Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1965

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Hong Kong

19.65

The biggest day of the year for Hong Kong's fisherfolk is the birthday of their patron saint, Tin Hau the God- dess of the Sea. At temples all around the coast they gather in gaily decorat- ed junks for a day of thanksgiving and feasting. Firecrackers are let off and the head of each family goes to the temple to pray for good fishing conditions in the year ahead. These prayers are directed especially to two of Tin Hau's generals - Thousand Mile Eyes and Fair Wind Ears.

Price: HK $10.00

HONG

*

KONG

香港中央

圖書館

LIBRARY

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

CENTRAL

HONG KONG 1965

City Hall Library Hong Kong

Reference Ibrary

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CENTRE

Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong,

and from

THE HONG KONG GOVERNMENT OFFICE 54, Pall Mall, London, SW1

A list of current official publications will be sent on request and official publications are also included in a general Hong Kong Bibliography

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1966

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra and the Hon Angus Ogilvy paid a three-day private visit to Hong Kong in September. A reception was held in their honour at Government House and they were entertained at a Chinese dinner by Unofficial Mem- bers of the Executive and Legislative Councils. (More pictures in first colour section.)

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year

1965

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1966

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03706589 5

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all organizations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter to this Report. Particular acknowledgement is given to Professor S. G. Davis, PhD, MSc, FGS, of the University of Hong Kong, for the chapter on Geography, and to Mr G. B. Endacott, MA, BLitt, DipE, of the University, for the History chapter.

  All illustrations in this Report are the work of official photographers. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustration should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

URBAN COUNCIL PU LIC LIBRARIES

Acc. No. 58305

Class.

HK951.25

Author

HON

HKCr

Chapter

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

CONTENTS

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

EMPLOYMENT: Occupations-Wages and Conditions of Work-Labour Administration Industrial Rela- tions - Legislation - Safety, Health and Welfare. FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue and Expenditure Excise Duties Rates Internal Revenue Currency Banking.

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Page

1

17

28

wwwwwww.cm

39

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: General Review - Industry Textiles-Light Industries-Heavy Industries Industrial Training and Productivity - External Trade Administration Trade and Industrial Organizations-Records (Bankruptcies and Liqui- dations, Trade Marks and Patents, Companies). PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Introduction-Land Utiliza- tion - Administration - Principal Crops - Vege- table Marketing Organization Fish Ponds- Animal Industries-Forestry - Fishing (including Research) - Fish Marketing Organization Co- operative Societies - Mining. EDUCATION: Pattern of Education-Primary, Second- ary and Higher Education - Education Overseas Adult Education Teachers and Teacher Training Examinations Music and Art in Schools University Research.

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·

·

J

-

·

HEALTH: General Situation - Administration-Com-

municable Diseases Port Health Service Maternal and Child Health Mental Health - Hospitals-Specialist Services - Clinics - Den- tal Services - Ophthalmic Service - Training - Environmental Health Research.

LAND AND HOUSING: Land Tenure and Development-

Land Sales-Surveys-Town Planning-Private Building-Resettlement-Squatter Clearances- Housing Rent Control Land Office.

- ·

SOCIAL WELFARE: White Paper - Youth Welfare - Child Welfare - Welfare of Women and Girls- The Disabled-Probation and Correction-Public Assistance and Emergency Relief Community Organization Training.

61

78

97

117

140

vi

CONTENTS

Chapter

10 PUBLIC ORDER:

11

H2

12

13

14

15

Police Crime

power and Training - Prisons

Preventive Service.

Page

Traffic-Man-

150

· Fire Services

IMMIGRATION AND TOURISM: Immigration

Tourism.

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES: Water Supplies - Buildings Drainage Port Works Land Development - Public Utilities.

COMMUNICATIONS: Shipping Civil Aviation

Kowloon-Canton Railway Roads - Parking- Public Transport-Ferry Services - Cross-harbour Tunnel · Postal Services Telecommunications.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA: Newspapers

Broadcasting (Radio Hong Kong, Commercial Radio and Rediffusion) - Wireless Television - Films Government Information

Public Enquiry Service.

