Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1967

1

L.

Hong Kong

ļ

1967

This 16-storey block of flats at Aberdeen, on the south side of Hong Kong island, is a monument to the phenomenal progress made in housing the colony's homeless. It was here at Shek Pai Wan in 1967 that Hong Kong's millionth person was reset- tled. The scheme was launched in 1954 and the present resettlement programme aims to bring the total housed to 1.6 million by 1972.

Price: HK$10.00

HONG

香港

圖書饼

CENTRAL

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

LIB

HONG KONG 1967

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE

Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong,

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE

54, Pall Mall, London, SW1

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1968

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

Frontispiece: If it is true to say that the future of any community lies in its youth then Hong Kong, with its wealth of young people, is fortunate. Those pictured are typical of the Colony's school-children.

www.

KAR, /VWYN - Bey

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year

1967

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1968

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 00250604 8

:

     The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all organizations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter to this Report. Particular acknowledgement is given to Professor D. J. Dwyer, BA, PhD, of the University of Hong Kong, for the chapter on Geography, to Mr G. B. Endacott, MA, BLitt, DipEd for the History chapter, and to Dr P. M. Marshall, BSc, PhD, also of the University, for the section on Wild Life.

Unless otherwise mentioned, all illustrations in this Report are the work of official photographers. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustration should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

URBAN COUNCIL PU LIC LIBRARIES

Acc. No.

89114

Class.

HK

951-25

Author

How

HKCr

Chapter

1 REVIEW:

2

4

5

6

7

CONTENTS

CONFRONTATION

EMPLOYMENT: Occupations - Industrial Training - Wages and Conditions of Work-Labour Admin- istration and Industrial Relations Safety, Health and Welfare.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue and Expenditure -

Excise Duties Rates Internal Revenue Currency - Banking.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: General Review · Industrial Productivity Textiles - Light Industries Heavy Industries External Trade Trade Promotion International Economic Relations Administration - Trade and Industrial Organiza- tions Records.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION:

·

Introduction - Land Utiliza- tion - Administration - Principal Crops - Vege- table Marketing Organization - Fish Ponds - Animal Industries - Forestry - Fishing (including Research) Fish Marketing Organization - Co- operative Societies - Mining.

·

·

EDUCATION: Pattern of Education - Primary, Sec- ondary and Higher Education-Teachers and Teacher Training - Adult Education - Examina- tions-Education Overseas-University Research.

HEALTH: General Situation · Administration

municable Diseases - - Port

Com- Health Service

Maternal and Child Health · Mental Health Hospitals - Specialist Services Clinics Den- tal Services - Ophthalmic Service - Training - Environmental Health Research.

-

8 LAND AND HOUSING: Land Tenure and Development-

Land Sales - Surveys Town Planning - Private Building Resettlement Squatter Clearance - Housing Rent Control - Land Office.

-

9

SOCIAL WELFARE: Organization - Youth Welfare- Child Welfare - Welfare of Women and Girls - The Disabled Probation and Correction - Public Assistance and Emergency Relief - Community Development - Training and Research.

-

Page

1

21

35

46

68

84

98

119

141

vi

Chapter

-

CONTENTS

Page

149

10 PUBLIC ORDER: Police-Crime-Traffic-Training Prisons Fire Services · Preventive Service.

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM: Immigration Tourism.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES: Water Supplies - Buildings - Drainage Port Works - Land Development - Public Utilities.

11

12

·

159

166

13

COMMUNICATIONS: Shipping Kowloon-Canton Railway

14

15

Roads

Civil Aviation

Parking -

179

Public Transport - Ferry Services - Cross-harbour Tunnel- Postal Services - Telecommunications.

-

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA: Introduction - 198

Newspapers - Sound Broadcasting - Television Films Government Information Services

Public Enquiry Service.

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES: The Armed Services Local Auxiliary Defence Services Essential Services Corps.

-

206

16

RELIGION AND CUSTOM: Chinese Beliefs and Practices

Christian Churches Jewish,

               Jewish, Islamic and Hindu Communities.

211

17

RECREATION: Sport - Entertainment and the Arts Government Collections · Libraries British

220

Council.

18

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE: Topography and Geology

- Climate - Royal Observatory - Research -

228

The Year's Weather.

19

POPULATION: Population Statistics and Groupings -

Births and Deaths- Marriages.

238

20 NATURAL HISTORY:

Wild Life - Flora.

242

22

22

21 HISTORY

251

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION:

Constitution

265

Judiciary - Administration (including the New

Territories) - The Public Service.

CONTENTS

The Face of the Future

ILLUSTRATIONS

vii

Page

Frontispiece

1967 in Review

between x-1

The Face of Confrontation

between 20-1

Hong Kong Week (Going Gay in Festival Time)

between 64-5

Children (A Wealth of Youth)

between 112-3

Resettlement (New Homes for Old Boats)

between 136-7

The Port Thrives On

between 160-1

Plover Cove (Winning a Reservoir from the Sea)

between 180-1

City Hall - Centre of Culture

between

200-1

Public Gardens (A Blaze of Blossoms)

between 224-5

Fishes (Riches from the Ocean)

between 248-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Victoria and Kowloon showing District Names

viii

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

I

II

III-V

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

LEGISLATION

EMPLOYMENT: Industrial Undertakings and Per- sons Employed - Factory Registrations and Inspections - Industrial and Occupational Accidents.

-

VI-XIV FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue Expenditure

Statement of Assets and Liabilities Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure - Public Debt - Colonial Development and Welfare Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees Development Loan Fund Lotteries Fund Currency and Banking Statistics, Currency in Circulation and Bank Deposits. INDUSTRY AND TRADE: Composition Value of

Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade - Imports Commodity Pattern - Principal Sources Domestic Exports-Commodity Pattern- Principle Markets - Re-exports - Direction of Trade.

XV- XXI

-

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Marketing Organization Statistics-Co-operative Societies - Produc- tion of Minerals.

XXII

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

XXIII- XXV

XXVI- XXIX

EDUCATION: Categories of Schools, Enrolments,

New Buildings, Classrooms and Places- Educational Statistics - Hong Kong Students Pursuing Further Studies in Britain - Actual Expenditure on Education.

Page

277

278

284

287

306

318

319

321

XXX-

XXXIII

HEALTH: Vital Statistics Infectious Diseases

Notified Hospital Beds - Professional Medical Personnel.

325

XXXIV- LAND AND HOUSING:

Resettlement Estate

329

XXXV

Statistics - Housing Provided in 1967- Premiums Received on Sales of Crown Land.

CONTENTS

Appendix

XXXVI- PUBLIC ORDER: Traffic Serious Crime. XXXVII

XXXVIII COMMUNICATIONS: Statistics: Marine, Kowloon- Canton Railway, Air Traffic, Vehicles, Postal Traffic, Telegraph and Radio Traffic.

ix

Page

331

334

XXXIX

THE PRESS: Leading Newspapers and Magazines.

336

XL

WEATHER: Climatological Summary.

337

XLI-

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION: Executive

338

XLII

·

Council - Legislative Council.

XLIII

CASES IN THE COURTS AND WORK IN THE

342

MAGISTRACIES

XLIV

URBAN COUNCIL

343

XLV

SOCIAL WELFARE: Hong Kong Council of Social

Service, Member Agencies.

344

INDEX

347

1967

# Stirring Events in the

The

Year of the Ram

Year of the Ram has been an exciting one for Hong Kong. The drama of the disturbances has tended to obscure the steady, but none-the-less stirring development that has gone on in the Colony. The resettlement building programme reached a remarkable milestone when its ʼmillionth tenant was housed. The vast Plover Cove sea inlet was sealed off, the reservoir drained of sea-water

GKO

and partly filled with fresh water from the late summer rains. Lion Rock tunnel, through the Kowloon hills, was opened up to traffic and many other road improvements were completed. Wireless television began regular programming and colour telecasts were seen for the first time in the Colony.

Abroad, Hong Kong goods and workman- ship were promoted by a safari caravan

in

BLI East Africa, by a Hong

اور

Kong-made junk on the

American Great Lakes and by trade missions.

All these are healthy indications of vigorous growth and augur well for Hong Kong as it moves into 1968-the Year of the Monkey- symbolic of energy and progress.

LION ROCK TUNNEL

   Above and below: Lion Rock tunnel (opened in November) provides a fast, direct route through the Kowloon hills to the rural New Territories. Large pipes below the 4,700-ft-long highway carry water from the Sha Tin treatment works.

Thi

EUR

!

Above: Men, operating under arc-lights, work on the Queen's Road flyover, Hong Kong Island. Below: The flyover in use, relieving a traffic bottleneck in the busy central district. The sweeping Harcourt Road span is seen in the background.

*

1

I

Two novel approaches to trade and tourist promotion. Left: The Hong Kong built junk Ding Hao, which showed off the Colony's workmanship in America. This page: The Trade Development Council's safari caravan in East Africa.

safar

HOMS KON

This site (above), in Kowloon, will even- tually house all Hong Kong's radio and television stations. The newly-opened wireless television station is in the foreground. Rediffu- sion Television will soon move into its

new building on the left. Right: above and below:

Pop

music and a Chinese programme on the air. Left:

The

Governor, Sir David Trench, examines a television camera.

C

SOUND

EAT

!.

SOUND

REAT

W

Ju

   Accent on youth. (Left): Boys at a summer camp, organized by the army and government departments, chat with a visitor from the Executive Council. Above: They're off on the annual cross-harbour swim; hundreds took part in the event. Below: A quiet round of putting on the newly opened Victoria Park green.

Left: The colourful government pavilion at the Chinese Manufacturers' Association's 25th Annual Exhibition. Above: Press conference with Lord Shepherd, Minister of State, Commonwealth Affairs. Below: Mr Herbert Bowden, then Secretary of State, Commonwealth Affairs (back row, left), on a factory tour in Kowloon. Overleaf: The Governor, Sir David Trench, has a cheerful wave for spectators.

1

Review

CONFRONTATION

     SINCE May 1967, communist organizations in Hong Kong have sought to impose their will on the government and the people by intimidating workers, fomenting work stoppages, by demonstra- tions and rioting, and by indiscriminate violence. It has been a testing time for the people of Hong Kong.

      But these events must be seen in their proper perspective. The communist-initiated confrontation, between themselves and the Hong Kong Government is in no sense a popular movement; indeed it does not have the support of any significant section of the people, much less of the people as a whole. Those who have taken part represent a very small fraction of the population, and they have had no success in their attempts, either by persuasion or by intimi- dation, to gain support for their cause. The overwhelming majority of the people have shown clearly that they support the government and the maintenance of law and order.

Moreover, despite the claims made by the communist press, and despite the impression that might have been given by the world wide press coverage given to the disturbances, the ordinary life of the Colony has not been disrupted. The rioting that has taken place has been limited in area and in scope and has been contained. The stoppages that were called have had little effect on the Colony's economy. Throughout the summer, when the effects of confronta- tion were at their height, the ordinary man in the street was able to go about his work, not quite as usual and not without con- siderable inconvenience at times, but sufficiently easily to keep the business of the Colony operating efficiently.

      The origins of confrontation stem directly from the cultural revolution in China, which has inculcated among its adherents a fervent patriotism and an intense adulation of Chairman Mao Tse Tung and his teachings. The dedicated Maoist has come to believe

2

REVIEW

that he has a duty to propagate the gospel of the cultural revolution and that armed with the Thoughts of Mao he is invincible. Hong Kong was an obvious target for this missionary zeal. Its population is predominantly Chinese by race, who as 'compatriots' could be expected to rally to the attack against a colonial government; and its free economy is an affront to revolutionary doctrine. The recent events in nearby Macau had shown that a colonial government could be made to accept the communist demands; while nearer home a similar confrontation had been successful, in March 1967, in a dispute with a major shipping company in Hong Kong. It must have seemed to many ardent communists in the Colony that the time was ripe to bring the cultural revolution to Hong Kong.

      The less fanatical among the communists may have been more concerned to preserve the very real economic advantages that a stable and prosperous Hong Kong has for China, and no doubt for themselves as well. But they could not oppose confrontation without appearing to oppose the teachings of Chairman Mao Tse Tung; they could only hope and do what they could to ensure that its physical effects would be limited. The outbreaks of violence that have occurred and the attempts that have been made to disrupt the economy of the Colony have made it clear that they have been unable to restrain or effectively control the more hot-headed elements among them, whose aim it is to dominate the government by any means. It was the latter who precipitated confrontation, as a result of a comparatively minor incident arising from a labour dispute.

      In the early months of the year industrial relations in the Colony were generally good but there were a few disputes which had either been artificially inspired by the communists or were the result of deliberate political exploitation of a genuine industrial grievance. These involved four taxi companies, a textile factory, a cement company and the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works. The Hong Kong Seamen's Union was engaged in a dispute with a shipping company and, at the same time, it continued its official boycott of the Government Seamen's Recruiting Office. These disputes were all confined to undertakings where there was a predominant or strong communist element in the work force, or where a communist trade union was involved.

REVIEW

3

      The tactics employed were identical in each case. Workers were intimidated and threatened with physical violence. Attempts to settle the disputes were deliberately frustrated by the injection of political issues, expressed in the form of demands which were required to be accepted 'unconditionally'. These demands were followed by a succession of rowdy demonstrations, designed to intimidate the management, in which slogans and extracts from The Thoughts of Mao Tse Tung were chanted in unison. The attitude of the unions became increasingly truculent. A press photographer taking pictures of a typical demonstration was attacked and a demand was made that his camera be confiscated. Offers made by the Labour Department to mediate in disputes were dismissed as 'unwelcome meddling'. It became clear that the extremist elements among the communists might provoke a major clash at any moment.

      The opportunity was provided on May 6. A group of dismissed workers from the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works at San Po Kong were picketing the factory premises and, ignoring repeated warnings from the police, they persisted in illegally trying to prevent the removal of goods by the management. The police finally intervened and arrested 21 men. It was a minor incident; there was little or no violence and no one was seriously injured. It was, how- ever, enough to provoke an immediate reaction; headlines appeared in the communist newspapers denouncing the government and accusing the police, in the most violent terms, of persecution and of brutally attacking unarmed workers. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Rubber and Plastics Workers Union, whose chairman was among those arrested, published four demands:

  The Hong Kong Government must cease its brutality immediately and ensure that it is not repeated; All the arrested people must be released immediately; Compensa- tion must be paid by the government for all injuries and damage and those responsible must be punished; There must be no government interference in labour disputes.

These demands were endorsed by the Hong Kong and Kowloon Federation of Trade Unions. Meetings were held in pro-communist organizations in support of the arrested workers and posters began to appear attacking the government and protesting against police brutality.

4

REVIEW

At the San Po Kong factory itself there were further demon- strations, with processions and the chanting of slogans. These inevitably attracted crowds of idle spectators as well as hooligans and mischief-makers and, when, on May 11, communist pickets threatened to break into the factory and there was a further clash with the police, there was a mob at hand ripe for violence. There was serious rioting, which spread from the streets in the vicinity of the factory to adjacent areas of Kowloon, and for three days mobs, including many who were paid to take part, battled the police, attacked and set fire to buses and other vehicles and broke into and looted government offices and staff quarters in an orgy of destruction. A curfew was imposed in the affected areas during the nights of the 11th, 12th and 13th, but it was not until the 14th that calm was restored. These disturbances were dealt with firmly by the police but with the minimum of force; no firearms were used and the army was not called upon for assistance.

      Meanwhile, a campaign of intimidation had also begun on Hong Kong Island. An 'All-Circles Anti-Persecution Struggle Committee' was formed, with a membership drawn from all communist organizations in the Colony. It was given considerable publicity in the communist press. Delegations of employees of communist newspapers and department stores and representatives of communist trade unions and other organizations began to converge on Govern- ment House with petitions protesting against government brutality and insisting that the communist demands be met.

      On May 15 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Peking issued a statement protesting against the action taken by the British au- thorities against Chinese residents in Hong Kong. (This statement possibly reflected the highly coloured reports put out by the com- munist press in Hong Kong. On May 23, for example, the New China News Agency alleged that 200 people had been killed or injured. As a matter of record, one person had been killed and not by police action but probably by a brick thrown or dropped from above him by one of the rioters).

       In the days that followed the demonstrations at Government House increased; the demonstrators became more unruly and aggressive and the posters, both at the gates of Government House and elsewhere, more violent and seditious. Powerful loudspeakers

REVIEW

5

were mounted on the Bank of China building, in the centre of the banking and business area of Hong Kong, which encouraged the demonstrators forming up in the vicinity with a stream of violently provocative propaganda, including vicious personal attacks on the Governor.

      Propaganda was broadcast from other communist buildings in Hong Kong and Kowloon; the press campaign increased in violence; and there was an outbreak of rioting in Kowloon in the vicinity of the Magistrates Court where cases against those arrested at San Po Kong were being heard.

      On May 20 it was announced by the government that while it was not proposed to revoke the right of any person to present a petition to the Governor, this must be done in an orderly manner. No further processions would be allowed and delegations wishing to present petitions must not exceed 20 people.

      This decision was challenged on the following morning when organized groups of communists formed up at the bottom of Garden Road and demanded to be allowed to pass through the police cordon on their way to Government House. Permission was refused and there were a number of scuffles in the vicinity. The crowd, which had grown to more than a thousand, was dispersed by tear gas and by the early evening the situation was quiet.

       On May 22 the communists returned to the attack and it soon became clear that they had planned a propaganda 'incident'. Groups of people again formed up in Garden Road and the police were again subjected to a barrage of heckling and abuse. Crowds were building up in nearby Statue Square and the loudspeakers at the Bank of China boomed out a continual stream of threats and appeals to violence. In this daunting atmosphere the police quietly stood their ground and in an impressive display of discipline ignored both the verbal provocation to which they were subjected, as well as the threatening gestures of the mob that faced them. But the communists were out to provoke violence. A constable was kicked and others were attacked. The police moved forward to arrest the man responsible. There was a general melée and the police used their batons. At once many of the demonstrators fell to the ground whether they had been hit or not; bandages (some of them already provided with artificial 'bloodstains') were produced and

6

REVIEW

applied; the blood of those who had really been injured was liberally daubed on others. The results of these childish expedients were duly photographed by the communist press and subsequently published as evidence of police brutality, though what little effect this might have had was spoiled by the crowds of witnesses looking on from the Hilton Hotel, as well as by the full coverage of the scene by impartial press and television cameramen.

      Further demonstrators appeared during the day and some buses and taxis were abandoned in the area, in an attempt to cause traffic jams and to add to the confusion. There was intermit- tent violence in Queen's Road and the adjoining streets and at 6.30 p.m., for the first time since the war, a curfew was imposed on Hong Kong Island.

      It soon became apparent that anti-government propaganda and the spreading of false and malicious rumours was to be a major weapon in the communists' tactics. Communist newspapers published highly distorted accounts of the events that were taking place, designed to present the police and government in the worst possible light, and accompanied, as in the case of the disturbances of May 22, by contrived or unashamedly faked photographs. Rumours were fabricated with the intention of spreading confusion and panic; some plausible and more difficult to combat, others too improbable to deceive even the most credulous.

      To a large extent these propaganda efforts were most effectively countered by the reports of the non-communist press, as well as by the Colony's wireless and television services that produced a steady stream of factual reports and pictures. Further counter- measures were taken by government departments and by the Department of Information Services in particular, which took immediate steps to keep the public constantly informed of the true state of affairs by wireless broadcasts, press releases, short films that were distributed to all cinemas, and, where necessary and practicable, by word of mouth.

       Additional, and unusual, publicity methods were brought into use. The loudspeakers at the Bank of China building were countered by setting up rival and more powerful loudspeakers at buildings in the vicinity which regaled the public with the music of Cantonese opera and effectively drowned the stream of communist propaganda.

REVIEW

7

     The battle was deafening and caused considerable amusement to the onlookers, but it ended in the defeat of the communists who were unable to make any further effective use of this weapon.

      The tactics employed by the communists up to the major incident on May 22 had not attracted any noticeable increase in support for confrontation and the attempts to make political capital out of the clash on that day met with little success. Indeed the feeling of the majority of the population was made clear by a number of public expressions of support for the government. A group of businessmen in the Colony set up a fund for the higher education of the children of police officers, which attracted support and donations from thousands of individuals. In a fortnight it reached a total of $3 million, an extraordinary acknowledgement by the people of Hong Kong of the debt that they owed the police.

      The Hong Kong Federation of Students, as well as kaifong associations and leading members of the community, publicly expressed their loyalty and confidence in the government. This lead was followed by similar expressions of support from numerous organizations representing a complete cross-section of the Colony and ranging from hawker associations to professional associations and business houses. They included clansmen and district asso- ciations, multi-storey building management associations, religious organizations and social organizations of almost every kind. In all some 620 letters, petitions and statements of support were received and, while it is difficult to estimate the total number of people they represented, the Hong Kong Buddhist Association and the kaifong associations between them claimed membership of well over a million people. In a political situation of such gravity, where many factors might lead people not to express an opinion, such massive support for law and order was particularly impressive.

There is no doubt that it also affected communist strategy as the tactics of street demonstrations and provocation did not continue on May 23. The campaign then entered a new phase; slogans were painted on the walls of public buildings and there was a rash of inflammatory posters. At the same time a series of token stoppages was engineered affecting transport, including the cross harbour ferries, the port and the dock companies and the main utility and service organizations. These stoppages had a certain

8

REVIEW

amount of nuisance value, particularly those in the transport field, but they caused no lasting inconvenience.

On June 1, emergency regulations were made strengthening the law against the display of inflammatory posters and action was taken to remove them from government buildings and elsewhere. In the doctrine of the cultural revolution street posters are regarded almost as sacrosanct as being the visible expression of the will of 'the masses', and in Hong Kong they were defended with the utmost tenacity.

Some impetus was given to the force of this reaction by an editorial in the Peking People's Daily of June 3, which called on the Chinese in Hong Kong 'to organize a courageous struggle against the British and to be ready to respond to the call of the motherland for smashing the reactionary rule of the British'. The article also stressed that the working class in Hong Kong was to remain the main force in the struggle, but in Hong Kong the communist press chose to interpret it as a declaration of active support by the Peking Government and gave it wide publicity. Employees of the Star Ferry Company stopped work in protest at the removal of posters. At the Taikoo Dockyard the general manager and two senior staff members were surrounded and held prisoner by their employees. Workers at the government electrical and mechanical workshops, in Kowloon, and at the nearby Kowloon depot of the Hong Kong and China Gas Company, barricaded the door and armed them- selves with iron bars and other offensive weapons. Police forced their way into both premises and arrested more than 500 workers, of whom 120 were charged with various offences. There were stoppages of work in other concerns and numerous scuffles and minor incidents occurred at several other places throughout the Colony. The People's Daily provided more fuel for the flames on June 10 by urging workers, peasants, the Peoples Liberation Army and the 'revolutionary masses' in China to prepare to support the struggle in Hong Kong with concrete action. Broadcasts on similar lines were put out by Radio Peking.

On June 23 there was another major incident. A small police party, photographing posters in Canton Road, was suddenly at- tacked by a gang of men armed with iron bars, bottles and sharpened files. The police, in self-defence, opened fire with their revolvers and

REVIEW

9

in the ensuing battle two policemen were injured and one of the assailants was fatally wounded. The remaining attackers retreated into the premises of the Hong Kong Rubber and Plastic Workers Union, which was close by, and a strong police party was called up which, with some difficulty, forced an entry into the union premises. After fierce resistance, in which a number of police were injured, 53 people were arrested, of whom three later died of the injuries they had received.

This period of unrest came to a head on June 24 when a 'general strike' was called, heralded by another fanfare from the People's Daily. In spite of lavish payments by the communist unions, sup- ported by a gift of $10 million from the All China Federation of Trade Unions, it was not a success. The Kowloon Motor Bus Company was the most seriously affected, but nevertheless managed to continue to provide an emergency service. The other transport companies maintained a reduced service, while the utility companies, though short-staffed, continued to operate effectively. The public was considerably inconvenienced, but a fleet of private cars and nine-seater vans appeared on the streets to fill the gap caused by the shortage of public transport and, despite claims to the con- trary by the communist press, life went on much as usual.

One of the major factors that led to the comparative failure of these stoppages was the firm action taken by the government in dealing with its own employees. They were warned that these were not legal 'strikes' arising from an industrial dispute and that if they took part they would be liable to dismissal. Those who did take part, including, in the first phase, some staff of the Marine Department and the Waterworks, were interdicted from duty or discharged. Those who could subsequently show that they acted under duress, that they were forced to withdraw their labour through intimidation and the threat of violence, were reinstated and returned to work. Following this lead, similar action was taken by private companies affected which gave notice that absent employees would be considered for re-employment if they registered within a limited period. Those who did not do so were considered to be dismissed and were not paid from the time that they stopped work. Emergency regulations were also enacted by the government to make it an offence to intimidate or threaten any worker who

10

REVIEW

wished to continue at work. These measures made it possible for both the government and private firms, by selective re-employment, to weed out those responsible for intimidation in their labour force and at the same time they encouraged the flow of loyal workers returning to work.

A further attempt to intimidate the government by the declara- tion of a four-day 'food strike' had little better success. Supplies of foodstuffs from China were refused by local communist importers-- though by an apparent lack of co-ordination they continued to arrive by train at the frontier-and there was a shortage of pork and vegetables and a consequent rise in prices. The stoppage came to an end on July 2, and food prices returned almost to normal.

Later in the month there was to be a more serious threat to food supplies caused, not by confrontation in Hong Kong, but by the unsettled conditions in China, which led to a general disruption of communications. No trains arrived on the border on July 24 and 25 and, though there was an irregular passenger service there- after, it was not until September 14 that any substantial imports arrived by rail. The main commodities affected were pigs and vegetables. Although limited quantities continued to arrive, ir- regularly, by sea and by road from China, the quantity was well below demand. Some of the shortfall was made good by imports from other countries, but a sharp increase in prices reflected the general scarcity. The situation slowly improved towards the end of September, by which time the amount of foodstuffs imported from China had again almost returned to normal.

      One of the main targets in this phase had been the Port of Hong Kong, which was the subject of some of the most extravagant claims in the communist press. In fact, while the stoppage caused some disruption in the working of cargoes, the general efficiency of the port had been surprisingly little affected and an adequate service was maintained throughout. A further attack was launched in the middle of July by the Seamen's Union, which declared a general boycott of the port. Goods from Chinese ports by-passed Hong Kong and were re-routed through Singapore or through Japanese ports, while goods already landed from China and await- ing transhipment in Hong Kong were retained in the godowns. Communist organizations in Hong Kong declared that, because of

REVIEW

11

the boycott, the port was at a complete standstill and advised leading shipping lines to tranship cargoes at other ports. This propaganda had some effect, in that some cargoes were diverted to other ports and some shipowners re-arranged their schedules to sail ships either to Hong Kong or to China ports, but not to both. The threat offered by the boycott in Hong Kong itself was met by an intensive counter-propaganda campaign mounted by the Marine Department to explain the facts and to answer queries from seamen and to counter the intimidation, both veiled and direct, to which they had been subjected. As a result 1,222 seamen reported for jobs at the Government Seamen's Recruiting Office during the first ten days the boycott was supposed to be in operation and in only two cases (where there were other considerations) were ships delayed for lack of a crew. A small number of seamen signed off their ships but were replaced, without difficulty, through the Seamen's Recruiting Office. Indeed in many cases those who had signed off re-applied for employment after spending a day or two ashore having, no doubt, decided for themselves that all was well in the Colony. During the second week of September four ships arrived in the port from China to discharge cargo consigned to Hong Kong, to mark the first break in the boycott; and since then the tonnage of cargoes from China has steadily increased.

      These work stoppages, both in the port and elsewhere, were purely political and there is no substance in the suggestion that labour conditions have been the underlying cause of confrontation in Hong Kong. The labour dispute at the artificial flower works was discarded as soon as confrontation was under way, and the voluminous poster campaign and the endless propaganda that emanated from communist sources during the summer made no mention at all of industrial conditions.

      While these events had been taking place in the urban areas the New Territories had remained comparatively quiet. There had been some demonstrations and a sporadic display of posters in the market towns and in the industrial complex of Tsuen Wan but, mainly due to the firm line taken by the leaders of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, who came out strongly on the side of law and order, there had been only a few minor incidents. In the sensitive area of the land frontier with China it had been mainly

12

REVIEW

a propaganda war carried out on the Chinese side of the border. There had been demonstrations, often on a large scale; a loud- speaker had been set up at the border station of Lo Wu which at regular intervals poured out a stream of anti-British propaganda; trains from China were plastered with posters and even cattle imported into the Colony had slogans painted on their sides.

There was, however, no violence until June 24 when a crowd of about 200 people attacked the police post at Sha Tau Kok with stones and bottles. They were dispersed by gas shells and order was restored. This incident was followed on June 26, by the first protest made by the Peking Government at diplomatic level since confrontation began.

On July 8 there was a further mob attack at Sha Tau Kok. The police post was attacked and, when the police opened fire with gas and wooden 'baton' projectiles, both the post and the Rural Committee Office, where another police company had been stationed, came under heavy sniping and machine gun fire. A detachment from the 1/10 Gurkha Rifles was called out to assist the police and, with the aid of armoured cars, they relieved the police companies, which by then had five men killed and 11 wounded.

This incident received wide publicity and gave rise to some exaggerated and alarmist reports overseas. It was a serious affair but it was not an attempt at armed invasion of the Colony. No regular units of the Chinese Army were involved. All the evidence suggests that it was a purely local affair organized and executed by the villagers in the immediate vicinity.

Since then the border remained unsettled and, while there was no repetition of violence on the same scale, there was a succession of incidents at Lo Wu, at Sha Tau Kok, and at the road crossings at Man Kam To. A number of farmers living on the Chinese side own land in British Territory and, by long-standing agreement, they have been allowed to cross the border to work their fields. This practice has continued, but the truculent attitude displayed by the farmers has led to constant friction. The border bridge at Man Kam To has had to be closed for periods of several weeks, despite

!

REVIEW

13

protests from the Chinese side, and because of the continuing unrest the army took over from the police the responsibility for patrolling the whole of the border area. Man Kam To, however, remained a trouble spot. Two off-duty policemen who inadvertently crossed the border at this point were forcibly detained; and a senior police inspector, who was engaged in trying to conciliate a group of villagers in the vicinity of the bridge, was seized by them and forcibly taken over the border. The inspector managed to escape, after being held for 36 days, and made his way back to Hong Kong. The two policemen were returned to the Colony at the end of November after talks held with Chinese border officials.

The Sha Tau Kok incident was interpreted by the communist press in Hong Kong as armed support for confrontation and it was followed by renewed violence both in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island. Demonstrations were staged in the vicinity of communist shops and other premises from which gangs emerged to ambush the police as they arrived to investigate. Attacks were made on police units and on drivers of public vehicles. From July 9 to 12 there was a widespread succession of incidents in which one police- man and seven rioters lost their lives.

      July 12 marked a turning point. Up to this time the various methods of attack by the communists had been met and contained and they had gained no ground in their struggle. But it was they that had done most of the attacking and they had put considerable strain on the police and on the many public servants and others who had been forced to work long hours in the maintenance of public order. On July 12 the acting Colonial Secretary announced in the Legislative Council that from then on the government was deter- mined to grasp and maintain the initiative. This promise was followed by immediate action. On that day, and on the days follow- ing, strong parties of police, backed up by military units, raided the principal communist strongholds, including union premises and schools; they seized stocks of home-made weapons and explosives as well as inflammatory posters and literature, and they took into custody a number of people suspected of subversive activities.

The initial raids were strenuously resisted. In an action against the Kowloon Dock Workers Amalgamated Union premises the defenders used bottles, daggers, acid and firebombs and it took

14

REVIEW

the police three hours to complete the break in. The secretary of the union was killed during the struggle; and 81 people were arrested, to the obvious approval of other occupants of the building. Sub- sequent raids met with little or no physical opposition. Indeed the threat of invasion by the police, at any time, forced the opposition to avoid gathering for meetings at their usual premises and many centres that were raided were found to be unoccupied. Sporadic violence continued, but the communist organizations were disrupted and driven underground. They began to talk of a long struggle and, although their newspapers continued their stream of inflam- matory propaganda and were now inciting to armed insurrection, their readers grew less and support for confrontation dwindled to a hard core of dedicated and fanatical men and women.

Pressure against the communist organizations was maintained. Action was taken against known centres of subversive activity and, in August, three communist newspapers were suppressed and two of their editors were prosecuted for sedition, an action. which resulted in a strong protest from Peking. A similar protest had been made in July when an employee of the New China News Agency was arrested for taking part in an illegal assembly. The protest was rejected and was followed by the Reuters corre- spondent in Peking being placed under house arrest. Two other employees of the New China News Agency in Hong Kong were subsequently arrested on similar charges and the Peking Govern- ment, on August 20, issued what amounted to an ultimatum. Within 48 hours all three employees of the New China News Agency must be released and action against the newspapers and their editors must be withdrawn. Failure to do so would result in 'serious consequences'. This demand was also rejected. The threatened reprisal took place, not against Hong Kong, but against the office of the British Chargé d'Affaires in Peking, which was sacked by a mob on August 22.

In Hong Kong, confrontation entered a new phase of indis- criminate 'bomb' attacks. There was a hint of terrorism to come in the publication, in August, of a list of prominent members of the community who were said to be marked for assassination. But, in the event, the only victims were a well-known wireless commentator, Mr Lam Bun, and his cousin who, together, were drenched in petrol

REVIEW

15

      and burned to death in a particularly vicious attack which excited horror and disgust. Attacks were also made on individual police officers in order to gain possession of their firearms. In four such attacks two police constables were killed, an inspector severely injured and another constable slightly injured.

Explosive attacks, which at first were directed at selective targets, became indiscriminate. All known stocks of explosives and fireworks in the Colony were called in during August and September, but it is apparent that some stocks evaded the government net and the planting of bombs, both genuine and simulated, continued. This campaign was essentially a propaganda move, to stimulate the flagging communist support by a show of strength. Most of the 'bombs' have been simulated and many of them carried such messages as 'compatriots don't touch'. The majority of the real ones were made from black powder extracted from fireworks and produced more noise than danger. But some were deadly and all had to be treated with the utmost care. While the more militant among the communists no doubt hoped that these devices would cause casualties, particularly among the police and military bomb disposal squads that had to deal with them, the main aim appeared to be to sap public morale by the disruption that was caused and by the constant threat of danger. When innocent passers-by were killed or injured, as inevitably happened, the communist press sought to evade responsibility by describing the matter as an 'unfortunate accident' or by putting it about that not all bombs were planted by communists. But, whatever their intentions, the deaths that were caused, and particularly those of two young children, brought a general revulsion of feeling against the perpe- trators.

Bomb attacks continued as an almost daily occurrence until the end of December. The visit to the Colony in October by the Minister of State for Commonwealth Affairs, Lord Shepherd, was marked by a noticeable increase of both real and simulated bombs, while in November there was a flurry of violence directed against police. units. Since December 25, however, no explosive bombs have been planted and, while a number of suspicious objects continued to be reported, it appears to be likely that this violent phase of confronta- tion has come to an end. Since it began the police and service bomb

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

16

REVIEW

disposal units dealt with 8,074 suspected bombs, of which 1,167 were genuine bombs.

      In many cases children took part in these attacks. Teen-age girls have been arrested in possession of explosive bombs and, in at least one case, a schoolboy was injured by the explosion of a bomb he was carrying. Indeed, towards the end of the year there was a noticeable increase in the number of schoolchildren involved in activities connected with confrontation and in the truculence to- wards authority they displayed. These children were almost all pupils of communist-dominated schools in the Colony and it must be concluded that they were being encouraged in these activities by their teachers as part of a concerted plan by the communists to bolster up their dwindling ranks. Many of these schools had become centres for the storage and dissemination of inflammatory literature and even for the manufacture of bombs, both simulated and real. On November 27 a youth was severely injured in an explosion in the Chung Wah Middle School. The school was closed by the government, and this action evoked a protest from Peking.

       Not all of those who took part in the demonstrations and riots have subscribed to the communist aims. Many were employees in communist concerns who were instructed to take part, and others-particularly the hooligans who exploited the initial riots at San Po Kong-were paid to do so. It is a sad commentary on communist tactics that they should have to employ children as well in these activities and to expose them, not only to arrest and imprisonment for their seditious activities, but also to physical danger.

It is also a reflection on their failure to gain general support for their cause. The incidents which attracted so much publicity overseas, have been the work of a small minority. The bulk of the population refused to become involved and has gone about its normal work. Indeed, in spite of the strident claims in the com- munist press, the efficiency of the Colony has been surprisingly little disturbed. While it is as yet too early to assess the long-term economic effects of confrontation, present evidence suggests that there has been no significant disruption in any of the major sectors. Industrial production was not affected at all, and exports continued

REVIEW

17

at substantially higher levels than in previous years. The tourist trade continued satisfactorily in spite of alarmist headlines in some overseas newspapers. At the height of the disturbances substantial deposits were withdrawn from banks but, as most of the sums withdrawn were converted into Hong Kong currency, outflow of capital was contained within fairly narrow limits, although it was accelerated to some extent in June by the Middle East crises and consequent pressure on sterling. Their strong liquidity position enabled the banks to withstand these withdrawals without difficulty and without imposing any serious restriction on credit. From the end of August deposits began to return to the banks at a satisfactory rate. There had been no significant adverse effects on public revenue.

The bus companies, which were perhaps the hardest hit by confrontation, have made substantial progress in getting their fleets back on the road; other public transport services were almost back to normal at the end of the year. When on June 7, voting took place for five vacant seats on the Urban Council, the election passed off without incident and, indeed, a record percentage (for Hong Kong) of the electorate cast their votes. Confrontation did not affect such annual events as the cross harbour swimming race, the dragon boat races and the Cheung Chau bun festival while, in the autumn, the racing and football season started on schedule. A determined attempt was made to wreck Hong Kong Week which was held between October 30 and November 5 to publicize Hong Kong products. But, in spite of a marked increase in explosive attacks, the colourful festivities took place as planned and met with an enthusiastic reception from the many visitors who attended. The Chinese Manufacturers' Association's Jubilee Exhibition, in December, attracted a record number of visitors.

For many people the main preoccupation during the summer has been not so much confrontation as the water supply position. Hong Kong has no sizeable rivers and it is dependent on rainfall which is collected in reservoirs. By the current agreement with China, an additional 15,000 million gallons of water (which is paid for at the rate of $1.06 for a thousand gallons) is provided from her more ample resources each year, to be drawn during the period from October to June. By the end of 1966 the storage position was causing some anxiety and by an ad hoc agreement a further 1,800

18

REVIEW

million gallons was made available from China. In February, as a precaution, the daily supply period in Hong Kong was reduced from 24 hours to 16 hours.

       Rainfall during May and June was below average. The full ration from China, including the agreed additions, was drawn by June 25 and during the month the supply period had to be reduced to eight hours a day and then to four hours every other day. On July 11, the total storage in the reservoirs stood at 3,277 million gallons, that is about 50 days supply. A request for an additional supply from China went unanswered and the situation was serious. On July 13 the supply period was further reduced to four hours every fourth day. Hospitals and other essential users continued to be given a full supply while squatter areas and industries received a daily four-hour supply and the resettlement estates a four-hour supply every other day.

As in the previous severe drought of 1963, the population put up with the discomfort with remarkable patience and cheerfulness despite communist attempts to exploit the situation. The position, however, was critical; any further reduction in the supply period would have been almost insupportable and would in any case have been unlikely to reduce materially the rate of consumption. Various possibilities were considered of obtaining additional water from other sources, but they offered little hope of success.

By good fortune there was timely rain in mid-July which eased the situation, and further heavy rain in mid-August and September. At the end of September it was possible to revert to a four-hour daily supply and with the resumption of water from China on October 1-at the beginning of a new supply period-the full 24-hour supply was reinstated.

       In order to conserve supplies, however, saline water from Plover Cove was added to the water issued for general consumption. The resulting mixture, although salty to the taste, is below the maximum limit recommended by the World Health Organization and it has no ill-effects. It has, however, provided the communists with the opportunity to work up a campaign against this 'con- tamination'.

They have also seized upon the adjustments made to the exchange rates for the Hong Kong dollar, following the devaluation of

REVIEW

19

sterling by Great Britain, and propaganda on this issue, and on the salinity of the water, provided the main themes for their news- paper and radio coverage for several weeks. The tone of this pro- paganda was, however, noticeably more moderate: the arguments were carefully presented and were designed to attract the support of those sections of the population which were most closely con- cerned. This departure from the violent language used by the communist press in previous months, as well as the apparent cessa- tion of physical violence, may well indicate that a new phase of confrontation has begun.

Hong Kong has no quarrel with China, nor indeed with the communists as such. It is not an offence to be communist (or to belong to any other political party) nor to practise the doctrines and beliefs of communism although it is an offence to translate these beliefs into action that conflicts with the law. The government has taken action against the supporters of confrontation, not because of their political beliefs, as the communist press has asserted, but simply because they have broken the law. Its basic aim and policy, throughout, has been to preserve law and order and to regain for the Colony its traditional role of providing a place for people to live and work in peace, whatever their race or political belief.

       In this it has succeeded, at a cost to the Colony of 51 lives. Fifteen people were killed by bomb explosions, including two members of the police, an army sergeant and an officer of the Fire Services; and eight police officers were killed in other incidents.

       The various counter measures that have been taken in Hong Kong have had the full support of Her Majesty's Government in London which has, on several occasions expressed its admira- tion for the determination with which confrontation has been contained. The three main phases of the communist attack; demon- strations to gain popular support; stoppages of work to paralyse the Colony's economy; terrorism to undermine morale; have all failed. Great credit is due to the police who have, throughout, exercised the greatest steadiness and restraint under the severest provocation and who have, at the same time, dealt firmly with violence, when it has arisen, with the minimum of force and at the cost of severe casualties to themselves. But the same spirit of deter- mination and resolution informed all others who were concerned,

20

REVIEW

whether they were members of the government, members of the armed forces or other auxiliary units, or private individuals. Con- frontation is an issue that ultimately affected the lives of everyone in the Colony and they all played a part in meeting it: some in the planning and organization required to contain the different phases of the communist attacks; others by cheerfully working long hours, often under conditions of imminent personal danger, to keep the Colony functioning efficiently; and others, again, simply by going about their normal work and refusing to be panicked by communist threats and propaganda.

Confrontation may continue for some time in one form or another. With this spirit and with the firm support that has been given by Her Majesty's Government, the people of Hong Kong will continue to overcome whatever new threats they may have to face and, with their inimitable energy, will drive Hong Kong on to new peaks of prosperity and progress.

The Face of

Confrontation

These pictures bring some of the drama and pathos of Hong Kong's months of confrontation into focus. They give some idea of the problems faced by the police who displayed great discipline and tolerance throughout and who dealt with the early disturbances with the minimum of force. They show too, moments of human kindness,

in the midst of violence.

Surrounding this text is the smoke from fire, typical of the many started by hooligans when mobs took to the streets of Kowloon in May. Below are some of the young troublemakers who harrassed the police with stones and bottles. Most pictures in this section were taken by photographers of the Colony's

newspapers.

|

AJIS

..

#X:XX

Left: Chanting demonstrators plaster the gateway of Government House with posters. Above: A police cordon quietly stands its ground against a barrage of heckling and abuse. Below: Out to provoke violence, communists turn hostile.

1

IBE

Above: In the midst of all the noise and violence a policeman finds time to comfort a frightened child. Right: Police moved in swiftly to arrest law-breakers.

ARIES

PUBL

L

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

H

   Left: A blind woman is led safely away from a street mob. Above: Bomb disposal men in action on Hong Kong Island. Overleaf: This 12-year-old boy lost an eye when a communist planted bomb exploded in a street near his home.

VG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

2

2.

Employment

Of the one-and-a-half million people working in Hong Kong, 576,440 are in the manufacturing industries. This conclusion is reached from an estimate of figures recorded in the 1966 by-census. At that time, 1,454,730 persons were described as economically active' and 1,400,350 claimed to be working; of these, 55,350 were counted as employers and 136,300 were working on their account.

The general employment pattern in the 1966 by-census showed that about 47 per cent of the working population was engaged in construction, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities, about 24 per cent in various services, 17 per cent in commerce, seven per cent in communications and five per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern, the estimated employ- ment figures at the end of 1967 were; manufacturing 576,440, services 352,690, commerce 243,960, construction 90,180, agricul- ture, forestry and fishing 76,370, communications 100,140, public utilities 14,290, mining and quarrying 4,390. There were also some 5,600 in other work, making an estimated total of 1,464,060 employed.

These figures give a broader picture than that available from actual statistics collected by the Labour Department, which are confined to voluntary returns from factories and industrial under- takings only. They do not include out-workers, people in cottage industries, the building construction industry, agriculture and fish- ing, or in unrecorded factories and undertakings. Neither do they include people employed in commerce and community and personal services. In 1967, voluntary returns showed that 443,972 people were directly employed in factories and industrial undertakings, an increase of 19,817 compared with the 1966 figure. Those engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods, accounted for a total of 184,989 and remained the largest section of this labour force. The plastics

22

EMPLOYMENT

industry, which also employs a large number of out-workers, remained the second largest employer.

During the year under review, it appeared that the demand for labour in manufacturing industries exceeded the supply. There were 11,232 factories on record in the Labour Department at the end of the year, many of them small concerns. Of these, 7,309 were registered under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordin- ance. The tables at Appendix III show developments in main industrial groups and selected industries.

Industry in the New Territories is a comparatively recent develop- ment-apart from traditional trades in the main market towns and some pre-war textile factories in Tsuen Wan. In December, 1967, the Labour Department had on record 955 factories in the New Territories with a labour force of 63,513. The bulk of this industrial population is concentrated in the new township of Tsuen Wan which is designed as a balanced community and includes factories, housing, recreational facilities, services and other amenities. It has many modern textile factories, and others producing metalware, enamelware, glassware and plastics. There is also a government- owned flatted factory provided to meet the special requirements of small scale silk weavers. Castle Peak and Sha Tin, two other areas in the New Territories, have been selected as sites for developing other large self-contained townships and work on the first stage of the development of Castle Peak has begun. There is some mining, mostly on a small scale employing a labour force of 473, of whom 461 work at an iron mine at Ma On Shan. There are also several stone quarries with a total labour force of 898.

       In many old market towns and fishing settlements in the New Territories, traditional village industries still provide employment in the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, bean-curd, soya sauce and preserved fruits, the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime, brick- manufacture, boat building and repairing.

Although no current figures on unemployment are available, the increase in the number of people employed in registered and re- corded factories and industrial undertakings since 1966 suggests that the number out of work at the end of the year was not any greater than at the time of the 1966 by-census when 22,930 persons claimed to be unemployed, and 31,450 stated they were looking

EMPLOYMENT

2333

for their first jobs. This unexpectedly high figure was due to the by-census taking place in August, just after the end of the school

year.

       As most countries maintain strict control over the entry of foreign nationals seeking work, opportunities overseas for Hong Kong Chinese are limited. Hong Kong itself has a good labour market and it is not easy to recruit workers for employment abroad unless the wages offered are particularly attractive. Under the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, which is based on International Labour Conventions, legislative effect has been given to the provisions of the relevant Conventions that every overseas contract for a manual worker is required to be in writing and signed by the employer, or his representative, and the worker. The overseas contract must be presented for attestation by the Commis- sioner of Labour. The ordinance does not apply to any one who is a crew member of a ship or aircraft; or who holds an employment voucher issued under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962; or has been granted admission, on a permanent basis, to an overseas territory. The maximum period of service which may be stipulated in any such contract must not exceed two years if the worker is unaccompanied by his family, or three years if he is. When the original contract expires, a worker may enter into a re-engagement contract. A worker for overseas employment also has to be medically examined before leaving Hong Kong. The cost of the examination and of all other formalities is borne by the prospective employer. In enforcing the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, the Labour Department works in close co-operation with the Im- migration Department.

During the year, 2,368 workers went overseas for employment compared with 2,002 the previous year and 1,416 in 1965. Few of these workers were accompanied by dependants. The number of workers recruited for Malaysia and Brunei increased during the year, and these countries, which mainly require domestic servants, fishermen and skilled and semi-skilled workers in the building trade, continued to be the main receiving areas. The British Phosphate Commission also recruited through a local agent 163 workers for Nauru and Ocean Islands. This figure shows a decrease for the second successive year. Re-engagement contracts, as required under the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, numbered 1,093.

24

EMPLOYMENT

       Under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act which came into effect on July 1, 1962 the Labour Department assumed respon- sibility for forwarding to the Ministry of Labour applications for vouchers from local Commonwealth citizens seeking to enter Britain for unspecified employment. During the year, 37 such applications were received and seven vouchers were issued.

       The Labour Department also undertook to deliver 190 'Category A' vouchers issued under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act to local people of British nationality who had been offered specific jobs in Britain. Last year 124 were issued. The Ministry of Labour also issued 757 labour permits to local residents of non-British nationality to enable them to work in Britain, mainly in Chinese restaurants.

The Local Employment Service, known until May this year as the Employment Information Service, was originally created to disseminate information about vacancies in industry. It was ex- panded and consolidated during the year and now provides the basic functions of an employment exchange introducing registered job seekers to prospective employers and vice versa. During the year the service registered 12,372 workers, recorded 999 requests for workers from employers and placed 1,081 workers.

       The Seamen's Recruiting Office, which became fully operational as part of the Marine Department on June 27, 1966, had 42,624 seamen of Chinese race on its registers at the end of the year. During 1967 it supplied 11,451 seamen for employment at sea in various trades. During the same period shipping firms which were licensed under the Merchant Shipping (Recruitment of Seamen) Ordinance to operate crew departments, supplied 19,408 seamen.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

In 1965 the government appointed an Industrial Training Advisory Committee, comprising representatives of industry, labour, other organizations and the government, under the chairmanship of the Commissioner of Labour. On its advice, the government appointed six associated industrial committees to investigate and report on industrial training problems in the electronics, textile, clothing and plastics industries (which manufacture about 67 per cent of Hong

EMPLOYMENT

25

Kong exports), the building construction industry and the engineer- ing trade. Because of the complex structure of this last industry the original committee investigating engineering is now being replaced by four separate industrial committees covering automobile repairs and servicing, electrical apparatus and appliances, machine shop and metal working, and shipbuilding and ship repairs. The Chairman and most of the members of the industrial committees have been drawn from the industries concerned, although a small number of government officers also serve on them, with a Labour Department representative as both member and secretary of each committee.

Responsibilities in the field of industrial training are divided among government departments. The training of operatives is the principal responsibility of the Labour Department in consultation with industry and any government department which may have an interest. Craftsman training is the responsibility of the Education Department where educational institutional training is concerned; otherwise it is the responsibility of the Labour Department, in consultation with advisory organizations, industry and other in- terested government departments. For technician and technologist training, the responsibility falls mainly upon the Education Depart- ment. At technician level, a large part of the financial burden for recurrent expenditure continues to rest on the government though considerable capital resources have been supplied by industry for the development of the Hong Kong Technical College. At the technologist level, the provision of education remains in the hands of the government so far as it is not provided by the universities.

The government has indicated that, while industry itself must be responsible for financing training at skilled and semi-skilled levels, it will assist by providing land free of premium for approved group- training schemes organized by industry; or by granting loans for the purchase of flatted factory floor space for training purposes. The policy of granting land free of premium for operative training was extended in March, this year, to qualify any company whose employees need specialized training of a nature which cannot be included in a group scheme, if there is an element of public interest involved. To date only one application for land free of premium has been received, and approved.

26

EMPLOYMENT

       Some industries such as textiles and, to a lesser degree, garment manufacturing have their own schemes for training newly engaged operatives.

Training centres run by voluntary welfare organizations, as well as by government departments, offer forms of vocational training, mainly for the under-privileged, physically disabled young people placed in approved schools and prisoners. The Industrial Training Advisory Committee has appointed a functional committee to co- ordinate the industrial training activities of such centres.

       The Hong Kong Technical College is the principal government institution providing technical education at technologist, technician, craft and pre-apprentice or pre-craft levels. There are also six government secondary technical schools, two non-government in- stitutions providing technical education for boys at secondary level and three secondary modern schools which provide three years of secondary education with a practical bias. The proposed technical institute will concentrate upon pre-apprenticeship, craft apprentice- ship and instructor training and will take over courses now run by the Hong Kong Technical College, permitting the College to con- centrate on higher levels. There are also courses in private schools for, among others, aircraft pilots, radio operators, radio technicians, typists, stenographers, book-keepers, dressmakers and tailors, artists, shoe-makers, rattan-workers, printers, wood-workers, painters and car drivers.

Apprenticeship systems in Hong Kong fall into either the tradi- tional sector or the modern westernized sector, based on the British pattern of craft apprenticeship which is followed by government workshops and some of the larger industrial concerns. A special feature is the award of overseas training opportunities to outstanding technical apprentices who have completed their local training. The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company of Hong Kong Limited, the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited, and the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited, train substantial numbers of apprentices, and some public utility com- panies train a small number.

In many Chinese factories, run on traditional lines, the recruitment of apprentices is haphazard. No minimum qualifications are required

EMPLOYMENT

27

      and apprentices are usually engaged after introduction by relatives or acquaintances. Theoretical instruction is seldom provided and little encouragement is given to apprentices to attend part-time classes in related technical subjects. They are left to pick up their skills by watching and imitating experienced artisans. The number of people seeking apprenticeships in traditional Chinese crafts has recently diminished because of readily available employment in modern factories.

By the amendment in 1965 of the Employers and Servants Ordin- ance, any apprenticeship contract for a period of six months or more is deemed to be a contract for one month, renewable from month to month, unless it has been attested by the Commissioner of Labour within one month after it was made. A sub-committee of the Industrial Training Advisory Committee continued to examine during 1967 all aspects of apprenticeship, and by the end of the year plans were well advanced for the establishment of pilot ap- prenticeship schemes in industries in which previously there had been no formal training of apprentices.

       On the recommendation of the Industrial Training Advisory Committee, two experts were engaged in July for a short term to advise and assist government on all matters relating to vocational and industrial training and in assessing the manpower resources and requirements of industry.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

        Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industry are on daily rates of pay, although piece-rates are common. Men and women receive the same rates of pay for piece-work, but women are generally paid less when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis and are customarily paid weekly or twice monthly.

       The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industry at the end of 1967 was: $10 to $30.1 for skilled workers; $6 to $22.1 for semi-skilled; and $5.2 to $14.6 for unskilled. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, subsidized meals or food-allowances, good attendance bonuses and paid rest-days as well as a Chinese New Year bonus of one month's pay.

28

EMPLOYMENT

      A consumer price index, intended as an indicator of the effects of price changes on household expenditure, was published through- out the year. It varied from 106 to 121 (base of 100-period Septem- ber 1963 to August 1964). In December 1967 it stood at 112. The 1965 Salaries Commission, recommended that a special index based on the expenditure of households spending less than $600 a month should be published and used as the basis for monthly adjustment in the salaries of minor staff in government service. In accordance with this recommendation, a separate index, known as the Modified Consumer Price Index, was devised. A proportion of the wages of minor staff (Scale 1), in the public service, is adjusted monthly by reference to this index.

      The Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance is the basis for the control of hours and conditions of work in industry. On December 1, amending legislation came into force which reduced the maximum standard working hours for women and young peo- ple, aged 16 and 17, to nine-and-a-half hours a day and 57 a week and requires hours of work to be reduced in stages over four years until, by December 1, 1971, the maximum standard hours for women and young persons employed in industry will be 48 a week. In addition to providing for maximum daily hours, regulations made under the ordinance provide for limited overtime, weekly rest days and rest periods for women and young persons.

      The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance provides for six annual holidays to be given to workers in industrial establishments and for sickness allowance up to 12 days a year.

      Young persons between the age of 14 and 16 may work only eight hours a day, with a break of one hour after five hours con- tinuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground in any mine.

       There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men. Most men employed in industry work 10 hours a day or less. Government employees and those in concerns operating on western lines work eight hours. The restrictions on the hours of work for women which

EMPLOYMENT

29

were introduced in January 1959, and which have recently been amended to allow for the phased introduction of a 48 hour week, resulted in a decrease in a number of hours worked by men in the same concern. By December 1, 1967, 209 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts, cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 34,421 men and 36,527 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary through- out industry, but when working hours exceed eight a day, the period may be prolonged to as much as three hours. Except where con- tinuous production demands a rotation of rest days, which are usually unpaid, Sunday is the most common rest day. Many male industrial workers do not have a rest day, but it is customary to grant unpaid leave on request.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Governor on labour and industrial relations policies. All labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department, which ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under International Labour Conven- tions are observed. The organization of the department provides for four divisions: Labour Relations and Development; Industry; Employment; Industrial Health.

The Labour Department continued to assist local trade unionists in obtaining training overseas. One trade unionist attended a Labour Union Leadership course in Canada under the joint spon- sorship of the Canadian External Aid Office and the Canadian Labour Congress. Another went to Britain for an Industrial Rela- tions course organized by the Ministry of Overseas Development in co-operation with the Ministry of Labour.

With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, workers' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which bear allegiance to opposing political groups and which are registered as societies. Divided politically, and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs, and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organizations.

30

EMPLOYMENT

       The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 65 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile-mills and public utili- ties, or are seafarers. A further 16 unions, nominally independent, are friendly with the federation and participate in its activities. The other trade union federation, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathizes with the policies of the Taiwan authori- ties. Most of the members of its 63 affiliated unions and of the 29 nominally independent unions, which generally support the Trades Union Council, are employed in the catering and building trades. The Trades Union Council is affiliated to the International Con- federation of Free Trade Unions. There are 70 independent unions, some of which continued to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

       Taking disputes over wage demands into account, the Concilia- tion Section of the Labour Department dealt with 3,357 disputes, of which 476 involved large wage claims. This compared with 403 last year. There were a further 2,881 minor disputes compared with 2,192 in the previous year. Altogether there were 12 strikes, and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 22,525 com- pared with 24,355 in 1966.

       During the first few months of the year there were several trade disputes where settlement was unusually difficult because of the intrusion of political considerations and antipathies. The most notable were the disputes in a group of four associated taxicab companies, the Green Island Cement Company Limited and the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works. The taxicab dispute ended with the management winding up the companies, retrenching all drivers, with severance pay, and selling the vehicles. Some were sold to the retrenched drivers. At the Green Island Cement Works dissident workers so disrupted operations with political demon- strations that the company decided to close down the works on May 5 and discharged all staff with full terminal benefits. The works were re-opened with newly engaged labour on June 24.

       In the case of the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works, a concern with two factories, one in Kennedy Town and another in San Po Kong, settlement of the dispute by direct talks between management and workers was not possible and the management decided to close

EMPLOYMENT

31

down both factories. Picketing and political demonstrations outside the factories followed and on May 6 a number of workers were arrested for exceeding the bounds of peaceful picketing.

The two plastic flower factories later re-engaged the labour which had not been opposed to measures which gave rise to the dispute.

During the disturbances a number of unions affiliated to the left-wing Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions called on their members, particularly those engaged in public transport and utility companies, to withdraw their labour in support of political objec- tives rather than in furtherance of genuine trade disputes.

The legal requirements regarding the registration and control of trade unions are set out in the Trade Union Registration Ordinance and administered by the Registrar of Trade Unions. He deals with all applications for registration by new unions and trade union federations and registers any alterations to rules, changes of name, amalgamations or dissolutions. He also has the power to cancel the registration of a trade union in certain circumstances but the union has the right of appeal against his decision to the Full Court.

Anyone may be a member or an officer of a trade union provided he is ordinarily resident in the Colony and habitually engaged or employed in the relevant trade or occupation. Union executives must be elected by secret ballot and no one under 21 is eligible for office. Without the written consent of the Registrar, no one can be an officer of more than one registered trade union at the same time, but this restriction does not apply to an officer of a trade union who simultaneously holds office in a registered trade union federation of which his union is a member. Any person convicted of crimes involving fraud, dishonesty, extortion or membership of a triad society, cannot be an officer of a trade union except with the consent of the Governor in Council.

No registered trade union may be a member of any trade union or other organization established outside Hong Kong except with the consent of the Governor in Council. Registered trade unions are immune from actions in tort when acting in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute. Individuals acting in agreement or combination are given protection from the law relating to con- spiracy and tort, provided that the act, if committed by one person,

32

EMPLOYMENT

would not be punishable as a crime or not actionable if done without agreement or combination. Peaceful picketing is allowed, but vio- lence and intimidation are prohibited.

       Registered trade unions are deemed to be corporate bodies for all purposes. Two or more registered trade unions, irrespective of their trade or industry may amalgamate, but membership of trade union federations is confined to registered trade unions within the same trade or industry.

Registered unions are required by law to keep accurate accounts which must be audited by a person approved by the Registrar, who must receive them within three months of the end of the union's financial year. Unions must also give to the Registrar, before April 1 each year, a return for the 12 months ended December 31 in the previous year, showing membership figures, the names and occupa- tions of the principal officers and the name of the auditor.

       The 311 unions on the register at the end of 1967 consisted of 243 workers' unions with a total declared membership of 171,512; 54 organizations of merchants or employers with a declared member- ship of 5,866 and 14 mixed organizations with a total declared membership of 8,137.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

       The Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department acts as an advisory service to government and industry on matters relating to the health of workers. Essentially, the work of the division is concerned with preventing occupational disease and pro- tecting workers against health hazards in their working environ- ment. Hazards to the health of workers are reported by the statutory notification of occupational disease, by the factory inspectorate or by officers of the division. Control is attained by environmental and biological monitoring and the division has a laboratory with tech- nicians trained in industrial hygiene.

Environmental monitoring includes the estimation of inorganic and organic poisons, explosive gases and dusts in the working atmosphere. Investigations into the standards of thermal comfort, ventilation, noise and lighting have been carried out in offices, laundries, workshops and marine launches during the year. Biologi- cal monitoring aims at protecting the health of specific groups of

EMPLOYMENT

33

workers who, because of the nature of their jobs, are particularly vulnerable. The monitoring takes the form of periodical medical examinations and may include chest X-rays and laboratory inves- tigations.

The division also undertakes the clinical examination, case work and medical assessment of injured workers under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. This important advisory service operates principally from the casualty departments of major government hospitals.

       Air pollution in Hong Kong, as in other industrialized countries, is presenting increasing problems. A committee was appointed this year to determine the causes and extent of pollution and to consider what statutory measures are needed to control the problem. A pilot programme was begun to measure levels of sulphur dioxide (which was taken as an index of pollution) at 24 selected sites in Hong Kong, mainly in the urban areas.

      Factories are encouraged to have adequate first-aid facilities and first-aid training classes for industrial workers are organized in conjunction with the St John Ambulance Association. The need for first-aid facilities is now recognized by local industry and in many large concerns staffed clinics are provided by employers. A survey last year showed that 44 undertakings with clinic facilities employed registered medical practitioners on a full or part-time basis. These services covered about 45,000 workers, or around 13 per cent of the total workforce, employed in registered industrial undertakings. Another 258 undertakings, employing 48,000 workers, made arrangements for their employees to be seen, as necessary, by outside medical practitioners. Under the Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance 1962, applications from industrial undertakings for recognition of medical treatment schemes are considered. Early in the year, registered doctors employed in industry formed a society whose aims are to advance the knowledge and practice of occupational medicine and to promote interest, research and education in occupational health.

      Other welfare amenities vary from the statutory requirements of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance to compre- hensive facilities including canteens, kitchens, rest rooms and

34

EMPLOYMENT

living accommodation. Where appropriate, the department recom- mends the inclusion of dining and rest rooms in plans for new factories. Free or subsidized meals are commonly provided by managements while some firms employ welfare officers and offer facilities for recreation, adult education and free or subsidized tuition for employees' children.

3

Financial Structure

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies is still required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

      Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, apart from the cost of its external defence to which it makes a substantial contribution. From 1958 to 1964 the sum was £1 million a year, but in 1964 an additional £6 million was made available over the years up till 1970 as a contribution towards the cost of Army and Air Force building programmes. A new Defence Costs Arrangement became effective in 1967-8 which superseded the previous measures. Under this arrangement, for the next four years, the contribution to recurrent defence expenditure has been increased to £3,925,000 a year, with a sum of £600,000 made available during the four-year period of the arrangement, for a services' capital works programme. At the same time, the maintenance function of HBM Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in Hong Kong in respect of certain service property has been taken over by the Public Works Depart- ment of the Hong Kong Government.

      Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies similar to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of the Colony other than 'below the line' operations of various funds.

A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after the war. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 and 1965-6, when there were deficits of some $45 million and $137 million respectively, substantial surpluses have been accumulated. Comparative figures

36

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

for the past four years are shown in Appendix IX. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which the Colony has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. In 1966-7 capital expenditure totalled nearly $625 million.

      The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, is that exceptionally rapid increases in population have generated internal economic activity which has raised the yield from taxation and other sources of revenue without appreciable increases in the rates. Annual revenue expanded from $292 million in 1950-1 to $1,818 million in 1966-7. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend was continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before government could develop the public and social services necessary for the increased popula- tion. However, as these services were developed at a gradually accelerated rate, the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recur- rent expenditure absorbed only 50 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent. Consequently, in that year the surplus of revenue over expenditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure and an overall deficit of $45 million occurred. Subsequent budgets anticipated further and sub- stantial deficits, but statistics now available suggest that the eco- nomic strength and resilience of the Colony was underestimated, at any rate temporarily, for it was not until 1965-6 that another deficit was recorded.

The intervening years saw an upsurge in recurrent revenue, arising mainly from the very active trading conditions prevailing in the Colony, with the result that while recurrent expenditure continued at approximately the levels expected, it absorbed a smaller-than-anticipated proportion of the recurrent revenue. By 1963-4 the proportion was down to 65 per cent, but by 1966-7 it had increased to 68.4 per cent. At the same time capital expenditure, though rising substantially, was lower than originally forecast while capital revenue, due mainly to heavy receipts from land sales,

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

37

recorded marked increases. The year 1964-5 produced a surplus of $78 million, but ended on a somewhat restrained note. While the ex- port trade remained buoyant the property market turned dull and this, to a degree, affected other sectors. The deficit of 1965-6 reflected this temporary set back and was due partially to special measures arising from it but mainly to a large reduction in land sales revenue. Although the 1966-7 budget anticipated a deficit of $94 million, a surplus of $12 million was achieved in spite of the payment of $43 million in respect of arrears of pay arising from the implementation of the Report of the 1965 Salaries Commission.

      The budget for 1967-8, although estimating for a $37 million deficit, abolished the Broadcasting Receiving Licence fees, reduced stamp duty on conveyance of property, and the maximum rate of estate duty from 40 per cent to 25 per cent. These concessions are estimated to cost the revenue a total of $11.25 million a year at the present time. The deficit, of course, indicates that revenue will not be able to finance all the capital expenditure arising from govern- ment's heavy programme of non-recurrent public works, mainly for more schools, medical facilities, housing, water supplies, roads and land development schemes.

      Revenue and expenditure for the two previous years, together with the estimates for this financial year are detailed and compared in Appendices VI and VII. In 1966-7, revenue at $1,818 million was $33 million more than the original estimate. The head showing the largest excess was internal revenue with $33 million over the estimate. There were shortfalls on three recurrent heads (duties, fees of court and water revenue) but all other recurrent heads produced surpluses. Again, as in the previous year, the biggest shortfall was in capital receipts from land sales which were below the estimate by some $19 million. Expenditure for the financial year 1966-7 was $1,806 million against the estimate of $1,878 million showing a shortfall of $72 million. Of the $545 million voted, $449 million was actually spent on civil engineering, water and building projects under public works non-recurrent heads of expenditure.

      At March 31, 1967, net available public assets were $848 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization

38

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

Fund as a reserve against future deficits on current account. Accord- ing to normal government practice, the statement of assets and liabilities excludes the public debt of the Colony from the liabilities. The debt at March 31, 1967 was $75.5 million or the equivalent of approximately $19 per head of population. Indebtedness decreased by $3.3 million during the year, owing mainly to the repayment of $3.2 million of the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million ($48,000,000) for the development of Kai Tak Airport. This loan is repayable in 15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on October 1, 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruc- tion, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $28.1 million on March 31, 1967.

In addition to the Assets and Liabilities referred to, there exists the Development Loan Fund and a Lotteries Fund for special purposes (see Appendix XIII). The Development Loan Fund, of $579 million, is used to finance social and economic development projects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes. At March 31, 1967 outstanding com- mitments from funds allocated exceeded liquid assets of $33 million by $179 million. The Lotteries Fund, established in 1965, is for the support and development of social welfare services in the Colony. The fund started with a transfer from general revenue of $7.4 million and an additional $5.2 million was credited during the period June 30, 1965 to March 31, 1967, by which date grants and loans amounting to $8.69 million had been approved. Details of Public Debt and Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are shown in Appendices X and XI.

       The audit of all public accounts and of certain Special Funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Annual reports on the accounts by the Director of Audit and the Director General are presented to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State.

EXCISE DUTIES

       There is no general tariff and only five groups of imported commodities-alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol-are subject to import duty. Excise

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

39

     duties are levied on the same products manufactured locally. All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture, or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed.

      The rates of duty are, in general, low. A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Commonwealth origin is at present levied at between 66 per cent and 89 per cent of the rate for non-Commonwealth liquor; locally-produced beer enjoys a further preferential margin over Commonwealth beer. Duty on all types of liquor ranges from $1.60 per gallon, on locally brewed beer, to $73 a gallon for liquors and spirits of non-Commonwealth origin.

       The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $2.50 a pound for Chinese prepared tobacco to $11.25 a pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted for unmanufac- tured tobacco of Commonwealth origin and to cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth origin or manufacture.

The duties on motor spirits and other light or heavy oils now stand at $1.80 and 10 cents a gallon respectively. The general rate of duty on diesel oils for road vehicles is $1.30 per gallon, although public omnibus operators and marine and industrial users pay reduced rates. The rates of duty on table waters and methyl alcohol are 48 cents and $7.50 per gallon respectively.

RATES

      Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and part of the New Territories. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon, rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In those parts of the New Territories which are statutorily subject to rates, the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up to date. Revenue from rates has more than doubled over the last six years. The estimate for 1967-8 is $278 million.

      There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, chari- table and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running

40

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

these establishments receive back the amount of rates paid in the form of either direct subventions or contributions toward rates.

