks and gardens; 186 children's playgrounds and nine children's libraries; 39 grass games-pitches for soccer, hockey and rugby; 59 hard-surface mini-soccer pitches; 232 courts for basketball, volleyball, and badminton; 30 tennis courts; seven running tracks; two Olympic-standard swimming pools; 36 bathing beaches with a total length of 8.4 miles; one bowling green; two squash courts; seven model boat pools; three bandstands; five roller-skating rinks; a putting green, and a fine aviary. There are 335 changing and lavatory facilities, cafés, refresh- ment kiosks, pavilions, shelters, car parks, and barbecue pits.

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Sixty-nine television receivers, installed in parks and playgrounds, proved popular with the public. Funds for 50 of these sets were generously given by a local resident who wished to remain anony- mous, and 11 sets were donated by two commercial concerns.

       The most imaginative advance of the year was the planning and initial construction of a number of district swimming pool complexes. The foundations of three such schemes were laid in Lei Cheng Uk, Morse Park, and Kwun Tong, all in New Kowloon. Each complex comprises eight separate pools, will accommodate 5,000 persons at one time, and will provide separate areas for competitive swim- ming, teaching, diving, and children's paddling pools. Two of these projects, financed by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, will form part of spacious parks to provide those living in these densely populated districts with attractive green areas in which to relax. The object is to provide one of these swimming complexes for every quarter million of the Colony's populace, and further plans were laid for two more similar complexes to be built, one in Tsuen Wan and one in the Western District of Hong Kong Island.

But each of these schemes occupies four acres of land, and some of the most densely built-up urban areas which lack the full space needed would be deprived of these excellent facilities if no modifica- tions were made in design. It has therefore been decided to experi- ment with less ambitious facilities for swimming, to meet the needs of districts such as Wan Chai on the Island. The first of these is to be built at Morrison Hill, again with funds donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. At Yuen Long, a children's playground was opened and an attractive sports ground there is almost ready for use.

       The Urban Council and the Urban Services Department, con- tinuing their amenity planting programme, planted tens of thousands of trees, shrubs, and seasonal flowers during the year. At the end of February, the council organized its first Flower Show in the Memorial Garden of the City Hall and demonstrated the widespread local interest in horticulture and flower arrangement by attracting 200,000 people.

       Swimming has emerged as the most popular of pastimes through- out the long, hot summer months and these facilities are therefore assured of the fullest possible use. More than a million people

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used the public swimming pools at Kowloon Tsai and Victoria Park, and the public bathing beaches are becoming increasingly crowded. Regular life saving services are provided by the Urban Services Department and, at the height of the season, teams from the St John Ambulance Brigade and the Hong Kong Life Guard Club also attend the swimming pools and the more popular beaches.

Initial planning was also begun this year on the first indoor stadium which is expected to be built in Hung Hom (Kowloon), with facilities for a wide range of indoor sports and entertainment and with accommodation for thousands of spectators.

Towards the end of the year, buildings were demolished and turf was laid on 18 acres of land in the heart of Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, which had hitherto been occupied by the Military as part of Whitfield Barracks. A further eight acres will later be added to this site, where great care is being taken to preserve the trees and to develop it as one of the most attractive parks in the Colony.

There was an equally impressive expansion in the provision of playgrounds and sports fields for the people of the New Territories. Completion of the Tsuen Wan Sports Ground provided the New Territories with its first full-sized competition football pitch and, in addition, a 400-metre running track, two basketball courts, and two volleyball courts.

SUMMER RECREATION PROGRAMME

As part of the continuing campaign for closer contact between Government and people, Hong Kong this year mounted its biggest and most successful programme of summer recreational activities for young people.

Government officers and authorities, including the Education and Social Welfare Departments, the Urban Council, the Armed Services and the Police Force, co-operated with a large number of voluntary bodies and individuals in the programme.

       An estimated 341,000 young people throughout the Colony took part in holiday camps, excursions, beach parties, dances, variety shows and competitions of all kinds. Many also participated in community service and vocational activities.

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      The programme laid special emphasis on giving city children a chance to get out into the countryside and on developing hobbies and interests they could carry on into later life.

       The Urban Council this summer took special note of young people in its expanding programme of meeting the public's rec- reational needs. A series of outdoor 'pop' dances at the New Blake Pier Roof Garden provoked unusual public interest and great enthusiasm among the young. A series of variety shows organized in conjunction with the Scout Association stimulated almost as much interest and acclaim, and a number of Cantonese operas each attracted audiences in excess of 3,000. Ten summer camps which again were organized with the Scout Association offered brief holidays in the country for 2,000 youngsters from Resettlement Estates. Children from crowded urban areas were also the guests of the Urban Council and the Hong Kong branch of the Royal Life Saving Society at a series of 20 beach parties throughout the summer. A number of private recreation clubs responded to an appeal for help in this programme and provided launch or beach picnics to the many hundreds of children who would otherwise have had no opportunity to escape their crowded living conditions. More than 100,000 young people were enter- tained in this way.

      An appeal by the Social Welfare Department for voluntary workers brought forth 280 staff members of 27 government depart- ments and offices to help out as youth leaders and organizers. In addition, more than 15,000 teachers were involved in voluntary organizing and supervision.

      In other aspects of the programme, play centres catered for 100,000 children, day camps and clubs for 14,000, training camps and courses for 2,000, work camps and service projects for 1,000, holiday camps for 6,300, visits and excursions for 7,800, physical activities for 11,000, interest groups for 6,100, study groups for 2,800 and dances and balls for 7,450.

       The normal activities of youth organizations catered for a further. 75,000 young people. Many also took part in games and competi- tions specially organized by the Education Department during the holidays.

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       An innovation this year was the introduction of rural observation and service teams. Three groups of young people, under the guidance of the Social Welfare Department, 'adopted' three rural villages. The young visitors lodged with individual families. In the mornings they helped out with farm work, while afternoons were spent in a study of the way of life of the village, its history, economic and social conditions and the needs of the residents.

       As a result of these and similar activities, many of the young people expressed interest in further active community service. At least 10 groups sought the advice of departmental staff in setting up permanent community service clubs.

The need to sustain an imaginative programme of recreation is well appreciated and the necessity for providing increased oppor- tunities for outdoor leisure was reflected in the recommendations of the Provisional Council for the Use and Conservation of the Countryside which reported in July. This report is still under official examination.

ENTERTAINMENT AND THE ARTS

       While the cinema remains the most popular diversion, the per- forming arts now play an important part in the cultural life of Hong Kong. The centre of these activities which include concerts, plays and operas both Western and Chinese, is the City Hall, which had another year of intensive and varied usage in 1968.

The facilities at the City Hall, which was opened in 1962, include a 1,500-seat concert hall convertible for use for theatrical per- formances, an intimate 470-seat theatre, a museum, an art gallery and several halls and rooms for exhibitions, lectures and conferences. Most of the facilities are available for hire throughout the year and both local performers and overseas artists are presented regularly in the two major auditoria. As a result, nearly every branch of music, drama and Chinese opera has flourished.

       The City Hall is administered under policy decisions of the Urban Council and engages artists regularly to give performances of serious music. In 1968, these included the Hong Kong Philhar- monic Orchestra which gave six public performances in the Concert Hall, several other local groups and artists including the Hong

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Kong Youth Orchestra and the Victoria Chamber Symphony, and a number of overseas artists such as pianists Alain Motard and Joachim Ludwig, cellist Edmund Kertz, baritone Claus Ocker, the duo Denes Zsigmondy and Anneliese Nissen, and the Berlin Duo. In drama, the City Hall presented the One Man Theatre of Brian D. Barnes and the German mime performer Rolf Scharre. The admis- sion price for all Urban Council City Hall Concerts was $1, and the great majority of the 40 performances presented had full houses.

      Apart from the City Hall's own presentations, local musical groups and soloists gave a total of 141 concerts in the City Hall during the year. In drama, three active English amateur groups and many Chinese dramatic groups, amateur and professional, presented 38 productions with 94 performances in the City Hall.

       Local impresarios provided entertainment highlights by arranging visits of internationally renowned artists. In the City Hall alone, they presented 20 overseas artists and groups with a total of 25 performances. These included Fou Ts'ong, Vitalia Bousourk, Malcolm Frager, Tamas Vasary and Ida Krehm (pianists), Ruggiero Ricci (violinist), Jean Pierre Rampal and Michel Debost (flautists), Ravi Shankar (sitarist), the Vienna Philharmonic Quartet, the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, the Australian Ballet, Elizabeth Fuller, the Madrigalchor Munster, The Ventures and the Platters.

EXHIBITIONS

       The Museum and Art Gallery in the City Hall organize regular temporary exhibitions from their own collections and loan material. These are designed to cover as far as possible a wide field of interests. Among the more important exhibitions this year were those of paintings by the 20th century Chinese artist Fu Pao-shih (1904-1965), drawn from private collections in Hong Kong, and "The Art of Angkor', an exhibition consisting of rubbings, photo- graphs and actual examples of stone sculptures. An exhibition of considerable local interest was that of paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures by the Circle Art Group. The group, consisting of eight active young artists of Hong Kong, was invited to give this collective exhibition at the City Hall Art Gallery as a result of their outstanding contribution to the festival of 'Music and Fine

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Arts in Hong Kong, 1967'. Several other exhibitions were drawn entirely from the Art Gallery's own collections. 'The Artist's Eye of Hong Kong', 'The Artist's Eye of Macau', 'Decorative Posters of Today' and 'Travel Posters of the World'.

Two exhibitions were received from abroad: an exhibition of "Traditional and Modern Maori Art', sponsored by the New Zealand Government, and an 'Exhibition of World Photography' which was received through the Goethe-Institut.

The permanent display of Chinese antiquities in the City Hall Museum was further enlarged during the year by the addition of several important pieces and the display was completely re-organized in February.

In addition to the displays in the Museum and Art Gallery, a total of 40 local artists and groups presented private showings of both Western and Chinese art in the other Exhibition Halls in the City Hall.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

The government collections of historical pictures consist of the Ho Tung, Chater, and Law and Sayer collections. There are more than 700 items including paintings, prints, engravings and photo- graphs. They form a unique pictorial record of Sino-British contacts in the 18th and early 19th centuries and provide interesting illustra- tions of life in Hong Kong, Macau and other ports on the China coast in those days. The limited space in the Art Gallery does not allow a permanent display of these collections, but exhibitions of material from them have been arranged from time to time.

Since its opening in 1962, the City Hall Art Gallery has been making a collection of paintings, prints and sculptures by Hong Kong artists. This collection is continually growing.

The Museum's collection of Chinese antiquities is based on the Henry Yeung collection, acquired by Government in 1949. One of its chief characteristics is the large number of early pottery pieces of South China origin. This collection is on permanent display.

The archaeological collection was greatly enriched by the transfer from the Hong Kong University to the City Hall of the Maglioni collection of archaeological finds in South China. Some additions

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were also made as a result of field work by members of the museum staff and the Hong Kong Archaeological Society.

The Museum's collection of ethnographical material relating to the local farming and fishing communities was increased during the year while other collections concerning local history were also made more representative.

LIBRARIES

The two public libraries of the Urban Council, one at the City Hall, Hong Kong, and the other at Cambridge Court, Kowloon, were established with the aim of providing without bias, and free of direct charge, for all residents of Hong Kong a balanced and logical representation of books and printed materials of all subjects of a cultural, informational and recreational nature. The two libraries are each sub-divided into an adult lending library, junior library, reference library, newspaper and periodicals room and students' reading section.

The City Hall Library has a total stock of 174,800 volumes. This includes the Kotewall collection of 15,223 volumes in both English and Chinese and the Hok Hoi collection of 34,571 volumes of Chinese classics. The Kowloon Public Library has a total stock of 69,400 volumes. Almost two-thirds of the books of the two libraries are in Chinese.

The libraries regularly receive and provide for readers 373 titles of periodicals and 51 titles of newspapers, both in English and Chinese. The City Hall Lending Library possesses 1,852 music scores and is building up a collection of gramophone records in preparation for wide usage. The microfilm collection of about 2,378 reels includes rare books of the National Library, Peking, and selected early newspapers of Hong Kong and South China which are of great historical value for research on Hong Kong and its surroundings.

On average, the City Hall Library and the Kowloon Public Library issue 45,480 and 34,519 books per month respectively. During the year under review, 959,998 books were issued, 31,513 persons registered as new members, 217,122 reference books issued and 22,788 reference enquiries served. With wider publicity and

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the introduction of more frequent and new extension activities such as book exhibitions, organized school visits and children's story- hours, etc, the libraries are fast expanding in use, issue, attendance and membership.

       Expansion in service, bookstock and staff has been seriously considered. It is hoped that, with the additional branch libraries it is proposed to establish, some of the growing demand can be met of a population whose literacy and need for public library facilities are increasing year by year.

The Colonial Secretariat Library houses 11,155 volumes. These include many government publications, books written specially about Hong Kong (including publications by local authors), ref- erence books on such subjects as public administration, sociology, economics and political science and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and of the countries of South-East Asia. Apart from being a departmental reference library, it is a useful source for research workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available to members of the public by arrangement.

The Hindu Association has set up 'Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Library and Reading Room' in the Hindu Temple, Happy Valley. The books and journals which are being kept in the library relate to religion and cultural heritage of India. The library is open to all citizens of Hong Kong of every nationality and religion, and books are issued to interested persons without charge. The library was opened by Mr V. Siddharthacharry, Commissioner of India in Hong Kong, on October 2, 1968.

THE BRITISH COUNCIL

The British Council continued to make a valuable contribution to the educational and cultural activities of the Colony during 1968. In association with the Urban Council it presented two 'one-man theatres': Rosalinde Fuller appeared in dramatized short stories and Brian D. Barnes in 'Under Milk Wood' and 'Chestnuts' from English humorous literature. Both made radio and television appearances during their visits. Assistance was given to government departments and The Chinese University to enable staff members to visit British universities and other institutions and to attend specialist courses. Eight British Council

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scholarships (six for training in the Teaching of English as a second language) and five Sino-British Fellowship Trust scholar- ships, including two for Chinese University staff members, were awarded for post-graduate studies in the United Kingdom. In addition, the council arranged three visits to the UK under the Commonwealth University Interchange Scheme. In the reverse direction some 12 specialists from Britain visited the Colony under council auspices for lecture engagements and consultations with government departments and local experts in their fields. Subjects covered included medicine, medical rehabilitation, parliamentary procedure, town planning, engineering, community service, law and sport.

        The combined book stocks in Victoria and Kowloon Libraries reached 30,000 and membership included well over 5,000 full-time secondary and post-secondary students for whom the libraries especially cater. The reading rooms, which contain some 240 British periodicals, were widely used by both students and the general public. Film, speech record and tape libraries offered a valuable service to educational institutions and local societies, and feature films, including three of Shakespearean plays, were shown to several thousand students. The recorded music collection was brought up-to-date with a considerable number of stereo recordings.

        Presentations to a total value of HK$45,000 were made to The Chinese University of Hong Kong, to the Prisons Department and to the Educational Television Section of the Education Department. Exhibitions of the English Language Book Society's low-priced textbooks, arranged at the three Colleges of The Chinese University, Hong Kong University and Hong Kong Technical College, aroused wide interest among students. A complete set of these textbooks was subsequently presented to the Central Library of The Chinese University.

       An important part of the council's work is to give advice and information to students who leave for higher studies in the UK. In addition to the many students assisted during the course of the year the council offered an 'Introduction to Britain' course in the summer which was attended by more than 100 students. Close co-operation was maintained with Education Department and

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      some 1,400 students were assisted and met by the British Council in London.

A British Council officer has continued to serve on a full-time secondment to the Education Department as adviser on the teaching of English in primary and secondary schools. He administers the English Language Teaching Centre which is concerned mainly with the provision of refresher courses for teachers and the production of teaching materials.

        Local bodies received assistance of various kinds from the council, notably the Royal Asiatic Society and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra.

18

Geography and Climate

THIS chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present a background against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report may be viewed.

       The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon, on the mainland, stand on either side of the harbour, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony to within less than 24 hours of Britain, while the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

       The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles of which Hong Kong Island itself, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprise 29 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another three-and-three-quarter square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

Hong Kong is part of a series of intruded dromes of granitic rocks which cover south-east China. There are only small areas of sedimentary rocks in the Colony. The age relationships of the major groups of rocks are associated with the intrusions and moun- tain building of the Jurassic, Laramide and Alpine revolutions. These intrusions made the conditions favourable for the formation of minerals of some importance. Galena, silver, wolframite, molyb- denite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, gold, sphalerite, graphite, fluorspar, quartz, beryl, felspar and kaolinite have all

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been found. The general structure of the region is that of a plunging monocline which strikes north-east to south-west and is parallel in trend with the China coast. Its axis passes almost exactly through the centre of Hong Kong and is marked by a depression which is the Tolo Channel. The area consists of many rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. The general appearance is that of an upland terrain which the sea has invaded. The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations. Weathering is almost entirely caused by chemical action, helped by the alterna- tion of wet and dry seasons. As a result, decay to a laterized rock mantle is common, often to depths of more than 100 feet.

       The highest peaks and the most prominent ranges of hills are composed of either porphyries or volcanics. These are in contrast to the granite hills which generally occur at lower elevations but have well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The plains are all recent alluvial deposits. Erosion benches can be found marking former sea levels up to 400 feet or more, which demonstrate the rise and fall of the whole region within recent geological times. Borings in the harbour have revealed submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat deposits. The highest peaks, such as Lantau, Sunset and Tai Mo Shan, are all about 3,000 feet high and are composed of resistant, fine-grained crystalline rocks. By contrast the Kowloon Hills are composed of coarse-grained granite and have lower elevations, varying from 800 to 1,200 feet. The age of this granite has recently been determined by the Rubidium-Stron- tium method as approximately 134 million years. Thus it belongs to the Upper Jurassic (Portlandian) period. The age of the 20-mile ring dyke of Maryknoll dolerite has been determined as from 57 to 69 million years (Kulp geological scale) and is Lower Cenozoic (Eocene). Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area has any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall regime of the area alone accounts for many of the water

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shortages. In 1963, for instance, the total rainfall was only 35.48 inches, compared with the yearly average of 85 inches.

       Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia. Market garden cropping, including the cultivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is becoming increasingly important. Vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. During the last 14 years there has been a significant change in farming. The area of land under two-crop rice has decreased by about 60 per cent while intensive market gardening has increased approximately four times. The upland areas, which are predominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilization of these areas is principally through afforestation, vigorously pursued since 1945.

CLIMATE

Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight it is often fairly persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon---when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and although it can occur from mid-April until September it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm (35.48 inches) in 1963 and 3040.7 mm (119.71 inches) in 1889 but the mean value is 2168.8 mm (85.39 inches). On average the six dry months from October to March yield only about one seventh of the year's total rainfall. There is a marked diurnal variation of rainfall in summer with a maximum in the morning

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and there are appreciable differences in the rainfall in different parts of the Colony. The wettest areas are the mountainous regions around Tai Mo Shan and on Lantau Island.

The mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever recorded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69%, but the lowest reading of 10% was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to over seven hours in mid-July and late October.

       Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force, when damage and loss of life may occur.

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY

       The main function of the Royal Observatory today is the provision of meteorological services. Weather forecasts and tropical cyclone warnings are prepared in the Central Forecasting Office at the Royal Observatory in Kowloon while services for aviation are provided at the Airport Meteorological Office. Regular meteorological observations are made at the Royal Observatory, at the Airport and at six other points in the Colony. Upper-air soundings of the atmosphere are made at King's Park Meteorological Station where balloons carrying special reflectors are released every six hours and tracked by wind-finding radar. Two balloons each day carry a radiosonde transmitter to measure the pressure, temperature and

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humidity at all levels through which the balloons ascend. The Obser- vatory also maintains a network of about 150 rain gauges through- out the Colony.

At the Airport Meteorological Office, pilots of all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are briefed and provided with written forecasts and weather charts to internationally agreed specifications. Information is also exchanged with other centres and radioed to aircraft in flight.

Close liaison is maintained with all ships that visit Hong Kong and about sixty selected ships are provided with instruments by the Observatory to assist them to transmit regular and accurate weather reports which are of great value in the locating of tropical cyclones and the preparation of forecasts for shipping. About 75 weather reports are received each day from ships, through two radio stations. They are re-broadcast to other centres. In addition about 5,000 weather reports from land stations and ships are received each day from other countries. They are all plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and for fishermen.

One of the most important functions of the Royal Observatory is to issue warnings of Tropical Cyclones. Whenever a Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm or Typhoon is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°- 125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly non-local warnings are issued. These provide information on the maximum winds, the position and movement of the centre and the forecast position for 24 hours ahead. Reliable reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the Royal Observatory direct from meteorological satellites help to locate the storm accurately.

When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Statements and announcements about necessary precautions are also broadcast at frequent intervals whenever local signals are displayed.

The Observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a three cm radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms and a ten cm radar, for locating tropical disturbances up to 240 miles away. The latter radar can also be used to estimate

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the intensity of rainfall and provides valuable information for the preparation of local thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings as well as for local hydrological purposes.

The Observatory is also responsible for the Colony's time service. Six pip signals obtained from a special crystal clock, accurate to 0.05 second, are broadcast every 15 minutes on a frequency of 95 MHz and are relayed by the various radio and television stations.

       The Observatory operates 12 seismometers, prepares bulletins of all earthquake tremors recorded, and participates in the Pacific Tidal-wave Warning Service. Hong Kong lies just outside the circum-Pacific seismic belt and has not suffered serious earthquake damage since 1918. However a few tremors are felt each year by residents in favourable locations such as on balconies of high buildings. Four such tremors occurred in 1968.

       The general level of atmospheric radio activity in the Colony is monitored at King's Park, where routine measurements of Beta and Gamma activities of fallout, airborne particles near the ground, rainfall and ordinary tap water are carried out.

The Observatory acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of a great many projects that may be affected by meteorological conditions. Technical notes and other publications are prepared to provide detailed information on various aspects of the climate of Hong Kong and a wide variety of related subjects.

RESEARCH

Numerous investigations and analyses were carried out during the year on meteorological problems for various shipping and airline companies, for commercial and industrial firms and for other government departments. Studies on quantitative rainfall forecasting continued and attempts to predict the probable rainfall for individual months and for 5-day periods using statistical techniques have met with some success. These forecasts were required for planning purposes and in connection with the control of the Lower Shing Mun Reservoir. A report on the probable maximum rainfall in Hong Kong was also completed to meet the planning and design requirements for new reservoirs.

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Much effort was given to the study of rainfall patterns and anomalous propagation of electromagnetic waves by means of the radar. New objective techniques were developed for predicting the movement of tropical cyclones over the western Pacific and the South China Sea, and an investigation was started to examine the structure of synoptic systems which affect Hong Kong, by analysing cloud pictures received from meteorological satellites. The pre- liminary findings from these studies have proved to be useful for operational forecasting purposes.

Various problems on air pollution were investigated, including the effect on smoke on visibility in the Hong Kong Harbour and the effect of wind and temperature inversions on the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere. An analysis of the vertical distribution of temperature and humidity over the Colony was made in relation to tropospheric scattering and ducting in tele- communication problems.

      The Royal Observatory also co-operated with several other oversea scientific institutes in many special research projects in seismology, radio-activity, marine climatology and atmospheric chemistry.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

The year 1968 was slightly sunnier and warmer than usual. The total rainfall for the year, 2,288.2 mm (90.09 inches) was close to the normal value 2,168.8 mm (85.39 inches).

January was warm and sunny with very little rain. In contrast, February was dull and very cold with a mean temperature of only 11.7°C, the lowest ever experienced in the Colony since records began in 1884. Sleet fell near the top of Tai Mo Shan on February 13 and ice was also observed on February 15 when the air temperature dropped to minus 2.5°C.

      Fog occurred on many days during March and early April causing a total of 55 in-bound aircraft to be diverted. Between March 23 and 29, a slow-moving trough brought widespread thunderstorms to the Colony and 140.4 mm (5.53 inches) of rain were recorded.

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Although there were more than the usual number of thunder- storms and days with rain in May, the total rainfall for the month was still about 10 per cent below normal. Most of the rain was due to an active trough which developed along the South China coast on May 18 and persisted until the middle of June. The trough produced heavy showers and thunderstorms on June 12 and 13, causing landslides and flooding. Altogether 326.2 mm (12.84 inches) of rain were recorded during these two days and the amount registered at the Royal Observatory between 3.00 and 4.00 a.m. on June 13 was 100 mm (3.94 inches) which was the third highest hourly rainfall on record.

      July was very hot and dry month. The mean temperature of 29.3°C and the maximum temperature of 35.7°C were both the second highest on record while the mean relative humidity of 78 per cent was the second lowest ever recorded in July. Almost 90 per cent of the total rainfall fell in the first five days of the month.

A total of 14 tropical cyclones was reported over the western Pacific and South China Sea during July to September and six came close enough to Hong Kong to necessitate the hoisting of local storm signals.

       Typhoon Nadine formed as a tropical depression over the Pacific about 500 miles east-north-east of Manila on July 21. During the following four days the storm followed a somewhat erratic course but with a general tendency towards the north-west. After crossing the southern tip of Taiwan on July 25, it began to turn onto a westerly course towards the South China coast. However, on July 27, it weakened into a tropical storm and re- curved towards the north-east giving rise to only a few hours of strong winds in some exposed places in the Colony.

Severe tropical storm Rose developed on August 10 about 270 miles north-east of Manila and moved rapidly west-north-west across northern Luzon. During the evening of August 11, Rose passed about 240 miles south of Hong Kong and moved towards Hainan Island. Strong winds were experienced in some exposed places during the passage of the storm.

       Typhoon Shirley was one of the very few tropical cyclones which passed directly over the Royal Observatory. The storm

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formed over the western Pacific about 650 miles east of Manila on August 17 and moved steadily west-north-west. Early on August 21, Shirley changed to a north-westerly course when it was centred about 150 miles south-east of Hong Kong. During the afternoon, Shirley intensified into a typhoon and the eye of the storm as revealed by the Observatory radar was approximately circular in shape with a diameter of about 50 miles. Typhoon Shirley passed over Hong Kong between 7.00 and 9.30 p.m. on August 21 and dissipated slowly over Kwangtung. In Hong Kong, hurricane force winds were experienced in places and the maximum gusts recorded were 110 knots at Tate's Cairn, 113 knots at Waglan Island and 72 knots at the Royal Observatory. The minimum pressure of 968.6 mb at the Royal Observatory was the lowest ever recorded in August.

       On August 31, Severe tropical storm Bess formed near Pratas Island and moved slowly westwards, passing about 180 miles south of Hong Kong on September 2. Due to the slow movement of the storm, strong winds persisted for almost two days in Hong Kong and the number 3 local storm signal was hoisted for a record period of 71 hours and 45 minutes. Bess turned south-westwards on September 3 and entered the coast of Vietnam near Danang during the morning of September 6.