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Services

THE ARMED SERVICES AND AUXILIARY SERVICES: The Armed Services - Local Forces and Civil Defence Services Essential Services Corps.

160

166

179

198

207

18

19

Births and Deaths Marriages.

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222

NATURAL HISTORY: Wild Life - Flora.

THESE THEAT

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE: Topography and Geology - Climate - Royal Observatory Research and Applied Meteorology - The Year's Weather.

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POPULATION: Population Statistics and Groupings ---

16

Christian Churches

RELIGION AND CUSTOM: Chinese Beliefs and Practices Jewish, Islamic and

212

Hindu Communities.

17

RECREATION: Sport Entertainment and the Arts

Government Collections - Libraries ·

220

British

Council.

227

235

239

HISTORY

247

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION:

Constitution

261

Judiciary - Administration (including the New

Territories) - The Public Service.

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS

vii

Page

HRH Princess Alexandra

Frontispiece

1965 in Review

between 16-7

Lutheran Trade Training Centre

between 28-9

Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Projects

between 52-3

Mobile Library in the New Territories

between 76-7

Health Visitor Service

between 100-1

Chinese New Year Fair

between 124-5

Youth Training Camp

between 148-9

Development at Plover Cove and Tsuen Wan

between 172-3

Waglan Island Lighthouse

between

196-7

Golden Lotus Monastery

between 220-1

The Royal Observatory

between 244-5

Village Penetration Patrol

between 268-9

END-PAPER MAPS

Front:

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Back:

Plan of Victoria and Kowloon showing District Names

viii

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

I

II

III-V

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

LEGISLATION

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EMPLOYMENT: Industrial Undertakings and Per- sons Employed Factory Registrations and Inspections - Industrial and Occupational Accidents.

VI-XIV FINANCIAL STRUCTURE: Revenue - Expenditure Statement of Assets and Liabilities - Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure -- Public Debt - Colonial Development and Welfare

XV- XXI

XXII

XXIII- XXV

XXVI- XXIX

XXX- XXXIII

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees - Development Loan Fund - Currency and Banking Statistics, Currency in Circulation and Bank Deposits.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE: Composition of Trade- Trade: Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade-Imports:

Imports: Commodity Pattern Imports: Principal Sources - Domestic Ex-

ports

Re-exports - Direction of Trade.

·

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: Marketing Organization Statistics - Co-operative Societies - - Produc- tion of Minerals.

EDUCATION: Categories of Schools, Enrolments, New Buildings, Classrooms and Places - Educational Statistics Hong Kong Students Pursuing Further Studies in Britain - Actual Expenditure on Education.

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HEALTH: Vital Statistics - Hong Kong, 1956-65

Infectious Diseases

Diseases Notified- Number of Hospital Beds - Professional Medical Personnel.

XXXIV- LAND AND HOUSING:

XXXV

Page

273

274

278

281

296

308

309

311

315

-

        Resettlement Estate Sta- tistics Housing Provided

319

in 1965 -

Premiums Received on Sales of Crown Land.

ix

CONTENTS

Appendix

Page

XXXVI- PUBLIC ORDER: Traffic-Serious Crime. XXXVII

321

XXXVIII COMMUNICATIONS:

Communication Statistics,

324

Marine, Kowloon-Canton Railway, Air Traffic, Vehicles, Postal Traffic.

XLII

XXXIX

XL

XLI-

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND CINEMA: Leading 326

Newspapers and Magazines.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE: Comparison of 327

Storms.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION:

Council - Legislative Council.

Executive 328

XLIII

CASES IN THE COURTS AND WORK IN THE

332

MAGISTRACIES

XLIV

URBAN COUNCIL

333

XLV

SOCIAL WELFARE: Hong Kong Council of Social

Service, Member Agencies.