INTERNAL REVENUE

Income was first subjected to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 as a temporary war-time measure and no attempt was made to collect tax after the liberation of the Colony, although the ordinance was not repealed until 1947. However, a new source of revenue was by then essential and it was decided to impose a direct tax on earnings and profits as a permanent measure. Under the Inland Revenue Ordinance 1950, tax is charged only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside the Colony whether remitted here or not. The ordinance aims at simplicity and charges tax generally at source and at a flat rate rather than in the hands of the eventual recipient on a sliding scale. Thus there is no need to as- certain the total income of each individual.

Income and profits are grouped in four categories, each of which is subject to a separate tax-Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. A fifth and aggregate tax known as Personal Assessment is chargeable on people who so elect. In that case the individual's income, otherwise chargeable to the four separate taxes, is aggregated in a single sum which is reduced by personal allowances and tax, charged on a sliding scales, granting reduced rate reliefs. The privilege of election is not available to non-residents.

      The standard rate of tax was raised to 15 per cent from April 1, 1966, having stood at 12 per cent for the previous 15 years. Business profits, interest received from loans and the interest element of purchased annuities are charged to tax at the full standard rate. However, where the profits of a non-corporate business are below $7,000 for any year, no tax is charged and tax chargeable on such a business is restricted to one-half of the amount by which the profits exceed $7,000. Property Tax is charged on the net rate- able value of any land or building in the Colony with the exception of those in the New Territories and those wholly occupied by the owner as his residence. If the rent receivable is controlled by reference to 1941 rental, the charge is at one-half the standard rate, otherwise tax is payable at the full standard rate. Salaries Tax

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

41

is charged on the total income from employment reduced by allowances which are at present: for the taxpayer, $7,000; for his wife, $7,000; for each of the first two children, $2,000; for each of the third to sixth children, $1,000; and for each of the seventh to ninth, $500. This makes a maximum allowance for children of $9,500. Premia paid for life insurance are allowed to an amount not exceeding one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. Tax is charged on a scale starting at 24 per cent on the first $5,000 of the net income and increasing at each subsequent $5,000 stage until at $45,000 the maximum rate of 30 per cent is reached. The total Salaries Tax payable by any individual is restricted to an amount not exceeding the standard rate on his gross income.

It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1967-8 will be $502 million.

Estate Duty generally follows the lines of the British tax of the same name. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong. The rates of duty range from three per cent on estates valued between $100,000 and $200,000 to 25 per cent on estates over $4 million. Yield for the year ending March 31, 1968 is estimated at $15 million.

Stamp Duty is modelled on the British pattern and fixed duties are charged on various documents. The lowest is 15 cents on bills of lading and receipts and the highest $20 on deeds. Ad valorem duty on various other documents ranges from 15 cents on $500 to $2 on $100. As from April 1, 1967, a fixed duty of $20 was sub- stituted for the $2 per cent ad valorem duty on conveyance of land where the sale price does not exceed $20,000 and the stamp duty was reduced to $1 per cent ad valorem duty where the sale price exceeds $20,000 but does not exceed $40,000. A special duty at the rate of three per cent is payable on the first conveyance of any parcel of land after September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty during the current financial year is $50 million.

        Substantial revenue accrues from Entertainment, Dance Halls, Bets and Sweeps Taxes and it is estimated they will yield $52.9 million during the current year. Entertainment Tax is charged on the price of admission to places of entertainment, the rate varies with the amount charged, but averages about 22 per cent. Certain

42

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

types of entertainment given for charitable or educational purposes are taxed at a lower rate or may be exempt. Public Dance Halls Tax exacts a levy of 10 per cent on all dance hall charges. Bets and Sweeps Tax imposes 71 per cent on totalizator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

       The Hotel Accommodation Tax, introduced in July, 1966, provides money for the organization of tourism. The rate is two per cent of the charge made for accommodation by the proprietor of any hotel containing 10 or more rooms normally available for guests. This levy is estimated to yield $2.2 million in the current

year.

       Every business carried on in the Colony, except one which is not carried on for the purpose of gain or one which is carried on by a charitable institution, must be registered and pay an annual registration fee of $25. Where the business is very small the Com- missioner may exempt it. These fees are expected to yield approx- imately $3.2 million.

CURRENCY

      When Hong Kong was founded in 1841, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar. By a proclamation of 1842, Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be legal tender in the Colony although government accounts were kept in sterling until 1862. There were several unsuccessful attempts to change the monetary basis from silver to gold.

      A mint was set up in 1866 and produced a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar, but the new coin was unpopular and the mint closed down two years later. (The machinery was later sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.)

       An Order of the Queen in Council, dated February 2, 1895, authorized the minting in India of a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar. In Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar although the latter still remained both legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

43

gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

        In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first bank notes in the Colony, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation followed suit. Although not legal tender, these notes increasingly became the customary means of payment because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver. By 1890 they had become established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks, (the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (now the Chartered Bank). By then the Oriental Bank had closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India had been reorganized. In 1911 this reorganized bank (now the Mercantile Bank Limited) was added to the list of authorized note-issuing banks).

The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. The Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues in exchange for certificates of indebtedness. The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in sterling and operates in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

       At the same time the government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960, because of the heavy expense of keeping clean notes in circulation, a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a British florin was re-introduced. Stocks are sufficient to replace all notes issued but, although banks have been asked to withdraw all notes

1

44

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

received in the course of business, many still remain unredeemed although few appear to be in active circulation. The dollar notes and coins are backed by security funds which maintain their assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents, and notes of the value of 1 cent.

The value of the Hong Kong dollar was established at approxi- mately 1s 3d sterling in 1935 and it was maintained at that level till 1967 when sterling devalued by 14.3 per cent. The Hong Kong dollar was subsequently revalued in terms of sterling at is 4 d. Banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

      The total currency in nominal circulation at December 31, 1967 was:

Bank note issue

:

Government $1 note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins and notes

$2,176,270,000

$

14,408,487

$

58,760,890

$

58,217,747

The Colony has been a part of the Sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modifications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

      During 1967, banking deposits did not show their customary increase, largely because of the internal disturbances in the Colony. The net decrease in total bank deposits amounted to $243 million; total deposits remained at $8,162 million at Decem- ber 31, 1967. Loans and advances decreased by $36 million and at the end of the year represented 65.5 per cent of bank deposits, compared with 64 per cent at the end of 1966. Withdrawals of deposits in many cases were the result of a desire by some members of the public to hold their money in more liquid form. This resulted in an increase in the note issue at the time; the note issue at Decem- ber 31, 1967, was $2,176,270,000, representing 26.7 per cent of total deposits.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

45

Banking business in the Colony is licensed by the government and carried on subject to the provisions of the Banking Ordinance, which deals with the supervision of banks and requirements of minimum capital and reserves, liquidity ratios, and limitations on the holding of certain classes of assets. Monthly returns are made by all banks to the Commissioner of Banking, who makes regular inspections. The Banking Ordinance was amended during the year in the light of experience gained since it came into operation in 1964. The amendments mainly affect minimum capital, reserves and liquidity of banks, control over the opening of branches, and certain powers and functions, largely of a technical banking nature, of the Commissioner of Banking.

At the end of 1967 there were 71 incorporated banks in Hong Kong, compared with 72 at the end of 1966. A total of 331 banking offices existed at the end of 1967, representing an increase of 13 during the year. Fifty-one banks are authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Many have branches and correspondents throughout the world and Hong Kong offers a comprehensive banking service of the highest order. Monthly clearings during the year averaged $4,858 million. The table at Appendix XIV illustrates the expansion of banking activities over the past 12 years.

1

4

Industry and Trade

HONG KONG is an industrial territory with an economy based on exports rather than on its domestic market. At the same time it remains basically a free port. The change from dependence upon entrepôt trade has taken place over the past 18 years, although before that industry was not entirely new to Hong Kong. By the turn of the century, shipbuilding and shipbreaking industries had developed as a natural extension of port activities. Some light industries were established before 1939. But industrial development on a significant scale did not take place until political changes in China, followed by the Korean war and consequent trade restric- tions, signalled the end of the entrepôt trade as a basis for the economy. The simultaneous arrival of refugees from the mainland brought in additional manpower and in some cases technical knowledge and capital. As a result, while the entrepôt trade declined, there was an increase in the manufacture and export of cotton textiles a development which proved to be the foundation for subsequent light industrial expansion.

United States regulations prohibiting the purchase of Chinese manufactured goods provided another stimulus to the manufacture of certain categories of products in Hong Kong for the American market. Certification procedures designed by the Commerce and Industry Department, in association with the United States author- ities, were introduced to prevent the substitution of Chinese goods. This protected the interests of local manufacturers and permitted exports of Hong Kong products to the American market. Restric- tions in the trade in cotton textiles between Japan and the United States in the late 1950's caused American buyers to turn to Hong Kong as an alternative source of supply. Since then the United States has become the largest market for Hong Kong products, particularly for textiles and garments.

Hong Kong's industrial economy thus derives from various circumstances, few of which originally appeared favourable. But

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

47

with these circumstances-all of them outside Hong Kong's control and some of them fortuitous-must also be considered the political stability of the territory and its encouragement of enterprise. There has been a steadfast policy of preserving free competition, of generally refusing to accept demands for protection of particular industries or demands for retaliation against other countries' restrictive actions. Widespread skill in merchandising techniques inherited from the entrepôt era, plus highly developed banking, insurance and shipping systems, have helped to make this policy successful. For Hong Kong the industries likely to survive and prosper are those whose products can either be exported without subsidy or be sold in the domestic market without protection. Hong Kong has therefore remained true to the traditions established when it was an entrepôt, with no tariffs and few restrictions on the entry of goods from any quarter of the globe.

       In matters affecting internal and external trade, the Director of Commerce and Industry is assisted by advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. This is a body of unofficial senior repre- sentatives of commerce, industry, banking, etc, nominated by the Governor, of which the director is chairman. It meets regularly at least once a month. A more specialized board, the Cotton Advisory Board, first appointed in 1961, is consulted on matters affecting the cotton textile industry.

During the year, industry has had to accept the disruptions caused by rioting, water shortages, reduced public transport and the devaluation of sterling. That it has managed to meet all these difficulties and still achieve a 17 per cent increase in the value of domestic exports during 1967 shows the basic strength of the economy and augurs well for the future.

INDUSTRY

       The general facility with which industry may be established and conducted in Hong Kong has attracted investors. Most indus- trialists are Hong Kong residents of Chinese race, and the greater part of their capital resources are self-generated. In recent years, however, overseas interests-in particular American, Australian, British and Japanese-have increasingly entered into licensing arrangements with Hong Kong firms and into other forms of

48

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

industrial co-operation. The variety of goods produced in Hong Kong is now considerable. In general, while heavy industry such as shipbuilding and steel rolling continues to be important, Hong Kong is best known for the competitive price and range of its light industrial products and their rapidly improving quality.

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIVITY

       The problem of improving industrial productivity in Hong Kong is one of concern to the government and to private enterprise. During the year, a statutory Productivity Council and a Productivity Centre were established. Legislation to provide for the Council was introduced in December 1966, and it was brought into being in January 1967, replacing a provisional council which had been working since 1965. The council comprises a chairman and 20 members, all appointed by the Governor, of whom 10 represent management, labour, academic and professional interests. The other 10 represent government departments closely associated with productivity matters.

A management consultant was appointed early in the year to head the new Productivity Centre. Internal training courses were conducted to prepare the centre's own staff to implement an in- tegrated programme. Preparations were also underway to recruit international experts to assist the centre in training consultants who would offer services to industry.

       A pilot-training centre was opened in September. It includes a reference library and lecture rooms fitted with the latest audio- visual equipment. One of the more important events at the centre was an export marketing training course, implemented at the request of the Asian Productivity Organization, with participants from APO member countries.

       Hong Kong is one of the 12 member countries of the Asian Productivity Organization. The Colony was represented at the seventh Workshop Meeting of directors of national productivity centres, held in Tokyo in January, and at the eighth Governing Body Meeting in Seoul in April. As in previous years, a considerable number of Hong Kong nominees participated during the year in study missions, seminars, symposia and training courses in Asian

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

49

countries. Hong Kong acted as host to a special meeting of APO member countries in October to lay down guide-lines for a five- year training and development programme.

TEXTILES

The textile industry not only dominates Hong Kong's economy, accounting for 49 per cent of its domestic exports and employing 40 per cent of its industrial labour force, but is also a significant factor in international trade in textiles (see International Economic Relations, below). In all sectors, the manufacture and processing of cotton goods predominate. The cotton spinning mills, operating some 767,000 spindles, are among the most up-to-date in the world. Cotton yarn counts range from 10's to 60's carded and combed, in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1967 was estimated at approximately 295 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weavers. In the piecegoods weaving section, which has 22,700 looms, grey cotton drill, canvas, shirting, poplins, ginghams and other bleached and dyed cloth and prints are the main items. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1967 was estimated to be approximately 716 million square yards. Much of this was exported as cloth, but there is an increasing tendency for garment manufacturers to use domestic materials which was encouraged this year by the reduction in supplies of grey cloth from China.

The use of fibres other than cotton, and new processes in the finishing and garment industries, are assuming growing signifi- cance. Nine textile concerns are producing polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose yarn for weaving into shirting and other fabrics for which there is now a more rapid growth in demand than for comparable cotton products. The demand for woollen knitwear has continued to grow. The production of the woollen and worsted spinning industry goes mostly to the domestic knitting industry, although some is woven into cloth. Other woven products include silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, tapes, military webbing, lace, mosquito netting, carpets and rugs. Significant developments in the dyeing, printing and finishing sector were multi-colour screen and roller printing, pre-shrinking and per- manent-pressing by several processes under licence, and poly- merizing for the production of drip-dry fabrics.

50

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

       The manufacture of garments remains the largest sector within the industry, employing 61,500 workers. A wide range and variety of clothing, from high fashion dresses to cotton singlets, is produced for export all over the world. Embroidered blouses, beaded or sequinned woollen cardigans, silk and brocade, and evening coats have worldwide popularity while, in conformity with world trends, demand has increased significantly for permanent press garments. Custom and mail order tailoring, principally of men's suits, has developed rapidly in recent years as an important branch of industry. Knitting mills produce towels, tee-shirts, underwear and night- wear, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool and other fabrics. From a total of $862 million in 1961, the value of exports of clothing has risen to $2,317 million in 1967, produced by some 1,170 factories.

OTHER LIGHT INDUSTRIES

      In the ever-widening range of light industry the most prominent, after textiles, is the manufacture of plastic articles. Skill in the cutting of moulds and dies, together with the ability to meet short orders, have resulted in increased exports of a very wide variety of products. These include artificial flowers, toys and dolls, house- hold ware, household furniture of polypropylene, and PVC sheeting and coated fabrics. The industry manufactured exports worth some $833 million during the year.

       There has been spectacular growth in the electronics industry. The manufacture or assembly of transistor radios began only in 1959, but since then exports of transistor radios have increased to reach a total of 11.7 million sets worth $210 million in 1967. The industry exports its products all over the world with its principal markets in the United Kingdom and the United States. The manu- facture of electronic components is also making rapid progress. A number of leading American electronic manufacturers have established subsidiaries in Hong Kong. Silicon transistors and diodes, condensers, transformers, capacitors, resistors, loud- speakers and printed circuit boards are now produced and exported in substantial quantities. Other electronic products include television sets and tuners, transceivers and computer memory cores.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

51

       While the growth of the plastics and electronics industries illustrate how quickly Hong Kong can react to export opportunities, older established light industries of many varieties have continued to develop and expand. They include the manufacture of air- conditioners, aluminiumware, clocks and watches, cordage, elec- trical appliances and equipment, enamelware, food and beverages, footwear, light metal products-especially stainless steel ware- optical and photographic equipment, paint, vacuum flasks, furniture and furnishings. The manufacture of hair wigs has developed dramatically during the last few years, the principal market being the United States. Exports during 1967 were valued at $197 million. Some 9,620 workers are employed in their manufacture.

HEAVY INDUSTRIES

       Hong Kong's major shipyards are equipped to build ocean-going vessels of more than 10,000 tons deadweight and also to construct and install engines. At the other end of the scale, pleasure-craft and utility vessels of all kinds, including ocean-going yachts, vehicle and passenger ferries, sloops, cruisers, speedboats of wood and fibre glass, yawls and steel lighters are regularly produced for local use and for export. The traditional Chinese junk, slightly modified from the basic design used for many centuries, has also been exported as a comfortable and stable pleasure-craft.

      Activity in the shipbreaking industry has declined considerably since 1961 and the tonnage of ships broken up during the year dropped again. Steel rolling mills, which used to depend primarily on the scrap obtained from shipbreaking, are now more dependent upon imported steel billets and locally collected scrap. These mills produce mild steel bars, window sections, angles and channels and other metal products used in building construction. Although some rods and bars are shipped abroad, principally to South-East Asian countries, the steel mills rely heavily on domestic sales which have suffered from the recent decline in the building industry. Several rolling mills produce brass and aluminium sheets and circles, most of which are used for the manufacture of consumer goods. Recently the industry has had to face severe competition from imported bars and rods selling at lower prices and, as a result, many mills are operating at reducing capacity. The industry is

52

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

now engaged in a large scale modernization programme involving heavy capital investment in new sites and plant.

Hong Kong's separation from its principal markets and lack of indigenous raw materials are among the factors which have produced a concentration of resources on light industry while heavy industry has developed only where a domestic market was available. Two relatively new industrial ventures illustrate this point. The demands of the Hong Kong construction industry have resulted in the establishment of one factory to manufacture spiral welded pipes of all dimensions, and another to produce extruded aluminium fittings and sections.

       In similar fashion, the expansion of light industry has stimu- lated the manufacture of machinery and parts. Hong Kong-made machinery, built originally for domestic industry, is now exported to many overseas markets. Of particular importance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines, power presses, lathes and planing machines.

Aircraft engineering is another important industry; one large establishment provides maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines using Hong Kong Airport. Facilities are available for complete airframe and engine overhaul, and work has been received from countries as far afield as Australia and Canada. Local manufactures can produce most of Hong Kong's requirement for cement, most of the raw materials being imported. A new cement factory was opened in October.

LAND FOR INDUSTRY

Government land development programmes include the zoning of land for industrial use. Large-scale reclamation schemes are being carried out at several places. Reclamation at Kwun Tong, which began in 1955, is now complete. The scheme provided 641 acres of which 154 are solely for industrial use. At the end of the year 503 factories were already operating, employing 48,445 workers or over 12 per cent of Hong Kong's industrial work force. Another major development scheme is in progress at Kwai Chung and many new factories are already in operation there. Long-term develop- ment plans of two new towns, Castle Peak and Sha Tin, have been

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

53

approved in principle. The opening, in November, of a new road to Sha Tin, passing through the Lion Rock tunnel, should influence development in this area.

In the development areas of Kwun Tong, the Tsuen Wan complex, and Sam Ka Tsuen, purchasers of industrial land leases can pay by instalments over 20 years. Purchasers of industrial land elsewhere in the Colony can pay in four equal interest-free instalments, spread over two years. During 1967, there was little demand for land for industrial development and only seven industrial sites were auctioned.

There is a considerable surplus of flatted factory space for small scale industry. This has reduced the demand for industrial land.

EXTERNAL TRADE

The value of Hong Kong's external trade in 1967 was maintained at a high level despite the disturbances described in Chapter I. The combined value of imports, exports and re-exports of merchan- dise trade reached $19,230 million. This was due to substantial rises in domestic exports and re-exports of 17 per cent and 14 per cent respectively. Cargo tonnage by all means of transport totalled 11,457,812 tons. Trade statistics, including a breakdown by coun- tries and commodities and comparisons with previous years, are contained in Appendices XV to XXI.

Imports were valued at $10,449 million. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, most of Hong Kong's foodstuffs have to be imported, and food was the principal import, valued at $2,329 million, representing 22 per cent of all imports. The chief items of edible imports were live animals, rice and other cereals, fruits and vegetables, dairy products and eggs, and fish and fish preparations. Raw materials and semi- manufactured goods for industry included textile fibres and yarns, base metals and plastic moulding materials. Capital goods imported included machinery and transport equipment. Mineral fuels and lubricants were also imported in large quantities.

The sources of imports are determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade relationships. China remained Hong Kong's principal supplier, providing 22 per cent of all imports, and 47 per cent of all food imports, despite a con- siderable reduction during the months from June to September,

54

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

inclusive. Other items imported from China included textile fabrics, cement, paper, clothing and base metals most of which showed a decline. Imports from Japan, the second largest supplier, accounted for 19 per cent of imports from all sources. Of imports from Japan 34 per cent were textile yarn and fabrics; the rest were made-up of base metals, electric apparatus and appliances, chemicals and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from the United States registered an increase of $321 million or 29 per cent. The principal imports from the United States were raw cotton, tobacco, machinery, fruits, plastic materials and medicinal and pharmaceutical products. Imports from the United Kingdom showed a slight increase and were mainly machinery, motor vehicles and textile fabrics. The new valuation of the Hong Kong dollar, in November, is not likely to alter this basic pattern.

       The value of domestic exports reached a total of $6,700 million, an increase of 17 per cent over the previous year. Products of the textile and garment manufacturing industries accounted for 49 per cent by value, and miscellaneous manufactured articles, mainly plastic goods and wigs, made up a further 22 per cent. Other light industrial products such as electric apparatus and appliances, footwear, and manufactures of metals were also important exports.

The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is influenced by such factors as the advantages of preference in Britain and several smaller Commonwealth markets, and economic conditions and commercial policies in overseas markets. During the year 54 per cent of all domestic exports by value went to two markets-the United States and the United Kingdom, in a ratio roughly of two to one. The United States, remaining the largest market, took 37 per cent by value and increased her purchases by $468 million or 23 per cent. The value of all goods sent to the United Kingdom was $1,147 million, 16 per cent of all domestic exports. The Federal Republic of Germany, which remained the third largest market, purchased Hong Kong manufactures worth $371 million during the year. Other growing markets of importance included Canada, Japan and Australia, but domestic exports now go to practically every country in the world.

The entrepôt trade has sustained its role in external commerce. The value of re-exports in 1967 totalled $2,081 million, an increase

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

55

      of 14 per cent over 1966. This was 24 per cent of the total combined value of exports of Hong Kong manufactures and re-exports of imported goods. During 1967, Indonesia overtook Japan and became the most important re-export market. Singapore took third place, followed by the United States, Belgium, Macau, and Taiwan. The principal commodities in the re-export trade were textile fabrics, diamonds, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, and animal and vegetable crude materials.

TRADE PROMOTION

      This was the first full working year of the newly formed Trade Development Council. Established as a statutory corporation under an independent chairman, it is composed of two representatives each from the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufac- turers' Association; the chairman of the Hong Kong Tourist Association and the Exchange Banks Association; two senior government officials the Director of Commerce and Industry and the Director of Information Services; and four members appointed by name. The council has a permanent secretariat under an executive director and it is financed by subventions from the government, roughly equivalent to the existing support from general revenue for trade promotion, plus a levy on the value of trade imposed on the commercial and industrial community. Its head office is in the ocean terminal, Kowloon, where it main- tains a permanent display of Hong Kong products.

      The programme of active promotion during the year concen- trated more on selling missions than attendance at fairs. The first mission went to Scandinavia in April, and one went to Spain in May. These markets have shown definite increases in trade, partic- ularly Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and members of the missions reported good business. In both Spain and Scandinavia the council has appointed public relations consultants to keep Hong Kong's name before the public. In June, in an attempt to diversify Hong Kong's trade with Austria and Switzerland, a mission was sent to these countries.

A mission to East Africa in September had a novel approach. An exhibition of products was housed in a mobile display area

56

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

designed by the council's design team and constructed in Hong Kong. It was fitted on a standard trailer chassis and travelled widely in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya, attracting a great deal of attention with resulting excellent business.

A businessman's mission to Canada, in September, was organized by the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce on the council's behalf. It visited all the main towns and a large volume of business was reported. The last mission of the year was to Australia when the delegates travelled from Brisbane to Perth with satisfactory results. Before each mission, painstaking research was conducted to ensure that the right products were being taken into the markets.

       At the London offices of the council several specialized displays were held which attracted buyers from Europe and the United Kingdom. In America, the now familiar participation in Depart- ment Stores Festivals took place with an enlarged and varied team visiting stores, mainly in the Middle West.

       In efforts to plan better services for the exporter and exporting manufacturer the council organized the collection, analysis and distribution of market information, provided expert guidance and assistance to local firms and developed means of contact with over- seas buyers. An expert from the International Marketing Institute in the United States visited Hong Kong to review and advise on information systems.

       The council expanded its Brussels office and the office in Sydney was moved to larger premises. After the disturbances each office undertook a special campaign to help re-establish confidence in Hong Kong as a viable trading partner, with considerable success. The Brussels office covered most of Europe in a particularly inten- sive campaign of lectures, articles and booklets explaining the Hong Kong situation in sober, factual terms.

A number of publications were produced during the year. The Hong Kong Trade Bulletin, with a circulation of nearly 25,000 copies a month, was replaced in October by a more sophisticated journal called Hong Kong Enterprise. This is distributed free of charge to businessmen in all parts of the world. A number of smaller booklets in appropriate languages were distributed-usually during

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

57

an overseas promotion. Several of these were produced in conjunc- tion with the Information Services Department.

The council twice collaborated with local organizations. From October 30 to November 5, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries organized a Festival of Fashions and a Hong Kong Week. The council provided funds and some assistance, although the federation undertook all the organization. Hong Kong Week was intended to show both the overseas buyer and the people of Hong Kong the excellence of the Colony's industrial products and to encourage a greater exploitation of the local market. In December the council took part, for the first time, in the Chinese Manufacturers' Associa- tion's 25th Annual Exhibition of Hong Kong products by erecting a display centre. The association provided the exhibits and helped man the stand.

      The progress of the Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corpora- tion, since its establishment in 1966, proved that there was a real need for this type of government-guaranteed insurance. The corpora- tion provides government-backed insurance at low premium rates against those risks which are not normally insurable commercially, such as foreign governments' laws, orders or other actions which prevent the successful conclusion of an export transaction, and credit risks. Such insurance, which is already provided in 24 other trading countries, will assist exporters to expand existing business and to find new markets for their goods. Although its policies must be approved by the government, which has provided the initial capital of $10 million, the corporation, in the person of a com- missioner, has wide freedom to grant or refuse individual contracts. It is required to operate on a break-even policy and is expected to earn sufficient premium income to cover the payment of claims and other outgoings. The face-value of policies issued is in the region of $600 million and the maximum liability assumed by the corpora- tion is such that the original limit of $300 million had to be in- creased by the Legislative Council on August 23, to $500 million. The type of policy most in demand is the Comprehensive Shipments Policy which protects the exporter/manufacturer against political, economic and del credere risks from date of shipment to date of payment. Interest has also been shown in other types of cover such as re-exports, external trade and capital goods. Premium income

58

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

now more than covers overheads; but the future pattern of claims remains to be seen and will determine how soon the corporation can be truly self-supporting.

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

      As the United Kingdom has acceded to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on behalf of Hong Kong, the Colony's exports attract most-favoured-nation tariff treatment in the majority of its overseas markets and are protected from discriminatory import restrictions. Nevertheless, difficulties do occur from time to time. During the past year, Hong Kong made representations, outside the field of cotton textiles which are covered by their own particular arrangements, to the governments of Algeria, Austria, France and Nigeria. In addition, Hong Kong experienced discriminatory barriers to trade imposed by the Republic of Ireland, which is not yet a contracting party to the GATT.

       Hong Kong continued to follow, with considerable interest, further developments designed to bring about the free movement of goods within the European Economic Community. As the community already provides a market worth about $600 million annually, Hong Kong is particularly concerned that the process of creating the Common Market should not result in limitations on the community's external trade. In May, Britain again formally applied to join the community. As this application could have far-reaching effects on Hong Kong's external trade, the government analyzed the possible consequences in close collaboration with Hong Kong trade and industry, and held talks with London officials during July and October.

       The year has been one of intense activity in the sphere of multi- lateral commercial policy. A limited scheme of preferences for imports from less-developed countries, including Hong Kong, was introduced by Australia in 1966 under a waiver granted by the Contracting Parties to the GATT and this scheme was extended in scope after the first year of operation. In spite of this initiative, a general scheme of preferential entry to the markets of the developed countries of Western Europe and North America for exports of less developed countries has yet to be agreed. Some progress in

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

59

this regard may be realized at the Second United Nations Con- ference on Trade and Development scheduled to be convened in New Delhi in February 1968.

       In the context of the GATT, the sixth round of trade negotiations, commonly known as the Kennedy Round, drew to a successful conclusion in June 1967, after four years. The results of the negotia- tions included extensive tariff reductions by the participating countries. These reductions are generally to be implemented in equal stages over five years. Other achievements of the Kennedy Round included modification or removal of certain non-tariff barriers to trade. All these concessions are to be applied on a most-favoured-nation basis.

       In the textiles sector, the GATT Long-Term Arrangement regard- ing international trade in cotton textiles, which reached the end of its fifth and final year on September 30, was renewed for another three years to 1970 after considerable bilateral and multilateral discussions in which Hong Kong was closely involved. In the course of the fifth year of the arrangement, Hong Kong's exports of cotton textiles to the United States, Canada, Norway, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Benelux countries were under re- straint, to a greater or lesser extent, as a result of agreements reached in accordance with the provisions of the arrangement.

An understanding was reached in 1966, at the conclusion of the five-year Hong Kong/United States bilateral agreement on cotton textiles, that a second stage of negotiations would be held once the extension of the Long-Term Arrangement was assured. It transpired, however, that these negotiations were wider in scope than originally envisaged, as a result of a problem of definition of cotton textiles which had become significant in trade terms from late 1966. Negotiations in Washington DC, in April, resulted in the exten- sion, from June 1, of the coverage of the restraint agreement to certain fabrics of cotton and man-made fibre not hitherto regarded as cotton textiles by Hong Kong. At the same time, it was agreed there would be an annual increase of 15 million square yards in the aggregate limit and additional flexibility provisions.

Export of cotton fabrics to Canada were restrained at an annual limit of 11.09 million square yards under a three-year agreement,

60

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

the first year of which ended on September 30, 1967. Exports of certain items of cotton apparel, which were also restrained during the year ending on that date, were the subject of a new agreement signed in August for the year commencing October 1. The previ- ously restrained knitted shirts category was liberalized and the remaining four categories-woven shirts, blouses, nightwear and slacks were restrained at the same limits as for 1966-7.

       Following discussions in Ottawa with the Canadian authorities, Hong Kong made a unilateral undertaking to restrain exports of certain garments made from polyester or polyester/cotton blends in the year commencing October 1. The garments in question were shirts, blouses and trousers and the limits were set at 75,000, 40,000 and 55,000 dozens respectively.

       An export restraint agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany covering a range of cotton woven textiles products, in- cluding nightwear already under limitation, was signed in January. The agreement runs from November 1, 1966 to December 31, 1969, the aggregate limit for the first restraint period of 14 months being 77 million square yards; the second and third restraint periods cover the calendar years 1968 and 1969 respectively. The flexibility provisions include an annual growth rate, swing, and a measure of anticipation and carryover.

       In May, agreement was reached on the extension of the restraint on the export of Hong Kong cotton woven nightwear to Norway while, at the same time, the Norwegian government agreed to the liberalization of cotton woven shirts. The new agreement in respect of nightwear runs for three 12-month periods from October 1, 1967 to September 30, 1970, the respective limits being 24,000 dozens, 25,000 dozens and 26,000 dozens.

       Also in May, the Benelux Governments requested consultations with a view to the conclusion of a restraint agreement on the export of six categories of cotton woven textile products, including shirts already under restraint, from Hong Kong. Negotiations took place in July and the resulting agreement was embodied in an undertaking by the Hong Kong Government to exercise restraint during the consecutive periods July 18 - September 30, 1967 and October 1, 1967 - September 30, 1968. The aggregate limit for the latter

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

61

period is equivalent to 8.2 million square yards and there is provi- sion for five per cent swing between categories.

Outside the ambit of the Long-Term Agreement, Hong Kong's exports to Britain of cotton yarn, cotton woven piecegoods, clothing and made-up articles are limited under an agreement reached in 1966. This agreement, which runs for five years, provides in 1967 for the export of 6.36 million pounds of cotton yarn and the equiv- alent of 189.23 million square yards in the piecegoods, clothing and made-ups groups combined.

       The year also saw the revision and extension, to the end of 1969, of the two-year agreement reached with the Federal Republic of Germany, in February 1966, on Hong Kong's exports of woollen, knitted outerwear. The revised annual limits for the three years 1967, 1968 and 1969 are 825,000, 875,000 and 925,000 dozens respectively. The agreement provides for three per cent carryover per annum.

DOCUMENTATION OF EXPORTS

Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obligations and the spirit of free trade. Complex procedures have had to be established, however, to ensure that Hong Kong's responsibilities in respect of restraints on cotton textile exports are discharged.

With the growth in exports of Hong Kong products in absolute and relative terms, certification of Hong Kong origin has become vitally important to the economy. Since Hong Kong has practically no raw materials, the origin of manufactured goods is established by the nature of the work carried out in Hong Kong factories in transforming imported raw materials into a wide range of what are essentially consumer goods. The Commerce and Industry Depart- ment is responsible for ensuring that Hong Kong certificates of origin remain fully acceptable to overseas customs authorities and, to this end, the department has established a close system of liaison in certification matters with the four non-government issuing bodies approved for this purpose-the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong. During the year, exports of goods certified by the

62

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     Commerce and Industry Department to be of Hong Kong origin were valued at $3,898.2 million.

      The department also issues certificates to enable Hong Kong products to claim preferential rates of duty on entry into Britain and a number of other Commonwealth territories which grant preference to Hong Kong. Commonwealth preference certificates are issued against, either legal undertakings by manufacturers to use Commonwealth raw materials, or detailed cost statements for each type of product, prepared by public accountants approved for the purpose. Exports covered by Commonwealth preference certificates were valued at $1,204.8 million.

      United States law prohibits the importation of certain classes of goods presumed to originate from the People's Republic of China, North Korea or North Vietnam, unless evidence is produced to the contrary. As Hong Kong manufacturers produce many goods in these categories, the department issues comprehensive certificates of origin under special certification procedures agreed with the United States authorities. During the year, goods valued at $981.4 million were exported to the United States and its dependencies under comprehensive certificates of origin. The total value of Hong Kong products certified under departmental certification procedures in 1967 was $3,897.2 million, representing over 58 per cent of total exports of locally manufactured products.

ADMINISTRATION

      With the establishment, in 1966, of the Trade Development Council as a statutory organization responsible for Hong Kong's trade pro- motion, the Commerce and Industry Department is now concerned with all other matters affecting trade and industry except labour and banking. These include overseas commercial relations, industrial development, certification, trade controls. Until the new Census and Statistics Department was established in December 1967, it was also concerned with statistics.

      There are two Commercial Relations Divisions whose spheres of responsibility are divided on a geographical basis. One is concerned with Europe and the other with the rest of the world. They keep watch on commercial measures adopted by other countries which

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

63

may affect Hong Kong, and study the activities of international organizations concerned with trade. They are also responsible for preparing for negotiations with trading partners concerning textiles or other products, and for enforcing the provisions of any agreement. Between them, they deal with the calculation and allocation of quotas for markets restricted under the operation of the Long-Term Arrangement regarding international trade in cotton textiles. The divisions also provide secretariats for the Cotton Advisory Board and the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. They are in close and constant touch with the Trade Development Council and the Export Credit Insurance Corporation.

      During the year two new overseas offices were opened in Washington and Geneva, bringing the total for which the Com- merce and Industry Department is responsible to four. The other offices are in London and Brussels.

      The Industry Division provides a liaison between industry and other government departments, answers industrial enquiries from overseas and deals with specific industrial problems. It also operates certificate of origin and Commonwealth preference procedures. An industry inspection service has been established to enforce these procedures through the regular inspection of factories and goods and the prosecution of those suspected of contravening the regulations.

      The Controls Division deals with trade licensing (other than for textiles) with dutiable commodities and with the control of certain reserved commodities, including rice. It administers the Preventive Service, a uniformed and disciplined organization whose role in revenue protection and the control of narcotics traffic is described in Chapter 10. The Chief Preventive Officer commands the service which has an establishment of seven gazetted officers, 288 inspectors and 548 rank and file.

      The Statistical Branch publishes monthly commodity-by-country trade statistics, compiled from declarations filed with the depart- ment by importers and exporters. It also maintains a consumer price index and provides general statistical services for other govern- ment departments. The new Census and Statistics Department has taken over these duties for the future.

64

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS

The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the oldest trade association in the Colony. Founded in 1861, it now has a membership of over 1,300, representing all branches of commerce and industry. Membership is open to firms and people of all races and nationalities interested in the trade of Hong Kong. The chamber is represented on a number of important government boards and committees. It is an organizing member of the British National Committee of the International Chambers of Commerce, and a member of the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Com- merce. Other chambers and trade associations in the Colony include the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce and the Hong Kong Exporters' Association. The Exporters' Association has 73 members who are representative of more than one third of the Colony's range of exports. It works in consultation with other commercial and official bodies for the promotion and protection of Hong Kong's export trade.

The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by ordinance in 1960, promotes the interests of Hong Kong industry as a whole, and its membership represents all industries, many nationalities and all sizes of enterprise. In the promotion of internationally accepted standards for locally manufactured goods, the federation is respon- sible for a textile testing service, launched in consultation with the Retail Trading Standards Association in Britain. It is also studying ways and means to promote the adoption of standards of other industrially advanced countries. In 1966, the federation concluded an agreement with the Federation of Swiss Watch Manufacturers for their 'tested quality' label to be made available to Hong Kong watchcase manufacturers whose products measure up to their standards. The federation has also been engaged in negotiations with the International Wool Secretariat to enable Hong Kong manufacturers, whose products meet the required standard, to use the world-known 'woolmark'. During the year the federation began to operate a testing and certification service for lead content of paint and in plastic materials and this service is expected to expand to include all types of chemical testing.

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 1,400 factories. Member

CH

HONG

KONG

WEEKG

G

港调

K

Going Gay in Festival Time

One of the brightest events of 1967 was Hong Kong Week when manufac- turers set out to show the people of the colony and visitors from overseas, what Hong Kong was capable of producing.

There was a festive atmosphere, with streets in the busy urban areas gay with banners and decorations. Many shops featured window displays of local quality products and there were exhibitions showing Hong Kong craftsmen at work. A packed programme included displays of currency, photography and publications. There were concerts, film shows and sporting events. Glamour came in the form of the Festival of Fashions which, like the Week itself, was organized by the Federation of Hong Kong Industries in conjunction with the Trade Development Council. It aimed to make world buyers conscious that Hong Kong had become an origina- tor of quality fashion and design.

The climax of Hong Kong Week was a spectacular pageant at the Government Stadium.

Above: Models go through their paces at a rehearsal. Below: "Spacemen" on stage during a City Hall variety show. Right: Chinese gowns through the ages were featured in a special show. Overleaf: Two Hong Kong designed dresses, typical of the high quality shown to buyers during the Festival of Fashions.

}

IC

IB

BR

THE IND

   Left: A swirl of chiffon in Tiger Balm Gardens. Above: The winning float at the spectacular pageant which brought Hong Kong Week to an end. Below: Students form an impressive tableau at the pageant. Overleaf: A model, surrounded by admiring children, takes a break during a fashion show.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

65

firms represent factories of all sizes and industries. The Association has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong.

TRADE MARKS AND PATENTS

Trade Marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, and the prescribed forms may be obtained, free of charge, from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Every mark, even if already registered in the United Kingdom or any other country, must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance before it may be accepted for registration. During the year 1,887 applications were received and 1,590 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,560 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being:

United States of America Hong Kong

Switzerland

398

...

385

Australia

...

United Kingdom

218

...

France

Japan

126

Italy

West Germany

...

126

Singapore

...

***

85

29

29

27

...

10

..

      The total number of marks on the Register at December 31, 1967 was 21,879.

Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong. Continuing the steadily rising trend of recent years, a record number of 371 patents were registered during the year, an increase of 52 over the previous year.

COMPANIES

The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local

66

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929 of Great Britain. On incorporation, a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In 1967, 1,239 new companies were incorporated, 145 less than the total incorporated in 1966 due no doubt to the adverse effect of the disturbances. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1967 totalled $458,521,990, 18 per cent less than the corresponding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, seven had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. At the end of the year there were 11,631 local companies on the register compared with 10,646 on December 31, 1966.

Companies incorporated outside Hong Kong are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in the Colony. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 44 such companies were registered and 33 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 599 companies registered from 39 countries including 149 from the United States, 98 from the United Kingdom and 59 from Japan. Usually for tax reasons, many non-local com- panies incorporate a subsidiary in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

All insurance companies wishing to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Companies Ordinance or the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance, respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies, unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Companies Act 1958 (as amended by the Companies Act 1967) in Great Britain, or in the case of fire and marine insurance-by maintaining adequate deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. There are, altogether 204 insurance companies, including 49 local companies, transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third-party insurance business.

The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

67

     and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partner- ships and money-lenders.

BANKRUPTCIES AND LIQUIDATIONS

       In Hong Kong the number of business failures in which creditors resort to formal insolvency proceedings in court is always compara- tively small in relation to the total number of businesses closing down. Nevertheless, during the year 27 petitions in bankruptcies and 38 petitions for the winding up of companies were presented to the court, and the court made 20 receiving orders, three orders for the administration in bankruptcy of the estates of deceased debtors, and 23 orders for the winding up of companies. For many years past the Official Receiver has become trustee or liquidator in almost every case, and this was so again in 1967, during which the assets realized by the Official Receiver amounted to approximately $10,386,000 including $8,371,000 realized for two banks which failed in 1965. In addition to the foregoing compulsory windings up, 129 companies went into voluntary liquidation during the year, 119 by members' voluntary winding up and 10 by creditors' voluntary winding up.

5

Primary Production

LACKING natural resources, Hong Kong depends heavily for its livelihood on a wide range of manufacturing industries using imported raw materials. As a result, a comparatively small propor- tion of the working populace is concerned with primary production. The 1966 by-census showed just under 73,500 people as directly employed in farming and fishing, and another 4,200 in mining and quarrying. Plans are well advanced for the establishment of new satellite towns in the agricultural hinterland of the New Territories, but so far little more than five per cent of Hong Kong is actually built up and the industrial explosion, however dramatic, has by no means overwhelmed the traditional life of the farmer and the fisher- man. Indeed the vigour of the farming and fishing industries is best demonstrated by the way in which they too are adapting to changed conditions.

The population influx of the nineteen-fifties had its effect upon the countryside as well as the city. While the growth of the urban population created new demands for the produce of the farms, new people and new methods were moving in to meet them. There has been a steady reduction in the number of people growing rice on their own land and an increase in the number of recent immigrants renting land for intensive vegetable production or poultry farming. At the same time rice farmers have been encouraged to diversify by planting vegetables after the harvesting of a second rice crop. These trends, and parallel improvements in the fishing industry, are in line with government policy to stimulate the production of food where this is compatible with the best use of the resources of land

or sea.

LAND UTILIZATION

       From a farmer's viewpoint all the readily cultivable land in Hong Kong is being exploited and what is left, apart from land alienated to industrial and urban use, is marginal or inaccessible. Pressure comes on land from two directions-the continued and steady

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

*69

demand for land for industry and housing, and the need to meet the growing requirements of the rural community. It is important to remember that 77 per cent of the total area of the territory is marginal land, in differing degrees of sub-grade character. The arable land and fish ponds already exploited comprise only 13 per cent of the total area and the expanding urban areas (the re- maining 10 per cent) tend to encroach more directly on arable rather than on marginal land. It is unavoidable that fields will be lost to agriculture, or at least that agriculture in some areas will be confined to market gardens. This trend is, however, being offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

There has been a continuing study of land use by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department since a survey in 1953. Much work has also been done by independent researchers. The general picture of land use today is indicated by the following table:

Approximate

Percentage

area

(square miles) of whole

40

10

111

27.8

Remarks

Includes roads and railways.

Rocky, precipitous hill- sides incapable of plant establishment.

Class

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

(ii) Steep country

(iii) Woodlands

23.4

5.9

Natural and established woodlands.

(iv) Grass and scrub lands

147

36.9

Natural grass and scrub.

(v) Eroded lands.....

20

5

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable of re- generation.

(vi) Swamp and mangrove

lands

...

5

1.3

(vii) Fish ponds

2.8

0.7

(viii) Arable

49.6

12.4

Includes

orchards and

Capable of reclamation. Fresh and brackish water fish farming.

market gardens.

POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilization and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with the fishermen on the waters of the territory and the administrative organization of co- operative societies of all types. The conservation of water and soil, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is important. Afforestation is largely undertaken by the department

70

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

Afforestation is directed primarily towards soil and water con- servation within the Colony's watersheds. Forest produce occupies a secondary and incidental role. In the immediate post-war years considerable emphasis was placed upon the establishment and im- provement of village plantations, principally for the production of firewood, but a progressive change over to other forms of fuel has now rendered this aspect unimportant.

       In seeking to increase production and improve the economic status of farmers, the Agriculture and Fisheries Department en- courages diversified production to mitigate the effects of seasonal market 'gluts' and trade recessions. Loans are available to farmers through the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, started in 1955 by the government and two Hong Kong businessmen, Messrs Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie. The fund is administered by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, whose Director is the trustee and chairman of the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund Committee. Loans are also available for farmers through the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund, and through the World Refugee Year Loan Fund. The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, a philanthropic organi- zation also founded by the Kadoorie brothers, makes grants to farmers who cannot find enough capital on their own. The general policy of the association is to help those who are prepared to help themselves and, although not a government-sponsored organization, it works closely with the Agriculture and Fisheries Department which offers technical assistance and advice to it and to similar organizations concerned with the rural community.

In the rural education programme this year, over 600 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out in which 127 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. Over 130,000 visits were made to farmers by both professional and technical officers during the year. Farmers also visited government experimental stations and farming projects.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

PRINCIPAL CROPS

71

       Within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern in Hong Kong. Paddy cultivation was formerly the most important aspect of agriculture in the New Territories but there has been a steady increase in market gardening and pig and poultry production. Most of this has been at the expense of rice growing land but there is also some development of marginal land. In addition more than 30 per cent of the two-crop paddy land is now used for winter season catch crops. Most of this land formerly remained fallow during the winter season.

The area of land under market gardening has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 8,660 acres in 1967. Six to eight crops of vegetables are harvested annually from intensively cultivated land. The main crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, turnip, leaf mustard, Chinese kale, Chinese lettuce, tomato, water spinach, string bean, watercress, cucumber and Chinese gourd. Other vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, and carrots are produced in great quantity during the cooler months and the quality is excellent. This intensive production on both fertile and compar- atively infertile land is made possible by heavy dressings of manure. The traditional use of nightsoil is being replaced or supplemented by pig and poultry manure, peanut cake, duck feathers, bone meal and compost. The use of artificial fertilizers is increasing, usually in addition to organic manures. The widespread use of insecticides is an important feature of farming, as is the increasing use of selected crop varieties.

Sweet potatoes are grown both for human consumption (the tubers), and for pigfeed (the vines). Some 2,000 acres of drier lands are double-cropped, chiefly for tubers, and a catch crop of sweet potatoes is also grown on over 1,000 acres following the second paddy harvest. A small area of land is under other field crops, such as peanut, millet, soy bean and sugar-cane, which are culti- vated mainly for local consumption. Fruit production, which in- cludes lychees, lung ngan, wong pei, lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, and pineapple, covers about 1,600 acres. There is a small but useful export trade in some fruit and field crops to overseas Chinese.

72

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Since 1954 the area of land under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,190 acres to 12,400 acres. A further 2,000 acres are used for one- crop paddy in brackish water. With a milling average of 68 per cent, the estimated crop was 8,160 long tons of polished rice; at an average wholesale price of $80 a picul the crop was valued at $10,915,000. In a normal year the average yield of paddy from an acre of two-crop land is about 1.2 long tons, but with seed of improved varieties, good irrigation and the use of fertilizers, pro- duction may reach 1.8 long tons on average land, and over two long tons on better soils. The first crop is sown into the nurseries in early March, transplanted in April and harvested in June and July. Second crop seedlings are nursed in June for planting out by the end of July and the crop is harvested during October and early November.

VEGETABLE MARKETING ORGANIZATION

      Vegetables produced in the New Territories for the urban areas are sold through a marketing scheme which was set up in 1946 on the lines of the successful fish marketing scheme. The present Vegetable Marketing Organization operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing (the Director, Agriculture and Fisheries Department) who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property and use the assets of the organization for the development and encouragement of vegetable farming. It provides also for a Marketing Advisory Board composed of unofficials to assist the organization. The controls imposed by the ordinance, however, apply only to the New Territories and Kowloon area, for there is little vegetable cultivation on Hong Kong Island.

      The organization has established depots in the main vegetable cultivation areas of the New Territories. From these depots, and from vegetable marketing co-operative societies, vegetables are collected daily by hired commercial vehicles and taken to the cen- tral wholesale market in Kowloon where two sales are held every day. The sales are conducted by the organization.

      The organization is a non-profit-making concern and obtains its revenue from a 10 per cent commission on sales in the Cheung Sha

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

73

Wan wholesale vegetable market. Vegetables are sold in the market by the organization but with considerable practical assistance given by the vegetable marketing co-operative societies which now handle 82 per cent of local production. Thirty per cent of this commission is therefore refunded to the marketing co-operative societies in recognition of the marketing responsibilities they assume in respect of their own produce. Sales are by negotiation rather than auction, since up to 30,000 separate lots a day may be sold to nearly 3,000 buyers, making sales by auction impracticable.

FISH PONDS

      Fish ponds are still increasing and now cover 1,810 acres, mostly along the Deep Bay coastline near Yuen Long. The most important species reared is grey mullet which requires water with a salinity above 0.1 per cent. Fry are found in local coastal waters in February and March. Fry of four other important species-about five million silver carp, grass carp, big head and mud carp-were imported from China between May and August. Common carp and edible goldfish are bred locally and some two million and 600,000 fry were raised respectively to meet trade requirements. Edible goldfish require fresh water (less than 0.4 per cent salinity), while common carp tolerate up to 1.0 per cent salinity. Total pond fish production for the year was estimated at 866 tons, valued at some $3.8 million, which represented about three per cent of the local consumption of pond fish. Fry of various species re-exported during the year totalled 2.5 million.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

      Since there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared in the Colony for food; cattle are used mainly for draught purposes. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common. The Agricul- ture and Fisheries Department maintains the main herds of pure exotic strains-Berkshire, Mid-White, Large-White and Large-Black -and also herds of two Chinese strains for distribution to improve the Colony's pig stock, and for experimental purposes. A similar herd of good quality local Chinese strains, also for distribution to

74

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

farmers, is maintained by the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Associa- tion on its farm at Pak Ngau Shek. Pig-keeping in the villages often follows traditional practice, but an overall improvement in management is taking place as a result of extension and advisory services. During the year the pig artificial insemination service was further expanded and over 5,503 sows were inseminated with a total conception rate of 87.49 per cent and a first service conception rate of 75.01 per cent. In 1967, 240,000 pigs of local origin were slaughtered in local abattoirs, compared with some 270,000 in 1966. The figure represented more than 12 per cent of the total number of pigs slaughtered. The value of pig production during the year amounted to some $26 million.

       As part of its 'Food for Peace' programme, the United States Government has donated a substantial quantity of feed grain to assist Hong Kong's pig raising industry by providing feed at reduced prices, thereby allowing farmers to improve their methods of production and raise the quality of their stock. This scheme is being operated in Hong Kong by an organization called 'Opera- tion Feedbag' Limited in close co-operation with the Agriculture and Fisheries Department and the New Territories Administration. By the end of the year 'Operation Feedbag' had been in operation in all areas of the Colony except a portion of the southern part of Yuen Long district.

Many of the larger poultry farmers are now producing their own hatching eggs, and this is important in helping to stabilize the industry, which produced $45 million worth of poultry this year. In the wetter areas ducks and geese are raised for home consumption and for export. The rearing of ducks and geese for the local market has become increasingly important in recent years and was worth about $9 million this year. Pigeon-keeping is a thriving industry and prices in 1967 averaged $8 for a pair of squabs. The total value of squabs marketed during the year was estimated at $3.1 million. The most popular types of table birds are the white or blue king crossed with the homer.

Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes and surplus stock is sold for slaughter. Chinese brown cattle are par- ticularly well suited to the local environment and management. The

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

75

      dairy cattle in Hong Kong are mainly Friesians and are kept in isolation on one large farm on Hong Kong Island and in smaller farm groups on the outskirts of Kowloon and in the New Territories. All dairy animals are regularly tested and must pass the single intradermal (comparative) test for tuberculosis. During 1967, pro- duction was about 12.9 million pounds of milk, valued at $1.20 a pound.

       The Colony continued to be free from rabies and rinderpest. The incidence of foot and mouth disease was not serious, though there were some 291 outbreaks of a mild type in both cattle and pigs. About 2,000 cattle and pigs were inoculated against foot and mouth disease types 'O' and 'A', 47,886 pigs against swine fever and some 4,370 cattle against rinderpest, with locally produced vaccine. In all, 17,693,000 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and 1,337,000 doses of intra-nasal-drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease in poultry.

FORESTRY

The Agriculture and Fisheries Department is responsible for forestry generally, and for the direct afforestation of water catchment areas, protection of vegetation on Crown lands, assistance to village forestry, and amenity planting in catchment areas. Hillsides are predominantly grass covered, with a thicker cover of shrubs in some places and patches of scrub forest in remoter and less accessible areas. Thickly-wooded areas also occur where the vegetation has been protected against cutting and fire, as on Hong Kong Island and around villages. Villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice, combined with the prevalent hill fires of the dry season, has brought about soil erosion in many parts of the Colony. Villagers often have forestry lots on the lower hill slopes, but the trees, mostly pine, are generally so scattered and lopped that they rarely alter the barren aspect of the land. In certain localities however there are sub- stantial stands of dense village pine woods, some established with government assistance 10 to 15 years ago, which could now provide useful yields of poles and small-sized timber.

       Government afforestation areas are mostly co-extensive with the watersheds. The main ones are the mountain range from Tai Po in the east to Castle Peak in the west and the catchments of the Kowloon

76

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

reservoirs, the Hong Kong Island reservoirs, Shek Pik reservoir on Lantau Island and the Shap Long peninsula. These areas total 47 square miles of which 19 square miles have been planted to date. The principal species planted in the past has been Pinus massoniana, but in recent years more use has been made of the American slash pine, Pinus elliottii. Of the hardwood species, Tristania conferta, Acacia confusa and Casuarina stricta are the most successful.

       Planting usually starts in spring and continues until June or July. Trees planted after July usually have too short a period to become well established before the onset of the dry season. The 1967 plant- ing programme was started in April and the bulk was complete by the end of July. The operation involved 425,000 trees, mostly in plantations destroyed by fire in the past few years.

To combat the threat of hill fires during the dry winter months, forestry fire crews are mounted at 13 protection posts in the New Territories and islands. These are connected by field telephone to lookout posts on the hill tops where in times of hazard a constant watch is kept for the outbreak of any fires. Crews work as units in accessible localities in the plantations during the day and standby overnight at the protection posts. All crews are now equipped with portable high pressure fire pumps and vehicles. The luxuriant undergrowth arising from the early rains and the equable climate of the previous year presented a high fuel danger and when fires occurred on windy days they proved impossible to stop except at natural or man-made barriers. Losses from fire during the 1966-7 winter fire season proved to be the most serious on record with over a million trees destroyed or damaged in government planta- tions alone. Hill fires are normally rare during the mid-summer months. This year, however, there were a number of outbreaks even in July.

FISHING

Marine fish is one of Hong Kong's main primary products and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Commonwealth. The number of fishermen in February 1967 was estimated at some 56,000. The government's aim is to foster the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of those engaged in the industry. The Fisheries

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

77

Branch of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department operates in two main divisions; development and extension (including market- ing, credit co-operation and education), and fisheries research.

A major breakthrough in local fisheries development was achieved in 1965 with the successful introduction of a prototype 66-foot wooden stern otter trawler, designed by the Fisheries Branch and built under the supervision of its technical staff in a local boat- yard. Three more of these modern boats have since been built and a further four vessels are currently under construction. All were financed by loans from the Fisheries Development Loan Fund. This change-over from the traditional two-boat, or 'pair', trawling method of fishing to modern single-boat otter trawling has now been copied by the commercial sector; a leading fish dealer has financed the construction of two otter trawlers, while several fisher- men have converted their fishing junks into stern otter trawlers. In all of these cases technical help and training were freely given by the Fisheries Branch. A new class of 86-foot wooden pair trawler has also been designed and introduced by the department. Four boats of this type have been built with government loan money.

       Extension work includes investigations into and demonstrations of fishing techniques; the promotion and sound development of a mechanization programme; the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as masters and engineers; and the instruction of local fishermen in navigation and certain duties in connection with the culture of pearls. Over-fishing and the conservation of fish resources are current problems and legislation provides for compre- hensive protection measures, particularly against the use of ex- plosives and toxic substances.

       When the main dam of the large new Plover Cove inlet was closed, the departmental, modified, junk-type vessel Yuen Ling was impounded in this future fresh water reservoir to assist in the speedy capture and removal of marine fish and other biological matter, which would have otherwise died and created a serious pollution problem. This boat was also used to dredge the soft mud bottom of the lake to filter out live shellfish and other marine animal material. Dead and dying fish were netted and removed as the water salinity fell.

78

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

      The department administers the Fisheries Development Loan Fund, which is allotted specifically for the development of the Colony's middle and distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organization, which administers two other funds and investigates applications for loans from all three. Together they provide capital of more than $8 million for the development of the industry.

       The Fisheries Research Division is engaged in a programme of biological and oceanographic research in the South China Sea, using the 240-ton research trawler Cape St Mary. The main biological effort is directed towards the investigation of the important com- mercial species nemipterus, muraenesox and upeneus. A handbook on Hong Kong fishes was completed, and another on the squids, cuttle-fish and octopus is in preparation. In order to describe the marine environment in which the fishes live, the hydrographic survey of the continental shelf off Hong Kong was continued; this work also constitutes the United Kingdom contribution to the Co- operative Study of the Kuroshio (CSK), a multi-ship international expedition organized by the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission. A small research station at Kat O, in Mirs Bay, is investigating the possibility of introducing into Hong Kong waters more exotic species of edible oysters from temperate regions. To develop better methods of fish culture and to encourage the local industry to modernize, pilot experiments with fresh and brackish water fishes are carried out in departmental ponds at Au Tau, in the New Territories.

      The fishing fleet consists of some 6,800 fishing junks of various sizes and designs and five pairs of Japanese-type trawlers, all of which are British registered. The fishing population consists chiefly of Tanka people, and the main fishing centres are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, and Castle Peak, Tai Po and Tolo Channel area, Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung, Tai O and Cheung Chau in the New Territories. Junks are built locally from imported timber. China fir is the most popular material, though teak and yacal are used increasingly. Most of the fleet is owner-operated, while the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies. Of the fishing fleet's 6,800 junks more than 5,000 are mechanized.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

79

       Purse seiners, gill-netters, shrimp trawlers and other inshore vessels operate mainly to the south of the Colony inside the 20- fathom line. A number of the more adventurous owners of medium- size mechanized boats have started fishing around Taya Island about 220 miles south-west of Hong Kong. The larger junk-type trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their operations and now work mainly in 30-70 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung. Although a few of the larger mechanized boats are capable of fishing in the Gulf of Tonkin (some 500 miles away) the war in Vietnam does not encourage the use of these grounds. The restrictions imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1958, requiring fishermen based on Hong Kong, who sail in Chinese inshore waters, to land a quota of their catch in China, are still in force. Landings by the local fishing fleet in 1967 were generally good and wholesale prices were satisfactory. The activities of the fleet were, however, affected by a general shortage of crew as an increasing number of fishermen sought employment on shore.

Oyster Farming. Edible oysters have been cultivated in the waters of the Colony for some 700 years. The principal area of cultivation is Deep Bay where 110 long tons of oyster meat, valued at approxi- mately $774,300 were produced from 6,060 acres along the New Territories' shores of the bay. Some of this was processed into dried meat or oyster juice and exported to markets overseas.

FISH MARKETING ORGANIZATION

       The present Fish Marketing Organization grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War. Interest-free loans and grants were made and a fish marketing scheme was introduced with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. From this beginning devel- oped the present non-government trading organization controlled by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries. The organization is a non-profit-making concern which finds its revenue and pays its expenses from a six per cent commission on all the sales in its whole- sale markets. It operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordin- ance 1956, which provides among other things for a Fish Marketing Advisory Board composed of unofficials to assist the organization.

       The organization runs five wholesale fish markets at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, Cheung Sha Wan in

80

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

      Kowloon, and Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. The new market of modern design at Cheung Sha Wan, which was completed in 1966, was financed jointly by the Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare Fund and the Fish Marketing Organization. In the New Territories, construction of a market at Castle Peak was nearing completion at the end of the year. Another new market at Sai Kung is planned. Six fish-collecting depots have been set up in other fishing centres and the organization provides sea and land transport from these to the wholesale markets. The depots also serve as liaison offices for the organization.

       At the wholesale markets, fish is sorted and sold by public auction to licensed retailers. Fishermen may collect the proceeds from their sales directly after the sale or, the organization may send the money back to the depot which serves their areas. A further service is the transportation of fish to the buyers' establishment in the urban areas. There were no significant changes during 1967 in the quantities of fresh and salt or dried marine fish marketed. The embargo on the importation of salt and dried fish from the Colony, imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1950, remains in force and exporters seeking other outlets have met with little success in the face of increasing competition from other countries in the region.

The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important services offered by the Fish Marketing Organization to local fisher- men. The organization's revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made loans totalling $23,934,686. Of this, some $21,393,000 had been repaid at the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was stabilized at $3 million in 1963. In 1957 the Co-operative for Ameri- can Relief Everywhere donated $31,000 to form a revolving loan fund for shrimp fishermen, which was increased to $92,400 by a further donation in 1962. This fund is administered by the organiza- tion and loans totalling $446,862 have been made; repayments total $381,618.

A further important side to the organization's development programme is the provision of schooling facilities for the children of fishermen. Thirteen schools have been established and approxi- mately 3,810 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools with a further 749 attending other schools (includ- ing secondary) on scholarships provided by the organization.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

81

All Fish Marketing Organization schools have advisory com- mittees composed of leaders of the fishing communities served by the schools. In recognition of the importance of vocational training, a secondary practical school has been built at Aberdeen where fishermen's children are able to continue their general education beyond the primary level and at the same time receive instruction in vocational subjects geared to the requirements of a modern fishing industry. Adult education classes are also conducted in a number of fishing villages.

       The organization may one day be run by the fishermen themselves as a co-operative enterprise, but the previous lack of education is a problem that only time and the existing educational programme can solve. As it is, the success of the organization has attracted worldwide interest and many overseas visitors and students come to study its operation.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

Since the appointment in 1950 of a Registrar of Co-operative Societies, the co-operative movement has made steady progress. It is being accepted by a growing number of people, particularly peasant farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. An important development has been the growth in the number of co-operative building societies, which are at present formed with one exception-of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and established with funds loaned by the government. Another development of interest is the increasing appreciation by rural communities of the improvements they may make in their way of life by co-operation and the formation of 'better living societies'. Several of these societies have successfully completed water supply and housing schemes, as well as community centres for their members.

       A further source of credit to farmers who are members of co- operative societies is the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, administered by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries as Registrar of Co- operative Societies. Since its establishment in 1954 some 44,511 loans totalling $19.9 million have been issued. A large number of societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which are steadily growing in size and effectiveness. The best example can

82

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

be found in fishermen's co-operative societies, 63 of which operate revolving loan funds with a total capital of some $1.6 million and a turnover of about $1 million a year. Yet a further source of credit is the World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies with a capital of over $555,000. The fund is designed to provide loans for a wide variety of purposes of social or economic benefit to societies and their members. Up to the end of 1967 loans totalling $755,640 had been issued from this source.

During the year seven societies were registered and two societies were liquidated, bringing the total on the register to 416. At present there are 14 different types of societies. A table showing the number of societies in being at December 31, 1967 with details of their membership, share capital, deposits and reserve funds will be found in Appendix XXIV.

MINING

Iron ore, wolframite and, at times, graphite are mined under- ground, and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron ore concentrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan, wolframite to the United States, Britain and Japan and kaolin to Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. All the feldspar and quartz and about 33 per cent of the kaolin are consumed by local light industries.

During 1967, there was no production of graphite, but prospect- ing for this mineral was being undertaken in two separate localities. The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance. The Commissioner of Mines is em- powered to issue prospecting and mining licences, and the Land Officer to issue mining leases. Prospecting licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years. Mining licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years, but may be extended further with the consent of the Governor. Mining leases are granted for periods up to a maximum of 21 years. Details of leases and licences in opera- tion are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of 1967 there were three mining leases, 17 mining licences, and four prospecting licences valid for different areas in the territory. They were mainly controlled by individuals or small mining com- panies.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

83

      The Superintendent of Mines grants mine-blasting certificates and certifies the origin of minerals in respect of which comprehen- sive certificates of origin are required. He is responsible for assessing royalties on mineral sales, at a rate of five per cent of value, and for issuing demand notes for royalties, rents, premia, and fees for licences and leases. The Mines Department inspects mining areas and surveys land affected by applications for licences and is also responsible for enforcement of legislation governing the conveyance, storage, manufacture, packing and use of explosives and fireworks. On August 19, 1967, all stocks of commercial explosives and explo- sives accessories were withdrawn to safe custody from site mag- azines throughout the Colony in order to deny access to explosive material to communist terrorists. The reissue of explosives to a limited number of sites under strict security precautions began on September 21.

      For similar reasons it became necessary to enact the Emergency (Firework) Regulations 1967 which required any person having any firework in his possession other than a person to whom a licence to store fireworks had been granted, to notify the Commis- sioner of Mines or the police. The Commissioner of Mines was authorized to cancel any licence to store fireworks. Large quantities of fireworks were handed in and collected and most of them were destroyed by dumping at sea.

6

Education

DEPARTMENTAL policy has been concerned with implementing recommendations made in the government white paper on educa- tion (June 30, 1965). There has been a further increase in the number of aided primary school places and it seems likely that the target of providing a subsidized primary school place for every child of the right age who seeks one can be reached by 1971. The rate of fee remission for primary school places was doubled this year from 10 per cent to 20 per cent, ensuring that no child from a poor home should be deprived of a place in a public school solely through the inability of his parents to pay the fees. It is declared policy that if at any time it should appear that existing funds were inadequate to meet the demand for remission of fees in public primary schools in all cases of genuine hardship the government would authorize further expenditure, even if it meant that the rate of remission were raised to 30 per cent or higher.

Other sectors of education also recorded progress, due principally to the encouragement given to private agencies to provide aided secondary education, and to the added emphasis given to the expansion of technical and vocational training. In August the Kowloon sub-office and the adult education section moved into new premises in the Kowloon Central Post Office building. In September the departmental headquarters section moved from Battery Path to new accommodation at Lee Gardens, where it was joined by those sections formerly accommodated in Fung House.

Under the provisions of the Education Ordinance the Director of Education is charged with the superintendence of matters relating to education in the Colony. He directly controls all govern- ment schools and almost all others are required to be registered under the Education Ordinance, which provides the Director with the necessary powers to ensure the satisfactory nature of school

EDUCATION

85

buildings, the efficiency of schools and teachers, and the suitability of syllabuses.

The Director has publicly advocated widening the scope of civics teaching in schools so that young people would grow up with an awareness of Hong Kong's problems, of steps being taken to solve them, and of possible future remedies.

Earlier in the year transport workers' stoppages made it difficult for pupils, particularly those travelling to examination centres. Curtailment of transport services still presents them with a problem, but gradually, these difficulties are being surmounted.

        The number of students in all areas of education continue to increase. Detailed figures are given in Appendix XXVI, but some idea of this expansion can be gained from the fact that enrolment at the end of September in primary schools was 689,561 and in secondary schools it was 235,387 compared with 657,585 and 222,890 respectively in 1966. Altogether 1,041,480 pupils were enrolled in all 2,438 schools, colleges and education centres, 57,985 more than last year's figure.

      More and more students are becoming interested in non- academic activities and many competitive sports are included in the curriculum of all schools. In addition to active sports, annual folk dance festivals, and primary schools games and gymnastics are becoming popular. This summer a series of weekly youth recreation camps in the New Territories were attended by 2,000 schoolboys.

      The trend in musical education, which has gained momentum in recent years, continues. The 19th annual Schools Musical Festival broke all records and an estimated 30,000 competitors took part in the 335 available classes. Distinguished adjudicators from the United Kingdom and South Africa applied international standards in their assessment of achievements in both music and speech, English and Chinese. The Hong Kong Youth Orchestra with more than 90 players, continued to give public concerts, and an instrumental music scheme in 13 schools, involving 390 pupils, is likely to expand.

      Four visiting examiners conducted the practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Entries

888

86

EDUCATION

      reached the record total of 4,395, preserving the Colony's distinc- tion of having the second highest number of candidates through- out the 36 Commonwealth countries served by the Board. There were 1,528 candidates for the theory examinations and 42 for examinations of the Trinity College of Music. Children's examina- tions of the Royal Academy of Dancing attracted a record 437 entries.

Exhibitions of school children's work in art and craft have again been stimulating and impressive, and overseas their paintings continue to have widespread impact. A competition was held for the best Scene of Hong Kong, and the winners' paintings were used to publicize Hong Kong in big department stores in America. Another group of children's paintings was sent to the Lion's Club of Geneva for sale at a fair to raise funds for a children's hospital.

This year a new Department of Commercial and Industrial Design has been opened in the Technical College, marking the beginning of professional instruction in this vital new field.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

      Most primary schools are Chinese, with Cantonese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. Five government primary schools cater for children whose normal language is English.

The total primary day school enrolment in September was 658,284 which is 103.1 per cent of the estimated number of children in the six to 11-year inclusive age group. In addition, 31,277 pupils attended primary night schools and special afternoon classes. Nevertheless, it is still possible for a child of primary school age to experience difficulty in finding a school place at fees which his parents can afford. This difficulty stems in part from the fact that many school places are occupied by over-age children. Further expansion is therefore continuing, particularly in developing areas. In new resettlement estates the 24-classroom annexe-type school has become the standard form of primary provision.

      During the year 45,600 new primary places were provided, compared with 45,170 in the previous year.