      Typhoon Wendy was first reported over the Pacific near the Mariana Islands on August 30. It moved north-westwards at first but turned towards the west on September 2. During the following seven days Wendy continued its westerly course and finally dissipated over the Gulf of Tonkin. The storm passed about 70 miles south of Hong Kong on September 8 causing several hours of strong winds.

      Typhoon Elaine formed on September 24 near the Caroline Islands and moved in a generally north-westerly direction crossing the northern tip of Luzon on September 28 and entering the South China coast about 140 miles east of Hong Kong on October 1. Strong winds were experienced in the Colony on September 29 but the winds moderated during the same night when Elaine weakened as a cold air-stream entered the circulation from the north.

       The last three months of the year were all warmer and with less rainfall than normal. Although several cold fronts crossed Hong

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      Kong, they were very weak and did not produce any persistent cold weather. The mean, mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures in December were all the highest on record since 1884 and were in fact equal to the normal values for the spring month of April.

19

Population

THE total estimated population of the Colony at the end of 1968 was 3,971,500. About 98 per cent could be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin.

The population, from about 600,000 at the end of the Japanese occupation, grew rapidly and at the 1961 census was 3,133,131, including 3,483 transients. The 1966 census showed the total population to be 3,716,400, including 3,787 transients. During 1968 the population increased by 93,800 to reach the estimated total of 3,971,500. This increase is made up of 66,000 excess of births over deaths, plus an inward balance of migration estimated at 27,800.

Urban Population. At the time of the 1966 census, 31,405 persons, excluding transients, claimed to originate from Common- wealth countries outside Hong Kong. Of these, 26,065 resided in the urban area. According to information provided by the Aliens' Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than three months and children under 16 years old) the figure at the end of 1968 was 13,807. The largest groups were: American 4,705, Portuguese 2,012, Japanese 1,452, German 676, Dutch 485, French 451, Italian 351.

Approximately 55 per cent of the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most of these and the greater part of the immigrant population originate from Kwangtung province. The urban Chinese population also includes a Fukien community and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

New Territories. Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo make up the indigenous population of the New Territories. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. These people differ from each other in physical appearance, dress and

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customs. The usual village community consists of a single clan, but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan, but as far as is known intermarriage between land and boat-dwellers is rare.

       The Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Terri- tories. They occupy the best parts of the two principal plains in the north-western section of the New Territories and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages-those of the Tang clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement dating from the late eleventh century. Others date back to the late thirteenth century.

The Hakka people (their name, if it is really Chinese, means 'strangers') began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. The latter were, however, the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, along foothills, and generally on poorer land. The balance was later restored by heavy immigration, and relations between Hakka and Cantonese, which have endured periods of strife, are now peaceful. Intermarriage is not now uncommon and the two groups share some villages.

       The Tanka people have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deepsea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the last five years, young men and women of this community have begun to take factory jobs, and thirty or forty thousand people of Tanka origin are believed to be now living ashore.

       The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations. The influx of people into the New Territories from China in recent years has been so great that only in the Sai Kung district is the truly indigenous population still in the majority. The newcomers are mostly from Kwangtung province.

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        A mid-term census was taken in the summer of 1966. The boat people were counted between June 18 and 22 and the remainder of the population between July 19 and August 2. The results showed a 26 per cent reduction in the marine population and a consider- able slowing down of the rate of increase of the land population.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout the Colony. The General Register Office is situated at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are maintained. Sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts, while in outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

       The statutory period during which a birth should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days from the date of birth. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth, the birth may be registered upon payment of a fee of $2. During the year 82,992 live births and 19,319 deaths were registered, compared with 88,171 and 19,644 respectively in 1967. These figures, when adjusted for under- registration, give a natural increase in population for 1968 of about 64,322. Only 94 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry.

A birth which has not been registered within one year after the date of birth may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a fee of $15. During the year 2,194 such births were post-registered including 839 in the New Territories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there was a fair number of cases where non-registration was due to the fact that facilities for registration were not available until 1932. There were also several cases relating to births in the war years when there was no registration of births. The New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub-registries or by mobile registration teams. All applica- tions for post-registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

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MARRIAGES

259

       All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done very rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

      Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at any of the nine full-time marriage registries and five part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 17,168 marriages were performed in the registries and 1,800 at licensed places of worship. The total was 1,531 more than in 1967. All marriage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

      The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian cus- tomary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not have to be registered. No statistics of such marriages are therefore available, but it is thought that there are still a large number of unregistered marriages each year. The position with respect to unregistered marriages has long been recognized as being very unsatisfactory. A White Paper on Chinese marriages in Hong Kong has been issued, in which the problems were summarized and recommenda- tions made for their solution.

20

Natural History

TIGERS padding through the rain forest of Hong Kong island, the bellow of crocodiles in the creeks at Aberdeen, elephants trampling the rushes of Kowloon peninsular-such was the exotic scene that greeted the first Chinese settlers when they arrived in this region in the time of the early Sung Dynasty, about one thousand years ago.

Most of the big game, of course, vanished long ago as the settlers steadily cut away the great forest which then covered the area, replacing it first with paddy fields and villages and later with the skyscrapers and factories of a thriving modern community.

       Hong Kong, however, has clung to its countryside heritage with surprising success. By far the greater part of the Colony's land mass is still rolling fields, quiet wooded hills, lush valleys and beaches. Here can be found the rich animal and plant life of Hong Kong.

WILD LIFE

Due to rapid urbanization and increasing illegal hunting and trapping, many wild mammals are sharply declining in numbers. If the present rate of decline remains unchecked it is expected that the larger mammals will have disappeared from the Colony within the next few years. The Government is still considering ways and means of conserving the remaining indigenous species, many of which are of great scientific interest as well as being useful in destroying insect and rodent pests.

Of the larger indigenous mammals the Chinese Pangolin is the most remarkable. It grows to a length of three-and-a-half feet and its back and tail are protected by horny scales, giving it a super- ficial resemblance to a reptile. Another unusual and little known mammal, the Ferret-Badger, is a true badger in miniature. It feeds on insects, worms and young rats and, due to its similar markings, is sometimes mistaken for the Masked Palm Civet, another local mammal. Two species of striped and spotted civets, the Five-banded

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      and the Seven-banded, are recorded in the Colony. The former is exceedingly rare and may no longer occur here, the second is present in small numbers on Hong Kong Island and in wooded areas of the New Territories.

       The Eastern Chinese Otter, once abundant, is now a rare visitor. Of the other carnivores, the South China Red Fox and the Chinese Leopard Cat have all but disappeared from the Colony as has the Wild Boar.

Mammals which have recently ceased to occur here are the Crab Eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, the Tiger and Leopard. The last definite record of a tiger in the Colony was in 1947, and the last recorded sighting of a leopard, in 1957. Periodic tiger and leopard alarms are usually traced to damage done by wild dogs or to hoaxers.

       The Barking Deer, a particularly attractive and appealing animal, was once plentiful all over the Colony. In the last six years its num- bers have been drastically reduced; primarily, it is believed, because of illegal trapping and hunting. It is now rare in the New Territories and the remaining animals on Hong Kong Island are confined to a few areas. The hoarse bark of the males may still be heard by residents and visitors to the Peak.

Long-tailed Macaques, a sub-species of those found in Singapore, occur in small numbers in the Kowloon reservoir area and may often be seen near the Kowloon - Tai Po Road. They are probably descendants of escaped or released individuals.

Smaller mammals which include rats, mice and bats are abundant in the Colony, and the Woodland Shrew and the House Shrew are fairly numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in some areas of the New Territories. One was last sighted in 1966 on Hong Kong Island.

Cetaceans so far recorded from within or near Hong Kong waters are the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale, Pygmy Sperm Whale, Black Finless Porpoise and Common Dolphin.

There is ample opportunity in Hong Kong for either serious study, or simple enjoyment, of bird life. Nearly 350 species, rep- resenting more than 60 different families, including resident and migrant birds, have so far been recorded in the Colony.

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They provide considerable variety of form and occur in a wide range of habitat. The largest species is undoubtedly the Spotted- billed Pelican which comes in small numbers as a winter visitor to the Mai Po Marshes. Among the smallest are the insectivorous White-eyes, of the wooded areas, and the Yellow-bellied Wren Warbler of the reed beds. The Chinese Blue Magpie, with royal blue plumage and orange beak, and the Crow Pheasant of dark brown plumage with light brown wings, can frequently be seen on the shrubby and wooded hillsides. The Crow Pheasant is neither crow nor pheasant, but a cuckoo and has a haunting call of descend- ing notes which can be heard in spring and early summer. The bulbuls and the minute Tailor Bird, with its insistant 'tch tch' call, are common birds in urban areas, and the beautiful song of the Wah Mei delights hikers and residents in the countryside.

      Snakes, lizards and frogs are well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapin and turtle. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are the Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait with black and white bands; MacClelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black transverse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the very rare Mountain Pit Viper and the White-lipped Viper or Bamboo snake. The Bamboo snake is bright green, and although less venomous than the others, is more often seen and is more likely to attack if accidentally disturbed. The Hamadryad is regarded as the most intelligent of snakes and preys almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species of sea snake, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but, fortunately, do not attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Chinese newt. The Hong Kong variety has not been recorded anywhere else in China.

There are nearly 200 species of butterfly in the Colony. Of the many moths two are outstanding for their size. These are the Atlas and Moon moths with wing spans of nine and six inches respectively. Apart from butterflies and moths there is a great variety of insects, many brilliantly coloured. They include many species of dragon fly and damsel fly and metallic-coloured beetles and solitary wasps,

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The beautiful Candle Fly or Lantern Fly has delicately coloured wings like those of a butterfly, but is more closely related to the cicada. It lives on lychee trees and is remarkable in that its forehead is almost as long as its body, hence the Chinese name which trans- lated means the elephant-nosed bug.

The adults of several species of cicada emerge during spring and summer. They range from the rare three-and-a-half inches Tacua to the small grass cicadas less than a half an inch long. The males make a loud trilling noise by vibrating a drum-like membrane in the abdomen. The noise of the male grasshoppers, on the other hand, is made by scraping the leg against the abdomen, as if the body were a violin.

       Land molluscs of note are the Giant African Snail, measuring about five inches long, which was introduced (and is now a con- siderable pest), and a large black slug, Veronicella, a species sufficiently distinct from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

        The Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance 1954, provides for the conservation of all wild birds, and various mammals now rare or in danger of becoming rare. It also prohibits the trap- ping or poisoning of any bird or mammal, except rodents. Game birds may be shot only in season. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. Both game wardens and honorary game wardens are appointed by the Governor to assist in carrying out the provisions of this ordinance.

       Interest in local fauna and flora is fostered by The Hong Kong Natural History Society-founded in 1949 as The Hong Kong Biological Circle-whose aims are to

facilitate and en-

courage the study of natural history in general and in particular that of the Colony of Hong Kong'. The activities of this society include both indoor meetings and field outings. Another society is the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, founded in 1957 for the study of local bird life. This society holds approximately 12 field outings each year.

FLORA

      It is not possible to make any distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of neighbouring southern China. The prin- cipal trees in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor.

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A large number of others have been added since the area came under British administration, the most common being casuarina, eucalyptus and flamboyant. The traditional Chinese belief that the disposition of buildings, graves, trees, water and mountains may affect a person's fortune and destiny has done much to preserve fine groves of trees, mostly camphor, banyans and clumps of bamboo around many farms and villages in the New Territories. Some of the mountain slopes, from a distance, seem bare of any plant covering except grass, but on closer observation it can be seen that the water courses are marked by narrow bands of low shrubby growth and scattered trees.

      The principal locally-grown fruits include lychee, longan, wampei, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. The Portuguese originally introduced the papaya, the pineapple, the custard apple and the guava from South America some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine on the other hand is a native of South China which was introduced to the West in the 17th century when the Portuguese transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control.

The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. Alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters causes tropical plants to lie dormant during winter and encourages the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. As a result of this a genus tends to produce a greater wealth of flowers of large size in Hong Kong than it does in other equatorial countries.

      Hong Kong is famous for its great variety of flowering plants, many of which are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. As might be expected most species flower during spring and early summer. Some are easy to place in their correct families-- for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like, and is related to, the camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers and star-shape fruits, and a Tutcheria with large camellia-like flowers, white tinged with gold bearing masses of tangerine orange stamens. This latter is a tall tree with glossy

Festivals

    Hong Kong's colourful festivals, spaced throughout the year, provide a series of spectacles unrivalled anywhere in the world. The purposes of the festivals are many and varied-to honour ancestors, bring on the rains, and seek blessings of various kinds. The things they all have in common are excitement, colour and crowds. Each year increasing numbers of tourists join the happy throngs of local residents in their celebrations, as the Hong Kong Tourist Association spreads word of the festivities further afield. The following pages show high-lights from a number of this year's festivals.

H

CONG

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The next four pages show scenes from this year's festival of Tin Hau, Queen of Heaven, whom the Boat People honour each year. Every junk cabin has its shrine to Tin Hau, patroness of fair weather and good fishing.

大拳

The gaily decorated boats assemble for the festival (above, left); the lion dance masks and costumes are unloaded (below, left); fisher folk offer incense at Tin Hau's temple (above); a procession to honour the Goddess sets out (below).

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Watched by an admiring crowd of islanders, a temple drummer (above) pounds out the driving beat which accompanies the colourful procession through the village streets (below).

    And there's just time to buy souvenirs of the big day (top) before the sampans and the junks depart hopefully for another year of balmy breezes and big catches.

Drums pound, muscles strain, paddles flash and they're off in a flurry of spray in the Dragon Boat Festival. Up to fifty highly trained rowers send the 80 to 100 foot dragon boats skimming across the water in races which simulate the fighting of dragons. According to one tradition, this was supposed to encour age a real dragon fight in the heavens-an event always marked by welcome rains. Well, whether or not they bring the rains, the races undoubtedly provide

a soul-stirring spectacle.

Teams of gaily clad rowers await the climax of their weeks of hard training. Below, fisher girls at Aberdeen propel their gaudy craft across the water at surprising speeds.

SAMALLATI

The next four pages show scenes from the 'Bun Festival' held each year on the island of Cheung Chau, a ceremony based on expiation for all the animals and

fish killed during the year so that man may live.

THE

LUJOO GWG

Above, offerings of incense are made to the gods.

A

       Cunningly bandaged to stout supporting frames, these children take pride of place in the procession, representing various guilds.

BLI

اد کرده

BLI

On the final day of the festival, after the erection of a 60 foot tower studded with buns (as sacrifices to the spirits), the principal gods of the island are carried through the streets (above).

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foliage, described as a distinct genus in 1908 in honour of W. J. Tutcher, former Superintendent of the then Botanical and Forestry Department. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is reminiscent of the Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony. Of these the red one is extremely abundant, while another with large pale pink flowers is so rare that it is known to exist only on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea, with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers borne in profusion on leafless branches.

The Bauhinia Blakeana, which grows on a medium-sized ever- green tree known as the Hong Kong orchid tree, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. Named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, it was discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

There are several species of camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia Hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct camellia was discovered in 1955 and named Camellia Granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee reservoir, bearing handsome white flowers five-and-a-half inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been distributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. The large orange-like fruits of

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      Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, the wild kamquat and the winged fruits of the gardenia are orange in colour. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. Many berries are black with a bluish waxy cuticle, but probably the only true blue is that of the Dichroa, a well-known medicinal plant. Several species of Callicarpa and Dianella bear purplish fruits, while those of the Raphiolepis, the so-called Hong Kong hawthorn, the wild jasmine and the wild persimmon are black. The remarkable star- like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

       There are several very poisonous plants which should be better known to the general public. These include two species of Strychnos which have very brightly coloured fruits resembling small oranges, a species of Strophanthus which has conspicuous fruits unmistakable because of their large size and horn-like shape, and a species of Gelsemium which is the most poisonous of local plants. The latter is a climber with dense terminal clusters of yellow flowers each about half an inch in diameter, blooming towards the end of the year. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid Gelsemidine, which is a spinal poison. It is said that as little as 12 grammes of leaf constitute a fatal dose and that death follows within a few hours. It is sometimes used by country people to commit suicide. Wild edible fruits include a wild jack-fruit, Artocarpus, the fruit of the rose-myrobalan, wild bananas, and raspberries. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common Clematis of English hedge- rows, has five close relatives in Hong Kong. There are four wild violets but they are scentless, like the English dog violet. The English honey-suckle has five relatives whose Cantonese name is kam ngan fa (gold and silver flower) because of their change in colour from white to yellow.

More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded in the flora. Most of the epiphytic species possess small flowers which are not of particular interest to the horticulturist. Some of the ground orchids

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267

are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

There is a fine wild iris, Iris speculatrix, further south than any other true iris. Its violet flower, from two-and-a-half to three inches in diameter, is tinged with bright orange and blooms from the middle of March to the end of April. A wild lily, Lilium brownii, appears in June with its trumpet flowers up to seven inches in length, white and sometimes purple-streaked. A wild Crinum with long sword-like leaves and bunches of white flowers is found by the sea, and also the Belamcanda, one of the iris family, with red- dotted orange-yellow flowers. The Chinese Bell-flower, Platycodon, is very widely distributed in eastern Asia, being abundant as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Hong Kong. This lovely violet giant harebell is common on grassy slopes on the south side of Hong Kong Island. It is a perennial plant with thick fleshy root stock valued for medicinal purposes and was introduced into culti- vation in England as far back as the 17th century.

In damp ravines may be found the chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, giant aroids, tree-ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides, English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong bracken, a Dicranopteris and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea.

       Plants recorded for the first time in recent years were Crawfurdua fasciculata, Malaxis acuminata var. biloba and Goodyera foliosa, found in the New Territories and Zeuxine gracilis, found on Hong Kong Island.

The Hong Kong Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, has been added to considerably since that book was produced and at present some 30,000 specimens are preserved.

By regulations, made under the Forestry Ordinance, special protection is given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, magnolias, orchids, and azaleas.

21

History

Hong Kong-a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the 19th century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a

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prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

        The maritime relations between China and the West were at first dominated by Arab and Near Eastern traders who formed a con- siderable community at Canton from the seventh century onwards, but Chinese traders also penetrated to the Indian Ocean from the 11th century. The Portuguese formed the spear-head of European maritime contacts with China. Jorge Alvarez reached China by sea in 1513, the first European to do so; the earliest Portuguese traders followed in 1517 and 40 years later, in 1557, they established them- selves at Macau, partly in return for assistance in the suppression of piracy. For nearly 300 years, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of Chinese official opinion which was not interested in commercial or cultural contacts, Macau provided the one reliable point of contact between China and the West.

The first Englishman to attempt to trade with China was John Weddell in 1637. He found Portuguese influence against him and tried to force his way up to Canton and not surprisingly his venture ended in complete failure. Later attempts were similarly unsuccessful, the first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese being the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699. The company sent ships to Canton each year thereafter, and in 1715 decided to establish permanent commercial relations and set up a 'factory', as it was known, outside the town. Attempts to extend the trade to Amoy, Ningpo and Tamsui failed and in 1757 trade with the West was confined to Canton by Imperial edict, and placed under the direct control of an Imperial official called the Hoppo. In addition, a guild of Chinese merchants called the Hong Merchants or Co-hong was given a monopoly of western trade by a similar edict in 1755. Many other European nations sent traders to Canton,

* The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public

park near original site.

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HISTORY

but in the second half of the 18th century the British gradually secured a dominant share of the trade mainly as a result of growing control in India, and the lead in Sino-western relations therefore naturally fell to Britain.

The trade was lucrative and yet there were grievances. Residence at Canton was confined to the trading season and hedged with personal restrictions which confined the traders to the factory area, denied them access to the city and placed them in the hands of the Co-hong in their dealings with officials for the fixing of prices and the levying of port dues. The westerners were regarded as bar- barian, yet there was mutual trust which enabled written commercial contracts to be dispensed with.

The British made unavailing efforts to improve conditions at Canton by diplomatic means after appeals to the provincial officials there had failed. In 1793 Lord Macartney, fresh from his successful mission to Russia, was sent to Peking as ambassador, ostensibly to congratulate the Emperor, but chiefly to secure commercial concessions at Canton or else to acquire an island where the British could reside under their own law and government. He was hospitably received in Peking and created a favourable impression, but all his requests were refused. In 1816 a second embassy under Lord Amherst failed even more completely, Amherst being ordered to leave Peking without even seeing the Emperor.

The East India Company held a monopoly of British trade with China, but in the late 18th century the company began to con- centrate on the valuable tea trade. At the same time licensed private traders engaged in what was termed the 'country trade' between India and China. By acting as representatives of foreign states these private traders overcame the reluctance of the company to allow them to reside in Canton and Macau. Thus an enlarged British community developed, strongly favouring the new free trade ideas then being discussed in England and clamouring for the abolition of the East India Company's now nominal monopoly. Abolition was, in fact, effected by Parliamentary action in 1833.

To replace the company's control, Lord Napier was sent out in 1834 as Chief Superintendent of Trade, with strict instructions to pursue a conciliatory policy towards the Chinese. But his position was weak, because he had no power to negotiate and no means of

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controlling his compatriots. He went to Canton without seeking the required permit and tried to deal with the Canton officials direct, thus disobeying the rule that required all communications with the officials to be made through the Co-hong. After a few weeks of impasse Napier retired to Macau, a sick man, and died there 10 days later. Meanwhile official Chinese opinion was becom- ing alarmed over the financial and moral consequences of the increased popularity of opium smoking, which had led to opium becoming the staple of the trade with India despite a Chinese prohibition on its importation. After much debate among the Mandarin officials the Emperor appointed Lin Tse-hsu as Special Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. Lin took strong action and within a week of his arrival at Canton, in March 1839, he had surrounded the foreign factories with an armed force. He allowed no Europeans to leave, stopped supplies of food and water, and demanded the surrender of all opium for destruction. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents. But Elliot refused to allow anyone to sign the bond and, much to Lin's annoyance, all British trade was stopped until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by commer- cial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a settlement in relations between Britain and China. He demanded either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations

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      on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by enforcing measures against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and Keshen, a Manchu commissioner who had replaced Lin after his exile in disgrace, resulted in agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty the Convention of Chuenpi-on January 20, 1841. By it, Hong Kong was to be ceded. The island was formally occupied by a naval party on January 26, 1841, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a 'barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

Pottinger visited Hong Kong Island during the winter of 1841-2 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's Road'. Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supple- mentary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 the Chinese were

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allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed, British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, prob- ably malaria, decimated the Europeans and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, while build- ings in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000, with a further 2,000 living afloat. The first report on population in June 1845 gave the total as 23,817, of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

At first the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium, as had been predicted, trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parlia- mentary committee of enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts that Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

Shortly after Hong Kong's foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to South-East Asia and the countries bordering the Pacific. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco. In 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration of labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses connected with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing reasonable standards of food, space and medical atten- tion. This tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports, but Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

The Tai Ping Rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting

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in thousands seeking refuge in the Colony. By 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated and is significant among the factors which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

       The Treaties of Tientsin at the conclusion of the Second Anglo- Chinese War of 1856-8, gave Britain and France the privilege of diplomatic representation at Peking. However, the first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had served as Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong in 1844-5, was met by armed Chinese opposition at Taku Bar on his way to the Chinese capital. In the ensuing hostilities, Kowloon peninsula was occupied and used as a camp for the British forces and Sir Harry Parkes, at Canton, secured from the Viceroy there the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Convention of Peking, 1860, converted the lease into an outright cession.

       The naval and military authorities claimed the whole of the newly acquired area and it was only after some four years of strenuous advocacy of the Colony's interests that the Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, was able to confine the services to specified areas, subject to their right to occupy additional areas in case of military emer- gency. Under these circumstances the development of Kowloon as a residential area and commercial port was seriously hindered. Land values remained low and the necessary reclamations proceeded slowly because incentive was lacking. The development of Kowloon had to wait until population pressures of the 20th century forced the pace.

       By the Convention of Peking of 1898, negotiated with China because of rivalry between the western powers over concessions in China and because of fear of French and Russian ambitions in the Far East following the alliance of these two powers in 1893, Hong Kong's boundaries were again extended by a 99-year lease of the mainland north of Kowloon, together with some 235 islands in the vicinity. This extension soon acquired the name New Territories. The British take-over in April 1899 met with some initial ill-organized armed opposition, but Sir Henry Blake based the administration on the maintenance of Chinese law and custom, in co-operation with village committees and headmen, and by extensive visits to

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      the villages to explain his policy in person he was able to build up confidence. Steps were taken to improve economic conditions and check widespread malaria, so that the population of the New Territories has gradually increased from about 100,000 to nearly half a million as shown by the 1961 Census.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

       The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion in trade and population, and of consequent material and social improvements. The old traditional practice of European and Chinese communities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. Each pursued his own way of life largely independent of the other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education there could be little Chinese participation in government, western com- merce or the professions. There have been, however, Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

       In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by missionary bodies, who have received grants or subsidies since 1873 and have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai, with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of its first graduates was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

Undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding in 1911 of the University of Hong Kong, which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis of its faculties of medicine and engineering. The university was made possible by the enthusiasm of Sir Frederick Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody who met the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the university has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique

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position as an English-speaking university in a Chinese environ- ment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and South- East Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community.

       The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials, but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle, and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected.' The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body representative of responsible Chinese opinion.

The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies. The first government medical officer was appointed in 1847 to treat the police and prisoners in the gaol. He opened a small make- shift hospital the following year which served until 1859 when a government civil hospital was opened. This was destroyed by the 1874 typhoon and adjoining buildings had to be requisitioned. On this site now stand the modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital and the Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club Clinic. The Kowloon Government Hospital was opened in 1925 and the Queen Mary Hospital, then one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937.

      The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building and Queen's Road approxi- mately follows the line of the original settlement. Expansion could only take place on the slopes of the Peak-as for example Stanley Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable area-or by reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly

HISTORY

277

its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously over-crowded and insanitary. It was this which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

As a result of complaints from the military about the sanitation of Hong Kong, Osbert Chadwick, a sanitary engineer, was sent out by the home Government. A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883 to which nominated unofficials were added in 1886 and two elected representatives of the ratepayers in 1887. It could bring about little improvement because of Chinese opposition to western ideas of sanitation and to any interference with their way of life. There was also opposition to the cost of sanitary improvements on the part of the community, already burdened by a costly pro- gramme of public works and by defence expenditure at a time when the dollar was falling in value. The result of this neglect was an outbreak of the plague in 1894. Two Japanese doctors who came to investigate, Professor Vitasato and Dr Aoyama, claimed to be the first to isolate the plague bacillus and to demonstrate that it was carried by rats. Even then there was considerable opposition to house-cleansing and measures against rat-infestation, and annual visitations of the plague continued until about 1927. The Sanitary Board continued until 1935, when its functions were broadened and taken over by an Urban Council.

The earliest reclamation was the filling of a small creek in 1851, to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land. The most important reclamation was that in the central district, begun in 1890 and completed in 1904, which added Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclamations were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

Increasing urbanization led also to the problem of water, and the start of a century-long race between water supply and population demand. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugurated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung (1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935, named in honour of the silver jubilee of King George V's reign.