334

INDEX

337

1

Review

THE year was one of general progress, despite some slowing down of the very high rate of growth achieved in recent years. Exports reached new record levels and the tourist trade continued to expand; these are the mainstay of the economy. The government's current revenue rose substantially and, while revenue from sales of land fell steeply owing to saturation of the market for most types of new land, the existence of substantial financial reserves made it possible to carry on without interruption the Colony's massive public works programme, which is due to cost $538 million (almost £34 million) in the financial year 1965-6. Investment in private building slowed down because with higher quality flats at least- supply temporarily overtook demand. The difficulties of developers were aggravated, but not caused by, serious difficulties in the field of banking which arose in the first half of the year. Other forms of investment remained at a high level, especially in some sectors of the industrial economy where significant developments took place, including a number of joint ventures between Hong Kong and overseas interests. Despite the large numbers of young people leaving school and seeking their first jobs, there was again full employment-indeed at one time a survey by the Labour Department showed more than 11,000 jobs vacant. White papers laid down future policy for social welfare and education, and special official attention was given to subjects as diverse as gam- bling and productivity.

      If the tempo of the year was not as steady as many would have wished, it was by no means such as to cause lasting or serious despondency, although pessimism was to some degree in fashion in the press and elsewhere. In fact, as events made themselves felt, Hong Kong's indomitable spirit once again came to the fore and all sections of the community at all levels showed themselves willing and able to meet these new challenges, while at the same time continuing to face the everyday problems to which Hong

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     Kong's rapid population increase and industrialization inevitably give rise.

      The year was notable for the public debate of two important issues of future policy. The wealth generated by the Colony's industrial economy produces to the superficial observer so general an impression of prosperity that the basic and growing problems in the field of social welfare can easily be overlooked. Today it is possible to walk the streets for a month and never meet a true beggar. The majority of people are well dressed and look healthy, and the standards of living and leisure are markedly higher in every way than they were 15 years ago. Unfortunately prosperity is not yet universal and there are still those who need help both by way of financial assistance and by way of counsel. The very prosperity which buoys up the majority makes the situation of the minority harder to bear. In a place which changes as rapidly as Hong Kong it is important also to make provision not merely to meet the social problems of the present but also to try and assess the problems that will be encountered in the years ahead.

      It was not surprising, therefore, that a white paper entitled 'Aims and Policy for Social Welfare in Hong Kong', first tabled in November 1964, continued to draw considerable interest in 1965. The paper had been described by the Colonial Secretary as repre- senting 'an honest, pragmatic attempt to propose a realistic frame- work, within which the government's future resources might be properly and soundly laid out and within which also the voluntary welfare agencies might find some guidance as to the direction in which they might best continue their important efforts without duplication and waste.' The main criticisms levelled at the white paper were that it was an 'apologia for inaction', that it represented a negative approach to one of the Colony's biggest problems, and that nowhere did it touch the heart of the problem. It was also described as 'packed with financial timidity.' However when it was debated in the Legislative Council, members still found much to praise.

      A modified version of the white paper was tabled and the acting Colonial Secretary then stated: 'It has been amended following the receipt of a great deal of comment and advice from charitable organizations, individuals, the press and many others interested in the government's social welfare policy. Not all these bodies are in

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agreement. Indeed some hold diametrically opposing views, but many of them have made constructive suggestions towards the attainment of the common aim of improving the conditions of life of the less fortunate members of the community.'

      Commenting on the criticism that the white paper was 'cold and negative' the acting Colonial Secretary said: 'I should like to stress that the government is most certainly interested in people as people and not only in their economic potential. We thus stress the importance of positive rehabilitation, as opposed to the estab- lishment of soup kitchens.' The amended white paper was adopted, with one member abstaining. Later in the year it was announced that a five-year plan was to be prepared for expanding social welfare services in the Colony. The plan will cover all fields of social welfare work in Hong Kong and will serve as a guide in the allocation of public funds for this purpose.