EDUCATION

87

There are no government kindergarten schools, but there is an increasing demand for this type of education for children aged three to six. Private kindergarten schools, registered with the Educa- tion Department and advised by the Inspectorate, rose in number from 412 in the previous year to 518 in September, and enrolment increased from 56,520 to 69,069.

Twenty-two special schools cater for blind, deaf, physically handicapped and mentally handicapped children. In September, some 200 physically handicapped children were attending ordinary government primary schools and six additional experimental classes for slow-learning children were opened during that month. A pre-school centre run by the Special Education Section for children with hearing impairment and speech defects came into operation in January, 1967. An introductory course on speech therapy in the classroom was organized in the summer 1967. A braille printing press operated by the Government Printing Department, under the direction of the Education Department, produces textbooks in Cantonese braille.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

There are four types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese gram- mar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools. The 204 Anglo-Chinese grammar day schools have 135,784 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong English School Certificate examination. Instruction is in English and Chinese is taught as a second language. This type of secondary education is in demand because a good knowledge of spoken and written English is desirable for entry to the professions, government service and commerce. Successful school certificate candidates may enter the sixth form for two years to prepare themselves for entrance to the University of Hong Kong or to the Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the GCE (University of London), at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition there are 28,501 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where in- struction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

The 116 Chinese middle day schools accommodate 48,707 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading

88

EDUCATION

to the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate examination. Instruc- tion is in Chinese and English is taught as a second language. For those who pass the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate examina- tion, higher education is available at the teacher training colleges and the Technical College. In addition, a number of Chinese middle schools offer a one-year sixth form matriculation course to prepare students for entrance to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Nine secondary technical schools give a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a secondary language. Six of the schools are government, two are subsidized and one is private. Their total enrolment is 6,131. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools they prepare their pupils for the English School Certificate examination and suitable candidates can continue their studies either in Form VI or at the Technical College. Five subsidized secondary modern schools with an enrolment of 3,426 offer a three-year secondary course with a practical bias. There are also 31 private and two subsidized secondary schools, with a total enrolment of 4,924, which offer some form of technical or trade training not leading to a school certificate.

      There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools held in day sessions. In September there were 198,972 such students compared with 186,761 the pre- vious year. During the school year 6,780 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings.

HIGHER EDUCATION

      The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with a land grant from the government and endowments which have since been increased. Substantial grants are also made by the govern- ment towards the university's annual recurrent and non-recurrent expenditure. In 1966-7 the government made a subvention of $17,604,431 towards a total recurrent and capital expenditure of $28,531,728, the balance being found from fees and endowment funds.

       Faculties and enrolments are: arts, 897; science, 390; medicine, 565; engineering and architecture, 387; social sciences, 115. In addition, the Institute of Oriental Studies has 51 language students, the education diploma and certificate courses 52 students, and the

EDUCATION

89

social study courses nine students. Of this total of 2,466 students, 215 are part-time, 27 are external and 750 are women. Most of the undergraduates are Hong Kong Chinese, but many other national- ities are represented, particularly from South-East Asian countries. A new Faculty of Social Sciences was constituted in May. A total of 740 undergraduate places were available for new students in the academic year 1967-8.

      The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstrator- ships and tutorships) at the beginning of the academic year 1967-8 was 321. In addition, the Language School of the Institute of Oriental Studies has 13 full-time instructors. All the university's degrees in professional subjects (medicine, architecture, and civil, electrical and mechanical engineering) are on the same professional footing as those of universities in Britain.

       Robert Black College, a residential college providing accommoda- tion for visiting scholars and postgraduate students, was opened in January. The first stage of the renovation and extension of Ricci Hall was completed during the year, providing accommodation for 120 students.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in 1963 as a federal university consisting of Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College. Its principal language of instruction is Chinese. At present the three colleges are situated in different parts of the Colony while the central administrative and academic units are separately located in Kowloon. However, a site covering approximately 273 acres in Sha Tin, New Territories, adjoining the present Chung Chi College campus, has been allocated to the university by the government. Site formation work began in late 1967 and it is hoped that the first phase of the removal of the other two colleges and the central administration to the new campus will be effected by 1970.

       The university has few endowments or funds of its own but receives contributions from outside sources to establish scholar- ships and bursaries, as well as financial support given by international establishments for projects undertaken by its research centres. The colleges are also in receipt of other small endowments and grants from outside sources. Apart from tuition fees, which are at a

90

EDUCATION

comparatively low level, government grants provide the main source of income.

The Chinese University has three faculties and the enrolment in October 1967 in each faculty was: arts 576; science 594; commerce and social science 790, making a total undergraduate enrolment of 1960. The total number of new students for the academic year 1967-8 was 583.

      Of a total number of 496 graduates in 1967, 474 were awarded Bachelor's degrees including eight with the distinction 'magna cum laude' and 69 'cum laude'. Twenty-two were awarded diplomas. The Graduate School of the Chinese University of Hong Kong was established in September 1966, and admits students for two years of postgraduate studies in arts, science, commerce and social science leading to a Master's degree. Thirteen students have been awarded the Master of Arts degree. There are 46 students in the school, 22 of whom are in the first year.

The Technical College has a total enrolment of 14,350 students in 106 courses, comprising 1,593 full-time students in 59 classes, 492 part-time day students in 22 classes and 12,265 evening students in 392 classes distributed in 21 centres. The college has eight depart- ments; building, surveying and structural engineering; commerce and management studies; electrical engineering; mechanical, pro- duction and marine engineering; textile industries; nautical studies; mathematics and science; and industrial and commercial design. These provide full-time courses leading to the college's own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the associate membership examina- tions of many British professional institutions, a number of which have granted exemption from certain parts of their examinations to students in the higher diploma courses. The academic standard required for entry to most of these full-time classes is a Hong Kong school certificate with passes in specified subjects.

      In addition to the higher and ordinary diploma courses, the electrical engineering department offers courses for first and second- class radio officers, and a course in radar maintenance which gives training to qualified seagoing officers and technicians. The depart- ment of nautical studies runs a course for radar observers. The department of commerce and management studies offers, mainly for

EDUCATION

91

     girls, secretarial courses. The department of mechanical, production and marine engineering operates a productivity centre. Since its inception in 1961, 33 productivity courses have been offered to more than 502 managerial and supervisory staff from local factories, representing some 15 different industries. Full-time courses at crafts- man and pre-apprentice levels are also offered in the building, electrical and mechanical trades.

      The eight departments also provide part-time day and evening courses. These lead to college certificates and to City and Guilds of London Institute and other qualifications in a range of technical and commercial subjects at professional, technicians' and crafts- men's levels. A two-year part-time in-service course for training teachers of technical subjects and an 11-week part-time day-release course for workshop and trade instructors are also offered. A new part-time craft course for carpenters and joiners was started during the year.

In addition to regular day and evening courses, 51 short courses were offered during the year. These were on specific topics of current interest to local industry, such as AM transistor receiver design, modern developments in dyeing and finishing processes for wool knitwear and the matrix method of frame analysis.

A wool workshop, donated by the International Wool Secretariat and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, and a new extension to the classroom block were completed during the early part of 1967. The wool workshop was opened by the Governor in November.

      Local and overseas firms, organizations and individuals support the work of the college by generous donations of materials, equip- ment, scholarships and funds for specific projects. Gifts of books to the college library were made by the Asia Foundation, United States Information Agency, Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and individuals.

      Firms in Britain and Australia continue to offer places for practical training to students who have completed three-year higher diploma courses, and 26 students took advantage of the opportunities this year. Several manufacturers in Italy have offered, for the first time, nine training places through the efforts of the Federation of Hong Kong Industries. The Cotton Spinners' Association donated a

92

EDUCATION

scholarship worth $24,000 to enable a holder of the textile higher diploma to further his studies abroad.

The college continues to offer its facilities for testing purposes. During the year 14,906 concrete blocks were tested for the building and civil engineering industry, and over 3,000 textile tests were made on behalf of government departments.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER TRAINING

       In March there were 28,450 full-time and part-time teachers employed in government and registered day schools, of whom 7,436 were university graduates and 13,469 were trained non-graduates. Another 5,003 teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 138 were in special schools. At the end of the 1966-7 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of primary and secondary day schools was 31:1. Classes are planned for a maximum of 45 pupils in primary and 40 in secondary schools.

       Most teacher training is carried out by the Education Depart- ment's three colleges Northcote, Grantham and Sir Robert Black. Formerly called Training Colleges, these have now been re-named Colleges of Education. All three colleges are now offering full-time two-year courses designed to produce non-graduate teachers quali- fied to teach in primary schools and the lower forms of secondary schools. A special one-year course is offered at Northcote College for diploma holders from the colleges which now form the Chinese University and certain other post-secondary institutions. This course is designed mainly to train teachers for Chinese middle schools and Anglo-Chinese secondary schools. Sir Robert Black College also provides a full-time one-year course for students from secondary schools leading to a primary teacher's certificate; instruction is in Chinese.

      The colleges also organize in-service courses of training for unqualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, either in Chinese or in English, of two years' duration. Successful students are awarded a certificate granting qualified teacher status.

       Fees for full-time courses are $400 a year, but students may apply for interest-free loans not exceeding $1,200 per annum; in addition, maintenance grants of up to $1,600 per annum may be made to

EDUCATION

93

      needy students. In September there were 1,084 students in the two- year courses, 19 in the special one-year course, 50 in the one-year course at Sir Robert Black and 973 in the in-service training courses.

The Department of Education of the University of Hong Kong offers to graduates a one-year full-time course leading to a diploma in education and a two-year part-time course leading to a certificate in education. The department also provides a one-year part-time qualifying course for students who seek to enrol for the MA (Ed) degree. The School of Education of the Chinese University, in- augurated in 1965, offers a one-year diploma course of professional training to graduates and introduced in September a two-year part- time evening course for serving teachers, also leading to a diploma of education.

ADULT EDUCATION

      Adult education is provided by the Education Department in order to make up for educational deficiencies, and to improve employment prospects and prepare better adult leaders, especially teachers.

The Evening Institute offers English courses from elementary to post-school certificate level; teachers' classes for art, music, hand- work, wood-work, physical education, modern mathematics and the teaching of English, secondary school courses leading to the English and Chinese school certificates, and a three-year post- primary extension course providing additional training, with prac- tical bias, for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level. Rural literacy classes and general background education classes provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical back- ground education classes give adults an opportunity of learning wood-work, housecraft, sewing and knitting. Adults in the Colony now have a complete educational ladder from the literacy level to post-secondary studies. The total number of classes organized under the Evening Institute is 774 in 72 locations in both the urban and rural areas.

       The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers to holders of the English or Chinese School Certificate a three-year course in general arts leading to an Education Department diploma. Subjects

EDUCATION

94

include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology and English lan- guage and literature. Most of the students are primary school teachers.

       At the 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres, education and recreation are combined in activities ranging widely from music appreciation and physical education to group study of art, pho- tography and dramatics. Civics talks are well attended and always arouse lively discussion.

The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong provided over 280 evening and day-time courses for adult students. During the period July 1966 to June 1967, 5,347 attended regular courses and 3,368 attended public lectures, seminars and conferences. Some of these courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin but the majority are in English. Subjects vary from Oriental studies through a full range of liberal arts and language courses to economics, law and commerce, and include a rapidly growing section of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including the LLB of the University of London. A popular series of free public evening lectures on the Hong Kong economic scene was also given.

The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the Chinese Univer- sity had an enrolment of almost 8,000 students during the period April 1966 to March 1967. It offered a total of 195 courses ranging from cultural subjects and topics of general interest to commercial courses. In addition, certificate courses in Chinese history, librarian- ship, computer programming and transistor technology were pro- vided in the autumn of 1967. The majority of the courses are con- ducted in Cantonese or Mandarin.

EXAMINATIONS

       There are five local school examinations, one conducted by the Education Department, one each by the Hong Kong English and Chinese School Certificate syndicates, one by the University of Hong Kong and one by the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

The Secondary School entrance examination is a competitive examination to select pupils for places in government and aided secondary schools and for subsidized places in private secondary

EDUCATION

95

      schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to advise on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate. Entrance from each school is limited to 60 per cent of its primary six pupils, but this percentage may be increased up to 100 per cent where justified by previous examination results. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

The Hong Kong English School Certificate examination is con- ducted by a syndicate of representatives from participating schools, the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Education Department. The University of Hong Kong, the University of London and some overseas universities now recognize the pass with credit (grade C and above) in individual subjects as equivalent to ordinary level passes in the London General Certificate of Education examinations. This year this ex- amination was considerably affected by the local disturbances. Students in one large school not taking part in the examination had to be given a holiday so that the candidates from four examination centres located near one of the main Kowloon trouble spots could be examined under more peaceful conditions. Some papers had to be postponed for several days, and a number of examinations were delayed by an hour or so.

       The Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate examination is also conducted by a syndicate. It is similar to the English School Cer- tificate examination, but is conducted entirely in Chinese.

The University of Hong Kong conducts its own advanced level matriculation examination, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level examination. Entry to the university is generally dependent upon successful results in this examination. In May, 2,235 candidates entered for the examination, of whom 1,311 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry.

       The matriculation examination of the Chinese University of Hong Kong is designed to select candidates of approved standard for admission to first-year courses in any one of its constituent colleges. Passes in at least five subjects, including Chinese and English, are normally required for entry to the university besides additional requirements for entry to various undergraduate courses.

96

EDUCATION

      Candidates are limited to those who have completed six years of secondary school education in an approved secondary school and have passed a qualifying examination such as the English or Chinese School Certificate Examination. This year, a total of 2,355 can- didates sat for the examination and 1,052 of them passed.

       The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and elsewhere and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations at standards comparable with those in Britain. Of these examinations, the GCE is open to both school and private candidates who hold a school certificate of the required standard, and to private candidates of 25 years of age or over who are required to pass this examination as a prerequisite to entering for a professional or university ex- amination. London University degree examinations are also con- ducted annually in May and June. Appendix XXVII shows the more important examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

EDUCATION OVERSEAS

The Hong Kong Students' Office in London assists Hong Kong students to find places in universities and other institutions of higher education in Britain but not in private schools or colleges. The office also notifies qualified students of vacancies in the Hong Kong Government and arranges for candidates to be interviewed in London. In co-operation with the British Council the office arranges for students to be met and given temporary accommodation on arrival and also gives advice and assistance on personal and educa- tional problems. There are 4,100 students, including trainee nurses, undergoing an infinite variety of courses (see Appendix XXVIII.)

The number of Hong Kong students known to have left for further studies in the United States, Canada and Australia are 1,391, 776, and 219 respectively.

       The government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain under the control of a board of governors appointed by and re- sponsible to the government. It accommodates some 80 students and serves as a focal point and meeting place for many more.

EDUCATION

97

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

During the year under review, a wide range of research pro- grammes were conducted by both universities in various fields of study. Many projects were related to community needs and some were investigations of specific local problems which can only be un- dertaken in Hong Kong, such as squatter and resettlement housing.

In view of the number of projects undertaken, it is not possible to describe them all in detail in this chapter. The following serve to il- lustrate some of the research being conducted in the fields of the arts, medicine, engineering and architecture, science and social science.

In the University of Hong Kong, a study was begun by the Department of Paediatrics on Hong Kong community life related to the child and the effect of living conditions on their development. Other projects conducted by the Medical Faculty include studies of blood supply of the colon and the apparent lack of primary osteoarthritis in Chinese hip-joints. Researches on squatter and resettlement housing and design for multi-storey buildings in areas affected by typhoons were carried out by the Faculty of Engineer- ing and Architecture. Projects such as the study of the industrial and population growth of Hong Kong; urban land use; and studies of the supply, demand and training of teachers in Hong Kong were undertaken by the Arts and Social Sciences Faculty. The Department of Education recently published a series of booklets on educational planning in Hong Kong. A study of local agricultural problems and plants, many of which are used as materials for Chinese medicine, is also being conducted by the Science Faculty.

       In the Chinese University of Hong Kong, programmes are conducted by its two research institutes, namely, the Institute of Social Studies and the Humanities, and the Institute of Science and Technology. During the year, various projects related to com- munity needs were carried out including a study of higher level manpower for Hong Kong industry, a survey of Hong Kong urban family life and another on Hong Kong's national income and popula- tion growth. In addition, the Chinese Linguistic Centre conducted high level studies of the Chinese language including a translation of Professor Y. R. Chao's 'Grammar of Spoken Chinese' and a survey of dialects in Kwangtung Province.

7

Health

THE health of the population continued to be generally good during 1967. The Colony remained free from cholera and other quarantin- able diseases. The number of notifications of diphtheria and malaria continued to show a downward trend and the incidence of polio- myelitis during the year was particularly low. There was an increase in the incidence of cerebro-spinal meningitis earlier in the year. As usual, a biennial increase in the number of cases of measles was recorded in the winter months of 1966-7.

       The number of attendances at casualty departments continued to increase, mainly due to a rise in non-traumatic cases. The total number of traumatic cases at casualty has dropped during the year because of a reduction in domestic and industrial accidents- although traffic accidents continued to rise. The mortality pattern showed fewer deaths from communicable diseases and more from diseases of later life, particularly from cancer and cardio-vascular conditions. Tuberculosis still remained the most important health problem in the Colony, accounting for more sickness and deaths than all other communicable disease combined.

      The Medical Development Plan Standing Committee, under the chairmanship of the Director of Medical and Health Services, maintained its task of keeping under review the recommendations of the white paper on Development of Medical Services in Hong Kong, and reported its conclusions on all major matters to the government through the Medical Advisory Board.

During the year the complex Jockey Club Polyclinic at Yau Ma Tei was opened and extensions to the Queen Mary Hospital, consisting of a radiotherapy department, premises for university clinical staff and medical student teaching, operating theatres, pharmacy, central sterile supply department, nurses' training school and additional staff quarters, became operational. Two new ward blocks at Castle Peak Hospital, providing an additional 240 beds

HEALTH

99

were brought into use to bring the hospital's total bed strength to 1,242. Substantial progress was achieved in the planning of many other government projects, including a large general hospital in the Lai Chi Kok area, a new mental hospital of approximately 1,000 beds, an extension of almost 600 beds to Kowloon Hospital, and a redevelopment of medical institutions in the Sai Ying Pun district. Site formation work on the Tang Shiu Kin Hospital, at Morrison Hill, which will have a casualty department, was com- pleted and construction is in progress.

       The general state of health of the population, as demonstrated by the Colony's vital statistics set out in Appendix XXX, was well maintained. Rates particularly indicative of the trends are the infant and neonatal mortality rates, which were 25.6 and 15.9 per 1,000 live births respectively, and the still-birth and maternal mortality rates, which were 11.2 and 0.30 per 1,000 total births, respectively. Maternal deaths totalled 27 for 1967. The crude death rate was 5.1 per 1,000 population. Based on actual registration of births and deaths, there was a reproductive increase of 68,527 people during the year. A total of 88,171 live births was registered as compared with 92,476 in 1966 and the crude birth rate fell further from 24.8 to 23.0 per 1,000 of population.

ADMINISTRATION

Statutory responsibility for administering the services which safeguard public health in Hong Kong rests with the Director of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Director of Urban Services, the Commissioner of Labour and the District Commissioner, New Territories. The Medical and Health Depart- ment provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease. In addition, doctors are seconded to the Urban Services Department, the Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department, the Criminal Investigation Department of the Police and to the Prisons Department.

       The estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department for the financial year 1967-8 is $129,873,700. To this should be added substantial subventions to many medical institutions and

100

HEALTH

organizations including, particularly, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Grantham Hospital, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nether- sole Hospital, the Caritas Hospital and the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association. These subventions total an estimated $48,973,000 for the year under review. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Depart- ment and medical subventions represents 9.30 per cent of the Colony's estimated total expenditure. The estimated capital expendi- ture for the Medical and Health Department during 1967-8 in respect of hospital and other buildings, including furniture and equipment, is $14,829,500.

There are five statutory bodies which deal with the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, and midwives respectively. The Medical Council of Hong Kong is responsible for the registration of medical practitioners and has disciplinary responsibilities under the Medical Registration Ordinance; it is not an examining body. The Dental Council, Pharmacy Board, Nursing Board and Midwives Board all maintain registers, regulate training, hold examinations leading to registration and have dis- ciplinary powers.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Hong Kong remained free from cholera throughout the year. The last case was reported in November, 1966. In view of the continuing incidence of the disease in nearby countries, however, special preventive measures were continued and strict quarantine restrictions were maintained in respect of various neighbouring countries declared infected. Bacteriological investigation was carried out of all specimens sent to the government laboratories from cases of gastro-enteritis and there was daily sampling of nightsoil and routine sampling of seawater, well water and food- stuffs liable to be sources of transmission of the vibrio. All such samples proved to be negative for cholera organisms. A mass prophylactic immunization campaign against cholera started in April and by the end of the year a total of 1,318,991 inoculations had been given.

Tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem. Many thousands of unselected examinations carried out

HEALTH

101

each year show that approximately one to two per cent of the adult population is in need of treatment for the disease, but continuing progress has been made in the control of tuberculosis in those below the age of 15. There is ample evidence that tuber- culosis in infancy and early childhood is now relatively rare by the standards prevailing 16 years ago, that the peak prevalence continues to shift to middle and later life and that the more intractable clinical problems occur mainly above the age of 45. Since 1951 the mortality rate for tuberculosis has shown an almost continuous decline, falling from 208 per 100,000 in 1951 to 38.9 in 1967.

       The posting of health visitors to the Government Chest Service to guide and direct Health Auxiliaries has increased the emphasis placed on the important field of prevention, especially health education in the home, contact examination, home visiting, the tracing of defaulters from treatment and the holding of X-ray surveys. The prime specific measure aimed at prevention of tuber- culosis in children is the BCG vaccination campaign, with emphasis on the vaccination of the newborn. During the year 95.4 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 48 hours of birth; the vaccine is issued free to all doctors, midwives, and hospitals. Tuberculin testing and BCG vaccination, where indicated, are offered to all school entrants, and children aged from two to five attending maternal and child health centres are also tuberculin tested and vaccinated when necessary. Government officers are X-rayed annually, and free X-ray surveys are carried out on request at schools and in industrial or commercial concerns. Employers wishing to avail themselves of these facilities are required to agree to certain conditions regarding sick. leave and re-employ- ment of proved cases. The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association is also active in prevention and maintains BCG and follow-up clinics and a health education section at its headquarters.

       All diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is free and medical social workers connected with this work maintain social histories, operate a tuberculosis assistance fund for those in need of financial or material aid while under treatment, and help with certain aspects of rehabilitation and resettlement. The Government Chest

102

HEALTH

Service operates six full-time clinics equipped with radiological facilities and 16 subsidiary centres throughout the Colony. A total of 1,442,317 attendances was recorded.

      The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort between the Government Chest Service, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council. Certain other organizations, both charitable and private, including the Tung Wah Group, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Sandy Bay Convalescent Home and the Caritas Medical Centre, also provide treatment facilities, maintained mainly with the aid of substantial government subventions. Co- ordination is achieved through a committee inaugurated in 1965.

      The Colony has 1,765 beds available specifically for the treatment of tuberculosis and 6,322 patients were admitted to them during the year. The government provides 146 of these beds in Kowloon Hospital and St John Hospital on Cheung Chau Island, but the majority are in government-assisted hospitals, notably those man- aged by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association. This association offers a total of 979 beds distributed between Grantham Hospital, Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home. The Grantham Hospital has 619 beds of which 576 are maintained by the government on a daily fee-paying basis, while the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Home between them have 360 beds. These hospitals also offer approved training courses leading to the British Tuberculosis Association's certificate in nursing. The Junk Bay Medical Relief Council has 261 beds at its Haven of Hope Sanatorium, of which the govern- ment maintains 80. In addition, this organization has facilities for the rehabilitation of patients and for the observation of child contacts with positive tuberculosis reactions. The Tung Wah Group has a variable number of tuberculosis beds for the treatment of more chronic forms of the disease, while the Sandy Bay Convales- cent Home deals especially with bone tuberculosis in children and with other forms of children's illness requiring orthopaedic treat- ment. Acute cases are also dealt with at the Nethersole and Caritas hospitals.

Venereal diseases are diagnosed and treated free at clinics main- tained in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. The

HEALTH

103

recorded incidence of early infectious syphilis, which rose to its maximum in 1963 and fell steeply in the succeeding three years, remained low in 1967, thus differing from experience in other parts of the world. Latent and late syphilis and gonorrhoea have stayed at comparatively unchanged levels and the incidence of chancroid and lymphogranuloma remained very low. The main- tenance of this satisfactory position is due at least in part to ener- getic epidemic control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and routine, free ante-natal blood tests.

      Leprosy remains only a negligible public health problem in the Colony. Twenty outpatient sessions are held weekly solely for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In addition, sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with the dermatology and venereal disease clinics. Surgical appliances are fitted to patients with limb deformities. Prejudice against employment or rehabilitation of cured leprosy patients is gradually but steadily disappearing and widespread publicity is leading to a more humane and progressive approach to the problem by the community. The Leprosy Mission-Hong Kong Auxiliary, with the aid of a govern- ment subvention, maintains 540 beds at Hei Ling Chau Lepro- sarium where infectious cases are admitted voluntarily. In addition a small number of patients requiring reconstructive operations are accepted.

      Malaria continues to be endemic but presents a relatively minor problem, being restricted to certain parts of the uncontrolled rural areas. The majority of cases during the year were reported from the Three Fathoms Cove and Tai Po areas in the New Territories. The important carriers of malaria are Anopheles minimus, found breeding in hill streams, seepages and irrigation ditches, and A. jeyporiensis var. candidiensis, which breeds in rice cultivation, fallow rice fields, pools in rice stubble and water flowing through grass. Other anopheline species found in the Colony play little or no part in malaria transmission. Plasmodium vivax is the predom- inant parasite responsible for the infection.

Malaria prevention in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti- larval measures consisting of training and clearing streams, ditching and oiling. Areas under active control are of the populated portions of the whole of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon,

104

HEALTH

extending from Kwai Chung, in the west, to Lei Yue Mun in the east. In addition, Cheung Chau Island and Rennie's Mill Village, in the New Territories, are similarly protected. Larvicidal oil continues to be employed as the main larvicide, but malathion, diazinon and gamma-BHC were used on a limited scale in areas where the application of oil was not suitable. These anti-larval operations against anopheline breeding afford protection. None of the few cases appearing in the urban areas during the year could be attributed to breakdown of these control measures. In the greater part of the New Territories where the background is essentially rural, the adoption of anti-malarial mosquito measures described above is not feasible at present and screening of buildings, use of mosquito nets and chemoprophylaxis constitute the main protection against malaria. All anti-mosquito measures for the prevention of malaria are carried out by the pest control section of the Urban Services Department. Clinical aspects of malaria control such as malaria surveys and chemotherapy are the respon- sibility of the Medical and Health Department.

Diphtheria continued to occur mainly among children under 10 years of age. An immunization campaign has been in progress since 1959, interrupted only by the need for anti-poliomyelitis, cholera and other prophylactic, mass inoculation campaigns. House- to-house visits are conducted in resettlement estates and other crowded areas, and teams of inoculators visit schools and squatters. Every effort is made to inform parents of the disease and of facilities available for the protection of their children and, as a result, there has been a steady and sustained decline in the incidence of the disease, with only 226 cases recorded in 1967, representing 10.83 per cent of the 1959 incidence. The case fatality ratio was 7.96 per cent in 1967. Most deaths occurred in non-immunized children who showed advanced laryngeal or pulmonary complications due to delay in seeking proper medical attention. As from August 1967 purified toxoid, aluminium phosphate precipitated, was replaced by combined diphtheria and tetanus vaccine for use in the continu- ing mass campaign.

Typhoid fever incidence showed a slight seasonal increase during August and September. The disease in Hong Kong is generally mild and is frequently associated with neglect in personal and

HEALTH

105

community hygiene. Free inoculation is offered and the usual control measures are enforced. Special attention is paid to the detection of carriers among food handlers.

Poliomyelitis, which had already shown a low incidence in 1966, showed a further decrease in 1967, and only five cases were reported during the year. This satisfactory position is mainly due to a combined vaccination programme consisting of giving one dose of Type I poliovaccine, soon after birth, followed by a full course of two doses of 'balanced' trivalent vaccine at three and five months of age. Approximately 77 per cent of new-born infants received one dose of Type I poliovaccine soon after birth and more than half of these children subsequently received two doses of the 'balanced' trivalent vaccine at maternal and child health centres. A further proportion was protected by these means in the course of annual Colony-wide campaigns.

Measles is usually most prevalent during the cooler months and outbreaks normally occur in alternate years. The 1966-7 epidemic reached its peak in the first three months of 1967, and then in- cidence of the disease began to decline. The high case fatality ratio among notified cases reflects the incompleteness of notification and, furthermore, a high percentage of the deaths was reported from public mortuaries, indicating that majority of the cases did not seek early medical attention; mortality was mainly due to bronchopneumonia encountered too late for treatment to be effective. Health education efforts are continuing to encourage parents to seek earlier medical advice. Follow-up study of measles vaccine trials was carried out during the year, and action is being taken to make the vaccine available to children of the susceptible

age group.

PORT HEALTH SERVICE

        The Port Health Service enforces the International Sanitary Regulations, as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance and Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases Regulations 1955. The service provides inoculation and vaccination facilities for international travellers, renders medical assistance to arrivals and transmits medical advice by radio to ships at sea. As part of the constant vigilance maintained to prevent

106

HEALTH

the introduction of quarantinable diseases, strict action was taken against those who attempted to enter Hong Kong from infected areas without a valid international certificate. A regular exchange of epidemiological information is maintained with the World Health Organization in Geneva, the Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila and neighbouring territories.

The Port Health Service is responsible for sanitary control of the airport and these areas were kept free from Aedes aegypti (yellow fever vector) throughout the year. There is regular supervision of the purity of water supplied by dock hydrants and water boats, and of the airport catering service. Ships are inspected to determine the extent of rat infestation and international de-ratting or de- ratting exemption certificates issued. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and returns of rats destroyed, and epidemiological examination for plague, are submitted monthly to the World Health Organization's International Quarantine Service.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

       There is increasing public understanding of the value of Hong Kong's maternal and child health facilities. Most babies are born either in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes and confinements at home, attended by government or private midwives, are less than two per cent of total deliveries. The Government Mid- wifery Service now has 29 district centres, one of which provides a domiciliary service. Maternity beds available for deliveries in government clinics and health centres total 446. There are 149 registered midwives practising privately in 89 maternity and nurs- ing homes. Registered maternity homes are inspected regularly by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff to ensure that con- ditions of registration are observed and that a sufficiently high standard is practised by registered midwives not working under the direct supervision of a doctor.

        The Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 30 centres, 17 of which are full-time. Clinics are held for infants and toddlers, and for children between two and five years old. Ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also provided. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinics are visited at

HEALTH

107

home, and health visitors also go to the homes of newborn babies whose names appear in monthly birth returns. Health education forms an important part of this work and includes practical demonstrations, talks, film shows and individual advice to mothers. Immunization against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and tuberculosis is offered at all centres.

SCHOOL HEALTH

The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance. Essentially, the scheme offers a service whereby participating school children receive medical treatment from private medical practi- tioners for the small sum of $7 a year. This per capita fee does not meet the cost of the service, and the government contributes an equal sum as well as the cost of administrative expenses. At the end of the year 58,935 students attending schools were enrolled in the service and 222 private medical practitioners were partici- pating.

The School Health Service, which has been in existence since 1927, continues as a government responsibility and is concerned with the sanitary condition of school premises, the control of communicable diseases and the health education of children, teachers and parents. In August 1966 the work of the School Health Service was taken over by the area health officers who, apart from their normal duties, act as medical officers of schools.

MENTAL HEALTH

      The Castle Peak Hospital for psychiatric patients, planned with a bed capacity of 1,002 beds, was required to accommodate an average of some 1,440 patients daily during most of the year. Significant relief to the congestion was provided by the addition of two ward blocks of 120 beds each, giving a total of 1,242 beds. Psychiatric cases from the whole Colony, mostly voluntary patients, are admitted to the hospital. Outpatient treatment is available on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and in the New Territories, and day patients are treated in the psychiatric day centre on Hong Kong Island. The newly-opened Yau Ma Tei psychiatric centre, occupying one-quarter of the clinical floors of

108

HEALTH

the Polyclinic, provides day-treatment services and also special facilities for the observation of disturbed children. A psychiatric observation unit is operated in the Victoria Remand Prison and there is one ward for very low-grade, mentally subnormal children in the Tung Wah Hospital. Other cases of mental subnormality are in the care of the Social Welfare Department where they receive occupational training.

Drug addicts who volunteer for treatment and rehabilitation are treated in a drug-free environment at a rehabilitation centre on Shek Kwu Chau Island. Their stay varies from four to six months. This institution is run by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts, a voluntary organization subsidized by the govern- ment, which is able to treat up to 250 addicts at a time. The society maintains an office in the urban area where addicts can apply voluntarily for admission to the centre. After a medical examination and socio-economic investigation, successful applicants are admitted for treatment and rehabilitation. Following their discharge, the society provides further assistance in their rehabilitation. A group of some 300 treated addicts are being followed up for as long as possible for research purposes.

HOSPITALS

The 14,255 hospital beds available in Hong Kong represent 3.7 beds per thousand of the population (see Appendix XXXII). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes, but not institutions maintained by the armed forces. Of these beds, 12,267 are in government hospitals and institutions and in government-assisted hospitals, while the remaining 1,988 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious disease, there are 10,984 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity; this gives a ratio of 2.86 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the hospitals, but in some cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used extensively whenever the need arises.

      Queen Elizabeth Hospital serves as the main emergency and specialist hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories and has 1,481 beds, with all necessary ancillary and specialist services. It

HEALTH

109

also contains the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Radiology, incorporating the most recent equipment for radio- therapy and is probably the most comprehensive centre in South- East Asia for the treatment of malignant diseases.

      The Kowloon Hospital is used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. There are 500 beds of which 162, linked with thoracic surgery and pulmonary function units, are allocated to the care of patients suffering from tuberculosis and other diseases of the chest. An additional block of 600 beds has been planned for which construction began in March 1967.

      On Hong Kong Island the government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary, which performs the same functions for the island as the Queen Elizabeth does for Kowloon. This hospital is also the teaching hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of Hong Kong. Extensive additions to the hospital were completed and became operational during the year. A phased programme of alterations, adding 454 beds and bringing the hospital's bed complement to a total of 1,086, commenced in July, 1967 and is expected to be completed in May, 1969.

      Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialized purposes. Apart from the Castle Peak Hospital, they include two infectious disease hospitals (one of which also accommodates convalescent patients from the two acute emergency hospitals), a maternity hospital of 238 beds, where the teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out, and a small hospital for the treatment of skin diseases in women and children. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also established in the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries.

      The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is a charitable organization founded 97 years ago and managed by a board of directors elected annually. It operates three general hospitals-the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah-with a total of 3,419 beds. These hospitals, whose recurrent expenditure is met mainly

110

HEALTH

by a large subvention from the government, provide a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernized and expanded. To meet the growing need for subsidiary beds for long-term patients, the Tung Wah has under- taken two major projects. The first is the phased construction of a large infirmary at Wong Tai Sin. Phase one, providing some 350 beds, was completed in September 1965, and the foundation stone for the rest of the project was laid in March 1967; on completion of all three phases some 700 beds will be available. The second project is the Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital opened in March 1967 and containing 323 beds; of these 262 are available for convalescent patients from nearby Queen Mary Hospital, while the remainder replace three old and unsatisfactory ward blocks.

       The Pok Oi Hospital, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, is another long-established charitable organization operating with the assistance of a government subvention. A new three-storey ward block, brought into operation at the end of 1966, provides improved and expanded facilities especially for maternity and paediatric patients. Further modernization plans are under con- sideration.

      A number of the general hospitals are maintained by missionary and other charitable organizations. Several receive substantial government subventions. Some of these hospitals have extensive plans for expansion which are well under way as in the case of the Caritas Medical Centre of 525 beds, the Maryknoll Hospital of 180 beds in Kowloon, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital of 350 beds and the Sandy Bay Children's Orthopaedic Hospital of 100 beds.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

       In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in anaesthet- ics; chest surgery; dentistry; ear, nose and throat diseases; eye diseases; general medicine; general surgery; neurosurgery; obstet- rics and gynaecology; orthopaedic surgery; psychiatry; pathology; radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy. There are also specialized clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, together with specialist serv- ices offered by the Government Chemist's laboratory and the

HEALTH

111

forensic pathology laboratory. The Government Institute of Pathol- ogy maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals maintain blood banks and the Hong Kong Red Cross Society operates a blood-collecting centre for voluntary blood donation; laboratory work for these blood banks is carried out by the Institute of Pathology. The Government Chemist is responsible for an analyti- cal laboratory which undertakes a wide range of investigations concerned with food, narcotics and medico-legal work, as well as a considerable amount of non-medical investigation.

OUTPATIENT CLINICS

To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services, provided mainly by the government, and also by subsidized organizations and private agencies, are developing steadily. Many charitable and missionary clinics provide treatment either free or at a nominal cost. Numerous organizations, particularly the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, continue to take an active interest in medical and health problems. A large number of outpatient clinics are supported by kaifong, district and clans- men's associations. Commercial concerns and trade unions also operate clinics for their members.

      The Jockey Club Polyclinic at Yau Ma Tei was opened in March 1967 and the government now maintains 43 clinics for general outpatients. Specialist facilities, available in the major centres in the urban areas, are provided in the New Territories by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dispensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, especially the isolated villages on the eastern and western coasts. Other inaccessible villages are visited by the flying doctor service.

Since the Medical Clinics Ordinance came into effect in January 1964, 475 private clinics have been granted registration, of which 397 were exempted from employing registered doctors. Under the Medical Clinics (Amendment) Ordinance in 1966, the power of the Registrar of Clinics to register clinics with exemption was extended for a further three years as from January 1, 1967 and all clinics, whether registered or registered with exemption, are required

112

HEALTH

to be re-registered annually. A Code of Practice was issued to all unregistered practitioners in charge of exempted clinics. It contains rules of conduct and defines the scope of their professional activities; contravention of this code provides sufficient reason either for refusal to grant exemption or for cancellation of re-registration of exempted clinics. The Ordinance also prohibits the re-registration with exemption of any mobile clinic after December 31, 1967 and arrangements have been made to replace them with properly equipped clinics in resettlement and low-cost housing authority estates. In allocating these premises registered doctors will be given priority.

DENTAL SERVICES

       The government dental service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 29 government dental clinics and one mobile unit, the latter supplementing static clinic facilities.

       Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. The rate of enrichment is one part of fluoride per million throughout the year. It is considered that this measure has already brought about a reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, and that this benefit will be more marked in the future.

       Many voluntary bodies and welfare organizations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Society and the St John Ambulance Brigade, maintain free, or low-cost, dental clinics and many dentists give their services free. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully-equipped mobile dental clinics.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

      Based upon three full-time outpatient centres, including one in the new Yau Ma Tei Polyclinic, equipped with operating, investiga- tion and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the New

A Wealth of Youth

One of Hong Kong's most striking features is its vitality. Much of this comes from its youth, which is only natural, for something more than half the population is under the age of 21. The wealth of young people inevitably brings its problems. But the government and welfare agencies are making great efforts to cater for this sector of the com- munity. There are plans for expansion of schooling, for health impro- vement and for general welfare and more facilities are being provided each year to enable youngsters to get their share of fun in life.

香港公

HON

C

LIBRAR

་! ་་ ༞༞

More and more playgrounds are being opened in Hong Kong each year. Above: This one at Shek Kip Mei, in Kowloon, covers one acre. Below: Baby minding at Aberdeen harbour. Left: Two eager-faced children on their way to school.

Above: Three boys and a ball, spells fun in any language. Below: This group were

among 500 children who took part in a tree planting outing in the New Territories during the year.

W

HEALTH

113

Territories. In 1953, 80 per cent of the blind population of the Colony had become blind before reaching the age of 10. With the application of modern drugs, special attention to the condition of avitaminosis and free treatment to those under 12 years, the position is now comparable with conditions in advanced countries with the onset of blindness occurring after the age of 50 in 80 per cent of

cases.

TRAINING

      The degrees of MB, BS, conferred by the University of Hong Kong, have been recognized for registration by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. The completion of the professorial suites at Queen Mary Hospital provides expanded facilities to cope with an annual intake of 120 medical students. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain, and is supervised by a panel for post-graduate medical education, consisting of university and government staff members. Due mainly to this programme, over three-quarters of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department are now held by locally-recruited staff. In November 1966, a primary examination for the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh was held in Hong Kong, and 14 candidates out of a total of 31 were successful. A primary examination for the Fellowship of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons was held in June 1967.

      Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry, but a government dental scholarship scheme each year enables a number of students from Hong Kong to study dentistry overseas and ultimately to qualify as dental surgeons.

      There are three government hospital schools of nursing. Those at the Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary Hospitals are general schools, while the one at the Castle Peak Hospital is a psychiatric nursing school. To make possible an increase in student nurse intake, the School of Nursing at Queen Mary Hospital has heen enlarged and was commissioned in January; facilities are now equal to those at Queen Elizabeth Hospital. Training at government schools is in English, but there are also approved schools at the Tung Wah Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital,

114

HEALTH

the Caritas Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hos- pital, where instruction is in Cantonese. Examinations are held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board and there is full reciprocity of registration between the Hong Kong Board and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales. Most female nurses, on completion of general nursing training, take a midwifery course of one year which qualifies them for entry to the examinations held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The course is conducted in English at government hospitals and in Cantonese at the other approved schools. For student midwives who are not registered nurses, a two-year course of training at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital (and to a limited extent at the other approved training schools) is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examina- tions. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is not at present possible.

Much post-graduate training for nurses is done overseas including training in thoracic and open heart surgery, neurological nursing, neuro-surgery and intensive care nursing. An Intensive Care Unit is to be part of the Queen Mary Hospital Extension Programme.

       A new grade of health auxiliary was created to supplement the health visitor's service. These health auxiliaries are undergoing training for two years in health education and in public health nursing, including maternal and child health work, the tracing and keeping of records of infectious diseases in general, and tuberculosis, leprosy and venereal disease in particular.

       The examination board in Hong Kong of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the diploma for public health inspectors, the diploma in tropical hygiene for public health inspectors and the certificate for health visitors and school nurses. Training for the diploma for public health inspectors and the diploma in tropical hygiene for public health inspectors is carried out within the Urban Services Department.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

       Responsibility for environmental health services in the urban area rests with the Urban Council, working through the Urban

HEALTH

115

Services Department. In the New Territories, the Director of Urban Services is responsible.

      More than 6,000 employees of the Urban Services Department are engaged in street cleansing and the removal of refuse and night- soil. Over 1,800 tons of refuse a day are collected. About 500 tons a day of refuse from Hong Kong Island is disposed of in the new oil-fired incinerator at Kennedy Town. The balance is transported by barge from Hong Kong Island and by lorry from the mainland for disposal by controlled tipping. A second incinerator is expected to come into use in 1968 in Lai Chi Kok, in Kowloon, with the aim of eliminating controlled tipping.

       Further experiments in the mechanization of cleansing services were undertaken, including a small power-suction vehicle for beat sweeping, and two electric trucks for carrying street refuse to collection points. Some 129 refuse collection vehicles were in use daily, supplemented by 26 tractors and 72 trailers; in addition, 29 street-washing vehicles were employed to clean roads, scavenging lanes, gutters, footpaths and hawker areas.

       The change in social and living conditions over the past six years has resulted in a switch from wood-burning stoves in houses, tene- ments and restaurants, to the use of kerosene, liquified petroleum gas and town gas. This in its turn has resulted in an accumulation of junk formerly burned as fuel. In consequence, three refuse collection vehicles, nine lorries and four tippers, working on a double-shift basis, were employed to remove a daily average of 114 lorry-loads of boxes, crates and other household junk for disposal at incineration points in Kowloon and Hong Kong.

      The conservancy services continue to diminish as pre-war property is demolished and replaced by modern buildings with waterborne sanitation. Nevertheless, 114 cubic yards of nightsoil were collected daily from 19,255 floors with dry latrines, and from 2,237 temporary latrine compartments on building sites, squatter and re-site areas. 36 vehicles and three tanker-barges were employed on this service.

      An important task of the Urban Services Department is the regular inspection of some 8,270 licensed premises such as restau- rants, fresh provision shops and food factories. All new applications for licences for food premises, laundries, offensive trades, commercial

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

116

HEALTH

     bathhouses, funeral parlours and swimming pools are dealt with by a Central Licensing Unit in order to eliminate delay. Urban Services Department staff work closely with the Medical and Health Department in the investigation and control of infectious diseases and food-poisoning. Hygiene inspection of domestic premises is carried out at intervals, depending on the type of premises. A special staff is engaged on the inspection and sampling of local and imported foods and certification of foods for export. Attention has been given to the processing of shrimps and prawns for export under Health Certification, resulting in the promulgation of a code of practice for the processing of cooked prawns and shrimps and the establishment of a system of registration of food factories considered to be suitable for processing for the export trade. The health staff are also responsible for investigating complaints from the public, for abating nuisances, and for preventing the breeding of flies and mosquitoes.

      A pest control section carries out measures for the control of rats, mice, cockroaches, ants, fleas, bed-bugs, biting midges and, in the New Territories, flies and mosquitoes. The responsibilities of this section also include work to prevent the breeding of malarial mosquitoes throughout all urban areas.

      The health education section continued to organize publicity campaigns on various health topics and to run food hygiene train- ing courses for food handlers. Over 500 food handlers from res- taurants, cooked food stalls and government canteens have been trained during the year. Cleanliness courses for caretakers in multi- storey buildings continued to be held.

      To disseminate health knowledge and promote health education among the younger generation, school health talks are given by staff of this section to all government primary schools in Hong Kong. School health quizzes and health education oratorical and song contests are held each year.

       The kaifong welfare associations and New Territories rural com- mittees continued to co-operate in publicity and in various health campaigns. 'Keep Your District Clean' campaigns were held in designated districts in the early part of the year under the combined auspices of kaifong associations and government departments.

HEALTH

117

       The supervision of hawkers, markets and slaughterhouses has an important bearing on public health and the Urban Services Depart- ment employs a large staff in these fields. There are 63 public retail markets where the housewife can buy fresh meat, fish, poultry and vegetables, but many of these markets are old and outmoded, making it difficult to maintain hygienic standards. The Urban Council's programme for reconstructing many of the older markets and for providing new ones in developing areas such as Kwun Tong and North Point has been accelerated, and much fresh thinking has gone into the planning of these projects. The Urban Services Department operates two public slaughterhouses which deal with. about two million animals a year. They will be replaced during 1968 by two modern abattoirs now under construction.

Street hawking provides a livelihood for perhaps 100,000 people in the built-up areas of Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Ter- ritories. The great majority of these hawkers sell vegetables and other foodstuffs in streets around markets and shops selling meat, fish and poultry. Although they satisfy a public demand, hawkers obstruct streets which are already congested, hamper public cleans- ing work and create a health problem. The policy of the Urban Council is to concentrate hawkers in off-street bazaars, where possible, or in minor streets, where they can carry on their business with the minimum of inconvenience to other sections of the com- munity. The enforcement of the regulations governing hawkers is carried out by the Hawker Control Force, established in 1960 to relieve the police of this responsibility. The force has an establish- ment of 442 officers and men, operating in 31 designated areas. This is below strength and in large areas, particularly in Kowloon, the police are still responsible for the control of hawkers.

       The disposal of the dead is the responsibility of the Urban Council in the urban areas and of the Urban Services Department in the New Territories.

Nine public cemeteries and two public crematoria are directly controlled by the department; 27 private cemeteries and one private crematorium are under its general supervision. Three funeral par- lours and 27 undertakers are licensed by the Urban Council to arrange funeral services and rites. In addition government provides

118

HEALTH

free of charge two farewell pavilions for the performance of last rites, and transport of coffins to certain public cemeteries for interment.

RESEARCH

       The main lines of non-university research continued to be carried out by the Hong Kong Government Institute of Pathology and covered the fields of pathology, virology and bacteriology. Liver disease, particularly recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and its effect on the intrahepatic bile ducts, is the subject of closer study. The collab- orative work on salivary gland tumours under the auspices of World Health Organization continues. The aetiology of viral respiratory infections in children is now being worked out in the co-operative study with World Health Organization. Serological assessment of attenuated live measles vaccine, given in children in 1966, revealed good response and the antibody levels were being followed-up in 1967. In the field of tuberculosis the controlled trial, conducted jointly by the Government Chest Service and the Medical Research Council to assess the efficacy of thiacetazone in the treatment of tuberculosis, is nearing completion. Preliminary trials on the new slide culture technique for early determination of sensitivity of tubercle bacilli to various drugs have been successful. This sensitivity test is now used in the collaborative study of policies of chemotherapy in Hong Kong. Research on cholera is directed on antigenicity of locally isolated strains of non-agglutinable vibrios and study of V. cholerae mutants.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Now, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, usually renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from July 1, 1898 and so terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

      Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the respon- sibility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon foot-hills called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories are generally located, apart from a small number elsewhere, in the built-up area of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them are recorded in the Registrar General's Department. The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

       The government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction; all land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing, for non-profit-making schools, up to the full market value for public utilities, payable by instalments.

120

LAND AND HOUSING

       To ensure that scarce land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee under- takes to develop up to a certain rateable value within a specified period. The amount he must spend depends on the location and the type of development allowed. In addition to the covenant, new leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put to accord with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent.

       The relaxation of time limits on building developments, announc- ed in November 1965, was continued in the year under review. This concession applied to developers owning land which was either the subject of an exclusion order (see the section of this chapter on Rent Control) made before July 1, 1965, or held from the government under conditions of sale or grant executed before July 1, 1965, and on which development had not begun or had not been completed. These developers became eligible to apply for extensions of up to three years-free of penalty or premium-of the time limit by which they were bound to begin or complete their approved development scheme, or to fulfil their building

covenant.

      The arrangement whereby purchasers of industrial land in special development areas are eligible to pay the premium by instalments over a period of up to 20 years, was extended during the year to cover industrial sites to be sold at Sam Ka Tsuen, a new industrial area being developed beyond Kwun Tong.

       In order to assist owners of industrial lots where the premium is payable by instalments, a concession was introduced during the year to permit, subject to certain conditions, the sub-letting of parts of the building without having to pay the outstanding balance of premium. Previously the balance of premium outstanding became payable in the event of any sub-letting.

Sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land in accordance with the terms of the lease gets the right to do so and that the community receives the maximum return in cash. As the rent reserved in the lease is low, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable the government to obtain direct financial gain from any increase in the value of the

LAND AND HOUSING

121

      land after it has been sold. For this reason the large increase in land values in recent years has resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since most of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long leases.

       Earlier this century leases of lots lying in the better residential districts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon often included restric- tions on the type and height of buildings. These restrictions have served their purpose well, but the demands of an increasing popu- lation now require more intensive development. It has now become the practice for these conditions to be modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which preserve the amenities of each district while allowing more intensive development. Modifica- tions of this sort are subject to the payment of a premium.

In recent years groups of 75-year non-renewable Crown leases granted in the Colony's early days, chiefly in Kowloon, have been expiring. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases. Premiums for the new leases may, subject to certain conditions, be paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over an agreed number of years, which is the method preferred by most lessees. Terms announced in 1960 pro- vide for a maximum of 21 annual instalments and interest of 10

per cent.

During the year a concession was introduced whereby, in cases where a building in multiple ownership existed on the lot at the date of application for re-grant, payment by instalments could continue even if further sales of undivided shares took place. Before the introduction of this concession the premium had to be paid by lump sum if sales had taken place within five years of date of application; similarly where the premium was payable by instal- ments, the outstanding balance of premium had to be paid up on any sale taking place after re-grant.

On re-grant, the boundaries of these lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines, etc, and, where land is needed for major replanning schemes, the leases will not be re-granted. In these cases the government has announced its intention to pay ex-gratia compensation for buildings. For churches and temples already on non-renewable leases, which were originally granted free of premium, new leases may also be granted free of premium.

122

LAND AND HOUSING

It was also decided during the year that for churches or temples on unrestricted non-renewable leases, which had been sold at a full-value premium, new leases may be granted at a premium payable by instalments and amounting to two-thirds of the full market value of the lot at the date of expiry of the lease.

An increasing number of 75-year renewable leases are falling due for renewal. In these cases, under terms announced in 1963, the Crown lessee of an underdeveloped lot has two alternatives. He may renew either at a Crown rent based on the full rental value of the land, without added lease covenants or, at a lower Crown rent if he is prepared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal. During the year it was decided that 75-year renewable leases of lots registered in the New Territories District Land Offices should be renewed at the expiration of the first term in 1973, without change in Crown rent and that appropriate legislation would be introduced for this purpose. Other New Territories leases recorded in the Registrar General's Department would be renewed at a re-assessed rent on the same terms as urban lots. A further concession, applicable to all these lots which are subject to re-assessment of Crown rent, permitted owners intending to develop, and whose leases had less than 20 years to run, to surrender their existing leases and be granted new ones at a premium payable either by lump sum or by three annual instalments. Alternatively, an owner who waited until the year of expiry of the first term of his lease, might then pay either an annual re-assessed Crown rent or a lump sum premium in lieu.

With the increasing need to seek sites for major schemes in the New Territories, outline development plans have been prepared, or are under preparation, for building new towns and expanding existing market towns in areas best suited to industry and high- density housing. These are Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Castle Peak, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po, Shek Wu Hui, and Junk Bay. However, most of these development areas contain a high propor- tion of leased agricultural land and there is not enough Crown land to serve public purposes. As development proceeds, Crown lessees are invited to surrender agricultural and village or rural building land in exchange for a re-grant of building land with

LAND AND HOUSING

123

boundaries conforming to the development layout. Within layout areas these exchanges are normally negotiated on a foot-for-foot basis for building land surrendered, and a five-feet-for-two-feet basis for the agricultural land surrendered, with a premium payable equal to the difference in value between the land surrendered and that re-granted. This system has proved acceptable to landowners and has been eased by the issue of letters entitling any landowner, who voluntarily surrenders land at the time when it is required for a public purpose, to a future grant of land when this becomes available. The current depression in the real estate market and general tightness of credit have, however, placed some strain on the system, but it is hoped the position will improve when demand for building land catches up with supply and investors regain confidence.

LAND SALES

The property market was very quiet during the year and, although there were a number of sales of industrial land, there was no re- introduction of a pre-announced programme of land sales. Details of land available for sale were exhibited; any of this could be offered for sale by auction on application. The state of the property market also had its effect on applications for the grant of modi- fications of leases and the re-grant of expiring 75-year non-renew- able leases. As a result, there was a smaller volume of cases to be dealt with.

      Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon, during the financial year 1966-7, totalled approx- imately $44,581,000, made up as follows: about $26,053,000 from 21 sales by auction and tender; $4,748,000 from private treaty sales; $8,440,000 from modifications of lease conditions, extensions, and exchanges; and $9,213,000 from re-grants of expired 75-year leases. Revenue from land transactions in the New Territories during the same period was $6,042,000. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available, or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant, but may be occupied, either on temporary annual permit or on short-term tenancy. The 1966-7 revenue from this type of tenure was approx- imately $6,806,000 in the urban area and $1,186,700 in the New

124

LAND AND HOUSING

Territories (the last figure includes modification of tenancy fees). As permanent development continues, permits are cancelled and the number decreases year by year. Revenue derived in rent from government-owned buildings totalled $4,432,000.

SURVEYS

Land survey in the Colony serves two main roles: the delineation of town planning layouts, boundaries of private lots and govern- ment sites and the production of plans and maps.

The reduction in land transactions over the past year has resulted in a reduced demand for cadastral work so that concentration has been on mapping. By the end of 1967 Hong Kong was well on the way to becoming one of the best-mapped areas in the Far East.

      Production of the large-scale plans from the low-level air pho- tography of 1963 is about 60 per cent complete. Virtually all the urban areas, including the whole of Hong Kong Island, are now covered by about 600 plans at the large scale of 50 feet to an inch, with contours at five feet vertical interval. In the New Territories some 460 plans, at a scale of 100 feet to one inch (with contours at 10 feet vertical interval), are now complete out of the total of about 1,100 plans which will cover the whole of the area. Most of this extensive mapping programme has been undertaken by the air survey contractors, Hunting Surveys Limited in England, in conjunction with the Crown Lands & Survey Office.

      From the large scale plans, other series are produced by photo- graphic reduction and re-drawing at 1/2400 scale (200 feet to one inch) for the urban areas and at 1/4800 scale (400 feet to one inch) for the New Territories.

A new series of topographic maps of the Colony at a scale of 1/10,000 (about six inches to a mile) is being plotted in the United Kingdom by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys from high level photography commissioned by the Hong Kong Government. These maps, printed in five colours, should fill a long felt need for tourists and walkers. The first sheets should be on sale to the public early in 1968.

      As the sheets are complete they will be reduced photographically to compile a new series at 1/25,000 scale (about 24 inches to a mile)

LAND AND HOUSING

125

which will replace the obsolete military maps, currently the only available topographic maps of the Colony. The first sheets should be on sale before the end of 1968.

      A new detailed geological map of the Colony is now being prepared by two experts seconded from the Institute of Geological Sciences in Britain. Their field investigations are expected to be completed in 1968 and the map should be published a year or so later.

TOWN PLANNING

      The basic aim of town planning in Hong Kong is to provide a framework within which public and private development may progress together; to ensure that adequate provision is made for industry and housing, for open spaces, public buildings, communi- cations and social services; and to control the use and stimulate the development of land. This planning has particular bearing on the development of new industrial townships, the redevelopment of out-of-date urban localities and the gradual expansion of the urban areas.

Since 1953 plans have been prepared for the 37 planning areas comprising the main urbanized part of the Colony and for 11 towns of various sizes in the New Territories. They are of two types: statutory plans, prepared under the Town Planning Ordin- ance; and outline development and detailed layout plans which have no statutory effect, but are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the redevelopment of private land.

      The Town Planning Board, constituted under the Town Planning Ordinance, consists of seven official and three unofficial members. The plans of areas where planning schemes are likely to affect private land or interests are prepared under the board's direction and published for public objection or comment for a period of two months.

Statutory plans for 17 planning areas have been approved to date, four are under preparation and a further four are under amendment, having been referred back to the Board. Recent statutory plans of particular public interest are those for the new towns at Castle Peak and Sha Tin, in the New Territories, and

126

LAND AND HOUSING

plans for the improvement of the older congested areas of Tsim Sha Tsui in Kowloon and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island.

      Work is now well advanced on the preparation of the Colony Outline Plan. When complete it will provide a basis for land development programmes and a more balanced approach to the preparation and review of statutory, outline development and detailed layout plans.

PRIVATE BUILDING

      The value of buildings completed this year was $576,700,000 which, when compared with the all-time-high figure for 1966 of $1,058 million, shows a considerable drop. Nevertheless, the sum represents an investment of considerable significance and is about three times the amount spent by the government on buildings of all types. Judging by the number of new building projects which have been started in the last 12 months, it seems inevitable that next year's figure will be much lower, and that it is likely to remain at this lower figure for two or three years. This opinion is supported by the significant drop in the number of new building schemes submitted for approval in the year under review: There were only 213. This drop remains significant, although the number of plans approved in previous years may have been inflated due to a number of special circumstances. For example, in 1962 and 63, the period before the 1962 Building (Planning) Regulations became fully effective, 2,147 and 1,983 plans were approved respectively. In 1964 the total dropped to 890; in 1965 (the period of the bank crisis) to 750; and then in 1966 to 338.

The revised edition of the Laws of Hong Kong became effective on February 1, 1967, and led to the later reprint of a completely up-to-date Buildings Ordinance.

      The new control and enforcement section of the Buildings Ordinance Office had a busy year. The section was set up in 1966 to investigate the extent of illegal alterations which might endanger the life or health of occupants of buildings. During 1967 the section investigated a total of 1,159 reports of illegal works from public and private sources. It served 1,036 statutory notices, requiring remedial works, and achieved compliance in 471 instances.

LAND AND HOUSING

127

       The dangerous buildings division of the Buildings Ordinance Office continued to deal with buildings which, due to general dilapidation through age and neglect, presented unacceptable risks of collapse. Low standards of original construction, often make the surveyor's task an unenviable calculation of probabilities, complicated by the social distress inherent in dispossessing large numbers of, usually poor, people. The strenuous and practical steps taken by the government to care for these unfortunate members of the community are dealt with elsewhere in this chapter.

       During the year under review the Building Authority declared 233 buildings dangerous, obtained Closure Orders and ordered the demolition of the buildings. In 18 cases the authority arranged contracts and supervised demolition work in default of compliance by the owners with the statutory orders to demolish. As a result of these operations to remove grave risks to the safety of occupants a total of 10,731 persons were evicted from their homes and places of business.

RESETTLEMENT

Hong Kong's resettlement estates have attracted worldwide attention. Hundreds of thousands of people are being provided with homes by a low-cost housing programme which, for speed and size, has few, if any, parallels. By the end of 1967 the Hong Kong Government had become, through this programme, the landlord of about 1,016,000 people or over a quarter of the population. A ceremony to mark the millionth settler was held in October, and present building plans aim at accommodating about 1.6 million by 1972. The programme is reviewed annually by the Housing Board to ensure that the needs of resettlement are balanced with those of other types of housing.

The government has accepted as a working basis the board's recommendations in its report for 1966-7. These, in brief, are that the balance between the resettlement and government low-cost building programmes should be adjusted to allow 650,000 individual units of resettlement accommodation and 350,000 units of govern- ment low-cost housing to be built between April 1, 1966 and March 31, 1972, and that a new type of resettlement block should be

128

LAND AND HOUSING

designed to increase the space standard on first allocation, in all but the larger rooms, from a minimum of 24 square feet, to 35 square feet for an occupant over the age of ten.

      When the Resettlement Department was formed in 1954, the earliest type of multi-storey accommodation built was in the form of 'H' shaped blocks with communal washing and latrine facilities on each of the seven floors. Back-to-back individual rooms, acces- sible by communal balconies surrounding each floor, varied in size from 86 square feet to 152 square feet, with the majority 120 square feet and designed to house a family of four or five adults. Twenty-four square feet for an adult was taken as the minimum requirement for health. With minor modifications, and with an improved external appearance, 240 of these blocks (known as Marks I and II) had been built before the design was superseded in 1964.

       To ensure that economical use was made of the available space, rooms were allocated according to the size of the family rather than the rent they could afford. Rents were fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimbursement of the capital cost of the building over 40 years (at 3 per cent per annum compound interest) plus an element for management, land and water costs. The rent of a standard 120 square feet room was fixed at $14 a month. Electricity, if it was installed at a tenant's request, was at his own expense; communal lighting was installed by the govern- ment. Largely because of the increased cost of maintenance, administration and water, rents for all Mark I and II rooms were raised (for the first time) in 1965. The all-inclusive rent of a standard room went up from $14 a month to $18.

Not all resettlement accommodation is of the same uniform standard. Some families in squatter areas live in structures of a much higher standard than the average. To provide these people with better accommodation, self-contained flats with private balconies, kitchens, lavatories and showers were constructed in a number of Mark I and II blocks. The rent is naturally higher. In urban estates, for example, the occupants pay a total monthly rental- including rates of $51.50 for such a flat of 240 square feet, or $74.75 for one of 360 square feet. Mark II H-blocks were modified to provide larger rooms on the ends of each floor with private

LAND AND HOUSING

129

balconies and their own water supply. These rooms in urban estates are let at a total monthly rental-including rates-of $56.50 to families who have been cleared from better-than-average structures.

In 1964 the original H-block was abandoned in favour of a new design. The new blocks were first of eight storeys (Mark III), and then of 16. The first versions of the 16-storey design were known as Mark IV, and during the year these began to be superseded by a development known as Mark V-essentially similar to the earlier design, but with room sizes more closely related to family sizes. The new design differs fundamentally from the older ones in that access is from a central corridor on each floor instead of from external common balconies. This makes it possible to give each room a private balcony. Other innovations include refuse chutes, the installation of electrical power and light points in domestic rooms, private lavatories, in place of the former communal latrines and wash-houses, and, in Mark V and the later Mark IV blocks, a private water-tap. The 16-storey blocks have lifts serving the upper 10 floors. These blocks cost more to build but they represent a considerable advance as they provide better facilities and ventilation, more privacy and more open space between the buildings. The monthly rent of a standard domestic room of 129 square feet in an urban Mark III block is $31.50, composed of $23 basic rent with elements for rating and water charges; a room of the same size in a Mark IV block costs $35. By the end of 1967, three Mark III and 38 Mark IV or Mark V blocks had been built, bringing the total number administered by the Resettlement Department to 449, housing 943,942 people. One new estate started to come into occupation during the year.

      Despite the large population and the wide variety of rents now charged, the number of tenants failing to pay is still extremely small. Of a total of $59.5 million due in rents for the year, only about .075 per cent had to be written off as irrecoverable arrears.

The resettlement estates are virtually townships (the population of Tsz Wan Shan estate, for instance, is around 116,600) and a wide range of community facilities must be provided. Ground floor rooms are let as shops or workshops to settlers who operated similar businesses in clearance areas. Shops sizes vary. Those of

130

LAND AND HOUSING

240 square feet in the Mark I and II estates are divided into four grades and are available at $200, $150, $115 or $80-a-month rent, according to locality. In the Mark III and IV estates the sizes vary again and, as with domestic rooms, rents are higher. A shop of 258 square feet in a Mark IV estate, for instance, attracts a rent ranging from $268 a month to $109.50, depending on locality. Rents include rates and the gradings are subject to annual review. Some shop spaces are used by government departments and private welfare organizations as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops in Mark I and II blocks are put to use. Most of them have been allocated to voluntary agencies who operate schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. In some of the Mark III blocks the top floors, suitably modified, are used for schools, while in estates incorporating Mark IV and V buildings, separate six-storey build- ings (each with 24 classrooms) are provided for school accommo- dation. Some estates have community centres and, in the latest ones, the tendency is to concentrate ancillary services into separate buildings for welfare services, restaurants and administration.

Provision is also made for the small factories which are often found operating in squatter areas. To enable people resettled from these factories to continue earning a livelihood, multi-storey reset- tlement factory blocks have been built. With the passage of time it has also become necessary to recover, for more intensive develop- ment, land formerly occupied by factories on annual permits. These undertakings are generally more substantial than 'squatter' factories and workshops; but when their permits are cancelled the owners often have difficulty in finding alternative accommodation. It has been the practice for some years to offer resettlement to the operators of such concerns to enable the land which they occupy to be developed. Because of the need to use a simple design in order to keep construction costs, and therefore rents, as low as possible, a number of trades cannot be accommodated in the multi- storey factory blocks and consequently some factories can be resettled only if the owners are willing to change their trades.

The first factory blocks, dating from 1957, are five storeys high and provide industrial working space in units of 198 square feet. A later version has units of 256 square feet, an arrangement repeated

LAND AND HOUSING

131

in the latest blocks of seven storeys. At the end of the year there were 22 resettlement flatted factories, containing a total of 1,860,000 square feet of net working space, mostly situated, in or near existing resettlement estates. Rents are calculated to cover administration costs and a return on capital, including an element for the value of the land, within 21 years at five per cent per annum compound interest. These rents, per square foot, vary from 38 cents a month, for a ground floor unit, to 23 cents for one on the top floor in the older factories, and from 55 cents, on the ground floor, to 25 cents on the top floor in the new factories. All rents are inclusive of rates. In administering these factory tenancies, the Resettlement Department checks machinery and electrical and floor loading. There is liaison with the Labour and Fire Services Department to secure satisfactory working conditions and safety from fire and other hazards. The programme of installing additional electrical rising mains and individual circuit-breakers to factories, in order to catch up with increasing demands for electrical power, continued during the year.

      There still remain 15 cottage resettlement areas in various parts of the urban area and the New Territories, where a new one was completed during the year. The number of occupants in these areas tends to dwindle as clearance for development goes on and they are resettled in multi-storey accommodation. However, cottage areas still house 72,486 people. Several of these areas contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types, which are largely established by voluntary agencies who generously continue to maintain these facilities.

SQUATTER CONTROL AND CLEARANCE

During the year 48,473 people were cleared and resettled and 68 acres of land were freed for development. These operations also entailed the clearance of 622 shops and workshops, of which 230 were resettled and 402 were found to be ineligible for resettle- ment due to their limited size or, in the case of shops, because the premises were not in operation during a special shop survey carried out in 1965. In addition, 178 factories had to be cleared. Of these, 47 were resettled into multi-storey factory blocks, while 63 were not eligible for resettlement and 43 rejected resettlement. A further

132

LAND AND HOUSING

25 factories will be resettled provided they change their trade to one suitable for operation in resettlement factories.

       People who opened up Crown land for cultivation without legal tenure before October 1954 are given ex-gratia cash compensation when this land is cleared for development. During the year $133,442 was paid to cultivators against the clearance of 3.97 acres. Large- scale pig breeders on Crown land are also compensated when they are cleared, and such people were paid $11,000 during the year.

       New squatting, including extensions to existing 'tolerated' illegal structures, is prevented as far as possible. Periodical surveys are made, and all structures then surveyed are tolerated until their clearance is required for development; any erected subsequently are demolished as soon as they are discovered. The squatter popula- tion is gradually decreasing as clearances take effect and the lan- guishing pace of redevelopment of old private property results in a decline in new squatting. The number of squatters (as distinct from people in resite or licensed areas) had dropped from 463,000 at April 1, 1965 to 429,000 two years later, and by the end of 1967 the figure stood at 405,000. During the year, there were 12,988 demolitions of illegal, untolerated structures or illegal extensions to tolerated ones. A total of 23,338 people were allocated sites in licensed areas to build huts pending resettlement to estates. These licensed areas are similar to the former resite areas but a small fee is charged for a site. Entrants to licensed areas include, among others, boat squatters from typhoon anchorages; people not eligible for resettlement, left behind after squatter clearance and resettlement operations; squatters from demolished new huts; victims of natural disasters and fires; street sleepers; overspills from congested squatter huts; people affected by tenement redevelopment, and people from dangerous tenements either not eligible, or not opting for, the rent advance scheme (see below). At the same time, 54,079 inhabitants of the old resite areas (which are being run down) were resettled into estates.