278

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

HISTORY -

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first world war was followed by strong nationalist and anti- foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first world war to present her 'twenty one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and South-East Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December

I

HISTORY

279

18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were over- whelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley while the Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating con- ditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organizing mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Terri- tories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional Government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military Government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

       From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000 rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. A by census taken in 1966 showed a population figure of 3,716,400.

280

HISTORY

       Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied the growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has played, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. Low-cost housing schemes and multi-storey resettlement estates have called for a heavy investment of public funds; schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided on a huge scale. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon is the largest general hospital in the Common- wealth. The Chinese University of Hong Kong has been created from a federation of post-secondary colleges. Despite the substan- tial progress made, however, the demand for more services continues and is still far from being satisfied.

Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. In Kowloon and Tsuen Wan particularly, industrialists have opened many large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export to all parts of the world. To meet the demand for land for industry and housing the Government has continued to carry out many new reclamation schemes, principally in the central district, Causeway Bay, at various points on the northern shores of the harbour, and by Kwai Chung. The investigation of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Impressive schemes to improve the water supply were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957, and at Shek Pik in 1963; the Plover Cove scheme which will treble the amount of water available is due to open in 1968. Following a period of unparalleled drought in 1963-4, an arrange- ment was made with the Kwangtung Provincial Authorities to purchase 15,000 million gallons of water annually.

The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops, coupled with the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques, have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with produc- tivity and trade promotion, and with technical and vocational training.

HISTORY

281

The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network; more rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in the face of public demand for transport serv- ices and the big increase in the number of private cars. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. The airport has a runway 8,340 feet long, built on a promontory reach- ing out into Kowloon Bay and capable of meeting the needs of the biggest aircraft yet in service. Further extensions are planned to cope with the coming Jumbo jets. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sightseeing and shopping facili- ties, and night-time entertainment.

Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Wired and wireless radio and television has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment. There are many modern cinemas. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

A pulsating tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life. But it is the growth of local industry, which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, that has been the most significant feature-after population growth-- in the Colony's history in the post-war years. The recent disturb- ances have introduced a new perspective whose effect it may be too soon to judge. But Hong Kong's people have shown a stead- fast imperturbability and determination which bodes well and confidence in the years to come is as strong as ever.

22

Constitution and Administration

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions from the Sovereign to the Governor prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex officio and one nominated official member; and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor. The ex officio members are the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and the Financial Secretary. The eight unofficials at present include four Chinese members.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding questions which come before the Council, and for taking action afterwards, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by the majority of the members. The Governor in Council (i.e. the Governor in the Execu- tive Council) is also given power under numerous ordinances to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

The official membership of the Legislative Council consists of the Governor (who is both the President and a member), four ex officio members (the same as those on the Executive Council with the exception of the Commander British Forces) and eight nominated civil servants, making a total of thirteen officials. There is an equal number of unofficial members, nominated by the Governor. At present they include ten Chinese members, one of them a lady. The President has a casting vote in this Council.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

283

       The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council. Matters of public concern may be debated in this Council, which also controls finance and expenditure through its Finance Committee, on which three officials and all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legis- lative Council is based generally on that of the House of Commons. The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is shown in Appendices XLI and XLII.

JUDICIARY

       Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Letters Patent, the Chief Justice, Senior Puisne Judge and puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent on instructions from the Sovereign given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State; district judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by warrant or other instrument under the Public Seal. The qualifications of puisne judges and district judges are prescribed by the Supreme Court and District Court Ordinances.

The function of the judiciary is to try all public and private prosecutions and to determine civil disputes either between indi- viduals or between individuals and the Government. The principle of English Constitutional Law, that in the performance of all judicial acts the judiciary is completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the Government, is as fundamental in Hong Kong as it is elsewhere in the Commonwealth. The judiciary takes no part in the formulation of policy or in the enactment of the laws. Its function is to follow and apply the law, but in the interpretation of statutes and in applying decided cases, new case law is made.

"

      The principles of English Common Law and Equity and the Statutes of England, as they existed in that country on April 5, 1843, except where they are inapplicable to local circumstances, and in so far as the statutes are not included in the Application of English Law Ordinance, Cap. 88, are the foundation of Hong Kong's legal system. They have been extended and modified by the appli- cation to the Colony of certain later enactments of the United Kingdom Parliament and by the ordinances and other enactments of the Hong Kong legislature. The Statute Laws of the Colony are

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

consolidated and revised periodically. The last edition was published in loose leaf form in 1967.

The Courts of Justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts and the Tenancy Tribunal. The rapid changes in the social and economic structure of the Colony and in the size and distribution of the population have necessitated the creation of additional courts. In 1968, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, six puisne judges, eight district judges, 32 magistrates and a President of the Tenancy Tribunal. District judges sit in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. Magistrates sit at Central, Causeway Bay and Western Magistracies on Hong Kong Island, and at South Kowloon, North Kowloon, Fanling, Tsuen Wan and Kwun Tong Magistracies on the mainland. In addition to the regular Magistrates' Courts on either side of the harbour, there is also a Justice of the Peace Court each for the island and the mainland, which sits several afternoons a week. To assist in the administration of the Magistrates Courts there are included in the 32 posts of magistrates, two principal magistrates, and eight senior magistrates. Whenever possible one of the two justices is legally qualified. The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance and the Demolished Buildings Ordinance and its work is described in Chapter 8.

       Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. In the case of in- dictable offences, however, their powers of punishment are restricted generally to a maximum of two years' imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may award some higher penalty. When trying two or three offences together, cumulative sentences of im- prisonment imposed by magistrates may not exceed three years. Increased powers were given to magistrates in 1967 in connection with crimes which contravened Emergency Regulations brought in during the year. These powers were codified in amendments to the Criminal Procedure Act in September 1968.

Magistrates hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed to trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

285

various cases of a serious nature to the District Court on the appli- cation of the Attorney General. The civil jurisdiction of these courts is not extensive, but they exercise a limited jurisdiction in domestic matters, chiefly under the Infants Custody Ordinance and Separation and Maintenance Orders Ordinance, and perform im- portant functions under a number of other ordinances. Two magistrates act as coroners, one in Hong Kong and the other in Kowloon. They derive their powers from the Coroners Ordinance which came into force at the end of 1967.

The District Court, established in 1953, took over the summary jurisdiction previously exercised by the Supreme Court and gives to the public a simpler and shorter method of bringing to trial civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter (other than land) is under $10,000. In the case of land, the limit is still $5,000.

The District Court has an unlimited appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals. It also exercises appellate jurisdiction from the Tenancy Tribunal.

It has unlimited jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordinance, and it is the court which deals with claims under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance.

Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by judge alone and there is a general limitation of five years on a District Judge's power to award a sentence of imprisonment.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the three Divisions of the English High Court-namely the Chancery Division, the Queen's Bench Division, and the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division. In addition it exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy, and company-winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1967-8 will be found in Appendix XLIII).

       The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court. It sits as occasion requires and is constituted of two or more judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court, which hears appeals from the

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction cor- responding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal, and the Divisional Court of the Queen's Bench Division. Final appeals from Hong Kong go to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

ADMINISTRATION

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the ad- ministrative functions of the Government are discharged by some 30 departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. (A list of these departments is given in Appendix VII.)

The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative con- trol of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments and makes, or transmits from the Governor, the Governor in Council, or the Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy, the Establishment Officer deals with all matters relating to the Public Service, and the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates the work of the local forces and acts as the main channel of communication between the Government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office.

       The Secretariat for Chinese Affairs is an important channel of communication between the Government and the people of Hong Kong. In addition to assisting in the assessment of trends in public opinion, and advising on local customs and beliefs, the department is also responsible for helping in the presentation of official policy to the general public, and for advising on matters which may arise in the relationships between other government departments and residents. For many years these functions have been carried out by constant personal contact with a wide variety of Chinese organiza- tions including the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, now about to celebrate its centenary, the Po Leung Kuk, Kaifong welfare associa- tions throughout the urban areas, district and clansmen's associa- tions, multi-storey building associations and religious groups.

During the year a major development took place in the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, when the City District Officer scheme was launched. These men are intended to be political officers, and

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

287

      resemble to some extent the District Officers in the New Territories, though at present they do not perform any executive functions. They are required to make themselves as accessible as possible to those living in their districts and to keep in touch with all local organizations. In addition they are responsible for assessing the impact of government policies on the general population, and for explaining these policies to the public. They also advise other government departments on the co-ordination of public services, and are expected to be aware of the problems and trends of public opinion in their districts. The urban area has been divided into ten City Districts, four on Hong Kong Island and six in Kowloon and New Kowloon. The first four City District Officers were appointed in May, and by the end of the year nine had taken up their duties. In order to emphasize their accessibility they are being housed in offices located and designed to look more like shops than government offices. At the end of the year five such offices had been opened complete with shop windows displaying govern- ment activities and counters providing a public enquiry service.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is also responsible for co- ordinating the drive against narcotics; he is assisted in this by a strongly constituted Narcotics Advisory Committee, and by the Action Committee against Narcotics, which provides for the ex- change of information and opinions, and for co-ordination at the operational level of the activities of the government departments and voluntary organizations engaged in anti-narcotics work.

As a member of the Urban Council and the Housing Board, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs is concerned with housing problems, and the two tenancy enquiry bureaux, which form part of his department, provide mediation and advisory services to tenants of the pre-war buildings which are subject to the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance.

Other administrative functions include special responsibility for the old village communities in New Kowloon and the semi-rural areas of Hong Kong Island, investigation into claims to British nationality and applications for naturalization, registration of newspapers, Chinese cemeteries, mediation in a variety of domestic and other disputes, and the administration of a number of trust funds for educational and welfare purposes.

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

The Urban Council consists of 26 members-six ex officio mem- bers and 20 ordinary members of whom 10 are elected and 10 are appointed by the Governor. Of the ex officio members, the Chairman (appointed by the Governor) is the Director of the Urban Services Department, while the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services is the statutory vice-chairman. The other ex officio members are the Honourable Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Social Welfare and the Commissioner for Resettlement. The term of office of an ordinary member is four years. The council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by 16 select committees which meet at frequent intervals. All select committees are chaired by unofficial members and, without exception, the unofficial members are in the majority.

The membership of the Urban Council is given at Appendix XLIV. The main responsibilities of the Urban Council, which are carried out through the Urban Services Department, cover environ- mental sanitation and hygiene, licensing and inspection of food premises and factories, offensive trades, bathhouses and laundries, running of markets and abattoirs, licensing and control of hawkers, management of cemeteries and crematoria and control of funeral parlours, management of the City Hall, museum and art gallery and public libraries, management of government multi-storey and open-air car parks and the management and maintenance of certain places of public recreation such as bathing beaches, swimming pools, tennis courts, squash courts and parks and playgrounds in the urban areas. The council is also the competent authority for the management of resettlement areas and estates and resettlement factory areas in the urban areas.

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The New Territories are divided into four administrative districts, each under a District Officer who has a staff of between 107 and 205, depending on the size and complexity of the district. The Tai Po district, with an area of 123 square miles and a population estimated at 161,151, covers the north-east of the New Territories with its District Office at Tai Po Market. The Yuen Long district, with an area of 86 square miles and a population of about 118,456,

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

289

includes the large and heavily populated agricultural plain in the north-west and has its District Office at Yuen Long. The Tsuen Wan district has an area of 26 square miles and a population of about 223,173 covering the new industrial complex of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Island, as well as Ma Wan Island and the north-eastern part of Lantau Island. Its District Office is accom- modated in the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building in Tsuen Wan. The Sai Kung area east of Kai Tak Airport, the remainder of Lantau Island, Cheung Chau, Lamma Island and all the islands to the west and south of Hong Kong, covering some 130 square miles, with a scattered population of about 61,173, are administered from the District Office South at Kowloon Central Post Office Building, Nathan Road, Kowloon.

        The District Commissioner co-ordinates the overall administra- tion of the New Territories from an office in North Kowloon. He is assisted by a Deputy District Commissioner and a headquarters staff which, including the cadastral survey staff, totals 94. The District Officers are concerned with every aspect of government activity in their districts and act as the principal links between the Government and the local inhabitants. Their responsibilities include mediation in all kinds of village and personal disputes, including family and matrimonial cases. They control the utilization and sale of Crown land and administer the grant of temporary structure permits. District Officers have an allocation of funds from the New Territories local public works vote, which pays for materials to help villagers improve irrigation and water supplies, build paths and small bridges and carry out a wide range of other minor works to improve the sanitation and the amenities of the villages.

For local representation, each of the 654 villages in the New Territories has one or more Village Representatives, making a total of about 948. Villages are in turn grouped under Rural Com- mittees, of which there are 27 covering the entire New Territories. Each Rural Committee has an executive committee which is elected by secret ballot every two years by all Village Representatives. The Rural Committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the Government. They receive a small monthly subvention to cover routine expenses. Within its own area each Rural Committee acts as the spokesman for local public opinion,

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mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Administration and the people.

The chairmen and vice-chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, together with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 Special Councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum where leaders of New Territories opinion have gathered since it was constituted in 1926 and from which (except during the period from August, 1958 to December, 1959 when official recognition of the representative status of the Kuk was withdrawn because of internal dissension) the Government has sought advice on New Territories affairs. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance 1959, the Kuk also has an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the Kuk through whom close and constant contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

The Public Service provides the staff for all government depart- ments, sub-departments and other units of the administration, and on April 1, 1968 the total number of posts in the Public Service (or its establishment, as it is generally called) was 75,310.

This indicates that slightly less than one person in every 50 in Hong Kong is employed by the Government. There is a large propor- tion of labouring staff, and nearly 33,000 of the total establish- ment of the Public Service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Public Service of the Hong Kong Government is somewhat unusual in that it includes the staff for certain activities which in other territories and administra- tions are carried out by people who do not belong to the Civil Service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central Government. In Hong Kong, the establishment of the Medical and Health Department

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291

(9,692 posts), the Public Works Department (9,544 posts), the Urban Services Department (13,170 posts), and the Police Force (13,251 posts) account for a total of 45,657 posts or about 61 per cent of the total establishment of the Service.

The growth in the size of the Service from just over 17,500 in 1949 to about 45,500 in 1959 and now to its present total strength of over 75,000 reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population. However, in recent years, there has been some slowing down of the rate of expansion and it now stands at about three per cent per annum.

The cost of the Public Service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1968-9 the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, excluding pensions is about $694 million. This represents approximately 47 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure, or approximately 35 per cent of the estimated total expenditure, included in the Budget. Notwithstand- ing the Service's expansion, the percentage of direct recurrent expenditure is lower than it has been for a number of years.

       The establishment of each post in the Public Service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its Establishment sub-committee which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilized and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

        Recruitment and promotions to the Public Service are, with certain exceptions, subject to the advice and overall scrutiny of the Public Services Commission, a body independent of the Govern- ment, set up in 1950. Sir Charles Hartwell, CMG, is the full-time chairman of the Commission, and local leading citizens are appointed as members of the Commission on a part-time voluntary basis.

Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training, con- ditions of service, grading and complementing in the Public Service is exercised by the Establishment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

A notable event in the history of the Public Service which occurred during the year was the conclusion of a formal agreement between

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     Government and the three main Staff Associations which provided for the setting up of consultative machinery and for the reference of certain disputed matters to an independent Committee of Inquiry. A Senior Civil Service Council was thereupon formally constituted with the dual objects of improving the efficiency of the Public Service and securing the well-being of its members.

A salaries revision was announced in August as a result of which minor staff received a 10 per cent increase in their pay and other staff below the superscale level received an eight per cent increase. These revised salaries were effective from April 1, 1968 and were the first increases since April 1965.

       During the year further emphasis was placed on training. The Secretariat Training Unit became the Government Training Division which now has its own accommodation in Causeway Bay. At the same time, the responsibilities of the Division were expanded to include the overall surveillance and co-ordination of training within Government, particularly where it leads to the implementation of the policy of localization at the recruitment level, and the main- tenance and improvement of efficiency within the service. In the period under review, the Division awarded 19 Scholarships under the Government Training Scholarship Scheme to enable local officers to obtain qualifications not available locally, but which are necessary for senior posts in the Service. In addition 56 courses for General and Departmental Grades were arranged and attended by 1,400 trainees. Under the overseas training programme 149 local officers were able to undertake post-graduate study overseas.

Appendices

295

Appendix I

Weights and Measures

        The weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

Length*

UNIT

:

:

EQUIVALENTS

Domestic

British

Metric

1 fan

1 tsun (Chinese inch)

1 chek (Chinese foot)

1 cheung...

1 lei (Chinese mile)

Area

1 dau chung

1 mow

0.146 in

3.715 mm

10 fan

1.463 in

3.715 cm

10 tsun

14.625 in

37.15

cm

10 chek

4.063 yd

3.715 m

706-745 yd

646-681 m

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Weight

1 fan

1 tsin or mace

1 leung or tael

1 kan or catty

806.7

sq yd

.6745 hec

1,008

sq yd

.8431 hec

0.013 oz

3.78

dg

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78

10 tsin

1.333 oz

37.8

g

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8

g

100 catty

133.333 lb

60.48

kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the chek (foot) is 14ğ in but the chek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14§ in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

1 tam or picul

296

297

ORDINANCES

Appendix

II

Legislation

Appropriation (1968-9) Ordinance 1968

Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Charities (Land Acquisition) (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Commissions of Inquiry Ordinance 1968

Community Chest of Hong Kong Ordinance 1968

Credit Unions Ordinance 1968

Cremation (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Criminal Procedure (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1968 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance 1968

Dentists Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Drug Addiction Treatment Centres Ordinance 1968

Estate Duty (Validation of Forms) Ordinance 1968

Employment Ordinance 1968

Exchange Fund (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Exchange Fund (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1968

Holidays (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) (Amend-

ment) Ordinance 1968

Infants Custody (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Justices of the Peace (Miscellaneous Amendments) Ordinance 1968

Juvenile Offenders (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Landlord and Tenant (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Law Revision (Miscellaneous Repeals) Ordinance 1968

Legal Aid (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Legal Practitioners (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Medical (Therapy, Education and Research) Ordinance 1968

Mental Health (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Motor Vehicles Insurance (Third Party Risks) (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Protection of Women and Juveniles (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Public Services Commission (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Registered Trustees Incorporation (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Registered Trustees Incorporation (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1968

Legislation

Registration of United Kingdom Patents (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Resettlement (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

School Medical Service Board Incorporation (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Separation and Maintenance Orders (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Separation and Maintenance Orders (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1968 Stamp (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Summary Offences (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Supplementary Appropriation (1967-8) Ordinance 1968 Telecommunication (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

The St Stephen's Girls' College Council Incorporation Ordinance 1968 Training Centres (Amendment) Ordinance 1968

Trustee (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 University (Amendment) Ordinance 1968 Wills (Formal Validity) Ordinance 1968

SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Abattoirs By-laws 1968

Admission and Registration (Amendment) Rules 1968

Births and Deaths Registration (Amendment of Second Schedule) Order 1968 Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Exemption) Order 1968

Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Forms) (Amendment) Order 1968

*Carriage By Air Acts (Application of Provisions) (Overseas Territories) (Hong

Kong Dollar Equivalents) Order 1968

†Carriage By Air (Overseas Territories) (Hong Kong Dollar Equivalents)

Order 1968

Charges for Radiotelegrams Order 1968

Commonwealth Countries and Republic of Ireland (Immunities and Privileges)

(Amendment of Schedules) Order 1968

Cremation and Gardens of Remembrance (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Dangerous Drugs Regulations 1968

Dangerous Goods (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Dentists (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment) Regulations

1968

Emergency (Firework) (Repeal) Order 1968

Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Emergency (Principal) Regulations (Commencement) (Amendment) Order

1968

Emergency (Principal) Regulations (Discontinuance) Order 1968

298

Appendix

II- Contd

299

Legislation

Emergency Regulations (Repeal) Orders 1968

Exportation (Cotton Manufactures) (Amendment of Schedule) Orders 1968 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations 1968 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (First Aid in Registrable Workplaces)

Regulations 1968

Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Order 1968

Fugitive Offenders Act 1967 (Commencement) Order 1968

Fugitive Offenders (Designated Commonwealth Countries) Order 1968

Fugitive Offenders (Designated Commonwealth Countries) (Amendment)

Orders 1968

Fugitive Offenders (Forms) Order 1968

General Holidays Order 1968

Importation and Exportation (Strategic Commodities) (Amendment of

Schedule) Order 1968

Importation (Coffee) Regulations (Amendment of First Schedule) Orders 1968 Legal Aid (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Legal Practitioners (Fees) (Amendment) Rules 1968

Matrimonial Causes Rules 1968

Merchant Shipping (Marine Courts) Regulations 1968

Merchant Shipping (Minor Fisheries) (Amendment) Regulations 1968 Merchant Shipping Ordinance--Notification of Ports of the Colony §Merchant Shipping (Tonnage) Regulations 1968

Miscellaneous Licences (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Money-lenders Ordinance-Orders of Exemption

Motor Vehicles Insurance (Third Party Risks) (Amendment) Regulations 1968 Muslim Cemetery Ho Man Tin (Graves Removal) Order 1968 Poisons (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Poisons List (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Post Office (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases (Amendment) Regulations 1968 Public Conveniences (Charges) (Amendment) Order 1968

Public Health and Urban Services (Amendment of Fourth Schedule) Order

1968

Public Health (Animals and Birds) (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Public Order Curfew (Consolidation) (Amendment) Order 1968

Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance (Amendment of Second

Schedule) Order 1968

Resettlement (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Legislation

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1968

Revised Edition of the Laws (Correction of Error) Orders 1968 Road Traffic (Driving Licences) (Amendment) Regulations 1968 Road Traffic (Roads and Signs) (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Road Traffic (Taxis, Public Omnibuses and Public Cars) (Amendment)

Regulations 1968

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) Rules 1968

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1968 Sanitation and Conservancy (New Territories) Regulations 1968 Slaughter-houses (Amendment) By-laws 1968

Slaughter-houses (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Stamp (Bank Authorization) Orders 1968

Stamp Duties Management (Franking Machines) (Amendment) Regulations

1968

Stamping and Denoting of Documents (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Statutes of The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Statutes of the University (Amendment) Statutes 1968

Statutes of the University (Amendment) (No 2) Statutes 1968

Students (Amendment) Rules 1968

Subsidized Schools Provident Fund (Amendment) Rules 1968

Supreme Court Fees (Amendment) Rules 1968 Telecommunication (Amendment) Regulations 1968

Telecommunication (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1968

Telecommunication (Essential Services Corps Fuel Oil Unit) (Exemption)

Order 1968

Telecommunication Exemption (Rediffusion Television Subscribers) Order

1968

Telephone Ordinance-Legislative Council Resolution amending the Schedule Tenancy Tribunal (Amendment) Rules 1968

Trade Marks (Amendment) Rules 1968

Urban Council Elections (Registration of Electors) (Amendment) Regulations

1968

Urban Council Ordinance (Amendment of Second Schedule) Order 1968

* Made under the Carriage by Air Acts (Application of Provisions) (Overseas Territories)

Order 1967.

† Made under the Carriage by Air (Overseas Territories) Order 1967.

Made under the Fugitive Offenders Act 1967.

§ Made under the Merchant Shipping Act 1965.

300

Industrial undertakings and persons employed

in main industrial groups

Appendix III

(Chapter 2

Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

301

United Nations

standard industrial classification

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

United Nations

numbers

1967

1968

1967

1968

12

14

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

2 2 2 2 2 2 * * * * 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 5 = 2 2 ✡ 8

Metal mining

2

2

473

396

standard

industrial

classification numbers

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

1967

1968

1967

1968

Clay pits and quarrying ...

54

36

980

917

23

Manufacture of textiles

Non-metallic mining

10

12

61

83

Cotton spinning

33

33

21,525 21,670

Wool spinning

11

11

2,944 3,181

Food manufacture

516

543

9,622

9,601

Beverages

28

28

2,136

2,077

Tobacco manufacture

Manufacture of textiles

Footwear and wearing apparel ...

Manufacture of wood and cork

Manufacture of furniture

5

5

1,332 1,221

Cotton weaving

Finishing

Knitting

Cordage, rope and twine

255

260

30,623

31,609

218

233

7,685

9,194

604

752

33,416

42,131

36

32

645

664

24

Footwear and wearing apparel

1,462

1,664 104,682 116,957

Footwear except rubber footwear

112

134 2,221

2,782

1,545 1,761 80,307 94,834

397

403 4,981 5,118

Wearing apparel except footwear Made-up textile goods except wearing

apparel

1,355

1,541

75,987

90,239

78

86 2,099

1,813

31

420

414

4,487 4,524

Chemicals and chemical products

Medicines

38

39

946

966

Paper

248

272

3,755

4,512

Cosmetics

4

Printing and publishing

865

895

15,508

15,885

Paints and lacquers

14

11

Matches

1

+--

4

177

158

891

864

1

217

155

Leather and leather products

38

43

720

888

34

Basic metal industries

Rubber products...

Chemicals and chemical products

255

284

11,091

12,592

35

Metal products

127

127

4,127

4,129

Products of petroleum and coal

3

3

10

16

Non-metallic mineral products..

109

102

2,837

3,021

Rolling mills

Tin cans

Enamelware

Vacuum flasks Electro-plating.

:

16

19

989

1,466

46

46

1,014

1,000

19

19

2,679

2,421

7

7 1,243

1,172

164

151

1,640

2,015

Needles ...

7

7

662

612

34

Basic metal industries

135

142

2,537 2,995

Hurricane lamps

2

2

209

201

35

Metal products

1,551

1,651 38,608 40,844

Hand torch cases

44

42

4,645

3,989

Pressure stoves and lanterns

31

32

2,463 2,006

36

Manufacture of machinery

606

37

Electrical apparatus

293

605 6,339 7,014

312 31,718 42,368

Wrist watch bands

93

95 4,848

4,675

37

Electrical apparatus

Hand torch bulbs

49

38

Transport equipment

179

198

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

2,029

2,420

15,975

76,469 91,569

16,477

Torch batteries

21

358

55 4,039 3,956

20 3,043 3,161

38

Transport equipment

Shipbuilding and repairing

29

51

Electricity and gas

10

10

3,788 4,402

Shipbreaking

...

61

Wholesale and retail trade

10

13

606

598

Aircraft repair.

32

232

31

9,625 391

9,979

367

1,952

1,914

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

71

72

73

84

85

Transport.

Storage and warehousing

Telephones

Motion picture industry

Laundry and dry cleaning

Totals

27

30

8,241 10,514

Artificial pearls

14

18

745

774

Buttons

33

32

745

718

28

28

3,723

4,164

Bakelite ware

31

37

1,212

1,343

1

1

4,357

4,535

13

11 1,839

1,961

::

266

264 2,663 2,541

71

Transport

11,232 12,279 443,972 506,753

Plastic ware Plastic flowers Fountain pens

Tramways

Motor buses

1,239

1,474

40,019 47,408

328

368

15,803

16,699

6

6

174

158

1

1 1,609

1,614

7

7 6,437

8,528

302

Appendix IV

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections, 1968

Applications received for registration

2,581

Registration certificates issued

1,826

...