With more than 900,000 children and adults attending schools of various types, education is a topic in which nearly everyone has a personal interest. It was not surprising, therefore, that a white paper on education policy provoked more discussion than had been heard in Hong Kong for a considerable time. Initial reaction to the white paper was generally favourable but certain parts of it subsequently came under criticism. Its main features were: In primary education the government planned to provide as rapidly as possible a subsidized place for every child of the right age who wanted one; in 1968 a new sixth year of basic education would be introduced into primary schools; there would be no increase in the standard fees for Chinese primary schools, though the government proposed to double the amount of money devoted annually to free places in primary schools and would also increase the amount available for the same purpose in secondary schools; and it was proposed to return from seven to the age of six as the minimum age for admission to Chinese primary schools.

      The white paper recommended increases in fees for certain educa- tional courses, the main increases being $80 a year in government and aided secondary schools, $240 a year in Junior English schools, and $680 a year in English secondary schools. These latter increases were designed to more nearly equate the subsidies received by Chinese and English schools, and most increases are to be carried out by stages. At the same time more liberal capital grants for

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aided secondary schools will enable these schools to bring the total fees charged into line with those applicable in government secondary schools. The higher charges in English schools will mean that recurrent subsidies in schools for Chinese-speaking and English- speaking children will be at the same level. Also included in the white paper were proposals for a revised salary structure for teachers, suited to and applicable throughout a teaching service.

      The plans to make primary education more widely and more readily available met with approval, but there was strong opposition to the increased fees in secondary schools. Some sections of the press construed it as an attempt to make the more wealthy members of the population subsidize education for the less wealthy, although all aided education is in fact and remains-heavily subsidized from public funds. There was also widespread criticism of possible cuts in certain sectors of teachers' salaries and of the government's overall budget for education. The debate on education which took place in the Legislative Council was the first full-scale debate on this topic for many years and members voiced their views at length. Although there was much criticism of individual points, members voted to adopt the white paper after a number of modifications had been made and the government's position on the general question of teachers' salaries had been reserved until further examination and consultation had been carried out.

       At the higher levels of education the year was remarkable for the number of endowments made available from private sources. To commemorate its centenary, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation announced it was presenting endowments to the University of Hong Kong and the Chinese University of Hong Kong to bring each an income of $25,000 a year. This would enable five scholarships of $5,000 each to be held at each university at any one time. The bank stated that the object of the endowments was to attract some of the best students entering the universities into a career in social work, thus stimulating the development of effective social welfare services in Hong Kong.

       Mr Eric Hotung, a Hong Kong businessman, announced that he was setting up a $1 million trust fund to provide scholarships tenable both locally and abroad. He said the fund would be in- creased by an additional $5 million if the results justified it. Known

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as the Eric Hotung Trust, the fund will enable secondary, under- graduate and post-graduate students to take courses in architecture, engineering, medicine, law and economics. In special cases, awards will be made for studies outside these fields. Arrangements will be made for students to combine academic studies with practical training during their vacations. For students who wish to follow a business career instead of going to university, trainee programmes are being set up with banking, insurance, trading and shipping companies both in Hong Kong and abroad. Mr Hotung said the major purpose of the fund was to encourage the development of a managerial class who will contribute to the development of the Colony's economy.

It was also announced that 15 government scholarships and approximately 40 bursaries tenable at the Chinese University of Hong Kong would be awarded during the year to students who had completed six-year courses in Chinese middle schools. The maximum value of each scholarship will be $1,000, with a main- tenance grant up to $2,000. The amount of each bursary will be up to $3,000 a year. All awards will be tenable for a first degree course approved by the Director of Education.

Almost every post-war year in Hong Kong has brought some dramatic event or incident. In 1965 the troubles which affected the Colony's banking system in February and May qualify for this role. Although 1965 was a year in which many countries saw bank failures, the events in Hong Kong were rather more spec- tacular and, at the time, potentially more serious than elsewhere. There had been rumours about the position of two banks for some time. The Ming Tak, a small unincorporated business with deposits of $12 million, had its cheques dishonoured abroad on one or two occasions. The Canton Trust and Commercial Bank Limited, with deposits of $147 million, was known to be involved with some large industrial undertakings which had recently failed and had been engaged in excessively rapid expansion in recent

years.