The number of tenants evicted from dangerous pre-war buildings was one of the factors taken into account in a re-examination of resettlement policy in 1964. While the law already provided for compensation to be paid by landlords, tenants were not eligible for resettlement. The Review of Policies for Squatter Control,

LAND AND HOUSING

133

Resettlement and Low-Cost Housing, published as a white paper in 1964, and later adopted by the Legislative Council as a guide to future policy, put the former tenants of dangerous pre-war buildings at the head of a priority list for resettlement. To avail themselves of this priority they pay a lump sum as an advance on their resettle- ment rent. This is returned to them in the form of a reduced rent over the first 125 months of their tenancy. In all 4,298 people were resettled under this scheme in 1967.

The revised resettlement policy also gives priority for accom- modation to compassionate cases and certain victims of natural disasters; to the occupants of cottage or resite areas which have to be cleared; to squatters living in tolerated huts in areas needed for redevelopment; to tenants of overcrowded rooms in existing resettlement estates and to pavement dwellers. There are also arrangements for those who do not have any priority for accom- modation (including the genuinely homeless) to erect huts in licensed areas. A total of 2,795 victims of natural disasters and compas- sionate cases were resettled in 1967, together with 1,222 from cottage areas and 1,224 pavement or rear-lane dwellers. Some 17,427 people living in over-crowded rooms in existing resettle- ment estates were also moved to new rooms.

The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettlement Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non- prohibited areas. In prohibited areas, such as the margins of roads, development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with permission from the District Office. This year saw the completion of a new resettlement estate at Yuen Long, the first to be constructed outside Tsuen Wan district.

HOUSING

At the end of 1967, domestic accommodation in the urban areas (excluding resettlement estates) comprised 182,000 tenement floors, 50,000 small flats, 22,000 large flats, 1,050 houses and 59,500 low-cost housing units. The real estate market for this type

134

LAND AND HOUSING

of property continued to be depressed when compared with the high rate of building that went on before 1965. In January 1967, there were 16,389 unoccupied domestic premises of all types com- pared with 18,519 in March, 1966, but newly-built premises are being occupied more quickly than in the preceding two years. The slackening of interest in flat purchase has resulted in more flats being available for rent instead of for sale, and special inducements are being offered to attract tenants. There has also been a continued interest shown in the building of smaller and cheaper flats.

       To facilitate home ownership the Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited was set up in 1964 by the government in conjunc- tion with the Commonwealth Development Corporation and four of the leading banks in the Colony. The agency's object is to make mortgage finance available at reasonable rates on a long-term basis to prospective owner-occupiers of new flats in the middle-income group. Applications are considered from people with total incomes in the range of $700 to $2,500 per month and loans are granted up to a maximum of $50,000. At the end of the year 50 blocks con- taining 3,000 flats were approved by the agency for loan purposes. In 1967, 804 applications were approved for a total of $19 million, compared with 523 approvals for $15.2 million in 1966.

      The Hong Kong Housing Authority, a statutory body created in 1954, provides accommodation for people in need of low-cost housing. The authority consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio and certain other members appointed by the Governor. It plans, constructs and manages its own estates, which are designed for those with family incomes ranging from $400- $900 a month. The authority had housed 137,973 people in 22,950 flats in seven completed estates by the end of the year. Two new large estates are under construction, one at Wah Fu, near Pok Fu Lam on Hong Kong Island, covers more than 24 acres, and is the largest project so far undertaken. It will accommodate 53,740 people in 7,788 flats at a cost of $89.8 million. The estate includes four schools, kindergartens, a town centre with 16 shops and a market, medical and dental clinics, a post office, a public library, party rooms and other amenities. The first phase of the scheme was almost ready for occupation at the end of the year and the whole estate is due to be completed in 1970.

LAND AND HOUSING

135

      The new estate at Ping Shek, in Kowloon, was originally designed to have five 50-storey tower blocks each containing 768 flats. This plan was abandoned in favour of a more conventional design for 28 storey blocks, with two low blocks. It retains the original layout which gives more open space than has been possible in other estates. It will house about 29,000 people in 4,570 flats.

The authority's schemes will provide housing for a total of 218,381 people in 34,891 flats at a capital cost of $335 million. Of this $260 million will be provided by government loans and $75 million through self-financing. By the end of 1967 the authority had spent $247 million and its rent roll had reached $27 million. Sites for estates are provided by the government at one-third the estimated market value. Rents are calculated on the basis of es- timated working expenses and amortization of capital expenditure on buildings and land over 40 years at 5 per cent per annum com- pound interest. They range from $48 a month for a four-person flat to $139 for a 14-person flat. Tenants are selected on the basis of housing need.

      In 1962 the authority undertook to manage all properties built under the government low-cost housing programme, which is de- signed to provide accommodation for people who earn less than $500 a month and who are living in insanitary or overcrowded conditions. As with the authority's other projects, these estates consist of multi-storey blocks of flats each containing a living-room, private balcony, cooking place and a water point. Rents range from $35 a month for a four-person room to $80 for a 10-person room.

      At the end of the year seven low-cost housing estates, providing accommodation for 83,197 people in 16,808 flats, were fully com- pleted or nearing completion. Work on two other estates had started. The original intention was to house 20,000 people a year, but in October 1967 this policy was revised. The government accepted a recommendation of the Housing Board that the low- cost housing programme should allow for 350,000 individual units (each unit representing 35 square feet of living space for an adult) to be built in the six-year period from April 1, 1966 to March 31, 1972. This programme, which is dependent on the availability of finance and of suitable sites, is subject to annual review by the Housing Board.

136

LAND AND HOUSING

Maintenance and management of the authority's estates and of the government low-cost housing estates is of a high standard, and includes rent collection and supervision by trained housing managers, maintenance officers and assistants. The staff of the authority are all government servants working in the housing division of the Urban Services Department under the direction of the Commis- sioner for Housing. The authority reimburses all staff salaries to the government, plus a percentage surcharge calculated to meet indirect staff costs such as pensions, housing and medical treatment.

       A number of voluntary organizations have built housing for lower and middle income groups during recent years. The largest of these is the Hong Kong Housing Society, a pioneer in the field of low-cost housing in the Colony. The society has now housed 101,673 people in 16,264 flats on 12 estates. The rents of these flats are $39 a month for a small room with communal facilities, and a maximum of $170 a month for a larger room with adjoining kitchen, toilet and balcony. The estates are well laid out with playgrounds and gardens and are managed by trained and qualified staff. During the year 1,731 flats were completed at Kwun Tong and at a new estate at Kennedy Town. Funds for the society's schemes have been provided by the government at low interest rates and by self-financing. The society also oper- ates a loan scheme under which the government and business firms lend money to cover the cost of constructing flats and in return have been given a lease of accommodation for nominated employees. These loans are interest-free and are repayable over 20

years.

       Other voluntary organizations have made contributions. The Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation has recently completed an extension of their estate at Tai Hang Sai, of 305 flats for 1,789 people and a further extension is in the planning stage. This estate now houses 7,971 people in 1,337 flats.

A number of employers also provide flats or dormitory-type accommodation for their staff, and some provide housing loans. Since 1950 land has been made available by the government at one-third of its estimated value to encourage non-profit-making housing projects for workers.

New Homes for Old Boats

For hundreds of years Staunton Creek, near Aberdeen, on the south side of Hong Kong Island, has been a haven for thousands of boat dwellers who have lived in the ancient hulks of their beached craft. Now progress has touched this congested area. The creek is being filled in and the boat dwellers are going ashore-to be re-housed in modern multi-storey resettlement flats, nearby. An ambitious government scheme will turn the area into a town with an eventual population of 200,000. Aberdeen will retain its fishing fleet and tourists will still be able to visit the floating restaurants by the creek will be

Zz levelled into land for light industry.

HONG

G PUBLIC LIBRARIES

I

N

Above: Staunton Creek in its heyday, packed with old boats. Below: Part of the creek after resettlement had begun. Left: A rickety plank walk linked many boat 'homes'. Overleaf: The huge modern estate where boat dwellers are re-housed.

----

་་་་

Left: A sampan girl at work in Aberdeen harbour. Above: The little girl in red at the table is the millionth person to be resettled in Hong Kong. Like the family in the picture below, she moved from Staunton Creek to the new block of flats at Shek Pai Wan. Overleaf: Makeshift shops at Staunton Creek before clearance.

五方五

XX

LAND AND HOUSING

137

       The government helps its junior local staff by reserving for them 15 per cent of all domestic accommodation in government low- cost housing estates. Rents and other conditions of tenancy are the same as those for other members of the public. In 1952 a scheme was started to encourage local civil servants, on the pensionable establishment, to form co-operative building societies through which they could receive loans from the government to buy land and build flats. Under this scheme 216 societies with 4,417 members have received loans. Of these, 202 societies with 3,981 members have completed their buildings. A new scheme has been introduced by which the development of sites and the construction of multi- storey blocks of flats is being carried out by the government itself. This ensures the most economical and practical use of funds. Two sites are at present under development. Ten per cent of the funds for the revised scheme will be reserved for building co- operatives organized on existing lines by groups of senior officers. The government also provides accommodation for its overseas staff and for many of its local staff, including police and fire service officers, nurses and resident staff on government installations.

The Housing Board, an advisory body appointed in 1965, sub- mitted its second and third reports to government in 1967. The board, under the chairmanship of an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, has a membership of four other unofficial members with housing or sociological experience and six official members concerned with housing matters. The board, which has a three-year term of office, is required to keep under review, and to report annually, progress in all types of housing construction; to assess present and future housing needs, not excluding ancillary so- cial and employment facilities and the balance between types of hous- ing; and to advise on co-ordination in executing housing policies.

In 1966 a Working Party reported to the Legislative Council on the problems involved in slum clearance in the urban areas of the Colony. In October 1967 the government decided to draft legislation and to proceed with a planning and engineering feasibility study of a possible pilot scheme.

RENT CONTROL

Rent control, instituted by proclamation immediately after the war, was embodied in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance enacted

138

LAND AND HOUSING

in 1947. This restricted rent by reference to pre-war figures and at the same time freed new and substantially reconstructed buildings from control. The broad distinction between controlled and un- controlled premises lies in whether they are pre-war or post-war buildings. By virtue of a series of amendments in legislation, the permitted increases over the standard rent by 1954 reached 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises. Redevelopment of pre-war buildings is covered by an important provision in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance whereby premises may be excluded from its application by order of the Governor in Council upon the recommendation of a tenancy tribunal. Tribunals follow the criterion of public interest and award compensation to tenants in consideration of the hardship which dispossession will cause them. The rate of compensation must be viewed in relation to the enhanced value of the land which can then be redeveloped. A total of 885 exclusion orders were made in 1964, 200 in 1965, 25 in 1966, and 17 in 1967. This downward trend reflects the falling off in the rate of development in the past three years.

       Since 1953 two tenancy enquiry bureaux, one on either side of the harbour, have operated within the framework of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to help the machinery of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance work smoothly. The principal statutory duty of the bureaux is to provide tenancy tribunals with factual informa- tion whenever a landlord applies for exclusion from control or a tenant seeks reduction of rent. The bureaux also give advice and assistance to the public in tenancy matters, particularly in the interpretation and application of ordinances. Since November, 1964, the bureaux have been responsible for paying interest-free advances to tenants whose pre-war premises are declared dangerous and closed by the Building Authority. The scheme helps these tenants to overcome financial difficulties, arising out of eviction at short notice, prior to the award by a tenancy tribunal of com- pensation due from their landlords under the provisions of the Demolished Buildings (Redevelopment of Sites) Ordinance.

      Loans for this purpose totalled $2,127,800 in 1965, $1,933,226 in 1966 and $841,360 in 1967.

The Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance enacted in 1952 gave three-year security of tenure to tenants of post-war buildings

LAND AND HOUSING

139

who paid lump sum premiums on their first occupancy. In 1963 this security was extended to five years for new tenancies commenc- ing after July 1, 1963. General increases in rent of post-war buildings resulted in the enactment in 1962 of the Tenancy (Notice of Ter- mination) Ordinance which extended the period required for ter- mination of tenancies to six months' written notice. Domestic tenancies were given further security of tenure for two years follow- ing the enactment of the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance in 1963, when new domestic accommodation was scarce and rents were increasing. During the ensuing three years the supply of new premises increased considerably, and the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance having achieved its purpose, expired on June 30, 1966. However, where a rent was increased when the ordinance was in effect, a tenant was given two years' security of tenure. This provision applies notwithstand- ing the expiry of the ordinance, with the result that certain tenancies are still enjoying two years' protection from the date of the last rent increase before June 30, 1966.

LAND OFFICE

The Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department, is responsible for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases; the granting of mining leases; and advice to the government generally on matters relating to land.

      The system of registration, introduced in 1844, is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any sub- sequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable considera- tion. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it.

140

LAND AND HOUSING

      The number of instruments registered during the year dropped by about 10 per cent from last year's record total of 48,654 to 43,866. The figure included 526 assignments of whole buildings or sites (as against 683 in 1966), 19,002 assignments of flats and other units in multi-storey buildings (against 19,505), 3,935 agreements for sale of such flats and units (against 7,912), and 8,363 mortgages (against 7,840). As a consequence of the decline in new building projects, figures remained low in the registrations of building mort- gages (55 against 107 in 1966), and in orders excluding premises from the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which usually have to be obtained prior to redevelopment of the sites of old buildings (16 against 22). Orders requiring redevelopment of the sites of demolished buildings totalled 174 (against 225). The number of searches, which, as a search must be made prior to every land transaction, provides a good index to the state of the property market, dropped by 9.5 per cent from 52,040 to 47,092. Compared with 1966 the grand total of considerations recorded in all in- struments registered declined by $488,000,000, or 18 per cent, to $2,190,000,000.

        The volume of work in several other sections of the Land Office was influenced by the prevailing market conditions. During the year, 118 conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc were registered as compared with 136 in 1966. Consents granted to forward sales of flats, in those cases where the conditions under which the land is held give the necessary power of control, also fell by 44 to 57. On the other hand the number of modifications and deeds of variation of lease conditions-usually a prelude to multi-storey development-rose by two to 34. The reduced activity in some directions enabled further good progress to be made in the issue of Crown leases, and 448 were issued as compared with 265 in 1966.

       At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners contained the names of 142,305 people (an increase of 15,789 over the previous year), some owning several properties, but most being merely owners or part owners of small individual flats.

9

Social Welfare

      UNTIL this year the Social Welfare Department worked through seven distinct sections which between them operated offices, in- stitutions, clubs and community centres. Now, as a result of re- organization aiming at better co-ordination and more effective service, the number has been reduced to four. Of these, the Train- ing, Probation and Correction and the Group and Community Work divisions reproduce, with comparatively little change, similar sections that existed before. The fourth and largest, the Family Service Division, is a new concept designed to focus attention on the need to consider the problems of families. It draws together services previously provided separately through offices for child welfare, protection of women and girls, relief and services to the disabled. Hand in hand with this new division goes the progressive development of district offices through which all casework services for one district, previously provided separately, are available to clients in one location. This facilitates a comprehensive approach to the multiple problems which often beset a family. A number of smaller sub-offices which formerly provided relief assistance remains. Under supervision of the district offices, they provide access to more comprehensive services.

The first district office opened in 1965 in the Western district, a second was established in 1966 in the Eastern district, and this year the first Kowloon District Office was established in August. It is hoped that these offices, apart from providing a more effective service to families and individuals, may in due course play a significant part in the measurement of local needs.

Co-operation between the department and the many voluntary agencies which play so important a part in the provision of social welfare services has continued during the year under review. Appendix XLV lists 82 agencies which are member organizations of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. Many of these receive a government subvention but substantial sums are also raised locally

142

SOCIAL WELFARE

to support welfare programmes, while large sums continue to be made available through international agencies for a wide variety of social work. Collaboration between the department and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service during the year included continued work on the production of a five-year plan for develop- ment of social welfare services which is now virtually complete.

      Much of any new development will continue to be in new housing areas, and an important aid to this was a decision in principle to construct welfare buildings in new resettlement estates at the rate of one building to 50,000 people. This new type of construction- similar to the annex buildings developed for schooling-will replace ground floor and rooftop accommodation previously available in scattered locations, and will afford opportunities for better co- ordination and more effective service. Much of the space will be available for voluntary agencies; the Social Welfare Department will set up an intake service in each building and will act as co- ordinator, and provide financial assistance where appropriate.

YOUTH WELFARE

Much attention was focussed during the year on youth activities organized by the Social Welfare Department and voluntary organiza- tions and on the need for further development. Regular programmes are provided through the youth and children's divisions of the Community and Social Centres managed by the Social Welfare Department as well as through a wide range of voluntary agencies including the Federation of Youth Groups, Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Boys and Girls Clubs Association, Duke of Edinburgh's Award, YMCA and many others. Many of these programmes aim to provide opportunities for young people to test their capabilities and their character in constructive and healthy recreation and service. There is a growing awareness of the opportunities that the country- side and the open air offer. Every summer in recent years it has been customary for the department and for many voluntary agencies to promote special programmes for holiday periods. In 1967 these programmes were more extensive than ever before, and it is estimated that more than 250,000 children and young people took part in activities that included work camps, expeditions, canoeing, outings and hobby groups. Several hundred teenagers undertook short

SOCIAL WELFARE

143

courses in voluntary leadership and subsequently helped to run clubs and play centres for young children.

      Towards the end of the year, a Festival of Youth was presented by the Division of Children and Youth of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. This featured performances by many youth groups, youth balls and a static display depicting the work of 19 member organizations of the division. Overlapping this week was a ten-day Regional Youth Conference sponsored by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service on the theme of 'Youth In a Rapidly Changing World'. This was attended by 16 delegates from nearby countries. Hong Kong was represented by 40 delegates from mem- ber organizations of the council.

      The future development of youth services was facilitated by capital grants from the Lotteries Fund for the establishment of new camps for the Boy Scouts Association at a cost of about $400,000, and for the establishment of a new youth centre in the crowded Yau Ma Tei district with a special bias towards detached work among street corner groups. Financial assistance was also provided during the year for the first stages of a five year planned expansion of the Boy Scouts. Meantime the Social Welfare Depart- ment, through the generosity of the Rotary Club of Hong Kong, established a youth centre and hostel at Fanling, to provide indoor and outdoor recreational activities for the youths of the surrounding area and hostel facilities for groups from the urban area. The Federation of Youth Groups also with Rotary Club support opened a new youth centre in the Sau Mau Ping Resettlement

estate.

CHILD WELFARE

       Voluntary agencies provide residential child care and are active in the establishment of day care centres for young children of working mothers. Six new non-profit-making nurseries and two play centres were opened during the year, and the total places available in day care centres rose from 13,000 in 1966 to 13,500. Many of these agencies receive government subventions towards their work.

      Planning for a new training centre which will provide courses for nursery and child care workers and also for youth workers

144

SOCIAL WELFARE

continued during the year. It will be financed partly by a generous private donation and partly from a Lotteries Fund grant. Sub- stantial assistance is to be given by UNICEF which already gives valuable support to child care programmes in Hong Kong.

A children's reception centre, run by the department, cares for children who are found abandoned or wandering. Their physical and psychological needs are investigated and their behaviour and growth observed and recorded, as background to a plan for each child's future. Of 176 children who left the centre during the year, 27 were adopted into families, 11 in Hong Kong and 16 overseas. The steady fall of recent years in the number of babies abandoned seems to be levelling out. The number for 1967 was 38 compared with 48 last year and 56 in 1965. Altogether 1,240 adoptions have been registered in the Adopted Children's Register since the first entry was made on July 22, 1957. Where possible, children are kept in institutions only for short-term care, in the hope of the early return of children to their own families or their adoption by new ones. Residential homes for babies and children, maintained by voluntary institutions, provide 3,117 places for orphans or children whose parents cannot care for them. An experimental foster care scheme was introduced towards the end of 1967 as part of the services provided by the International Social Service. If this proves successful, its introduction on a permanent basis will provide a valuable new feature in child care service in Hong Kong.

WOMEN AND GIRLS

      Work among women and girls in moral danger is continuous but rarely spectacular. Practical help and assistance through coun- selling and guidance, both to the girl and to her family, aims to restore stability and create understanding. An unmarried mother's most pressing need may be for accommodation and medical atten- tion, which the caseworker is often able to arrange. In this way the girl's immediate anxiety is relieved and she is better able to act in a responsible way towards herself and her baby, and eventually to return to life in the community.

The Sisters of the Good Shepherd maintain a modern home which provides for about 160 girls in need of training and prepara- tion for a new life, and a second home for 150 teenage problem

SOCIAL WELFARE

145

     girls was completed during this year. The Po Leung Kuk, one of the oldest of our truly local charitable organizations, offers in- stitutional care to women, girls and their children. The department maintains two day-training centres in which some 200 young women are given instruction in cooking, tailoring, knitting, em- broidery, beading and laundering and are helped to use their leisure time profitably. Engagements in socially more acceptable employment can generally be found for these women, although experience has shown that very rarely is it possible to rehabilitate the older and more hardened prostitutes. The department offers counselling service for husbands and wives with marital problems ranging from deep-rooted incompatibility to other more transient and superficial conflicts.

THE DISABLED

      During the year the total number of disabled people registered with the Social Welfare Department rose from 15,008 to 16,912. The World Rehabilitation Fund Day Centre which is expected to be completed by April next year will be operated by the Social Welfare Department, and will provide vocational training, sheltered work and group activities with pre-vocational preparation for about 360 disabled people. Tenders for a combined training centre and hostel for the mentally retarded were called for and the building should be completed by June 1968. This centre will provide hostel accommodation for 50 mentally retarded adults, and 100 vocational training places for adults and 60 day training places for mentally retarded children.

      The Lotteries Fund made a grant of $140,000 for two additional storeys to the Advanced Training Centre for the Blind, run by the Hong Kong Society for the Blind. It also made a grant of $400,000 towards the cost of a new wing for mentally retarded children at the Po Leung Kuk. Construction was well in hand before the end of the year.

A new hostel for physically disabled adolescents was due to open at the Tsz Wan Shan Resettlement estate in January 1968. This project, also financed by official funds, is to be run by the Hong Kong Red Cross.

146

SOCIAL WELFARE

      During the year the department found employment for 106 disabled people.

PROBATION AND CORRECTION

       The Probation Service has a staff of some 40 officers, including women. It functions at all levels of courts in the Colony. At the end of year there were 1,920 people being supervised on probation. A total of 6,132 social enquiries were carried out at the request of the courts, including cases referred for welfare assistance of some kind. The Institutional Service includes a combined remand and probation home (for 60 and 100 boys respectively), a similar home for 45 girls-both in Kowloon-and a reformatory (or 'approved") school for 150 boys at Castle Peak, in the New Terri- tories. There is a probation hostel, opened last year, for young men, normally between 16 and 21 years, who are ordered, as a condition of probation, to live there while going out daily to work. A second reformatory school for some 140 boys is in an advanced planning stage and should be opened towards the end of 1968. Valuable voluntary services are offered on the preventive and positive side by the Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys' Centres, which give residential training to those who need help in finding a niche in society or in overcoming difficulties of behaviour and relationship.

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND EMERGENCY RELIEF

       The aim of the relief section of the Social Welfare Department is to alleviate distress and hardship and assist individuals and families, who have fallen into financial difficulties, to re-establish themselves and to become economically independent. Until this year material assistance was only in the form of cooked meals or dry rations, but now there is limited provision for cash grants to those for whom rations are of little practical value. The criteria for relief assistance has also been overhauled. The total number of families receiving public assistance during the year was 4,648 com- pared with 2,635 in 1966. A number of voluntary agencies, including the Catholic Relief Services, Children's Meals Society, Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, Council of Christian Services, Lutheran World Services, and the Seventh Day Adventist Welfare Service, operate supplementary feeding schemes.

SOCIAL WELFARE

147

       No severe natural disaster occurred during the year. There were, however, 39 fires, 96 closure orders against houses in danger of collapse, three shipwrecks, etc, as a result of which a total of 11,972 people registered for assistance. Payments from the Com- munity Relief Trust Fund amounted to $271,109.30.

The Legal Aid Ordinance (Chapter 91) became law in 1966 and the department became responsible for the investigation of the means of applicants to enable the Director of Legal Aid to decide on the grant of free or assisted aid. Up to the end of 1967, 1,103 cases had been investigated.

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

There are four community centres in resettlement estates, one social centre in the crowded district of Sai Ying Pun, and another in Sheung Shui in the New Territories. They provide facilities which include day nurseries, libraries, vocational training and clubs for all age groups, and also a casework service. Workers in these centres are constantly attempting to improve their contacts with the community with a view to stimulating community awareness through mutual co-operation. At the same time, they are encouraging and developing voluntary leadership.

A survey of the needs of the people of Chai Wan area has been completed and consideration will be given to the report when designing the new community centre there. Construction is expected to begin in 1968. The same year should also see the beginning of the building of the Yuen Long Community Centre which is made possible through a donation from the Lotteries Fund.

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

       A total of 26 completed courses in social work at the two univer- sities during the year. In the 1967-8 academic year, the University of Hong Kong created a new Faculty of Social Science and dispensed with the two-year certificate course. In its place, there is a three- year Honours course leading to a degree in Bachelor of Social Science. The post-graduate one-year diploma course in Social Science is, however, being retained. Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Corporating Scholarships have been granted to 10 students for both universities and 36 have been granted government bursaries.

148

SOCIAL WELFARE

The Social Work Training courses have granted $112,060 for local or overseas training for six people.

      The Advisory Committee on Social Work Training, responsible for the promotion and co-ordination of training of social workers, runs a course for experienced senior social workers in conjunction with the Extra Mural Department of the Chinese University.

      The training section of the department gave basic training courses to nursery and welfare workers, and refresher courses on nursery work. It organized a residential institute for welfare agency directors on the use of generic social work approach in social welfare services and arranged a series of seminars for caseworkers in group work methods. It also initiated a summer work programme for students of the Chinese University.

10

Public Order

     THE disturbances during the year placed a heavy burden on the forces of law and order. The brunt of the action to restrain and disperse mobs, to counter intimidation, to deal with terrorist activity and to tackle premises harbouring organizations implicated in these activities, fell to the Hong Kong Police Force. The police themselves were the main target for the hostility of the communists and were subjected to physical attack, threats and cajolery in an attempt to undermine their morale.

      Throughout the troubles, members of the force carried out their arduous duties, often in the face of great provocation, with admirable efficiency and restraint and the standard of morale has been maintained at a high level. During the year 10 police officers were killed and a total of 212 wounded.

       After the subsidence of mob demonstrations, the police were engaged in enforcing the emergency regulations, particularly those relating to the prohibition of inflammatory posters and the posses- sion and manufacture of offensive weapons. In a large number of operations, raids were made on premises where it was suspected prohibited activities were being conducted. In one operation, access to premises in a multi-storey building in Hong Kong was achieved in a combined operation in which a naval helicopter landed police and military personnel on the roof of the building.

       As the year progressed the police were able to revert increasingly to their normal role of beat patrolling, although in greater strength and mobility than is normally necessary. Intermittent demonstra- tions continued and the appearance of genuine and fake bombs in public thoroughfares caused death and injury to police and military as well as passers-by. The police ballistics officer, and teams of ammunition experts from the armed services, were called out to deal with unexploded bombs and suspicious objects and were

150

PUBLIC ORDER

sometimes themselves the target for attacks by bomb throwers. A number of bombs were also thrown into police station com- pounds.

       When the disturbances started the force was fully mobilized in its emergency formation and remained so, without a break, for extensive periods during the summer, often under conditions of considerable discomfort.

      The emergency formation is patterned on the military company and platoon structure. All units are provided with transport and served by a comprehensive communications network. Although units are equipped with firearms, reliance is placed, in the first instance, on the use of gas for dispersing crowds if exhortation fails.

      A heartening aspect of the year has been public support for the police which was expressed by the establishment by local citizens of a Police Education Fund for the children of police officers. Contributions came freely and generously from all sections of the public. At the end of the year a total of $3.7 million had been receiv- ed. The main purpose of the fund is to award grants to children of police officers for post primary education up to, and including, university level. A public fund was set up by the General Chamber of Commerce to assist victims of terrorist activities and their dependents and the government established a compensation board with similar objectives. Dependents of police officers killed in the disturbances received more than $400,000 from these sources.

      It is significant that during the year there has been an increase in the number of young men applying to serve in the force.

      The force has been supported by units of the regular army and the auxiliary services in its operations. The Auxiliary Police Force, which is on a voluntary basis, mobilized some 2,000 men out of a total strength of 2,100 in the early days of the disturbances. It has subsequently provided approximately 500 men each day to augment the regular force.

      The auxiliaries are fully integrated with the regular land and marine formations and have shared to the full the burden of the day. Since May no less than 1,500 residents have applied to join

PUBLIC ORDER

151

      the auxiliary police; a further indication of the support by the citizens of Hong Kong for the forces of law and order.

      In the early part of the year, as part of a programme to strength- en police-public relations, a series of open days were held in a number of divisional stations which were open to the public. The local kaifong and other leaders were also invited to attend. Visitors were taken on a tour of the stations and shown exhibitions of crime detection techniques, and demonstrations by the police dog unit. They were also entertained by the police band. On other occasions parties of school children were invited to visit stations as a practical lesson in civics.

Courtesy scooter patrols operated by women police of the traffic branch were introduced during the year. In June a new police post was opened at the rapidly developing Chai Wan Resettlement estate and town, replacing two smaller posts.

CRIME

       It would be unrealistic to compare crime statistics for the year 1967 with any preceding year, as the whole of the police force was engaged for more than half the period on duties which detracted from their normal prevention and detection roles.

       Up to the end of the year more than four thousand arrests had been made and almost two thousand people convicted of offences arising out of the disturbances. Most of them pleaded not guilty to the charges. The Criminal Investigation Department was responsible for preparing the cases for court and for the prosecution of offenders. This task hampered normal criminal investigations as well as en- gaging detectives for lengthy periods which would normally have been spent on prevention and detection of crime.

       Emergency legislation, which already existed, was extensively used and new offences were created to deal with the specific problems connected with confrontation. The majority of these offences came under the category of 'Against Public Order' and crime statistics, naturally, show a large increase in this category.

       As is to be expected under these abnormal conditions, crime increased appreciably, particularly in robberies, larceny from the person (snatching) and serious assaults, all of which have some

152

PUBLIC ORDER

     degree of violence in the perpetration of the offence. It is disturbing to note that people under the age of 21 were responsible for participat- ing in a high proportion of these crimes of violence.

       During 1967 there was an overall increase of 1,253 cases of serious crime, which is 5.8 per cent above 1966. The detection rate fell from 73.6 per cent to 67.8 per cent. Juvenile crime-offences by people under 16 years of age-also increased by 80 cases, or 5.5 per cent. However, annual increases are to be expected as the number of people between the age of eight years and 16 increases with the growth in the population of the Colony. The government and the police force are aware of the problem of young people, and are endeavouring to provide facilities and guidance for them.

      The chronic problem of narcotics still exists despite all the efforts of the organizations involved in a constant battle against this evil. Several large seizures were made, including one in March amounting to one-and-a-quarter tons of raw opium and morphine. In September two manufacturing laboratories making heroin were discovered, large amounts of the drug were seized and arrests were made.

TRAFFIC

       On June 9 the Commissioner for Transport assumed statutory responsibility for the licensing and registration of vehicles, the licensing of drivers, and also for certain functions in relation to the public transport services, relieving the Commissioner of Police of these tasks. The traffic branch continues to be concerned with traffic control and law enforcement and with the Road Safety Association.

      Traffic patrol motor cycles were fitted with radio sets following the successful experiment with the system in 1966. Radio communica- tion has greatly increased the efficiency of these patrols which are able to report back on traffic conditions and seek assistance without returning to headquarters. A number of traffic diversion teams were organized to deal with traffic snarls arising from bombs planted in public thoroughfares.

      The Road Safety Association, in co-operation with other in- terested bodies, continued to promote road safety. The School Safety Patrol Organization was expanded and during the year a

PUBLIC ORDER

153

further seven schools joined it bringing the total number participating to 42 with 2,000 members. A further 243 schools have students who have been trained to control traffic with official 'school crossing' signs to assist students to cross the road safely.

      In spite of all these efforts the year ended with 292 fatalities due to traffic accidents and 11,325 people injured, compared with 277 and 10,055 respectively in 1966.

MANPOWER AND TRAINING

      The strength of the regular police force at the end of the year (excluding women police) was: 133 gazetted officers; 905 junior officers; 9,489 non-commissioned officers and constables. There were 445 women police of all ranks posted throughout the force in all divisions.

Probationary inspectors are recruited locally and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries. Constables are recruited locally. On enlistment, all ranks are given a 26 weeks course of in- itial training in the Police Training School at Aberdeen. The cur- riculum includes public relations, civics, the principles of law and legal procedures, court procedure, police and government regula- tions, drill musketry, physical training, self-defence, riot drill, life-saving and first-aid. The course is designed not only to train men in police duties, but also to broaden their general outlook and fit them for responsibility. Probationary inspectors recruited overseas attend a course of instruction in Cantonese at the govern- ment language school. Constables are taught elementary English at the Police Training School. Because of force requirements during the period of emergency, this initial course was shortened to 16 weeks.

      At the end of their primary training, all ranks are posted to units where they carry out duties under supervision. Probationary inspectors return to the Police Training School for two weeks during their second and third years of service. Inspectors also attend an advanced course during their sixth year of service. Constables return to the school for a two-week course each year for the first four years of service and an advanced course during the sixth to tenth years of service. Other courses held at the school

154

PUBLIC ORDER

are for traffic personnel and for newly promoted NCOs. These in-service training courses, suspended in August, because of force requirements, will be reinstated in the near future.

       The Police Training Contingent, at Fanling, trains all ranks up to and including superintendent in internal security duties. It constitutes a reserve of manpower on immediate call for emergency duty at any time and provides leadership training. The present programme is designed to allow all newly appointed inspectorate officers to attend a course during their probationary period.

       With effect from January 3, 1967, a senior inspector has been attached to every company as the second-in-command to receive training in internal security duties at a higher level. During the year under review one senior inspector completed a full company

course.

      The auxiliary police emergency units held an annual camp at Fanling during January and February. The main emphasis of the training has been on platoon riot drill and platoon and company riot tactics.

The Revised Emergency Manual, the force's book of reference in respect of internal security duties, was printed and issued during the year. Every officer of the rank of inspector and above was issued with a copy in February.

PRISONS

       The Commissioner of Prisons is responsible for the administra- tion of 10 institutions in various parts of the Colony. These consist of a reception and classification centre for men at Victoria; two security prisons, one for men at Stanley, the other for women at Lai Chi Kok; two open prisons for men at Chi Ma Wan and Tong Fuk; a treatment centre at Tai Lam for convicted male prisoners found to be drug dependent; three training centres for young male offenders at Cape Collinson, Stanley and Shek Pik; and a training school at Stanley for staff.

       All convicted male prisoners are received at Victoria Reception Centre and after a thorough medical examination they appear before a classification board for allocation to an institution best suited to their needs. The centre also contains a psychiatric observa- tion unit manned by fully trained staff under a psychiatrist.

PUBLIC ORDER

155

      Women prisoners are received and housed at Lai Chi Kok Prison, which has an average inmate population of 132. This in- stitution will soon be replaced with a new open prison built on cottage lines in the Tai Lam Chung area.

      The open prison system, which has proved to be very successful in Hong Kong, is used whenever possible; experience has shown that an environment in which prisoners lead healthy outdoor lives, doing interesting work of a constructive nature, leads to more successful rehabilitation. Open prisons are situated on Lantau Island in the New Territories and considerable amount of useful work has been done by prisoners on forestry and building projects of various kinds.

      Stanley Prison is the largest security establishment in the Colony and houses all prisoners not considered suitable for the treatment centre or other open institutions. It is the main industrial centre where, among other productive industries, tailoring, shoe-making, rattanware and carpentry are concentrated. The value of industrial production at Stanley in 1967 amounted to over two million dollars.

A large percentage of convicted male prisoners are found on admission to be drug dependent. The treatment centre at Tai Lam offers special treatment facilities for drug dependents and, through a unique programme, developed since 1958 when the centre was opened, it has achieved encouraging results. All necessary phases of treatment are followed, including after-care. An extensive pro- gramme of research is also carried out, details of which are published yearly.

Young male offenders between the ages of 14 and 21 are housed under open conditions at three training centres on Hong Kong and Lantau Islands. Remand accommodation for males between 14 and 21 is provided in the Stanley Training Centre; the object of this arrangement is to ensure that unconvicted boys do not enter the environment of a prison during their period of remand.

This year has continued to be one of great activity in preparation for new institutions at Tai Lam (women's prison), Siu Lam (Prisons Department Mental Hospital) and the Dragon's Back (Training Centre).

156

PUBLIC ORDER

       Over the past ten years, the daily average prison population has been 5,149 and over the same period accommodation for 2,600 prisoners in fully open conditions has been provided.

       The disturbances in the Colony during 1967 had a marked effect on the prison population figures, but, contrary to popular im- pressions, the total prison population sharply decreased during the year (from 6,580 on January 1 to 5,327 on October 1). This was due to the fact that the police were fully engaged in dealing with the disturbances and the numbers arrested for narcotics offences sharply declined. The main burden of work in connection with the disturbances fell on the Reception Centre at Victoria, which was under very heavy pressure with receptions, remands and escorts.

A high proportion of those sentenced as a result of the riots were under 21 and a special educational and vocational training programme was set up for those sentenced to imprisonment.

FIRE SERVICES

       The Fire Services Department is divided into four commands- Fire Service Headquarters, Fire Prevention Bureau, Hong Kong Island and Marine Command, and Mainland Command. Hong Kong Island and Marine Command is responsible for five fighting and emergency operations on the island of Hong Kong, the off-shore islands, the harbour and surrounding waters. Mainland Command is similarly responsible for Kowloon, the New Territories and the airport.

Operational demands on the Hong Kong Fire Service increased during the year. Emergency calls rose by 11 per cent, but the greatest increase in work load has fallen on the Fire Prevention Bureau which is statutorily responsible for the enforcement of fire safety regulations throughout the Colony and for advising and assisting all sections of the community in the abatement and elimina- tion of fire hazards. During the year, the bureau, which maintains a round-the-clock service, conducted 46 courses in fire prevention subjects and 4,000 people attended. It also conducted more than 40,000 inspections of premises of all descriptions, assessed and advised on more than 2,000 plans for new buildings, and dealt

PUBLIC ORDER

157

with an average of 500 fire hazard complaints or requests for assistance each month. This overall work-load increase of 54 per cent is an encouraging reward for the fire prevention campaigns sponsored by kaifongs, other community agencies and the bureau.

       The Fire Service has a strength of 267 officers and 2,250 other ranks and is supported by a reserve force of 720 auxiliaries. It has 223 modern operational vehicles. One new fire boat was commis- sioned during the year, bringing the total to six.

       The department controls the Colony's ambulance service which is a semi-autonomous division. The service has 56 ambulances and during the year it carried 68,442 patients.

       A Fire Service building programme initiated in 1960 has reached its peak during the year. Four fire stations, two ambulance depots, a new headquarters building and a training school were completed.

       During the disturbances of May to July, Fire Service resources were deployed according to a pre-determined emergency defence scheme. Many fires dealt with during this period were attributable to demonstrators. They generally consisted of rubbish and vehicle fires and the Service was able to meet all demands without undue strain. Firemen were frequently confronted by belligerent crowds and stoned, but there were no serious injuries or damage. In September, a fire officer was killed and four firemen injured by a bomb explosion outside Eastern fire station in Wan Chai.

       In the technological field, 14 members of the Service were success- ful in the 1967 examinations for the diploma of the Institution of Fire Engineers. There are now 57 holders of this diploma in the Service.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

       The Preventive Service of the Commerce and Industry Department is a uniformed and disciplined force responsible for those measures which in a customs-controlled port are handled by a Customs and Excise Department. Being a free port Hong Kong imposes a duty on only five categories of imported goods. This is matched by an excise tax on the same items locally manufactured. The Preventive Service enforces legislation controlling the import, export and manufacture of dutiable commodities.

158

PUBLIC ORDER

The service has a major responsibility in the field of narcotics' smuggling. Because of Hong Kong's geographical and commercial position it has, in the past, become a transhipment point for narcotic drugs. All vessels arriving in Hong Kong, from ports which are known to be outlets for narcotic drugs, are boarded and searched by specially trained teams and are guarded throughout their stay in Hong Kong waters; similar attention is paid to aircraft arriving in Hong Kong. Selective searches are made of suspect cargoes and postal packets. During 1967, a total of 707 ships were guarded, 865 ships were searched and 929 lbs. of narcotics of all kinds, valued at $91,600, were seized.

The Preventive Service enforces the legislation controlling the import and export of cargo and acts as an agent for other govern- ment departments in the supervision of items which are controlled by them, particularly in the fields of arms and ammunition (for the Hong Kong Police) and plants, animals and dangerous insecticides (for the Agriculture and Fisheries Department).

11

Immigration and Tourism

THIS has been a year of intense activity for the Immigration Department. The normal pattern of work was affected by unsettled conditions in China, the political troubles in Portuguese Macau, and the disturbances in Hong Kong itself. The border, harbour, British and Commonwealth, and Chinese sections in particular were subjected to heavy pressure, further increased in the latter case by the decision to close the permit office in Macau at the end of May because of anti-British demonstrations there. The office was re- established in Immigration Headquarters in Hong Kong at 48 hours notice. This increased the congestion in the headquarters offices, which are visited by about 3,000 people every day, and towards the end of the year the accommodation was extended.

Recorded movements of travellers during 1967 totalled 3,703,756, consisting of 1,858,624 arrivals and 1,845,132 departures. This compares with a total of 4,612,631 in 1966. The main lines of movement, as usual, were between Hong Kong and Macau and, to a lesser degree, Hong Kong and China, although this traffic was materially reduced because of political uncertainty. Illegal immigration, although at first slightly less than in previous years, continued to present a problem, and towards the end of the year was showing signs of increasing.

The Chinese Section was faced this year with a big demand by local residents for travel documents with the result that a record number of Certificates of Identity were issued. In addition, many overseas Chinese wanted to visit or live in the Colony. The demand for re-entry permits, valid only for travel to China and Macau, was substantially reduced. Special arrangements were again made for children from schools in China and Macau to visit their relatives in Hong Kong, but in fact very few children arrived from China. The British and Commonwealth Section experienced its busiest year in memory, because of an unprecedented demand for passports (stocks became so low that further supplies had to be airfreighted

160

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

to Hong Kong in August), and for naturalization as British subjects. Pressure started to ease in November as the situation in the Colony slowly returned to normal.

The department also processes applications for travel documents and visas, and deals with citizenship problems, on behalf of all Commonwealth territories not directly represented in Hong Kong, and the volume of this work increased considerably during the year. There were the usual seasonal rushes of students going abroad to study, primarily in Britain, Canada, and the USA. The pattern of emigration to Britain did not change a great deal during the year. Although the number of Chinese men going to Britain to work has fallen off, the number of dependents joining husbands and fathers already working there increases. The number of aliens resident in Hong Kong has grown and most of them are employed in foreign business concerns. A much more liberal attitude has now been adopted in dealing with applications from aliens to work and live in the Colony and, as a result, many difficulties previously encountered over evasions of the regulations have now disappeared. At the end of 1966 there were 14,523 alien residents registered in the Colony, the largest group consisting of citizens of the USA numbering 4,581, followed by 2,093 Japanese, 2,031 Portuguese, 799 Filipinos, 552 Dutch, and 525 Indonesians. During the year, 32 White Russian refugees entered the Colony from China, and 43 left for settlement in other countries under the sponsorship of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. At the end of the year there were still 29 refugees in this category in Hong Kong awaiting placement, together with 10 Spaniards (former members of the French Foreign Legion and their families), who had entered Hong Kong from North Vietnam under the same arrangement.

      The cultural revolution in China drastically affected traffic over the Sino-British border at Lo Wu, and at one time daily movements in each direction barely exceeded 100. The volume temporarily increased in April and November when the Canton Trade Fairs were held, and at the end of the year daily traffic averaged about 672 each way. During the year, 205,594 people left Hong Kong for China, while 219,629 entered the Colony from there. From mid-June onwards, immigration officers working on the border were subjected to considerable harassment, culminating in August

The Port Thrives On

Hong Kong grew and thrived around its magnificent deep water harbour. It has always played a vital role in the Colony's economy.

Hong Kong has an international reputation of being one of the fastest turn-around ports in the world and its facilities and services are constantly being improved. More than 6,000 ocean-going vessels use it each year, loading and unloading millions of tons of cargo. In March 1967, 613 large ships entered the port -the biggest total for any one month since the Second World War.

For the tourist the harbour has an endless fascination. It ripples with life as ferries, lighters, traditional junks and the big ships bustle about its waters and from the steep sides of Hong Kong Island, the harbour offers a spectacular panoramic view that has few rivals in the world.

לי

Left: A ferry bustles towards the busy waterfront. Above and Below: Hong Kong's two main shipyards accept ships up to 750 feet long in their dry docks and slipways. Overleaf: An aerial view of the new ocean terminal. It provides berthing space for four liners. In the foreground is the Star Ferry concourse.

BLIC

BRA

::::: *.

IH.

-

BRAR

   Left: Traditional junks, like this one in full sail, still move through the harbour. Above: The waterfront of Victoria on Hong Kong Island. Below: The harbour viewed from the Peak, looking towards Kowloon. Overleaf: A gay farewell.

NG PUBLIC.

N"

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

161

in attacks on the immigration post. There were no casualties and little damage, but it was decided to evacuate the control point and carry out immigration control from a position further back. A number of immigration officers at Lo Wu were commended by the Governor for their devotion to duty during this period.

The uneasy political situation in Macau affected traffic to and from Hong Kong. There was a heavy influx of refugees from Macau at the beginning of the year, but generally there was a considerable reduction in passenger traffic. Traffic to Macau for the Grand Prix motor race in November was down some 28 per cent compared with the previous year.

There are now four steamers and 11 hydrofoils (the largest hydrofoil fleet in the Commonwealth) employed on the Macau run, and these craft during the year took 979,256 passengers to Macau and brought 1,002,107 into Hong Kong. This represented a decrease in traffic of 27.05 per cent on the 1966 figures. It was unfortunate that this reduction coincided with the completion of extensions to both ferry and hydrofoil terminals in Hong Kong. It was decided at the end of the year to centralize all traffic controls in the main terminal building. During the year the harbour section cleared 6,518 ocean-going ships, 14,950 native craft, and 20,562 Macau ferry and hydrofoils, and handled a total of 1,027,519 arriving and 1,007,196 departing sea passengers. On December 1, immigration clearance of outward bound ocean-going shipping was instituted for the first time, on a spot-check basis.

      Passenger traffic at Kai Tak Airport fluctuated a good deal. During the year 1,243,818 passengers and 30,926 aircraft were dealt with an increase of 9.91 per cent on the previous year.

       The experiment, introduced in 1965, of employing women immi- gration officers at the airport has proved highly successful and more women officers are now working in every section of the department. During the year language courses in French and Japanese were conducted for selected members of the service to improve their efficiency in dealing with travellers.

      Further relaxations in Hong Kong's already liberal immigration requirements were brought into operation on August 14, rather appropriately for International Tourist Year. Nationals of Andorra,

162

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, Iran, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Maldive Islands, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela and Western Samoa, are permitted to enter Hong Kong without visas for a stay of up to one month. In addition, many other nationals are now permitted to transit Hong Kong without a visa, whether by sea or air, if they do not stay for more than seven days.

TOURISM

When the United Nations designated 1967 as International Tourist Year, with the motto 'Tourism, Passport to Peace', the hope was that this new industry would receive the recognition that would enable it to contribute even more strongly towards the welfare of mankind and to the improvement of the economies of countries whose governments recognized its potential value. In Hong Kong, after an encouraging start to the year, local and world events caused setbacks. But despite prolonged adverse-and in some cases exag- gerated-publicity and propaganda, the industry has weathered the storm and emerged intact and optimistic for the future. This is a sure sign of the fundamental strength of Hong Kong's attraction to overseas visitors.

      The most important lesson to be learned from the experiences of the year is that some markets are more susceptible to propaganda from mass publicity media than others. It is hoped that those involved in Hong Kong's travel industry will, in future, cultivate tourist promotion in potential travel markets.

Few countries in the world can match the speed with which Hong Kong processes entry and departure formalities for visitors. The introduction, in the near future, of aircraft with greatly in- creased carrying capacity will call for even more simplified passenger procedures.

The proportion of visitors arriving by air compared with those arriving by sea continues to show a marked increase and, during

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

163

the year, two more international airlines started flights into Hong Kong. There was also an expansion in existing routes flown by airlines serving the Colony. In addition to the 26 international airlines operating through Hong Kong, there is growing number of charter flights which add substantially to the inflow of visitors.

Fewer visitors arrived in Hong Kong by sea in 1967. A major cause for this downtrend was the closure of the Suez Canal. One popular and efficient shipping line, which has served Hong Kong for many years, has decided to discontinue carrying passengers.

A noteworthy addition to the hotels of Hong Kong is the new wing of the Miramar Hotel. It provides an extra 268 rooms, together with a magnificent theatre-restaurant and special banqueting rooms. The interior decor is completely oriental. During the year the 150-room Cathay Hotel in Causeway Bay was also completed, bringing the Colony's hotel accommodation capacity to 6,138

rooms.

      It is unfortunate that, mainly because of the lack of facilities, Hong Kong could be the venue for only two conventions during the year. Approximately 1,200 delegates and wives arrived for the American Bar Association annual meeting in August and there were about 200 visitors for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Conference in October.

      The need for expanding tour amenities in Hong Kong has been discussed at joint meetings between the Tourist Association, repre- sentatives of the Heung Yee Kuk, the Urban Services Department and the New Territories Administration. It is hoped that, before long, a number of sites can be made attractive for overseas visitors and there is a possibility that future tours may include visits to islands adjacent to Hong Kong and the New Territories.

      During the year a valuable visitors' survey, involving 4,800 personal interviews with visitors to Hong Kong, was made by the Tourist Association. This survey, which will be updated annually, has been taken as a model by the International Union of Official Travel Organizations and has been accepted as an advanced specimen of research work by the Pacific Area Travel Association. The association also produced a guide book in Japanese and a bi-lingual

164

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

booklet which was circulated in Hong Kong with the object of informing the Chinese population of the value of the tourist industry to them and to the economy. The association produced a number of short colour films for use on television in America, the United Kingdom and Europe and also for the Australian market. A telephone information service was introduced to provide visitors with reliable facts. The information service has been expanded at the airport and on board ships, and uniformed receptionists, located at strategic points, give maximum service to visitors. An information office, similar to the one situated on the ferry concourse on Hong Kong Island, was opened on the Kowloon Star Ferry Concourse,

      The association engaged in a number of special projects during 1967. In May, promotional lectures were given in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Calgary, Vancouver and Victoria, Vancouver Island. Representatives of the association also attended conferences of the East Asian Travel Association, the Pacific Area Travel Association, the American Society of Travel Agents, the Commonwealth Conference on Tourist Development, the executive committee meeting and the General Assembly of the International Union of Official Travel Organizations, the Assembly of the World Chamber of Commerce and the Australian Federation of Travel Agents. During the second half of the year, the Associa- tion, in conjunction with Cathay Pacific Airways and leading travel agents, initiated a programme of special presentations, which will be continued in 1968, in 26 cities in the United States and Canada. With a view to improving the image of Hong Kong, the Association, in conjunction with the Trade Development Council, chartered a Hong Kong-built pleasure junk and shipped it to the United States where it made appearances in a number of American and Canadian cities.

The expansion of Tourist Association offices continues and during the year a new office was opened in Sydney next door to the recently completed Wentworth Hotel. The association now has offices in the United Kingdom, America, Canada, Japan and Australia. Additional staff were also engaged in America, Canada and Japan in order to deal with the rapidly increasing volume of enquiries about Hong Kong.

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM

165

Although it was anticipated that the number of incoming visitors would increase by some 15 to 20 per cent over the previous year, this target was not realized, due mainly to the effects of the civil disturbances, and the actual increase turned out to be 4.28 per cent. Excluding servicemen arriving for leave and recreation purposes, visitors, who came from 134 countries, numbered 527,365 compared with 505,733 in 1966.

12

Public Works and Utilities

     HONG KONG'S programme of public works-ranging from the formation and reclamation of land, the building of resettlement estates, schools and hospitals to the construction of roads, sewers, piers and reservoirs is the Colony's largest single financial com- mitment. Capital expenditure is estimated at $460 million or 23.9 per cent of the annual estimates for 1967-8, representing a decrease of $20 million compared with the previous financial year. Of this sum $118 million is devoted to water supplies, including work on the giant Plover Cove scheme, which is designed to almost treble the Colony's reservoir capacity when full. Some $129 million goes towards providing resettlement and government low-cost housing.

      The year under review was one of particular trial for the Water Authority. A drought forced water restrictions to be imposed after the Colony had enjoyed full supply for two years. The period from August 1966 to June 1967 was the driest ever recorded. As supplies in reservoirs dwindled, it proved impossible to make contact with the Chinese authorities to request more water from them during July, August and September. This was despite the fact that, in 1966, the representatives of the East River-Shum Chun Water Supply Bureau had verbally agreed that East River water could be supplied during these three summer months, if at least four weeks' advance notice was given of each month's requirements. Water restrictions began in February with a 16-hour-a-day supply. In June it became eight hours a day. In the first half of July it was reduced four hours every alternate day, then four hours every fourth day until August 22. Heavy rains brought a dramatic re- laxation to 24 hours daily supply, but the need to keep reservoirs as full as possible for the dry winter months ahead meant that supply hours had to be restricted again on August 27 to four hours a day. On September 6, rainfall once more allowed 24-hour supply, but a four-hour daily supply had to be introduced on September 26 when the yield from the rains ceased. However, the

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

167

Chinese authorities began to supply water on October 1 in accord- ance with the terms of the 1960 agreement, and a 24-hour supply was introduced once more. To insure against restrictions in the winter months it was, however, necessary to make use of saline water from the Plover Cove Reservoir. By mixing this with normal supplies the salinity of the water in many areas in Hong Kong was gradually raised, first to a sodium chloride content of 600 parts per million and later to 900 parts per million. Supplies of normal low salinity were maintained to certain industrial areas.

      Systematic waste detection had to be curtailed during periods of restricted supply, but the clear benefits which follow from this practice demand that it be reintroduced whenever possible. Water consumption for the year totalled 39,795 million gallons, compared with 43,760 million gallons in the previous year. These figures include industrial and domestic supplies, but largely exclude flush- ing demand for sanitary purposes, generally met from independent wells or from a separate government seawater flushing system, which supplied 9,769 million gallons of water during the year.

      Work on major supply schemes continued. At Plover Cove the new reservoir took shape. In January the dam was raised above sea level and the three mile sea inlet which makes up the reservoir, was successfully sealed. Plover Cove, which will have a useful storage capacity of 30,000 million gallons, is due to be completed in late 1968, when the permanent pumping station comes into operation. Water is now being drawn out by temporary pumping installations. In February pumping out of seawater began; the excitement which was felt as the water level inside the reservoir was seen to fall, turned to triumph when, in April, the level of -27 feet below principal datum (about 31 feet below mean sea level) was reached.

The original plan was to allow rainfall to dilute the seawater in the reservoir and to hold the contents at -27 PD by pumping out to sea. The water remaining in the reservoir at that level would act as a buffer to prevent disturbance by incoming flood waters of the saline mud on the floor of the reservoir. When there was little rainfall in May this plan was abandoned. The reservoir was pumped almost dry in early June and allowed to collect rainwater without

168

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

further pumping. By the end of September a total of 12,500 million gallons had been collected.

Several problems associated with the reservoir were successfully resolved. Removal of salt water fish was carried out with less diffi- culty than anticipated. Preliminary trial stocking with fresh water fish was begun. The dam itself was carried up to within 18 feet of its final level.

The main tunnel between Tai Po and Plover Cove, which feeds water into the reservoir from the hills above and from as far afield as the River Indus, and catchments stretching from Tai Po to Sha Tin, was completed just in time for the summer rains.

       The River Indus yield, while non-existent during the driest periods of winter, can exceed 200 million gallons a day under summer flood flow conditions and a pumping station of this capacity was com- pleted on its banks. In view of the increased resources at Tai Po Tau a six-million-gallons-a-day treatment plant is being built with site provision for extension to 24 million gallons a day. This will provide treated water for the New Territories' townships of Tai Po and Sheung Shui.

        So that these additional sources of water can be fed into the supply, large distribution mains have been laid in Kowloon and a new 42-inch cross-harbour main was laid to Hong Kong Island. Work progressed on two major service reservoirs in Kowloon to distribute water from the Sha Tin Treatment Works to the densely populated areas in the west and south of the peninsula.

       The recommendations of a Water Resources Survey, which has been looking into future water needs of the Colony, were accepted and investigation began on two major reservoir projects. These were the raising of the Plover Cove dam and the development of the water resources of the Sai Kung Peninsula. The former could add 10,000 million gallons to the storage capacity there and is likely to prove cheap and quick. The continuing increase in demand for water means, however, that as well as looking for more reservoir capacity to balance out the widely fluctuating run-off, more catch- ment area is also required to increase the maintainable supply. Sai Kung Peninsula, the area of the second investigation, is the largest untapped catchment in the Colony, and offers several

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

169

possible sites for reservoirs to be built in tidal estuaries on the Plover Cove pattern.

While major supply schemes provide resources to keep pace with the continuing increase in demand, there is a corresponding need for continuous extension to the distribution system. During the year, five new covered service reservoirs for storage of treated water were completed, and another nine were under construction. Some 24 miles of pipeline of 12-inch diameter, or larger, were laid. Wherever possible the salt water systems have been extended for flushing and fire-fighting purposes and three new salt water reser- voirs were brought into use during the year, while two were under construction

In April the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries assumed responsibility for carrying out improvements to the traditional irrigation systems in the New Territories. Professional assistance was provided by the Water Authority, pending recruitment of suitable staff to his establishment. Improvements were carried out to existing irrigation systems and new works to improve supplies were constructed. During the year 3,500 feet of irrigation channels were lined with concrete to reduce seepage; 22,000 feet of new channels and 11 diversion dams were constructed.

BUILDINGS

       The pace of new building work slackened slightly, compared with former years, but its scope widened because HM Ministry of Public Building and Works handed over to the Public Works Department, in July, the responsibility for maintaining existing British Forces buildings and the construction of future buildings. Water restrictions in mid-summer, shortages of cement and steel, and restrictions on blasting, slowed the progress of some contracts. A few continued to be delayed by financial difficulties. Private architects, quantity surveyors, and consultants continued to play a part in the public building programme. Expenditure during the year amounted to approximately $93 million on resettlement estates and their associated schools and factories; $22 million on government low-cost housing; and $53 million on all other projects.

Thirty-six 16-storey and three eight-storey resettlement blocks, seven 20-storey and two 12-storey government low-cost housing

170

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

blocks were completed, providing accommodation for 198,000 people. Eleven 24-classroom primary schools were completed in resettlement estates.

      The end of the year saw work continuing on 42 resettlement blocks and 12 low-cost housing blocks (which will provide accom- modation for 240,000 people) in addition to 29 estate schools, providing a total of 696 classrooms. At the close of the year seven single-storey restaurant buildings were nearing completion in estates and work was also proceeding on the first six-storey estate welfare building with a rooftop playground. Preparatory works were in hand on nine sites for estates with a future total capacity of 283,000 people and planning was in progress to provide accom- modation for a further 462,000 people on 11 new sites.

       Other projects completed on Hong Kong Island included a Fire Services headquarters at North Point, a two-bay fire station in Kennedy Town and a post office at Sai Ying Pun, housing on its upper floors a children's playground and library and government staff quarters. Quarters for abattoir junior staff were completed at Kennedy Town and two two-storey office blocks were built on the government piers at the central reclamation. Substructure work was completed for a 24-storey government office block on the former Murray Barracks site. A language laboratory was built at Northcote College of Education and the first phase of further alterations to provide additional beds at Queen Mary Hospital was finished. Other works completed included children's playgrounds and an additional children's library.

       In Kowloon, major works included a 20-classroom extension to the Hong Kong Technical College, the Yau Ma Tei Health Centre, 791 quarters for police rank-and-file at Wong Tai Sin, a two-bay fire station and married quarters at Ngau Chi Wan and an ambu- lance depot at Ma Tau Chung. The biggest building completed was the 20-storey Kowloon Central Post Office, which also houses other government offices. A clinic was finished at the police quarters in Tin Kwong Road, and two additional storeys were added to the original single-storey maternal and child health centre at Kowloon City. Quarry buildings, stores and offices were completed at Diamond Hill. Two children's playgrounds were constructed,

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

171

together with a playing field, two parks, two temporary hawker bazaars, and other amenities.

In the New Territories work completed included a 24-bed rural clinic and maternity home and a virology laboratory at Castle Peak; a trade training block at Castle Peak Boys Home; a post office and other offices at Tuen Mun San Hui; a fire services train- ing school and a District Fire Services headquarters and ambulance station at Sek Kong, and a fire station at Tai Po. On Smugglers Ridge, above Sha Tin, a new medium wave transmitter station was constructed for Radio Hong Kong. Other projects which were completed included a sports ground at Tsuen Wan, a hawker bazaar at Yuen Long, and a playground at Tai Po.

      Projects under construction at the end of the year included two abattoirs, a women's prison, government offices, a prison staff training school, several types of government staff quarters, two clinics, a fire station, a police station, an animal pound, a training centre for mentally deficient adults and children, further alterations to Queen Mary Hospital and a new convalescent block at Kowloon Hospital. At Yuen Long, in the New Territories, work was well under way on the first of a series of secondary schools for which funds are being raised by the Heung Yee Kuk. Work was ready to start on Radio Hong Kong's new building.

Work was in hand at the close of the year on designs, working drawings and contract documents for about 70 projects including the 1,300-bed Lai Chi Kok Hospital, three fire stations and a Fire Services district headquarters, four clinics and a vaccine institute, a technical institute, a training centre and an approved school, a home for mental defectives, a prison and a prison mental hospital, two large public swimming pool complexes, three multi-storey car parks, two magistracy buildings, a British Forces primary school, alterations at Kai Tak Airport, several police buildings and govern- ment and military staff quarters.

DRAINAGE

      All the urban areas and the newly-developing townships have water-borne sewerage systems in various stages of development. In many of the older areas the sewers were constructed 50 or more

172

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

years ago and are no longer adequate to serve the large blocks of flats now being built. To bring these systems up to modern standards a programme of works was begun a few years ago' involving duplication and replacement of existing sewers and the construction of large intercepting sewers work on this continues.

      The intention is that, eventually, all sewage after having had at least preliminary treatment, will, where possible, discharge through submarine outfalls into the main tidal currents around the Colony. Dispersal by tidal current is first checked to ensure that the coast line is not contaminated, and observation of the six submarine outfalls now in use has shown this method to be satisfactory. Sewage, prior to discharge, is partially treated in screening plants at three of these outfalls and similar facilities are planned for the others.

       Sewerage systems are also being constructed in the new towns now being developed in the New Territories. A report on sewage treatment and disposal facilities for development centres in the northern New Territories has been prepared by consulting engineers and was under consideration at the end of the year.

      Work was in progress on the decking of a length of the open nullah in Wong Nei Chong Road, the culverting of part of the nullah in Aberdeen and on the extension of Bowrington Canal through the new reclamation. With the exception of the training of the mouth of Kam Tin River, the Yuen Long flood control scheme is finished. The main stormwater culverts, damaged during the June 1966 rainstorm, have all been repaired.

PORT WORKS

       Progress on port works projects was well maintained. On Hong Kong Island offices on the new government pier in the central district were completed and the pier opened for use. At Wan Chai two ferry piers, one single and one double berth, were completed. They will take the place of the present piers which will be displaced by reclamation. Work on the main seawall continued and 14 pump- houses were incorporated in it to cater for future requirements of private developers. In addition the existing police headquarters pumphouse was reprovisioned and an intake chamber for a salt- water supply system constructed. The supply of filling material

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

173

from public dumping diminished and contracts had to be let so that fill could be brought by barge from Kowloon Bay and material obtained from a site formation project in Tin Hau Temple Road. This was necessary to enable the programme of reclamation at Wan Chai and Causeway Bay to be maintained.

       At Causeway Bay work started in August on a seawall to retain the reclamation required for the new waterfront road. The break- waters at Aberdeen, which will form a new typhoon shelter, were nearing completion at the end of the year. In Kowloon, at Cheung Sha Wan, the last section of seawall needed to retain the reclamation was completed. Work continued on the construction of a new government dockyard at Yau Ma Tei and the concrete pier which forms part of this project was completed. At Tai Wan work started on the first stage of the seawall which will retain an area of reclamation required for a salt water pumping station. Work began on another section of seawall at Kowloon Bay. This will retain a further 50 acres of reclamation for use as a storage area and for light industrial development.

      The Cha Kwo Ling seawall was substantially completed and filling behind it continued. The Colony's second refuse disposal incinerator and a composting plant were under construction at Lai Chi Kok and, by December, had reached a stage where operational trials could start. The incinerator is expected to burn 750 tons of refuse a day and the composting plant will produce 30 tons of compost every fifth day. As part of this project a pier is being built to accommodate the refuse collection service from ships.

      In the New Territories at Shuen Wan work started on armouring a breakwater which had been formed using rock from the Plover Cove Scheme tunnels. At Tsuen Wan an intake chamber for the central pumping station was constructed in the seawall. A timber jetty was built at Nam Sang Wai for use by police launches and navigational beacons were erected at Yin Pai, Shek Kwu Chau, Pak Kok, Luk Keng and Kau Yi Chau.

       A new hopper dredger of 800 cubic yards capacity was delivered by a local shipyard to the Public Works Department in March. It went to work deepening the western dangerous goods anchorage.

174

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

      The materials testing laboratory, operated by the port works division of the Public Works Department, carried out approxi- mately 39,000 tests on building materials. About 7,000 of these were for private firms.

LAND DEVELOPMENT

      Progress at the two new towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan-- Kwai Chung included the formation of 73 acres of land. At Kwun Tong, eight acres of terraced sites were formed while 43 acres were also reclaimed from the adjacent Kowloon Bay for industrial development. At Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung, 22 acres of land were formed, comprising 12 acres of formed hillside sites and ad- jacent roads for government housing at Kwai Chung North and 10 acres of reclamation at Gin Drinker's Bay.

      In Kowloon, progress was made with site formation and road works for schools and medium density housing at Ho Man Tin and also for government and institutional use near Lung Cheung Road; in all, nine and 10 acres of land respectively were formed. Work was completed on site formation and roads providing some 40 acres of formed sites at Sam Ka Tsuen, mostly for heavy industry, while five acres were reclaimed at Cha Kwo Ling for the coastal road. The formation of five acres at Cheung Sha Wan brought planned reclamation in north-west Kowloon to virtual completion. On Hong Kong Island, 19 acres were reclaimed at Wan Chai and Causeway Bay for the waterfront road and the cross-harbour tunnel. Site formation commenced for 11 acres of formed hillside sites above Tin Hau Temple Road for schools and low-density housing.

      Site formation was also under way for government housing estates at Pak Tin and Yau Tong in Kowloon and at Wong Chuk Hang and Chai Wan on Hong Kong Island; up to the end of the year a total of 87 acres had been formed for these projects.

Work continued on the new town at Castle Peak where 29 acres were reclaimed near Tuen Mun San Hui and construction started on a 2,400-foot river wall. The planned first stage of development for the satellite town of Sha Tin was revised.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

The Hongkong Electric Company supplies power to Hong Kong Island and the neighbouring islands of Ap Lei Chau and Lamma.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

175

     Electricity is generated by a plant at North Point which has an in- stalled capacity of 345 MW. A new generating station is being built on Ap Lei Chau and the first 60 MW generating unit will be brought into operation early in 1968. A second similar unit will be commis- sioned in the same year. Further extensions are in the planning stage.

Extensions of the transmission system include three 132 kV overhead lines designed to reinforce supplies to the west, north and east of Hong Kong Island. The first line is to be completed early in 1968. As part of development in the city and built-up districts, 132 kV underground cables were laid.

The system transmission voltages are 66 kV, 33 kV and 22 kV. Primary distribution is carried out at 11 kV and 6.6 kV. The second- ary distribution voltages are 346 volts, three-phase, four-wire and 200 volts, single-phase. The frequency of the system is stabilized at 50 cycles a second. The obsolescent 22 kV and 6.6 kV systems are gradually being replaced by 33 kV and 11 kV systems. Maximum demand on the company's generating plant rose to 220 MW in 1967, an increase of 9.24 per cent over 1966. The number of con- sumers increased by 8.33 per cent during the year, and sales of electricity amounted to 890.1 million kWh, an increase of 9.09 per cent. These were made up of: domestic and residential, 264.4 million kWh; commercial, 469.8 million kWh; industrial, 149.9 million kWh; street lighting, 5.9 million kWh.

      Charges for electricity range from 28 cents to 15.4 cents a unit for lighting and 12 cents to 11.4 cents a unit for power, depending on the consumption. Special power rates are quoted for bulk sup- plies of industrial power.

The second stage of the company's re-housing scheme for its workmen, a 400-family block of self-contained flats, was started during the year and is due for occupation in 1968.

      The China Light and Power Company Limited supplies electricity to Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of outlying islands. The demand for power has risen considerably over the years; in 1967, the peak load was 455 MW, which was 14 per cent more than in 1966, and 121 per cent more than in 1962.

176

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

      The generating station at Hok Yuen, Kowloon Bay, has a capacity of 602 MW. During 1967, one 60 MW set was commissioned--the third such unit owned by the Peninsula Electric Power Company Limited, the generating enterprise owned and financed by Esso and China Light. When a fourth 60 MW set becomes operational, early in 1968, Hok Yuen will have attained its ultimate capacity of 662 MW.

      China Light's construction team is now erecting, on behalf of Peninsula Electric, a new power station on the south shore of Tsing Yi Island. Two 120 MW units being built for it are due to provide electricity in 1969. Long-term plans provide for four more 120 MW sets, and larger units.

       China Light's main transmission and distribution system is grow- ing in line with additional load requirements. The highest tension employed is 132 kV, and future transmission will be largely at this voltage. The distribution mains are being standardized at 11 kV and, with the conversion from 6.6 kV of the Tsuen Wan and Sha Tin areas completed in 1967, only outlying districts remain at the lower voltage. By September, the main network comprised 454 miles at 33 kV or more, and 641 miles at 11 kV or less.