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

6

Applications withdrawn

296

Factories closed and Registration Certificates surrendered

681

Places of employment registered at December 31

8,454

*Factories 'recorded' at December 31

3,825

Routine visits by inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health and

welfare provisions

50,347

Inspections in connection with industrial or occupational accidents

and workmen's compensation

2,135

Visits for wage enquiries

259

**

Visits about employment of women and young persons

21,630

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

...

15,155

Visits in connection with enforcement of the Industrial Employment

(Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance

3,267

* Undertakings which do not require to be registered as factories but are inspected by the

Labour Department staff.

Appendix V

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1968

Persons involved

Deaths

Persons injured in registrable workplaces

Deaths in registrable workplaces

*Total accidents reported and investigated

(1967 total 8,633)

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1967 rate 11.19)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1967 rate 0.055)

:

:

:

:

:

:

9,241

130 5,285

31 9,241

10.49

0.061

* An accident involving two or more persons is recorded as a separate accident for each person

involved.

1. Duties

2. Rates

Appendix VI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue

303

1966-7

1967-8

1968-9

Head of Revenue

Actual

Estimated

Actual

Estimated

$

$

$

$

314,561,260 329,100,000 320,681,015 333,300,000

247,655,673 278,000,000 280,467,373 300,200,000

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences and Franchises

5. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties

6. Fees of Court or Office

7. Water Revenue

8. Post Office

9. Kai Tak Airport and Air Services

10. Kowloon-Canton Railway

11. Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc

605,630,300 605,500,000 628,440,069 628,300,000

94,318,149 83,245,000 104,010,167 94,300,100

9,010,028 9,000,000 11,329,859 8,680,000

122,279,620 128,220,000 120,913,232 132,623,300

70,449,556 67,288,000 67,902,660 74,508,000

96,888,351 92,436,000 103,442,068 101,985,000

27,941,645 27,894,000 34,156,690 37,294,000

15,402,445 16,500,000 11,533,339 16,116,500

158,577,752 168,873,000 170,710,244 168,928,000

1,762,714,779 1,806,056,000 1,853,586,716 1,896,234,900

12. Land Sales

13. World Refugee Year Grants

14. Contributions Towards Projects

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

48,454,617 75,000,000 42,445,806 40,490,000

161,882

343,000

401,687

69,800

6,064,626 4,240,000 3,079,983 15,530,000

365,648

13,307

Total Revenue

1,817,761,552 1,885,639,000 1,899,527,499 1,952,324,700

304

Appendi

(Chapter 3: Financia

VII

Structure)

305

Expenditure

Expenditure

1966-7

1967-8

Head of Expenditure

Actual

$

Estimated $

Actual $

1968-9 Estimated

1966-7

Head of Expenditure

$

Actual $

Estimated

21.

HE the Governor's Establishment

837,875

22.

Agriculture and Fisheries

Department

23.

Audit Department

11,450,533 1,665,641

24. Census and Statistics Department

25.

Civil Aviation Department

6,597,154

26.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

27. Commerce and Industry

Department

28. Defence: Hong Kong Regiment

(The Volunteers)

29. Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

777,300 769,095

13,753,600 12,005,818

1,766,100 1,679,173 1,816,100 726,456 2,987,500 9,487,000 7,035,180 10,632,100

13,759,052 17,635,000 16,374,541 18,603,700

15,839,109

16,889,570 18,285,700 19,577,000

1,842,918 2,590,200 1,968,747 2,388,500

978,721 1,849,400 2,029,343 1,585,700

833,000

13,619,900

54. Printing Department 55. Prisons Department

56. Public Debt

6,552,263 16,826,276

5,442,910

57. Public Services Commission 58. Public Works Department

59. Public Works Recurrent

60.

67,717

84,499,411 91,505,753

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Headquarters

62.

61. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Buildings

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Civil Engineering

63. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Waterworks

64.

Radio Hong Kong

1968-9 Estimated $

7,624,300 7,099,479 8,523,200 19,303,700 17,724,695 19,863,500

5,333,310 5,332,960

206,000

161,171 209,100 98,115,000 95,018,759 107,630,500 94,038,500 85,922,654 100,127,200

6,629,000 31,159,789 14,484,000 13,085,305

185,346,864 205,602,600 170,117,164 186,357,300

118,261,292 121,872,100 89,800,797 96,091,900

145,125,284 118,517,000 87,796,545 76,431,000 3,574,031 4,096,800 4,081,522 4,441,200

1967-8

Actual $

5,041,710

30. Defence: Essential Services

Corps and Directorate of Manpower

65.

Rating and Valuation

219,754

...

31. Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service

494,244

447,500

598,000

419,462

347,759

436,400

Department

2,562,251

66.

Registrar General's Department

4,568,621

505,000

67.

Registry of Trade Unions

320,544

3,088,400 2,851,104 4,898,400 336,900

3,742,500

4,827,450 388,899

5,741,600

414,100

32. Defence: Auxiliary Medical

Service

1,330,463

33. Defence: Civil Aid Services

1,830,343

34. Defence: Registration of Persons

Office

1,666,912

35. Defence: Miscellaneous

Measures

36. Education Department

37. Fire Services Department

38. Immigration Department

***

39. Information Services Department

40. Inland Revenue Department

41. Judiciary

...

42.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

43.

Labour Department: Labour

Division

3,600,935

44. Labour Department: Mines

Division

45. Legal Department

46. Marine Department

47.

48.

Medical and Health Department Miscellaneous Services

49.

50.

New Territories Administration

Pensions

51. Police Force: Hong Kong Police

52. Police Force: Auxiliary Police ...

53.

Post Office

1,933,654

53,913,851

1,523,100 1,399,508

2,275,200 1,731,220

1,634,500 1,516,463

58,323,005 73,984,800 79,191,543 81,140,100 83,400,294 284,219,800 254,052,149 288,604,300

23,324,811 28,071,300 24,898,377 33,189,000

5,440,572 7,321,500 6,654,678 7,932,600 3,596,257 4,099,500 4,610,447 6,948,000

7,260,710 8,904,700 9,150,440 10,534,100 8,904,470 10,337,500 9,596,230 11,187,800

9,449,168

8,486,865 9,632,800

9,271,400

4,154,800 4,063,966 5,203,500

365,146 421,100 392,321

545,600

2,959,742 3,354,100 3,362,697 3,865,000 21,985,879 23,680,300 19,259,669 21,709,900 112,713,222 129,873,700 120,524,934 134,938,600 82,479,132 44,083,200 73,417,608 44,348,600 11,430,385 12,474,000 12,813,344 13,448,700 43,515,917 41,665,000 46,657,149 49,132,000 112,147,786 125,632,400 124,194,709 144,759,600 2,327,200 1,449,931 3,653,700 52,487,700 55,755,229 59,293,200

1,753,600

68.

Resettlement Department

32,956,043

39,897,700

34,067,345

42,398,800

2,417,400

69. Royal Observatory

3,385,231

3,802,200

3,055,797

3,507,200

70.

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs

2,509,351

2,893,100

2,736,426

3,326,600

1,719,500

71.

72.

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs:

Public Enquiry Service Social Welfare Department

307,765

346,900

348,089

377,300

10,898,545

12,584,000

12,964,978

15,857,900

73. Stores Department

22,656,799

21,126,000

11,604,999

21,278,800

76.

74. Subventions: Medical 75. Subventions: Social Welfare

Subventions: Miscellaneous

***

45,478,728 48,973,000 46,341,311

54,608,800

77.

Treasury

78.

Universities

79.

Urban Services Department and

Urban Council

6,735,245 7,956,600 7,814,429 9,888,400 17,810,512 20,600,300 21,450,056 22,287,000

4,577,785 314,187

55,927,950

4,516,600 4,489,378 4,756,400 39,361,600 35,253,068 68,084,000

80.

Urban Services Department:

City Hall

81. Urban Services Department:

Housing Division

2,657,566

6,458,671

82.

Urban Services Department:

New Territories Division Defence: Hong Kong Royal

Naval Reserve

6,681,713

1,019,435

61,068,400 60,178,378 68,005,600

3,664,200 3,029,273 4,068,200

8,923,200 7,463,285 9,739,400

8,072,300 7,458,556 8,594,100

250,000

60,186

Subventions: Education

183,838,847

comm

1,805,285,034 1,922,192,410 1,765,948,679 1,965,312,110

83. World Refugee Year Schemes

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

410,316

371,252

407,700

60,424

12,937

40,900

Total

1,806,066,602 1,922,600,110 1,766,022,040 1,965,353,010

306

DEPOSITS:

Unspent Grants

Public Works Department:

Contract Retentions

Private Works

Water Deposits

Other Deposits:

Control of Publications

Government Servants

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

SPECIAL FUNDS:

:

F.

:

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Statement of Assets and

VIII

Structure)

Liabilities as at March 31, 1968

LIABILITIES

$ 11,580,316.55

CASH:

ASSETS

307

$ 5,089,123.24

In Treasuries, in transit, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong

$ 38,374,242.27

With the Crown Agents

12,801,706.49 $ 51,175,948.76

3,762,841.50

27,248,440.49

42,591,598.54

FIXED DEPOSITS:

Local

Sterling

1,020,000.00

INVESTMENTS: (i)

1,080,853.13

74,114.12

Malayan

Sterling

...

18,970,802.55

21,145,769.80

$ 68,826,491.58

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies ...

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE: (ii)

As at April 1, 1967

Add:

Surplus from April 1, 1967 to March 31, 1968

Less:

Net loss on revaluation (iii)

Depreciation on Investments

Notes:

710,190,423.14

192,093.06

:

:

:

:

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies-

Deposits

138,024,760.94

ADVANCES:

133,505,458.92

843,695,882.06

43,181,221.45

12,870,096.13

56,051,317.58

787,644,564.48

$994,687,910.06

Personal-Imprests

Personal-General

Post Office

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

:

545,260,000.00

7,272,727.27

552,532,727.27

21,385,975.76

357,256,687.82

378,642,663.58

150,000.00

516,558.60

6,682,855.81

3,216,300.47

569,511.37

1,201,344.20

12,186,570.45

(i) Does not include 16,290 shares of a nominal value of (ii) There are contingent liabilities in respect of-

(a) The contracts of the Hong Kong Export Credit (b) The accumulated deficit of $393,790.41 of the $ Note (iii) Represents the net Hong Kong dollar cost to the Colony's dollar from 1/3d to 1/44d sterling from November 23,

$100 each held in Associated Properties Limited.

Insurance Corporation.

Security Fund.

General Revenue Balance of the decision to revalue the Hong Kong 1967.

$994,687,910.06

308

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

IX

Structure)

and Capital Income and Expenditure

Recurrent

Actual

1964-5 $

Actual 1965-6 $

Actual 1966-7

Actual 1967-8 $

Estimate 1968-9 $

Recurrent Revenue

..1,327,122,014 1,514,339,155 1,717,615,435 1,794,823,131 1,860,173,700

Personal Emoluments

Pensions

1,327,122,014 1,514,339,155 1,717,615,435 1,794,823,131 1,860,173,700

309

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (excluding Unallocated Stores)

Recurrent Subventions

Public Works Recurrent

Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

Actual 1966-7 $

Actual 1967-8 $

Estimate

1968-9

$

Actual

Actual 1964-5

1965-6 $

$

457,280,738 523,227,308 573,972,981 625,243,894 694,106,600

28,868,353 30,644,023 43,515,917 46,657,148 49,132,000

149,012,715 158,208,485 178,051,064 186,682,063 222,526,000

159,404,094 195,924,014 236,985,765 258,446,701 301,191,400

52,021,336 70,332,146 91,505,753 85,922,654 100,127,200

47,183,934 56,122,372

893,771,170 1,034,458,348

57,209,115 102,183,738 108,715,010

1,181,240,595 1,305,136,198 1,475,798,210

Transfer to Capital Revenue 355,587,343 479,880,807 524,679,890 356,181,474 384,375,490 Surplus

77,763,501

11,694,950 133,505,459

1,327,122,014 1,514,339,155 1,717,615,435 1,794,823,131 1,860,173,700

Capital

Estate Duty

24,722,076 18,952,039 19,450,595

18,327,217 18,000,000

Departmental Special

Expenditure

Excess Stamp Duty (3%

on Assignments)

11,682,926

9,892,715

10,219,200

7,778,047

5,500,000

Private Contributions

towards Government Schemes

Loan Repayments ...

Land Sales

3,825,442

177,559

132,976,109

3,115,862 6,064,626 3,079,983

6,622,028 6,653,784 7,081,291

73,355,395 48,454,617 42,445,806

15,530,000 7,561,200 40,490,000

Capital Subventions

Public Debt (excluding

interest)

18,837,738 29,848,197 32,206,622 26,587,538 54,211,300

22,191,179 25,845,748 16,877,567 18,110,809 45,978,000

4,252,000

4,252,000

3,809,600

3,700,000

3,409,100

Public Works Non-

recurrent

490,450,261

587,398,574 479,893,230

360,799,811

365,509,200

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

1,362,638

637,625

371,252

12,937

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

World Refugee Year Grants

1,358,984

1,239,115

Taxi Concessions

15,182,600

586,539

2,032,480

2,805,000

365,648

13,307

161,882

401,688

8,775,765 25,577,029

Miscellaneous Capital

Expenditure

4,050,325

79,272,502

85,226,332

69,800 5,000,000

52,058,373

18,406,300

World Refugee Year

Schemes

2,570,699

2,794,831

410,316

60,424

40,900

Contribution from

Recurrent Revenue

Deficit

137,429,255

546,752,154 734,672,120 624,826,007

13,028,310

460,885,842 489,554,800

191,164,811 117,362,058 100,146,117 104,704,368 92,151,000 355,587,343 479,880,807 524,679,890 356,181,474 384,375,490

Unallocated Stores

Accounts...

3,037,314

4,622,643

6,031,088

Cr. 444,050

2,000,000

546,752,154

734,672,120

624,826,007

460,885,842

489,554,800

310

Appendix X

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Public Debt of the Colony at March 31, 1968

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8 ...

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

:

:

$

46,646,000.00

23,272,727.27

69,918,727.27

Appendix XI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Colonial Development and Welfare

Details of locally administered schemes in progress during 1968 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme Number

Title

Estimated expenditure

up to

December 31, 1968

Maximum grant available

CD & W share of approved expenditure

CD & W

Total

share

£

%

£

£

D 4115

Aeronautical Telecommunications ...

21,200

*55

39,071

21,200

(max)

D 5250

D 5250Aƒ

Kowloon Wholesale Fish and

Vegetable Markets

163,581

*see note

311,000

163,581

(max)

D 5365

Extention to University Hall for the

University of Hong Kong

101,875

22

1,433

888

D 5366

Purchase of Equipment for Marine Physics research at the University

of Hong Kong

12,500

100

12,132

12,132

R 1731

Pesticides Research

390

100

390

390

R 1817

TB in the Tropics Research...

3,000

100

3,000

3,000

R 1873

Leprosy in Hong Kong

2,925

100

2,925

2,925

£305,471

£369,951

£204,116

* 55% of expenditure up to a maximum of £21,200.

† £140,000 of the first £270,300 of the total cost and 2/3rds of the remainder of the total cost

up to a maximum of £23,581.

Appendix XII

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees*

311

1965-6

1966-7

1967-8

1968-9

Actual Revenue

Actual Revenue

Actual

Revenue

$

Estimate

$

1.

Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils

2.

Import Duty on Intoxicating Liquor

82,390,613 103,712,960 108,120,836 118,000,000

54,639,473 63,940,637 62,055,754 69,000,000

3.

Import Duty on Liquor other than

Intoxicating Liquor

1,926,317 1,922,351 1,742,451 2,100,000

4.

Import Duty on Tobacco

93,683,785 118,235,613 121,503,206 117,000,000

5.

6.

Duty on Locally Manufactured Liquor

Duty on Table Waters

20,493,504 19,453,051 19,221,883 19,500,000

6,244,839 7,296,648 8,036,885 8,400,000

259,378,531 314,561,260 320,681,015 334,000,000

* These figures represent net revenue collected, i.e. after deducting refunds and drawbacks

of duty.

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

1.

Hydrocarbon Oils

2.

Liquor

3.

Tobacco

4.

Miscellaneous

:

194,795

193,172

2,746,374 3,013,939 3,128,505 3,280,000

193,455

197,000

788,835

861,764

851,268

876,000

28,830

28,425

32,709

33,000

3,758,834 4,097,300 4,205,937

4,386,000

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

1. Denaturing

421,916

381,969

411,386

450,000

2. Factory Inspection and Supervision...

39,914

15,476

253

3. Anti-narcotic Smuggling Guards

8,036

8,610

10,710

1,400

4.

Bonded Warehouse Supervision

369,524

347,229

331,034

282,400

839,390

753,284

753,383

733,800

312

I

- Housing Loans:

1.

Housing Authority (i)

2.

DETAILS

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Approved

XIII

Structure)

Loan Fund

Projects as at March 31, 1968

Allocation

of Funds $

Total Expenditure to 31.3.68 $

LOAN PROJECTS

Hong Kong Housing Society:

(a) Completed Schemes

(b) Kennedy Town Scheme

(c) Kwun Tong Scheme Extension

Local Government Officers {()

3.

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans (ii)

5.

Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited

6.

Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited:

(a) Share capital

(b) Initial Loan Fund

7.

The Hong Kong Round Table

II - Educational Loans (ii)

:

:

:

1. The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

2.

The Mother Superioress of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

III -

Medical Loans:

IV

-

Miscellaneous Loans:

1. Hong Kong Football Club

2.

South China Athletic Association

3.

Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited:

Ocean Terminal

...

4.

University of Hong Kong

V

- Fisheries Loans (i)

VI - Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

Grand Total (iii)

:

:

:

:

:

:

Total Repayments to 31.3.68 $

313

Balances at 31.3.68

$

260,000,000

216,926,894.02

216,926,894.02

99,018,214

99,018,212.04

6,311,315.76

92,706,896.28

24,500,000 22,500,000

24,500,000.00

24,500,000.00

22,500,000.00

176,000,000 27,500,000

210,000 10,000,000

9,500,000.00

131,204,937.02

170,736.83

25,313,673.14

22,329,263.17

105,891,263.88

5,381,870.03

5,381,870.03

210,000.00

167,181.51

42,818.49 9,500,000.00

600,000 15,400,000 20,000

635,748,214

300,000.00 5,002,360.00

120,000,000

20,000.00

514,564,273.11

78,598,741.20

300,000.00 5,002,360.00 20,000.00

31,962,907.24

26,405,270.18

482,601,365.87

52,193,471.02

3,750,000 2,000,000

3,750,000.00 2,000,000.00

1,111,120.00

2,638,880.00

706,498.48

1,293,501.52

5,750,000

5,750,000.00

1,817,618.48

3,932,381.52

550,000

600,000

550,000.00

410,474.82

600,000.00

342,305.53

139,525.18 257,694.47

26,900,000

220,000

26,900,000.00

1,345,000.00

25,555,000.00

28,270,000

5,000,000

28,050,000.00

2,097,780.35

25,952,219.65

3,869,966.00

3,869,966.00

10,000,000

10,000,000.00

10,000,000.00

804,768,214

640,832,980.31

62,283,576.25

578,549,404.06

Notes: (i) These loans constitute revolving funds and are therefore (ii) Includes balances of loans originally made from General (iii) Projects totalling $9,252,934.69 have been finalized and

shown net after the deduction of repayments.

Revenue but taken over by the Development Loan Fund on October 1, 1959.

are not included in this statement.

314

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Assets and

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Loan Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1968

ASSETS

LIABILITIES

602,853,028.83

378,188.76

Development Loan Fund:

As at April 1, 1967

Less adjustment-Land Sales Premia 1966-7

$578,716,298.14

37.80

578,716,260.34

Statement of Receipts and Payments-Recurrent Receipts

24,136,768.49

Loss due to revaluation of Sterling Assets (i)

:

Cash:

In Treasuries, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong...

Fixed Deposits

Investments:

Local...

Kwun Tong Reclamation:

Outstanding premia (ii)

Outstanding Loans and Capital (iii) for:

Housing (iii) ...

Educational

Medical

Fisheries

Export Credit Insurance (iii)

Miscellaneous purposes

:

$602,474,840.07

$602,474,840.07

315

:

:

$ 2,985,408.68

5,000,000.00

408,240.00

15,531,787.33

$482,601,365.87

52,193,471.02

3,932,381.52

3,869,966.00

25,952,219.65 578,549,404.06

10,000,000.00

Notes: (i) This represents the Hong Kong dollar cost to the the Hong Kong dollar from 1/3d to 1/41⁄2d sterling from (ii) Does not include the value of nine unsold Kwun Tong (iii) The Capital items comprise 6,000 shares (each of $100 and Loan Agency Limited and $10,000,000 in the Hong

Summary of Receipts and

Colony's Development Loan Fund Balance of the decision to revalue November 23, 1967.

Reclamation lots.

of which $50 per share has been paid up) in The Hong Kong Building Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation.

Payments for 1967-8

1.

Receipts:

Loan repayments

Interest on Loans

Interest on Investments and Balances

Interest on Land sales premia ...

...

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong Reclamation

Profit on realization of investments

LESS

2.

Payments:

Loans and Capital (Net)

3.

Deficit

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

#

$602,474,840.07

$12,936,396.63 21,640,456.42

1,750,670.06

648,061.89 1,340,178.09 97,580.12

$38,413,343.21

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

63,083,702.23

$24,670,359.02

316

Appendix

XIII

Contd

(Chapter 3: Financial

Structure)

Lotteries Statement of Approved Grants and

Fund

Loans as at March 31, 1968

DETAILS

317

Allocation

of

Funds $

I -

GRANTS:

Total Expenditure to 31.3.68 $

to 31.3.68

$

Total Repayments

Balances at 31.3.68

$

1. Yuen Long Community Centre:

(a) Capital expenditure

(b) Recurrent expenditure

1,000,000 250,000

2.

Social Research Project

1,000,000

750,000.00

3.

Girl Guides Association-Headquarters building

350,000

350,000.00

4.

Family Planning Association-Publicity campaign

58,200

58,200.00

5.

Hong Kong Council of Social Service (Sub-Committee on Child Feeding)-Replacement of

capital equipment

156,000

144,131,00

6.

Director of Medical and Health Services--Campaign to assist the disabled travelling by public

transport

10,000

4,000.00

7. The Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Equipment for Centre for Teenage Girls at Brick Hill,

Aberdeen

100,000

97,841.55

8.

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Equipment for 3 children's libraries at playgrounds

21,000

11,559.88

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

9. Society for the Relief of Disabled Children-Equipment for extension to Sandy Bay

Convalescent Home (interim grant)

100,000

100,000.00

10.

11.

Aberdeen Technical School-Provision of additional boarding accommodation Maryknoll Fathers-Social Service Centre, Ngau Tau Kok ...

300,000

300,000.00

340,000

12.

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Additions at Shek Kwu Chau

Treatment Centre

115,000

114,995.20

18. Research Sub-Committee of the Action Committee against Narcotics-Survey on community

attitudes towards drug addiction

19.

23. Children's Playground Association-Repairs and improvements at MacPherson Stadium 24. Boy Scouts Association:

13. Education and Publicity Sub-Committee (Action Committee against Narcotics)-Publicity

campaign

14.

Christian Children's Fund-New children's home in Tai Po ̈ ̈ ̈

15. Hong Kong Family Welfare Society Equipment for Chung Chi College Chinese University

Student Unit

16. Caritas, Hong Kong-Alterations and equipment for a Youth Centre, Central District... 17. British Red Cross Society-Alterations and equipment for a transit hostel at Tsz Wan Shan

Resettlement Estate, for physically handicapped children

Foster Parents' Plan Inc-An enlarged Hong Kong Office in Chai Wan

20. Hong Kong Society for the Blind-Two additional storeys on the Rotary Centre for the Blind.. 21. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Expansion of Shek Kwu Chau

Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

22. Poh Yeh Ching Shea-Home for the Aged, Tai Po

(a) Gilwell Projects, Phase B

(b) Tai Tam Project

25. Po Leung Kuk-Annexe to main building

55,000

40,452.55

300,000

1,905

1,825.00

45,000

45,000.00

57,000

57,000.00

25,600

56,440

43,008.00

140,000

46,160.98

| |│

2,000,000

200,000

45,000

100,000

300,000

400,000

26. Hong Kong Council of Social Service-Youth Workshop

20,000

20,000.00

27. Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups-Youth Centre in Yau Ma Tei

40,000

31,378.00

28. Save the Children Fund-Alterations to the Nursery at Kwun Tong Community Centre

8,100

29. Capital assistance to Voluntary Agencies in Estate Welfare Buildings

200,000

30. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals-Home for the Aged, Aberdeen 31. Children's Playground Association-Silver Mine Bay Holiday Camp

200,000

32. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Equipment for a library at the Ham Tin Resettlement

Estates

30,000

30,400

33. St Christopher's Home-Replacement of dilapidated nissen huts

60,000

34. Tung Lam Nien Fah Tong Limited-Home for the Aged, Tsuen Wan

220,000

Total Grants

8,334,645

2,215,552.16

II

LOANS:

1.

Chinese YMCA-Youth Centre

2.

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

YWCA-Anne Black Centre

3. Hong Kong Resettlement Estates Loan Association Loan Capital

2,000,000.00

2,000,000

100,000

100,000.00

100,000.00

Total Loans

Grand Total

4,100,000

2,100,000.00

2,100,000.00

:

12,434,645

4,315,552.16

2,100,000.00

Note: Projects totalling $330,932.10 have been

finalized and are not included in this statement.

318

ASSETS

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

Statement of Assets and

XIII- Contd

Structure)

Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1968

LIABILITIES

Fixed Deposits

Loans*

$ 578,560.00 1,610,888.00

Cash at Bank

$ 2,189,448.00

:

:

:

:

:

:

319

$

702,232.68

13,000,000.00

2,100,000.00

558,413.41

563,000

1,386,028.54 2,167,488.68

13,612,784.68

$15,802,232.68

$15,802,232.68

* In addition Grants totalling

$2,546,484.26 have been made.

Statement of Receipts and Payments

for the year ended March 31, 1968

DETAILS

Actual Receipts/ Payments

Approved Estimate

$

$

Unclaimed prize money-1967 Lotteries

Lotteries Fund:

As at April 1, 1967

1966 and earlier

Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Recurrent Payments

...

:

::

. $3,553,517.22

11,445,296.00

RECEIPTS

:

:

:

:

:

::

:

Recurrent:

Interest on Balances

Proceeds of Government Lotteries:

(a) Current year-

Gross receipts

...

Less prize money and expenses

:

:

(b) Adjustment in respect of unclaimed prize money and accrued interest of previous years Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities ...

Non-Recurrent:

:

Loan Repayments.