The electricity supply in Kowloon and the New Territories is 50-cycle alternating current, normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. For bulk consumers, supply is available at 11 kV and, in some locations, at 6.6 kV.

       In the year ending September 30, there were more than 428,000 consumers, 10.3 per cent more than in the previous 12 months. In the same period, 2,394 million kWh were generated, an increase of 13.2 per cent; 2,091 million kWh were sold, comprising 366 million kWh private lighting, 10 million kWh public lighting, 853 million kWh ordinary power, and 862 million kWh industrial bulk

power.

       Early in 1967, there was a substantial reduction in lighting charges and a standard tariff was instituted. The following basic rates per kWh were in force at the end of the year: lighting, 27 cents, less a rebate of 0.7 cent; ordinary power, 13.6 cents; domestic cooking, 11.5 cents. There are special rates for industrial bulk power.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

177

The Cheung Chau Electric Company Limited supplies Cheung Chau Island which contains some small industries and a population of fisherfolk who founded the company in 1913 as a community project. It is now operated by commercial interests and it supplies power on a 50-cycle, three-phase, four-wire system of 200/346 volts for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes.

      The charges for electricity have been gradually lowered by modern- izing and increasing the efficiency of the generating plant. Current rates are 57 cents per unit for lighting and 25 cents per unit for domestic and industrial power. Special rates are given to bulk

consumers.

The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited supplies Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. Town gas is available throughout the urban areas, including Repulse Bay on the island, and the industrial towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan in Kowloon. Liquefied petroleum gas (or bottled gas) is offered to customers who are out of reach of the town gas supply.

      Town gas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok in Kowloon. The island is supplied by two submarine gas mains across the har- bour. The total installed production capacity of the Ma Tau Kok station is approximately nine million cubic feet per day. Tsuen Wan is supplied by an independent station of 900,000 cubic feet per day capacity. To ensure that gas installation work is maintained at a high standard the company has its own installation department which is assisted, when necessary, by authorized sub-contractors. Where building developers provide an internal town gas installa- tion, the company installs gas services, up to the meter positions, free of charge. In addition to dealing with normal maintenance calls, the company provides a 24-hour emergency service.

Gas is sold on a thermal basis (one therm-100,000 British thermal units). The calorific value of town gas in the urban area is 455 British thermal units per cubic foot. However, in the Tsuen Wan area the calorific value of the gas is 650 per cubic foot. The tariff incorporates a standing charge which is dependent upon the size of meter installed. It includes the cost of the first three therms of gas consumed. The scale of charges is:

178

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

First 3 therms Next 7 therms (up to Next 40 therms (up to Next 75 therms (up to Next 125 therms (up to

HK$10.60 or $24.10

10 therms) 50 therms)

2.86 per therm

2.81 per therm

125 therms)

2.74 per therm

250 therms)

2.62 per therm

500 therms)

2.51 per therm

2.40 per therm

2.30 per therm

Next 250 therms (up to Next 500 therms (up to 1,000 therms) Consumption over 1,000 therms

      Special rates are offered on an individual basis for large industrial and commercial consumers. The total quantity of gas sold in 1967 was 1,488 million cubic feet (6.8 million therms) compared with 1,384 million cubic feet (6.3 million therms) in 1966. The number of consumers rose from 23,124 to 24,746.

13

Communications

IN the days when Hong Kong lived largely by entrepôt trade, its position on the China Coast was its greatest advantage. Changed conditions have now placed the emphasis on industrial production and imports and exports, but that position is still of vital importance. Today as always the Colony relies upon an efficient system of communications.

The Port of Victoria is a fine natural harbour possessing all the facilities required by modern ship operators. Berths at government buoys, private wharves and piers permit a continual flow of ocean and coastal shipping to pass through the port with a minimum of delay. Modern cargo-handling equipment at the wharves ensures a rapid turn-around of ships berthed there. The services of ship con- tractors, repairers and chandlers specializing in maintenance, paint- ing, victualling, watering and refuelling are readily available.

The Director of Marine is responsible for the control of the navigable waters and ports of the Colony. The Marine Department maintains close liaison with shipping and commercial interests, through the Port Committee and the Port Executive Committee, to ensure that port facilities and services keep pace with the ever- changing needs of Hong Kong and of shipping companies of all nations.

      Comprehensive navigational aids cover the harbour and ap- proaches, allowing safe entry to the port by day or night in all weathers. Improvements are under constant review by the Marine Department. The depth in the eastern approaches is 36 feet through Lei Yue Mun and 28 feet in the west, through Sulphur Channel or south of Stonecutters Island. Although pilotage is not com- pulsory, it is recommended owing to the density of traffic, new reclamations and harbour works.

Quarantine and immigration formalities are carried out at the eastern and western quarantine anchorages. Port health and

180

COMMUNICATIONS

immigration launches are on duty day and night in the eastern an- chorage, and from 6.30 a.m. to 6.45 p.m. in the western anchorage. Ships are cleared as soon as they arrive and, in the case of large passenger ships, immigration processing is continued en route to the berths to reduce inconvenience to passengers. Radio pratique is granted in certain cases. This concession is of prime importance to the operators of oil tankers as it allows discharge to start as soon as the ship is berthed.

Signal stations on Waglan Island and at other points in the harbour and approaches are continuously manned. All movements are reported to the Port Control Office, where staff is always avail- able to deal with emergencies and queries. The signal stations are in contact by a radio-telephone link with Marine and Port Health launches and by landline with Police, Immigration, Fire Services and Preventive Services operational centres. Vessels at buoys and wharves may hire radio-telephones from Cable and Wireless, Limit- ed, to link up with the public telephone services.

As a port service, a fleet of fire floats is operated by the Fire Services Department. It includes the fireboat Alexander Grantham, possibly the largest of its kind afloat. Many government and com- mercial tugs are also fitted with fire-fighting equipment.

Port activity in 1967 showed a slight decline compared with 1966, principally due to the unsettled conditions in mainland China and, to a smaller degree, the disturbances in the port and stoppages of work by some seamen. Successful efforts by the Marine Department did much to normalize movements of ships during these periods. Although the total number of ocean-going vessels entering the port in this calendar year was below that of 1966, the total of 613, in March, represented the largest total for any one month since the Second World War. Details of vessels entered and cleared during the year, together with figures of cargo loaded and discharged, are in Appendix XXXVIII, which also shows the number of passengers dealt with, including transit emigrants. Regular and frequent serv- ices are maintained by many well-known and old-established shipping lines. Some 20 companies provide regular sailings to Europe, and a similar number to the North American continent. There are regular services to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa,

Winning a Reservoir

from the Sea

Although it is surrounded by water, Hong Kong has no large rivers or lakes and the task of meeting the needs of its fast-growing popula-

V

tion and thirsty industries has been a constant prob- lem. The authorities have tackled the situation bold- ly and with imagination, striving to conserve enough water to keep supply ahead of demand. The most am- bitious scheme to date in- volves sealing and draining Plover Cove, a three-mile sea inlet in the New Terri- tories. The project is almost complete. Thou- sands of millions of gallons of sea water have been pumped out and fresh water has begun to flow into the reservoir from a vast network of under- ground tunnels. When full, Plover Cove will hold more than 30,000 ton gal- lons-trebling the Colony's storage capacity.

It is inevitable that such a scheme should affect the lives of many people. But none more intimately than the 1,000 villagers whose ancestors had lived on the banks of the cove for centuries. They have all been moved to modern new flats in a nearby market town and compensated.

公共

Left: The tranquil beauty of Plover Cove survives the incursions of progress. This floating unit pumped out seawater. Above: Plover Cove with most of the seawater drained off. The main dam wall is in the background. Below: After the summer rains fresh water gushes in at the main inlet portal.

   Left: Excavations like this provided fill for the dam. The terracing will aid site formation for the new Chinese University of Hong Kong. Above: The per- manent pumping station takes shape. Below: The main dam wall. More than 6.5 million cubic yards of sea bed were dredged to make way for the foundation.

ONG

ONG PUR

D

Plover Cove from the north-west. The main dam is on the right. In the middle dis- tance are the subsid- iary dams. The site of the pumping sta- tion is in the middle foreground. Left: Forlorn debris on the dried up bed of the cove after pump- ing out. Right: One of the ancient vil- lages whose popula- tion was moved from the reservoir banks.

כזי

   Left: The machinery of progress churns away in a setting of rural peace. Above: Removal operations went smoothly. These women wait their turn to go. Below: Landing craft were used to transport villagers and their possessions.

ī

Left: Taoist monks conduct a ceremony before a village removal begins. Above: Plover Cove villagers have been rehoused in this complex of modern flats at the nearby market town. Below: A family moves in to a new home. Overleaf: There is always an air of sadness when an old way of life comes to an end.

XX

Pi.

L

COMMUNICATIONS

181

      South America and other countries in the Far East. Frequent and fast services are maintained to Macau by ferries and hydrofoils.

      Two years ago the Marine Department recognized the need for improving wharf facilities for passengers travelling to Macau. The volume of passenger traffic rose from just over a million in 1961-2 to more than two-and-a-half million in 1966-7. Several new buildings have been built for the use of passengers and ferry operators, and they form a complex known as the Hong Kong-Macau Hydrofoil and Ferry Terminal.

      The Marine Department maintains 68 moorings for ocean-going freighters. Of these, 41 are classified as suitable for use by vessels of up to 600 feet in length and 27 for vessels of up to 450 feet. When the Port Buoyage Improvement Scheme has been fully im- plemented, 73 moorings for ocean-going shipping will be available. Commercial wharves can accommodate ships not exceeding 1,000 feet in length and with draughts of up to 36 feet.

The ocean terminal, opened last year, is one of the best-equipped in the world. Its self-contained shopping centre has more than 100 shops on two floors. It also has night clubs, car parks and exhibition areas and visitors and passengers are catered for by banking, travel, telegraphic and typing services. At ground level there are seven- and-a-half acres of wharf and transit shed space. The terminal provides berthing for four ocean-going liners and has 190,000 square feet of apron space on its marine deck for cargo handling. Wharf and godown companies have a total cargo storage capacity, for all types of goods, of more than a million tons. Transhipment cargo facilities and services are also provided. Most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage transported by lighter or junk, and an adequate number of this type of craft is always available for hire.

      It became apparent early in 1966 that great impetus was being given to the development of container cargo services throughout the world. A Container Committee was appointed under the chair- manship of the Director of Marine, comprising representatives of manufacturing, exporting and shipping organizations, and of the relevant government departments. It has been discussing the prob- lems and ramifications for Hong Kong of containerization since

182

COMMUNICATIONS

late in 1966, and its recommendation for a container terminal of 90 acres at Kwai Chung is now under consideration by the govern- ment. Pending a firm decision, the government has agreed to reserve the site at Kwai Chung recommended by the committee.

       The year under review saw the completion of two new tanker berths and tank farms on Tsing Yi Island to supplement existing oil wharves, including the terminal completed in 1966 at Nga Ying Chau. The new terminals greatly improve the berthing facilities for tankers and increase the capacity for the storage of oils and chemi- cals. Both installations can accept tankers of up to 35,000 tons deadweight with a minimum depth of about 40 feet alongside their berths.

Officers of the Mercantile Marine Office supervise the engagement and discharge of seamen serving in British ships and also the crews of ships whose countries have no consular representative in Hong Kong. The Seamen's Recruiting Office, which was established in 1966, is responsible for the registration of all seamen engaged in Hong Kong for service in foreign-going vessels. A shipping informa- tion unit, formed within the Marine Department during the year, has been busily engaged in countering the effects of stoppages of work by some seamen and in furnishing information on condi- tions in ports in China and in the Far East to the Hong Kong Government, overseas governments and other interested parties. This unit, together with the Seamen's Recruiting Office, did much to maintain normal conditions during this year's disturbances. A Port Welfare Committee disburses government subventions and other monies to religious and other organizations which minister to the needs of crews of ships visiting Hong Kong. The committee manages the Merchant Navy Club in Kowloon. During the year, $244,256.25 was provided for port welfare purposes.

The Colony's dockyards were kept busy during the year with new construction, repair work and conversions. Seaway Princess, a relatively new type of cargo carrier, known as a trailer ship, was built at Kowloon Docks for a New Zealand company and launched in September. The same dockyard also built a diesel tug, designed for deepsea salvage work, which is one of the most powerful of its kind in the world. A twin-screw, twin-grab dredger launched in

COMMUNICATIONS

183

      November, 1966, for the Hong Kong Government was commissioned early in the year. Dockyards in the Colony were not seriously affected by stoppages during the year. Although the Taikoo Dock- yard lost a number of its workers, new staff was soon trained to fill vacant posts. Both Taikoo Dockyard and Kowloon Docks con- tinue to develop and modernize their facilities, and the extension of the mid-yard berth at Kowloon Docks, now almost complete, will enable larger vessels to go alongside. The Hong Kong Registry of Shipping currently lists 477 vessels under the British flag, totalling some 801,183 gross register tons. Of these, 113 ships are over 500 tons gross. Vast numbers of small craft operate in the harbour and create special problems. There are more than 19,500 vessels in this category and some 8,400 are mechanized. It is mandatory for persons in charge of mechanized craft to possess a local certificate of com- petency as master or engineer.

       Trade continued with Macau and adjacent Chinese ports, though there was a decrease compared with previous years. Cargoes from these areas are transported mainly by towed lighters or junks. Details of trade tonnage may be found in Appendix XXXVIII. A brisk internal trade is carried on between the harbour area and outlying districts. The shipbreaking industry improved. Ships notified as coming to be broken up in Hong Kong up to the end of the year totalled 34, compared with only 12 last year. The increase was probably due to the rise in insurance premia on old ships.

Although storm signals were hoisted several times during the typhoon season, the Colony was never seriously affected. In March, the British vessel Niceto de Larrinage collided in fog with the American flag vessel Pioneer Moor near Tathong Point, and suffered extensive damage. A few minor collisions also occured. In Septem- ber, a British registered vessel, mv Denny Rose, with officers and crew from Hong Kong, was reported missing while on a voyage from Toledo to Chiba. In spite of an intense air and sea search, no sign of the vessel was found. In November two Hong Kong registered vessels, the passenger ship Lakemba and the cargo ship, Habib Marikar, went aground and were subsequently declared total losses. One life was lost in the case of the Habib Marikar. All casualties are the subject of preliminary enquiries being conducted by the Marine Department.

184

COMMUNICATIONS

CIVIL AVIATION

Hong Kong Kai Tak International Airport today is one of the major international airports in the world and forms an important link on the main air routes of the Far East. More than 250 scheduled services to all parts of the world are provided each week by 24 international airlines, in addition to many charter and non-scheduled flights, and some 1,229,235 passengers passed through the terminal building during the year. The importance of the airport to the Colony is high-lighted by the fact that tourism is now the Colony's second largest industry and more than 90 per cent of visitors travel by air.

The runway, 8,350 feet long, is suitable for use by the most modern types of aircraft. The latest navigational and approach aids have been installed and an instrument landing system, surveillance radar, precision approach radar and a pattern of radio beacons contribute greatly to the safety and regularity of air services. Modern airport and approach lighting provides for safe night operations in spite of the surrounding hills.

The terminal building was extended in 1964 to meet the require- ments of increasing air traffic. It operates on a 'two level' system. Arriving and departing passengers are dealt with on different floors. The building includes shops, bars, a restaurant and a spacious ob- servation platform. In front of the terminal an extensive apron provides parking, complete with hydrant refuelling, for 11 large aircraft. Work on an extension to the apron is now nearing com- pletion and will provide space for an additional five aircraft of up to the size of the Boeing 747.

The dramatic growth of air traffic requires further development of passenger and cargo terminal buildings, parking aprons and air traffic control and communications facilities. Also, the increased weight of aircraft requires an extension to the runway and planning continued in all these fields during the year.

Responsibility for the supervision of all aspects of civil aviation in the Colony rests with the Director of Civil Aviation. Full operational services are provided, including air traffic control, telecommunications, air sea rescue, airport fire service, aeronautical

COMMUNICATIONS

185

information service, aircraft registration and certification of air- worthiness, personnel licensing and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an aeronautical meteorological service.

There are two flying clubs in the Colony. The Hong Kong Flying Club operates a Beechcraft Musketeer and the Aero Club of Hong Kong a Cessna 172E Skyhawk. The Far East Flying Training School offers full time courses of training in aeronautical engineer- ing and electronics. Aircraft maintenance in Hong Kong is provided by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited. Over- haul and repair facilities are offered for a wide range of aircraft including the latest jet airliners. Cathay Pacific, Hong Kong's own airline, uses Convair 880 aircraft and offers services to India, Japan, Malaysia, Sabah, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Korea. During the year passenger, freight, and mail figures showed increases over the previous year of 10.7 per cent, 22.1 per cent, and 15.4 per cent respectively.

       The year was marred by two tragic accidents. The first occurred on June 30 when a Thai Airways 'Caravelle' crashed into the sea, short of the promonotory, while attempting to land. The second accident occurred on November 5 when a Cathay Pacific Airways 'Convair' crashed into the sea while taking off. There were 56 survivors from the first crash and 116 from the second.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

       The British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon Peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Lo Wu where it joins the Chinese railway system. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains at the border between the Colony and China and walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic, in wagon loads, travel through without transhipment.

      There are 17 daily passenger trains, each way, operating on the British Section and an average of five goods trains per day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at weekends and public holidays, especially in winter. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin Station, which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon at Tsim Sha Tsui and the border station at Lo Wu, is about one hour.

186

COMMUNICATIONS

The greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year was 102,484 on Wednesday, April 5-the Ching Ming Festival day when many visitors paid their respects to their an- cestors in the cemeteries at Wo Hop Shek and Sandy Ridge in the New Territories.

       Fares for third class travel are slightly higher than bus fares except between Kowloon and Sha Tin. Third class from Kowloon to Sha Tin, a distance of 7.14 miles, is 50 cents. Children under 12 years of age pay half fare. The second class fare is 50 per cent more than the third. First class is double. Quarterly and monthly tickets at cheap rates are available for all stations. For a quarterly ticket, the fare is the sum of 75 ordinary single fares and for a monthly ticket, 30 ordinary single fares. Holders may use their tickets on any train and as many times as they like on any day.

Rolling stock on the British section comprises nine diesel-electric locomotives, one rail-bus, 70 passenger coaches and 147 goods

wagons.

The timing of the construction of a new terminal station for the railway, to be situated at Hung Hom adjacent to the proposed cross-harbour tunnel, is still under consideration. The construction of a new major workshop to provide facilities for heavy and light repairs for locomotives and rolling stock is in progress at Ho Tung Lau, on reclaimed land. A new running shed being built at Hung Hom on the site adjacent to the proposed terminal station will enable locomotive running repairs to be made and will also provide 'stabling' space in the area.

ROADS

There are 609.3 miles of road in the Colony maintained by the government, 200 of which are on Hong Kong Island, 180.5 in Kowloon and 228.8 in the New Territories. To relieve traffic conges- tion and to meet ever-increasing traffic demands as a result of improved social and economic conditions, a large programme of road construction and improvement has been necessary. A total of $35.6 million was spent on major projects and $15.3 million on road improvement and maintenance during the year.

On Hong Kong Island, work progressed on the Garden Road complex, a comprehensive scheme to improve traffic flow along the

COMMUNICATIONS

187

Garden Road route, connecting the mid and upper levels of the Peak area with the central district. The latest stage to be opened was the flyover over Queen's Road East-the second flyover in the project. A scheme to provide a limited access three-lane dual car- riageway link for traffic between Harcourt Road and King's Road was initiated. It is designed to relieve congestion in the existing east-west routes and to provide free access to the proposed cross- harbour tunnel interchange. The improvement of the Caine Road- Arbuthnot Road-Upper Albert Road junction, the last essential junction improvement in the mid-level-central area linked traffic routing scheme, was also completed. Planning continued on the re-alignment of a section of Pokfulam Road, on a new road from Wong Chuk Hang Road to Deep Water Bay Road and on the widening of Chai Wan Road.

       In Kowloon, the 4,700-foot-long road through Lion Rock Tunnel was opened to traffic in November. It incorporates the latest equip- ment for toll operation and provides a direct through route to Sha Tin and the New Territories. Another stage in the provision of a fast new route to the western New Territories was completed with the opening of the Lai Chi Kok Road extension; this will connect up with the bridge across Lai Chi Kok Bay, which is due to open in 1968. Planning work on two major flyover schemes in Princess Margaret Road was completed and widening and recon- struction works were in hand on many major traffic routes in the

area.

In the New Territories, the two-mile long road connecting the north portal of the Lion Rock Tunnel to Tai Po Road at Sha Tin was completed and the construction of the first stage of the Junk Bay Road, from Lei Yue Mun Road to Sau Mau Ping, progressed. Other new roads, constructed primarily to serve development areas, are in the towns of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Yuen Long and Tai Po. A report on improvement of the traffic route linking Tsuen Wan and the proposed new town at Castle Peak was completed by the Consulting Engineers, Messrs Scott, Wilson, Kirkpatrick and Partners. Investigations were also carried out into the improvement, to dual-carriageway standard, of lengths of road from Castle Peak to Ping Shan and from Yuen Long to Au Tau, and into the selec- tion of the most suitable alignment for a by-pass at Tsuen Wan.

188

COMMUNICATIONS

       With the growth of the daily traffic load, and in an effort to make the best use of the existing road network, traffic management tech- niques continued to be applied. Good progress was made in the installation of traffic light signals to improve traffic operation at intersections. A total of 113 sets were in use at the end of 1967. The linked systems in Nathan Road and Queen's Road East were brought into operation.

Following the completion of work by the Passenger Transport Survey Unit, a permanent unit was established to undertake trans- portation surveys for other government departments. The Traffic and Transport Survey Unit, operates under the administrative control of the Public Works Department. It has investigated the road needs of north-east Kowloon and is investigating the effect on travel habits of the opening of the Lion Rock Tunnel. The traffic census, involving the measurement of traffic flow along all the major routes in the Colony, was continued and expanded to include the New Territories.

       Work continued on the installation of plant at the new government quarry at Diamond Hill. Mechanization of the Mount Butler Quarry was delayed by non-arrival of equipment from overseas.

PARKING

There are four government multi-storey car parks, managed by the Urban Council, with a total capacity of 2,283 cars. In addition 1,747 parking spaces in six temporary open air car parks, also managed by the council, have been established on Crown land awaiting development. Fees for parking remained unchanged in 1967. For multi-storey car parks the charges are calculated at 60 cents an hour for most of the day, with a minimum charge of $1.50. For temporary car parks the fee is $1.50 for half a day, or $3.00 for the whole day. A monthly parking pass, valid at both types of car park, costs $120.

The government policy is to provide car parks only in the main commuter areas. In areas of mixed commuter and residential develop- ment, where there is a greater demand for car parking than can be satisfied by metered kerbside parking, it is intended that land shall be sold by tender for car parking and other activities that can be

COMMUNICATIONS

189

conveniently combined with it. Before the outbreak of the dis- turbances in May, there was a total of 5,271 parking meters in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. Plans to install another 2,000 meters during the financial year 1967-8 were post- poned because more than 2,500 meters were stolen, damaged, and had to be written off during the disturbances. Work on repairing or replacing these meters was under way by the end of the year and work on new installations will continue when this is completed.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Public transport in Hong Kong, with the exception of the railway, is operated by private enterprise. The government retains powers designed to ensure efficient operation. There are five major public transport companies which operate under ordinances which grant monopoly rights, but require the provision of adequate services.

On Hong Kong Island two public transport companies have exclusive franchises to operate bus and tram services. In Kowloon and the New Territories another company has the exclusive bus franchise. Two large ferry companies have monopolies to operate services on specified routes across the harbour. Other minor cross- harbour services operate under licence.

During the year, 1,055 million people travelled on all public transport services. This was a decrease of 14.8 per cent on the 1966 figure. Passengers on urban transport services, including bus serv- ices on both sides of the harbour, trams on Hong Kong Island, cross-harbour ferries and local passengers on the railway, totalled 986 million, which was a decrease of 14 per cent. In the New Territories 69 million passengers were carried on buses, trains and ferries, a decrease of 24.1 per cent. (See Appendix XXXVIII).

From the outbreak of the disturbances in mid-May, the Transport Office-which is a branch of the Colonial Secretariat-maintained close liaison with the public transport companies to ensure the con- tinuance of services; to co-ordinate security arrangements between the companies and the police; and, after stoppages of work by employees, to help formulate and implement policy on re-employ- ment and recruitment. Throughout the troubles, there was never a complete suspension of public transport, although services had to

190

COMMUNICATIONS

be reduced by varying degrees because of the loss of staff by the companies.

The Star Ferry was the first public transport company to be affected by a major stoppage. In June, walkout of staff was complete and the company dismissed all its floating staff and both its cross- harbour services had to be suspended for three days. As a result or re-registration of dismissed employees, a limited service on the Edinburgh Place-Tsim Sha Tsui route was resumed on June 10. Within a month, this service was back to normal, but the service stopped at 2 instead of 3 a.m. The Hung Hom-Edinburgh Place route remains suspended pending a detailed examination of its usefulness.

Similar difficulties faced the other public transport companies. On June 23, the Hongkong Tramways Limited found itself with approximately 60 per cent staff, the China Motor Bus Company with 46 per cent, the Kowloon Motor Bus Company with 32 per cent and the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company with 94 per cent. After the stoppages, a programme of re-employment of suspended or dismissed employees met with poor response and the companies had to recruit new and untrained labour. This ruled out any chance of an immediate return to normal operating con- ditions.

Nevertheless, the Hongkong Tramways Limited was operating all its regular services again by mid-October. The Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company suffered less than any other major trans- port company and within a very short space of time was operating all its normal services, with the exception of one which remains suspended pending a decision on the construction of the cross- harbour tunnel. Both bus companies had broken the back of their recruiting problems by the end of the year. The Transport Office helped to train additional bus driving instructors and granted learner bus-drivers immediate tests.

       The Kowloon Motor Bus Company had to suspend service on many routes and carried out a re-examination of the justification and requirements of each route before bringing it back into opera- tion. By the end of 1967, the China Motor Bus Company was

COMMUNICATIONS

191

operating 77 per cent of normal services and the Kowloon Motor Bus Company 75 per cent.

The disruption caused to public transport by the stoppage led to the growth of illegal forms of public transport but, as regular services gradually improved, the law was more stringently enforced against private cars, dual-purpose vans and small lorries plying for hire illegally.

       The Transport Advisory Committee, formed in December 1965, combines the functions of both the former Advisory Committee on Public Transport and the Traffic Advisory Committee. It continued to study transport problems within the Colony and to offer con- structive advice to the government and transport companies on the planning of services to meet present and future needs.

       Bus services in Kowloon and the New Territories are operated by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited. At the end of 1967, its fleet totalled 1,051 vehicles, comprising 625 double-deck buses and 426 single-deck buses. During the year 20 buses were added to the fleet and 24 older ones were taken out of service. The fleet's total passenger-carrying capacity at the end of the year was 79,382, an increase of 1.43 per cent over 1966. All double-deck buses are equipped with power-operated doors and a connected system of warning bells. During the first four months of 1967, the company was operating a total of 65 routes (39 in Kowloon and 26 in the New Territories). During the year 515.5 million passengers were carried and 32.5 million miles were covered by the company's buses, a decrease of 19.8 per cent and 31.1 per cent, respectively, compared with the previous year.

       Bus services on Hong Kong Island are run by the China Motor Bus Company Limited which has 502 vehicles, comprising 384 single-deck and 118 double-deck buses. The total mid-year passenger- carrying capacity of the fleet was 30,501, an increase of 9.24 per cent over 1966. During the first four months of the year, the company was operating a total of 30 routes. In 1967, the buses carried 169.2 million passengers and covered 15.3 million miles, a decrease of 9.3 per cent and 18.2 per cent respectively compared with the previous

year.

With a few exceptions both bus companies charge two fares within the urban areas. The lower fare of 10 cents is for a stage of

192

COMMUNICATIONS

roughly one mile. For journeys exceeding this distance within the urban area, the fare is usually 20 cents. There is a provision for school children's and other concessionary fares.

On the island, Hongkong Tramways Limited operate an electric tramway service over 19 miles of track running between Kennedy Town and Shau Kei Wan, with a branch line round the racecourse in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the city of Victoria. The tramcars are three-and-a-half-foot gauge, 500 volts DC, four- wheeled double-deckers. The total fleet is 162 tramcars and 21 single-deck trailers and the normal daily service operated by the Company in 1967 was 156 tramcars and 21 trailers at peak periods. This gave a car in each direction every two minutes on all routes. Through the city area the minimum frequency was a car every 30 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried was 154.1 million, a decrease of 27.5 million or 15.1 per cent compared with the 1966 figure. Fares are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route and are 20 cents first class and 10 cents third class. The maximum length of a route is 62 miles. The company issues monthly and concessionary tickets.

The Peak Tramways Company Limited runs a funicular railway service up the Peak. The present haulage system has been in use since 1925 and cars are drawn along the track by nearly two miles of steel cable. During the year, two million passengers were carried. The tramway climbs Victoria Peak to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in two. It is reputed to be the steepest funicular railway in the world using a steel wire rope as its sole means of haulage.

      Taxis are licensed for specific use on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon or the New Territories, and conditions and fares vary with each area. The government continued to open the way for new companies to enter the taxi business and, in accordance with this policy, 1,000 new urban taxi licences (805 for Kowloon and 195 for Hong Kong Island) were put out to public tender, in two batches of 500, in April and September. On Hong Kong Island fares are $1.50 for the first mile and 20 cents for every fifth of a mile, or 25 cents for every subsequent quarter of a mile. In Kowloon the fare is $1 for the first mile and 20 cents for every subsequent quarter mile. Taxis licensed for the New Territories may carry passengers

COMMUNICATIONS

193

to any place in Kowloon, but may only pick up passengers in Kowloon at special taxi stands for destinations in the New Ter- ritories. They may not ply for hire within the urban area of Kowloon. At the end of the year, there was a total of 3,649 licensed taxis in the Colony: 1,983 in Kowloon, 1,144 on Hong Kong Island and 522 in the New Territories.

Public omnibuses operate transport services excluded from the monopolies of the major bus companies. They include coaches for sight-seeing tours, those provided by hotels for their guests and those used for school-bus services. At the end of the year there were 254 public omnibuses licensed by the Commissioner for Trans- port. Some public cars operate under similar franchises and differ only in that they may seat a maximum of nine passengers, but most vehicles registered in this category are hired out for self-drive and do not require a franchise. At the end of the year there were 936 public cars licensed. No scale of fees is laid down for the hire of public cars or omnibuses.

FERRY SERVICES

      The Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited operates a fleet of 68 diesel-engined ferries 14 of which are vehicle ferries. The company maintains 11 routes in the harbour between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, three of which are for vehicle ferries. These three consist of a combined passenger-vehicle link between the central district of Hong Kong Island and Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon; a route for vehicles-only between North Point and Kowloon City, and a double-decker vehicle ferry service between the central district and Yau Ma Tei. Ferries to outlying districts call at Ma Wan, Castle Peak, Tung Chung, Sha Lo Wan and Tai O; Peng Chau, Silver Mine Bay, Chi Ma Wan and Cheung Chau; Tsing Yi Island and Tsuen Wan, and So Kwu Wan and Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island. There is also a service from Tai Po Kau to Tap Mun in Tolo Harbour. During 1967, 158.5 million passengers and 4.5 million vehicles were carried, a decrease of 1.6 per cent and an increase of 4.9 per cent respectively over 1966. Vehicle ferry traffic, which had grown at the remarkable rate of 20 per cent a year since 1960, fell off in the middle of 1965 largely because of the decline in the building trade. The percentage increase for the years 1965-7 was 11.8.

194

COMMUNICATIONS

       The Star Ferry Company Limited runs passenger ferry services across the harbour between Victoria City on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. The Company has 14 vessels with a total passenger carrying capacity of 7,857. During 1967, 48.625 million passengers were carried, a decrease of 13.7 per cent compared with 1966.

TRANSPORT OFFICE

      The Transport Office was set up under the Commissioner for Transport in December 1965. It provides a secretariat for the Transport Advisory Committee besides carrying out a wide range of executive functions in the transport field. On June 9, responsibility for vehicle licensing and registration, driving testing and licensing and vehicle inspection, was transferred from the Commissioner of Police to the Commissioner for Transport. As the statutory authority, the Commissioner is also responsible for regulating public transport services and co-ordinating action between other departments in the transport field.

The number of registered vehicles at the end of 1967 was 100,982, an increase of 6.9 per cent over the previous year. (Vehicle statistics are given in Appendix XXXVIII). The system of compulsory inspection of taxis and public cars, instituted in June, 1966, was continued during 1967 to ensure that these vehicles comply with basic safety requirements.

The demand for driving licences continued to rise and during the year 160,146 driving tests were conducted and 29,992 driving licences were issued.

CROSS-HARBOUR TUNNEL

      A resolution approving in principle the grant of a franchise to the Victoria City Development Company, to construct and operate a tunnel across the harbour between Wan Chai and Hung Hom, was approved in principle by the Legislative Council in 1965. It was subject to certain conditions, one of which was that the tunnel had to be completed by 1970. With the approval of the government, the company assigned all its rights and obligations to the Cross- Harbour Tunnel Company on May 17, 1966. During the year, a firm of engineering consultants was employed by the government to

COMMUNICATIONS

195

design road and flyover networks at the tunnel approaches, and a bill relating to the grant of the franchise to construct and operate the tunnel was drafted. In November, 1966, the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company issued tender documents for the tunnel construc- tion.

POSTAL SERVICES

The development of postal services continued in 1967 with post- ings to all destinations of more than 148 million postal articles, representing an increase of more than seven per cent over postings for the previous year. More than 134 million items were delivered locally and more than two million were handled in transit. Postal statistics are given at Appendix XXXVIII. Counter business at all post offices includes the sale of stamps, acceptance of registered articles and parcels and issue and payment of money orders and postal orders. Special services include business reply facilities, cash-on-delivery parcels, private boxes and bags, postage meter machines and arrangements for bulk postings. There are two postal deliveries a day, excluding Sundays, in all but the most remote rural areas.

A high percentage of mail posted is destined for abroad and, since separate dispatches to individual countries are established whenever justified, direct dispatches are actually made up to more than 197 different places overseas. The train services between Kowloon and Lo Wu form the main link for the carriage of mail to and from the People's Republic of China.

Three new post offices were opened during the year and one dispensed with, bringing the total of offices to 51. Two mobile post offices operate in the New Territories. The new offices are the large Kowloon central post office and two in the New Territories at Tuen Mun San Hui and Fanling. On the opening of Kowloon central post office, the Yaumati office, a few hundred yards away in dilapidated premises, was closed. The Kowloon central office became the postal administrative headquarters for Kowloon and the New Territories. On Hong Kong Island, the Sai Ying Pun Post Office, previously housed in a temporary hut, was moved in April to a large new building in Pokfulam Road.

Two special postage stamp issues were made during the year. The first in January commemorated the Chinese New Year and

196

COMMUNICATIONS

comprised two stamps in values of 10 cents and $1.30. The second, to mark the connection of the Hong Kong spur to the Common- wealth cable, was a single stamp at $1.30 value.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

        The Telecommunications Division of the Post Office licenses and inspects telecommunication installations operating under the Tele- communication Ordinance; investigates interference to telecom- munication services and monitors radio transmissions to ensure that they comply with the conditions of licence. The division also acts as adviser to government departments on telecommunication matters and co-ordinates their telephone service requirements.

Overseas communications are provided by Cable and Wireless Limited. The 400 million dollar SEACOM Commonwealth cable project was completed in 1967, linking Hong Kong, by wideband submarine cable, to many overseas cities. To the west the cable connects with Jesselton, Singapore and Kualu Lumpur, and east- ward to Guam, Australia and then to Canada and Europe. From Guam the SEACOM cable joins with alternative cables to give high quality channels to Japan, the Philippines and the USA. These new high grade channels created a 50 per cent increase in telephone traffic and additional automatic switching and dialling equipment was installed in Mercury House to cater for this.

       In addition to the cables, radio circuits are in operation to some 18 countries in the region and Hong Kong has become an important telecommunications centre for relayed services. There are now 108 overseas telephone channels terminating in Hong Kong and 164 overseas telegraph circuits.

       The telex service, giving individual office-to-office communication, continues to expand and at the end of 1967 there were 460 sub- scribers in Hong Kong. Leased circuits also continue to increase and high speed data channels are being planned.

During 1967 the expansion of Cape D'Aguilar Radio Station was virtually completed. The tropospheric scatter system to Taiwan went into service in March and a third HF transmission station will be completed early in 1968. Field work and preparations for a satellite earth station, due to be built in 1968, continues.

COMMUNICATIONS

197

       At the Central Telegraph Office orders were finalized for a new $4 million message-switching computer to handle telegraph traffic. The computer will also be used by airlines and other concerns with message traffic. It is expected to be fully operational in 1968.

       Telephone services in the Colony are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited a public company operating under a government franchise. In collaboration with Cable and Wireless Limited it also provides services to most overseas countries and to ships at sea and moored in the harbour. The telephone system is fully automatic and comprises more than 350,000 working tele- phones operating through 33 separate exchanges. Exchange line rentals are on a flat rate basis of $350 a year for business lines and $235 for residential lines. These rates are probably the lowest in the world. In the first half of 1967 more than 27,900 new lines were installed. To meet the high level of demand the company has in hand a vast development programme. It includes the commis- sioning, during 1968, of six new exchanges, large extensions to existing exchanges and a comprehensive development of the cable network. To provide for future expansion up to the 1980's the telephone numbering system has been divided into three separate six-digit systems designated by area code digits. This system will allow expansion up to 1,800,000 lines.

      The government's Advisory Committee on Telephone Services reviews the operation, improvement and expansion of telephone services, examines complaints and suggestions from the public, and makes periodic reports to the Governor in Council.

14

Press, Broadcasting and Cinema

THE year was one of dramatic events, and the Colony's information media were kept busy with the vital task of providing a rapid supply of accurate information. Radio, television stations and newspapers, provided full coverage on all important events. At the height of the disturbances radio stations were on the air for 24 hours a day. The Information Services Department issued a flow of news releases and features informing people of the government's views and in- tentions. It also provided assistance to the many news correspondents who came to Hong Kong from all over the world to cover the disturbances.

PRESS

       The Chinese and English language press in Hong Kong currently produce some 200 publications, including 44 Chinese and four English daily newspapers. It is estimated that, between them, the Chinese and English language newspapers have an overall circula- tion of some one-and-a-half-million copies a day. Some of the leading newspapers and magazines are listed in Appendix XXXIX. The English dailies are the South China Morning Post and its after- noon companion China Mail (which changed to a tabloid format during the year), the Hong Kong Standard and The Star. The Standard and The Star each publish a Sunday edition while the South China Morning Post, Limited, produces the Sunday Post-Herald. The Wah Kiu Yat Po, Sing Tao Jih Pao and the Kung Sheung Yat Po, generally regarded as the 'middle of the road' Chinese newspapers, give a comprehensive coverage of local and overseas news. Three communist daily newspapers and one weekly newspaper were suspended during the year, for publishing seditious material.

Chinese and English language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 17 members and three associate members. The society, formed in 1954, is empowered

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

199

to act in matters affecting the interests of all Hong Kong news- papers, the society or its members.

Hong Kong is the base of South-East Asia operations for many international magazines, newspapers, radio and televison networks. International news agencies are represented by the Associated Press of America, Agence France Presse, Reuters and United Press Inter- national.

SOUND BROADCASTING

There are three radio broadcasting organizations in Hong Kong, Radio Hong Kong, Commercial Radio and Rediffusion. It is estimated that there are more than a million radio receivers in the Colony.

      Radio Hong Kong has been on the air since 1928, and currently broadcasts separate Chinese and English sound services for 17 hours daily on medium, short wave and FM. It does not carry advertising.

Tenders have been called for the construction of Broadcasting House, a new studio centre in Kowloon, due to be completed at the end of 1968. It will provide Radio Hong Kong with self-contained premises, and, for the first time, sub-departments, now housed in several buildings on Hong Kong Island, will be brought together under one roof. Work on a medium wave transmitting station at Smugglers Ridge began early in the year, and test transmissions are currently in progress on the 20 KW transmitters which should, for the first time, provide a satisfactory medium wave signal on a Colony-wide basis, all the year round.

      Radio Hong Kong's policy is to provide listeners with balanced, comprehensive programmes of entertainment, information and education. There is emphasis, particularly on the Chinese service, on the use of the radio in meeting particular social and community needs. For example, special programmes are broadcast for fisher- men, agricultural workers, the blind and school leavers. Research is being made into the possibility of using radio to help train in- dustrial workers in basic technical skills.

      Most of the programmes are produced in Hong Kong, but the BBC and other overseas transcription services provide additional material, and English and Chinese news bulletins are relayed from

200

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

the BBC. More use was made of the Commonwealth cable during the year. Programme material received by way of it included news items from London and New York; reports from East Africa by the Radio Hong Kong member of the East African Trade Delegation; a two-way Family Favourites with the BBC; and commentaries from the Singapore Grand Prix.

Commercial Radio's medium wave transmitting station at Peng Chau Island came on the air in March. The new 10 KW transmitters improved reception of the station over the entire Colony.

Both English and Chinese services concentrated on increasing their news programmes and outside broadcasts during the year.

Commentaries on the Singapore Grand Prix were broadcast live from Singapore via the Commonwealth cable and formed part of the station's comprehensive Spotlight on Sports. Thirteen con- certs in the Festival of Music and Fine Arts 1967 series were broadcast from the City Hall, and Schools Music Festival prize winning cencerts were broadcast on the bi-lingual service, which was increased from two to three hours daily. The Chinese service began an early morning disk jockey show in May, which has proved popular.

       Rediffusion wired sound facilities are supplied by Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Limited, a locally controlled subsidiary of the organiza- tion which operates in Britain and in many Commonwealth countries. The sound service is distributed to practically all urban areas and to many outlying villages in the islands and New Territories, by more than 1,000 miles of main trunk lines and 3,000 miles of in- stallation cabling. At the end of the year there were 30,000 sub- scribers to the services. Rental for a speaker is $8.50 a month. There is a choice of four programmes. The Silver and Gold Chinese networks broadcast 17 hours daily, offering news, music and pro- grammes in a variety of dialects. The third Chinese programme broadcasts from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. daily and provides a comprehen- sive school programme in Cantonese. The English service broadcasts an all-music programme, with news bulletins. It operates from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday to Friday, and from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturday and Sunday. There are spot advertisements and just under a quarter of Rediffusion sound programmes are commercially sponsored.

City Hall-Centre of Culture

For all its material drive and industry, Hong Kong has time for cultural endeavour. Proof of this is the impressive success of the City Hall, the focal point in the Colony for music and the arts, which, in 1967, celebrated its fifth anniversary with a month-long festival. More than 50,000 people visited the festival exhibitions and 95 per cent of the concert seats were booked.

The Colony's growing appetite for culture is reflected in the fact that, since the City Hall opened, more than three million people have attended concerts, plays and similar functions there and at least five million have flocked to the exhibition galleries.

icuous

    The $20 million City Hall complex commands a conspicuous position on the waterfront. In addition to the concert hall and theatre, it includes a public library, museum, art gallery, restaurant, marriage registry and a memorial garden. It is a fitting centre for the cultures of East and West to meet-draw- ing together the people of Hong Kong into an integrated com- munity.

KONG PUBL

RI

A fine example of Chinese ceramics.

7

[

HO

Left: The City Hall high block from the south. Above: The concert hall stage can be converted for Chinese opera. The hall can seat about 1,500 people. Below: Gilbert and Sullivan in the theatre, which is designed for small productions.

A

A

40m

تر

Left: The public libraries take up five floors of the high block. None is more popular than the one for children. Above and below: There is always some- thing on display for young and old and there is always an appreciative audience.

{

Left: The restaurant seats 500 comfortably and has an impressive harbour view. Above: The marriage registry office is always busy. Below: The tranquil memorial gardens and central shrine. Overleaf: The costumed splendour of Chinese opera.

1,

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

TELEVISION

201

      There are two television broadcasting organizations in the Colony, Television Broadcasts Limited, which provides wireless television, and Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Limited, which provides a wired service. There are an estimated 110,000 television receivers in the Colony.

In October the government approved the appointment of a Tele- vision Advisory Board to assist the Television Authority in his task of administering the ordinance under which wireless television operations are carried out.

       Wireless television began regular programming on November 19. It featured colour, FM sound, many studio productions and present- ed live remote relays from Macau. Television Broadcasts Limited; the licensee, is registered and controlled in Hong Kong. It employs a UHF 625-line PAL system to broadcast over two networks-one, the Jade, basically uses Cantonese and the other, the Pearl, uses English. Its main transmitters are on the peak of Temple Hill in the New Territories. These transmitters, more than 1,600 feet above sea level, are ideally sited for television transmission. They stand atop a natural amphitheatre formed by the northern shore of Hong Kong Island and the entire urban part of Kowloon peninsula.

HK-TVB operates from a modern studio complex on a 51,000 square foot site near the mouth of Lion Rock Tunnel. The Jade network has many local live programmes. The Pearl network is mainly a colour channel which, at the outset, used mainly filmed material.

The station's transmitter housing and aerial masts, built to with- stand typhoons of up to 200 miles an hour, were the first of their kind to be manufactured outside Europe and the United States. Before the station went on the air, HK-TVB mounted a month-long test display at the Ocean Terminal in September. Dealers exhibited some 100 sets of 35 different brands and more than 750,000 people, attended the demonstration. The station also mounted aerials in an experiment to bring television to boat dwellers and to a school in Sha Tin-a first step towards educational television in Hong Kong.

202

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

The Rediffusion network has two channels. By the end of 1967, there were 90,000 subscribers. The television services carry adver- tising, and a number of shows on both channels are commercially sponsored. The two channels provide some 75 hours of viewing each week. While both channels carry popular filmed shows from Britain and America, the Chinese programme, in particular, in- cludes many live shows from studios at Rediffusion House. In television, as in radio, outside broadcasts play their part in creating among viewers a greater understanding of current events in the Colony and, almost every day, Rediffusion's cameras are out cover- ing local news. The company's new multi-studio complex in Kowloon is expected to be in full operation early in 1968.

The rental fee for a 23-inch television set is $50 a month and $45 for a 19-inch set. These fees, which are inclusive of receiver, program- mes, licence and maintenance, are reduced annually. Subscribers with their own receivers pay $25 a month to cover the programme fee, licence and maintenance. The network now reaches out from the urban areas to Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Clear Water Bay, Sha Tin and Castle Peak in the New Territories, and further develop- ments are under way.

FILM INDUSTRY

       Accurate figures for the purposes of comparison are hard to establish, but it seems clear that Hong Kong is one of the world's largest film producing centres. Many productions are the work of small studios on low budgets, but the industry also has its more elaborate productions in full colour and wide screen, and some of these have won awards at film festivals in Asia. In 1967 at the 14th Asian Film Festival, in Tokyo, the Hong Kong Shaw Brothers' production Susanna won the Golden Harvest Award for the best dramatic film of the year.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

       The task of the Government Information Services is to keep the people of Hong Kong and overseas accurately informed of the government's aims and achievements. The department is linked by teleprinter to 41 newspapers, news agencies and radio stations.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

203

The department is divided into two main divisions-news and publicity-both staffed by specialist professional officers. The News Division operates in two main sections-press and radio news. The press section channels information to newspapers and deals with press enquiries generally, while the radio news section special- izes in the preparation of world and local news bulletins for the Colony's broadcasting and television stations. Eleven radio news bulletins in English and 12 in Chinese are prepared daily, ranging in length from full 10-minute bulletins to one-minute summaries.

The Publicity Division has local and overseas commitments, and it produces magazine and newspaper feature articles, photographs, newsreels, booklets and posters. Locally, the division is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all government departments. The editorial section provides written material for a worldwide press syndication service and for most booklets and leaflets produced in the department. It also provides scripts and commentaries for documentary films and newsreels made by the film unit. As part of the Colony's campaign to sell more products overseas, emphasis continued to be placed on material dealing with trade and economic subjects.

      In the publications field, the main productions of the year included a booklet on Hong Kong high fashion, a commemorative fifth anniversary book on the City Hall and a series of trade promotion booklets and leaflets to back up the Colony's worldwide export drive. The photographic section supplies all photographs for the department and also carries out many photographic assignments for other government departments.

      The film unit completed a 26-minute colour documentary, Report to the Gods during the year. It deals with the people of Hong Kong and features the well-known Cantonese comedian Leung Sing Bor. This was followed by a 30-minute black and white dramatic film Suicide on Hire Purchase designed as part of a Colony campaign to combat drug addiction. From June, 1967, onwards the film unit has released a monthly magazine film to local cinemas entitled Hong Kong To-day. Each issue runs from seven to nine minutes. Between 40 and 50 copies are sent to local cinemas, and there are a number of 16 mm copies for non-theatrical use. Dubbing

204

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

equipment was installed in May and all end processes of currently produced films are now carried out within the department.

The department's distribution section handles all publicity mate- rial produced; it also distributes posters, literature and magazines received from Britain. The department's first mobile cinema con- tinued in service and 101 travelling film shows were organized during the year for audiences numbering almost 415,000 in multiple locations.

      At the end of the year there were 100 cinemas in Hong Kong. Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censor- ship in accordance with the law and must be viewed by the depart- ment's film censorship section, which has two theatres for this purpose. Films censored during the year totalled 4,748.

The Hong Kong Government Office in London is administratively part of the Commerce and Industry Department, but the information section works in close collaboration with the Information Services Department. Press relations form an important part of the work of the London office, and releases for the British press are prepared from information bulletins sent daily from Hong Kong. Major news items, despatched by press cable, are processed immediately and passed on to newspapers and news agencies. The information section also acts as a distributing agency in Britain for photo- features prepared by the Information Services Department and these, together with press releases, play a major role in the continu- ing effort to inform the British public about Hong Kong and its achievements through the medium of newspapers and magazines.

PUBLIC ENQUIRY SERVICE

       The object of the Public Enquiry Service is to maintain a close link between the government and the people. Its primary business is to give the man in the street quick and clear guidance to, and an explanation of, the various services and functions performed by government departments, and to help him understand government rules and procedures, particularly when they affect him personally. It also supplements broadcast information about typhoons. When local storm signal No 1 is hoisted, a 24-hour service goes into opera- tion and any member of the public can telephone an enquiry centre

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA

205

     at any hour to confirm the latest weather position and related topics, such as damages and casualties, suspension of public transport services and postponement of public functions.

Six new centres were opened in August in Hong Kong and Kowloon, bringing the total number to ten, including a mobile centre. These centres handled a total of 277,055 enquiries in 1967, including 66,957 resulting from the disturbances, water restrictions, and typhoons. During the year, 2,464 questions were answered by two separate listeners' letter box programmes produced by the Public Enquiry Service in conjunction with the Chinese service of Radio Hong Kong and Commercial Radio. In its work and organi- zation, the service bears some similarity to advice bureaux in other parts of the world. The centres are manned by trained staff, speaking English and Cantonese, as well as other Chinese dialects. Results show that the service is a valuable instrument for improving the government's relations with the public.

15

The Armed Services and Auxiliary Services

IN HONG KONG the British regular forces, which largely consist of army units, are under the overall control of the Commander-in- Chief, Far East. The commanders of the three services have an ultimate responsibility to their respective commanders in Singapore; however the Commander British Forces, Hong Kong, co-ordinates service activities in the Colony as well as commanding the land forces. The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force units are administered by the Hong Kong Government, but come under the command of the appropriate regular service commander for operations and training in operational roles. The army and Royal Navy recruit a considerable number of local personnel. Those in the army serve in the Colony and those in the navy on board HM ships anywhere in the Far East.

The naval shore base, HMS Tamar, provides facilities for ships of the Far East Fleet, which regularly visit Hong Kong for main- tenance, leave and recreation. Full maintenance support is provided for HM ships temporarily detached to the Colony from the naval base at Singapore. As part of the United Kingdom's defence economy measures coastal minesweepers, formerly based in Hong Kong, were transferred in September to the Inshore Flotilla at Singapore. When necessary, Hong Kong will be provided with ships from this flotilla on a rotational basis. On April 1, the Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve was disbanded after 82 years of existence. The decision, taken with much regret by the Hong Kong Govern- ment, was due to the expense of replacing the two RNR mine- sweepers. The colours of the Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve were laid up in St John's Cathedral at a ceremony on March 12.

       British Forces headquarters and Land Forces headquarters are in Victoria Barracks on Hong Kong Island. There are two sub- ordinate formations-48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade, in the New Territories, and the Hong Kong and Kowloon Garrison, which

THE ARMed servICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

207

consists of both operational and administrative units, located in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island.

      The Royal Air Force Station, Kai Tak, is a separate enclave, alongside the civil airport but it makes use of the airport's runway and control facilities. The RAF has its own radar and signal facili- ties for long distance control of military aircraft approaching the Colony. These facilities are shared by the Director of Civil Aviation to help ensure the safety of civil aircraft operating within Hong Kong's flight information region. Detachments of RAF helicopters or aircraft were temporarily stationed in Hong Kong throughout the year and many RAF transport aircraft used the station. Most servicemen and their families travelled to and from Hong Kong in the newly introduced RAF VC 10 service.

      During the disturbances in the Colony throughout the middle of the year (dealt with at length in Chapter 1), all three services gave valuable assistance to the Hong Kong Government. There was close co-operation with the police through jointly manned police and military operations centres. Troops were kept in a state of readiness over extended periods, and the army frequently helped police by supplying cordons and patrols in urban areas. As a result of tension on the border, the army reinforced police in maintaining security there. Demolition teams from the army and navy played a major part in dealing with the spate of bombs in the Colony, and they suffered several casualties. Army, RAF and HKAAF helicop- ters gave continuous support to the police and military. On one occasion helicopters from HMS Hermes, then visiting Hong Kong, were used in a raid on communist premises in North Point.

In addition to the close co-operation between the services and government, the year was characterized by a greater liaison between the services and the general public. Open days were held by several units. During the summer holidays the army also ran outdoor 'adventure' camps which were attended by nearly 2,000 boys.

LOCAL AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

The local auxiliary defence services, the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (dealt with in Chapter 10) have a total strength of about 3,000 volunteers.

208

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

They are administered under local legislation and financed from funds voted by the Legislative Council. These services gave in- valuable support to the police and military during the disturbances. Because of the demands made on them it was not possible to carry out the usual annual training programmes. Volunteers responded eagerly and thanks are due to employers for readily releasing members of their staff for volunteer duties.

      Since April 1, the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force has comprised only the Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. The Hong Kong Volunteers were first raised for the protection of the Colony in 1854 during the Crimean War. On December 8, 1941, the corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong, to meet the Japanese attack. It fought alongside regular forces until ordered to surrender on December 25. Decorations were conferred upon 15 members of the corps for gallantry in battle and for later escapes from Japanese prison camps, and 18 were mentioned in despatches. After the war the corps was reconstituted as the Hong Kong Defence Force. It was granted the title 'Royal' in 1951 and the battle honour 'Hong Kong' in 1957.

      The Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) has a strength of about 600. It is a light reconnaissance regiment and comprises a headquarters squadron, four reconnaissance squadrons (three equipped with landrovers, and one with scout cars) and a Home Guard company. The regiment is fully mobile, and its role is to operate in support of the regular army battalions, stationed in the Colony, with tasks which make special use of the Volunteers' detailed knowledge of the Colony and its people. The regiment was heavily committed during the year with internal security tasks.

      The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, with a strength of 90, operates two Alouette helicopters and four Auster aircraft. Its primary role is internal security, and it acts in close co-operation with the police and military. Considerable assistance was provided by the HKAAF during the disturbances. This unit also aided in search and rescue operations and in evacuation of casualties from remote areas. It also renders valuable assistance by transporting government officers and important visitors to different parts of the Colony. A regular RAF officer, attached to the unit, received the Queen's commendation for valuable air service for his part in

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES

209

rescuing a seriously injured soldier in the New Territories during extremely adverse flying conditions.

THE ESSENTIAL SERVICES CORPS

       The Essential Services Corps consists of about 60 units which can be mobilized during emergencies to maintain public utilities and other essential services. Approximately half of the 11,000- strong corps is formed from government departments and the other half from commercial organizations. Each unit is principally staffed by volunteers employed by the department or organization con- cerned. Comprehensive plans for the operation of each unit have been prepared and co-ordinated with the police and military. Since in an emergency most members perform their normal duties, the need for training does not on the whole arise. However, co-ordina- tion exercises are held from time to time. It was not necessary to mobilize the corps during this year's disturbances.

The Essential Services Corps includes three autonomous uniformed units: the Auxiliary Fire Service, the Auxiliary Medical Service and Civil Aid Services.

      The Auxiliary Fire Service, with a strength of some 700, provides a first line reserve for the regular Fire Service. Members carry out weekly training and stand by at various stations each weekend for operational experience. They frequently reinforce the professional Fire Service during major fires and natural disasters such as typhoons and landslides. In the May disturbances 200 auxiliaries were called out, and on numerous other occasions some auxiliaries were called out for brief periods to assist regular Fire Services staff. The Auxiliary Fire Service Band gave a number of concerts during the year in parks and playgrounds.

      The Auxiliary Medical Service, with a strength of 5,000, serves as an emergency reinforcement unit for the Medical and Health Department. Members are trained to reinforce major government and private hospitals so that, in an emergency, they can deal with more acute casualties. The service is also ready to set up and staff relief hospitals for less serious and convalescent cases. Those ear- marked for hospital and dressing station duties as auxiliary nurses and auxiliary dressers carry out annual training in the wards and

210

THE ARMed services and AUXILIARY SERVICES

casualty departments of hospitals. The ambulance unit, under the operational command of the Director of Fire Services, provides reinforcements for the regular Ambulance Service. The Auxiliary Medical Service also supplies mobile first-aid teams to work with rescue units and during the year the service assisted at the scene of large fires, traffic accidents and the two aircraft crashes in Kowloon Bay.

The Civil Aid Services, formed in 1951 has an active strength of about 5,500 volunteers. It developed out of the wartime Air Raid Warden Service. Civil Defence in a wide sense remains the primary purpose of this unit. The organization consists of a warden service for general duty tasks; a rescue service and co-ordinating command units in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island.

      In emergencies it is available to assist government departments and public utility companies by providing manpower, both skilled and unskilled. This year, during the civil unrest, many CAS personnel were mobilized to help maintain strike affected services and to perform other duties.

16

Religion and Custom

A BRIEF account of religious practices in Hong Kong must embrace such diverse subjects as traditional Chinese beliefs, Taoism, the religious aspects of Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and a kaleidoscope of Christian sects. In seeking one idiom to ex- press all this it is easy to be misled by the entirely different appear- ances of religious observance, particularly between the traditional Chinese practices and those of the Christian churches, and even to assume a relative lack of religion in Chinese life. It is true that Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are Wren churches in the City of London, but there are likely to be at least as many signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, as in its Western counterpart. Almost every Chinese shop has its 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines. Whether the devotion before such symbols is intense or perfunctory there is an unmistakably religious element in Chinese culture. It may find expression in traditional ancestral ceremonies encouraged by Confucius or through a wide variety of Taoist rituals.

There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people. The Hong Kong Buddhist Association is their main organization in the Colony, although a Taoist Association has now also been formed.

      Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries and nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Because of their accessibility, hermitages at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and scenically pleasing parts of the

212

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

New Territories. The Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is much visited at weekends and holidays.

       Sightseers as well as devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories such as Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor, Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen and Sai Lam. At To Fung Shan, a hill in Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture which engages in study and discussions of issues and problems in the Chinese religious world. The work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on there for many years. There is also a unique organization, the Hong Kong Red Swastika Society, which seeks to cultivate together under one roof Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. To meet the demand of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house, and are named after, one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may sometimes be found in the same temple. The subsidiary deities of one temple may, however, be the major ones of another. Almost all of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port. It is difficult to classify these deities according to religions or ways of life. Except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been traditionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protec- tress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of right- eousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau), and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors).

      Perhaps the oldest, and certainly one of the most popular, of Hong Kong's temples is the one dedicated to Tin Hau at Causeway

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

213

Bay. Other Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to most fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Many of these Tin Hau temples are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations made since they were originally established close to the shore.

      Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, which is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. In recent years by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin, in New Kowloon, and the Che Kung temple in Sha Tin. In the New Territories, where traditional clan organization has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular life there. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also to be found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

       The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year, in normal times, welcomed in Hong Kong in the traditional manner with a deafening barrage of firecrackers. It is a common belief that the mass discharge of firecrackers will dispel evil spirits and bad luck, and usher in a happy new year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are also widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among rela- tives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. This is also a time for refur- bishing family graves.

214

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

The fact that Chinese may follow one or other of these ways, or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, has often made Christianity, with its exclusive claims, seem uncongenial to the Chinese spirit. Nevertheless Christianity is rooted deeply and growing rapidly in Hong Kong.

Its roots go back indeed to the earliest days of the Colony. St John's Cathedral was founded in 1842, and established as a Cathe- dral by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. A representative of the London Missionary Society arrived at about the same time. St Andrew's Church, consecrated in October, 1906, celebrated its diamond jubilee last year. There is an annual increase of four per cent in communicant church membership. New churches and chapels in housing estates and satellite towns are constantly being built. It is estimated that there are now 261 churches and chapels in the Colony.

This year saw the retirement of the Right Rev Ronald Owen Hall, seventh Bishop of Hong Kong after an episcopate of 34 years. The succeeding Bishop, the Right Rev Gilbert Baker, MA, who worked in South China between 1934 and 1951, in what was then part of the Diocese, became in December, 1966, the first Bishop to be consecrated in St John's Cathedral.

       The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity was again the occasion for fellowship between the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches. In addition to a joint meeting for prayer and exposition of a passage from the Bible held at the City Hall, combined services were held in churches in both Hong Kong and Kowloon.

       While about 12 churches in the Colony hold services in English, the great majority of the congregations are Chinese speaking, mostly Cantonese. There are some churches using Kuo-yu (Mandarin). Christians in Hong Kong are notable church-goers. The major world denominations are represented in the Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists and Pentecostals, while churches of a Presbyterian type are joined in the Church of Christ in China (the largest numerically of Chinese Protestant churches). There are, in addition, a number of undenominational churches.

In a community like that of Hong Kong, where problems of livelihood and development are acute, it is natural that the churches

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

215

should wish to make their contribution to social service. This takes the form of educational and welfare services. The churches are responsible for approximately 164 primary schools and 101 middle schools and colleges in the Colony, a number which may be expected to increase with the growing population. They also sponsor hospitals, clinics, orphanages, and social service centres. While some funds for social service are locally raised, generous contributions are received from outside the Colony, many of them channelled through the Hong Kong Christian Service-the organization formed this year by merging the Christian Welfare and Relief Council and the Church World Service.

      Churches which are in relationship with the World Council of Churches come together with missionary societies, YMCA, YWCA, and other groups in the Hong Kong Christian Council. The council's new headquarters, the Christian Centre, was opened early in 1967. The centre also houses the offices of the Hong Kong Christian Service, the Audio Visual Evangelism Committee and the Chinese Christian Literature Council and there is an Ecumenical Library and conference room. A near neighbour in the same building is the old-established Chinese Churches Union, in which churches are linked on a congregational basis. The two main Protestant groups in the Colony will now be in a closer relationship than before.

       The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong dates back to the beginning of the Colony. The first priests to arrive were chaplains serving the spiritual needs of British soldiers. On April 23, 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first prefect. He built a permanent church, established a seminary to train Chinese priests, and brought in religious sisters to start schools and welfare institu- tions. The Colony's first trade school, the West Point Reformatory for Homeless Boys, was also established by the Catholic Church.

       In 1867, the Prefecture of Hong Kong was entrusted by the Holy See to the Pontifical Institute of Foreign Missions (PIME), whose fathers have worked in the Colony ever since. The first bishop, Msgr Timoleon Raimondi, was consecrated in 1874 when the pre- fecture was raised to an Apostolic Vicariate. Under Bishop Raimondi, the work of the Church was extended to the New Territories and in South China proper as far as Waichow. He built St Joseph's

URBAN COUNCH, PUBLIC LIBRARIES

216

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

Church on Garden Road and the present Cathedral on Caine Road, and brought to Hong Kong the La Salle Brothers who established St Joseph's College in 1875.

The cultural life of the Church took a big step forward in 1928 when Kung Kao Po, the Chinese Catholic weekly, was started. Ricci Hall, the Catholic hostel of the University of Hong Kong was opened in 1929 and the Catholic Truth Society was founded in 1933 to publish Chinese literature.

After the second World War much rebuilding of church premises was needed. The Catholic Centre, was started initially to provide a reception and information centre for the Liberation forces and old residents returning to the Colony. It now houses the Catholic Press Bureau with its three weeklies (Kung Kao Po, Sunday Examiner and Adveniat), the Catholic Truth Society, the Catholic Club, a lending library, a book centre and a chapel.

      In 1946, the Vicariate of Hong Kong was raised to the status of a diocese by Pope Pius XII, with Msgr Henry Valtorta, PIME as the first diocesan Bishop. He was succeeded in 1951 by Msgr Lawrence Bianchi, PIME. Under his administration, the Catholic community in Hong Kong has risen from some 43,000 to 241,986 today. Over 90 per cent of them are Chinese, spread out in 25 parishes on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon and in 14 rural districts of the New Territories.

      During 1967, the first Chinese priest of Hong Kong was raised to the episcopacy. Father Francis Hsu, for many years official spokesman of the Roman Catholic Church, was consecrated Auxi- liary Bishop on October 7.

      In the field of education, there has been notable expansion. In September, Sin To Primary School in the crowded Li Cheng Uk Resettlement estate opened its new wing of 24 classrooms. In the same month the new cathedral parish school was completed and in October, Notre Dame secondary school, in Ma Tau Wei, was opened.

      Social services have also expanded. This year saw the opening of a spacious youth centre, converted from the ex-seminary, on Pok- fulam Road; a 40-bed students' hostel, named after St Albert, in

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

217

Junk Bay; a multi-purpose social centre, adjacent to St Teresa's Church in Kowloon, which will go into full service early next year. The third and last stage of the large social centre on Caine Road was near completion at the end of the year.

Several new clinics and dispensaries under Catholic auspices went into operation during the year. The Caritas St Joseph's Clinic opened its maternity ward and day nursery in the New Territories. The Chinese Precious Blood Sisters, aided by the Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Association and Belgian Caritas (Catholic welfare body), started a home for cancer patients in May and a dispensary in July in the rustic Hang Hao area.

A start was made in June on the rebuilding of St Joseph's Church on Garden Road.

      Church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong today include 331 priests, 109 religious brothers and 772 religious sisters, 36 religious Orders and congregations representing 24 nationalities.

      There are at present 221 Catholic primary and secondary schools with an aggregate enrolment of 179,462 pupils.

In 1958, the Catholic Church set up a Social Welfare Bureau (Caritas - Hong Kong) to meet the need for a central directing and planning body of Catholic charities. Thanks to contributions from international charity agencies, many welfare and training schemes have been launched.

Today the Catholic Church operates six hospitals with a total of 1,422 beds and 30 clinics, spread out in various parts of the Colony, including one boat clinic that serves the fishermen of Aberdeen. It runs five social centres, seven vocational training centres, three youth holiday centres, seven children's play centres, 17 day nurseries, four orphanages and 15 hostels and homes. Construction costs of most of these projects have been met by grants from overseas bodies, both Catholic and non-Catholic, while day-to-day running expenses are raised locally.

      Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at a synagogue in Robinson Road constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory

218

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

of his mother Leah and it is known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 300 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, and the United States.

      There are more than 6,000 followers of Islam in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese who have come to the Colony during the past two decades. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly from Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Persia and from neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street Mosque, on Hong Kong Island, and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

       The Shelley Street Mosque dates back to the early days of the Islamic faith in Hong Kong in the 1880's. The mosque in Kowloon was originally built for the use of Moslem troops in the former Indian Army and stands at present within the boundaries of Whit- feild Barracks. Two places have been set aside by the government as burial grounds for the Muslim community. One is at Happy Valley and the other at the new Cape Collinson Cemetery, Chai Wan, contains a beautifully designed mosque built by the government.

      A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various sects within the Muslim community, is the co-ordinating body for all religious affairs and is also responsible for the mosques and cemeteries. This board has recently been incorporated and is now known as the Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community of Hong Kong. Much charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial help to the needy, hospitalization and assisted education, is being done by a welfare committee set up in recent years by a group of public-spirited women.

       The Hindu community numbers more than 5,000 and their religious and social activities centre round a temple in Happy Valley. The community has been associated with Hong Kong since earliest times and the temple itself is considered to be one of the finest in the Far East. In addition to visits by saints, swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holy Festival, the Birth

RELIGION AND CUSTOM

219

of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Deewali. The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes open to all communities, and for the teaching of Hindi to the Indian community.

17

Recreation

BUSTLING Hong Kong is active night and day with people who are ever-zealous in the serious business of making a living. But these same people play as hard as they work, if one is to judge by the great range of leisure pastimes thriving in the Colony.

      One of the traditional favourites, mahjong, is something which few visitors can fail to notice. When the day's work is over the clatter of mahjong tiles can be heard in shops, homes and clubs all over the Colony. But new favourites are springing up. Im- proved living standards have brought more leisure time and the means to make the most of it. Typical of recent development is the rapid growth in popularity of indoor bowling, introduced to the general public only last year.

       Pride in physical fitness is seen in scores of outdoor activities from graceful shadow boxing to swimming and walking. One of the biggest sporting events of the year, the annual cross-harbour swim, attracts hundreds of competitors. This year-the 55th time the race has been held--no less than 531 swimmers plunged into the water at Kowloon Public Pier to stroke their way 1,550 yards across the choppy harbour to Queen's Pier on Hong Kong Island. The winner was 15-year-old Ronnie Wong Man-chui with a time of 23 minutes 25.6 seconds. First in the women's section was 13-year-old Li Siu-wah in 28 minutes, 35.7 seconds.

Horse racing at Happy Valley attracts thousands during the racing season which runs from October to May. Golf, another sport with a wide following, has its annual moment of glory when professionals on the Far East Circuit come to the Colony to com- pete in the Hong Kong Open Championship. The 1967 winner was Australian Peter Thomson who has now held the title three times.

      Almost every sport and team game is played in Hong Kong, but the one which enjoys by far the greatest popularity is associa- tion football. Fans turn up 20,000 strong at the Government

RECREATION

221

Stadium and up to 10,000 go to nearby South China Athletic Stadium for big matches. Football in Hong Kong has all the partisan fervour, and not a few of the troubles, of football anywhere.