:

$7,214,000.00 4,891,472.14

2,322,527.86

2,300,000

672,575.95*

1,936,000

3,553,517.22

4,799,000

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

3,553,517.22

100,000

4,899,000

1,386,028.54

1,865,000

1,386,028.54

1,865,000

162,000.00

1,500,000

Total Payments

1,548,028.54

3,365,000

* Includes no unclaimed prize money. See Statement of Assets and

Liabilities for total prize money unclaimed but not yet forfeited.

Total Receipts

PAYMENTS

Recurrent:

Grants

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities ...

Non-Recurrent:

Loans

:

:

:

320

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Currency and

Currency in Circulation

XIV

Structure)

Banking Statistics

and Bank Deposits

321

Date

Number of reporting banks

Notes and coins in circulation (HK$ million)

Deposits (HK$ million)

Index of Deposits

December 31, 1955=100

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

31.12.1955

31.12.1956

34

771.7

1,137

852

152

133

100

100

100

100

34

783.3

1,267

928

173

166

111

109

114

125

31.12.1957

35

812.6

1,412

955

267

190

124

112

176

143

31.12.1958

36

827.6

1,583

988

351

244

139

116

231

183

31.12.1959

41

896.2

2,056

1,205

482

369

181

141

317

277

31.12.1960

47

984.0

2,682

1,393

752

537

236

163

495

404

31.12.1961

59

1,026.7

3,367

1,470

1,234

663

296

173

812

498

31.12.1962

63

1,123.7

4,311

1,664

1,768

879

379

195

1,163

661

31.12.1963

67

1,229.8

5,425

1,997

2,283

1,145

477

234

1,502

861

31.12.1964

69

1,399.5

6,568

2,237

2,810

1,521

578

263

1,849

1,144

31.12.1965

78

1,739.8

7,251

2,532

3,099

1,620

638

297

2,039

1,218

31.12.1966

76

1,852.4

8,405

2,681

3,742

1,982

739

315

2,462

1,490

31.12.1967

31.12.1968

75

2,307.7

8,162

2,658

3,324

2,180

718

312

2,187

1,639

75

2,130.5

10,367

3,144

4,432

2,791

912

369

2,916

2,098

Date

Number of reporting banks

Cash (i.e. legal tender notes and coins in hand) (HK$ million)

Banking

NET balances with

other banks (including Head Offices or Branches outside

Hong Kong)

& other short

term claims

Assets

Loans and Advances (HK$ million)

Investments (HK$ million)

Index of Loans and Advances December 31, 1955-100

'Liquidity Ratio' (i.e. cash and net balances with other banks expressed as

percentage of total deposits)

(HK$ millino)

31.12.1955

34

144

12.7%

459

40.4%

632

55.6%

96

8.4%

100

53.3%

31.12.1956

34

97

7.7%

541

42.7%

769

60.7%

98

7.7%

122

50.4%

31.12.1957

35

118

8.4%

578

40.9%

865

61.3%

101

7.2%

137

49.3%

31.12.1958

36

84

5.3%

730

46.1%

919

58.1%

121

7.6%

145

51.4%

31.12.1959

41

86

4.2%

775

37.7%

1,373

66.8%

133

6.5%

217

41.9%

31.12.1960

47

136

5.1%

930

34.6%

1,720

64.1%

166

6.2%

272

39.7%

31.12.1961

59

114

3.4%

1,041

30.9%

2,334

69.3%

232

6.9%

369

34.3%

31.12.1962

63

162

3.8%

1,482

34.4%

2,849

66.1%

191

4.4%

451

38.1%

31.12.1963

67

210

3.7%

1,831

33.8%

3,642

67.1%

187

3.4%

576

37.5%

31.12.1964

69

238

3.6%

1,577

24.0%

4,586

69.8%

271

4.1%

726

27.6%

31.12.1965

78

221

3.0%

2,133

29.4%

5,038

69.5%

527

7.3%

797

32.5%

31.12.1966

76

232

2.8%

2,862

34.1%

5,380

64.0%

537

6.4%

851

36.8%

31.12.1967

75

333

4.1%

2,347

28.8%

5,343

65.5%

590

7.2%

845

32.8%

31.12.1968

75

310

3.0%

3,860

37.2%

6,038

58.2%

636

6.1%

955

40.2%

Figures in Italics=

percentage of total deposits.

322

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

XV

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International

1966, 1967 and 1968

323

Food

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

1966 $

IMPORTS

1967 $

1968 $

1966 $

EXPORTS 1967

$

1968 $

1966

$

RE-EXPORTS 1967 $

1968

$

466,555,211

365,420,619

356,037,870

427,086

74,746

29,060

1,273,194

1,033,734

1,902,252

187,014,717

206,191,547

251,851,920

1,815,613

1,790,012

1,822,156

4,255,590

3,796,663

7,488,295

Dairy products and eggs

186,999,083

189,765,808

202,207,150

263,998

379,124

467,789

9,917,075

12,577,188

15,212,157

Fish and fish preparations

194,561,817

238,624,110

250,663,686

56,203,466

54,287,196

74,544,132

26,850,411

26,179,507

22,268,240

Cereals and cereal preparations

448,324,354

637,119,748

602,642,353

24,465,858

34,279,175

41,069,245

35,028,885

20,053,890

30,562,063

Fruits and vegetables

412,447,699

437,975,870

507,641,825

22,667,566

22,791,447

25,016,679

88,150,665

64,759,157

74,989,099

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

107,975,936

67,703,436

91,463,579

13,857,367

10,389,611

16,168,301

36,311,379

12,044,548

16,537,130

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures

thereof

127,032,311

89,105,694

97,500,195

1,253,479

1,107,242

1,230,131

85,468,866

59,793,387

59,212,621

Feeding stuff for animals (not including

unmilled cereals)

27,524,656

28,518,306

32,745,212

4,740,306

4,526,724

2,893,346

4,346,054

2,818,690

990,181

Miscellaneous food preparations

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

---

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

57,659,870

68,253,183

75,524,660

28,236,598

22,747,122

26,311,181

8,182,824

10,242,217

6,815,302

2,216,095,654

2,328,678,321

2,468,278,450

153,931,337

152,372,399

189,552,020

299,784,943

213,298,981

235,977,340

84,461,668 123,776,728

90,749,335

96,651,707

2,343,714

2,573,207

2,554,991

5,580,811

8,619,327

8,298,831

123,260,074

129,665,811

35,599,052

32,958,040

26,369,670

8,260,691

7,781,707

10,144,331

208,238,396

214,009,409

226,317,518

37,942,766

35,531,247

28,924,661

13,841,502

16,401,034

18,443,162

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

12,643,578

10,547,676

14,327,456

1,764,470

2,498,445

2,696,591

11,587,945

5,836,829

3,119,054

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

45,022,757

38,349,685

41,240,873

27,770,630

15,872,515

17,291,447

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

32,042,585

40,207,590

26,936,721

8,381,379

18,665,709

1,478,738

Wood, lumber and cork

60,793,549

51,996,296

66,097,587

3,336,693

4,034,287

7,695,071

7,751,248

Pulp and waste paper

954,754

380,961

304,672

7,624,050

9,730,200

8,785,472

607,126

9,185,908 453,973

11,306,426

75,812

Textile fibres and waste

623,159,019

578,098,345

840,216,182

9,076,452

10,096,088

12,296,024

11,428,459

6,567,831

7,039,491

Crude fertilizers and crude minerals, excluding

coal, petroleum and precious stones

14,756,964

14,465,399

22,988,215

1,161,726

1,130,597

1,180,551

3,150,402

2,616,895

1,660,681

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

24,294,724

32,369,891

39,023,019

64,309,413

72,173,273

80,188,232

7,646,907

5,581,909

6,115,999

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible,

not else where specified

216,476,138

219,528,085

210,312,417

22,940,076

25,236,414

28,056,132

94,143,082

90,284,967

95,399,865

1,030,144,068

985,943,928

1,261,447,142

110,212,880

124,899,304

140,898,073

172,467,178

155,066,536

143,487,513

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Coal, coke and briquettes

Petroleum and petroleum products Gas, natural and manufactured

Electric energy

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

13,519,655 317,756,283 5,331,226

10,264,031 364,498,992

9,658,407

12,002

28,330

3,110

409,723,191

6,766,507

9,147,567

394,008 33,580,371 438,813

15,215 35,822,153 551,549

108,960 36,774,126

401,012

Animal oils and fats

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

336,607,164

762,099 72,236,015

381,529,530

428,529,165

12,002

Animal and vegetable oils and fats, processed,

and waxes of animal or vegetable origin

1,100,241

74,098,355

750,092 74,971,390

885,408

76,606,890

1,235,274

221,560

76,517,779

4,163,076

28,330

152,670 2,940,243

3,110

17,856 2,905,277

1,196,589

20,000

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

126,536,132

165,464,163

78,949,642

203,921,716

4,404,636

4,800

3,097,713

2,970,070

2,686,751

10,475

2,933,608

4,067,924

Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal,

petroleum and natural gas

377,306

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

96,376,552

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

153,681,580

289,608 110,594,157 162,976,757

80,853 138,851,586 201,707,023

17,646,553

19,454,221

19,620,710

20,141,772

24,155,847

24,945,778

34,413,192

9,851 10,898,492

213,018

11,121,361

26,456,919

5,017 38,103,069 107,626,198

36,388,917

37,284,098

39,708 5,574,647

486,357

6,100,712

327,532 5,124,554

270,776

5,722,862

37,066,420

40,281,331

186,006 44,441,944 136,073,800

6,350 55,617,156 176,241,162

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet,

polishing and cleansing preparations

82,588,900

Fertilizers, manufactured..

3,582,484

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

23,110,786

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and

artificial resins

227,481,465

Chemical materials and products, not elsewhere

specified

34,000,300

747,735,505

87,040,880 3,672,185 23,139,634

268,299,645

39,443,266

860,920,295

107,265,676

6,161,425

6,621,957

14,795,842

3,338,784

23,268,800 35,466

24,814,763

19,947,958

240,451

28,575

21,458,729

26,548,426

28,453,312

30,827,980

311,541,845

4,261,878

7,753,982

14,454,260

20,276,874

22,914,990

20,989,454

52,485,885

2,050,680

1,780,201

2,313,857

12,020,546

17,499,248

18,432,280

1,040,652,097

53,232,378

62,452,959

80,198,371

254,341,315

311,690,934

362,372,246

324

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

XV- Contd

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International

1966, 1967 and 1968

1966 $

IMPORTS 1967 $

1968 $

1966

EXPORTS 1967

1968

$

$

$

1966 $

RE-EXPORTS

1967 $

1968

$

325

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere

specified, and dressed furs

32,161,267

38,904,062

49,144,217

4,885,931

5,525,986

5,458,160

3,600,827

4,770,801

2,509,123

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified Wood and cork manufactures (excluding

furniture)...

34,834,491

34,616,095

43,470,065

1,661,916

1,845,722

3,650,694

4,916,913

11,897,715

5,967,434

...

46,515,742

37,697,853

48,467,016

7,016,159

9,338,090

13,105,087

2,551,494

3,282,363

5,039,649

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related

products

242,194,246

244,370,100

318,065,988

6,997,266

8,463,366

12,670,147

23,390,490

30,166,794

22,468,358

1,668,643,912

1,562,601,450 2,108,065,097

921,261,099

935,521,284

1,035,124,781

352,049,961

444,529,994

416,735,296

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not else-

where specified

735,677,583

714,667,358

852,849,356

45,423,518

57,493,326

71,825,886

314,331,277

371,420,884

386,977,192

Iron and steel

274,758,278

239,829,108

227,663,131

39,776,210

51,153,881

49,439,056

21,272,052

25,592,900

10,591,924

Non-ferrous metals

134,624,376

141,224,661

207,376,507

15,413,375

15,006,853

22,126,830

29,847,646

22,584,685

40,593,497

Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified

127,824,010

122,784,832

121,395,526

3,297,233,905

3,136,695,519 3,976,496,903

175,742,649

1,218,178,123

200,344,948

239,746,551

21,609,062

30,454,463

17,692,758

1,284,693,456 1,453,147,192

773,569,722

944,700,599

908,575,231

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

407,735,254

415,981,218

481,588,537

26,954,877

36,312,487

57,637,157

41,028,010

78,718,336

75,932,045

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliance Transport equipment

720,964,368

756,397,859

922,309,988

476,140,888

589,925,287

771,977,349

30,694,478

37,392,682

41,341,105

180,894,609

1,309,594,231

174,467,597

1,346,846,674 1,604,389,118

200,490,593

29,059,552

43,223,048

47,821,557

20,197,287

30,257,987

25,646,342

532,155,317

669,460,822

877,436,063

91,919,775

146,369,005

142,919,492

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

*

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures

and fittings

27,336,949

23,492,502

25,944,586

115,574,397

132,662,737

148,868,356

Furniture

25,120,559

21,210,803

23,854,685

42,740,198

58,260,520

60,483,878

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

13,983,264

14,401,014

17,021,616

56,798,033

80,400,708

124,780,945

1,641,059 1,866,730 417,791

2,857,203 3,154,801

2,453,563

2,898,490

704,185

1,109,733

Clothing

167,080,937

162,735,566

205,314,067

2,035,490,509

2,316,548,117

3,013,920,424

23,890,300

29,254,637

42,486,836

Footwear

44,271,858

42,226,288

53,300,400

184,217,220

218,850,764

271,418,746

4,509,623

11,313,459

16,355,546

Professional, scientific and controlling instru-

ments; photographic and optical goods, watches and clocks

307,506,495

408,590,634

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not else-

where specified

271,288,821

856,588,883

526,143,866

427,346,602 514,149,611

1,100,003,409 1,365,728,831

70,541,790

1,097,153,196

3,602,515,343

89,957,113 136,742,133

1,453,220,628 1,880,198,108

4,349,900,587 5,636,412,590

75,995,738

100,639,050

114,191,912

63,739,070

93,842,312

92,210,268

172,060,311

241,765,647

271,706,348

Commodities and transactions not classified according

to kind and transactions in gold and coin Commodities and transactions not classified

according to kind Transactions in gold and current coin

20,700,722

285,091,629

305,792,351

17,911,748 385,704,041

403,615,789

20,758,429 254,748,967

275,507,396

17,255,326

17,551,002

18,906,811

--

17,255,326

17,551,002

18,906,811

9,755,065 293,035,092

302,790,157

9,344,526 358,084,007

367,428,533

15,423,894 164,428,249

179,852,143

Total Merchandise

GRAND TOTAL

:

:

:

10,097,036,883 10,449,145,723 12,471,547,295

10,382,128,512 10,834,849,764 12,726,296,262

5,729,840,108

5,729,840,108

6,699,987,819 8,428,412,499 1,833,274,364 2,081,126,891 2,141,912,186

6,699,987,819 8,428,412,499 2,126,309,456 2,439,210,898 2,306,340,435

326

Appendix XVI

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

Imports. Exports Re-exports Total trade

1968 1967

1968

1967

% increase or decrease

$ million $ million

12,472

10,449

8,428

6,700

+ 19% + 26%

2,142

2,081

+3%

23,042

19,230

+ 20%

11.9 million tons

Cargo Tonnages

Appendix XVII

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Commodity Pattern

1968 total value $12,472 million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Food and live animals

Machinery and transport equipment

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels Chemicals

11.5 million tons

% of total imports in 1968 32% 20

13

11% 10%

8%

1968

1967

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Non-ferrous metals

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Iron and steel

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

Food and live animals

3,976

3,137

+ 27%

2,108

1,563

+35

853

715

+19

318

244

+ 30

228

240

207

141

121

123

2,468

2,329

Cereals and cereal preparations

603

637

Fruit and vegetables

508

438

Live animals

356

365

Meat and meat preparations

252

206

Fish and fish preparations..

251

239

Dairy products and eggs

202

190

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

98

89

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

91

68

Miscellaneous food preparations

76

68

Machinery and transport equipment

1,604

1,347

Electrical machinery

922

756

Non-electric machinery

482

416

Transport equipment

200

174

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

1,366

1,100

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

526

409

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

514

427

Clothing

205

163

***

Footwear

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Textile fibres

Crude animal and vegetable materials

53

42

1,261

986

840

578

210

220

Wood, lumper and cork

66

52

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

41

38

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

39

32

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

27

40

Chemicals

1,041

861

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

312

268

Chemical elements and compounds

204

165

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

202

163

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

139

111

Essential oils and perfume materials

107

87

++++++++++++ ++++++1+++1++++++

Appendix XVIII

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1968 total value $12,472 million

% of total imports in

327

By country

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of total

imports in

1968

1968

Japan

22%

Commonwealth Countries

19%

China

19%

Asia

55%

USA

14%

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom

9%

United Kingdom)

20%

Taiwan

3%

North America

15%

Federal Republic of Germany

3%

1968

1967

% increase

or decrease

$ million $ million

Japan

2,717

...

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

1,995

+ 36%

1,006

676

+ 49%

Electrical machinery

310

224

+ 38%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

208

141

...

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial

+ 48%

resins

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Iron and steel

Non-electric machinery...

China

139

110

135

102

113

93

28

90

2,429

2,282

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Live animals

430

402

301

310

Fruit and vegetables

261

219

Cereals and cereal preparations

167

136

Meat and meat preparations

165

122

Fish and fish preparations...

150

152

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

127

138

Dairy products and eggs

103

97

Crude animal and vegetable materials

88

105

Clothing

87

68

Textile fibres

USA

...

Electrical machinery

1,727

1,411

312

250

217

106

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

196

156

Non-electric machinery

112

94

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

89

82

Fruit and vegetables

81

91

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

75

62

Cereals and cereal preparations

73

67

United Kingdom

1,083

984

Electrical machinery

153

179

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

135

116

Non-electric machinery

123

113

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Transport equipment

Taiwan

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Plastic material, regenerated cellulose and artificial

resins

Fruit and vegetables

...

110

68

83

74

413

:

260

170

105

++++ ++|+++|+|+ ++++++|++ + 1++++ ++

23332

+ 22%

+ 25

+104

+26

+18 8

11

+ 20

+ 10%

15%

+16

+8

+ 61

+ 11%

+ 59%

+ 63%

37

25

+ 50%

34

27

+ 25%

Federal Republic of Germany

402

316

+ 27%

Non-electric machinery

51

46

+ 10%

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

46

37

+ 24%

Chemical elements and compounds

45

36

+ 26

Electrical machinery

37

23

+ 59%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

36

26

+ 37%

Transport equipment

32

15

+123%

328

Commodity Pattern

1968 total value $8,428 million

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Domestic

% of all exports in 1968

XIX

and Trade)

Exports

Principal Markets

1968 total value $8,428 million

329

By country

% of all exports in

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Electrical machinery

Footwear

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

369

22

129

1968

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

% of all exports in

1968

USA

41%

Commonwealth Countries

31%

United Kingdom

16%

North America

45%

Federal Republic of Germany

6%

Western Europe (including

Canada

3%

United Kingdom)

29%

1968

1967

% increase or decrease

Australia

3%

Asia

12%

$ million $ million

Clothing

3,014

2,317

+ 30%

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers,

knitted

Japan

Sweden Netherlands

3%

Australasia

5%

Singapore...

3%

2%

1%

612

484

+ 27%

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

other than knitted

1968

1967

% increase

or decrease

460

337

+ 37%

$ million $ million

Shirts, other than knitted ...

389

318

+ 23%

Outer garments, knitted

188

93

+102%

USA

3,486

2,504

Suits, jackets, uniforms and overcoats, other than

knitted

+ 39%

Clothing

150

109

1,219

818

+ 37%

+49

Gloves and mittens of all materials

148

103

+43

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

1,115

845

+32

Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

142

124

+15

Shirts, knitted

131

119

+10

\0\0\

Electrical machinery

542

396

+37

Textilé yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

251

197

+ 27%

Skirts, dresses, frocks, gowns and housecoat, other than

knitted

United Kingdom

1,343

1,147

123

102

+ 21

Underwear and nightwear, knitted

Clothing

567

97

83

+ 17

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not embroidered

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

273

90

72

+ 24%

Outer garments, other than knitted

87

72

+ 22%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Footwear

219

114

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

1,880

1,453

+ 29%

Electrical machinery

57

Plastic toys and dolls

666

504

+ 32%

Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc

318

197

+61%

Federal Republic of Germany

500

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit (plastic)

Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)

Toys and dolls (not plastic)

Metal watch bands

308

288

+ 70%

Clothing

341

95

101

6

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

66

85

49

+ 74%

Footwear

31

53

38

+ 41%

Canada

285

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

1,035

936

+ 11%

Clothing

135

Cotton grey sheeting

116

108

+ 7%

Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

80

107

85

+ 26%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

21

Cotton yarn

...

72

74

3%

Cotton canvas and ducks, grey

64

49

+ 32%

Australia

243

Cotton grey drills

53

54

2

Cotton grey twill and sateen

49

45

+ 8%

Electrical machinery

772

590

+ 31%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

92

57

46

Transistor radio

329

210

+ 57%

Transistors and thermionic and electronic tubes and

valves

Japan

232

148

135

+ 9%

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

53

Fish and fish preparations...

53

Footwear

271

219

+ 24%

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles

130

101

+ 29%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

30

25

Plastic footwear

56

39

+ 43

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

22

Plastic slippers

32

30

+ 8%

Singapore

213

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

240

200

+ 20%

Domestic utensils of other metals

49

34

+ 44%

Locks, padlocks and keys and key chains

44

34

Domestic utensils of iron and steel, enamelled

41

43

Other

Handbags, wallets, purses and similar articles Electric torches

Prawns and shrimps, fresh or frozen

Watches, complete

Iron and steel bars and rounds

58394

87

53

62

58

53

39

46

29

44

43

+++++

+29

3%

+639

Sweden

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

67

38

29

...

152

Clothing

114

Netherlands

122

Clothing

59

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

19

15h58a 7978 2208 2 542 2 442-8 § FAN 1980-

+ 17%

+ 20%

+ 69

+ 26

-+ 22

+ 35% + 29% + 58

+ 57%

+ 29% + 41% + 31% 15%

+ 22%

+ 14% +25% +31%

+ 23% 2%

+56%

+52 +164

24%

+ 30%

+ 42%

+21

+ 6%

+ 9%

+ 7%

+ 11%

3%

+ 1%

+ 4%

330

Commodity Pattern

1968 total value $2,142 million

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry Re-exports

XX

and Trade)

Principal Markets

1968 total value $2,142 million

331

% of all re-exports in

By country

% of all re-exports in

By Commonwealth Countries and Continent

1968

1968

% of all re-exports in 1968

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Food and live animals

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Machinery and transport equipment

42%

17%

13%

Japan Indonesia Singapore

16%

Commonwealth Countries

25%

16%

Asia

70%

11%

Western Europe (including

11%

7%

USA

Taiwan

6%

United Kingdom)

9%

5%

North America

7%

7%

Philippines

3%

Australasia

4%

Republic of Vietnam

3%

% increase

1968

1967

% increase

or decrease

1968

1967

or decrease

$ million

$ million

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

909

945

4%

Japan

352

315

+ 12%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

417

445

6%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

120

111

+ 8%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

387

371

+ 4%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

75

54

Non-ferrous metals ...

41

23

80%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

27

30

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

22

30

26%

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

18

Iron and steel

11

Chemicals

362

312

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

176

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

56

Chemical elements and compounds

40

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

31

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins Essential oil and perfume materials

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

114

Food and live animals

Fruit and vegetables

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

Cereals and cereal preparations

236

Fish and fish preparations ...

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

Dairy products and eggs

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

143

Crude animal and vegetable materials

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels Wood lumber and cork

Machinery and transport equipment

Non-electric machinery

Electrical machinery

Transport equipment

143

222 222 222 22 2 2 2

21

20

242

92

42

75

59

31

17

15

155

95

17

11

76

41

26

22 20***** * ** 238220 3200 mA

42%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof Crude animal and vegetable materials

19

18

17

13

59%

Fruits and vegetables

15

2835

+ 39% 10% + 6% + 29%

15

+ 1%

+16%

Indonesia

336

480

30%

+ 30%

-

+ 25%

+ 9%

+ 8%

- 20%

+ 12%

+ 13%

2%

+ 45%

+ 11%

+ 16%

1%

+ 52%

15%

+ 37%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Transport equipment

183

251

27%

15

14

+ 3%

Footwear

15

10

+ 48%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

8%

Singapore

231

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Fruits and vegetables

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Crude animal and vegetable materials

USA

137

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

104

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

Taiwan

100

+ 21%

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Crude animal and vegetable materials

Philippines

7%

6%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical product Fruit and vegetables

+ 9%

+ 23%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Republic of Vietnam

12 NON

21

42%

200

+ 16%

50

47

42

18

31

23

17

15

129

14

18

13

71

10

8

7

66

70

! 1 + 1

2%

4%

+ 11%

15%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products. Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Crude animal and vegetable materials Non-electric machinery

14

11

10

9

6

F = *** **** R===

+ 6%

+142%

+ 38%

10

+ 68%

17

10%

89

+ 6% + 17%

15

5%

84

14

+ 19% + 34%

14

4%

68

+ 5%

9

4

+ 6% + 72%

8

1%

7%

+ 26%

6

+ 63%

10

10

6% 43%

332

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past two years:

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

XXI

and Trade)

Direction

of Trade

Domestic

Exports

The principal markets during the past two years

for the Colony's exports were as follows:

333

Re-exports

The principal markets for the Colony's re-exports during the past two years were as follows:

Japan

China

USA

United Kingdom

Taiwan

Federal Republic of Germany...

Australia

Pakistan

Thailand

Singapore

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

1967

1968

$

$

1,994,675,554 2,716,769,524 2,281,900,310 2,429,419,409

1,410,895,402 1,727,059,469

983,536,664 1,083,408,289

260,162,927 412,759,685 316,230,883 402,142,598 260,996,656 312,372,166

190,495,739 301,139,334

329,325,883 268,816,270 233,495,205 265,763,409 246,861,022 265,624,735

USA

United Kingdom

***

Federal Republic of Germany

Canada

Australia ...

Japan

1967

1968

$

$

2,503,846,971 3,486,026,119

1,146,720,574 1,343,347,856

370,775,093 499,713,128

221,646,902 285,074,107 198,858,328 242,581,168

Japan

1967

1968

$

$

315,079,607

351,972,190

Indonesia

Singapore

Singapore

Sweden

Netherlands

Indonesia

Thailand

Belgium and Luxembourg

Netherlands

Italy

Republic of South Africa

France

Israel

Iran

Tanzania (Tanganyika)... Canada

Indonesia

Republic of Korea

165,389,151 208,859,979

145,701,849 161,810,086

127,129,558 147,877,169

112,299,010 125,312,511

91,870,061 115,265,913

99,193,204 104,151,718

83,426,538 103,189,386 78,986,620 100,918,491

85,473,254 100,545,301

104,942,073 96,351,309

70,712,968 84,627,370

New Zealand

Republic of South Africa

Malaysia (Malaya)

188,953,257 232,253,393 164,406,795 213,212,240 139,067,872 152,224,323

109,352,241 121,545,673

150,012,993 106,329,089

89,863,888 99,560,090

73,835,975 89,279,384 66,364,557 85,418,106 58,762,764 68,089,659

USA

Taiwan

Philippines

Republic of Vietnam United Kingdom

Belgium and Luxembourg Republic of Korea

Macau

Thailand

Australia...

Nigeria

128,679,118

480,341,224 335,626,539

199,637,023 231,022,871 136,940,950

83,869,653 100,138,919

67,874,925 71,433,700

70,453,704 65,762,245

*

Taiwan

47,148,144

Switzerland and Liechtenstein ...

Republic of Vietnam

Denmark and Greenland

Philippines

Italy

Kuwait

Norway

India

50,287,326

72,167,755

Brazil

48,926,397

65,641,863

Saudi Arabia and Yeman

42,862,482

57,166,162

Venezuela

Panama

US Oceania

...

Cambodia

85,501,788

50,635,057

Libya

Mexico

...

Macau

Uruguay

Denmark and Greenland

Other Countries...

Total

23,618,820 48,931,752

59,691,856 48,901,761

20,343,034 41,773,377 39,468,172 39,194,916

404,745,317 512,950,531

10,449,145,723 12,471,547,295

Kenya

France

Belgium and Luxembourg

Aden

Other Countries

Total

65,088,202 55,848,802 64,332,208 58,301,878 62,840,861 52,666,118 57,220,312 46,226,228 52,909,516 47,438,948 48,288,263 32,199,413 47,087,663 42,588,915 41,051,120 30,334,773 38,208,739 30,569,061 37,323,265 27,773,049 35,996,288 18,213,274 35,036,129 21,961,632 33,836,075 26,948,600 31,596,987 26,624,296 31,321,865 22,344,626 27,246,706 630,331,852 694,373,965

6,699,987,819 8,428,412,499

Malaysia (Malaya)

China

Israel

US Oceania

Cambodia

31,163,034 63,529,146 69,133,047 62,160,871

42,451,297 61,853,525

59,896,279 60,927,790

52,209,859 56,325,983

40,943,702 49,060,088

62,984,421 44,288,454

40,272,493 39,958,763 41,693,278 35,929,826

36,340,245

20,022,548

31,220,166

28,766,397

12,586,420 24,687,767

Canada

16,621,152 21,517,506

Panama

11,621,735 21,422,435

Malaysia (Sabah)

Ghana

15,024,547 20,879,023 6,482,943 20,168,582

Switzerland and Liechtenstein ..

Federal Republic of Germany ...

Pakistan

Laos

13,542,274

14,950,206

19,240,372

16,956,495

8,161,809 10,828,650

10,614,323 10,135,861

Republic of South Africa

Trucial States

Sarawak

Other Countries

...

Total

11,233,284

9,059,364

3,191,244

8,355,170

3,383,157

6,587,900

110,668,340 125,154,638

:

2,081,126,891 2,141,912,186

334

India

New Zealand

Singapore

Australia

Canada

Britain

Pakistan

Appendix XXII

Overseas Representation

I.

Commonwealth Countries

Countries

Countries

II. Foreign Countries

Represented by

Commissioner

Commissioner

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner Principal Trade Commissioner Trade Commissioner

Represented by

Argentina

Consul-General

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Cambodia

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Cuba

Dominican Republic

France

Germany

Indonesia

Italy

Japan

Korea

4.

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Mexico

Consul-General

Netherlands

Consul-General

Norway

Consul-General

Panama

Consul-General

Peru

Consul-General

Philippines

Consul-General

Portugal

Consul-General

Republic of South Africa

Consul-General

Sweden

Consul-General

Switzerland

Consul-General

...

Vietnam

Venezuela

Greece

Thailand

United Arab Republic

United States of America Uruguay

Consul

Honorary Consul-General

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Israel...

Bolivia

Burma

Costa Rica

Denmark

Ecuador

El Salvador

Finland

Guatemala

Honduras

Irish Republic

Lebanon

Monaco

Nicaragua

Spain ...

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Vice-Consul

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident in

London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners,

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

Appendix XXIII

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Marketing Organization Statistics

Fisheries Products sold through the Wholesale Markets Quantities and Values

335

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

859,203

51,966

58,441,541

891,820

53,939

63,422,927

846,892

51,221

64,205,249

958,241

57,956

72,864,447

1,178,974

71,306

91,052,177

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Fresh Fish

Salt/Dried Fish

$0.67

$0.76

.70

.85

.76

.70

.76

.85

.77

.90

Vegetables sold through the Wholesale Market

Quantities and Values

Locally-produced

Piculs

Metric Tons

Value $

1964

1,169,834

70,753

30,667,851

1965

1,220,965

73,846

34,454,322

1966

1,215,389

73,508

34,412,750

1967

1,305,015

78,929

39,588,234

1968

1,298,481

78,534

40,006,788

Imported

1964

216,556

13,098

4,894,974

1965

253,743

15,347

5,414,239

1966

296,615

17,940

6,286,024

1967

296,157

17,912

7,870,360

1968

296,653

17,942

8,388,743

1964 1965

1966

1967

...

1968

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Locally-produced

Imported

$0.26

$0.22

.28

.21

.28

.21

.30

.27

.31

.28

336

Appendix XXIV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

as at December 31, 1968

Mem-

Num-

Paid-up

Societies

ber-

Share

ber ship

Capital

Loans granted

Loans

repaid*

Deposits

$

$

$

$

Rural Societies:

Federation of Vegetable

Marketing Societies

1

†29

Vegetable Marketing

31

8,839

5,900.00 109,921.00

761,324.00

684,632.50 175,573.89

Federation of Pig

Raising Societies

Pig Raising

Agricultural Credit

Better Living

Farmers' Thrift

Farmers' Irrigation

15

Thrift & Loan

1833-23

+$43

1,100.00

59,000.00

62,908.90

40.

1,752

114,335.00

879,122.00

835,207.50

59,831.64

492

41,160.00

429,564.00

450,165.65

42,812.54

1,015

18,400.00

5,000.00

10,200.00 19,970.00

50

590.00

8,000.00

106

710.00

89

2,245.00

13,840.00

14,125.00 18,335.00

Sub-Total

107 12,415

294,361.00 2,147,850.00 2,057,239.55

324,523.07

Fishermen's Societies:

Federation of Fisher-

men's Credit Societies

4

+51

5,550.00

Credit

61

1,660

30,620.00

5,319,875.08

4,939,222.54 1,933,283.80

Consumers'

2

97

3,860,00

Better Living

7

402

7,390.00

9,924.00

3,965.70 80,674.15

Credit & Housing

2

107

585.00 117,836.00

104,012.00

55,943.18

Fish Pond

1

118

590.00

ARATAN

-

Sub-Total

77

2,435

48,595.00 5,447,635.08 5,047,200.24 2,069,901.13

Urban Societies:

Apartment Owners'

2

143

10,586.10

Building/Housing

226

Consumers'

9

2,465

13,995.00

Salaried Workers'

Thrift & Loan

Sub-Total

TOTAL

***

4,732 1,351,900.00 §3,975,358.31 5,119,851.45

3 638 4,330.00 354,295.00 339,602.40 153,362.73

240 7,978 1,380,811.10 4,329,653.31 5,459,453.85 153,362.73

424 22,828 1,723,767.10 11,925,138.39 12,563,893.64 2,547,786.93

* Including repayment of loans issued during previous years.

† Members Societies.

Including 9 Agricultural Credit Societies.

§ Loans made by Treasury direct.

Appendix XXV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Production of Minerals 1968

Mineral

Feldspar

Graphite 72-80% fixed carbon

50% fixed carbon

Iron ore 56% Fe

Kaolin

Quartz

Wolframite 65% WO3

Production in long tons

Value in $

1,581.92

55,367

297.05

47,528

201.00

12,060

159,041.01

7,156,845

5,575.08 3,635.35

710,913

60,347

0.77

13,078

Government

Appendix XXVI

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

Number of Schools (As at September 1968)

Total Enrolment (As at September 1968)

337

Number of Teachers (As at March 1968)

5,255

Grant

Subsidized

Private

Special Afternoon

Classes

Special Education

Kindergarten

Primary

Secondary

Post-Secondary

Adult Education

Special Education

Government

Aided

Private

...

133

22

627

1,787

138,144

21,490

856

423,490

11,401

547,875

17,742

674

61

25

1,368

145

2,594

1,133,041

35,460

Enrolments

(Figures are shown as at September 30, 1968, with the previous year's figures in brackets)

Enrolment

92,952

( 69,069)

724,450

(689,561)

253,458

( 235,387)

10,484

( 9,626)

50,329

( 36,576)

1,368

(

1,261)

1,133,041

(1,041,480)

New Buildings, Classrooms and Places

October 1, 1967-September 30, 1968

Number of Schools and Extensions

Increase in Number of Classrooms Primary Secondary

Increase in Number of Places

Primary Secondary

2

26

1,040

33

592

9

17

20

26

52,060

1,150

90

1,260

3,625

44

609

142

53,320

5,815

338

Appendix XXVII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Educational Statistics

Overseas Examinations 1968

Entries

Examination

* 1966

1967

1968

University of London General Certificate of Education

7,465

11,277

11,767

University of London External Degrees

97

119

132

London Chamber of Commerce

7,196

8,529

9,962

Pitman Shorthand

520

788

1,146

Pitman Typewriting

35

194

441

Pitman Single-Subject

204

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English

142

109

38*

Cambridge Lower Certificate in English

60

54

16*

Institute of Bookkeepers

47

28

6*

Chartered Institutes of Secretaries

128

190

104*

Association of International Accountants

489

657

416*

Association of Certified and Corporate Accountants

205

277

147*

Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers

7

15

Institute of Fire Engineers

66

72

College of Preceptors

Gemmological Association

4

British Federation of Master Printers

Society of Engineers (Graduateship)

Institute of Export

Swinburne Technical College Diploma

The Polytechnic Diploma in Management of Studies

The Australian Institute of Cartographers

Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board (GCE)

Royal Society of Arts (Shorthand)

Institute of Company Accountants

Industrial Transport Association

Queensland Agricultural College

West London College Ordinary National Diploma Institute of Public Cleansing

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)

Total

10

1,488

3,623*

16,477

23,832

28,136

Ngabant ||S

12

49

* As at September 30, 1968.

New Awards made by Government during 1968

Number

Type

Tenable at

awarded

Total value ($ per annum)

University of Hong Kong

20

41,700

Government Scholarships

Chinese University of Hong Kong

15

21,800

University of Hong Kong

132

231,400

Government Bursaries

Chinese University of Hong Kong

126

111,400

Government Teaching

University of Hong Kong

5

7,400

Bursaries for Diploma in Education

Chinese University of Hong Kong

7

8,700

Anglo-Chinese Secondary School

339

12,535

Maintenance Grants

Chinese Middle Schools

156

5,690

Colleges of Education

484

399,130

Interest-free Loans

Colleges of Education

589

706,800

Commonwealth Scholarships

University of Hong Kong & Chinese

University of Hong Kong

3

61,800

$1,608,355

Note:

In addition to the above, recurrent awards totalling approximately $2,009,720 were granted by the Government during 1968, making a total of over $3,618,075.

339

Appendix XXVIII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Further Studies in the United Kingdom

Number of Hong Kong Students arriving in the United Kingdom:

1960-1

1961-2

1962-3

...

1963-4

1964-5

1965-6

...

1966-7

...

434

479

568

750

889

1,161

1,248

...

1,176

1967-8 (1.10.67 to 30.9.68 inclusive) ...

:

:

Distribution of Course by Hong Kong Students in the United Kingdom:

Accountancy

Architecture

Arts

Commerce

Dentistry

Economics

Education

Course

Engineering

General Certificate of Education

Law

Medicine

Meteorology

Music

Nursing

Science

Secretarial

Social Science Textiles Others

...

...

School Children

:

::

:

:

:

September 1967

September

1968

59

72

60

39

42

48

61

59

7

8

25

29

44

43

366

444

856

1,308

127

128

126

115

2

1

37

24

749

891

121

135

99

109

14

17

16

29

228

315

3,039

3,814

1,061

741

4,100

4,555

:

340

Appendix XXIX

(Chapter 6: Education)

Actual Expenditure on Education

for period August 1, 1967 - July 31, 1968

Total $

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

$ 72,166,031 16,114,871

(3) Maintenance and Repairs of School

Buildings (Public Works Department) ...

1,202,083

89,482,985

(B) Capital Expenditure:

(1) Equipment and Furniture for Government

Schools and Headquarters

$ 426,028

2,257,384

2,683,412

...

$ 15,920,864

(2) New School Buildings, including furniture

and equipment (Public Works Department)

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

(1) Grant Schools (i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

(2) Subsidized Schools (i) Recurrent (ii) Capital

(3) Private Schools

(i) Recurrent

(ii) Capital

::

1,281,933 17,202,797

$124,379,623

6,602,346 130,981,969

$ 7,085,383

2,749,542

9,834,925

(D) Grants to Hong Kong University and Chinese University:

(1) Recurrent

$ 42,764,238

12,936,663 55,700,901

(2) Capital

(E) University Grants Committee:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Capital

$

144,313

29,390

34,803

208,506

$306,095,495

$ 3,869,988

(F) Expenditure by Other Departments:

(1) Medical and Health Department (2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(3) Agriculture and Fisheries Department

326,475 222,840

$ 4,419,303

Appendix XXX

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics - Hong Kong

1959-1968

341

BIRTHS

DEATHS

Crude

Crude

live

Year

Estimated mid-year population

Regis-

birth

tered

rate

live births

(per 1,000 deaths

Regis- rate tered (per

Infant death

mortality

rate

1,000 (per 1,000

Neo-natal Maternal mortality mortality

rate

(per 1,000 (per 1,000

popula

popula-

live

live

tion)

tion)

births)

births)

rate

total births)

1959

2,857,000

104,579

36.6

20,250

7.1

48.3

21.3

0.73

1960

2,981,000 110,667 37.1

19,146 6.4

41.5

20.9

0.49

1961

3,174,700* 108,726 34.2

18,738 5.9

37.7

21.0

0.45

1962

3,346,600* 111,905 33.4

20,324 6.1

36.9

21.2

0.48

1963

3,503,700* 115,263 32.9

19,748 5.6

32.9

18.9

0.29

1964

3,594,200* 108,519 30.2

18,113 5.0

26.4

16.6

0.38

1965

3,692,300* 102,195 27.7

17,621

4.8

23.7

15.2

0.33

1966

3,732,400 92,476 24.8

18,700 5.0

24.9

15.3

0.43

1967

3,834,000

88,171 23.0

19,644 5.1

25.6

15.9

0.30

1968

3,926,500

82,992 21.1

19,319 4.9

23.0

15.0

0.14

* Figures adjusted after 1966 By-census.

Tuberculosis Statistics

TB death

Estimated

Year

mid-year population

rate (per 100,000 population)

% TB deaths

% TB deaths

of total

under 5

deaths

Total number of TB

Under treatment Government

years

beds

clinics

registered

1957

2,583,000

103.56

21.20

13.81

1,730

13,851

1967

1968

:

:

3,834,000

38.94

2.01

7.60

1,765

25,397

3,926,500

37.77

1.15

7.68

1,737

25,225

342

Appendix XXXI

(Chapter 7: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

1964

Cases and Deaths 1964-1968

1965

1966

1967

1968

Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

Cholera

34

4

1

Amoebic

dysentery

209

21

173

16

220

24

14

154

21

117

12

Bacillary

dysentery

(including

unspecified

dysentery)

680

8

537

4

766

10

829

7

869

6

Cerebro-spinal

meningitis

38

19

19

9

10

7

55

16

32

14

Chickenpox

718

1

1,552

Diphtheria

699

38

581

15

600

4

1,257

10

900

1

37

307

22

27

226

18

113

10

Enteric fever

(typhoid and

para-typhoid)

882

*Leprosy

21

20

658

14

686

7

728

11

552

8

102

160

2

148

4

164

T

Malaria

180

1

143

1

127

I

65

65

2

19

Measles

1,218 73 5,459 217

2,360 384 4,726

654 1,138 46

Ophthalmia

neonatorum

232

215

203

191

203

-

Poliomyelitis

37

3

140

17

32

1

5

3

15

2

Puerperal fever

1

3

2

2

2

1

1

1

12

-

12

Scarlet fever

12,557 1,441 9,927 1,278 11,427 1,515 15,253 1,493

37

64

8

9,792 1,483

Tuberculosis

Typhus (mite-

borne)

Whooping

cough

Total

106

2

339

2

108

40

88

17,603 1,630 19,862 1,595 17,048 1,983 23,742 2,240 14,011 1,583

†Influenza

2,473 16

896

21

1,220 30 4,923 25 8,493 45

Remarks:

*Notifiable since June 1965.

† Voluntary Notifications.

         The above table omits rabies, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the year.

343

Appendix XXXII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1968

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

Number of Hospital Beds

A. Hospitals

Castle Peak

...

1,242

Kowloon

Lai Chi Kok

Queen Elizabeth Queen Mary... Sai Ying Pun South Lantau St John

Tsan Yuk

500

492

1,523

806

88

15

100

...

241

Wan Chai

30

6 Prison Hospitals

269

5,306

B. Dispensaries

Aberdeen

27

Anne Black

11

Castle Peak

Chai Wan

Cheung Sha Wan Eastern

Ho Tung

24

24

24

24

13

Hung Hom

Kam Tin

Kennedy Town

Kwun Tong

Lady Trench Polyclinic

Li Po Chun Health Centre

Maurine Grantham MCH Centre

North Lamma

Peng Chau

Robert Black Health Centre

14

7

5

25

6

24

Lions Club Government MCH Centre

20

26

6

7

28

Sai Kung

Sha Tau Kok

Sha Tin

Shau Kei Wan

Shek Wu Hui

Silver Mine Bay Stanley

Tai O... Tai Po

Wang Tau Hom

Yuen Long

GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED HOSPITALS

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Caritas Medical Centre

7

7

24

26

31

6

6

19

27

26

32

526

350

830

Grantham

619

Haven of Hope TB Sanatorium

261

Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium

540

Hong Kong Society of Rehabilitation Kwun Tong Rehabilitation Centre

80

Kwong Wah...

1,543

Maryknoll Mission

81

Nam Long

120

Pok Oi

162

Ruttonjee

Sanatorium

360

Sandy Bay Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home

200

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital

503

Tung Wah

673

Adventist Sanatorium

Canossa

Fanling

Tung Wah Eastern

Wong Tai Sin Infirmary

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Baptist Hospital

Evengel Medical Centre

Hong Kong Central

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

Matilda and War Memorial

Precious Blood

St Paul's

St Teresa's

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

PRIVATE NURSING HOMES

338

350

7,010

103

64

180

46

54

120

373

52

110

221

286

1,609

390

58

GRAND TOTAL

14,899

344

Appendix XXXIII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

as at December 31, 1968

Registered Medical Practitioners (including 373 Government Medical Officers) Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

Government Medical Officers (including 29 seconded to Tung Wah Group, etc)

1,757

126

510

Registered Dentists

470

Government Dental Surgeons

65

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

151

Government Pharmacists

16

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

2,669

Government Nurses

1,533

Registered Male Nurses (excluding Government Male Nurses)

37

Government Male Nurses

Government Midwives

Government Male Nurses (Psychiatric)

Government Female Nurses (Psychiatric)

173

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives)

2,270

247

114

69

Students or Probationers in Training

as at December 31, 1968

Length 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Course year year year year

Number who

successfully completed

training during year

Student Assistant

Radiographer

(Diagnostic)

(Therapy)

Student Assistant Physiotherapist

44

16

9

6

3

6

1

4

3

15

9

1

9

Student Dispenser

10

11

9

***

3

2

5

Student Laboratory Assistant

1

Student Medical Laboratory Technician

4

25

12

Student Male Nurse (General)

3

28

10

15

Student Nurse (General)

3

161

...

159 101

233

Student Male Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

14

28

21

Student Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

15

28

2

Student Midwife (Registered Nurse)

1

134

127

Student Midwife (Non-Registered Nurse)

2

24

19

Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

2

8

23

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

2

13

72

Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

2

10

17

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

2

wwwwww.

19

Student Health Visitor

1

9

-

Male Student Health Auxiliary

2

Student Health Auxiliary

2

8

13

18 | | * | 2

42

3

24

13

63

9

Medical Social Worker

Student Assistant Orthopaedic Appliance

Technician

1

1

12

1 2

Appendix XXXIV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Resettlement Estate Statistics

345

A. Population

January 1, 1968

December 31, 1968

Cottage Areas (one storey

buildings)..

72,486

67,948

Multi-storey Estates (6-7-8- and

16-storey buildings)

943,942

1,024,624

1,016,428

1,092,572

B. Premises of various types on December 31, 1968

(The numbers on December 31, 1967 are shown in brackets)

Domestic cottages and huts

Cottage Areas Multi-storey Estates

10,805 (11,308)

Self-contained flats...

End bay flats

Domestic rooms

Shops of various kinds

:

:

:..

:

Restaurants (general and light

refreshment)

Workshops

-

Factories

Schools

...

:

:

467 (

467)

2,292 (2,293)

190,330 (178,515)

283 ( 246)

7,136 (6,616)

6 (

6)

519* ( 495)

72 (

70)

1,448 ( 1,421)

25 (

25)

1,789 ( 1,715)

40 (

37)

305 (

297)

33 ( 33)

234† (

181)

Clinics and Welfare Centres

* Including 6 annexe general restaurants.

† Including 46 low cost medical clinics.

346

Appendix XXXV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Housing as at March 31, 1968

(Extract from Appendix C of the Housing Board Report for 1967-8)

Increase

Permanent

Housing Authority

Housing Society

Persons

Domestic units

accom-

over

modated

31.3.67

23,400

153,300

3,800

17,400

124,500

12,500

20,300

103,300

18,800

199,300

1,040,200

106,500

12,000

78,900

4,300

314,000

1,542,000

3,000

75,900

392,600

57,600

37,300

199,500 + 6,400

32,900

169,400 + 5,100

21,400

102,800

753,900

3,906,500

+ 96,800

:::

Government low-cost housing

Resettlement estates and cottage

areas

Government quarters

Residual (mainly private)

Temporary

Squatters (Urban)

Squatters (New Territories) Permittees

Marine

Colony Total

Premiums received on sales of Crown Land

from 1851 to 1967-8

       The system of disposing of leasehold land by public auction for a premium began in 1851 in accordance with the Secretary of State's Despatch No 222 of January 2, 1851. Where premiums are payable by instalments, only the amounts actually received have been included in the annual totals.

Period

1851

-

1861

1860 1870

1871

1880

1881

1890

1891

1900

1901

1910

1911

1920

1921

1930

1931

1941 (25.12.41)

1946-7 - 1955-6 (10 years)

1956-7 - 1960-1 (5 years)

1961

1962 (1 year)

1962

1963 (1 year)

1963

1964 (1 year)

1964

1965 (1 year)

1965

1966 (1 year)

1966

1967 (1 year)

1967

1968 (1 year)

Grand Total

:

:

:

Total

262,839.00

477,908.14

125,097.53

856,160.12

2,501,053.65

2,839,324.49

2,715,724.38

17,053,140.35

12,936,727.68

67,617,711.64

177,375,655.35

107,225,301.38

234,402,780.18

207,157,985.13

143,295,983.24

75,859,685.12

50,623,349.27

43,785,984.08

:.

$1,147,112,410.73

Appendix XXXVI

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic

Comparative figures for the last six years are as below:

Fatal ...

Serious injury

Slight injury..

1.

:

:

Accidents

347

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

265

263

268

264

284

333

2,248 2,581

2,624

3,065

3,556

3,759

6,437 6,348

5,975 5,732

6,108

5,843

8,950 9,192

8,867 9,061

9,948

9,935

Number of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

Number of registered vehicles

71,415 83,091 87,768 92,966 99,444 109,736*

Number of licensed drivers

144,667 160,152 176,340 197,180 227,093 250,948

Provisional (Learner) licences issued

24,310 38,810 31,393 29,664 48,286 55,274

Driving tests conducted

67,369 97,088 110,594 126,147 160,146 178,265+

* This number does not include 804 rickshaws and 732 pedal tricycles.

†This number includes written tests, the number of practical tests conducted is 128,482.

348

Appendi

(Chapter 10,

Serious Crime & Narcotic

Number of Cases Number of Persons

XXXVII Public Order) Offences in 1968

349

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Reported

Reported

Prosecuted

Crime

Crime

1968

1967

Prosecuted 1968

1968

1967

1968

Under

16 years

Under

16 years

16 years

and over

16 years

and over

Against Public Order

65

1,597

9

179

Forgery and Coinage...

535

191

150

Perjury

Bribery and Corruption

14

21

14

162

80

4

145

Possession of Arms and Ammunition

12

72

8

Escape and Rescue

46

49

2

27

Unlawful Society

Conspiracy

18

11

40

282

70

7

232

Breach of Deportation

8

11

8

Other Offences against Lawful

Other Crime

280

208

120

Authority

43

78

Total

598

1,874

112

25

25

Total

867

514

340

22

608

Serious Narcotic Offence

225

183

1

212

Rape and Indecent Assault

274

254

15

105

Grand Total

23,299 22,683

1,078

10,538

Other Sexual Offences ...

Total

Murder and Manslaughter

Attempted Murder

211

132

1

114

(Percentages of Serious Crime detected: 1967-67.8%; 1968-75.6%).

:

485

386

16

219

NARCOTIC OFFENCES

50

73

5

46

*Manufacturing Dangerous Drugs

3

2

2

4

Serious Assaults

1,060

1,065

57

833

*Importing Dangerous Drugs *Dealing in Dangerous Drugs

3

2

153

130

Abortion

7

2

6

*Possession of Large Quantities

66

49

111-

161

42

2764

Kidnapping

2

1

Criminal Intimidation ...

36

46

Other Offences against the Person

146

128

Total

1,303

1,318

67

༢|།a

5

28

Opium

46

Possession of Opium

1,350

856

977

Possession of Equipment

227

263

49

960

Keeping a Divan

78

76

89

Smoking Opium

1,846

1,814

1,813

Robbery with Firearm

Other Opium Offences

18

8

1

Other Robberies

1,801

1,224

152

869

Heroin

Demanding with Menaces

354

396

24

97

Possession of Heroin ...

10,077

7,137

Burglary and Breaking Offences

1,556

1,256

37

420

Possession of Equipment

85

70

Larceny from Person

1,569

1,854

71

688

Keeping a Divan

11

6

Other Larcenies

8,931

8,935

584

2,995

Smoking Heroin

2,019

1,371

Embezzlement and Fraudulent

Conversion

735

651

85

Fraud and False Pretences

651

680

6

189

Receiving Stolen Property

85

61

11

41

Other Heroin offences

Other Dangerous Drugs

Possession

36

19

21121

8,434

36 11

1,820

5

:

Malicious Injuries to Property

212

364

7

131

Smoking

Unlawful Possession

634

504

36

509

Other Offences

Possession of Unlawful Instrument

1,146

998

11

213

Total

1,165

830

10

12

1

17,148

12,645

203

2

1

25

13,653

Loitering and Trespass

2,147

1,485

32

1,962

Total

19,821

18,408

971

8,199

* These offences are classified as Serious Crime and are also shown under Serious Narcotic

Offence.