Many of those who shine in competitive sport are members of privately run clubs whose only assistance from public funds con- sists of a short-term lease of land on special terms. But, for the majority of people, the opportunity to take part in sports which require special facilities depends on government amenities.

The provision of public recreation facilities for different sections of the community is a comparatively new development in Hong Kong. As recently as 1952 virtually the only public facilities were the bathing beaches (inaccessible to many townsfolk), the Botanic Gardens, the Happy Valley playing fields on Hong Kong Island, and three children's playgrounds in Kowloon. The first hard- surface pitches for mini-football and basketball were not built until 1953, while Hong Kong Island did not get its first children's playground until 1957. The opening of Victoria Park in that year marked the birth of a new approach to the problem. The Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department, is responsible for providing recreation facilities in the towns. In the New Territories, the responsibility rests with the Director of Urban Services, working closely with the District Commissioner.

The pace of development has increased greatly in recent years and the Parks, Recreation and Amenities Division of the Urban Services Department now manages a total of 1,230 acres of public open space. Facilities include 273 parks and gardens; 144 children's playgrounds and nine children's libraries; 32 grass games pitches for soccer, hockey and rugby; 51 hard-surface mini-football pitches; 187 courts for basketball, volleyball and badminton; 29 tennis courts; six running tracks; two Olympic-standard swimming pools; 36 bathing beaches with a total length of 8.4 miles; one bowling green; one squash court; five model boat pools; three bandstands; three roller-skating rinks; a putting green; and a fine aviary. There are more than 324 changing and lavatory facilities, cafes, refresh- ment kiosks, pavilions, shelters, car parks and barbecue pits.

This year saw the completion of Stage II of the Kowloon Tsai Park development. A generous donation from the United States

222

RECREATION

     Government made it possible to add a children's playground and library to the facilities. Four tennis courts were built on land close to the public swimming pool and the Colony's first all-weather running track of 400 metres was constructed.

      A second all-weather running track of 300 metres was opened at Perth Street Sports Ground. This project, financed by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, also provides two mini-soccer pitches, two basket ball courts, a volleyball court, changing rooms, and a refreshment kiosk. In Kowloon the first stage of Morse Park, now complete, offers a model boating pool, with shelter, a coloured fountain, three garden areas, a children's play area and a roller- skating rink. Towards the end of the year, work began on the second stage which will provide nine grass football pitches.

      Perhaps the most imaginative recreational project of the year was the design adopted for district swimming pools. Each complex will accommodate up to 5,000 people and will provide separate pools for teaching, diving, and children and there will be facilities for competitive swimming at international standards. Construction of two of these projects has begun. One, at Lei Cheng Uk, will serve the densely populated area of north-west Kowloon; the other, which will be surrounded by an 11-acre park, will serve the industrial area of Kwun Tong.

      In the New Territories, the provision of village playgrounds continued at an accelerated rate. The Tai Po sports ground includes a cinder running track, basketball court, children's playground, mini-soccer pitch, and changing facilities. A running track was also included in the Tsuen Wan sports ground in addition to a grass football pitch, basketball courts, volleyball courts and changing

rooms.

       The Urban Council and the Urban Services Department, continu- ing their amenity planting programme, planted tens of thousands of trees, shrubs and seasonal flowers during the year.

      Hong Kong's bathing beaches have become increasingly crowded, and 1,188,978 people used the two swimming pools at Kowloon Tsai and Victoria Park. Regular life saving services are provided by the Urban Services Department and, at the height of the season, teams from the St John Ambulance Brigade and the Hong Kong

RECREATION

223

Life Guard Club also attend the swimming pools and some beaches during weekends and public holidays. During 1967, there were 339 successful rescues as against nine fatalities.

      The government's concern to provide opportunities for outdoor leisure is reflected in the formation of a Provisional Council for the Use and Conservation of the Countryside. The council will advise on the selection of recreational areas in the New Territories and conservation areas throughout the Colony. It will also suggest ways in which they might best be developed.

ENTERTAINMENT AND THE ARTS

The City Hall, now firmly established as the cultural centre of Hong Kong, celebrated its fifth anniversary during the year with a festival of music and fine arts. The month-long programme, presented by the Urban Council which administers the City Hall, involved 22 concerts of serious music, all by local artists; three major exhibi- tions of fine arts, children's art and photography. Public support was excellent. Some 50,000 people visited the exhibitions and 95 per cent of the 27,000 seats for concerts were taken up.

The success of this festival supports the view that performing and visual arts, which until comparatively recently played a minor part in the cultural life of Hong Kong, are now important and integral features of entertainment. While the cinema remains the most popular diversion, concerts, plays, operas and art exhibitions attract good audiences.

The City Hall facilities include a 1,500-seat concert hall convert- ible for theatrical performances; an intimate 470-seat theatre, an art gallery and several exhibition halls. Its two auditoria are available for hire throughout the year to local groups and visiting artists and, as a result, nearly every branch of music, drama and Chinese opera has prospered.

There are regular public performances by the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra and local choral groups and soloists gave a total of 170 concerts in the City Hall during the year. In drama, three very active English amateur groups and many Chinese dramatic groups, amateur and professional, presented 33 productions, with 103 performances.

224

RECREATION

Entertainment highlights have again been provided by visits of internationally renowned artists arranged by local impresarios. In the City Hall alone 35 overseas artists or groups gave a total of 49 performances. These included Hans Hotter, Paul Olevsky, Pro Musica Antiqua et Moderna of Germany, Paul Taylor Dance Company, Vienna Boys Choir, The Tintookies, Paul Makanowitzky, Niedzielski, I Solisti Veneti, Michigan Glee Club, Max Adrian, Walter Hautzig, Harvard Glee Club, Joseph Bloch, Omar Atreo, Berliner Camerata Musicale, Vienna Academy Chorus, New Vienna String Quartet, Janos Starker, Gerard Sousay, Jane Russell and Johnnie Ray.

      Admission prices for concerts are said to be a major factor inhibiting a more rapid and general development of music apprecia- tion. The Urban Council has offered a partial, but successful, solution to this problem by presenting local and overseas artists at low admission prices with programmes appealing to both novice and expert. The City Hall Popular Concert series has been extremely well received. With admission fees at $1, most of the 20 concerts presented were attended by capacity audiences.

       The fine arts exhibition organized by the City Hall museum and art gallery in connection with the fifth anniversary festival included about 150 paintings, sculptures and pieces of calligraphy, selected from about 800 entries. The tremendous variety of form and content of the works exhibited testified to the vitality of the artistic spirit in Hong Kong and reflected the fruitful cross-cultural contacts made in recent years. Some 300 schools participated in the children's art exhibition-the fourth organized by the museum and art gallery since its opening. For the first time, a section on crafts, mainly pottery and textiles, was included. The photographic exhibition was of the high standard expected of a city which has achieved an international reputation in this field.

      Of the other exhibitions at the museum and art gallery during the year, the most important were those of rubbings of Han Dynasty carvings and of Hong Kong currency. Other exhibitions which attracted considerable interest during the year were: the City Hall art gallery's collection of paintings and sculptures by local artists; advertising design, USA; modern Japanese prints; "The Blue Rider' (reproductions); reproductions of early Chinese paintings;

A Blaze of Blossoms

    Hong Kong by night is a blaze of colour, dazzling from thousands of street signs. By day there is a greyness in the towering ranks of skyscraper buildings in the busy urban areas. But colour is still there. It bursts out in vivid patches in public gardens on both sides of the harbour. Many of them are tiny pockets of brightness tucked away in busy thoroughfares. Some, like the recently re-planned Statue Square complex, blossom out boldly in the bustling heart of urban areas.

Most of the gardens have emerged in the past six years. In 1960 there were only 35 in the Colony. Today there are 273. The gardens, like the Colony's playgrounds, sportsfields and other facilities, are maintained by the Amenities Division of the Urban Services Depart- ment. To back its campaign to brighten up the colony, the division maintains a herbarium of some 30,800 specimens.

HUN

LIBRAR

Hong Kong's national flower, the Bauhinia Blakeana, is named after Sir Henry Blake, a former Governor.

品味糕

Left: A fountain splashes gently in Statue Square gardens, at the hub of Hong Kong Island's busy central district. Below: Another view of the gardens. Above: Gaunt, but beautiful, a tree raises a claw of colour against a background of concrete.

L

    A blaze of red azalea in the Botanical Gardens on Hong Kong Island. The elegant roof of Government House looms in the background. Below: Fresh bowls of colour, like this, are scattered throughout the urban areas.

RECREATION

225

     contemporary Asian prints; contemporary American prints, and the Law and Sayer collection.

      The permanent display of Chinese antique ceramics in the City Hall museum was enlarged during the year by the addition of some bronze, cloisonné and lacquer pieces.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

      The government collections of historical pictures consist of the Ho Tung, Chater and Law and Sayer collections. There are more than 700 items including paintings, prints, engravings and photo- graphs. They form a unique pictorial record of Sino-British contacts in the 18th and early 19th centuries and provide interesting illus- trations of life in Hong Kong, Macau and other cities on the China coast in those days. The limited space in the art gallery does not allow a permanent display of these collections, but exhibitions have been arranged from time to time.

      The City Hall art gallery has made a collection of paintings, prints and sculptures by Hong Kong artists. Two exhibitions from this collection were shown this year.

The museum's collection of Chinese antiquities is based on the Henry Yeung Collection, acquired by government in 1949. One of its chief characteristics is the large number of early pottery pieces of South China origin. Some additions have been made to the archaeological collection as a result of field work by members of the museum staff, the University Archaeological Team and the Hong Kong Archaeological Team.

LIBRARIES

The two Urban Council public libraries at the City Hall and Kowloon serve residents free of charge. The City Hall library has more than 153,000 books in stock of which about two-thirds are in Chinese. The library is divided into four sections: junior, adult lending, reference, newspaper and periodicals, each occupying a floor in the City Hall high block. The Kowloon public library has a total stock of more than 57,000 volumes.

The City Hall library has a microfilm collection of some 1,800 reels, including rare books of the National Library, Peking; selected

226

RECREATION

early newspapers of South China and Hong Kong; and the Times newspaper from 1900 to 1965. Projects are in hand to microfilm a wider range of local newspapers and to build up the collection.

      On average, the City Hall library issues 39,000 books a month while the Kowloon public library issues 26,500. During the year under review a total of 822,375 books were issued.

      Expansion plans for the libraries are being considered as it is becoming increasingly difficult, in terms of service points, book- stock and staff, to satisfy the growing public demand.

The Colonial Secretariat library houses 10,472 volumes. These include many government publications, books written especially about Hong Kong (including publications by local authors); ref- erence books on such subjects as public administration, sociology, economics and political science; and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and of the countries of South-East Asia. Apart from being a departmental reference library, it is a useful source for research workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available to members of the public by arrangement.

BRITISH COUNCIL

Two events of artistic importance were contributed by the British Council during the year-a dramatic portrayal of G. B. Shaw by Max Adrian, and performances of horn concertos with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra by Barry Tuckwell of the London Symphony Orchestra.

The Council's educational activities continued at a high level. Six post-graduate scholarships were awarded; three scholarships and one grant-in-aid were arranged for the Sino-British Fellowship Trust; a bursary was awarded to a youth leader. Many student enquiries on education in Britain were dealt with in co-operation with the Education Department.

      Welfare arrangements for students arriving in Britain continued and more than 1,000 students were met on arrival in London. Two one-day 'Introduction to Britain' courses, held in the summer, were attended by 120 students.

       The Council's adviser in English language teaching, who is on secondment to the Education Department, conducted several

RECREATION

227

refresher courses for teachers. He also took part in the School Certificate examination committees. A special section on English language teaching was opened at the Council's library.

      The Council arranged programmes for several academic visitors from the United Kingdom. The former Assistant Under-Secretary at the Home Office, responsible for prisons, (Mr R. D. Fairn), spent a week in the Colony. Sir Sidney Caine (a member of the Council's Executive Committee) spent two weeks here and lectured on University Education.

      The annual gift of books was made to the Chinese University for its libraries. The rate of loans from the Council's own libraries continued at a very satisfactory level. Approximately 82,000 books were issued. The two libraries are concentrating more on books for students and less for the general public in view of the develop- ment of the two civic libraries.

      The Council's film library and collections of music and speech records were again used extensively, mainly by schools, throughout the year.

18

Geography and Climate

THIS chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present a background against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report may be viewed.

       The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9' and 22°37'N and longitudes 113°52' and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon, on the mainland, stand on either side of the harbour, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony to within less than 24 hours of Britain, while the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

      The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles of which Hong Kong Island itself, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprise 29 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another three-and-three-quarter square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

      Hong Kong is part of a series of intruded domes of granitic rocks which cover south-east China. There are only small areas of sedimentary rocks in the Colony. The age relationships of the major groups of rocks are associated with the intrusions and moun- tain building of the Jurassic, Laramide and Alpine revolutions. These intrusions made the conditions favourable for the formation of minerals of some importance. Galena, silver, wolframite, molyb- denite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, gold, sphalerite, graphite, fluorspar, quartz, beryl, felspar and kaolinite have all

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

229

been found. The general structure of the region is that of a plunging monocline which strikes north-east to south-west and is parallel in trend with the China coast. Its axis passes almost exactly through the centre of Hong Kong and is marked by a depression which is the Tolo Channel. The area consists of many rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. The general appearance is that of an upland terrain which the sea has invaded. The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations. Weathering is almost entirely caused by chemical action, helped by the alter- nation of wet and dry seasons. As a result, decay to a laterized rock mantle is common, often to depths of more than 100 feet.

       The highest peaks and the most prominent ranges of hills are composed of either porphyries or volcanics. These are in contrast to the granite hills which generally occur at lower elevations but have well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The plains are all recent alluvial deposits. Erosion benches can be found marking former sea levels up to 400 feet or more, which demonstrate the rise and fall of the whole region within recent geological times. Borings in the harbour have revealed submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat deposits. The highest peaks, such as Lantau, Sunset and Tai Mo Shan, are all about 3,000 feet high and are composed of resistant, fine-grained crystalline rocks. By contrast the Kowloon Hills are composed of coarse-grained granite and have lower elevations, varying from 800 to 1,200 feet. The age of this granite has recently been determined by the Rubidium- Strontium method as approximately 134 million years. Thus it belongs to the Upper Jurassic (Portlandian) period. The age of the 20-mile ring dyke of Maryknoll dolerite has been determined as from 57 to 69 million years (Kulp geological scale) and is Lower Cenozoic (Eocene). Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area has any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates. The predominating crystalline char- acter of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall regime of the area alone accounts for many of

230

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

the water shortages. In 1963, for instance, the total rainfall was only 35.48 inches, compared with the yearly average of 85 inches.

      Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double-cropping rice zone of East Asia. Market garden cropping, including the cultivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is becoming increasingly important. Vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. During the last 10 years there has been a significant change in farming. The area of land under two-crop rice has decreased by about 60 per cent while intensive market gardening has increased approximately three-and-a-half times. The upland areas, which are predominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilization of these areas is principally through afforestation, vigorously pursued since 1945.

CLIMATE

      Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March, but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the

year when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year there is often more cloud and, though rainfall remains slight, it can be fairly persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north- easterlies.

The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and, although it can occur from mid-April until September, it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between 901.1 mm (35.48 inches) in 1963 and 3040.7 mm (119.71 inches) in 1889, but the mean value is 2168.8 mm (85.39 inches). On average, the six dry months from October to March yield only about one seventh of the year's total rainfall. There is a marked diurnal variation of rainfall in summer with a maximum in the morning and

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

231

there are appreciable differences in the rainfall in different parts of the Colony. The wettest areas are the mountainous regions around Tai Mo Shan and on Lantau Island.

      The mean daily temperature ranges from about 15°C in February to about 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. February is normally the coldest month and July the hottest. The absolute minimum and maximum temperatures ever recorded at the Royal Observatory were 0.0°C and 36.1°C respectively. However, greater extremes may occur in the New Territories where ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to more than seven hours in mid-July and late October.

Gales, caused by tropical cyclones, may be expected in any of the months from May to November, but are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones, several times a year, at varying distances from Hong Kong, brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average and, less frequently, the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force when damage and loss of life may occur.

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY

      The Royal Observatory is the sole source of meteorological information in the Colony and also forms part of a world-wide network of meteorological services. Weather forecasts and infor- mation are supplied by a central forecast office. Meteorological observations are made at the observatory itself in Kowloon, at the airport and at six other points throughout the Colony. Upper-air soundings of the atmosphere are made at the King's Park meteoro- logical station, where balloons carrying special reflectors are released every six hours and tracked by wind-finding radar. One balloon each day carries a radiosonde transmitter which sends back by radio the pressure, temperature and humidity readings at all levels through

232

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

which the balloon ascends. The observatory maintains the densest network of rain-gauges in South-East Asia. The gauges are operated by government employees and voluntary observers.

      At the airport pilots of aircraft leaving Hong Kong are briefed and provided with written forecasts. Information is also exchang- ed with other weather centres and radioed to aircraft in flight. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and also for local yachtsmen and fishermen. About 60 ships are provided with instruments by the observatory and close liaison is maintained with all ships that visit Hong Kong to assist them to transmit regular and accurate weather reports. These observations are plotted and analysed at the Royal Observatory and also broadcast to other centres. After being checked against the original entries in the ships' log books, the observations are recorded on punched cards for climatological purposes.

      One of the most important functions of the central forecast office is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical depression, tropical storm or typhoon is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly non-local warnings are issued. These provide information on the storm's intensity and expected development, the position and movement of its centre and the fore- cast position for 24 hours ahead. Reliable reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft and cloud pictures received at the observa- tory from meteorological satellites help to locate the storm accurately.

      When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and television. Statements and announcements about necessary precautions are also broadcast at frequent intervals when gale signals are hoisted.

      A thunderstorm and heavy rain warning service was introduced in April this year. The object is to give short-term notice of the like- lihood of thunderstorms and heavy rain affecting any part of the Colony so that those who are most concerned can take necessary precautions.

      The observatory's weather radar station at Tate's Cairn is equipped with a three cm radar for detecting showers and local rainstorms. A

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

233

new 10 cm radar, installed there in 1966, is capable of detecting tropical disturbances up to 240 miles away from Hong Kong. This radar can also be used to estimate the intensity of rainfall from various weather systems and provides valuable information for preparing local thunderstorm and heavy rain warnings as well as for local hydrological purposes.

      Time signals are provided by the observatory by means of the new crystal-controlled timing system installed in 1966, which is accurate to within 0.05 of a second. These signals are broadcast every quarter of an hour on a frequency of 95 MHz (frequency modulated), and can be picked up by a domestic FM receiver. In addition, visual time signals are flashed from the observatory during the hours of darkness.

      The observatory operates 12 seismometers, distributes weekly and monthly reports of earthquakes and also participates in the Pacific tidal wave warning service. Hong Kong lies some distance away from the circum-Pacific seismic belt and serious earthquakes are unknown. However, a few tremors are felt each year by people in favourable locations. Four such tremors occurred in 1967.

      The general level of atmospheric radio-activity in the Colony is monitored by the observatory at King's Park, where routine measure- ments of the Beta and Gamma activities of fallout, airborne particles near the ground, rainfall and ordinary tap water are carried out. The observatory acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of a great many projects that may be affected by meteorological condi- tions and publishes numerous reports, bulletins and papers on meteorological and geophysical observations and research activities.

RESEARCH

      Many climatological and statistical investigations and analyses were carried out during the year for aviation, shipping and local engineering interests or for use within the department. Various methods of forecasting rainfall quantitatively were studied and some of them were developed with the aid of a computer at the University of Hong Kong. Studies on the prediction of the probable rainfall for the rainy season, and for individual months within the season, were also carried out. Experiments were initiated to determine the distribution of rain-drop sizes in clouds over Hong Kong and the

234

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

      structure of rain clouds associated with the various synoptic systems which affect the Colony was also studied by means of the newly installed weather radar.

      The problem of air pollution by sulphur dioxide continued to be investigated and the effect of industrial smoke on the reduction of visibility in Hong Kong harbour was also examined. The observatory co-operated with several overseas scientific institutes in various special studies in seismology, radio-activity, marine climatology and atmospheric chemistry.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

Although the weather during the year showed few departures from normal, the rainfall during the first seven months was only 1,570.6 mm (61.83 inches) which was the seventh lowest on record. The accumulated total for the 12 months ending July 31 was the lowest ever recorded for this period and it appeared at the time that Hong Kong might face another severe drought like that of 1963. However, heavy rain associated with three tropical cyclones in August filled most of the reservoirs.

       January and February were colder than usual with several intense surges affecting the Colony. On January 15, the air temperature fell to 4.6°C at the Royal Observatory and 1.0°C at Ngong Ping in Lantau. There was frost in many places in the New Territories and on hill tops, and a thin layer of ice formed in the evaporation pans at King's Park for the first time. On February 2 sleet was reported at Cape Collinson. In between the cold spells warm moist air from the Pacific Ocean reached the Colony causing fog in the harbour area. The strong monsoon signal, the Black Ball, was hoisted on January 15 and February 6 and 14 to give warning of strong winds associated with the winter monsoon.

The sea temperatures in March were lower than normal and this resulted in two long spells of foggy weather. Both air and sea traffic were seriously interrupted during these spells and two ocean freighters were involved in a collision off Tathong Point on March 29.

April was wet but sunny. A thunderstorm on the first was accom- panied by hail-with stones up to half an inch in diameter-over

GEOGRAPHY AND climate

235

several parts of the Colony. The sky became so dark that cars had to use their headlights at 3 p.m. Hail is rare in Hong Kong and the last authenticated case on record was more than 27 years ago on March 4, 1940.

Another event of note was typhoon Violet, the first storm to enter the South China Sea in April since 1940. Violet formed near the Caroline Islands on the first, moved steadily west-north-west, but recurved just to the east of Pratas Island on the ninth and did not affect the Colony.

      May was warm and very dry. Although several troughs of low pressure formed over central China and moved southwards into the South China Sea, they did not bring any appreciable rain to the Colony and the rainfall recorded was the second lowest for the month.

       Several records were broken in June and July. The mean relative humidity for June was the lowest on record for the month, while the mean temperature for July was the highest ever recorded at the Royal Observatory.

      In June, only one tropical cyclone came close enough to Hong Kong to necessitate the hoisting of local storm signals. Severe tropical storm Anita formed over the Pacific to the east of the Philippines on the 26th and passed about 140 miles east-north-east of the Colony four days later. Anita brought more than two inches of rain to Hong Kong, but did not cause gales or strong winds.

      July was exceptionally dry and hot as all the tropical cyclones which developed over the Pacific recurved towards the north-east before entering the South China Sea. The rainfall during the month was largely due to an intense upper-air disturbance which brought thunderstorms and heavy rain on the 13th and 14th. During these two days, a total of 126.0 mm (4.96 inches) of rain was recorded at the Royal Observatory but more than 10 inches of rain fell over the Plover Cove and Tai Lam Chung catchments. On the 29th, tropical storm Fran formed over the South China Sea about 450 miles south-south-east of Hong Kong. Fran moved west-north-west and then north-west and local storm signals were hoisted twice, on July 30 and again on August 2.

236

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

      Three tropical cyclones formed in the South China Sea in August and together they brought nearly 20 inches of rainfall to the Colony. The first was a tropical depression which developed about 240 miles south of Hong Kong on August 10 and crossed the South China Coast about 90 miles west of Hong Kong on the 11th. It was very weak and no local storm signals were hoisted. Tropical storm Iris and severe tropical storm Kate both formed about 400 miles south- east of Hong Kong and moved north-west to west-north-west. Iris crossed the coast about 130 miles west-south-west of Hong Kong on August 17 and caused strong winds over the Colony. Kate passed about 50 miles south-west of Hong Kong on August 21 and caused east to south-east gales in the Colony.

       On August 28, typhoon Marge and tropical storm Nora were reported in the Pacific, east of the Philippines. The two tropical cyclones revolved around each other at first but eventually took a west-north-westerly course. By August 29, they became a threat to the Colony and local storm signals were hoisted. Marge was finally absorbed into the circulation of Nora on August 30 and both dis- sipated rapidly over land after crossing the coast near Swatow. No appreciable rain fell in Hong Kong as a result.

September was another dry month because all the tropical cyclones that formed in the Pacific either recurved towards the north-east or entered the South China Sea well to the south of Hong Kong.

      Typhoon Carla developed on October 12 as a tropical depression over the Caroline Islands. It intensified and moved steadily west- north-westwards and by October 16 Carla was a large typhoon, more than a thousand miles in diameter. In the meantime, the winter monsoon intensified near the coastal waters of South China and the strong monsoon signal was hoisted on October 17. This was later replaced by local storm signals as Carla crossed North Luzon and entered the South China Sea. Carla continued on its west- north-westerly track and dissipated in the Gulf of Tonkin on October 20 after causing short periods of northerly gales in exposed places in the Colony. The total rainfall recorded during the passage of this storm amounted to only 4.0 mm (0.16 in.).

       Fine and sunny weather persisted in Hong Kong until November 5 when typhoon Emma, which developed over the Caroline Islands

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

237

on October 31, approached the Colony from the south-east. The storm caused generally strong winds in Hong Kong on November 7 and brought 23.9 mm (0.94 in.) of rainfall as it passed 200 miles south-west of Hong Kong and crossed the coast of Luichow Peninsula 24 hours later.

      Two vigorous cold surges affected Hong Kong on November 12 and 29 causing significant falls in temperature, but the remainder of the month was relatively warm.

December was notable for its low temperatures and humidity. Intense cold surges from the north caused the mean daily temperature to fall from 19.8°C on the 5th to 11.7°C on the 11th and again from 18.2°C on the 26th to 8.7°C on the 29th. Snow was observed near the top of Tai Mo Shan on December 13 and a minimum temperature of 1.1°C was reported there on December 29. A climatological summary for the year will be found in Appendix XL.

19

Population

     THE total estimated population of the Colony at the end of 1967 was 3,877,700. About 98 per cent could be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin.

       The population, which was about 600,000 at the end of the Japanese occupation, has grown rapidly and the 1966 mid-term census showed the total to be 3,716,400, including 3,787 transients. During 1967 the population increased by 92,400 to reach the estimated total of 3,877,700. This increase is made up of 74,100 excess of births over deaths, plus an inward balance of migration estimated at 18,300.

      Urban Population. At the time of the 1966 census, 31,405 people, excluding transients, claimed to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong. Of these, 26,065 lived in the urban area. According to information provided by the Aliens' Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than three months and children under 16 years old) the figure at the end of 1967 was 11,389. The largest groups were: American 4,157, Portuguese 1,800, Japanese 1,462, Dutch 531, German 334, French 308, Italian 227.

      Approximately 54 per cent of the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most of these, and the greater part of the im- migrant population, originate from Kwangtung province. The urban Chinese population also includes a Fukien community and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung and Fukien.

      New Territories. The indigenous population of the New Terri- tories are Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers, whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. These people are different from each other in physical appearance, dress and customs. The usual village community consists of a single clan, but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur.

POPULATION

239

      By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan but, as far as is known, intermarriage between land and boat- dwellers is rare.

       The Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Territories. They occupy the best parts of the two principal plains in the north- western section of the New Territories and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages -those of the Tang clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement dating to the late 11th century. Others date back to the late 13th century.

       The Hakka people (their name, if it is really Chinese, means 'strangers') began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. The latter, however, were the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, along foothills, and generally on poorer land. The balance was later restored by heavy immigration and relations between Hakka and Cantonese, which have endured periods of strife, are now peaceful. Intermarriage is not now uncommon and the two groups share some villages.

       The Tanka people have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. During the last five years, young men and women of this community have begun to take factory jobs, and 30 or 40 thousand people of Tanka origin are believed to be now living ashore.

       The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers, but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations. The influx of people into the New Territories from China in recent years has been so great that only in the Sai Kung district is the truly indige- nous population still in the majority. The newcomers are mostly from Kwangtung province.

A mid-term census was taken in the summer of 1966. The boat people were counted between June 18 and 22 and the remainder of

240

POPULATION

the population between July 19 and August 2. The results showed a 26 per cent reduction in the marine population and a considerable slowing down of the rate of increase of the land population.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

      The registration of births and deaths is compulsory, and facilities for registration are provided throughout the Colony. The General Register Office is situated at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are maintained. Sub-registries have been established in all main urban and rural districts, while in outlying areas and islands, births are registered at rural committee offices by visiting district registrars and deaths are registered at local police stations.

The statutory period during which a birth should be registered, and is registered without fee, is 42 days from the date of birth. Between the end of the 42-day period and the expiration of one year from the date of birth, the birth may be registered upon pay- ment of a fee of $2. During the year 88,171 live births and 19,644 deaths were registered, compared with 92,476 and 18,700 respectively in 1966. These figures, when adjusted for under-registration, give a natural increase in population for 1967 of about 74,400. Only 83 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry.

A birth which has not been registered within one year after the date of birth may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar and on payment of a fee of $15. During the year 2,382 such births were post-registered including 1,053 in the New Territories. The principal reason given for non-registration at the time of birth was simple negligence, but there were a fair number of cases where non-registration was due to the fact that facilities for registration were not available until 1932. There were also a number of cases relating to births in the war years when there was no registration of births. The New Territories cases are dealt with at local sub- registries or by mobile registration teams. All applications for post- registration are passed to a legal officer in the Registrar General's Department for final approval.

POPULATION

MARRIAGES

241

      All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion to reduce the period of notice in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done very rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances.

Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages, or at any of the nine full- time marriage registries and four part-time sub-registries located in the main urban districts and rural centres. During the year 15,858 marriages were performed in the registries and 1,579 at licensed places of worship. The total was 167 more than in 1966. All mar- riage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian cus- tomary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not require to be registered. No statistics of such marriages are therefore available, but it is thought that there are still a large number of unregistered marriages each year. The position with respect to unregistered marriages has long been recognized as being very unsatisfactory, and in May the government issued a white paper on Chinese marriages in Hong Kong, in which the problems were summarized and recommendations made for their solution.

20

Natural History

It is easy for a visitor to miss the delights of Hong Kong's country- side, so overpowering is the impact of its city life. Even residents can forget, under the pressure of their daily lives, that on their doorsteps lie peaceful farming areas, empty hills or quiet wood- land walks. Areas of special interest to naturalists and biologists are the water catchments, notably those of Tai Tam, Kowloon and Jubilee reservoirs, the hills of Lantau and Lamma Islands and the Sai Kung peninsula. In these areas are many miles of interesting walks through tropical and sub-tropical vegetation and here, as elsewhere in the Colony, there is a surprising amount of wild life.

Existing legislation makes some provision for the protection of the countryside and the wild life in it, but it is felt that more could be done. A Provisional Council for the Use and Conservation of the Countryside has been appointed to advise on the selection of suitable areas in the New Territories which could be set aside for public recreation or the conservation of wild life. The council will also advise on legislation or financial arrangements which may have to be made to give effect to their proposals.

WILD LIFE

      Due to rapid urbanization and increasing illegal hunting and trapping, many wild mammals are sharply declining in numbers. If the present rate of decline remains unchecked it is expected that the larger mammals will have disappeared from the Colony within the next four years. The government is still considering ways and means of conserving the remaining indigenous species, many of which are of great scientific interest as well as being useful in destroying insect and rodent pests.

       Of the larger indigenous mammals the Chinese Pagolin is the most remarkable. It grows to a length of three-and-a-half feet and its back and tail are protected by horny scales, giving it a superficial

NATURAL HISTORY

243

     resemblance to a reptile. Another unusual and little known mammal, the Ferret-Badger, is a true badger in miniature. It feeds on insects, worms and young rats and, due to its similar colouration, is some- times mistaken for the Masked Palm Civet, another local mammal. Two species of striped and spotted civets, the Five-banded and the Seven-banded, are recorded in the Colony. The former is exceedingly rare and may no longer occur here, the second is present in small numbers on Hong Kong Island and in wooded areas of the New Territories.

The Eastern Chinese Otter, once abundant, is now a rare visitor. Of the other carnivores, the South China Red Fox and the Chinese Leopard Cat have all but disappeared from the Colony as has the Wild Boar.

Mammals which have recently ceased to occur here are the Crab Eating Mongoose, the Wild Red Dog or Dhole, the Tiger and Leopard. The last definite record of a tiger in the Colony was in 1947, and the last recorded sighting of a leopard, in 1957. Periodic tiger and leopard alarms are usually traced to damage done by wild dogs or to hoaxers.

      The Barking Deer, a particularly attractive and appealing animal, was once plentiful all over the Colony. In the last five years its numbers have been drastically reduced. Primarily, it is believed, because of illegal trapping and hunting. It is now rare in the New Territories and the remaining animals on Hong Kong Island are confined to a few areas. The hoarse bark of the males may still be heard by residents and visitors to the Peak.

      Long-tailed Macaques, a sub-species of those found in Singapore, occur in small numbers in the Kowloon reservoir area and may often be seen near the Kowloon - Tai Po Road. They are probably descendants of escaped or released individuals. Two solitary Rhesus monkeys, both escapees, have been sighted in the same area, and also a smaller unidentified monkey.

Smaller mammals which include rats, mice and bats are abundant in the Colony, and the Woodland Shrew and the House Shrew are fairly numerous in some rural areas. The Chinese Porcupine, with its strikingly coloured black and white quills, is still present in

244

NATURAL HISTORY

some areas of the New Territories. One was last sighted in 1966 on Hong Kong Island.

        Cetaceans so far recorded from within or near Hong Kong waters are the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale, Pygmy Sperm Whale, Black Finless Porpoise and Common Dolphin.

      There is ample opportunity in Hong Kong for either serious study, or simple enjoyment, of bird life. Nearly 350 species, representing more than 60 different families, including resident and migrant birds, have so far been recorded in the Colony.

      They provide considerable variety of form and occur in a wide range of habitat. The largest species is undoubtedly the Spotted- billed Pelican which comes in small numbers as a winter visitor to the Mei Po Marshes. Among the smallest are the insectivorous White-eyes, of the wooded areas, and the Yellow-bellied Wren Warbler of the reed beds. The Chinese Blue Magpie, with royal blue plumage and orange beak, and the Crow Pheasant of dark brown plumage with light brown wings, can frequently be seen on the shrubby and wooded hillsides. The Crow Pheasant is neither crow nor pheasant, but a cuckoo and has a haunting call of descend- ing notes which can be heard in spring and early summer. The bulbuls and the minute Tailor Bird, with its insistant 'tch tch' call, are common birds in urban areas, and the beautiful song of the Wah Mei delights hikers and residents in the countryside.

      Snakes, lizards and frogs are well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapin and turtle. Most of the snakes are non-poisonous and death from snake bite is extremely rare. Apart from back-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are the Banded Krait, with black and yellow bands; the Many-banded Krait with black and white bands; MacClelland's Coral Snake, which is coral red with narrow, black transverse bars; the Chinese Cobra and the Hamadryad or King Cobra, both of which are hooded; the very rare Mountain Pit Viper and the White-lipped Viper or Bamboo snake. The Bamboo snake is bright green, and although less venomous than the others, is more often seen and is more likely to attack if accidentally dis- turbed. The Hamadryad is regarded as the most intelligent of snakes and preys almost exclusively on other snakes. Several species

NATURAL HISTORY

245

     of sea snake, all venomous, are found in Hong Kong waters but, fortunately, do not attack bathers. An amphibian of special interest is the Chinese newt. The Hong Kong variety has not been recorded anywhere else in China.

      There are nearly 200 species of butterfly in the Colony. Of the many moths two are outstanding for their size. These are the Atlas and Moon moths with wing spans of nine and six inches respectively. Apart from butterflies and moths there is a great variety of insects, many brilliantly coloured. They include many species of dragon fly and damsel fly and metallic-coloured beetles and solitary wasps. The beautiful Candel Fly or Lantern Fly has delicately coloured wings like those of a butterfly, but is more closely related to the cicada. It lives on lychee trees and is remarkable in that its forehead is almost as long as its body, hence the Chinese name which trans- lated means the elephant-nosed bug.

The adults of several species of cicada emerge during spring and summer. They range from the rare three-and-a-half inches Tacua to the small grass cicadas less than a half an inch long. The males make a loud trilling noise by vibrating a drum-like membrane in the abdomen. The noise of the male grasshoppers, on the other hand, is made by scraping the leg against the abdomen, as if the body were a violin.

Land molluscs of note are the Giant African Snail, measuring about five inches long, which was introduced (and is now a consid- erable pest), and a large black slug, Veronicella, a species sufficiently distinct from all other slugs to be placed in a separate family.

The Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance 1954, provides for the conservation of all wild birds, and various mammals now rare or in danger of becoming rare. It also prohibits the trapping or poisoning of any bird or mammal, except rodents. Game birds may be shot only in season. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. Both game wardens and honorary game wardens are appointed by the Governor to assist in carrying out the provisions of this ordinance. By regulations, made under the Forestry Ordinance, special protection is also given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, magnolias, orchids, and azaleas.

246

NATURAL HISTORY

FLORA

       It is not possible to make any distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of neighbouring southern China. The prin- cipal trees in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor. A large number of others have been added since the area came under British administration, the most common being casuarina, eucalyptus and flamboyant. The traditional Chinese belief that the disposition of buildings, graves, trees, water and mountains may affect a person's fortune and destiny has done much to preserve fine groves of trees, mostly camphor, banyans and clumps of bamboo around many farms and villages in the New Territories. Some of the mountain slopes, from a distance, seem bare of any plant covering except grass, but on closer observation it can be seen that the water courses are marked by narrow bands of low shrubby growth and scattered trees.

      The principal locally-grown fruits include lychee, lung ngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. The Portuguese originally introduced the papaya, the pineapple, the custard apple and the guava from South America some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine on the other hand is a native of South China which was introduced to the West in the 17th century when the Portuguese transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control.

      The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. Alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters causes tropical plants to lie dormant during winter and encourages the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. As a result of this a genus tends to produce a greater wealth of flowers of large size in Hong Kong than it does in other equatorial countries.

Hong Kong is famous for its great variety of flowering plants, many of which are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. As might be expected most species flower during spring and early summer. Some are easy to place in their correct families- for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like, and is related to, the camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But

NATURAL HISTORY

247

most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers and star-shape fruits, and a Tutcheria with large camel- lia-like flowers, white tinged with gold bearing masses of tangerine orange stamens. This latter is a tall tree with glossy foliage, de- scribed as a distinct genus in 1908 in honour of W. J. Tutcher, for- mer Superintendent of the then Botanical and Forestry Department. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is reminiscent of the Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony. Of these the red one is extremely abundant, while another with large pale pink flowers is so rare that it is known to exist only on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea, with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers borne in profusion on leafless branches.

The Bauhinia Blakeana, which grows on a medium-sized evergreen tree known as the Hong Kong orchid tree, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world and has been adopted as Hong Kong's floral emblem. Named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, it was discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

There are several species of camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia Hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct camellia was dis- covered in 1955 and named Camellia Granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee reservoir, bearing handsome white flowers five-and-a-half

248

NATURAL HISTORY

inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been dis- tributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad.

       Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. The large orange-like fruits of Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, the wild kamquat and the winged fruits of the gardenia are orange in colour. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. Many berries are black with a bluish waxy cuticle, but probably the only true blue is that of the Dichroa, a well-known medicinal plant. Several species of Callicarpa and Dianella bear purplish fruits, while those of the Raphiolepis, the so-called Hong Kong hawthorn, the wild jasmine and the wild persimmon are black. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

      There are several very poisonous plants which should be better known to the general public. These include two species of Strychnos which have very brightly coloured fruits resembling small oranges, a species of Strophanthus which has conspicuous fruits unmistakable because of their large size and horn-like shape, and a species of Gelsemium which is the most poisonous of local plants. The latter is a climber with dense terminal clusters of yellow flowers each about half an inch in diameter, blooming towards the end of the year. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid Gelsemidine, which is a spinal poison. It is said that as little as 12 grammes of leaf constitute a fatal dose and that death follows within a few hours. It is sometimes used by country people to commit suicide. Wild edible fruits include a wild jack-fruit, Artocarpus, the fruit of the rose-myrtle, wild bananas and raspberries. Several species of per- simmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

      There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common Clematis of English hedge- rows, has five close relatives in Hong Kong. There are four wild violets but they are scentless, like the English dog violet. The English

Riches from the Ocean

    Fish form an essential part of Hong Kong's diet. On average the Colony's population eats about 200 tons a day, cooked in an incredible variety of ways. The Chinese like to buy their fish fresh and at many restaurants customers choose their meal, live, from a tank. It is fortunate that the sub-tropical waters around Hong Kong are rich in commercial fish. More than 400 species are landed regularly in the Colony and hundreds of other species are netted which have no commercial value.

Generally, fish sells for about $1 to $2 a catty but some species, like the highly-priced green wrasse, fetch up to $10 a catty. The most popular choice for the table is the garoupa and there are more than 20 different species of it in Hong Kong waters.

    To satisfy Hong Kong's appetite for seafood the Colony maintains a fishing fleet of more than 7,000 vessels-the largest in the British Commonwealth. Most of them operate within 250 miles of their base.

    The pictures in this section are reproduced from a series of books 'The Marine Fishes of Hong Kong' compiled by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department and published by the Government Printer.

This beautiful butterfly fish (Chaetodon ornatissimus), like many other attractive species has no commercial value in Hong Kong.

ARIE

IBRAR

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

ON

        Below: Green wrasse (Choerodon shoenlei- ni)-the most highly- priced of Hong Kong's commercial

fish.

4

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contate library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Crayfish

and

(Panulirus

ornatus)-highly-priced highly-prized.

C LIBRA

L

Not all Hong Kong's fish are pleasant to eat or meet. The Sting ray (Dasyatis sp.), above, can inflect a painful wound. Below, the Whale shark (Rhino- don typus), grows up to 40 feet.

LONG

Ᏻ Ꮶ

GK

Below: Little tuna (Euthynnus yaito), abun- dant in summer, but not landed in quantity as it does not suit the Chinese palate.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

NATURAL HISTORY

249

      honey-suckle, has five relatives whose Cantonese name is kam ngan fa (gold and silver flower) because of their change in colour from white to yellow.

       More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded in the flora. Most of the epiphytic species possess small flowers which are not of particular interest to the horticulturist. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

There is a fine wild iris, Iris speculatrix, further south than any other true iris. Its violet flower, from two-and-a-half to three inches in diameter, is tinged with bright orange and blooms from the middle of March to the end of April. A wild lily, Lilium brownii, appears in June with its trumpet flowers up to seven inches in length, white and sometimes purple-streaked. A wild Crinum with long sword-like leaves and bunches of white flowers is found by the sea, and also the Belamcanda, one of the iris family, with red-dotted orange-yellow flowers. The Chinese Bell-flower, Platycodon, is very widely dis- tributed in eastern Asia, being abundant as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Hong Kong. This lovely violet giant harebell is common on grassy slopes on the south side of Hong Kong Island. It is a perennial plant with thick fleshy root stock valued for me- dicinal purposes and was introduced into cultivation in England as far back as the 17th century.

       In damp ravines may be found the chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, giant aroids, tree-ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides, English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong bracken, a Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea. Plants recorded for the first time in recent years were Gomphrena celosioides and Ambrosia maritima, found in Kowloon, and Andro- graphis paniculata and Cerastium triviale, found on Lantau Island.

       The Hong Kong Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong

250

NATURAL HISTORY

      Kong, has been added to considerably since that book was produced and at present some 30,000 specimens are preserved. Interest in local fauna and flora is fostered by The Hong Kong Natural History Society-founded in 1949 as The Hong Kong Biological Circle- whose aims are to '. . . . facilitate and encourage the study of natural history in general and in particular that of the Colony of Hong Kong'. The activities of this society include both indoor meetings and field outings. Another society is the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, founded in 1957 for the study of local bird life. This society holds approximately 12 field outings each year.

21

History

Hong Kong-'a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

     ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the 19th century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

      The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the 11th century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

      In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a

252

HISTORY

prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

        The maritime relations between China and the West were at first dominated by Arab and Near Eastern traders who formed a con- siderable community at Canton from the seventh century onwards, but Chinese traders also penetrated to the Indian Ocean from the 11th century. The Portuguese formed the spear-head of European maritime contacts with China. Jorge Alvarez reached China by sea in 1513, the first European to do so; the earliest Portuguese traders followed in 1517 and 40 years later, in 1557, they established them- selves at Macau, partly in return for assistance in the suppression of piracy. For nearly 300 years, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of Chinese official opinion which was not interested in commercial or cultural contacts, Macau provided the one reliable point of contact between China and the West.

       The first Englishman to attempt to trade with China was John Weddell in 1637. He found Portuguese influence against him and tried to force his way up to Canton and not surprisingly his venture ended in complete failure. Later attempts were similarly unsuccessful, the first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese being the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699. The company sent ships to Canton each year thereafter, and in 1715 decided to establish permanent commercial relations and set up a 'factory', as it was known, outside the town. Attempts to extend the trade to Amoy, Ningpo and Tamsui failed and in 1757 trade with the West was confined to Canton by Imperial edict, and placed under the direct control of an Imperial official called the Hoppo. In addition, a guild of Chinese merchants called the Hong Merchants or Co-hong was given a monopoly of western trade by a similar edict in 1755. Many other European nations sent traders to Canton,

* The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public

park near the original site.

HISTORY

253

but in the second half of the 18th century the British gradually secured a dominant share of the trade mainly as a result of growing control in India, and the lead in Sino-western relations therefore naturally fell to Britain.

       The trade was lucrative and yet there were grievances. Residence at Canton was confined to the trading season and hedged with personal restrictions which confined the traders to the factory area, denied them access to the city and placed them in the hands of the Co-hong in their dealings with officials for the fixing of prices and the levying of port dues. The westerners were regarded as bar- barian, yet there was mutual trust which enabled written commercial contracts to be dispensed with.

      The British made unavailing efforts to improve conditions at Canton by diplomatic means after appeals to the provincial officials there had failed. In 1793 Lord Macartney, fresh from his successful mission to Russia, was sent to Peking as ambassador, ostensibly to congratulate the Emperor, but chiefly to secure commercial concessions at Canton or else to acquire an island where the British could reside under their own law and government. He was hospitably received in Peking and created a favourable impression, but all his requests were refused. In 1816 a second embassy under Lord Amherst failed even more completely, Amherst being ordered to leave Peking without even seeing the Emperor.

       The East India Company held a monopoly of British trade with China, but in the late 18th century the company began to con- centrate on the valuable tea trade. At the same time licensed private traders engaged in what was termed the 'country trade' between India and China. By acting as representatives of foreign states these private traders overcame the reluctance of the company to allow them to reside in Canton and Macau. Thus an enlarged British community developed, strongly favouring the new free trade ideas then being discussed in England and clamouring for the abolition of the East India Company's now nominal monopoly. Abolition was, in fact, effected by Parliamentary action in 1833.

       To replace the company's control, Lord Napier was sent out in 1834 as Chief Superintendent of Trade, with strict instructions to pursue a conciliatory policy towards the Chinese. But his position

254

HISTORY

      was weak, because he had no power to negotiate and no means of controlling his compatriots. He went to Canton without seeking the required permit and tried to deal with the Canton officials direct, thus disobeying the rule that required all communications with the officials to be made through the Co-hong. After a few weeks of impasse Napier retired to Macau, a sick man, and died there 10 days later. Meanwhile official Chinese opinion was becom- ing alarmed over the financial and moral consequences of the increased popularity of opium smoking, which had led to opium becoming the staple of the trade with India despite a Chinese prohibition on its importation. After much debate among the Mandarin officials the Emperor appointed Lin Tse-hsu as Special Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. Lin took strong action and within a week of his arrival at Canton, in March 1839, he had surrounded the foreign factories with an armed force. He allowed no Europeans to leave, stopped supplies of food and water, and demanded the surrender of all opium for destruction. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

       Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents. But Elliot refused to allow anyone to sign the bond and, much to Lin's annoyance, all British trade was stopped until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

      Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by commer- cial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a settlement in relations between Britain and China. He demanded

HISTORY

255

either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations on satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by enforcing measures against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and Keshen, a Manchu commissioner who had replaced Lin after his exile in disgrace, resulted in agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty-the Convention of Chuenpi-on January 20, 1841. By it, Hong Kong was to be ceded. The island was formally occupied by a naval party on January 26, 1841, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a 'barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships

and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

Pottinger visited Hong Kong Island during the winter of 1841-2 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's Road'. Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supple- mentary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 the Chinese were

256

HISTORY

allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed, British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

       The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, prob- ably malaria, decimated the Europeans and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, while build- ings in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000, with a further 2,000 living afloat. The first report on population in June 1845 gave the total as 23,817, of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

       At first the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium, as had been predicted, trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parlia- mentary committee of enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts that Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

       Shortly after Hong Kong's foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to South-East Asia and the countries bordering the Pacific. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco. In 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration of labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses connected with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing reasonable standards of food, space and medical atten- tion. This tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports, but Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

       The Tai Ping Rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting

HISTORY

257

in thousands seeking refuge in the Colony. By 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated and is significant among the factors which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

       The Treaties of Tientsin at the conclusion of the Second Anglo- Chinese War of 1856-8, gave Britain and France the privilege of diplomatic representation at Peking. However, the first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had served as Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong in 1844-5, was met by armed Chinese opposition at Taku Bar on his way to the Chinese capital. In the ensuing hostilities, Kowloon peninsula was occupied and used as a camp for the British forces and Sir Harry Parkes, at Canton, secured from the Viceroy there the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Con- vention of Peking, 1860, converted the lease into an outright cession.

The naval and military authorities claimed the whole of the newly acquired area and it was only after some four years of strenuous advocacy of the Colony's interests that the Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, was able to confine the services to specified areas, subject to their right to occupy additional areas in case of military emergency. Under these circumstances the development of Kowloon as a residential area and commercial port was seriously hindered. Land values remained low and the necessary reclamations proceeded slowly because incentive was lacking. The development of Kowloon had to wait until population pressures of the 20th century forced the pace.

       By the Convention of Peking of 1898, negotiated with China because of rivalry between the western powers over concessions in China and because of fear of French and Russian ambitions in the Far East following the alliance of these two powers in 1893, Hong Kong's boundaries were again extended by a 99-year lease of the mainland north of Kowloon, together with some 235 islands in the vicinity. This extension soon acquired the name New Territories. The British take-over in April 1899 met with some initial ill-organized armed opposition, but Sir Henry Blake based

258

HISTORY

      the administration on the maintenance of Chinese law and custom, in co-operation with village committees and headmen, and by extensive visits to the villages to explain his policy in person he was able to build up confidence. Steps were taken to improve economic conditions and check widespread malaria, so that the population of the New Territories has gradually increased from about 100,000 to nearly half a million as shown by the 1961 Census.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

      The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion in trade and population, and of consequent material and social improve- ments. The old traditional practice of European and Chinese com- munities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. Each pursued his own way of life largely independent of the other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education there could be little Chinese participation in government, western commerce or the professions. There have been, however, Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by missionary bodies, who have received grants or subsidies since 1873 and have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai, with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of its first graduates was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

Undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding in 1911 of the University of Hong Kong, which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis of its faculties of medicine and engineering. The university was made possible by the enthusiasm of Sir Frederick Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody who met the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of

HISTORY

259

subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the university has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking university in a Chinese environ- ment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and South- East Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community.

       The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials, but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle, and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected.' The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body representative of responsible Chinese opinion.

       The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies. The first government medical officer was appointed in 1847 to treat the police and prisoners in the gaol. He opened a small make- shift hospital the following year which served until 1859 when a government civil hospital was opened. This was destroyed by the 1874 typhoon and adjoining buildings had to be requisitioned. On this site now stand the modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital and the Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club Clinic. The Kowloon Govern- ment Hospital was opened in 1925 and the Queen Mary Hospital, then one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937.

       The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building and Queen's Road approxi- mately follows the line of the original settlement. Expansion could only take place on the slopes of the Peak-as for example Stanley Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable

260

HISTORY

      area- -or by reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously over-crowded and insanitary. It was this which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

       As a result of complaints from the military about the sanitation of Hong Kong, Osbert Chadwick, a sanitary engineer, was sent out by the home government. A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883 to which nominated unofficials were added in 1886 and two elected representatives of the ratepayers in 1887. It could bring about little improvement because of Chinese opposition to western ideas of sanitation and to any interference with their way of life. There was also opposition to the cost of sanitary improvements on the part of the community, already burdened by a costly pro- gramme of public works and by defence expenditure at a time when the dollar was falling in value. The result of this neglect was an outbreak of the plague in 1894. Two Japanese doctors who came to investigate, Professor Vitasato and Dr Aoyama, claimed to be the first to isolate the plague bacillus and to demonstrate that it was carried by rats. Even then there was considerable opposition to house-cleansing and measures against rat-infestation, and annual visitations of the plague continued until about 1927. The Sanitary Board continued until 1935, when its functions were broadened and taken over by an Urban Council.

       The earliest reclamation was the filling of a small creek in 1851, to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land. The most important reclamation was that in the central district, begun in 1890 and completed in 1904, which added Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclama- tions were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

Increasing urbanization led also to the problem of water, and the start of a century-long race between water supply and popula- tion demand. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugu- rated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung (1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935, named in honour of the silver jubilee of King George V's reign.

HISTORY

261

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

       The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first world war was followed by strong nationalist and anti- foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

      Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first world war to present her 'twenty one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the

streets.

      The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of East and South-East Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On December 8, 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of December

262

HISTORY

18-19 and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were over- whelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

       British civilians were interned at Stanley while the Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating con- ditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organizing mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Terri- tories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

      Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on May 1, 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

       From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000, rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then it has continued to rise. A by census taken in 1966 showed a population figure of 3,716,400.

HISTORY

263

       Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied the growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the government has played, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. Low-cost housing schemes and multi-storey resettlement estates have called for a heavy investment of public funds; schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided on a huge scale. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon is the largest general hospital in the Common- wealth. The Chinese University of Hong Kong has been created from a federation of post-secondary colleges. Despite the substan- tial progress made, however, the demand for more services continues and is still far from being satisfied.

Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. In Kowloon and Tsuen Wan particularly, industrialists have opened many large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export to all parts of the world. To meet the demand for land for industry and housing the government has continued to carry out many new reclamation schemes, principally in the central district, Causeway Bay, at various points on the northern shores of the harbour, and by Kwai Chung. The investigation of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Impressive schemes to improve the water supply were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957, and at Shek Pik in 1963; the Plover Cove scheme which will treble the amount of water available is due to open in 1968. Following a period of unparalleled drought in 1963-4, an arrange- ment was made with the Kwangtung Provincial Authorities to purchase 15,000 million gallons of water annually.

The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops, coupled with the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques, have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with produc- tivity and trade promotion, and with technical and vocational training.

264

HISTORY

The government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network; more rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in the face of public demand for transport serv- ices and the big increase in the number of private cars. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. The airport has a runway 8,340 feet long, built on a promontory reach- ing out into Kowloon Bay and capable of meeting the needs of the biggest aircraft yet in service. Further extensions are planned to cope with the coming Jumbo jets. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sightseeing and shopping facili- ties, and night-time entertainment.

        Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Wired and wireless radio and television has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment. There are many modern cinemas. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

A pulsating tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life. But it is the growth of local industry, which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, that has been the most significant feature-after population growth--- in the Colony's history in the post-war years. The recent disturb- ances have introduced a new perspective whose effect it may be too soon to judge. But Hong Kong's people have shown a stead- fast imperturbability and determination which bodes well and confidence in the years to come is as strong as ever.

22

Constitution and Administration

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions from the Sovereign to the Governor prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex officio and one nominated official member, and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor. The ex officio members are the Commander British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secretary. The eight unofficials at present include four Chinese members.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding questions which come before the Council, and for taking action afterwards, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by the majority of the members. The Governor in Council (i.e. the Governor in the Execu- tive Council) is also given power under numerous ordinances to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

       The official membership of the Legislative Council consists of the Governor (who is both the President and a member), four ex officio members (the same as those on the Executive Council with the exception of the Commander British Forces) and eight nominated civil servants, making a total of 13 officials. There is an equal number of unofficial members, nominated by the Governor. At present they include nine Chinese members, one of them a lady. The President has a casting vote in this Council.

266

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

       The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council. Matters of public concern may be debated in this Council, which also controls finance and expenditure through its Finance Committee, on which three officials and all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legis- lative Council is based generally on that of the House of Commons. The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is shown. in Appendices XLI and XLII.

JUDICIARY

       Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Letters Patent, the Chief Justice, Senior Puisne Judge and puisne judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent on instructions from the Sovereign given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State; district judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by warrant or other instrument under the Public Seal. The qualifications of puisne judges and district judges are prescribed by the Supreme Court and District Court Ordinances.

      The function of the judiciary is to try all public and private prosecutions and to determine civil disputes either between individ- uals or between individuals and the government. The principle of English Constitutional Law, that in the performance of all judicial acts the judiciary is completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the government, is as fundamental in Hong Kong as it is elsewhere in the Commonwealth. The judiciary takes no part in the formulation of policy or in the enactment of the laws. Its function is to follow and apply the law, but in the interpretation of statutes and in applying decided cases, new case law is made.

      The principles of English Common Law and Equity and the Statutes of England, as they existed in that country on April 5, 1843, except where they are inapplicable to local circumstances, are the foundation of Hong Kong's legal system. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain later enactments of the United Kingdom Parliament and by the ordinances and other enactments of the Hong Kong legislature. The Statute Laws of the Colony are consolidated and revised periodically. The last edition was published in 1951. A revised edition has been published this year in loose leaf form which will

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

267

facilitate the future complete annual revision of the Colony's Laws, by the method provided in the Revised Edition of the Laws Ordin- ance 1965.

       The Courts of Justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts and the Tenancy Tribunal. The rapid changes in the social and economic structure of the Colony and in the size and distribution of the population have necessitated the creation of additional courts. In 1967, the Judiciary had posts for the Chief Justice, the Senior Puisne Judge, six puisne judges, eight district judges, 32 magistrates and a President of the Tenancy Tribunal. District judges sit in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. Magistrates sit at Central, Causeway Bay and Western Magistracies on Hong Kong Island, and at South Kowloon, North Kowloon, Fanling, Tsuen Wan, Tsim Sha Tsui and Kwun Tong Magistracies on the mainland. In addition to the regular Magistrates' Courts on either side of the harbour, there is also a Justice of the Peace Court each for the island and the mainland, which sits several afternoons a week. Whenever possible one of the two justices is legally qualified. The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance and the Demolished Buildings Ordinance and its work is described in Chapter 8.

       Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. In the case of indictable offences, however, their powers of punishment are re- stricted generally to a maximum of two years' imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may award some higher penalty. When trying two or three offences together, cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by magistrates may not exceed three years. Increased powers have been given to magistrates this year in connection with crimes which have contravened Emergency Regulations which have been brought in during the year.

Magistrates hold preliminary enquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed to trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer various cases of a serious nature to the District Court on the applica- tion of the Attorney General. The civil jurisdiction of these courts

268

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

is not extensive, but they exercise a limited jurisdiction in domestic matters, chiefly under the Infants Custody Ordinance and Separa- tion and Maintenance Orders Ordinance, and perform important functions under a number of other ordinances, including the Magistrates (Coroners Powers) Ordinance.

The District Court, established in 1953, took over the summary jurisdiction previously exercised by the Supreme Court and gives to the public a simpler and shorter method of bringing to trial civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter (other than land) is under $10,000. In the case of land, the limit is still $5,000.

       The District Court has an unlimited appellate jurisdiction in stamp and rating appeals. It also exercises appellate jurisdiction from the Tenancy Tribunal.

It has unlimited jurisdiction under the Distress for Rent Ordin- ance, and it is the court which deals with claims under the Work- men's Compensation Ordinance.

Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by judge alone and there is a general limitation of five years on a District Judge's power to award a sentence of imprison- ment, however, recently under Emergency Regulations, power has been given to District Judges to impose sentences of up to 10 years for offences committed contrary to the Regulations.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the three Divisions of the English High Court-namely the Queen's Bench Division, the Chancery Division and the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division. In addition it exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy, and company-winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in all courts for the years 1963-7 will be found in Appendix XLIII).

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court. It sits as occasion requires and is constituted of two or more judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction cor- responding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal, the Court of

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

269

Criminal Appeal and the Divisional Court of the Queen's Bench Division. Final appeals from Hong Kong go to the Judicial Com- mittee of the Privy Council in London.

ADMINISTRATION

       Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the ad- ministrative functions of the government are discharged by some 30 departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. (A list of these departments is given in Appendix VII.)

       The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative con- trol of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments and makes, or transmits from the Governor, the Governor in Council, or the Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy, the Establishment Officer deals with all matters relating to the Public Service, and the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates the work of the local forces and acts as the main channel of communication between the government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secre- tariat includes a Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office.

      The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on Chinese traditions and ways of life, and is also charged with special responsibilities for strengthening channels of direct communication between the government and Hong Kong's Chinese people at all levels. This is done largely by constant personal con- tacts, from departmental headquarters and five branch offices, with the men and women who are the elected or natural leaders in some three to four hundred Chinese societies. These range from Hong Kong's premier charitable organization, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, to some of the smaller clansmen's associa- tions, and from the 600,000-strong kaifong movement to close- knit Buddhist groups. In practice there is no aspect of the govern- ment's work on which Hong Kong people do not seek information, advice or help from the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. In addition, as a body corporate, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs administers, with the advice of predominantly Chinese committees, 10 social service trust funds totalling $12 million in cash and securities, as well as most of Hong Kong's Chinese temples.

270

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      Hong Kong's drive against narcotics is co-ordinated by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, with the help of a strongly con- stituted Narcotics Advisory Committee at policy level, and another and larger Action Committee Against Narcotics. The Action Com- mittee effectively provides at operational level for the fullest exchange of opinions and information, and for a system of practical co- ordination between nine executive branches of the government and seven voluntary organizations.

      Particular responsibilities with regard to some of Hong Kong's housing problems come to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs through his participation in two housing organizations, in the Urban Council and the Housing Board, and through the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs' tenancy enquiry bureaux. In practice these bureaux are primarily concerned with the rights, obligations and welfare of the tenants of any building which has to be condemned and of any rent-controlled premises which a landlord wishes to re-develop.

Other administrative functions include 'district office' work in New Kowloon and the rural areas of Hong Kong Island, investiga- tion into claims to British nationality or for naturalization, fireworks control, registration of newspapers, support for Chinese social welfare activities, Chinese cemeteries, confidential mediation in a variety of domestic, tenants' and other disputes, and the provision of traditional 'go-between' facilities should there be any misunder- standing between another department and some section of the Chinese public over matters which are not purely professional or technical.

      The Urban Council consists of 26 members-six ex officio mem- bers and 20 ordinary members of whom 10 are elected and 10 are appointed by the Governor. Of the ex officio members, the Director of Urban Services Department sits as chairman of the Council, and the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services as vice- chairman. The others are the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Social Welfare and the Commissioner for Resettlement. The term of office of an ordinary member is four years. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by 16 select committees which meet at frequent intervals. All select committees

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

271

are chaired by unofficial members and, without exception, the unofficial members are in the majority.

      The membership of the Urban Council is given in Appendix XLIV. The responsibilities of the Urban Council, which are carried out through the Urban Services Department, cover the fields of environmental hygiene, sanitation and public parks and amenities in the urban areas. The Council is also the competent authority for the management of resettlement areas and estates in the urban area.

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The New Territories are divided into four administrative districts, each under a District Officer who has a staff of between 106 and 204, depending on the size and complexity of the district. The Tai Po District, with an area of 123 square miles and a population estimated at 283,000, covers the north-east of the New Territories with its District Office at Tai Po Market. The Yuen Long District, with an area of 86 square miles and a population of about 234,000, includes the large and heavily populated agricultural plain in the north-west and has its District Office at Yuen Long. The Tsuen Wan District has an area of 26 square miles and a population of about 237,000 covering the new industrial complex of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Island, as well as Ma Wan Island and the north-eastern part of Lantau Island. Its District Office is accom- modated in the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building in Tsuen Wan. The Sai Kung area east of Kai Tak Airport, the remainder of Lantau Island, Cheung Chau, Lamma Island and all the islands to the west and south of Hong Kong, covering some 130 square miles, with a scattered population of about 123,000, are administered from the District Office South at Gascoigne Road, Kowloon.

The District Commissioner co-ordinates the overall administra- tion of the New Territories from an office in North Kowloon. He is assisted by a Deputy District Commissioner and a headquarters staff which, including the cadastral survey staff, totals 97. The District Officers are concerned with every aspect of government activity in their districts and act as the principal links between the government and the local inhabitants. Their responsibilities include mediation in all kinds of village and personal disputes, including

272

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

family and matrimonial cases. They control the utilization and sale of Crown land and administer the grant of temporary structure permits. District Officers have an allocation of funds from the New Territories local public works vote, which pays for materials to help villagers improve irrigation and water supplies, build paths and small bridges and carry out a wide range of other minor works to improve the sanitation and the amenities of the villages.

For local representation, each of the 654 villages in the New Territories has one or more Village Representatives, making a total of about 948. Villages are in turn grouped under Rural Com- mittees, of which there are 27 covering the entire New Territories. Each Rural Committee has an executive committee which is elected by secret ballot every two years by all Village Representatives. The Rural Committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks on behalf of the government. They receive a small monthly subvention to cover routine expenses. Within its own area each Rural Committee acts as the spokesman for local public opinion, mediates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Administration and the people.

The chairmen and vice-chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, together with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 Special Councillors, elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum where leaders of New Territories opinion have gathered since it was constituted in 1926 and from which (except during the period from August, 1958 to December, 1959 when official recognition of the representative status of the Kuk was withdrawn because of internal dissension) the government has sought advice on New Territories affairs. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance 1959, the Kuk also has an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the Kuk through whom close and constant contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

273

      The Public Service provides the staff for all government depart- ments, sub-departments and other units of the administration, and at April 1, 1967, the total number of posts in the Public Service (or its establishment, as it is generally called) was 73,190.

This indicates that approximately one person in every 50 in Hong Kong is employed by the government. There is a large propor- tion of labouring staff, and just over 33,000 of the total establish- ment of the Public Service are labourers, semi-skilled labourers or artisans of one kind or another. The Public Service of the Hong Kong Government is somewhat unusual in that it includes the staff for certain activities which in other territories and administra- tions are carried out by people who do not belong to the Civil Service. For example, in other territories staff for hospitals, public works and utilities, urban cleansing and public health, and the police, are not always servants of the central government. In Hong Kong, the establishments of the Medical and Health Department (9,617 posts), the Public Works Department (9,486 posts), the Urban Services Department (12,325 posts), and the Police Force (12,791 posts) account for a total of 44,219 posts or a little more than 60 per cent of the total establishment of the Service.

       The size of the Service has doubled in the last 10 years and quad- rupled since 1949. This reflects not only the continuing expansion of existing services, in line with the continuing expansion of the population, but also the development of new and more diverse services to meet the changing needs of the population. However, in recent years, there has been some slowing down of the rate of expansion and it now stands at about three per cent per annum.

      The cost of the Public Service is reflected in the expenditure on personal emoluments. For the financial year 1967-8 the estimated expenditure on personal emoluments, excluding pensions is about $649 million. This represents approximately 48 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure, or between 33 per cent and 34 per cent of the estimated total expenditure, included in the Budget. Notwithstanding the Service's expansion, the percentage of recur- rent expenditure is lower than it has been for a number of years.

UMMARD MAR

274

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      The establishment of each post in the Public Service requires the approval of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council, assisted by the advice of its Establishment sub-committee which examines all requests received from departments for additional posts, both for new projects and to meet increasing work-loads, to ensure that staff is properly utilized and that new posts are provided only when they are essential.

      Recruitment and promotions to the Public Service are, with certain exceptions, subject to the advice and overall scrutiny of the Public Services Commission, a body independent of the govern- ment, set up in 1950. In May 1967, a full-time chairman of the Commission, Sir Charles Hartwell, CMG, was appointed. Previously, the duties of the chairman have been undertaken on a part-time voluntary basis by a succession of local leading citizens, and mem- bers of the Commission are still appointed on this basis.

      Overall responsibility for recruitment, promotion, training, con- ditions of service, grading and complementing in the Public Service is exercised by the Establishment Branch of the Colonial Secretariat.

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

Appendices

277

Appendix I

Weights and Measures

The weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

Length*

UNIT

EQUIVALENTS

Domestic

British

Metric

1 fan

1 tsun (Chinese inch)

1 chek (Chinese foot)

1 cheung

1 lei (Chinese mile)

Area

1 dau chung

1 mow ...

...

Weight

1 fan

...

1 tsin or mace

1 leung or tael

1 kan or catty

1 tam or picul

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

...