350

351

Marine

Ocean-

River

Junks

going

Mechanized vessels under

steamers

Appendia

(Chapter 13 Communication

for the year endin

XXXVIII

Communications)

Statistics

December 31, 1968

Passenger Journeys by Public Transport: Annual Traffic by Undertakings (Millions)

300 tons

Vessels entered

Tonnage entered

Passengers landed

Cargo tons landed

1959

Total 721.332

KMB 322.077

6,551

22,205,105 24,811 7,807,385

9,597 2,993,627

8,529 1,288,770

4,474

1960*

809.447

325,108

1961

1,031,710

1962

Vessels cleared

Tonnage cleared

Passengers embarked

6,535 22,151,350

9,063 9,583

2,985,063

747,750 8,492 1,274,350

310,481

1963

4,466

1964*

CMB HKT 87.180 172.763 380.712 106.288 175.332 101.983 890.716 435.515 120.120 180.585 106.765 974.777 481.569 134.196 189.000 117.228 46.630 1,032.576 515.172 143.026 190.920 126.990 1,090.195 546.579 158.209 182.454 144.611

HYF

SFC

KCR

97.186 37.039

5.087

39.384

5.748

41.864

5.867

6.154

49.196

7.272

50.460

7.882

321,294

1965

1,162.710 593.221

Cargo tons loaded

26,074* 2,391,650

1966

1,018,729

6,266

196,419

1,249

1967 1968*

1,237.516 1,054.590 1,196.631

* Includes 2,799 Emigrants.

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section

Length of line

Main points of call

Passengers carried

Main line-22 miles

169.256 181.767 155.499 643.120 186.561 181.589 161.180 515.539 169.151 154.117 610.752 201.107 157.995 166.830 * February figure is adjusted to 28 days.

54.491

8.476

56.332

8.734

158.524

48.625

8.634

50.986

8.961

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas (Millions)

Passenger kilometres

167,784,640

Freight carried (in metric tons)

Total revenue

Net operating revenue

Capital expenditure

$

294,583.79

$

$ 2,246,327.42

614,520.04

1959 1960*

Total length of line-38 miles

1961

1962

New Territories (Hong Kong)

1963

1964*

1968 9,638,651

1967

1965

9,158,506

1966

157,596,048

1967

810,404.6

606,028.4

1968*

$14,852,737.54

$ 4,536,324.03

$12,680,718.78

Urban

HK Total

Kowloon Area

Island 721.332 689.942 259.943 298.352 809.447 772.756 281.620 353.155 890.716 840,066 300.705 394.500 974.777 913.101 323.196 430.678 1,032.576 961.483 333.946 1,090.195 1,007.695 340.663 1,162.710 1,072.985 351.023 1,237.516 1,147.206 368.150 1,054.590

Cross New Harbour Territories

131.647 31.390

137.981 36.691

144.861 50.650 159.227 61.676 456.698 170.839 71.093 478.123 188.909 82.500 518.924 203.038 89.725 568.817 210.239 90.310

986.046 323.268

1,196.631 1,119.582 359.102 549.892 210.588 77.049 * February figure is adjusted to 28 days.

Annual Traffic by Geographical Areas

(Index Numbers: Base 1959-100)

462.559 200.219 68.544

Passenger aircraft

Air Traffic

Passengers

..

Freight (kilos)

Mail (kilos).

1959

1960

In

Out

% increase

1961

over 1967

1962

16,766 714,022 8,585,187 1,253,195

16,770

+12.28%

1963

757,657

+19.72%

1964

27,960,739

+37.84%

1965

1,857,627

+ 8.62%

1966

1967

1968

:

Urban

HK

Total

Kowloon

Area

Island

Cross Harbour

New Territories

100

100

100

100

100

100

112

112

108

118

105

117

123

122

116

132

110

161

135

132

124

144

121

196

143

139

128

153

130

226

151

146

131

160

143

263

161

156

135

174

154

286

172

166

142

191

160

288

146

143

124

155

152

218

166

162

138

184

160

245

Postal Traffic

1967

1968

54

54

$100 m

$117.6 m

Vehicles

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on December 31, 1968 was 111,272. This represented an overall increase of 10,290 over 1967. There is now a density of 179.8 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Private cars (including 57 on Lantau Island)

Number of post offices Total revenue

Value of remittance business (Money orders and Postal Orders issued

and paid)

Tons of mail despatched by air

Bags conveyed by Kowloon-Canton Railway

$ 65 m 1,476 312,816

$ 61.7 m

1,822 320,715

Motor cycles (including scooters and 7 on Lantau Island) Motor tricycles

Taxis

69,062

12,268

107

Telephone and Telegraph

Buses (including 10 on Lantau Island)

3,894

Telegrams accepted for transmission

1967 1,332,831

1968 1,367,214

Goods vehicles (including 80 on Lantau Island)

2,206

Telegrams received

1,529,488

1,531,479

Dual purpose vehicles-Private car/Goods vehicle (including 5 on Lantau Island)

16,124

Telegrams handled in transit

858,620

1,068,764

Public cars (including 11 on Lantau Island)

2,346

919

Telex Calls-outward minutes

Telex Calls-inward minutes

604,171

730,807

706,881

794,505

Crown vehicles

Rickshaws

2,728

International telephone calls-outward minutes

1,798,499

2,274,806

International telephone calls-inward minutes

2,543,193

3,019,885

Pedal tricycles

Trailers

804

Pictures transmitted

560

3,022

732

Pictures received

19,278

17,629

82

Harbourphone calls

811,708

867,110

Total

Press broadcasts and reception services-number of hours

111,272

Meteorological broadcasts and reception services-number of hours Inland telegrams

28,436

22,835

82,548

79,921

7,043

6,467

352

Appendix XXXIX

(Chapter 14: Press, Broadcasting and Cinema)

Leading Newspapers and Magazines

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Daily

South China Morning Post

Monthly

Trade Bulletin

Hong Kong Standard

(including Sundays)

China Mail

The Star

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Asian Weekend

Far Eastern Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

Asia Magazine

Far East Architect and Builder Far East Engineering and

Equipment News

Far East Medical Journal Asian Industry Young Hong Kong

Reader's Digest (Asia Edition)

CHINESE LANGUAGE

Daily (Morning Papers)

Alternate Days

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

Tien Wen Toi

(Observatory Review)

Fai Po (Express)

Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao (Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Weekly

Wen Wei Po

Chiu Yin Pao

Sin Sang Yat Po (Gentlement Daily News)

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Ching Po Daily

Tin Tin Yat Po

Ming Tang Yat Po

Kung Kao Pao

Tung Fung (East Pictorial) Chau Mut Pao

(Week-end News) Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom) Chinese Student Weekly Economic Bulletin Asia Weekly

Every 10 days

Kar Ting Sang Wood

(Home Life Journal)

Fortnightly

Children's Paradise

Ming Pao

Hong Kong Daily News

Wah Sing Pao

Daily Pictorial

Good News Daily

Happy News

Yuet Wah Daily News

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao (New Evening Post)

Chan Pao (Truth Daily)

New Life Evening Post

Seng Weng Evening News

Cheng Wu Pao

Nam Wah Man Pao

World Evening Express

Monthly

Cosmorama Magazine Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial) Sing Tao Pictorial

Woman Today

Reader's Digest

(Chinese Edition)

Appendix XL

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate)

Climatological Summary 1968

353

Pres-

sure at

Air Temperature

Wind

Mean

  Sea Abs Mean Level Max Max

Mean

Mean Abs

Min Min

Rela- Dew tive Point Hu-

midity

Amount of Cloud

Sun- Rain- shine fall

Pre-

yail- Mean

ing speed direc

in

tion knots

milli- bars

°C °C °C

°C °C

°C

%

% hours

mm

points

January 1018.8 24.2 19.9 16.4

13.9 10.4 10.6

71

45

45

224.2

5.5 E

6.3

February 21.1 20.9 14.0 11.7 9.6 5.7

7.6

77

86

59.4 101.9. E

5.2

March

15.0 27.1 20.7 17.7 15.3

7.8 13.9

80

08

75

102.0 140.7

E

7.1

April

15.4 28.7 24.5 21.4 18.9 15.8 17.4

79

69

146.9 6.9 E

5.6

May

08.7 32.8 29.1 26.2 23.9 21.1| 22.8|

82

75

153.1 265.0 E

4.7

June

06.9 32.7 30.0 27.4 25.4 22.4 24.2

83

81

128.1 647.8 SW

6.0

09

July

04.2 35.7 32.3 29.3 27.3 24.2 24.9

78

69

225.6 272.1 SW

4.6

August

03.6 34.0 31.4 28.5 26.3 23.9❘ 25.1

82

75

175.4 682.2 E

6.1

19

September 08.0 33.3 30.6| 27.8 25.7 23.1| 22.4 74

58

202.6 80.9 E

19

6.7

October

15.1 30.8 28.0 24.9 22.5 19.3 18.0 67

51

215.7 53.4 E

5.1

November 18.6 28.0 25.5 22.5 20.4 18.4 17.0 72

December 16.6 28.2 23.9 21.3 19.4 11.2 17.3

42 236.2 7.0 E

5.4

78

64

139.5 24.8

E

[7]

4.7

8

Mean,

total or

extreme

for year 1012.7 35.7 25.8 22.9 20.7 5.7 18.4 77

(Jul 25)

(Feb 15)

Normal or

extreme 1012.6 36.1 24.9 22.3 20.2

0.0 18.5 79

(Aug 19.

(Jan

1900)

18. 1893)

66

2008.7 2288.2

E

5.6

8889

68 1963.1| 2168.8

E

7.9

354

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1969

Appendis

XLI

and Administration)

(Chapter 22: Constitution

The Executive

Remarks

Council

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1969

Remarks

355

Ex officio

Nominated

(Presided over by His Excellency the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr M. D. Irving GASS, CMG, JP, assumed the office of Acting Governor during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 24.4.68 to 17.5.68 and from 15.10.68 to 15.12.68.

His Excellency the Commander British Succeeded Lt-Gen Sir John Francis

Forces

Lieutenant-General Sir Basil Oscar Paul EUGSTER, KCVO, CB, CBE, DSO, MC

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Sir Michael David Irving Gass,

KCMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS,

OBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE,

MC, ED, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Sir John James COWPERTHWAITE,

KBE, CMG, JP

Dr the Honourable TENG Pin-hui, CMG,

OBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

WORSLEY, KBE, CB, MC on 9.8.68. Commodore Thomas Hugh Peter WILSON, appointed to act as Com- mander British Forces from 4.7.68 to 8.8.68 and from 22.9.68 to 28.9.68.

Mr Geoffrey Cadzow HAMILTON, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 24.4.68 to 17.5.68 and from 15.10.68 to 15.12.68.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General from 3.4.68 to 10.4.68 and from 6.7.68 to 8.9.68.

Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 27.1.68 to 12.3.68 and from 21.4.68 to 20.9.68.

Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 6.1.68 to 15.1.68.

Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON, GM, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 3.4.68 to 6.4.68, 22.4.68 to 5.5.68, 12.5.68 to 18.5.68 and from 31.7.68 to 28.9.68.

Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 11.12.68 to 14.12.68.

Mr Alec Michael John WRIGHT, CMG, JP, appointed_provisionally during the absence of Dr TENG from 21.9.68 to 17.11.68.

Nominated

99

""

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable Sir Albert

RODRIGUES, CBE, ED, JP

The Honourable Sir Cho-yiu KWAN,

CBE, JP

The Honourable John Douglas CLAGUE,

CBE, MC, TD, JP

The Honourable FUNG Ping-fan,

CBE, JP

The Honourable Sidney Samuel

GORDON, CBE, JP

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE, JP

The Honourable John Anthony

SAUNDERS, DSO, MC, JP

The Honourable TANG Ping-yuan,

OBE, JP

Mr Herbert John Charles BROWNE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Sir Albert RODRIGUES from 17.8.68 to 8.9.68.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KWAN from 16.4.68 to 26.4.68.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 27.4.68 to 18.5.68 and from 13.6.68 to 14.10.68.

Mr TANG Ping-yuan, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 18.3.68 to 11.4.68.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 13.10.68 to 5.11.68.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr GORDON from 15.10.68 to 19.11.68.

Mr SZETO Wai, OBE, JP, appointed pro- visionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 21.3.68 to 26.6.68.

Mr Kenneth Albert WATSON, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 25.7.68 to 20.9.68.

Mr Michael Alexander HERRIES, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 30.9.68 to 10.10.68.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 2.12.68 to 12.12.68.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TANG from 13.9.68 to 4.10.68.

356

357

Type of appointment

Ex officio

Names of Members

on January 1, 1969

PRESIDENT:

His Excellency the Governor

Sir David Clive Crosbie TRENCH,

GCMG, MC

Appendia

(Chapter 22: Constitution

The Legislative

XLII

and Administration)

Remarks

Mr M. D. Irving GASS, CMG, JP, assumed the office of Acting Governor during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 24.4.68 to 17.5.68 and from 15.10.68 to 15.12.68.

Council

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1969

Nominated

17

""

""

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS: The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE, JP

The Honourable FUNG Hon-chu,

OBE, JP

The Honourable TSE Yu-chuen,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Kenneth Albert

WATSON, OBE, JP

Remarks

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 25.3.68 to 27.6.68.

Mr Wilson WANG Tze-sam, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 4.4.68 to 17.4.68 and from 27.4.68 to 30.6.68.

Mr Daniel LAM See-hin, JP, continued to act provisionally during the absence of Mr TSE to 6.1.68,

""

""

Nominated

""

"

"

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Sir Michael David Irving Gass,

KCMG, JP

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS,

OBE, QC, JP

The Honourable the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE,

MC, ED, JP

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Sir John James COWPERTHWAITE,

KBE, CMG, JP

Dr the Honourable TENG Pin-hui, CMG,

OBE, JP

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

The Honourable Alec Michael John

WRIGHT, CMG, JP

(Director of Public Works)

The Honourable William David GREGG,

CBE, JP

(Director of Education)

The Honourable Robert Marshall

HETHERINGTON, DFC, JP (Commissioner of Labour)

The Honourable Terence Dare SORBY, JP

(Director of Commerce and Industry)! The Honourable Kenneth Strathmore

KINGHORN, CBE, JP

(District Commissioner, New

Territories)

The Honourable David Richard Watson

ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

(Director of Urban Services)

The Honourable George Tippett

ROWE, JP

(Director of Social Welfare)

Mr Geoffrey Cadzow HAMILTON, JP, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 24.4.68 to 17.5.68 and from 15.10.68 to 15.12.68.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, JP, appointed to act as Attorney General from 3.4.68 to 10.4.68 and from 6.7.68 to 8.9.68.

Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, appointed to act as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 27.1.68 to 12.3.68 and from 21.4.68 to 20.9.68.

Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 6.1.68 to 15.1.68.

Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON, GM, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 3.4.68 to 6.4.68, 22.4.68 to 5.5.68, 12.5.68 to 18.5.68 and from 31.7.68 to 28.9.68.

Mr Li Fook-kow, JP, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 11.12.68 to 14.12.68.

""

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen,

OBE, JP

55

35

"3

of

Dr G. H. CHOA, JP, appointed pro-

visionally during the absence Dr TENG from 26.9.68 to 17.11.68.

Mr George Percy NORTON, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr WRIGHT from 30.3.68 to 4.5.68.

Succeeded Mr Geoffrey Marsh TINGLE,

JP on 1.4.68.

Mr Alastair TODD, JP, resigned on

1.4.68.

Mr Alastair Trevor CLARK, JP, appointed provisionally from 1.4.68 to 30.6.68

vice Mr TODD and then from 1.7.68 to 14.9.68 during the absence of Mr ROWE.

25

The Honourable SZETO Wai, OBE, JP

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Sien-bing, OBE, JP

The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Wilson WANG

Tze-sam, JP

The Honourable Herbert John Charles

BROWNE, JP

Dr the Honourable CHUNG Sze-yuen,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Michael Alexander Robert HERRIES, OBE, MC, JP

The Honourable LEE Quo-wei, JP

Mr Wilson WANG Tze-sam, JP, con- tinued to act provisionally during the absence of Mrs Li to 5.2.68.

Mr ANN Tse-kai, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mrs Li from 16.12.68.

Succeeded Mr Li Fook-shu, OBE, JP

on 1.7.68.

Succeeded Mr James Dickson LEACH,

OBE, JP on 10.5.68.

Mr Oswald Victor CHEUNG, QC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr BROWNE from 17.12.68.

Succeeded Honourable Dhun Jehangir

RUTTONJEE, CBE, JP on 1.7.68.

Mr Oswald Victor CHEUNG, QC, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Dr CHUNG from 28.10.68 to 4.12.68.

Succeeded Mr George Ronald Ross,

OBE, JP on 1.7.68.

Mr George Ronald Ross, OBE, JP, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr HERRIES from 20.7.68 to 22.9.68.

Succeeded Mr TANG Ping-yuan, OBE,

JP on 1.7.68.

Mr

ANN Tse-kai, appointed provi- sionally during the absence of Mr LEE from 5.9.68 to 9.11.68.

358

Appendix XLIII

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal 1964-8

Supreme Court

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

Civil appeals

40

78

59

52

36

Criminal appeal

575

585

612

711

758

Original jurisdiction

1,605

2,917

2,493

1,983

1,651

Miscellaneous proceedings

514

522

487

316

296

Adoptions

125

89

160

134

224

Divorce

71

82

136

164

144

Criminal sessions

53

65

65

64

51

Admiralty jurisdiction

37

14

16

62

31

Probate grants

890

939

989

1,080

1,101

Lunacy

3

...

2

2

Bankruptcy

Company winding-up

District Court

Total

15

44

15

19

2286

158

2

27

11

39

26

26

:

3,943

5,356

5,073

4,632

4,331

Criminal jurisdiction

205

216

215

383

Civil jurisdiction ...

7,726

10,962

12,890

16,717

123

18,892

Workmen's compensation

226

214

250

223

158

Distress for rent

679

1,119

1,362

1,730

1,314

Total...

8,836

12,511

14,717

19,053

20,487

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

746

796

749

580

702

Exemption cases...

495

83

24

18

13

Demolished building cases

260

272

286

173

164

Total ..

1,501

1,151

1,059

771

879

Work in the Magistracies for the Years 1964-8

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

Total number of summary matters (charges, summonses and appli- cations, etc)

292,347

Total number of adult defendants...

281,189

361,811 399,907 316,177 338,666 412,960

441,461

342,101

435,120

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

...

270,002

322,516

384,620

310,668

399,685

Total number of juvenile defendants

9,829

16,281

12,325

9,368

12,711

Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

9,760

16,127

12,072

9,111

12,539

Total number of charge sheets

issued

118,183

Total number of summonses issued

162,662

145,277 155,311 184,221 236,123

113,451 161,785 199,136

274,332

Total number of miscellaneous

proceedings issued

5,838

5,204

4,800

3,590

5,344

Appendix XLIV

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1969

Remarks

359

Ex officio

""

"

Elected

CHAIRMAN:

The Director of Urban Services

The Honourable David Richard

Watson ALEXANDER, MBE, JP

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Vice-Chairman Deputy Director of Medical and

Health Services

Dr Herbert William WYILE, JP The Honourable the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE,

MC, ED, JP

The Director of Public Works

The Honourable Alec Michael John

WRIGHT, CMG, JP

The Director of Social Welfare

The Honourable George Tippett

ROWE, JP

The Commissioner for Resettlement

Mr John Philip ASERAPPA, JP

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE,

QC, JP

"

Mr Li Yiu-bor, OBE, JP

Dr Woo Pak-foo, OBE, JP

Mr Hilton CHEONG-LEEN, JP

Dr Alison Mary Spencer BELL, JP

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT

Succeeded Mr Geoffrey Marsh TINGLE,

JP on 1.4.68.

Dr CHEUNG King-ho, acted as Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services from 6.5.68 to 16.6.68 and from 11.7.68 to 18.8.68.

Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung, OBE, JP, acted as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 27.1.68 to 12.3.68 and from 21.4.68 to 20.9.68.

Mr George Percy NORTON, JP, acted as Director of Public Works from 30.3.68 to 4.5.68.

Succeeded Mr Alastair Trevor CLARK,

JP, on 14.9.68.

(Mr CLARK succeeded Mr Alastair TODD on 1.4.68.)

Succeeded Mr Dermont BARTY, OBE on 21.2.68.

Campbell

"1

""

Mr Solomon RAFEEK, BEM

""

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick

""

Nominated

**

99

5

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa

Mr Woo Po-shing

Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira Sales,

OBE, JP

The Honourable Wilson WANG

Tze-sam, JP

The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui,

OBE, JP

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, JP

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FoRSGATE, JP

29

"

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung, JP

"

Mr Peter NG Ping-kin, JP

Mr Derek John Renshaw BLAKER

Mr James Wu Man-hon, JP

Mr Peter CHAN Po-fun

""

Succeeded

the Honourable

Wilfred

WONG Sien-bing, OBE, JP, resigned on 1.4.68. Succeeded Mr Daniel LAM See-hin, JP,

resigned on 1.4.68.

360

Appendix XLV

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Member Agencies

American Women's Association of Hong Kong Hong Kong Red Cross

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services) CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission Caritas

Hong Kong

Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Catholic Relief Services-NCWC Catholic Women's League

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

Children's Meals Society

Children's Playground Association Chinese YMCA

Christian Children's Fund, Inc

Christian Family Service Centre

Church of Christ in China

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

The Endeavourers

European YMCA

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

Five District Business Welfare Association Foster Parents' Plan, Inc

Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club

Heep Hong Club

The Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel and Centre

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic

Disease Association

Hong Kong Catholic Social Welfare

Conference

Hong Kong Catholic Youth Council

Hong Kong Cheshire Home

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of the Boys' Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Women

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Housing Society

Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

Hong Kong Red Swastika Society Hong Kong School for the Deaf Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of

Children

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group International Rescue Committee

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

The Leprosy Mission

Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters Catholic Welfare Centre

Mennonite Central Committee

Methodist Social Service Committee

The Methodist Women's Association

New Life Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief

Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern, Inc

Rennies Mill Student Aid Project

Resettlement Estates Loan Association

The Salvation Army

Save the Children Fund

Scouts Association

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese

Methodist Church

Society of Boys' Centres

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of St Vincent de Paul

Spastics Association of Hong Kong

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

World Council of Churches

World Vision, Inc

YWCA

Index

Abattoirs, 8, 124, 178-9, between

pages x-1

Aberdeen, 268

Accidents, industrial, 104, 302

Index

Action Committee against Narcotics,

287

Administration, Government, 286-8 Adoption, 152

Adult education, 98-9

Advisory Committee on Telephone

Services, 208

Aero Club of Hong Kong, 195 Agriculture, 17, 71-6

policy and administration, 72-3 Air traffic, 7, 170-1, 194-5, 350 Aircraft engineering, 55, 195 Airport, 39, 55, 170, 179, 194-5, 220,

281

loan, 39

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Hospital, 106, 117

Aliens, 170

Ambulance service, 167, 224

Amherst, Lord, 270 Anglican Church, 229

Anglo-Chinese schools, 91

Animal industries, 76-8 Appeal Courts, 285-6 Apprentices, 27 Archaeology, 241, 268

Armed Services, 16, 36, 178, 220-2,

286

Art collections, 241 Art in schools, 89 Arts, the, 239-40

Asian Productivity Organization, 52 Assets and liabilities, 39-40, 306-7 Auxiliary Fire Service, 163, 166, 223-4 Auxiliary Forces, 222-3

Auxiliary Medical Service, 224 Aviation, 194-5

Banks, 2, 3, 5, 36, 44, 45, 46, 47-8, 50 Banking, 320-1 Banknotes, 45, 320-1

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 69-70 Baptist Church, 229 Basle Agreement, 2, 47 Bathing and beaches, 134-7

Bauhinia Blakeana, 265

BCG vaccine, 13, 107

Bets and Sweeps Tax, 43

Bianchi, Msgr Lawrence, 230

Bibliography, see footnote to this

Index

Birds, 261-3

Bird Watching, Hong Kong, Society of,

263

Birth and death registration, 256, 258 Birth rate, 105

Black, Sir Robert, College, 98

Blake, Sir Henry, 274

Blood banks, 117

Bonds, 2, 46

Border, 169, 170, 196

Botany, 263-7

Bowling, 234

Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 151 Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, 151 British-

Council, 101, 243-5 Government, 2

Red Cross Society, 117 Broadcasting, 210-3 Bruce, Sir Frederick, 274 Buddhism, 226-7

Budget, 3, 36-40, 303-19 Building-

Authority, 134, 136, 146

development, 4, 127, 133-6, 178-80 Ordinance, 135

Buoys, 188, 191

Bus services, 200-1, 202-3 Business registration, 43 By-Census, 21, 256-8

Cable and Wireless Ltd, 189, 207-8 Cantonese, 256-7

Cape St Mary, the, 82

Car parks, multi-storey, and metered

zones, 199-20

CARE (Co-operative for American

Relief Everywhere, Inc), 155 Cargo storage, 191

Cargo tonnages, 56, 190, 192-3, 350 Caritas, 106, 117, 119, 231, 232 Castle Peak, new town, 9, 22, 56, 130,

184, 198

Castle Peak Hospital, 104, 114, 116,

120

Cathay Pacific, 195 Catholic Centre, 230

hospitals, 232 Press Bureau, 230 Relief Services, 155 Schools, 231

364

Cattle, 76

Cemeteries and crematoria, 233, 287 Census, 256, 258

Centre of Asian Studies, 93, 102

Certificates of Origin, 49, 64-5

Chartered Bank, 44

Chater Collection, 241

Chemist, Government, 118

Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 186

Chi Ma Wan Prison, 163 Child welfare, 152

Children, abandoned, 152

China, 4, 169, 170, 172, 188, 195-6, 268 China Light and Power Co Ltd, 184-5 China Mail, 209

China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 201

Chinese Affairs, Secretary for, 146,

276, 286

Chinese General Chamber of

Commerce, 67

Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

18, 58, 59, 65, 67

Chinese Middle Schools, 91

Chinese People's Republic, 31, 65 Chinese University, The, 91, 94-5,

102, 157, 244 Ching Ming, 196, 228 Cholera, 104, 106 Christians, 228-32

Chuenpi, Convention of, 272 Chung Chi College, 94 Chung Yeung Festival, 228 Church of Christ in China, 229 Churches, 229-31

Cinemas, 215

City District Officers, 10-2, 17, 135,

286-7, 288-9

City Hall, 236, 239, 240-1

Civil-

Aid Services, 224-5

Aviation, 194-5, 221

Defence, 222-5

Service, 10, 85, 144, 290-2

Cleansing, 122

Climate, 248-9, 353

Clinics, 118-9, 180

Clinics, Floating, 118

Coinage, 43-5

Collections, government, 241-2 Colonial Development and Welfare,

310

Colonial Secretariat, 243, 286 Commerce and Industry Department,

49, 64, 167

Commercial Radio, 210, 211-2, 219 Commercial wharves, 191 Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 23 Commonwealth preference, 40, 57,

65, 66

Communicable diseases, 106-12 Communications, 188-208, 350-1 Communists, 1

Community centres, 84, 151

Community Chest, Hong Kong, 14, 150 Community Relief Trust Fund, 155 Companies Registry, 68-9

Confrontation, 162

Confucius, 226 Constitution, 282 Consular corps, 334

Consumer price index, 29 Container Cargo Services, 6, 191

(see also Kwai Chung) Convention of Peking, 274 Co-operative societies, 76, 85, 336 Cottage resettlement, 139-40 Cotton Advisory Board, 50, 66 Cotton, see Textiles Courts, 283-6, 358 Credit Unions, 85

Crime, 159-61, 348-9

Crops, 74-5

Cross-harbour race, 234

Cross-harbour tunnel, 10, 183, 205 Crown land, 126-30, 346 Currency, 36, 43-7, 320-1 Customary marriages, 259

Dance Halls Tax, 43 Death rate, 105

Deaths, 258

Defence, 220-5

Defence expenditure, 36

Defence (Finance) Regulations, 45

Dental services, 119

Devaluation, 2, 46

Development Loan Fund, 39, 314-5

Diphtheria, 104, 110-1

Disabled, the, 153-4 (see also

Rehabilitation)

Diseases, 106-12, 342

District Courts, 283-5, 358 Dockyards, 192

Dollar coins, 43-7

Domestic exports, 3-4, 52, 57, 328-9,

332-3

Dragon Boat Festival, 228, between

pages 264-5

Drainage, 180-1

Driving licences, 204, 347

Drug addiction, 19, 115, 163-6

(see Narcotics)

Drug Addiction Treatment Centres

Ordinance 1968, 164 Ducks, 78

Dutiable commodities, 40 Duties, 39, 311

Duties, Excise, 40

Earnings and profits tax, 3, 41 East African Airlines, 171

East Asia Travel Association, 173 East India Company, 269-70 Economic, Growth, 3-8, 20 Education, 13, 87-103

adult, 98-9

educational television, 13, 98 examinations, 99-101, 338

higher, 92-6

music and art, 88-9

365

Exports, 3-4, 38, 49, 56-8, 60-5, 328-9 External trade, 56-8

Factories and industrial undertakings, 21-2, 29, 50, 52-5, 139, 280, 300-1 Factory registration and inspection, 302 Far East Flying Training School, 195 Farming, 71-5, 248

Fauna, 260-3

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

5, 58, 65, 67

number of schools and pupils, 13, Federation of Youth Groups, 151

88, 337

overseas, 101

pre-primary, 89

primary, 90

recreation centres, 99 research, 101-3

scholarships and bursaries, 94 School Health Service, 114 School Medical Service, 114 secondary, 91-2 special, 90

technical, 13, 96-7 Electricity, 4, 184-6

distribution, 4, between pages

48-9

Electronics industry, 4, 53 Elliot, Capt C., 271-2

Emergency Regulations, 284

Emigration, 23-4

Employment, 21-34, 300-1

holidays with pay, 29

Local Employment Service, 24 migration for, 23-4

New Territories, 22 Ordinance 1968, 7

      safety, health and welfare, 34-5 strikes, 31

wages and conditions of, 7, 28-30 working hours, 30 Entertainment, 239-40 Entertainment Tax, 43

Entrepôt trade, 49-50, 57-8, 188 Essential Services Corps, 223-5 Estate duty, 42

Evening institutes, 99

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 99

Exchange control, 45

Exchange Fund, 44-5, 46

Excise duties, 40

Executive Council, 282, 354-5

Expenditure and revenue, 36-40, 174,

304-5, 308-9, 311

Explosives, 86

Export Credit Insurance Corporation,

5, 59-60

Export promotion, 58-60

Ferries, 170, 190, 200, 203

Festival of Sport, 235

Festivals, Chinese, 227, between pages

264-5

Film censorship, 217

Film industry, 214-216, between pages

216-7

Films, government, 217

Finances, public, 36-40

Fire prevention, 79-80, 165-70

Fire Services, 165-70, 189, 193, 194, 223

Training School, 8, between pages

120-1

Fish, 71, 80-5, 175

marine, 80-1

Marketing Advisory Board, 83 Marketing Organization, 17, 83-5 ponds, 72, 82

Fisheries, 21

administration, 17, 81-5

Development Loan Fund, 82

research station, 82

Fishing fleet, 80

trawlers, 17, 80-1

Flatted factories, 22, 139 Flora, 263-7

Fluoridation, 119

Flying doctor service, 118 Flyovers, 197

Food inspection, 121-3 Foot and mouth disease, 78 Football, 235

Forces, local, 220-5

Forestry, 21, 78-80

Fruit, 75, 264

Fukien, 256

Full Court, 284

Funicular railway, 202

Garden Road Complex, 181, 197

Garment industry, 5, 6, 52

Gas, 186-7

GATT, 60-2

Geography, 246-8

Geology, 246-8

Golf, 234-5

Government Chemist, 118

366

Government Information Services, see Information Services Department Government Language School, 162 Government Stadium, 235 Governor in Council, 282 Grantham College of Education, 98 Grantham Hospital, 14, 106, 108 (see

also Open Heart Surgery)

Hakka, 228, 256-7

Half-Way House, 165, between pages

168-9

Handicapped, the, 149, 153, 154

       (see also disabled, the) Harbour facilities, 188-93 Haven of Hope Sanatorium, 108 Hawker Control Force, 124 Hawkers, 19, 124 Health, 104-25

dental services, 119 education, 123

environmental, 121-5 industrial, 34-5 inspectors, 121 mental 15, 114-5

ophthalmic service, 119-20 outpatient services, 118-9 specialist services, 117-8 statistics, 341-2

training, 120-1

Heavy industries, 50, 54-5

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium, 109 Helicopters, 220-2

Herbarium, Hong Kong, 267 Heung Yee Kuk, 16, 290 Hindu community, 233 Hire cars, 203

History, 268-81

Hoklo, 256-7

Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering

Co Ltd, 27, 195

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and

       Thoracic Diseases Association, 108 Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force,

222-3

Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission

to Lepers, 109

Hong Kong Bird Watching Society,

263

Hong Kong Buddhist Association, 226 Hong Kong Building and Loan

Agency,

142

Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd,

186-7

Hong Kong Christian Council, 229 Hong Kong Christian Service, 15, 230 Hong Kong College of Medicine, 275 Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting

Co, 211

Hong Kong Council of Social Service,

149, 360

Hong Kong Dental Society, 119 Hong Kong Enterprise, 59

Hong Kong Exporters' Association, 67 Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 31

Hong Kong Federation of Youth

Groups, 151

Hong Kong Flying Club, 195 Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 58, 65, 66

Hong Kong House, London, 101 Hong Kong Housing Authority, 9, 142-4 Hong Kong Housing Society, 144 Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 31

Hong Kong Life Guard Club, 237 Hong Kong Long Term Road Study,

10, 199

Hong Kong Mass Transport Study,

10, 199

Hong Kong Medical Council, 106 Hong Kong Natural History Society,

263

Hong Kong Passenger Transport

Survey, 1964-6, 10, 199

Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra,

239

Hong Kong Regiment, 220

Hong Kong Registry of Shipping, 192 Hong Kong Settlers' Housing

Corporation, 144

Hong Kong Standard, 209

Hong Kong Students' Office, 101 Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd, 208 Hong Kong Today, 217 Hong Kong Tourist Association, 3, 7,

58, 171-3, between pages 264-5 Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, 88 Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 185-6 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 44, 156

Hongkong Tramways, Ltd, 201-2 Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co

Ltd, 27, 192

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co

Ltd, 203, between pages 192-3 Hospitals, 13, 115-7 276, 343 Hotels, 8, 43, 173, 202, 281 Ho-tung Collection, 241 Housing, 9, 141-5, 346

Authority, 9, 36, 142-4 Board, 136, 145

co-operatives, 144

low-cost scheme, 9, 142-5, 174,

178, 184, 280

rents, 145-6 Society, 9, 144

367

Hydrofoils, 170, 190, between pages

192-3

Hygiene, environmental and food,

121-5, 288

Immigration, 169-70, 189, 279 Immigration, illegal, 169, (see also

refugees)

Imports, 3, 56, 326-7

Incinerators, 122, 182, facing page 1 Income tax, 41-3

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 65, 67 Industrial-

accidents, 35, 104

employment, 21-5, 28-30 health, 34-5

land, 55-6

relations, 7, 30-4

productivity, 3, 4, 19, 51-2

safety, 3, 34-5

training, 25-8

Training Advisory Committee,

25, 28

undertakings, 21-2, 300-1 welfare, 34, 35

Industry and trade, 49-70

Infant mortality, 105

Influenza, 14, 104, 112

Information Services Department, 17,

18, 59, 158, 209, 216

Inland Revenue, 41-3

Insurance, 50, 59-60

INTELSAT III, 207 Interest tax, 41

Internal revenue, 37, 41-3

Internal security, 158

International Confederation of Free

Trade Unions, 31

International economic relations, 6-7,

60-4

International Sanitary Regulations,

112

International trade negotiations, 60-4 International Union of Official Travel Organizations, 173 Iron ore, 85-6

Islamic community, 226, 233

        Japanese occupation, 256, 279 Jewish community, 232 Joseph Trust Fund, 73 Judiciary, 283-6

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council,

108

Junk building, 54

Junks, 80-1, 191, 193

        Justice, Courts of, 283-6 Juvenile Care Centre, 156 Juvenile crime, 160

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 73

Kaifong welfare associations, 11, 150-1 Kindergarten schools, 89

Kowloon-Canton Railway, 195-6, 350 Kowloon Hospital, 13, 105, 116, 180,

276

Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

200-1

Kung Sheung Yat Po, 209 Kwai Chung, 6, 8, 9, 55, 56, 130,

183, 191

Kwangtung, 256, 268, 279 Kwong Wah Hospital, 116 Kwung Tong, 9, 55, 183, 236

Labour

administration, 7, 30-4 Department, 7, 30

disputes and stoppages, 31 hours of work, 28-30 legislation, 29-30

Lai Chi Kok Bridge, 8, 197, between

pages x-1

Lai Chi Kok Hospital, 105, 180

Lai Chi Kok Prison, 163

Land, 126-33, 147-8

administration, 126 agricultural, 71-2, 248 arable, 72

area, 246 auctions, 126

Crown, 126-30, 147 development, 73, 127 for industry, 55-6

Office (Registrar General), 147-8 revenue, 130-1

sales, 38-9, 130-1, 346

surveys, 131-3

tenure, 126-7

transactions, private, 130-1 utilization, 71-2, 248

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, 145,

147

Law courts, 283-6

Law and Sayer Collection, 241 Leases, Crown, 126

Legal Aid, 155

Legislation, 282-3, 296-9

Legislative Council, 1, 3, 282, 356-7 Lei Cheng Uk, Tomb, 268 Lei Yue Mun, 188 Lepers, Mission to, 109 Leprosy, 109

Letters Patent, 229, 282

Libraries, 242-4

Light industries, 53-4

Lighters, 191

Lin Tse-hsu, 271

368

Lion Rock tunnel, 198 Liquidations, 69-70 Livestock, 76-8

Lo Wu, 170, 195

Loans, 39, 73, 82

Local forces, 220-5

Monasteries, 226-7

Moral welfare, 153

Museum, 240-1

Music, 88-9, 239

Muslim community, 232-3

London Missionary Society, 229, 275 Napier, Lord, 270-1

London Office, Hong Kong

Government, 218

Long-Term Cotton Textile

Arrangement, 62, 66

Lotteries Fund, 15, 39, 154, 316-9 Low-cost housing, 9, 142-5, 174, 178,

184, 280

Lugard, Sir Frederick, 275 Lutheran Church, 229

Macartney, Lord, 270

Macau, 169, 170, 190, 193, 269, 271,

279

ferries, 190

Magistracies, 284, 358

Malaria, 104, 110, 273, 275 Mammals, 260-1

Management Studies Diploma, 93 Marine Department, 5, 188, 189 Marine fauna, 261 Market gardening, 72, 248 Marketing, 73, 75-6, 83-5, 335 Marriages, 257, 259 Maryknoll Hospital, 117

Materials Testing Laboratory, 183 Maternal and child health, 113-4 Matriculation, 94

Measles, 14, 104, 112

Measures and weights, 295

Medical-

and Health Department, 14,

105-6

    Clinics Ordinance, 118-9 finance, 106

personnel, 344

research, 125

specialist services, 117-8 training, 120-1

Mental health, 114-5 Mercantile Bank, 44

Mercantile Marine Office, 191 Merchant Navy Club, 192 Meteorological research, 251-2 Meteorology, 249-51

Methodist Church, 229 Mid-Autumn Festival, 228

Midwives, 113

Migration for employment, 23-4

Minerals, 85-6, 246, 336

Mines Department, 86

Mining, 21, 147

Missionaries, 229, 275, 276

Narcotics, 118, 160, 163, 164-5, 167-8

legislation, 160, 164

Narcotics Advisory Committee, 287 Natural history, 260-7 Navigation, 188-94 Neonatal mortality, 105 New Territories-

Administration, 11, 16, 73, 288-90 employment, 22, 72

health services, 104-5, 112-20 Heung Yee Kuk, 16, 179, 290 irrigation systems, 177

land tenure, 73, 126

land utilization, 71-2, 248

parks and playgrounds, 235, 237

population, 71, 256-8

public works, 178-80, 289 roads, 198-9

squatters, 140-1 taxis, 202

New towns, 8, 22, 130

News agencies, 210, 216

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, 210 Newspapers, 209-10, 216, 287, 352 Northcote College of Education, 98 Nurses, 120-1

Occupational accidents, 34-5

Occupational diseases, 34

Occupational health, 34

Occupations, 21-5

Ocean Terminal, 58, 191

Official Receiver, 70

Olympic Games, 234

Open Heart Surgery, 14, 118 Operation Feedbag, 77

Opium, 160, 171

Orchids, 266-7

Oriental Bank, 44

Outdoor activities, 151, (see also

Summer Recreation Programme) Overseas representation, 334 Oyster farming, 83

Pacific Area Travel Association, 173 Pacific Tidal Warning Service, 251 Paddy, 74-5, 248

Palletization, 6 Palmerston, Lord, 271 Parcel post, 205-6

Parkes, Sir Harry, 274 Parking, 199-200

369

Parks and playgrounds, 234-7, 288

Patents, 67-8

Productivity Centre, 51 Productivity Council, 5, 51 Profits Tax, 41-2

Progress, 1-20

Property Tax, 41-2

Protestant churches, 229-30

Conservation of the Countryside, 239

Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd, 184 Provision Council for the Use and

Peak Tramways, 202, 277

Pearl culture, 81

Peking, 270, 274

Peking, Convention of, 274

Personal assessment, 41

Pest control, 123

Pig-raising,

76-7

Pilotage, 189

Pirates, 268

Plague, 277

Plants, 263-7

Plastics, 21-2, 25, 53-4

Playgrounds, 8, 179, 180, 234-7, 281 Plover Cove Scheme, 8, 17, 38, 174-5,

         280, between pages x-1 Poisonous plants, 266

Police, 2, 159-63, 168, 179, 204,

between pages 168-9

anti-illegal immigration, 169 Auxiliaries, 159, 163 CID, 160

manpower and training, 162-3 Public Information Bureau, 17,

18, 158

Traffic Branch, 161-2 Uniformed Branch, 162 women, 162

Poliomyelitis, 104, 111

Pond fish production, 72, 82-3

Population, 256-9, 273-4, 275, 278,

279

New Territories, 256-8 non-Chinese aliens, 256 urban, 256

Port, 5-6, 188-94, frontispiece

Control Office, 189

Executive Committee, 188 health, 112-3, 189

Welfare Committee, 192 works, 181-3, 191

Postal Services, 205-7, 281, between

pages 240-1, 351

Post-secondary education, 92-6 Pottinger, Sir Henry, 272

Poultry, 17, 71, 76, 77-8 Presbyterian Church, 229 Press, 1, 18, 209-10, 216, 218

Chinese Language Press Institute,

210

Preventive Service, 66, 167-8 Primary production, 71-86 Prisons, 116, 163-5, 179, between

pages 168-9

Private building, 4, 134-6

Privy Council, 286

Probation, 149, 155-6

Public--

assistance, 154-5

assets, 36-40

debt, 39-40, 310

health administration, 105-6

order, 158-68

roads, 197-9

Service, 29, 286, 290-2 Services Commission, 291 transport, 200-3, 351 utilities, 184-7 works, 8, 38

Works Department, 174-84 Public Enquiry Service, 17, 218-9 Publicity, local and overseas, 59,

216-8

Quarantine, 112-3, 189 Quarrying, 21

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 116, 117,

119, 120, 280

Queen Mary Hospital, 13, 104, 116,

117-8, 119, 120, 180, 276

Rabies, 78

Radio, Commercial, 211-2, 219 Radio Hong Kong, 17, 179, 210-2,

219

Radio news, 209, 211, 216

Radioactivity, measurements, 251 Radiotherapy, 117

Railway, 195-6, 231, 351

Rainfall, 15, 248, 252-3, 353

Rates, 41

Rating and Valuation Commissioner, 41 Reclamations, 56, 181-4, 189, 276, 277 Recreation, 234-45

Red Cross, 117, 154

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd, 212-3 Refugees, 49, 170, 278 Refuse collections, 122, 182

Registrar of Co-operative Societies, 85 Registrar General, 68, 258, 276 Registrar of Trade Unions, 32-3 Registration, companies, 68-9 Rehabilitation, 14, 115, 153-4,

between pages 168-9 Rehabilitation Loan, 39 Religion and Custom, 226-33 Rent control, 145-6 Rescue service, 224

370

Research-

Chinese University, The, 102-3

fisheries, 82

medical and health, 125

meteorology, 251-6

tourist, 171-2

University of Hong Kong, 102

Reservoirs, 8, 174, 175, 177, 277,

280

School(s) (Contd)

number of schools and pupils,

88, 89-92, 337

primary, 90 secondary, 91-2

special, 90-1

subsidized, 92

technical, 96-7

Seamen's recruiting, 192

Resettlement, 9, 136-41, 174, 178, 280 Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, 11,

cottage areas, 139-40, 141

cultivations, 141

flatted factories, 139

rents, 138-9

schools, 138

shops and workshops, 138 squatter problem, 140-1 statistics, 345 Restaurant work in Britain, 16 Revaluation, 2

Revenue and expenditure, 3, 36-40 Revenue Equalization Fund, 3, 39 Rice, 17, 71, 74, 75, 248 Rinderpest, 78

Road safety, 161 Roads, 197-9, 281

Robinson, Sir Hercules, 274

Rock dating, 247 Rodent control, 123

Roman Catholic

Church, 230-2

schools, 231-2

Royal Air Force, 221-2

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force,

220, 222

Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, 118,

236

Royal Instructions, 282

Royal Navy, 220-1

Royal Observatory, 195, 229-51

Rural Committees, 289-90 Ruttonjee Sanatorium, 108

Sai Ying Pun Clinic, 276 Salaries tax, 41

Sandy Bay Convalescent Home, 109,

117

Sanitary services, 109-11, 122-3 Satellite Earth Station, 207 School(s)-

Anglo-Chinese grammar, 91 for blind, 91

Chinese middle, 91 for deaf, 90, 91 evening, 99

fishermen's children, 84

Health Service, 114

Medical Service, 114

music festival, 88

146, 276, 286-7

Seismology, 251

Seventh Day Adventist Welfare

Service, 155

Sewerage, 180-1

Sha Tin, new town, 22, 56, 130 Shek Kwu Chau Rehabilitation

Centre, 115

Shek Pik, 177, 280

Shipbreaking, 49, 54-5, 193

Shipbuilding and repairing, 23, 49,

54, 188

Shipping, 6, 170, 190-3, 250, 350 Silver currency, 43-5

Sing Tao newspapers, 209 Slaughterhouses, 123, 124 (see also

abattoirs) Snakes, 262

Social Security, 14

Social services, 37, 229, 231-2 Social Welfare, 14-5, 149-57

training, 156-7

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

of Drug Addicts, 115

Society of Boys' Centres, 156 Soil, 71-2, 79, 247-8

South China Morning Post, 209 Specialist health services, 118-9 Sports and recreation, 234-7 Squatters, 140-1

St Andrew's Church, 229

St John Ambulance Association and

Brigade, 34, 119, 237

St John's Cathedral, 229 St John's Hospital, 108 St Joseph's Church, 231 Stamp duty, 42-3

Stanley Prison, 163, 164 'Star' Ferry, 203 'Star' newspaper, 209 Steel, 4, 54-5

Sterling, 2, 44, 45-7

Stonecutters Island, 246, 274 Street cleansing, 122, 124

Strikes and stoppages of work, 31,

192, 200

Students in Britain, 101, 244-5

Sulphur Channel, 188

371

Summer Recreation Programme, 12,

237-9

Sun Yat-sen, 275, 278 Sunday Post-Herald, 209 Sung Wong Toi, 269

Supreme Court, 283-6 Survey, 131-3 Sweeps tax, 43 Swimming, 234, 236-7

Swimming pools, 180, 236, 237

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering

Co Ltd, 27, 192

Tai Lam Treatment Centre, 163 Tai Mo Shan, 247, 249 Tai Ping Rebellion, 273 Tang clan, 268

Tanka, 256-7

Taoism, 226-8

Taxation, 38, 41-3 Taxis, 202

Teachers and teacher training, 97-8 Technical College, 27, 91, 92, 96-7 Telecommunications, 195, 207-8, 281 Telephones, 208

Television, 1, 13, 18, 213-4, 281

Broadcasts Limited, 18, 213-4 Public Affairs Television Unit, 18 Rediffusion, 213 Telex, 207, 351 Temperatures, 249, 353 Temples, 227-8

Tenancy inquiry bureaux, 146, 287 Tenancy tribunals, 145-6, 284 Textiles, 4, 6, 21, 52-3

Theatre, 215, 239-40

Tientsin, Treaties of, 274

Time signals, 251

Tin Hau, 227

To Fung Shan Monastery, 227

Tong Fuk Prison, 163, 179 Topography, 246-8

Tourism, 7-8, 171-3

Town planning, 133-4

Town Planning Board, 126, 133 Toys, 4, 5, 53

Trade-

administration, 7, 65-6

and industrial organizations, 66-7 and Industry Advisory Board,

50, 66

Commissioners, 334

Development Council, 5, 58-9,

171

external, 56-8, 60-4 international, 60-4

Marks and Patents Registries,

67-8 missions, 58-9

Trade-(Contd)

promotion, 5, 58-60, 280 restrictions, 6-7, 49-50, 61-4 statistics, 322-33

Trade unions, 31-4

Traffic, 9-10, 161-2, 197-9, 281 Traffic accidents, 104, 161-2, 347 Traffic and Transport Survey Unit,

198 Training-

health, 120-1

teachers, 97-8 Tramways, 201-2 Transistor radios, 53 Transistors, 54

Transport, 9-10, 200-3, 264, 351,

between pages 192-3

Transport Advisory Committee, 203 Transport Department, 204 Transport Office, 204 Travel documents, 169 Treaties of Tientsin, 274 Treaty of Nanking, 272 Treaty Ports, 273 Tree planting, 236

Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, 114,

121, 276

Tsuen Wan, 8, 22, 56, 130, 179, 198,

226, 231, 280, 289

Tuberculosis, 13, 78, 104, 107-9, 125 Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 106,

107, 116-7, 286

Typhoid, 111

Typhoons and tropical storms, 193-4,

218-9, 250-1, 253-5, 273, 276

Unemployment, 23

University of Hong Kong, 91, 92-4,

100, 102, 120, 156, 230, 241, 244, 275 University, The Chinese, 91, 94-6, 100,

102-3, 157, 243, 244, 280

Urban-

Council, 1, 105, 121, 235-42, 260,

287, 288, 359

population, 256

Services, 105, 110, 121-5, 144,

235-7, 288

Utilities, public, 184-7

Vegetable(s)-

co-operatives, 73, 81-4

cultivation, 74-5, 248

Marketing Organization, 75-6

production, 74-5

Vegetation, 72, 78-80

Vehicle ferries, 203

Vehicles and drivers' licences, 10, 204,

347

Venereal diseases, 109

372

Victoria-

City Development Company,

205

District Court, 179

Park, 237

Visas, 169

Vital statistics, 105, 341

Vocational training, 280

Voluntary agencies,

144, 152, 154,

155, 156, 360

Volunteers, The, 222

Wages, 7, 28-9

Wah Fu Estate, 9, 143, 154, between

pages 144-5

Wah Kiu Yat Po, 209

Watches, 4-5, 54

Water-

consumption, 174

from China, 174, 280

Weapons, 168

Weather, 15, 252-5, 353

forecast, 249-51

Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, 229 Weights and measures, 295

Welfare of women and children, 153 Wigs, 4, 54

Wild life, 260-3

Working hours, 29-30

Workmen's Compensation Ordinance,

285

X-ray examinations, 34

YMCA, YWCA, 151, 229 Yoga, 233

Youth, 12-3, between pages 96-7 (see

also Summer Recreation Programme) Youth Advisory Service, 25

Zoning of land, 55, 128 Zoology, 260-3

HONG KONG BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Bibliography last appeared in this Report in 1963. A revised edition, 'A Hong Kong Bibliography 1965' by J. M. Braga, is available as a separate publication priced at HK$1.00 per copy, obtainable from the Printing Department, 81-115 Java Road, North Point, and the Government Publications Centre, Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong.

Printed and Published by S. Young, Government Printer, at the Government Press

Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1969

1

PLAN OF VICTORIA & KOWLOON SHOWING DISTRICT NAMES

香糖

CUTTERS ISLAND

NEW TERRITORIES

So UK

WONG TAI SIN

CO

DIAMOND

BÁU CHI WAN

CHEUN SHA WAN

SHEK KIP MEI

KOWLOON TONG

SAN PO KONG

SHAM SHUI PO

KOWLOON CITY

H. K. AIRPORT (KAI TAK)

MONG KOK

YAU MA TEI

KING'S PARK

MA TAU KOK

HO MAN TIN

HUNG HOM

KOWLOON BAY

RUNWAY

HONG KONG

GREEN ISLAND

KENNEDY

MOUNT DAVIS

POK FU LAM

SAI YING PUN

TSIM SHA TSUI

VICTORIA

HARBOUR

CENTRAL DISTRICT

WANCHAI

P

HAPPY VALLEY

CAUSEWAY

BAY

NORTH POINT

SCALE 2 INCHES TO ONE MILE

DRAWN BY C. L. & S O.. 1968

JORDAN VALLEY

NGAU TAU

KOK

KWUN TONG

QUARRY BAY

SHAU KEP WAN

N

YAU TONG

RE

YOE MUN

CHAI WAN

Approximate Boundaries Only Are Shown On This Plan

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

香港

九六八年