0.146 in

3.715 mm

10 fan

1.463 in

3.715

cm

10 tsun

14.625 in

37.15

cm

10 chek

4.063 yd

3.715

m

706-745 yd

646-681

m

806.7

sq yd

.6745 hec

1,008

sq yd

.8431 hec

0.013 oz

3.78

dg

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78

g

10 tsin

1.333 oz

37.8

g

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8

g

100 catty 133.333 lb

60.48

kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the chek (foot) is 14ğ in but the chek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14§ in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

278

Appendix

II

279

ORDINANCES

Legislation

Aircraft Spirit (Validation of Duties) Ordinance 1967

Appropriation (1967-8) Ordinance 1967

Asiatic Emigration (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Auxiliary Forces Pay and Allowances Ordinance 1967

Banking (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Banking (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1967

Bills of Sale (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Births and Deaths Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Births Registration (Special Registers) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Chinese Public Dispensaries Committee (Winding Up) Ordinance 1967 City Hall (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Commissioner for Transport (Transfer of Powers) Ordinance 1967 Commonwealth Preference (Motor Vehicles) Ordinance 1967

Coroners Ordinance 1967

Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Dangerous Goods (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Deaths Registration (Special Registers) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 Defence (Finance) Regulations (Validation of Contracts) Ordinance 1967 Diplomatic Privileges (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Dogs and Cats (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilitation (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 Dutiable Commodities (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Essential Services Corps (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Estate Duty (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Evidence (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Gambling (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Girl Guides Association (Hong Kong Branch) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 Government Lotteries (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Holidays (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Hong Kong Airport (Regulations) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Hong Kong Productivity Council Ordinance 1967

Hop Yat Church of The Church of Christ in China Incorporation Ordinance

1967

Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Legislation

Land Office (New Territories) Fees Rules (Validation) Ordinance 1967

Larceny (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Legal Aid (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Lion Rock Tunnel Ordinance 1967

Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Matrimonial Causes Ordinance 1967

Matrimonial Causes (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Mercantile Bank Note Issue (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Motor Vehicles (First Registration Tax) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

New Asia College Incorporation Ordinance 1967

Offences against the Person (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Pensions (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Perjury (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Police Children's Education Trust Ordinance 1967

Police Education and Welfare Trust Ordinance 1967

Probate and Administration (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Probation of Offenders (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Protection of Non-Government Certificates of Origin Ordinance 1967 Public Health (Animals and Birds) (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 Public Order Ordinance 1967

Public Services Commission (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 Revised Edition of the Laws (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Road Traffic (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Road Traffic (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1967

Road Traffic (Amendment) (No 3) Ordinance 1967

Road Traffic (International Circulation) Regulations (Validation) Ordinance

1967

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Secretary of State for Defence (Succession to Property) Ordinance 1967

Stamp (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Supplementary Appropriation (1966-7) Ordinance 1967

The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Ordinance 1967 The English Schools Foundation Ordinance 1967

The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis and Thoracic Diseases Association

Incorporation Ordinance 1967

Unclaimed Balances (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Widows and Orphans Pension (Amendment) Ordinance 1967

Widows and Orphans Pension (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1967

Young Offenders (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance 1967

280

Appendix

II-Contd

281

SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Legislation

Administrative Appeals Rules 1967

Auxiliary Forces Pay and Allowances Regulations 1967

Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Forms) (Amendment) Order 1967 Buildings Ordinance (Application to the New Territories) Regulations 1967 Cheung Chau Public Cemetary (Graves Removal) Order 1967 Commissioner for Transport (Transfer of Powers) Regulations 1967

Commonwealth Preference (Motor Vehicles) (Depreciation) Regulations 1967 Commonwealth Preference (Motor Vehicles) (Depreciation) (Amendment)

Regulations 1967

Coroners (Forms) Rules 1967

Curfew Orders 1967

Dangerous Goods (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Director of Public Works (Transfer of Powers) Regulations 1967

Divorce Rules (Revocation) Rules 1967

Dogs and Cats (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Dogs and Cats (Fees) Order 1967

Dogs and Cats (Inoculation Fees and Observation and Quarantine Fees)

(Cancellation) Notice 1967

Dried Milk Regulations 1967

Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilitation (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Amendment of Magistrates Ordinance) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Closed Areas) Regulations 1967

Emergency (Closed Areas) (Hok Yuen Power Station) Order 1967

Emergency (Closed Areas) (Hong Kong Tramways Limited Depot, Work-

shops and Welfare Centre) Order 1967

Emergency (Closed Areas) (North Point Power Station) Order 1967 Emergency (Committee of Review) Rules 1967

Emergency (Committee of Review) (Amendment) Rules 1967 Emergency (Courts) Regulations 1967

Emergency (Firework) Regulations 1967

Emergency (General Holiday) Regulations 1967

Emergency (Legal Aid in Criminal Cases) (District Court) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Prevention of Inflammatory Posters) Regulations 1967

Emergency (Prevention of Inflammatory Speeches) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Prevention of Intimidation) Regulations 1967

Emergency (Prevention of Intimidation) Regulations 1967 (Revocation)

Order 1967

Legislation

Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1967 Emergency (Principal) (Amendment) (No 4) Regulations 1967

Emergency (Principal) Regulations (Commencement) Orders 1967 Emergency (Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance) (Amendment)

Regulations 1967

Essential Services (Auxiliary Fire Service) Corps (Amendment) Regulations

1967

Essential Services (Auxiliary Medical Services) Corps (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1967

Essential Services (Civil Aid Services) Corps (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Essential Services Corps (General) (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Excluded Ferries (Ma On Shan and Ho Tung Lau) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1967

Exemption from Salaries Tax Order 1967

Exportation (Cotton Manufactures) (Amendment of Schedule) Order 1967 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Food and Drugs (Composition and Labelling) (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Frozen Confections (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1967 General Holidays Order 1967

Government Lotteries (Amendment) Rules 1967

Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company (Amendment) By-laws 1967 Hong Kong Airport (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Hong Kong Airport (Control of Obstructions) (Amendment) Order 1967 Hong Kong Airport (Traffic) Regulations 1967

Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation Ordinance-Legislative Council Resolution determining the maximum contingent liability of the Corporation

Hong Kong Regiment (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve (Revocation) Regulations 1967

Hong Kong Tourist Association (Amendment) Rules 1967

Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force (Revocation) Regulations 1967 Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Hong Kong Women's Naval Reserve (Revocation) Regulations 1967 Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1967

282

Appendix

II-Contd

283

Legislation

Importation and Exportation (Reserved Commodities) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1967

Importation (Coffee) Regulations (Amendment of First Schedule) Orders 1967 Inland Revenue (Amendment) Rules 1967

Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance-Notice amending the rate

of pound sterling

Juvenile Courts (Orders of 1933 and 1934) (Cancellation) Order 1967

Land Registration Fees (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Land Registration (New Territories) Fees Regulations 1967

Legal Aid (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Lion Rock Tunnel Regulations 1967

Magistrates (Forms) Rules 1967

Magistrates (Forms) (Amendment) Rules 1967

Matrimonial Causes (Fees) Rules 1967

Medical Clinics (Forms) (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Medical Practitioners (Fees) Order 1967

Merchant Shipping (Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Milk (Amendment) By-laws 1967

Milk (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Money-lenders Ordinance Order of Exemption

Motor Vehicles (First Registration Tax) (Depreciation) Regulations 1967 Motor Vehicles (First Registration Tax) (Depreciation) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1967

Nos 30/40 and Nos 42/50, Ma Tau Chung Road, Kowloon Closed Area

Order 1967

Nos 30/40 and Nos 42/50, Ma Tau Chung Road, Kowloon Closed Area

Order 1967 (Revocation) Order 1967

Nurses (Registration and Disciplinary Procedure) (Amendment) Regulations

1967

Offensive Trades (Amendment) By-laws 1967

Pensionable Offices Order 1967

Pensions (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Pilots (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Places for Post-Mortem Examination Order 1967

Pleasure Grounds (Amendment) By-laws 1967

Legislation

Poisons (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Poisons List (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Post Office (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Prison (Amendment) Rules 1967

Probation of Offenders (Amendment) Rules 1967

Protection of Non-Government Certificates of Origin Ordinance (Amendment

of Schedule) Order 1967

Public Health (Animals and Birds) (Animal Dealers) (Amendment) Regulations

1967

Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance (Amendment of Fourth Schedule)

Orders 1967

Public Order Curfew (Consolidation) (Amendment) Order 1967

Reformatory School (Amendment) Rules 1967

Resettlement (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1967

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1967

Revised Edition of the Laws (Correction of Error) Order 1967

Road Traffic (International Circulation) (Amendment) Regulations 1967 Road Traffic (Registration and Licensing of Vehicles) (Amendment) Regula-

tions 1967

Road Traffic (Taxis, Public Omnibuses and Public Cars) (Amendment)

Regulations 1967

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Rules of the Supreme Court 1967

Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment) Rules 1967

Solicitors (Trade Marks) Costs Rules 1967

Stamp (New Territories) (Exemption and Modification) Regulations 1967 Statutes of the University (Amendment) Statutes 1967

Tax Reserve Certificates (Fourth Series) (Amendment) Rules 1967

Tax Reserve Certificates (Fourth Series) (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1967 Telecommunication (Amendment) Regulations 1967

Telecommunication (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1967

Telecommunication Exemption (Rediffusion Television Subscribers) Order

1967

Telephone Ordinance-Legislative Council Resolution amending the Schedule

284

285

classification

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

numbers

1966

1967

1966

1967

12

Metal mining

2

501

473

Appendix III

Industrial undertakings and persons employed

United Nations

standard

industrial

in main industrial groups

Industry

(Chapter 2:

Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

industrial

classification numbers

Industry

United Nations

standard

Industrial undertakings

Persons

employed

1966

1967

1966

1967

14

Clay pits and quarrying

62

54

1,674

980

23

Manufacture of textiles

Cotton spinning

33

33

20,101 21,525

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 E ~ ~ *

19

Non-metallic mining

10

10

57

61

Wool spinning

10

11

2,710 2,944

20

Food manufacture

506

516

9,201

9,622

-Finishing

21

Beverages

26

28 2,639

2,136

23

22

Tobacco manufacture

Manufacture of textiles

6

5 1,530

1,332

2224

Cotton weaving

Knitting

Cordage, rope and twine Footwear and wearing apparel

237

255

31,277 30,623

212

218

7,480 7,685

581

604

33,028

33,416

36

36

648

645

1,383

1,462 101,622 104,682

Footwear except rubber footwear

91

112 1,489

2,221

24

Footwear and wearing apparel

...

1,419

1,545

75,636 80,307

Wearing apparel except footwear Made-up textile goods except wearing

1,254

1,355

71,845 75,987

25

Manufacture of wood and cork

377

apparel

74

78

397

5,186

4,981

2,302 2,099

31

Chemicals and chemical products

26

Manufacture of furniture...

349

420 4,183

4,487

Medicines

37

38

887

946

27

Paper

205

248

2,988

Cosmetics

4

4

170

3,755

177

Paints and lacquers

14

14

844

891

28

Printing and publishing

896

865 15,175

15,508

Matches

1

1

240

217

29

Leather and leather products

39

38

632

720

1424

34

Basic metal industries

30

Rubber products

228

255

9,232

11,091

35

Metal products

31

Chemicals and chemical products

126

127

4,080

4,127

32

Products of petroleum and coal

3

10

10

33

Non-metallic mineral products

110

109

2,798

2,837

Rolling mills

Tin cans

Enamelware

Vacuum flasks

Electro-plating

Needles

17

16

1,223

989

51

46

1,042

1,014

21

19

2,526

2,679

8

7

1,210

1,243

149

164

1,471

1,640

6

7

619

662

34

Basic metal industries

130

135

2,765

2,537

Hurricane lamps

2

2

198

209

35

Metal products

Hand torch cases

48

44

4,708

4,645

1,394

1,551

34,265 38,608

Pressure stoves and lanterns

29

31

1,906 2,463

36

Manufacture of machinery

575

606

6,705

6,339

Wrist watch bands

77

93

4,045

4,848

37

Electrical apparatus

37

278

293

31,153 31,718

Electrical apparatus

Hand torch bulbs

55

38

Transport equipment

135

179

16,114 15,975

Torch batteries

19

2932535

49

3,907

4,039

21 2,871 3,043

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries...

38

1,837

2,029 65,598 76,469

51

Electricity and gas

9

10

4,487 3,788

61

Wholesale and retail trade

10

759

606

39

71

Transport

24

27

...

11,573

8,241

Telephones...

72

73

Storage and warehousing

Transport equipment

Shipbuilding and repairing

Shipbreaking

Aircraft repair

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

Artificial pearls

Buttons

202

29

6

232

10,307 410

9,625

391

1,642

1,952

པི

25

14

859

745

31

33

731

745

26

28

4,567

3,723

Bakelite ware

29

31

1,185

1,212

1

1

4,804

4,357

84

Motion picture industry

11

13 1,709

1,839

85

Laundry and dry cleaning

236

266 2,512 2,663

71

Totals

10,413

11,232 424,155 443,972

Plastic ware Plastic flowers Fountain pens

Transport

Tramways

Motor buses

1,099

1,239

33,773

40,019

341

328

17,963

15,803

6

171

174

::

1

1 1,737

1,609

7

9,636 6,437

286

Appendix IV

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections, 1967

Applications received for registration

2,041

Registration certificates issued

1,641

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

4

Applications withdrawn

203

Factories closed and Registration Certificates surrendered

624

Places of employment registered at December 31

7,309

*Factories 'recorded' at December 31

...

3,923

Routine visits by inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health and

welfare provisions

..

44,833

...

Visits for wage enquiries

...

...

Inspections in connection with industrial or occupational accidents

and workmen's compensation

Visits about employment of women and young persons

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

Visits in connection with enforcement of the Industrial Employment

(Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance

* Undertakings which do not require to be registered as factories but are inspected by the

Labour Department staff.

1,477

498

D

15,571

9,365

...

2,595

Appendix V

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1967

Persons involved

Deaths

Persons injured in registrable workplaces

Deaths in registrable workplaces

*Total accidents reported and investigated

(1966 total 8,693)

...

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1966 rate 11.47)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1966 rate 0.088)

:

8,633

***

...

146

...

4,898

...

24

:

:

:

:

:

:

8,633

11.19

0.055

* An accident involving two or more persons is recorded as a separate accident for each

person involved,

Appendix VI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue

287

1965-6

1966-7

1967-8

Head of Revenue

Actual

Estimated

Actual

Estimated

1. Duties

2. Rates

3. Internal Revenue

. 4. Licences and Franchises

5. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties

6. Fees of Court or Office

7. Water Revenue

8. Post Office

259,378,531 316,000,000 314,561,260 329,100,000

224,022,848 242,750,000 247,655,673 278,000,000

526,641,915 572,500,000 605,630,300 605,500,000

82,934,990 85,247,000 94,318,149 83,245,000

8,804,455 8,680,000 9,010,028 9,000,000

114,403,568 127,624,000 122,279,620 128,220,000

51,670,276 76,268,000 70,449,556 67,288,000

96,888,351 92,436,000

86,652,811 88,139,000

9. Kai Tak Airport and Air Services 23,538,895 23,434,000 27,941,645 27,894,000

10. Kowloon-Canton Railway

14,480,818 12,661,000 15,402,445 16,500,000

11. Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc

160,081,830 154,383,000 158,577,752 168,873,000

1,552,610,937 1,707,686,000 1,762,714,779 1,806,056,000

12. Land Sales

73,355,395 67,481,000 48,454,617 75,000,000

13. World Refugee Year Grants

2,032,480

486,000

161,882

343,000

14. Contributions Towards Projects

3,115,862 8,629,000 6,064,626

4,240,000

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

586,539

365,648

Total Revenue

1,631,701,213 1,784,282,000 1,817,761,552 1,885,639,000

288

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

VII

Structure)

289

Expenditure

Expenditure

Head of Expenditure

1965-6 Actual $

1966-7

1967-8

1965-6

Estimated $

Actual $

Estimated $

Head of Expenditure

21.

HE the Governor's Establishment

715,860

794,400

837,875

777,300

53. Post Office

22. Agriculture and Fisheries

Department

23. Audit Department

24. Civil Aviation Department

11,294,403 12,139,300 11,450,533 1,521,122 1,660,800 1,665,641 6,087,923 8,108,300 6,597,154

13,753,600

54. Printing Department 55. Prisons Department

1,766,100

56. Public Debt

9,487,000

57.

Public Services Commission

25. Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

...

10,891,082 14,016,900 13,759,052 17,635,000

58.

Public Works Department

59.

26. Commerce and Industry

Department

16,474,991

21,642,300 15,839,109 19,577,000

60.

Public Works Recurrent

Public Works Non-recurrent:

Headquarters

1967-8

Actual

Estimated

Actual Estimated $

$

$

$

43,388,717 46,681,900 53,913,851 52,487,700 7,181,200 6,552,263 7,624,300 6,234,114 15,685,488 18,205,600 16,826,276 19,303,700

5,888,932 5,442,910 5,442,910

61,857

66,700

67,717 72,784,889 85,331,800 84,499,411 70,332,146 82,281,000 91,505,753 94,038,500

1966-7

5,333,310

206,000 98,115,000

39,912,767 47,992,000 31,159,789 14,484,000

27. Defence: Hong Kong Regiment

(The Volunteers)

...

2,486,806

28. Defence: Hong Kong Royal

Naval Reserve

1,171,462

2,335,400 1,842,918 2,590,200

1,368,200 1,019,435 250,000

61. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Buildings

62. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Civil Engineering

216,617,438 242,581,200 185,346,864 205,602,600

140,330,365 137,638,700 118,261,292 121,872,100

29. Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

***

486,024

1,171,200

978,721 1,849,400

63. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Waterworks

30. Defence: Essential Services

64.

Radio Hong Kong

190,538,004 164,976,500 145,125,284 3,054,899 3,762,800 3,574,031

118,517,000

4,096,800

Corps and Directorate of Manpower

240,899

31. Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service

463,062

32. Defence: Auxiliary Medical

Service

37.

33. Defence: Civil Aid Services

34. Defence: Registration of

Persons Office ...

35. Defence: Miscellaneous

Measures

36. Education Department

Fire Services Department 38. Immigration Department

39. Information Services Department 40. Inland Revenue Department

41. Judiciary

...

42. Kowloon-Canton Railway

43. Labour Department: Labour

Division

...

3,263,672

44. Labour Department: Mines

Division

45. Legal Department

Pensions

-

46. Marine Department

47. Medical and Health Department

48. Miscellaneous Services

49. New Territories Administration

50.

51. Police Force: Hong Kong Police

52. Police Force: Auxiliary Police ...

270,200

219,754 447,500

573,100 494,244 598,000

1,352,433 1,500,500 1,330,463 1,523,100 1,731,158 2,228,700 1,830,343 2,275,200

1,682,693 1,835,500 1,666,912 1,634,500

55,459,702 49,782,300 58,323,005 73,984,800 78,743,437 84,833,200 83,400,294 284,219,800 19,198,169 24,933,200 23,324,811 28,071,300 4,789,530 5,385,600 5,440,572 7,321,500

3,294,015 3,897,000 3,596,257 4,099,500 6,458,507 7,502,400 7,260,710 8,904,700 7,829,724 9,090,600 8,904,470 10,337,500 7,363,684 8,234,000 9,449,168 9,632,800

3,869,600 3,600,935 4,154,800

341,959 395,100 365,146 421,100 2,482,163 2,862,800 2,959,742 3,354,100 20,216,470 26,060,300 21,985,879 23,680,300 105,473,152 119,111,300 112,713,222 129,873,700 78,298,239 39,576,200 82,479,132 44,083,200 10,672,958 11,308,100 11,430,385 12,474,000 30,644,023 34,989,000 43,515,917 41,665,000 104,175,335 113,074,900 112,147,786 125,632,400

1,564,943 2,225,200 1,933,654

65.

Rating and Valuation

Department

2,072,000

2,761,800

2,562,251

3,088,400

66.

Registrar General's Department

3,962,389

4,804,300

4,568,621

4,898,400

67. Registry of Trade Unions

304,326

327,500

320,544

336,900

68.

Resettlement Department

27,550,754

34,706,100

32,956,043

39,897,700

69.

Royal Observatory

3,446,495

3,834,900

3,385,231

3,802,200

70.

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs ...

2,118,246

2,328,400

2,509,351

2,893,100

71.

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs:

Public Enquiry Service

352,385

346,100

307,765

346,900

72.

Social Welfare Department

73.

Stores Department

74.

Subventions: Medical

76.

75. Subventions: Social Welfare

Subventions: Miscellaneous

77.

Treasury

78.

Universities

...

79.

Urban Services Department

and Urban Council

80.

Urban Services Department:

City Hall

:

50,496,349

2,488,135

9,546,420 12,365,600 24,575,549 23,174,100 22,656,799 38,158,439 44,641,100 45,478,728 5,667,263 6,982,800 6,735,245 15,912,466 8,115,100 17,810,512 20,600,300 4,109,921 4,345,900 4,577,785 4,516,600 39,361,600

53,325,300 55,927,950 61,068,400

10,898,545

12,584,000

21,126,000

48,973,000

7,956,600

81. Urban Services Department:

Housing Division

3,091,600 2,657,566 3,664,200

5,556,771 7,843,400 6,458,671 8,923,200

82.

Urban Services Department: New Territories Division University Grants Committee... Subventions: Education

5,649,294 6,982,200

6,681,713 8,072,300

314,187

83.

World Refugee Year Schemes Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

Total

...

637,625

582,300

66,000

162,031,594 198,896,800 183,838,847

1,765,698,012 1,877,790,910 1,805,285,034 1,922,192,410

2,794,831

410,316

371,252

407,700

1,769,130,468 1,878,439,210 1,806,066,602 1,922,600,110

2,327,200

290

DEPOSITS:

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Statement of Assets and

VIII

Structure)

Liabilities as at March 31, 1967

LIABILITIES

ASSETS

CASH:

In Treasuries, in transit, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong

With the Crown Agents

Unspent Grants:

Colonial Development and Welfare

Schemes

12,937.41

5,657,419.28

$ 5,670,356.69

FIXED DEPOSITS:

Other Projects

Public Works Department:

Contract Retentions

Private Works

Water Deposits

Other Deposits:

Control of Publications

Government Servants

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

:

:

:

19,251,064.50

5,693,286.65

25,432,713.81

50,377,064.96

Sterling

Local

INVESTMENTS (including Special Deposits): (i)

Malayan

Sterling

:

$ 70,883,709.14

291

5,425,074.93 $ 76,308,784.07

12,800,000.00

396,300,000.00

1,000,000.00

1,815,096.84

67,501.01

27,877,480.83

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies-

Deposits

30,760,078.68 $ 86,807,500.33

ADVANCES:

Personal-Imprests...

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

192,953.30

Personal-General

Post Office

138,024,760.94

Other Administrations

Miscellaneous

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE: (ii)

As at April 1, 1966 ...

687,926,557.78

Add:

Surplus from April 1, 1966 to March 31, 1967

Appreciation on Investments

11,694,949.84

10,568,915.52

710,190,423.14

$935,215,637.71

Notes: (i) Does not include 16,290 shares of a nominal value of (ii) There is a contingent liability in respect of the contracts

:

:

:

:

:

:

$100 each held in Associated Properties Limited.

of the Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation.

409,100,000.00

20,905,500.00

418,190,585.13 439,096,085.13

50,000.00

491,909.59

6,823,220.81

382,818.83

937,379.65

2,025,439.63

10,660,768.51

$935,215,637.71

292

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

IX

Structure)

and Capital Income and Expenditure

293

Recurrent

Actual

1963-4 $

Actual 1964-5 $

Actual 1965-6 $

Actual 1966-7

$

Estimate 1967-8 $

Actual 1963-4

Actual 1964-5

Actual

1965-6 $

Recurrent Revenue

... 1,155,635,124 1,342,304,614 1,517,144,155 1,726,391,199 1,766,903,000

Personal Emoluments

-

Pensions

Actual

Estimate 1966-7

1967-8 $

$

378,174,802 457,280,738 523,227,308 573,972,983 650,171,300

25,316,449 28,868,353 30,644,023 43,515,917 41,665,000

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (Excluding Unallocated Stores)

Recurrent Subventions

Public Works Recurrent

Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

131,522,685 149,012,715 158,208,485 178,051,063 195,913,200

130,140,557 159,404,094 195,924,014 236,985,764 276,028,600

41,145,372 52,021,336 70,332,146 91,505,753 94,038,500

44,861,790

751,161,655

Transfer to Capital Revenue 305,974,988

47,183,934 56,122,372 57,209,115 105,776,510

893,771,170 1,034,458,348 1,181,240,595 1,363,593,110

370,769,943 482,685,807 533,455,654 403,309,890

Surplus

1,155,635,124 1,342,304,614 1,517,144,155 1,726,391,199 1,766,903,000

98,498,481 77,763,501

1,155,635,124 1,342,304,614 1,517,144,155 1,726,391,199 1,766,903,000

11,694,950

Capital

Estate Duty

22,545,650 24,722,076 18,952,039 19,450,595

20,000,000

Departmental Special

Expenditure

Excess Stamp Duty (3%

on Assignments)

10,857,891

11,682,926

9,892,715 10,219,200

10,000,000

Capital Subventions

16,567,751

16,515,221

18,837,738 29,848,197 32,206,620 44,054,300

22,191,179 25,845,748 16,877,568 34,444,500

Private Contributions

towards Government Schemes

Public Debt (excluding

interest)

4,252,000

4,252,000

4,252,000

3,809,600

3,700,000

Loan Repayments...

Land Sales

7,425,063

354,319

194,836,577

3,825,442 3,115,862

177,559 6,622,028

132,976,109 73,355,395

6,064,626

6,653,784

48,454,617

4,240,000

Public Works Non-

9,153,000

75,000,000

recurrent

496,070,374

490,450,261 587,398,574 479,893,230 460,475,700

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

302,907

1,362,638

637,625

371,252

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

World Refugee Year Grants

302,667

1,914,031

238,236,198

1,358,984

586,539

365,648

1,239,115 2,032,480

161,882

175,982,211 114,557,058 91,370,352

Miscellaneous Capital

Expenditure

2,949,755

4,050,325

79,272,502 85,226,332 13,924,800

343,000

118,736,000

World Refugee Year

Schemes

2,056,723

2,570,699

2,794,831

410,316

407,700

Contribution from

Recurrent Revenue

Deficit

305,974,988 370,769,943 482,685,807

137,429,255

533,455,654

403,309,890

36,961,110

Unallocated Stores

Accounts...

5,496,455

3,037,314

4,622,643

6,031,088

2,000,000

544,211,186 546,752,154 734,672,120 624,826,006

559,007,000

544,211,186

546,752,154 734,672,120 624,826,006 559,007,000

294

Appendix X

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Public Debt of the Colony at March 31, 1967

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8 ...

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

EA

$

46,666,000.00

28,800,000.00

75,466,000.00

Appendix XI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Colonial Development and Welfare

       Details of locally administered schemes in progress during 1967 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme Number

Title

Estimated expenditure

up to

December 31, 1967

Maximum grant available

CD & W share of approved expenditure

CD & W

Total

share

£

%

£

£

D 3271

Construction of New Library and

Students' Union at the University of Hong Kong

200,000

78

255,275

199,115

D 4115

Aeronautical Telecommunications ...

21,200

52

39,070

20,316

D 4745

Construction of New Pre-clinical

Building for the University of Hong Kong

78,125

28

305,726

78,125

(max)

D 4909

Construction of 48 Staff Flats for the University of Hong Kong

20,000

9

353,358

20,000

(max)

D 5250

D 5250A

Kowloon Wholesale Fish and

Vegetable Markets

163,581

52.6

311,000

163,581

(max)

D 5365

Extension to University Hall for the

University of Hong Kong

101,875

62

2,290

1,420

D 5366

Purchase of equipment for Marine

Physics Research at the University of Hong Kong

...

12,500

100

12,132

12,132

D 5639

Erection of Medical Library and

Student Centre for the University of Hong Kong

10,000

13.3

86,572

10,000

(max)

R 1731

Pesticides Research

390

100

390

***

390

R 1817

TB in the Tropics Research

3,000

100

1,600

1,600

R 1873

Leprosy in Hong Kong

2,925

100

1,850

1,850

£613,596

£1,369,263 £ 508,529

Appendix XII

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees

295

1964-5

1965-6

1966-7

Actual

Actual

Actual

1967-8 Estimate

Revenue

Revenue

Revenue

$

$

1. Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils

2. Import Duty on Intoxicating Liquor

3. Import Duty on Liquor other than

Intoxicating Liquor

4. Import Duty on Tobacco

5. Duty on locally manufactured Liquor

6. Duty on Table Waters

75,816,340 82,390,613 103,712,960 109,000,000

48,220,843 54,639,473 63,940,637 63,000,000

2,325,429 1,926,317 1,922,351 1,900,000

101,184,068

93,683,785 118,235,613 111,000,000

21,350,355 20,493,504 19,453,051 20,000,000

6,328,163 6,244,839 7,296,648 8,300,000

255,225,198 259,378,531 314,561,260 313,200,000

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

1. Hydrocarbon Oils

2. Liquor

3. Tobacco ...

4. Miscellaneous

195,887

194,795

193,172

195,000

2,582,541

2,746,374 3,013,939 3,181,000

785,935

788,835

861,764

860,000

32,207

28,830

28,425

30,800

3,596,570 3,758,834 4,097,300

4,266,800

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

1. Denaturing

453,113

421,916

381,969

430,000

2. Factory Inspection and Supervision ...

57,417

39,914

15,476

300

3. Anti-narcotic smuggling guards

10,234

8,036

8,610

8,000

4. Bonded Warehouse supervision

363,741

369,524

347,229

360,000

884,505

839,390

753,284

798,300

296

I- Housing Loans:

1.

Housing Authority (i)

2.

DETAILS

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Approved

XIII

Structure)

Loan Fund

Projects as at March 31, 1967

Allocation

of

Funds

$

Total Expenditure to 31.3.67 $

Total Repayments to 31.3.67 $

LOAN PROJECTS

Hong Kong Housing Society:

(a) Completed Schemes

(b) Kennedy Town Scheme

(c) Kwun Tong Scheme Extension

3.

Local Government Officers

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans (ii)

5. Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited

6.

Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited:

(a) Share capital

(b) Initial Loan Fund

II.

Educational Loans (ii)

III

:

:

:

:

:

::

:

:

:

:

1. The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

2.

The Mother Superioress of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

Medical Loans:

IV

- Miscellaneous Loans:

Operation Feedbag

1.

Hong Kong Football Club

2.

South China Athletic Association

3.

4.

5.

Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company, Limited:

Ocean Terminal

University of Hong Kong

V - Fisheries Loans (i)

:

:

:

:

297

Balances at 31.3.67

$

245,000.000

186,089,754,24

186,089,754.24

99,018,214

99,018,212.04

4,923,010.16

94,095,201.88

24,500,000

13,500,000.00

13,500,000.00

22,500,000

20,500,000.00

20,500,000.00

203,500,000

129,239,458.60

210,000 10,000,000

210,000.00

9,000,000.00

20,399,473.56 163,669.74

108,839,985.04

46,330.26

9,000,000.00

600,000 15,400,000

620,728,214

300,000.00 1,848,000.00

459,705,424.88

300,000.00 1,848,000.00

25,486,153.46

434,219,271.42

120,000,000

72,048,591.20

21,566,414.88

50,482,176.32

3,750,000 2,000,000

5,750,000

3,750,000.00

972,230.00

2,777,770.00

2,000,000.00

611,945.57

1,388,054.43

5,750,000.000

1,584,175.57

4,165,824.43

550,000

550,000.00

389,302.50

600,000

600,000.00

321,133.21

160,697.50 278,866.79

675,000

675,000.00

675,000.00

26,900,000 220,000

28,945,000

25,560,000.00

25,560,000.00

27,385,000.00

1,385,435.71

25,999,564.29

5,000,000

3,535,262.00

3,535,262.00

VI - Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation

Notes:

Grand Total (iii)

(i) These loans constitute revolving funds and are therefore (ii) Includes balances of loans originally made from General (iii) Projects completed and finalized are not included in

10,000,000

790,423,214

10,000,000.00

578,424,278.08

shown net after the deduction of repayments.

50,022,179.62

Revenue but taken over by the Development Loan Fund on October 1, 1959. this statement and total $8,577,934.69.

10,000,000.00

528,402,098.46

298

Development Loan Fund:

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Assets and

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Loan Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1967

LIABILITIES

As at April 1, 1966 (i)

Add:

Kwun Tong Reclamation Land Sales

1966-7

Per Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Recurrent Payments

Appreciation on Investments

$556,181,305.07

154,000.00

$22,279,390.60 27,734.40

22,251,656.20

129,336.87 $578,716,298.14

ASSETS

Cash:

In Treasuries, in transit, Departments and Banks in Hong Kong With the Crown Agents

$ 9,020,315.80 598,966.46

Fixed Deposits

Investments:

Local

Sterling

Kwun Tong Reclamation:

Outstanding premia (ii)

:

:

Outstanding Loans and Capital (iii) for:

Housing (iii)

Educational

Medical

Fisheries

Export Credit Insurance (iii) Miscellaneous purposes

299

$ 9,619,282.26

20,000,000.00

345,240,00 3,477,674.20

3,822,914,20

434,219,271.42

50,482,176.32 4,165,824.43

3,535,262.00

16,872,003,22

10,000,000.00

25,999,564.29 528,402,098.46

$578,716,298.14

Notes: (i) The Development Loan Fund balance ($545,586,131.79) the Fund's portion of the cost ($8,291,562.04) of Kwun of and by including outstanding premia instalments (ii) Does not include the value of nine unsold Kwun Tong (iii) The Capital items comprise 6,000 shares (each of 100 and Loan Agency Limited and $10,000,000 in the Hong

at March 31, 1966 was adjusted on April 1, 1966 by eliminating Tong Reclamation which has been completed and largely disposed ($18,886,735.32) on disposed of lots.

Reclamation lots.

of which $50 per share has been paid up) in The Hong Kong Building Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation.

Summary of Receipts and

Payments for 1966-7

1. Receipts:

Loan repayments

Interest on Loans

Interest on Investments and Balances

Interest on Land sales premia

:

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong Reclamation

LESS

2. Payments:

Premia Adjustments (Net)

...

Loans and Capital (Net)

3. Deficit

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

::

$578,716,298.14

$11,029,938.17

19,512,831,71

1,819,929.93

946,628.96 2,168,732.10

$35,478,060.87

27,734.40 39,627,087.20

39,654,821.60

$ 4,176,760.73

300

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

Statement of Approved Grants and

DETAILS

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Fund

Loans as at March 31, 1967

Allocation

301

Total Expenditure to 31.3.67

$

Total Repayments to 31.3.67

Balances at 31.3.67

$

$

I- Grants:

of Funds $

3.

1. Yuen Long Community Centre:

(a) Capital expenditure

(b) Recurrent expenditure

2. Social Research Project

...

Girl Guides Association-Headquarters building

4. Family Planning Association-Publicity Campaign

1,000,000 250,000

1,000,000

200,000.00

350,000

267,855.66

...

58,200

31,089.80

5.

Hong Kong Council of Social Service (Sub-Committee on Child Feeding)-Replacement of

capital equipment

:

156,000

137,637.80

6. British Red Cross Society-Equipment for school for physically handicapped children...

42,000

42,000.00

7. Director of Medical and Health Services-Campaign to assist the disabled travelling by public

transport

10,000

4,000.00

8. Hong Kong Council of Social Service-Study of Social Welfare needs for Chai Wan

25,000

24,932.10

9. Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups-Youth Centre in Hung Hom...

35,000

35,000.00

...

10. The Sisters of the Good Shepherd-Equipment for Centre for Teenage Girls at Brick Hill,

Aberdeen

...

100,000

15,915.50

...

11. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association-Equipment for 3 children's libraries at playgrounds 12. Society for the Relief of Disabled Children-Equipment for extension to Sandy Bay

Convalescent Home (interim grant)

13. Heung Hoi Ching Kok Lin Shea-Home for Aged Women, Fanling

14. Aberdeen Technical School-Provision of additional boarding accommodation

15. Maryknoll Fathers-Social Service Centre, Ngau Tau Kok

16. Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts-Additions at Shek Kwu Chau

Treatment Centre

17. Education and Publicity Sub-Committee (Action Committee against Narcotics) Publicity

campaign

18. Christian Children's Fund-New children's home in Tai Po

19. Hong Kong Family Welfare Society-Equipment for Chung Chi College Chinese University

Student Unit

21,000

...

100,000

200,000

200,000.00

300,000

340,000

...

:

115,000

114,227.00

55,000

30,661.66

300,000

1,905

20. Caritas, Hong Kong-Alterations and equipment for a Youth Centre, Central District

45,000

21. Leprosy Mission, Hong Kong Auxiliary-Water supply to Hay Ling Chau

29,000

28,136.20

29,000.00

22. British Red Cross Society-Alterations and equipment for a transit hostel at Tsz Wan Shan

Resettlement Estates, for physically handicapped children

57,000

Total Grants

4,590,105

1,160,455.72

II

Loans:

1. Chinese YMCA-Youth Centre

2. YWCA-Anne Black Centre

3. Hong Kong Resettlement Estates Loan Association-Loan Capital

Total Loans

Grand Total

:

:.

:

:

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

2,000,000

2,000,000

100,000

1,838,000.00

A

100,000.00

1,838,000.00

100,000.00

4,100,000

1,938,000.00

1,938,000.00

8,690,105

3,098,455.72

1,938,000.00

.302

Lotteries Fund:

As at April 1, 1966

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Lotteries

Statement of Assets and

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Fund

Liabilities as at March 31, 1967

LIABILITIES

Add per Statement of Receipts and Payments:

Recurrent Receipts

Recurrent Payments

$9,643,845.07

1,128,191.72 1,801,450.93 $11,445,296.00

$2,929,642.65

$11,445,296.00

Cash at Bank

Fixed Deposits

Outstanding Loans

:

:

ASSETS

:

:

:

:

:

:

Statement of Receipts and Payments

DETAILS

for the year ended March 31, 1967

RECEIPTS

Recurrent:

Bank Interest

Net Proceeds from Government Lotteries Nos 12, 13 and 14

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities ...

Non-Recurrent:

Loan Repayments...

:

Total Receipts

PAYMENTS

Recurrent:

Grants

Carried to Statement of Assets and Liabilities...

Non-Recurrent:

Loans

:

:

:

Total Payments

:

:

303

$

507,296.00

9,000,000.00

1,938,000.00

$11,445,296.00

Approved Estimate

$

Actual Receipts/ Payments

$ 227,777

$ 530,749.65

3,000,000

3,227,777

2,398,893.00

2,929,642.65

100,000

$3,327,777

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

$2,929,642.65

2,100,000

2,100,000

1,128,191.72

1,128,191.72

2,000,000

$4,100,000

1,743,000.00

$2,871,191.72

304

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Currency and

Currency in Circulation

XIV

Structure)

Banking Statistics and Bank Deposits

305

Date

Number of reporting banks

Notes and coins in circulation (HK$ million)

Deposits (HK$ million)

Index of Deposits

December 31, 1955=100

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

31.12.1955

34

771.7

1,137

852

152

133

100

100

100

100

31.12.1956

34

783.3

1,267

928

173

166

111

109

114

125

31.12.1957

35

812.6

1,412

955

267

190

124

112

176

143

31.12.1958

36

827.6

1,583

988

351

244

139

116

231

183

31.12.1959

41

896.2

2,056

1,205

482

369

181

141

317

277

31.12.1960

47

984.0

2,682

1,393

752

537

236

163

495

404

31.12.1961

31.12.1962

31.12.1963

31.12.1964

31.12.1965

31.12.1966

31.12.1967

* 2 * 8 * * *

59

1,026.7

3,367

1,470

1,234

663

296

173

812

498

63

1,123.7

4,311

1,664

1,768

879

379

195

1,163

661

67

1,229.8

5,425

1,997

2,283

1,145

477

234

1,502

861

69

1,399.5

6,568

2,237

2,810

1,521

578

263

1,849

1,144

78

1,739.8

7,251

2,532

3,099

1,620

638

297

2,039

1,218

76

1,852.4

8,405

2,681

3,742

1,982

739

315

2,462

1,490

75

2,307.7

8,162

2,658

3,324

2,180

718

312

2,187

1,639

Date

Number of reporting banks

Cash (i.e. legal tender notes and coins in hand) (HK$ million)

Banking

NET balances with other banks (including Head Offices or Branches outside Hong Kong)

& other short

Assets

Loans and Advances (HK$ million)

Investments (HK$ million)

Index of Loans and Advances December 31, 1955-100

'Liquidity Ratio' (i.e. cash and net balances with other banks expressed as percentage of total deposits)

term claims

(HK$ million)

31.12.1955

31.12.1956

31.12.1957

31.12.1958

34

144

12.7%

459

40.4%

632

55.6%

96

8.4%

100

53.3%

:

34

97

7.7%

541

42.7%

769

60.7%

98

7.7%

122

50.4%

35

118

8.4%

578

40.9%

865

61.3%

101

7.2%

137

49.3%

36

84

5.3%

730

46.1%

919

58.1%

121

7.6%

145

51.4%

31.12.1959

41

86

4.2%

775

37.7%

1,373

66.8%

133

6.5%

217

41.9%

31.12.1960

47

136

5.1%

930

34.6%

1,720

64.1%

166

6.2%

272

39.7%

31.12.1961

59

114

3.4%

1,041

30.9%

2,334

69.3%

232

6.9%

369

34.3%

31.12.1962

63

162

3.8%

1,482

34.4%

2,849

66.1%

191

4.4%

451

38.1%

31.12.1963

67

210

3.7%

1,831

33.8%

3,642

67.1%

187

3.4%

576

37.5%

31.12.1964

69

238

3.6%

1,577

24.0%

4,586

69.8%

.271

4.1%

726

27.6%

31.12.1965

78

221

3.0%

2,133

29.4%

5,038

69.5%

527

7.3%

797

32.5%

31.12.1966

76

232

2.8%

2,862

34.1%

5,380

64.0%

537

6.4%

851

36.8%

31.12.1967

75

333

4.1%

2,347

28.8%

5,343

65.5%

590

7.2%

845

32.8%

Figures in Italics=

percentage of total deposits.

306

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

XV

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International

1965, 1966 and 1967

307

IMPORTS

Food

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

Dairy products and eggs

Fish and fish preparations

Fruits and vegetables

1965 $

1966

1967 $

1965

EXPORTS 1966

$

1967 $

1965 $

RE-EXPORTS 1966 $

1967

$

442,710,357

466,555,211

365,420,619

160,441,915

187,014,717

206,191,547

570 1,847,225

427,086

74,746

2,254,576

1,273,194

1,033,734

1,815,613

1,790,012

3,600,627

4,255,590

3,796,663

186,760,009

186,999,083

189,765,808

232,366

263,998

379,124

9,844,883

9,917,075

12,577,188

176,579,884

194,561,817

238,624,110

44,905,498

56,203,466

54,287,196

29,297,017

26,850,411

Cereals and cereal preparations

26,179,507

398,312,162

448,324,354

637,119,748

18,877,833

24,465,858

34,279,175

33,326,714

35,028,885

20,053,890

402,060,834

412,447,699

437,975,870

25,249,698

22,667,566

22,791,447

87,307,653

88,150,665

64,759,157

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

100,195,858

107,975,936

67,703,436

17,352,982

13,857,367

10,389,611

26,148,683

36,311,379

12,044,548

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures

thereof

96,796,313

127,032,311

89,105,694

1,177,688

1,253,479

1,107,242

74,763,528

85,468,866

59,793,387

Feeding stuff for animals (not including

unmilled cereals)

24,513,498

27,524,656

28,518,306

2,684,960

4,740,306

4,526,724

3,491,160

4,346,054

2,818,690

Miscellaneous food preparations

53,534,612

57,659,870

68,253,183

22,545,770

28,236,598

22,747,122

8,164,983

8,182,824

10,242,217

2,041,905,442

2,216,095,654

2,328,678,321

135,074,590

153,931,337

152,372,399

278,199,824

299,784,943

213,298,981

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

72,002,860

84,461,668

90,749,335

1,981,850

2,343,714

2,573,207

5,905,851

5,580,811

8,619,327

139,647,783

123,776,728

123,260,074

64,488,635

35,599,052

32,958,040

6,463,648

8,260,691

7,781,707

211,650,643

208,238,396

214,009,409

66,470,485

37,942,766

35,531,247

12,369,499

13,841,502

16,401,034

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

9,193,072

12,643,578

10,547,676

1,931,676

1,764,470

2,498,445

7,779,102

11,587,945

5,836,829

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

24,697,080

45,022,757

38,349,685

24,910,162

27,770,630

15,872,515

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

24,415,277

32,042,585

40,207,590

16,500

10,031,383

8,381,379

18,665,709

Wood, lumber and cork

65,029,750

60,793,549

51,996,296

5,315,892

3,336,693

4,034,287

8,480,651

7,751,248

9,185,908

Pulp and waste paper

765,250

954,754

380,961

5,959,721

7,624,050

9,730,200

1,729,693

607,126

453,973

Textile fibres and waste

563,307,221

623,159,019

578,098,345

12,024,980

9,076,452

10,096,088

12,945,102

11,428,459

6,567,831

Crude fertilizers and crude minerals, excluding

coal, petroleum and precious stones

17,598,487

14,756,964

14,465,399

1,378,547

1,161,726

1,130,597

3,694,317

3,150,402

2,616,895

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

36,182,792

24,294,724

32,369,891

58,586,855

64,309,413

72,173,273

2,027,563

7,646,907

5,581,909

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible,

not elsewhere specified..

182,437,731

216,476,138

219,528,085

23,013,118

22,940,076

25,236,414

84,421,483

94,143,082

90,284,967

923,626,660 1,030,144,068

985,943,928

108,227,289

110,212,880

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Coal, coke and briquettes

Petroleum and petroleum products

Gas, natural and manufactured

Electric energy

273,534,773

15,298,847

2,481,420

13,519,655

10,264,031

31,737

12,002

124,899,304

28,330

156,019,456

172,467,178

155,066,536

317,756,283

364,498,992

5,331,226

6,766,507

364,043 27,847,668 218,014

394,008 33,580,371 438,813

15,215

35,822,153 551,549

291,315,040

336,607,164

381,529,530

31,737

12,002

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Animal oils and fats

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

957,014 62,511,971

762,099 72,236,015

750,092 74,971,390

164,192 4,015,178

Animal and vegetable oils and fats, processed,

and waxes of animal or vegetable origin

1,641,064

1,100,241

65,110,049

74,098,355

885,408

76,606,890

7,460

221,560 4,163,076

20,000

4,186,830

4,404,636

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

103,380,602

126,536,132

165,464,163

3,084,435

2,970,070

28,330

152,670 2,940,243

4,800

3,097,713

2,686,751

Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal,

petroleum and natural gas

1,004,300

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

74,339,149

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

142,563,323

377,306 96,376,552 153,681,580

289,608 110,594,157 162,976,757

18,590,596

17,646,553

19,454,221

17,986,474

20,141,772

24,155,847

28,429,725

180,200 14,140,018

344,693

14,664,911

16,998,969

65,619 33,963,615 112,522,924

34,413,192

9,851 10,898,492

36,388,917

39,708 5,574,647

213,018

11,121,361

26,456,919

486,357

6,100,712

37,066,420

5,017

186,006

38,103,069 107,626,198

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet,

polishing and cleansing preparations

72,112,329

82,588,900

87,040,880

7,162,742

6,161,425

6,621,957

Fertilizers, manufactured

2,818,891

3,582,484

3,672,185

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

25,362,014

23,110,786

23,139,634

1,013,464

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and

artificial resins

220,641,337

227,481,465

268,299,645

5,358,827

4,261,878

7,753,982

15,181,775 8,842 24,043,547

22,662,529

23,268,800

44,441,944 136,073,800

24,814,763

35,466

240,451

26,548,426

28,453,312

20,276,874

22,914,990

Chemical materials and products, not elsewhere

specified

27,146,724

34,000,300

39,443,266

1,523,417

2,050,680

1,780,201

10,949,662

12,020,546

17,499,248

669,368,669

747,735,505

860,920,295

54,719,955

53,232,378

62,452,959

236,397,482

254,341,315

311,690,934

308

Appendix XV- Contd

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Trade Classification:

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International 1965, 1966 and 1967

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere

specified and dressed furs

IMPORTS

1965 $

1966 $

1967

1965 $

EXPORTS 1966

1967

1965

RE-EXPORTS

1966

$

$

$

1967 $

309

26,797,221

32,161,267

38,904,062

4,724,427

4,885,931

5,525,986

4,433,554

3,600,827

4,770,801

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified.. Wood and cork manufactures (excluding

furniture)

33,069,760

34,834,491

34,616,095

1,360,653

1,661,916

1,845,722

2,028,562

4,916,913

11,897,715

47,287,455

46,515,742

37,697,853

11,762,962

7,016,159

9,338,090

2,447,708

2,551,494

3,282,363

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related

products

203,319,074

242,194,246

244,370,100

7,875,487

6,997,266

8,463,366

13,982,558

23,390,490

30,166,794

---

1,279,688,796

1,668,643,912

1,562,601,450

834,485,574

921,261,099

935,521,284

219,740,797

352,049,961

444,529,994

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not else-

where specified

...

599,540,609

735,677,583

714,667,358

36,438,655

45,423,518

57,493,326

238,247,643

314,331,277

371,420,884

Iron and steel

348,368,138

274,758,278

239,829,108

40,382,023

39,776,210

51,153,881

16,301,051

21,272,052

25,592,900

Non-ferrous metals

112,459,744

134,624,376

141,224,661

Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified

116,693,401

127,824,010

122,784,832

2,767,224,198

3,297,233,905

3,136,695,519

9,606,528 157,378,185

1,104,014,494

15,413,375

15,006,853

31,153,138

29,847,646

22,584,685

175,742,649

1,218,178,123

200,344,948

15,889,793

21,609,062

30,454,463

1,284,693,456

544,224,804

773,569,722

944,700,599

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

468,112,864

407,735,254

415,981,218

27,060,207

26,954,877

36,312,487

34,679,982

41,028,010

78,718,336

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliances Transport equipment

505,408,528

720,964,368

756,397,859

293,244,890

476,140,888

589,925,287

18,146,268

30,694,478

37,392,682

203,244,243

180,894,609

174,467,597

23,497,156

29,059,552

43,223,048

18,728,770

20,197,287

30,257,987

1,176,765,635

1,309,594,231

1,346,846,674

343,802,253

532,155,317

669,460,822

71,555,020

91,919,775

146,369,005

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures

and fittings

30,829,335

27,336,949

23,492,502

Furniture and fixtures

21,458,525

25,120,559

21,210,803

111,527,217 44,908,552

115,574,397

132,662,737

928,923

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles Clothing

...

11,896,460

13,983,264

14,401,014

46,471,298

42,740,198 56,798,033

58,260,520

80,400,708

1,461,681 703,427

218,431,647

167,080,937

162,735,566

1,772,636,676

2,035,490,509

2,316,548,117

28,466,933

Footwear

42,885,929

44,271,858

42,226,288

152,720,401

184,217,220

218,850,764

1,175,124

1,641,059 1,866,730 417,791 23,890,300 4,509,623

2,857,203 3,154,801

704,185

29,254,637

11,313,459

Professional, scientific and controlling instru-

ments; photographic and optical goods, watches and clocks

250,133,477

307,506,495

408,590,634

38,571,752

70,541,790

89,957,113

62,692,776

75,995,738

100,639,050

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not else-

where specified

220,787,720

271,288,821

796,423,093

856,588,883

427,346,602

1,100,003,409

1,024,131,224 1,097,153,196 1,453,220,628

3,190,967,120 3,602,515,343 4,349,900,587

51,768,765

63,739,070

93,842,312

147,197,629

172,060,311

241,765,647

Commodities and transactions not classified according

to kind and transactions in gold and coin Commodities and transactions not classified

according to kind

21,443,513

Transactions in gold and current coin

309,472,473

330,915,986

20,700,722 285,091,629

305,792,351

17,911,748 385,704,041

403,615,789

19,306,045

17,255,326

17,551,002

19,306,045

17,255,326

17,551,002

13,704,297 298,806,615

312,510,912

9,755,065 293,035,092

9,344,526 358,084,007

302,790,157

367,428,533

Total Merchandise

GRAND TOTAL

:

8,964,832,942 10,097,036,883 10,449,145,723

5,026,800,798 5,729,840,108 6,699,987,819 1,502,762,647 1,833,274,364

2,081,126,891

:

9,274,305,415 10,382,128,512 10,834,849,764

5,026,800,798 5,729,840,108 6,699,987,819 1,801,569,262 2,126,309,456 2,439,210,898

310

Appendix XVI

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

% increase or decrease

Imports Exports Re-exports Total trade

1967 1966

***

1967

$ million

1966

$ million

10,449

10,097

+ 3%

6,700

5,730

+ 17%

2,081

1,833

+14

19,230

17,660

Cargo Tonnages

Appendix XVII

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade) Imports: Commodity Pattern

1967 total value $10,449 million

11.5 million tons 13.2 million tons

% of total imports in 1967 30%

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Food

Machinery and transport equipment

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels Chemicals

22

13

11

1967

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-metallic mineral manufactures

3,137

1,563

1966

$ million

3,297 1,669

% increase or decrease

715

736

Iron and steel

240

275

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Non-ferrous metals

244

242

141

135

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

123

128

Food

2,329

2,216

Cereals and cereal preparations

637

448

Fruits and vegetables

438

412

Live animals, chiefly for food

365

467

Fish and fish preparations

239

195

Meat and meat preparations

206

187

Dairy products and eggs

190

187

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

89

127

Miscellaneous food preparations

68

58

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

68

108

Machinery and transport equipment

1,347

1,310

Electric machinery

756

721

Non-electric machinery

416

408

Transport equipment

174

181

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

1,100

857

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

427

271

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

409

308

Clothing

163

167

Footwear

42

44

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

986

1,030

Textile fibres...

578

623

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible...

220

216

Wood, lumper and cork

52

61

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

40

32

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels...

38

45

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

32

24

Chemicals

861

748

***

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

268

227

Chemical elements and compounds

165

127

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

163

154

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

111

96

Essential oils and perfume materials

...

:

87

83

││} } ++ !++++++++++++ +1 | | ¦ +1 +1+++++++

33444

31%

Appendix XVIII

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1967 total value $10,449 million

311

China

By country

% of total imports in 1967

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of total imports in

1967

22%

British Commonwealth...

20%

Japan

USA

19%

Asia

55%

14%

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom

9%

UK)

North America

...

...

21%

Thailand ...

3%

14%

Federal Republic of Germany.......

3%

1967

$ million

1966

$ million

% increase or decrease

Fish and fish preparations ...

China

...

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Live animals, chiefly for food

Fruits and vegetables

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

2,282

2,769

18%

402

615

35%

310

419

26%

219

223

152

124

138

67

Cereals and cereal preparations

136

125

***

Meat and meat preparations

122

127

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

105

116

Dairy products and eggs

97

106

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

81

136

[+++ ||||

2%

23%

Japan

...

1,995

1,839

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

676

671

Electric machinery

224

212

---

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

141

90

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

110

105

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

102

81

Iron and steel

96

97

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

85

76

Non-electric machinery

USA

Electric machinery

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Textile fibres...

Non-electric machinery

81

76

...

1,411

1,090

250

189

156

113

106

85

94

79

Fruits and vegetables

91

78

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

82

85

1++++++ ++1+++ +++

+ 8%

+ 1%

5%

56%

4%

26%

1

+12°

+ 29%

+38

United Kingdom

984

1,011

3%

Electric machinery

179

228

21%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

116

107

+

Non-electric machinery

113

133

15%

Transport equipment

74

85

13%

Thailand

329

267

+ 23%

Cereals and cereal preparations

263

201

+ 31%

Live animals, chiefly for food

28

26

+ 9%

Federal Republic of Germany

316

269

+ 18%

Non-electric machinery

46

36

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials.

37

31

Chemical elements and compounds

36

23

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

26

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

25

Electric machinery

::

23

222 22

18

+ 27% +18% + 56% + 44%

21

+

24

...

1%

312

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Domestic

XIX

and Trade)

Exports

313

Commodity Pattern

1967 total value $6,700 million

% of all exports in

1967

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Electric machinery

Footwear

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

35%

By country

% of all exports in

Principal Markets

1967 total value $6,700 million

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of all exports in

22%

1967

1967

14%

USA

37%

British Commonwealth

33%

...

9%

United Kingdom

17%

North America

***

41%

3%

Federal Republic of Germany

6%

Western Europe (including

3%

Canada

3%

United Kingdom)

31%

1967

1966

%% increase

Australia

Asia

14%

or decrease

Japan

3%

Australasia

5%

$ million $ million

Cotton grey sheeting

Cotton shirting, other than grey

Cotton grey drills

Cotton canvas and ducks, grey

Clothing

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers,

knit or made of knitted fabrics

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

other than knitted

Shirts, other than knitted

Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

Shirts, knit or made of knitted fabrics

Suits, jackets, uniforms and overcoats, other than

knitted

Gloves and mittens of all materials

Skirts, dresses, frocks, gowns and housecoats, other

than knitted Outer garments, knit or made of knitted fabrics Underwear and nightwear, knitted

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not

embroidered

...

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Plastic toys and dolls

...

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit

Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc

Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered Cotton yarn ...

1,453

504

197

1,097

385

258

:

2,317

2,035

+ 14%

Singapore Indonesia Sweden

484

510

5%

1967

1966

% increase

or decrease

337

318

124

119

Electric machinery

Cotton grey twill and sateen

Transistor radio

Thermionic and electronic tubes and valves

Footwear

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles

Plastic footwear

Plastic slippers

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

Household utensils of iron and steel, enamelled Locks, padlocks and keys and key chains

::

8¤ *** ~ **** *¤¤¤ˆ*** å¤ 96** §**

109

103

102

93

72

936

54

135,

gååd ** far - §*** 22****** £82 82*- 257

261

+ 29%

$ million $ million

288

+ 10%

120

+ 3%

USA

104

15%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

2,504 845

2,036

818

672

64

+ 69%

Electric machinery ...

396

93

+ 12%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

197

73

+ 40%

United Kingdom

1,147

51

+ 83%

73

+ 13%

Clothing

471

407

81

10%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

257

174

Footwear

+ 32%

Electric machinery

93 59

+ 31%

+ 11%

Federal Republic of Germany

371

71

+177%

Clothing

265

63

+ 61%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Footwear

41

20

921

+ 2%

114

5%

Canada

222

...

69

+249

Clothing

96

95

21%

75

3%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

61

24

46

+16%

47

+ 3%

Australia

199

45

Nil

476

+ 24%

185

+ 14%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

81

45

35

120:

+ 12%

Japan

189

162

184

+ 19%

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

54

79

+ 27%

Fish and fish preparations.

34

34

+ 14%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

29

17

+ 74%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

20

176

+ 14%

Singapore

164

37

41

+ 17% 16%

Other

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s, Clothing

47

32

27

Electric torches

Handbags, wallets, purses and similar articles

Iron and steel bars and rounds

43

Prawns and shrimps, fresh or frozen

Cigarettes

30

Watches, complete ...

6342

58

53

39

43

34

29

21888

50

+16%

36

+ 49

Indonesia

150

102

36

+20

10

12

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Sweden

78

139

...

16

+829

Clothing

106

3832 $2287 288 289 29 29 2027 28 28

605

+ 23% + 40%

345

987

+ 16%

143

+ 16% + 4% 219%

80

41

420

333

29

13

++11

12%

21% + 43

175

68

48

+ 26% + 41% + 28

24

128

53

31

19

+ 55% + 52% +48 + 80%

+ 17%

46

+ 16%

36

-

5%

24

+ 18%

15

+ 31%

152

38

+ 8% + 23%

32

--

1% Nil

66

+ 47% + 18%

89

64

+ 57% + 65%

314

315

Commodity Pattern

1967 total value $2,081 million

Appendix (Chapter 4: Industry Re-exports

% of all re-exports in

XX

and Trade)

By country

% of all re-exports in

1967

Principal Markets

1967 total value $2,081 million

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of all re-exports in

1967

1967

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Chemicals

...

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Food

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels Machinery and transport equipment

45%

15%

12%

10%

7%

7%

Indonesia Japan Singapore USA

Formosa

South Vietnam Belgium

23%

British Commonwealth

22%

15%

Asia

***

...

73%

10%

Western Europe (including

...

6%

United Kingdom)

8%

North America

7%

4%

Australasia

3%

3%

3%

1967

1966

% increase

% increase

or decrease

1967

1966

or decrease

$ million $ million

$ million $ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

945

774

+ 22%

Indonesia

480

343

...

+ 40%

445

352

+ 26%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

371

314

+ 18%

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

30

22

+ 41%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Iron and steel

251

201

+ 25%

21

12

+ 73%

17

10

...

+ 76%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

30

23

+ 29%

Iron and steel

Non-ferrous metals

25

Electric machinery

16

7

+126%

26

23

Chemicals

312

254

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

136

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Chemical elements and compounds

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

Essential oils and perfume materials

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial

resins

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

Food

Fruits and vegetables

:

:

242

101

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

155

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

Machinery and transport equipment

Non-electric machinery

Electric machinery

...

Transport equipment

2522 2 2 5*2 268220 3200 385

44

37

28

23

172

94

29

213

300

65

12

172

90

19

16

146

79

37

30

2 22272 22 *** ****** £**≈ 2772

+ 20% 24%

Japan

315

278

---

+ 13%

+ 23%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

111

88

+ 27%

+ 26%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

54

31

+ 75%

+ 17%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

30

19

+ 56%

26

+ 40%

+ 7%

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof Fruits and vegetables

18

13

+ 34%

15

24

38%

+ 7%

Singapore

200

214

7%

+ 13%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

47

40

+ 17%

+ 41%

Fruits and vegetables

23

- 40%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

18

+ 93%

+ 32%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

17

19%

64

+ 47%

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

17

+ 22%

USA

129

105

29%

- 27%

30%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures Explosives and pyrotechnic products

89

15

2%

Formosa

84

43%

- 67%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

14

14

1 +1

10%

4% +123%

43%

+ 59%

+ 92%

+ 22%

Belgium ...

+ 50%

South Vietnam ...

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks Medicinal and pharmaceutical products ... Non-electric machinery

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

:

70

13

11

10

669

69

66

☺ ☺ vão ☺ SEN sã a

6

+167%

+ 23%

+ 11%

+ 19%

72

+ 17%

10

+ 39%

+ 18%

+ 19%

+103%

16%

+ 59%

+ 11%

+ 18%

316

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past two years:

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Direction

Domestic

XXI

and Trade)

of Trade

Exports

The principal markets during the past two years

for the Colony's exports were as follows:

China

Japan

USA

United Kingdom

Thailand

Federal Republic of Germany

Australia

Formosa

Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Singapore

Pakistan

Belgium and Luxembourg

Netherlands

Italy

South Africa

Indonesia

Israel

France

Cambodia

Canada

Iran

Tanganyika

South Korea

Macau

India

Brazil

Saudi Arabia and Yemen

Denmark and Greenland

Kenya

Sweden

Other Countries

1966

1967 $

2,769,220,852 2,281,900,310

1,838,615,569 1,994,675,554

1,090,155,781 1,410,895,402

1,010,935,280 983,536,664 267,443,042 329,325,883 268,812,880 316,230,883 208,902,312 260,996,656 168,685,918 260,162,927 201,913,500 246,861,022 200,457,021 233,495,205

139,085,387 190,495,739

189,585,968 165,389,151

136,576,808 145,701,849

123,371,810 127,129,558

95,168,280 112,299,010

134,942,210 104,942,073

93,057,361 99,193,204

72,610,718 91,870,061

31,067,744 85,501,788

86,098,845 85,473,254

44,782,953 83,426,538

96,670,585 78,986,620

48,191,491 70,712,968

47,420,047 59,691,856 48,645,216 50,287,326

108,841,667 48,926,397

53,917,772 42,862,482 23,749,231 39,468,172

26,090,572 28,718,478

26,394,023 27,753,062

445,626,040 392,235,631

USA

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany Canada

Australia

Japan

Singapore

Indonesia

Sweden

Netherlands

Thailand

New Zealand

South Africa

Spain

France

Belgium and Luxembourg

Other Countries

Total

10,097,036,883 10,449,145,723

317

Re-exports

The principal markets for the Colony's re-exports during the past two years were as follows:

1967

1966

$

$

2,036,322,376 2,503,846,971

987,283,930 1,146,720,574

420,450,886 370,775,093

175,475,362 221,646,902

128,220,419 198,858,328

161,556,492 188,953,257

152,235,744 164,406,795

102,137,186 150,012,993 88,682,277 139,067,872 120,093,888 109,352,241

82,087,338 89,863,888

65,203,640 73,835,975 50,113,054 66,364,557 71,905,544 58,762,764

52,485,845 58,301,878

Indonesia

Japan Singapore

USA

Formosa

South Vietnam

Belgium and Luxembourg Philippines

Nigeria

Macau

Thailand

South Korea

China

Australia

...

:

Malaysia (Malaya)

1966

1967 $

$

342,882,782 480,341,224

278,328,178 315,079,607

213,520,803 199,637,023

104,817,478 128,679,118

71,818,543 83,869,653 58,982,994 70,453,704 62,438,312 69,133,047 46,574,711 67,874,925 24,599,229 62,984,421 74,507,183 59,896,279 51,447,842 52,209,859

32,462,912 42,451,297

54,005,639 41,693,278

37,800,423 40,943,702

53,428,135 40,272,493 25,850,538

36,340,245

30,153,612 31,163,034

Malaysia (Malaya)

South Vietnam

Switzerland and Liechtenstein ...

41,605,545

55,848,802

Israel

Denmark and Greenland

46,086,355

52,666,118

United Kingdom

Italy

49,904,907

47,438,948

US Oceania

:

:

19,983,600 20,022,548

Formosa

Philippines Malaysia (Sabah) Norway

25,009,332

Nigeria

Kuwait

Panama

Venezuela

US Oceania

Total

:

47,148,144 30,285,184 46,226,228 45,757,890 44,756,532 29,816,998 42,588,915 19,481,831 33,779,377

26,406,093 32,199,413

28,148,894 30,569,061 26,631,606 30,334,773 25,457,712 27,773,049 21,678,551 27,351,452 36,028,642 26,948,600 26,081,925 26,624,296

557,204,662 586,964,023

5,729,840,108 6,699,987,819

Panama

France

South Africa

Laos

Pakistan

Ghana

Netherlands

Other Countries...

Total

...

Canada

Malaysia (Sabah) Federal Republic of Germany Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Cambodia

17,479,714 16,621,152

18,073,677 15,024,547

13,355,221 14,950,206

10,568,865 13,542,274

14,403,940 12,586,420 10,125,287 11,621,735

8,513,443 11,610,125

6,422,024

11,233,284

9,526,225

10,614,323

8,123,896

8,161,809

2,440,288

6,482,943

10,788,257

6,394,400

119,850,613 99,238,216

:

1,833,274,364 2,081,126,891

318

India

New Zealand

Singapore

Australia

Canada

Britain

Pakistan

Argentina

Countries

Countries

Appendix XXII

Overseas Representation

I. Commonwealth Countries

II. Foreign Countries

Represented by

Commissioner Commissioner

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner Senior Trade Commissioner Trade Commissioner Trade Commissioner

Represented by

Consul-General

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Cambodia

Cuba

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Dominican Republic

France

Consul-General

Consul-General

Germany

Consul-General

Indonesia

Consul-General

Italy

Consul-General

Japan

Consul-General

Korea

Consul-General

Mexico

Consul-General

Netherlands

Consul-General

Norway

Consul-General

Panama

Consul-General

Peru

Consul-General

Philippines

Consul-General

Portugal

Consul-General

Republic of South Africa

Consul-General

Sweden

Consul-General

Switzerland

Consul-General

Venezuela

Greece

Bolivia

Burma

Thailand

United Arab Republic

United States of America

Uruguay

Vietnam

Consul

Honorary Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Denmark

Ecuador

El Salvador

Finland

Guatemala

Honduras

Irish Republic

Israel

Lebanon

Monaco

Nicaragua

Spain

*

Honorary Vice-Consul

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident in

London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

...

        1963 1964 1965

1966

1967

Appendix XXIII

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Marketing Organization Statistics

Fisheries Products sold through Wholesale Markets Quantities and Values

319

Piculs

Tons

Value $

965,279

57,457

64,895,976

859,203

51,143

58,441,541

889,099

53,085

63,422,927

846,892

50,410

64,205,249

958,241

57,038

72,936,447

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Fresh Fish

Salt/Dried Fish

$0.67

$0.59

.67

.76

.70

.85

.76

.70

.76

.85

Vegetables sold through Marketing Organization

Locally Produced

1963

1964

1965

1966 1967

...

...

Imported

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1963 1964

1965

1966

1967

Piculs

Tons

Value $

1,458,134

86,794

32,406,615

1,169,834

69,633

30,667,851

1,220,965

72,676

34,454,322

***

1,215,389

72,344

34,412,750

1,305,015

77,679

39,588,234

165,454

9,848

3,114,946

216,556

12,890

4,894,974

253,743

15,104

5,414,239

296,615

17,655

6,286,024

296,157

17,628

7,870,360

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Locally Produced

$0.22 .26 .28

T

Imported

$0.19

.22 .21

.21

.30

.27

.28

320

Appendix XXIV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

as at December 31, 1967

Type of Society

No

Member- ship

Paid-up

Loans

Loans*

Share

Deposits

capital

granted

repaid

Reserve Fund

$

$

$

Agricultural

Credit

15 494

40,510.00 424,110.10

190,588.75

38,780.59

30,660.73

Apartment

Owners'

2

142

Better Living

18

1,320

9,650.00 23,880.00

262.95

10,000.00

Building

221

4,599 1,329,400.00 †1,768,683.75

12,380.00 4,892,010.01

24,338.00 14,122.01

347,160.00

Credit &

Consum-

ers'

10

2,370

16,930.00

103,235.47

Farmers'

Thrift

1

21

Federation...

6

124

Fish Pond...

1

118

210.00

13,000.00

590.00

11,000.00

9,617.50

59,034.42

Fishermen's

Credit &

Housing...

2

107

575.00- 115,514.06

Fishermen's

Credit

61

1,670

Irrigation

2

120

Pig Raising..

41 1,830

97,352.50 56,272.70 4,590.88

30,473.00 4,094,802.91 3,822,069.17 1,589,625.85 215,309.60

1,255.00 115,305.00

882,111,00 828,661.41 64,495.43 73,238.26

Salaried

Workers'

Thrift & Loan

6 721

5,511.00

249,600.00 238,561.00 137,819.28 44,630.72

Vegetable

Marketing 30 9,443 107,940.00 728,370.20 723,338.30 173,873.17 192,561.05

416 23,079 1,695,229.00 8,284,192.02 10,814,578.64 2,085,205.02 1,084,806.09

* Including repayment of Loans issued during previous years.

† Loans made by Treasury direct.

Appendix XXV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Production of Minerals 1967

Mineral

Production in long tons

Feldspar

...

***

1,135.15

Value in $ 39,730.25

Graphite 72-80% fixed carbon

3.00

393.90

...

50% fixed carbon

16.00

960.00

Iron ore 56% Fe...

141,323.73

Kaolin

...

8,434.58

Quartz

...

2,999.95

6,922,036.30

874,910.36 53,189.11

Wolframite 65% WO3

4.25

47,345.00

Appendix XXVI

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

Number of Schools (As at September 1967)

133

22

23

Total Enrolment (As at September 1967)

321

Number of Teachers (As at March 1967)

5,335

Government

...

:

136,357

Grant

21,201

849

Subsidized

607

389,188

10,570

Private...

1,653

492,431

16,603

Special Afternoon

Classes

1,042

96

Special Education

23

1,261

138

2,438

1,041,480

33,591

Kindergarten

Primary

Enrolments

(Figures are shown as at September 30, 1967, with the previous year's figures in brackets)

Secondary

Post-Secondary

Adult Education

Special Education

:

:

:

:

Enrolment

69,069

( 56,520)

689,561

(657,585)

235,387

(222,890)

9,626

( 9,549)

36,576

( 35,757)

1,261

(1,194)

1,041,480

(983,495)

New Building, Classrooms and Places

October 1, 1966-September 30, 1967

Government

Aided

Private

Number of Schools and Extensions

Increase in Number of Classrooms

Increase in Number of Places

Primary Secondary Primary Secondary

48

448

12

40,320

480

11

68

156

5,280

6,300

59

516

168

45,600

6,780

322

Appendix XXVII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Educational Statistics

Overseas Examination 1967

Entries

Examination or Examining Body

1965

1966

1967

University of London General Certificate of Education...

6,546

7,465

11,277

University of London External Degrees

...

89

97

119

London Chamber of Commerce

5,167

7,196

8,529

Pitman's Shorthand Examinations

505

520

782

Pitman's Typewriting Examinations

32

35

194

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English

139

142

36*

Cambridge Lower Certificate in English

66

60

30*

Institute of Book-keepers

40

47

16*

Chartered Institute of Secretaries

104

128

71*

Association of International Accountants...

405

489

296*

Association of Certified and Corporate Accountants

150

205

120*

Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers..

7

15

Institute of Fire Engineers

40

College of Preceptors ACP/LCP

Gemmological Association

British Institute of Management

British Federation of Master Printers

Society of Engineers (Graduateship) London School of Economics

Institute of Export

Swinburne Technical College Diploma

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

London Polytechnic Diploma in Management Studies The Australian Institute of Cartographers

Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board (GCE) Royal Society of Arts (Shorthand)

Institute of Company Accountants...

Industrial Transport Association

Queensland Agricultural College

West London College Ordinary National Diploma

|GON-MA-~~~

66

72

7

4

12 2

Total

**

* As at September 1, 1967.

13,310

16,477

21,591

New Awards made by Government during 1967

Number

Total Value

Type

Tenable at

Awarded ($ per annum)

Government Scholarships

University of Hong Kong

22

45,150

Chinese University of Hong Kong

14

25,200

Government Bursaries

University of Hong Kong

69

174,350

Chinese University of Hong Kong

79

140,100

Government Teaching

University of Hong Kong

3

4,700

Bursaries for Diploma

in Education

Maintenance Grants

Chinese University of Hong Kong

10

16,600

Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools

259

92,750

Chinese Middle Schools

127

46,750

Colleges of Education

475

450,800

Interest-free Loans

Colleges of Education

572

686,400

Commonwealth Scholarship

University of Hong Kong

1

17,285

$1,700,085

Note: In addition to the above, recurrent awards totalling approximately $2,002,050 were

granted by the government during 1967, making a total of over $3,702,135.

323

Appendix XXVIII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Further Studies in the United Kingdom

Number of Hong Kong Students arriving in the United Kingdom:

1960-61

1961-62

1962-63

1963-64

1964-65

1965-66

1966-67

:

434

479

568

750

889

1,161

...

1,248

:

:

Distribution by courses of Hong Kong students in the United Kingdom:

September

September

Course

1966

1967

Arts Architecture

Education

24

42

48

60

56

44

Economics

19

25

Commerce

Engineering

Accountancy

54

61

300

366

49

59

Dentistry

Medicine

GCE

Law

5

7

107

126

651

856

119

127

...

Science

80

121

Textiles

10

16

Secretarial

99

99

Social Science

Meteorology

Music

13

14

4

2

30

37

Nursing

Others

605

749

287

228

Total

School Children

Total

:

2,560

:.

:

:

:

3,039

809

1,061

:.

3,369

4,100

324

Appendix XXIX

(Chapter 6: Education)

Actual Expenditure on Education

August 1, 1966- July 31, 1967

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Maintenance and

(B) Capital Expenditure:

Total $

$ 71,320,246 14,762,081

Repairs of School

Buildings (Public Works Department) ... 1,721,925

(1) Equipment and Furniture for Government

Schools and Headquarters

(2) New School Buildings, including

furniture and equipment (Public Works Department)

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

$ 301,343

87,804,252

3,511,686 3,813,029

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(D) Grants to Hong Kong University:

$146,416,847

11,359,506 157,776,353

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(E) Grants to Chinese University of Hong Kong:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(F) University Grants Committee:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

(3) Capital

(G) Universities:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

$ 15,142,137

1,451,479

16,593,616

$ 11,904,589

2,534,011 14,438,600

$

47,195

8,205

67,858

123,258

$ 11,350,000

4,064

11,354,064

(H) Expenditure by Other Departments:

(1) Medical and Health Department (2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(3) Agriculture and Fisheries Department

$291,903,172

$ 3,229,610 334,219 243,818

$ 3,807,647

Appendix XXX

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics-Hong Kong

1958-1967

325

BIRTHS

DEATHS

Crude

Crude

live

death

Infant

Estimated

Regis-

birth

tered

Regis- rate

mortality mortality

Neo-natal Maternal mortality

rate

rate

Year

mid-year population

rate

tered

(per

live births

(per 1,000 deaths

1,000

(per 1,000

(per 1,000

popula-

popula-

live

live

tion)

tion)

births)

births)

rate (per 1,000 total births)

1958

***

2,748,000

106,624 38.8 20,554

7.5

54.3

23.4

0.85

1959

2,857,000 104,579 36.6

20,250

7.1

48.3

21.3

0.73

2,981,000 110,667 37.1 19,146

3,174,700* 108,726 34.2 18,738 5.9

39

6.4

41.5

20.9

0.49

1960

1961

:

59

37.7

21.0

0.45

1962

3,346,600* 111,905 33.4 20,324 6.1

36.9

21.2

0.48

1963

3,503,700* 115,263 32.9 19,748

56

5.6

32.9

18.9

0.29

1964

3,594,200* 108,519 30.2

18,113 5,0

26.4

16.6

0.38

1965

3,692,300* 102,195 27.7

17,621

4.8

23.7

15.2

0.33

1966

3,732,400 92,476 24.8

18,700

5.0

24.9

15.3

0.43

1967

3,834,000

88,171 23.0 19,644

5.1

25.6

15.9

0.30

* Figures adjusted after 1966 By-census.

Tuberculosis Statistics

TB death

Estimated

% TB

Year

mid-year population

rate (per

deaths

% TB deaths

100,000 population)

under 5

of total

Total number of TB

Under treatment Government

years

deaths

beds

clinics

1956

2,440,000

107.75

25.22

13.63

1,197

9,564

1966

:

3,732,400

40.59

2.71

8.10

1,951

28,365

1967

...

...

3,834,000

38.94

2.01

7.60

1,765

25,397

326

Appendix XXXI

(Chapter 7: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths 1963-1967

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

Cholera

115

4

34

4

1

Amoebic

dysentery

241

12

209

21

173

16

220

24

154

21

Bacillary

dysentery

(including

unspecified

dysentery)

Cerebro-spinal meningitis

Chickenpox

Diphtheria

Enteric fever

T

802

m

680

8

537

4

766

10

829

7

50

24

38

19

19

9

10

7

55

16

...

1,199

3

718

1

1,552

T

600

4

1,257

10

871

86

38

699

38

581

37

307

27

226

18

(typhoid and

para-typhoid)

1,038

22

28

882

20

20

658

14

686

7

728

11

*Leprosy

Malaria

377

1

180

1888

T

102

160

148

4

1

143

1

127

65

2

Measles

3,416 405 1,218

73 5,459

217

2,360 384

4,726

654

Ophthalmia

neonatorum

240

232

215

203

T

191

I

Poliomyelitis

53

4

37

3

140

17

32

1

3

Puerperal fever

2

1

1

1

3

2

2

1

1

Scarlet fever

18

1

12

12

37

64

Tuberculosis

...

13,031 1,762 12,557 1,441

9,927 1,278 11,427 1,515 15,253 1,493

Typhus (mite-

borne)

Whooping

cough

Total

1

61

106

2

339

108

40

21,515 2,334 17,603 1,630 19,862 1,595 17,048 1,983 23,742 2,240

†Influenza

4,433 22 2,473

16

896

21 1,220

30 4,923 25

Remarks: * Notifiable since June 1965.

† Voluntary notifications.

         The above table omits rabies, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the year.

327

Appendix XXXII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1967

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

A. Hospitals

Castle Peak Kowloon

Lai Chi Kok Queen Elizabeth Queen Mary Sai Ying Pun South Lantau

St John Tsan Yuk

Number of Hospital Beds

1,242

500

492

1,481

632

88

19

100

238

Wan Chai

30

B. Dispensaries

6 Prison Hospitals

Anne Black

Cheung Sha Wan Eastern

Ho Tung Hung Hom

245

5,067

Aberdeen

...

27

11

24

24

13

14

Kam Tin

Kennedy Town

Kwun Tong

Lady Trench Polyclinic

7

5

25

6

Li Po Chun Health Centre

Lions Club Government MCH Centre

26

18

Robert Black Health Centre

Maurine Grantham MCH Centre

North Lamma

...

Peng Chau

Sai Kung

San Hui

Sha Tau Kok

Sha Tin

Shau Kei Wan

26

6

7

28

7

8

7

24

26

Shek Wu Hui

Silver Mine Bay Stanley Tai O Tai Po

Wang Tau Hom Yuen Long

...

GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED HOSPITALS

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Caritas Medical Centre

Grantham

29

6

19

27

26

32

484

350

525

619

Haven of Hope TB Sanatorium

261

Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium

540

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Hospital

120

Hong Kong Society of Rehabilitation Kwun Tong Rehabilitation Centre

80

Kwong Wah

1,555

Maryknoll Mission

180

Pok Oi

162

Ruttonjee Sanatorium

360

Sandy Bay Children's Orthopaedic Hospital and Convalescent Home

100

Sandy Bay Convalescent Hospital

503

Tung Wah

673

Tung Wah Eastern ...

338

Fanling

Wong Tai Sin Infirmary

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Adventist Sanatorium

Baptist Hospital

Canossa

Evengel Medical Centre

Hong Kong Central

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

Matilda and War Memorial

Precious Blood

St Paul's

St Teresa's

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

PRIVATE NURSING HOMES

350

6,716

65

52

180

39

54

120

316

52

106

220

286

1,490

428

70

GRAND TOTAL

14,255

328

Appendix XXXIII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

        Registered Medical Practitioners (including 389 Government Medical Officers) Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

Government Medical Officers (including 25 seconded to Tung Wah Group, etc)

1,603

114

493

Registered Dentists

460

Government Dental Surgeons

61

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

134

Government Pharmacists

22

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

2,350

Government Nurses

1,329

Registered Male Nurses (excluding Government Male Nurses)

38

Government Male Nurses

177

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) ..

2,037

Government Midwives

Government Male Nurses (Psychiatric)

Government Female Nurses (Psychiatric)

211

88

44

Students or Probationers in Training

as at December 31, 1967

Length 1st 2nd 3rd 4th

of Course

year

year year year

Number who successfully completed

training during year

Student Assistant

(Diagnostic)

4

9

3

Radiographer

(Therapy)

4

2

4

10

Student Assistant Physiotherapist

4

9

Student Dispenser

4

11

9 2

11

20

3

1

1

3

2

Student Laboratory Assistant

4

3

2

Student Medical Laboratory Technician..

4

15

8

6

5

12

Student Male Nurse (General)

4

11

15

16

30

29

Student Nurse (General)

4

167

97

90

159

145

Student Male Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

32

16

8

10

Student Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

29

1

2

Student Midwife (Registered Nurse)

1

129

93

Student Midwife (Non-Registered Nurse)

2

19

24

26

Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General) ..

2

24

15

3

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (General)

2

83

72

33

Male Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

Pupil Nursing Auxiliary (Psychiatry)

Male Student Health Auxiliary

Student Health Auxiliary

Medical Social Worker

Student Assistant Orthopaedic Appliance

Technician

22 221

20

20

8

15

12

8

1

1 2

Appendix XXXIV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Resettlement Estate Statistics

329

A. Population

January 1, 1967

December 31, 1967

Cottage Areas (one storey

buildings)...

73,618

72,486

Multi-storey Estates (6-7-8- and

16-storey buildings)

829,757

943,942

903,375

1,016,428

B. Premises of various types on December 31, 1967

(The numbers on December 31, 1966 are shown in brackets)

Cottage Areas Multi-storey Estates

Domestic cottages and huts

11,308 (11,487)

Self-contained flats...

467 ( 469)

End bay flats

Domestic rooms

Shops of various kinds

refreshment)

Workshops ...

Factories

2,293 (2,293)

178,515 (148,086)

:

246 (314)

6,616 ( 6,273)

Restaurants (general and light

6 (

6)

495 (

480)

70 (

71)

1,421 ( 1,291)

:

25 (

29)

1,715 ( 1,544)

Schools

37 (

35)

297 ( 279)

Clinics and Welfare Centres

:

33 (

37)

181 (

172)

330

Private developers (Urban areas)

Government quarters

Appendix XXXV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Housing Provided in 1967

tenement floors

flats, houses and units

Resettlement (41 new blocks)

Co-operative societies

Housing Society

Housing Authority

...

Domestic accommodation

:

11,500

4,500

989 units

28,736 units

91 flats

1,731 flats

416 flats

Premiums received on sales of Crown Land from 1851 to 1966-7

The system of disposing of leasehold land by public auction for a premium began in 1851 in accordance with the Secretary of State's Despatch No 222 of January 2, 1851. Where premiums are payable by instalments, only the amounts actually received have been included in the annual totals.

Period

1851

-

1860 ...

1861 - 1870

1871 - 1880

1881

1890

1891 - 1900 ...

1901 - 1910

1911 - 1920 ...

1921

1931

-

1930

1941 (25.12.41)

1946-7 - 1955-6 (10 years) 1956-7 1960-1 (5 years)

-

1961

- 1962 (1 year)

1962

- 1963 (1 year)

1963

- 1964 (1 year)

1964

1965

1966

- 1965 (1 year)

1966 (1 year) - 1967 (1 year)

-

Grand Total ...

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Total

$

262,839.00

477,908.14

125,097.53

856,160.12

2,501,053.65

:

2,839,324.49 2,715,724.38 17,053,140.35 12,936,727.68 67,617,711.64

177,375,655.35

107,225,301.38

234,402,780.18

207,157,985.13

143,295,983.24

75,859,685.12

50,623,349.27

$1,103,326,426.65

Appendix XXXVI

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic

Comparative figures for the last six years are as below:

Accidents

Fatal

Serious injury

Slight injury...

Total

T.

DO..

:

:

:

:

:

331

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

270

265

263

268

264

284

2,238

2,248 2,581

2,624 3,065

3,556

5,782

6,437

6,348

5,975 5,732

6,108

8,290

8,950 9,192

8,867 9,061

9,948

Number of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

1962

1963

1964

1965 1966

1967

Number of registered vehicles

61,503 71,415 83,091

87,768 92,966

99,444*

Number of licensed drivers

130,512

144,667 160,152 176,340 197,180 227,093

Provisional (Learner) licences issued

20,848

24,310 38,810 31,393 29,664 48,286

Driving tests conducted

75,404

67,369 97,088 110,594 126,147 160,146†

* This number does not include 804 rickshaws, and 734 pedal tricycles.

†This number includes written test, the number of practical tests conducted is 114,769.

332

Appendix

XXXVII

(Chapter 10:

Public Order)

Serious Crime & Narcotics

Offences in 1967

333

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Reported

Prosecuted

Reported

Crime

1967

1966

1967

Crime

1967

1966

Prosecuted 1967

Under

16 years

Under

16 years

16 years

and over

16 years

and over

Against Public Order

Perjury

...

Escape and Rescue

Unlawful Society

Other Offences against Lawful

Authority

...

1,597

872

159

1,825

Forgery and Coinage

191

389

55

80

137

73

Bribery and Corruption

21

19

15

49

49

1

Possession of Arms and Ammunition

72

15

60

33

Conspiracy

11

11

23

70

189

2

65

Breach of Deportation

11

18

9

Other Serious Crime

208

222

91

:

78

47

44

Total

514

674

6

253

Total

1,874

1,294

162

2,040

Serious Narcotics Offences

183

256

6

191

Rape and Indecent Assault

Other Sexual Offences ...

254

285

30

78

Grand Total

...

22,683 21,430

1,539

9,962

132

105

78

Total

:

386

390

30

156

(Percentages of Serious Crime detected: 1966-73.6%; 1967-67.8%).

NARCOTICS OFFENCES

Abortion

Murder and Manslaughter

Attempted Murder

Serious Assaults

Kidnapping

Criminal Intimidation

Other Offences against the Person

Total

Robbery with Firearms

Other Robberies

Demanding with Menaces

Burglary and Breaking Offences

Larceny from Person

Other Larcenies

Embezzlement and Fraudulent

Conversion

Fraud and False Pretences

73

40

59

4

8

1,065

1,054

64

2

3

1

46

13

128

72

| उ || -

4

*Manufacturing Dangerous Drugs

739

*Importing Dangerous Drugs

*Dealing in Dangerous Drugs

130

3

*Possession of Large Quantities of

3

1

152

Dangerous Drugs

22893

3

4

20

1

182

136

49

51

6

50

37

25

Opium

Possession of Opium

856

1,281

1

515

:

1,318

1,191

72

867

Possession of Equipment

263

345

53

Keeping a Divan

76

· 142

74

Smoking Opium

1,814

Other Opium Offences

3,267 41

1,740

I

1,224

520

182

517

396

343

60

111

Heroin

1,256 1,062

26

301

Possession of Heroin ...

7,137

9,444

1,854 1,081

94

675

Possession of Equipment

70

102

8,935

10,612

777

2,329

Keeping a Divan

6

2

Smoking Heroin

1,371

2,188

Other Heroin Offences

19

11

21111

29

6,185 20

3 1,214

5

651

709

1

...

68

680

705

5

231

Other Dangerous Drugs

Receiving Stolen Property

61

71

7

37

Possession

Malicious Injuries to Property

364

274

9

108

Smoking

Unlawful Possession

504

400

41

411

Other Offences

Possession of Unlawful Instrument

998

624

29

321

Loitering and Trespass

Total

1,485 1,224

32

1,346

:

...

830 12

1,616

8

3

12,645

18,706

36

10,038

38

Total

18,408 17,625

1,263

6,455

* These offences are classified as Serious Crime and are therefore also shown under Serious

Narcotics Offences.

334

Marine

335

Appendix

(Chapter 13: Communication

for the year ending

Mechanized vessels under

XXXVIII

Communications) Statistics

December 31, 1967

Passenger Journeys by Public Transport: Annual Traffics by Undertakings (Millions)

Vessels entered Tonnage entered Passengers landed Cargo tons landed

Vessels cleared

Passengers embarked

Cargo tons loaded

Tonnage cleared

Ocean- going

River steamers

Junks

300 tons

1959

6,565

22,282,600 26,078 7,091,928

10,380 3,543,754

9,836 1,477,243

5,073

1960

347,863

1961

890.716

1,015,493

1962

974.777

1963

8,514

6,550

10,287

1,047,322 9,752

295,802

1,032.576

1964

5,069

1965

30,160*

985,906

1966

2,417,344

8,217

21,970,513 3,529,899

144,557 1,459,445

1,000

1967

352,576

Total KMB CMB

HKT

HYF 721.332 322.077 87.180 172.763 97.186 809.447 380.712 106.288 175.332 101.983 435.515 120.120 180.585 106.765 481.569 134.196 189.000 117.228 515.172 143.026 190.920 126.990 1,090.195 546.579 158.209 182.454 144.611 1,162.710 593.221 169.256 181.767 155.499 1,237.516 643.120 186.561 181.589 161.180 1,054,590 515.539 169.151 154.117 158.524

SFC

KCR

37.039

5.087

39.384

5.748

41.864

5.867

46.630

6.154

49.196

7.272

50.460

7.882

54.491

8.476

56.332

8.734

48.625

8.634

* Includes 2,410 Emigrants.

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section

Length of line

Main points of call

Passengers carried

Passenger kilometres

Freight carried (metric tons)

Total revenue

Net operating revenue

Capital expenditure

Passenger aircraft

Passengers

Freight (kilos)

1959

1960

1961

Main line-22 miles

1962

Total length of line-35 miles

1963

New Territories (Hong Kong)

1964

1965

1967

9,158,506

1966

1966

1967

9,553,124

157,596,048

606,028.4

$12,680,718.78 $ 2,246,327.42

$

170,300,142

1,036,927.3 $16,395,084.86

$ 6,957,147.57

Annual Traffics by Geographical Areas (Millions)

Urban

HK Total

Area

Island 721.332 689.942 259.943 809.447 772.756 281.620 890.716 840.066 300.705 974.777 913.101 1,032,576 961.483 1,090.195 1,007.695

Kowloon

298.352

Cross New Harbour Territories

131.647 31.390

353.155 394.500 144.861 50.650 323.196 430.678 159.227 61.676 333.946 456.698 170.839 71.093 340.663 478.123 188,909 82.500 1,162.710 1,072.985 351.023 518.924 1,237.516 1,147.206 368.150 568.817 210.239 90.310 1,054.590

323.268 986,046

462.559 200.219

137.981 36.691

203.038 89.725

68.544

Annual Traffics by Geographical Areas

(Index Numbers: Base 1959-100)

Urban

HK

614,520.04

$ 2,077,998.08

Total

Area

Island

Kowloon

1959

Cross Harbour Territories

New

100

100

100

100

100

100

1960

112

112

108

118

105

117

1961

Air Traffic

123

122

116

132

110

161

1962

135

132

124

144

121

196

1963

% increase

143

139

128

153

130

226

1964

In

Out

as compared

151

146

131

160

143

263

1965

with 1966

161

156

135

174

154

286

1966

172

166

142

191

160

14,931 608,128

288

14,937

+23.5%

1967

146

143

124

155

152

218

621,107

+10.7%

5,913,550

20,599,090

+22.1%

Postal Traffic

1,138,756

1,724,996

+15.4%

Mail (kilos)

1966

1967

Number of post offices Total revenue

49

54

...

$95 m

$100 m

Vehicles

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on December 31, 1967 was 100,982. This represented an overall increase of 6,476 over 1966. There is now a density of 163.2 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Private cars (including 45 on Lantau Island) ..

Value of remittance business (Money orders and postal orders issued

and paid)....

$67 m

$ 65 m

Wireless licences issued

179,467

30,954*

Tons of mail despatched by air

1,282

1,476

Bags conveyed by Kowloon-Canton Railway

354,989

312,816

* Broadcast Receiving Licence Fees Suspended (February 28, 1967).

60,949

Motor cycles (including scooters and 3 on Lantau Island) Motor tricycles

11,485

Telegraph and Radio Traffic

1966

112

Telegrams accepted for transmission

1,292,970

1967 1,332,831

Taxis

3,649

Telegrams received

1,534,585

1,529,488

Buses (including 9 on Lantau Island)

2,041

Telegrams handled in transit

783,416

858,620

Goods vehicles (including 77 on Lantau Island)

15,378

Dual purpose vehicles-Private car/Goods vehicle (including 5 on Lantau Island) Public cars (including 7 on Lantau Island)

2,295

Telex Calls--outward minutes

Telex Calls-inward minutes

495,846

604,171

539,262 706,881

936

International telephone calls-outward minutes

1,278,245

1,798,499

Crown vehicles

2,522

International telephone calls-inward minutes

1,556,767

2,543,193

Rickshaws

804

Pictures transmitted

304

560

Pedal tricycles

Trailers

Pictures received

734

18,042

19,278

77

Harbourphone calls

787,224

811,708

Press broadcasts and reception services-number of hours

33,187

Total

100,982

Meteorological broadcasts and reception services--number of hours Inland telegrams

28,436

80,792

82,548

7,036

7,043

336

Daily

Appendix XXXIX

(Chapter 14: Press, Broadcasting and Cinema)

Leading Newspapers and Magazines

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

South China Morning Post

Hong Kong Standard

(including Sundays)

China Mail

The Star

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Asian Weekend

Monthly

Trade Bulletin

Far East Architect and Builder Far East Engineering and

Equipment News

Far East Medical Journal Asian Industry

Young Hong Kong

Far Eastern Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

Asia Magazine

CHINESE LANGUAGE

Daily (Morning Papers)

Alternate Days

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

Tien Wen Tai

(Observatory Review)

Fai Po (Express)

Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao (Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Weekly

Wen Wei Po

Chiu Yin Pao

Sin Sang Yat Po (Gentlemen Daily News)

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Ching Po Daily

Tin Tin Yat Po

Ming Tang Yat Po

Ming Pao

Hong Kong Daily News

Wah Sing Pao

Daily Pictorial

Kung Kao Pao

Tung Fung (East Pictorial) Chau Mut Pao

(Week-end News)

Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom) Chinese Student Weekly Economic Bulletin Asia Weekly

Every 10 days

Kar Ting Sang Wood

(Home Life Journal)

Good News Daily

Happy News

Yuet Wah Daily News

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao (New Evening Post)

Chun Pao (Truth Daily)

New Life Evening Post

Seng Weng Evening News

Cheng Wu Pao

Nam Wah Man Pao

World Evening Express

Fortnightly

Children's Paradise

Monthly

Cosmorama Magazine Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial) Sing Tao Pictorial Woman Today

Appendix XL

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate)

Climatological Summary 1967

337

Wind

Air Temperature

Pres-

Rela- | Amount

sure at

Mean

Dew tive Point Hu-

of

Sea Abs Mean

Mean Abs

Cloud

shine

Sun- Rain-

fall

Level Max Max

Mean

|midity

Min Min

Pre- vail- Mean ing speed direc- in

tion knots

milli- °C °C °C °C °C °C %

%

hours

mm points

bars

January

1022.2 24.4 17.7 14.5 11.9 4.6

6.6 62

68

109.1

8.3 NNE

55

5.5

February

20.1 25.7 17.4 14.6 12.2

6.8 10.0

75

75

96.7

38.4

[L]

E

6.0

March

16.1 28.8 21.9 18.7 16.4

8.8 15.0

80

20

70

138.7 2.5 E

5.7

3

April

13.2 30.2 25.1 22.1 20.0 14.6 19.1

83

77

127.2 243.8!

E

5.1

May

07.8 34.4 31.1 28.0 25.9 23.6 23.9

79

123

72

203.3 28.7 E

4.1

June

04.2 33.7 31.2 28.3 25.9 21.1| 24.0 78

8889

68

223.4 357.1 SW

3.8

July

04.1 34.0 32.6 29.7 27.3 23.9 25.2 77

559

283.7

154.1 SW

3.1

August

03.1 33.5 31.2 28.5 26.0 23.7 24.9 82

73

177.3 556.7 E

20

7.0

September

09.1 32.7 30.2 27.4 24.9 21.7 22.4 75

60

183.5 117.5

E

5.3

October

14.0 31.5 28.1 24.8 21.8 16.7 18.0 67

44

229.8 26.0 E

5.4

November

17.1 28.8 25.4 22.5 20.1 13.1 16.8 71

62

165.2

37.0

E

69

6.9

December

22.2 23.2 18.5 15.4 12.7

7.3 7.2

60

61

153.0

0.5 NNE

5.4

Mean,

total or

extreme

for year 1012.8 34.4 25.9 22.9 20.4

(May 25)

Normal or 1012.6 36.1 24.9 22.3 20.2

extreme

(Aug 19,

1900)

4.6 17.8

(Jan 16)

74

74

69

66

2090.9 1570,6 E

5.3

0.0 18.5 79

68

1963.1 2168.8

E

(Jan

18,

1893)

7.9

19

338

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1968

Ex officio

Appendix

XLI

(Chapter 22: Constitution

and Administration)

The Executive

Remarks

(Presided over by His Excellency the Governor)

Mr M. D. Irving GASS, CMG, assumed the office of Officer administering the Government during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 25.6.67 to 24.9.67.

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander British Brigadier Peter Chambre HINDE, DSO,

Forces

Senior Military Officer, filled this seat from 2.5.67 to 17.5.67.

Lieutenant-General Sir John Francis

WORSLEY, KBE, CB, MC

39

99

Nominated

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE, MC,

Mr Michael David Irving Gass,

CMG

ED, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 25.6.67 when Mr GASS was Officer administering the Govern- ment; and subsequently when Mr Gass was on leave.

The Honourable the Attorney General Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, ap-

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS,

OBE, QC

The Honourable the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE,

MC, ED

pointed to act as Attorney General from 7.4.67 to 22.9.67.

Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung, OBE, appoint-

ed to act as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 22.4.67.

The Honourable the Financial Secretary Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON,

Mr John James COWPERTHWAITE,

CMG, OBE

Dr the Honourable TENG pin-hui,

CMG, OBE

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

GM, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 3.4.67 to 10.4.67; 27.4.67 to 16.6.67; 9.8.67 to 11.8.67; and from 14.9.67 to 27.9.67. Mr Li Fook-kow, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 21.10.67 to 29.10.67.

Council

Type of appointment

Names of Members on January 1, 1968

Remarks

339

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated

The Honourable Sir Albert RODRIGUES, CBE, ED

""

The Honourable KWAN Cho-yiu,

CBB

Mr Kenneth Albert WATSON, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Sir Albert RODRIGUES from

30.6.67 to 10.8.67.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, appointed

provisionally during the absence of Mr Kwan from 3.4.67 to 11.4.67 and from 21.7.67 to 26.9.67.

The Honourable John Douglas CLAGUE, Mr Kenneth Albert WATSON, OBE,

CBE, MC, TD

**

The Honourable FUNG Ping-fan,

CBE

"

The Honourable Sidney Samuel

GORDON, CBE

39

""

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE

The Honourable Li Fook-shu, OBE

The Honourable John Anthony

SAUNDERS, DSO, MC

appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 11.4.67 to 3.5.67.

Mr SZETO Wai, OBE, appointed pro-

visionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 17.9.67 to 24.10.67.

Mr George Ronald Ross, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr GORDON, from 14.7.67 to 5.8.67.

Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 28.4.67 to 11.7.67.

Mr TANG Ping-yuan, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr Li from 12.4.67 to 13.5.67. Mr Woo Pak-chuen, OBE, appoint- ed provisionally during the absence of Mr Li from 31.10.67.

Mr George Ronald Ross, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr SAUNDERS from 20.5.67 to 13.7.67 and from 19.9.67 to 30.9.67.

340

Type of appointment

Appendix

(Chapter 22: Constitution

The Legislative

XLII

and Administration)

Council

Names of Members on January 1, 1968

Remarks

Type of appointment

Names of Members

on January 1, 1968

Remarks

341

Ex officio

"

"

""

Nominated

"

"

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The_Honourable the Colonial Secretary

Mr Michael David Irving GASS,

CMG

The Honourable the Attorney General

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS,

OBE, QC

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE, MC, ED, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 25.6.67.

Mr Graham Rupert SNEATH, QC, ap- pointed to act as Attorney General from 7.4.67 to 22.9.67.

PRESIDENT:

His Excellency the Governor

Sir David Clive Crosbie TRENCH,

KCMG, MC

Mr M. D. Irving GASS, CMG, assumed the office of Officer administering the Government during the Governor's absence from the Colony from 25.6.67 to 24.9.67.

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated The Honourable Dhun Jehangir

RUTTONJEE, CBE

"

"

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung,

CBE

The Honourable Li Fook-shu, OBE

"

The Honourable FUNG Hon-chu,

OBE

"

*

The Honourable TANG Ping-yuan,

OBE

The Honourable TSE Yu-chuen,

OBE

The Honourable Kenneth Albert

WATSON, OBE

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO, ap- pointed provisionally during the absence of Mr RUTTONJEE from 14.4.67 to 17.5.67.

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KAN from 16.5.67 to 11.7.67.

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr Li from 19.4.67 to 13.5.67.

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr Li from 31.10.67.

Mr Daniel LAM See-hin, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 26.4.67 to 8.7.67.

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TANG from 20.7.67 to 4.8.67 and from 14.9.67 to 30.9.67.

Mr Daniel LAM See-hin, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TSE from 4.12.67.

The Honourable the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs

Mr David Ronald HOLMES, CBE,

MC, ED

The Honourable the Financial Secretary

Mr John James COWPERTHWAITE,

CMG, OBE

The Honourable Alec Michael John

WRIGHT, CMG

(Director of Public Works)

Dr the Honourable TENG Pin-hui,

CMG, OBE

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

The Honourable William David

GREGG, CBE

(Director of Education)

The Honourable Robert Marshall

HETHERINGTON, DFC

(Commissioner of Labour)

The Honourable Alastair TODD

(Director of Social Welfare)

The Honourable Terence Dare

SORBY

(Director of Commerce and Industry)

The Honourable Geoffrey Marsh

TINGLE

(Director of Urban Services)

Mr Paul Tsui Ka-cheung, OBE, appoint- ed to act as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 22.4.67.

Mr Michael Denys Arthur CLINTON, GM, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 3.4.67 to 10.4.67; 27.4.67 to 16.6.67; 9.8.67 to 11.8.67; and from 14.9.67 to 27.9.67. Mr Li Fook-kow, appointed to act as Financial Secretary from 21.10.67 to 29.10.67.

"

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen,

OBE

Mr Kenneth John ATTWELL, continu- ed to act as Director of Education to 23.1.67.

13

The Honourable George Ronald

Ross

""

The Honourable Kenneth Strathmore

KINGHORN

Succeeded

Mr Ian LIGHTBODY, on 1.2.67.

MacDonald

(District Commissioner, New

Territories)

"

The Honourable SZETO Wai, OBE

Mr Michael Alexander Robert YOUNG- HERRIES, OBE, MC, appointed provi- sionally during the absence of Mr Ross from 23.3.67 to 19.5.67.

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr Szeto from 5.8.67 to 12.9.67.

""

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Sien-bing, OBE

The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui,

OBE

Mr Wilson WANG Tze-sam, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mrs Li from 18.12.67.

The Honourable James Dickson LEACH, Mr Michael Alexander Robert YOUNG-

OBE

HERRIES, OBE, MC, appointed provi- sionally during the absence of Mr LEACH from 3.6.67 to 15.9.67.

342

Appendix XLIII

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal 1963-7

Supreme Court

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

Civil appeals

46

40

78

59

52

Criminal appeal

488

575

585

612

711

Original jurisdiction

1,351

1,605

2,917

2,493

1,983

Miscellaneous proceedings

445

514

522

487

316

Adoptions

139

125

89

160

134

Divorce

58

71

82

136

164

Criminal sessions

61

53

65

65

64

Admiralty jurisdiction

20

37

14

16

62

Probate grants

930

890

939

989

1,080

Lunacy

1

3

2

2

Bankruptcy

17

15

44

26

Company winding-up

12

15

19

28

Total...

3,568

3,943

5,356

5,073

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

245

205

216

215

Civil jurisdiction

8,239

7,726

10,962

12,890

Workmen's compensation

142

226

214

250

Distress for rent

...

789

679

1,119

1,362

Total

9,424

8,836

12,511

14,717

1ཋནྟུ། Rཎྜ།

4,632

16,717

1,730

19,053

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

846

746

796

749

580

Exemption cases

1,036

495

83

24

18

Demolished building cases

260

272

286

173

Total ...

1,882

1,501

1,151

1,059

771

Work in the Magistracies for the Years 1963-7

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

Total number of summary matters (charges, summonses and appli- cations, etc)

237,325

292,347 361,811 399,907

316,177

Total number of adult defendants...

239,692

281,189

338,666

412,960

342,101

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

***

226,575

270,002

322,516

384,620

310,668

Total number of juvenile defendants

5,075

9,829

16,281

12,325

9,368

Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

...

4,988

9,760

16,127

12,072

9,111

Total number of charge sheets

issued

86,012

Total number of summonses issued

142,918

118,183 145,277 155,311 162,662 184,221 236,123

113,451

199,136

Total number of miscellaneous

proceedings issued

5,434

5,838

5,204

4,800

3,590

Appendix XLIV

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Type of appointment

Names of Members

on January 1, 1968

Ex officio

CHAIRMAN:

The Honourable the Director of Urban

Services

Mr Geoffrey Marsh TINGLE

""

"

#

"

"

Remarks

343

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Vice-Chairman

Deputy Director of Medical and Health Succeeded Dr Anthony Henry Reginald

Services

Dr Herbert William WYILE

The Honourable the Secretary for

Chinese Affairs

Mr Paul TSUI Ka-cheung, OBE,

(Acting)

The Honourable the Director of Public

Works

Mr Alec Michael John WRIGHT,

CMG

The Honourable the Director of Social

Welfare

Mr Alastair TODD

| The Commissioner for Resettlement Mr Dermont Campbell BARTY,

OBE

COOMBES, MBE, on 10.5.67.

Succeeded Mr David Ronald HOLMES,

CBE, MC, ED on 22.4.67.

Mr Alastair Trevor CLARK, acted as Commissioner for Resettlement from 28.4.67 to 14.5.67.

Elected

11

11

"

29

"

"

25

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Antony BERNACCHI, OBE,

QC

Mr Li Yiu-bor, OBE

| Mr Woo Pak-foo, OBE

Mr Hilton CHEONG-LEEN

Dr Alison Mary Spencer BELL

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT

| Mr Solomon RAFEEK, BEM

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick

Dr Denny HUANG Mong-hwa Mr Woo Po-shing

Nominated Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira SALES, OBE

"

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Sien-bing, OBE

**

"

The Honourable Wilson WANG Tze-sam The Honourable Ellen Li Shu-pui,

OBE

The Honourable Daniel LAM See-hin

མ མ མ བ མ ན

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FoRSGATE

Mr Kenneth Lo Tak-cheung Mr Peter NG Ping-kin

Mr Derek John Renshaw BLAKER

Succeeded Mr John Louis MARDEN,

resigned, on 31.3.67.

344

Appendix XLV

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

American Friends Service Committee

Member Agencies

Hong Kong Red Cross

American Women's Association of Hong Kong Hong Kong Red Swastika

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

Boy Scouts' Association

Canossian Mission (Welfare Services)

Caritas-Hong Kong

Catholic Relief Services-NCWC

Catholic Women's League

CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

The Cheshire Home

Children's Meals Society

Children's Playgrounds Association

Chinese YMCA

Christian Children's Fund, Inc

Christian Family Service Centre

Duke of Edinburgh's Award

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

The Endeavourers

Evangel Children's Home

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong Five District Business Welfare Association

Foster Parents' Plan, Inc Girl Guides' Association

Hans Andersen Club Heep Hong Club

Holy Carpenter Church, Hostel and Centre Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-TB Thoracic Diseases

Association

Hong Kong Catholic Social Welfare

Conference

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Council of the Boys' Brigade

Hong Kong Council of Women

Hong Kong Christian Service

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of

Children

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group International Rescue Committee International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

The Leprosy Mission

Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters

Mennonite Central Committee

Methodist Social Service Committee

Methodist Women's Association

Misereor Social Aid Fund

Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern, Inc

Rennies Mill Student Aid Project

Resettlement Estates Loan Association

The Salvation Army

Save the Children Fund

Social Welfare Committee of the Chinese

Methodist Church

Social Welfare Department, Hong Kong Council,

Church of Christ in China

Society of Boys' Centre

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of St Vincent de Paul

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society Toc H Men's and Women's Association

Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

Hong Kong Housing Society

Hong Kong Indian Welfare Society

       Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

Tung Lin Kok Yuen

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

World Council of Churches

World Vision, Inc

YMCA (English Speaking) YWCA

Index

Aberdeen, 251

Accidents, industrial, 98, 286

Index

Action Committee against Narcotics,

270

Administration, Government, 269-72 Adoption, 144

Adult education, 34, 93-4

Advisory Committee on Telephone

Services, 197

     Aero Club of Hong Kong, 185 Agriculture, 21, 68-73

policy and administration, 69-70

Air Accidents, 185, 210 Air traffic, 162, 184, 334 Aircraft engineering, 52, 185 Airport, 38, 52, 161-3, 171, 184-5,

207, 264

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

      Hospital, 100, 102, 110 Aliens, 160, 238

Ambulance service, 157, 210 Amherst, Lord, 253 Anglican Church, 214 Anglo-Chinese schools, 87 Animal industries, 73-5 Appeal Courts, 268 Apprentices, 26-7 Archaeology, 225, 251

Armed Services, 4, 12-3, 20, 35, 149,

169, 206-7, 269

Art collections, 225 Art in schools, 86 Arts, the, 223-5

Asian Productivity Organization, 48 Assets and liabilities, 37-8, 290-1 Auxiliary Fire Service, 156, 209-10 Auxiliary Forces, 20, 207-10 Auxiliary Medical Service, 209-10 Aviation, 184-5

Banks, 17

Bank of China, 5, 6

Banking, 35, 44-5, 47, 304-5

legislation, 44-5

Banknotes, 44, 304-5

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 67

Baptist Church, 214

Bathing and beaches, 221-3, 264 Bauhinia Blakeana, 247, facing

page 224

BCG vaccine, 101

Bets and Sweeps Tax, 42

Bianchi, Msgr Lawrence, 216

Bibliography, see footnote to this

Index

Birds, 244, 245, 250

Birth and death registration, 238, 240

Birth rate, 99

Black, Sir Robert, College, 92

Blake, Sir Henry, 257

Blood banks, 111

Bombs, 13-6, 149, 152, 207, between

pages 20-1

Border, 11-3, 160, 185 Botanic Gardens, 221 Botany, 246-50 Bowling, 220

Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 142-3 Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, 142 Braille printing, 87

British--

Council, 96, 226-7 Government, 19 Red Cross Society, 111 Broadcasting, 119-202 Bruce, Sir Frederick, 257 Buddhism, 211-2, 269 Building-

Authority, 127, 138 development, 120, 125-7, 169-71 legislation, 126

Buoys, 179, 181

Bus services, 9, 17, 190-1, 193 Business registration, 42 By-Census, 21, 238-40

Cable and Wireless Ltd, 180, 196-7 Cantonese, 238-9

Cape St Mary, the, 78

Car parks, multi-storey, and metered

zones, 188-9

CARE (Co-operative for American

Relief Everywhere, Inc), 146

Cargo storage, 181

Cargo tonnages, 53, 180, 183, 334

Caritas, 100, 108, 110, 112, 217

Castle Peak, new town, 22, 52, 122, 125,

174, 187

Castle Peak Hospital, 98, 107, 109,

113, 171

Cathay Pacific, 185

Catholic Centre, 216

hospitals, 217

Press Bureau, 216 Relief Services, 146 Schools, 216-7

348

Cattle, 74

Cemeteries and crematoria, 218, 270 Census, 238, 239

     Census and Statistics Department, 63 Certificates of Origin, 46, 61-2

Chartered Bank, 43

Chater Collection, 225 Chemist, Government, 116-7 Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 177 Chi Ma Wan Prison, 154

Child welfare, 143-4 Children, abandoned, 144

China, 1-2, 11, 18-9, 159, 164, 179,

185, 225, 257, 266

China Light and Power Co Ltd,

175-6

China Mail, 198

China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 190, 191-2 Chinese Affairs, Secretary for, 138,

259,269, 270

Chinese General Chamber of

Commerce, 64

Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

17, 55, 57, 61, 64, opposite page 1 Chinese marriages, 241 Chinese Middle Schools, 87 Chinese People's Republic, 30, 62,

79-80

Chinese University, 87, 89-90, 93-5,

97, 148, 227

Ching Ming, 186, 213

Cholera, 98, 100

Christians, 2147

Chuenpi, Convention of, 255

Chung Yeung Festival, 213

Church of Christ in China, 214 Church World Service, 215 Churches, 214-8

Cinemas, 204, 223, 268

City Hall, 223-6, 241, between pages

200-1

Civil-

Aid Services, 209-10 Aviation, 184-5, 207 Defence, 207-10

Service, 81, 137, 273-4

Cleansing, 115

Climate, 230-1, 337

Clinics, 111-2, 171, 263

Clinics, Floating, 111

Coinage, 42

Collections, government, 225

Colonial Development and Welfare,

39, 294

Colonial Secretariat, 226, 269

Commerce and Industry Department,

46, 61-3, 157

Commercial Radio, 200, 205

Commercial wharves, 181

Commonwealth cable system, 196 Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 23 Commonwealth preference, 39, 54, 62, 63 Communicable diseases, 100-5 Communications, 179-97, 334-5 Communists, 1, 3-7, 10, 13-6, 19-20 Newspapers, 4, 6, 8, 14, 19

Community centres, 81, 142, 147 Companies Registry, 65-6

Concerts, 223-4

Confrontation, 1-20, between pages

20-1

Confucius, 211

Constitution, 265-6 Consular corps, 318

Consumer price index, 28 Container Cargo Services, 181 Co-operative societies, 72, 81-2, 320 Cottage resettlement, 131 Cotton Advisory Board, 47, 63 Cotton, see Textiles

Courts, 266-9, 342

Crime, 151-2, 332-3

Crops, 71-2

Cross-harbour race, 17, 220 Cross-harbour tunnel, 174, 194 Crown land, 119-23, 272, 330 Cultural Revolution, 1, 8, 160 Curfew, 4, 6

Currency, 35, 42-4, 224, 304-5 Customary marriages, 241

Dance Halls Tax, 41 Death rate, 99

Deaths, 240

Defence, 206-10

Defence expenditure, 35

Defence (Finance) Regulations, 44 Demonstrations, 1, 3-7, 12-3, 16-20,

between pages 20-1

Dental services, 112

Devaluation, 19

Development Loan Fund, 38, 296-7

Diphtheria, 98, 104

Disabled, the, 145-6

Diseases, 100-5, 326

District Courts, 267-8, 342

Dockyards, 182-3

Dollar coins, 42-4

Domestic exports, 49, 54, 312-3, 316-7

Dragon Boat Festival, 213

Drainage, 171-2

Driving licences, 194, 331 Drug addiction, 108, 154-5

(see Narcotics)

Ducks and geese, 74

Dutiable commodities, 38-9 Duties and licence fees, 37, 295 Duties, Excise, 38-9

349

Earnings and profits tax, 41 East Asia Travel Association, 164 East India Company, 252-4 Education, 84-97

adult, 93-4

examinations, 94-5, 322

higher, 88-9

music and art, 85-6

Factory registration and inspection,

286

Far East Flying Training School, 185 Farming, 68-72, 230

Fauna, 242-5

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

55, 57, 61, 64

Federation of Youth Groups, 142-3

number of schools and pupils, 85, Ferries, 7, 161, 172, 189-90, 193-4

87, 321

overseas, 96

primary, 86-7

    recreation centres, 94 research, 97

scholarships and bursaries, 89,

226

School Health Service, 107 School Medical Service, 107 secondary, 87-8

technical, 90-2, 263

Electricity, 174-8

Electronics industry, 50 Elliot, Capt C., 254-5

Emergency Regulations, 8, 9, 151 Emigration, 23-4 Employment, 21-34, 284-5

holidays with pay, 28

Local Employment Service, 24 migration for, 23-4 New Territories, 22

safety, health and welfare, 32-4 strikes, 30

wages and conditions of, 27-9 working hours, 28-9 Entertainment, 223-5 Entertainment Tax, 41

      Entrepôt trade, 46-7, 54, 179, 264 Essential Services Corps, 209-10 Estate duty, 41

Evening institutes, 93

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 93

Exchange control, 44

Exchange Fund, 44

Excise duties, 38-9

Executive Council, 265, 338-9

Expenditure and revenue, 35-8, 166,

288-9, 292-3, 295

Explosives, 13, 15

Export Credit Insurance Corporation,

57, 63

Export promotion, 55-7

Exports, 37, 46-7, 53-5, 58-61, 312-3 External trade, 53-61

Factories and industrial undertakings, 21-2, 26-8, 33, 49-52, 130-1, 263, 284-6

Festival of Youth, 143 Festivals, Chinese, 213 Film censorship, 204 Film industry, 202 Films, government, 203-4 Finances, public, 35-8 Firearms, 4, 12, 15, 150 Fire prevention, 76, 156-7

Fire Services, 156-7, 180, 184, 209 Fish, 76-81, 168, between pages 248-9

marine, 76-9

Marketing Advisory Board, 79 Marketing Organization, 78-9, 80 ponds, 69, 73

Fisheries, 21

administration, 76-9

Development Loan Fund, 78 research station, 78

Fishing, 24, 68, 77-9, 251 Fishing fleet, 77-9

Flatted factories, 22, 130-1 Flora, 246-50, between pages 224-5 Flouridation, 112

Flying doctor service, 111 Flyovers, 187, opposite page 1 Food inspection, 111, 115-6 Food supplies, 9

Foot and mouth disease, 75 Football, 220-1

Forces, local, 207-10 Forestry, 21, 75-6, 245

Frontier, 11-3, 160, 185 Fruit, 71, 246, 248 Fukien, 238

Full Court, 267-8 Funicular railway, 192

Garden Road Complex, 186-7,

opposite page 1

Garment industry, 49 Gas, 177-8

GATT, 58-9

Geography, 228-30 Geology, 228-30

Golf, 220, opposite page 1 Government Chemist, 110-1 Government House, 4-5 Government Language School, 153 Government Printing Department, 87

350

Government Stadium, 220-1 Governor in Council, 265 Grantham College of Education, 92 Grantham Hospital, 100, 102

Hakka, 213, 238-9 Handicapped, the, 145 Harbour facilities, 179-83 Haven of Hope Sanatorium, 102 Hawker Control Force, 117 Hawkers, 117

Health, 98-118

dental services, 112 education, 116 environmental, 114-6 industrial, 32-4 inspectors, 115-6 mental 107-8

ophthalmic service, 112-3 outpatient services, 111-2 specialist services, 110 statistics, 325-8 training, 113-4

Heavy industries, 48, 51-2, 174 Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium, 103 Helicopters, 208

Herbarium, Hong Kong, 249-50 Heung Yee Kuk, 11-3, 163, 171, 272 Hindu community, 218-9 Hire cars, 193 History, 251-64 Hoklo, 238-9

Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering

Co Ltd, 26, 185

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis

Association, 101-2

Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, 208 Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission

to Lepers, 103

Hong Kong Bird Watching Society,

250

Hong Kong Buddhist Association, 7,

211

Hong Kong Building and Loan

Agency, 134

Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd,

8, 177-8

Hong Kong Christian Council, 215 Hong Kong Christian Service, 215 Hong Kong College of Medicine, 258 Hong Kong Council of Social Service,

141-2, 143, 344

Hong Kong Dental Society, 112

Hong Kong Enterprise, 56

Hong Kong Exporters' Association,

64

Hong Kong Federation of Youth

Groups, 142

Hong Kong Flying Club, 185 Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 55, 56, 61, 64, 150 Hong Kong Herbarium, 249-50 Hong Kong House, London, 96 Hong Kong Housing Society, 136 Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 30

Hong Kong Life Guard Club, 223 Hong Kong Medical Council, 100 Hong Kong Natural History Society,

250

Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra,

226

Hong Kong Regiment, 208

Hong Kong Registry of Shipping, 183 Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, 20 Hong Kong Settlers' Housing

Corporation, 136

Hong Kong Society for the Blind, 145 Hong Kong Standard, 198 Hong Kong Students' Office, 96 Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd, 197 Hong Kong Today, 203

Hong Kong Tourist Association,

55, 162-5

Hong Kong Week, 17, 57 Hong Kong Welfare and Relief

Council, 215

Hong Kong Youth Orchestra, 85 Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 174-5 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 43, 147, 271 Hongkong Tramways, Ltd, 190, 192 Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co

Ltd, 26

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co

Ltd, 190, 193

Hospitals, 108-10, 116, 217, 259,

263, 327

Hotels, 6, 42, 163, 193, 264 Ho-tung Collection, 225 Housing, 133-7, 330

Authority, 35, 134-5 Board, 127, 135-6, 270

co-operatives, 137

low-cost scheme, 38, 133, 135-6,

166, 169-70, 263

rents, 137-9

Society, 186

Hydrofoils, 161, 181

Hygiene, environmental and food,

114-8, 271

Hong Kong Federation of Students, 7 - Immigration, 159-60, 179, 180, 256-7 Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 31

illegal, 159, 161 Imports, 53, 310-1

351

Incinerators, 115, 173 Income tax, 40-2

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 61, 64 Industrial-

    accidents, 32-4, 98 employment, 21-4, 27-34 health, 32-4

land, 52-3

productivity, 16, 48

relations, 29-32

safety, 32-4

training, 24-7

Training Advisory Committee,

24, 27

undertakings, 21-2, 48, 284-6

welfare, 32-4

Industry and trade, 46-67

Infant mortality, 99

Information Services Department, 6,

57, 198, 202-4

Inland Revenue, 40-2 Insurance, 47, 57, 66

Interest tax, 40

Internal revenue, 36-7, 40-2 Internal security, 149, 153-4

International Confederation of Free

Trade Unions, 30

International economic relations,

58-61

International Sanitary Regulations,

105

International trade negotiations,

58-61

International Union of Official

      Travel Organizations, 163 Iron ore, 82

Islamic community, 211, 218

Japanese occupation, 208, 238, 252,

261-2

Jewish community, 217-8 Joseph Trust Fund, 70, 81 Judiciary, 266-9

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council,

102

Junk building, 51

Junks, 78-9, 181, 183

Justice, Courts of, 266-9

Juvenile Care Centre, 146

Juvenile crime, 152

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 70

Kaifong welfare associations, 7, 116,

151, 269

Kindergarten schools, 87

Kowloon-Canton Railway, 185-6,

334

4

Kowloon Docks, 182-3

Kowloon Hospital, 99, 102, 109, 171,

259

Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

9, 190-1

Kung Sheung Yat Po, 198

Kwai Chung, 52, 122, 174, 182, 187, 263 Kwangtung, 238-9, 251, 262

Kwong Wah Hospital, 109

Kwun Tong, 52-3, 136, 174, 222

Labour-

administration, 29-32 Department, 3

disputes and stoppages, 2-3, 30 hours of work, 27-9 legislation, 28-9, 31, 263 Lai Chi Kok Hospital, 99, 171 Lai Chi Kok Prison, 154 Land, 119-24, 139-40

administration, 119-23 agricultural, 68-9 arable, 69 area, 228, 230 auctions, 119

Crown, 119-24, 139 development, 70, 120-3 for industry, 52

Office (Registrar General),

139-40

revenue, 123-4

sales, 36-7, 123-4, 330 surveys, 124-5

tenure, 70, 119-20 transactions, private, 123 utilization, 68-9, 230

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance,

137-8, 140

Law courts, 266, 268

Law and Sayer Collection, 225 Leases, Crown, 119

Legal Aid, 147

Legislation, 265-6, 278-9

Legislative Council, 13, 265-6, 340-1 Lei Cheng Uk, Tomb, 251 Lei Yue Mun, 179

Lepers, Mission to, 103

Leprosy, 103

Letters Patent, 214, 265-6

Libraries, 225-7

Light industries, 46, 50-1, 82 Lighters, 183

Lin Tse-hsu, 254

Lion Rock tunnel, 53, 187-8 Liquidations, 67 Livestock, 73-5 Lo Wu, 12, 161, 185 Loans, 38, 70, 79-82

352

Local forces, 207-10

London Missionary Society, 214, 258 London Office, Hong Kong

Government, 204 Long-Term Cotton Textile

Arrangement, 59-61, 63 Lord Shepherd, 15

      Lotteries Fund, 38, 143-5, 147, 302-3 Low-cost housing, 38, 133, 135-6,

       166, 169-70, 263 Lugard, Sir Frederick, 258 Lutheran Church, 214

Lutheran World Service, 146

Macartney, Lord, 253

Macau, 1, 159, 161, 183, 225, 252-4,

262

ferries, 181 Magistracies, 5, 267, 342

Malaria, 98, 103, 116, 256, 258 Mammals, 242

Marine Department, 9, 24 Marine fauna, 244

Market gardening, 71-2, 230 Marketing, 72-3, 79-81, 319 Marriages, 239, 241

Maryknoll Hospital, 110

Materials Testing Laboratory, 174 Maternal and child health, 106

Matriculation, 95

Measles, 105

Measures and weights, 272

Medical-

and Health Department, 98-118

Clinics Ordinance, 111-2

Development Plan Standing

Committee, 98

finance, 99-100

personnel, 328

research, 118

specialist services, 110 training, 113-4

Mental health, 107-8 Mercantile Bank, 43

Mercantile Marine Office, 182 Merchant Navy Club, 182 Meteorological research, 233-4 Meteorology, 230-7 Methodist Church, 214 Mid-Autumn Festival, 213 Midwives, 106

Migration for employment, 23-4 Minerals, 82, 228-9, 320 Mines Department, 83 Mining, 21, 139

Missionaries, 215, 258, 259 Monasteries, 211-2 Moral welfare, 144-5

Museum, 224

Music, 86, 223

Muslim community, 218

Napier, Lord, 253-4

Narcotics, 111, 152, 158, 270, 332 Narcotics Advisory Committee, 270 Natural history, 242-250 Navigation, 179, 184 Neonatal mortality, 99

New China News Agency, 4, 14 New Territories-

Administration, 70, 163, 271-2 beaches, 222-3 employment, 22, 68

>

health services, 99, 104, 111, 115 Heung Yee Kuk, 11-3, 163,

171, 272 irrigation systems, 169 land tenure, 70, 119-20 land utilization, 68-9, 230 parks and playgrounds, 221-3 population, 68, 238-40 ́ public works, 171, 272 roads, 186

squatters, 133

taxis, 192-3

New towns, 22, 122, 174 News agencies, 199, 202 Newspapers, 6, 14, 19, 198-9, 202,

270, 336

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong,

198

Northcote College of Education,

92, 170

Nurses, 113-4

Occupational accidents, 33

Occupational diseases, 32

Occupations, 21-4

Ocean Terminal, 55, 181, between

pages 160-1

Official Receiver, 67

Operation Feedbag, 74 Opium, 152, 254 Orchids, 247, 249 Oriental Bank, 43

Outdoor activities, 142-3 Overseas representation, 318 Oyster farming, 79

Pacific Area Travel Association, 163 Pacific Tidal Warning Service, 233 Paddy, 71-2, 230

Palmerston, Lord, 254-5

Parcel post, 195

Parkes, Sir Harry, 257

Parking, 171, 188-9

Parks and playgrounds, 221-3, 264,

271, between pages 224-5

353

Passenger Transport Survey Unit,

188

Patents, 65

Peak Tramways, 192, 260

Pearl culture, 77

Peking, 4, 8, 11, 14, 16

Peking, Convention of, 257

Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd,

176

People's Daily, 8, 9

Personal assessment, 40

Pest control, 116

Pig-raising, 73-4

Pilotage, 179

Pirates, 251

Plague, 260

Plants, 246-9

Plasticware, 21, 24, 50, 52

Playgrounds, 170-1, 221, 264

Plover Cove Scheme, 18, 166-9, 173,

263, between pages 180-1

Poisonous plants, 248

Police, 2, 4-5, 8-9, 12-5, 19, 149-54,

170, 180, 189, between pages 20-1

anti-illegal immigration, 159 Auxiliaries, 150, 207 CID, 151

education fund, 7, 150 manpower and training, 153 Traffic Branch, 152 Uniformed Branch, 153 women, 153

Poliomyelitis, 98, 105 Pond fish production, 73

Population, 238-40, 256, 261-3

New Territories, 238-40 non-Chinese aliens, 238 urban, 238

Port, 10, 179-83, between pages

160-1

Control Office, 180

Executive Committee, 179 health, 105-6, 180

Welfare Committee, 182 works, 172

Postal Services, 195-6, 264, 335 Post-secondary education, 88-92 Pottinger, Sir Henry, 255-6 Poultry, 68, 71, 73-4 Presbyterian Church, 214 Press, 6, 14, 19, 198-9

Preventive Service, 63, 157-8 Primary production, 68-83 Prisons, 109, 154-6, 171 Private building, 126-7 Privy Council, 269 Probation, 141, 146 Productivity Centre, 48 Productivity Council, 48

Profits Tax, 40

Propaganda, 5, 6, 11 Property Tax, 40

Protection of fauna and flora, 242 Protestant churches, 214-5

Provisional Council for the Use and

Conservation of the Countryside,

223, 242

Public Enquiry Service, 204-5 Public-

assets, 35-8

assistance, 146

debt, 38, 294

health administration, 99-100

order, 149-58

roads, 186-8

Service, 28, 269, 273-4

Services Commission, 274

transport, 189-94, 335

utilities, 174-8

works, 37, 166-74

Works Department, 166-74

Publicity, local and overseas, 56-7,

162, 202-4

Quarantine, 105-6, 179-80 Quarrying, 21

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 108-9,

111, 113, 263

Queen Mary Hospital, 98, 109-11,

113, 170, 171, 259

Rabies, 75

Radio, Commercial, 200, 205 Radio Hong Kong, 171, 199, 205

Radio news, 6, 198, 200, 203 Radioactivity, measurements, 233 Radiotherapy, 110

Raids, 13-4, 149

Railway, 185-6, 264, 334

Rainfall, 166-7, 229-30, 234-7, 337

Rates, 39

Rating and Valuation Commissioner, 39 Reclamations, 52, 173-4, 179, 186, 260 Recreation, 220-7

Red Cross, 111, 145

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd,

(Sound), 200

Refugees, 46, 159, 160, 261-2 Refuse collections, 115, 173

Registrar of Co-operative Societies, 81 Registrar General, 65, 240, 259 Registration, companies, 66 Registrar of Trade Unions, 31-2 Rehabilitation Loan, 38 Religion and Custom, 211-9 Rent control, 137-9 Report to the Gods, 203 Rescue service, 209

354

Research-

Chinese University, 97 fisheries, 78

medical and health, 118 meteorology, 233-4 tourist, 163

University of Hong Kong, 233 Reservoirs, 166, 234, 247, 260, 263 Resettlement, 127-33, 166, 169-70,

263, between pages 136-7

cottage areas, 131 cultivators, 132

flatted factories, 22, 130-1 rents, 128-31 schools, 130

shops and workshops, 129-30 squatter problem, 131-3 statistics, 329

      Restaurant work in Britain, 24 Revenue and expenditure, 35-8 Revenue Equalization Fund, 37 Rice, 69, 71-2, 230 Rinderpest, 75

      Riots, 1, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 16, 19, 156 Road safety, 152

Roads, 186-8, 264

Robinson, Sir Hercules, 257

Rock dating, 229

Rodent control, 116

Roman Catholic Cathedral, 216

Church, 215-7

schools, 216-7

Royal Air Force, 207

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force,

206-8

Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, 111,

222

Royal Instructions, 265

Royal Navy, 206

Royal Observatory, 185, 231-4 Rural Committees, 272 Ruttonjee Sanatorium, 102

Sai Ying Pun Clinic, 259 Salaries tax, 40

Sandy Bay Convalescent Home, 102 Sanitary services, 103-4, 115-6 School(s)-

Anglo-Chinese grammar, 87 for blind, 87 Chinese middle, 87 for deaf, 87

evening, 93-4

fishermen's children, 80-1 Health Service, 107 Medical Service, 107 music festival, 85

number of schools and pupils,

85, 87, 321

School(s) (Contd)

primary, 86-7 secondary, 87-8 special, 87 subsidized, 88

technical, 90-2

SEACOM, 196

Seamen, 2, 11

recruiting, 24, 182

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, 138,

259, 269, 270 Seismology, 233

Seventh Day Adventist Welfare

Service, 146 Sewerage, 171

Sha Tin, new town, 22, 52, 122 Shek Kwu Chau Rehabilitation

Centre, 108

Shek Pik, 263

Shipbreaking, 46, 51, 183

Shipbuilding and repairing, 22, 46, 51,

179

Shipping, 161, 163, 180-2, 232, 334 Silver currency, 42-3

Sing Tao newspapers, 198 Slaughterhouses, 117 Snakes, 244-5

Social services, 36, 215-6 Social Welfare, 141-8

training, 147-8

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

of Drug Addicts, 108 Society of Boys' Centres, 146

Soil, 68-70, 75, 229-30

South China Athletic Stadium, 221 South China Morning Post, 198 Specialist health services, 110-1 Sports and recreation, 220-3 Squatters, 131-3

St Andrew's Church, 214

St John Ambulance Association and

Brigade, 33, 112, 222

St John's Cathedral, 214 St John's Hospital, 102 St Joseph's Church, 215-6 Stamp duty, 41 Stanley Prison, 154

'Star' Ferry, 8, 164, 190, 194 'Star' newspaper, 198 Steel rolling mills, 48, 51-2 Sterling, 42, 44

Stonecutters Island, 228, 257 Street cleansing, 117

Strikes and stoppages of work, 1, 7, 9,

11, 19, 30, 182, 189-90

Students in Britain, 96, 160, 226

Suicides on Hire Purchase, 203

Sulphur Channel, 179

Sun Yat-sen, 258, 261

355

      Sunday Post-Herald, 198 Sung Wong Toi, 252 Supreme Court, 266-8 Survey, 124

      Sweeps tax, 41 Swimming, 220, 222 Swimming pools, 171, 222

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering

Co Ltd, 8, 26, 183

Tai Lam Treatment Centre, 154 Tai Mo Shan, 229, 231

Tai Ping Rebellion, 256 Tang clan, 251

Tanka, 238-9

Taoism, 211-3

Taxation, 37, 40-2

Taxis, 2, 30, 192

Teachers and teacher training, 92-3 Technical College, 26, 88, 90-2,

170

Telecommunications, 184, 196-7, 264 Telephones, 197

Television, 6, 201-2, 264

Authority, 201

Broadcasts Limited, 201 Ordinance, 201

Rediffusion, 202

Telex, 196, 335

Temperatures, 231, 337

Temples, 212-3, 269

Tenancy enquiry bureaux, 138, 270

Tenancy tribunals, 138, 267 Textiles, 21, 49-50

Theatre, 223

Tientsin, Treaties of, 257

Time signals, 233

Tin Hau, 212

To Fung Shan Monastery, 212

Tong Fuk Prison, 154

Topography, 228-30

Tourism, 17, 162-5

Tourist Association, 163

Town planning, 125-6

Town Planning Board, 119, 125

Trade-

administration, 62-3

and industrial organizations,

64-5

and Industry Advisory Board,

47, 63

Bulletin, 56

Commissioners, 318

Development Council, 55-7, 62,

     63, 164, opposite page 1 external, 53-5, 58-61

international, 58-61

Marks and Patents Registries, 65 missions, 55-6

Trade (Contd)

promotion, 55-7, 263, opposite

page 1

restrictions, 46-7, 58-61 statistics, 306-17

Trade unions, 2-4, 9-10, 29-32 Traffic, 152, 186-8, 264 Traffic accidents, 98, 153, 331 Training-

health, 113-4 teachers, 92-3

Tramways, 192

Transistor radios, 50

Transistors, 50

Transport, 9, 17, 189-94, 246, 335 Transport Office, 189, 190, 194 Transport Advisory Committee, 191,

194

Travel documents, 159 Treaties of Tientsin, 257 Treaty of Nanking, 255 Treaty Ports, 256 Tree planting, 222

Trench, Sir David, opposite page 1 Triad societies, 31

Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, 259 Tsuen Wan, 11, 53, 122, 173-4, 187,

211, 263, 271

Tuberculosis, 75, 98, 100-2

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 100,

102, 109, 259, 269

Typhoid, 104-5

Typhoons and tropical storms, 183,

204-5, 231-2, 235-7, 256, 259

Unemployment, 22

University, Chinese, 87, 89-90, 93-5,

97, 148, 227

University of Hong Kong, 87, 88-9,

93, 97, 113, 147, 216, 258

Urban-

Council, 114, 221-5, 270-2,

343

population, 238

Services, 99, 104, 114-8, 136,

221-3, 271

Utilities, public, 174-8

Vegetable(s)-

co-operatives, 72

cultivation, 71-2, 230

Marketing Organization, 72-3 production, 71-2

Vegetation, 69, 75-6 Vehicle ferries, 193

Vehicles and drivers' licences, 194,

331

Venereal diseases, 102

356

Victoria-

City Development Company, 194 Park, 221-2

Visas, 159-60

Vital statistics, 99, 325 Vocational training, 263

Voluntary agencies, 136, 143, 146, 344 Volunteers, The, 208

Wages, 27-8

Wah Kiu Yat Po, 198 Water, 17-8, 112, 166-9, 260

consumption, 166

from China, 17-8, 166-7, 263 restrictions, 116-7, 169

Waterworks, 9

Weapons, 4, 8, 12-3, 15, 158

Weather, 234-7

forecast, 231-3

Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, 214 Weights and measures, 277

Welfare of women and girls, 144-5 Wild life, 242-5

Working hours, 28-9

Workmen's Compensation Ordinance,

268

X-ray examinations, 33

YMCA, YWCA, 142, 215 Yoga, 219

Youth, between pages 112-3 Youth welfare, 142-3 Yuen Ling, 77

Zoning of land, 52, 121 Zoology, 242-5

HONG KONG BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Bibliography last appeared in this Report in 1963. A revised edition, 'A Hong Kong Bibliography 1965' by J. M. Braga, is available as a separate publication priced at HK$1.00 per copy, obtainable from the Printing Department, 81-115 Java Road, North Point, and the Government Publications Centre, Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong.

Printed and Published by S. Young, Government Printer, at the Government Press

Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1968

PLAN

OF VICTORIA & KOWLOON SHOWING

DISTRICT

NAMES

DILE FUTTERS ISLAND

SO UK

SHA

CHEUNG

LUNG

SHEK KIP MEI

EUNG SHA WAN

SHAM SHUI PO

TIN

PASS ROAD

REA

WONG TAI SIN

DIAMOND MILL

NGAU CHI WAN

(AREA)

‚500' CONTOUR

SAN PO KONG

KOWLOON TONG

KOWLOON

CITY

H. K. AIRPO

MONG KOK

HO MAN TIN

MA TAU KOK

YAU MA TEI

KING'S PARK

HUNG HOM

TSIM SHA TSUI

KOWLOON

BAY

RUNWAY

NORTH POINT

CENTRAL DISTRICT

VICTORIA

HARBOUR

SAI YING PUN

KO

MID

HONGK

KENNEDY TOWN

MOUNT DAVIS

PEAK

POK FU LAM

DRAWN BY C. L. a

S. O. 1963

WAN CHAI

CAUSEWAY

BAY

JORDAN VALLEY

"

NGAU TAU

KWUN TONG

KOK

QUARRY

BAY

HAPPY VALLEY

PUBLIC

YAU TONG

SHAU KEI WAN

CHAI WAN

YUE MUN

Approximate boundaries only are shown on this plan.

Crown Copyright Reserved

一九六七年

""