      Just before Chinese New Year, towards the end of January, the Ming Tak Bank was unable to meet its commitments in the clearing. Next day it closed its doors and requested that the Commissioner of Banking be put in control. This was done. There are normally heavy withdrawals of notes at Chinese New Year for purposes

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connected with this festival and-while the rate of withdrawal from the Canton Trust was abnormally heavy-there was not what could be called a run at that stage and it seemed possible that the bank had weathered the storm. The day after Chinese New Year the Ming Tak was again in the news with a rather dram- atized bankruptcy petition to the courts. The run on the Canton Trust was resumed next day and in few days had grown to serious proportions. Before the run the bank had ample liquid resources by normal standards, and it also received massive support from another bank, but despite this it failed to open its doors on the morning of 8th February and asked that the government should take over its affairs. The Commissioner of Banking assumed control

at once.

In the meantime the events connected with these two banks began to affect public confidence in certain other locally incorporated banks-some small, some of considerable size. After the failure of the Canton Trust to open its doors the movement reached panic proportions in spite of public announcements by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank guaranteeing the banks on which pressure was most serious. With- drawals in cash, particularly by smaller depositors, caused serious depletion of reserve stocks of unissued bank notes, which were in any event at low ebb because of the seasonal demands of Chinese New Year. To meet this situation, the Emergency (Bank Control) Regulations, promulgated on 9th February, made Sterling legal tender in Hong Kong and arrangements were made to purchase £20 million of currency notes from the Bank of England and fly them to the Colony. Under the same regulations it was ordered that cash withdrawals at all banks be limited to $100 a day for each depositor. In a broadcast the Governor, Sir David Trench, said: 'Because so many people have gone to the banks to ask for their money in notes just after Chinese New Year, when a lot of money is always withdrawn anyway, there is some danger we may run out of the actual notes needed. I emphasize again: The general position is that it is not money in its proper sense that may perhaps run short-we have ample financial resources here-but the paper notes which represent money.'

      The first consignment of Sterling notes arrived in the Colony on 11th February. By this time confidence was beginning to revive

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     and Hong Kong notes were being re-deposited in the banks. When it became possible to lift restrictions on withdrawals after they had been in force one week, the banks-including those which had been under pressure-re-opened to normal business. There was no need to issue the Sterling notes (to the regret, no doubt, of monetary historians) and the notes were returned in due course to Britain. After making an assessment of the position the Com- missioner of Banking reported that the strength of the banking system as a whole had been little affected by the runs and that total deposits on 24th February were less than 2 per cent below their level at 1st January. There had, however, been a degree of redistribution of deposits between banks, and the position of banks which had lost deposits became fairly tight. The government there- fore arranged to make substantial liquid funds available to them so that the need to restore their liquidity would not involve any excessively rapid contraction of their advances such as might cause serious dislocation to trade, industry and investment. One other temporary consequence of these events was a certain amount of disruption of the system of credit in use in certain parts of the economy-notably small industry-which depended on the accept- ability of post-dated cheques.

Banking business was slowly but steadily returning to normal when a second shock was received. On 9th April a serious run began on the Hang Seng Bank, the second largest bank incorporated in the Colony. It is possible that the run was sparked off by rumours, possibly malicious, that one of its directors was being questioned by the police. This was wholly untrue and it was officially denied, but the run continued to grow in momentum until on the fourth day it was announced that the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation had acquired a controlling interest in the Hang Seng Bank. This transaction, which despite its size was negotiated to com- pletion in the space of 14 hours, restored confidence immediately.

Examination of the affairs of the two banks whose closure brought this train of consequences showed that the Ming Tak had invested practically all its assets in real estate speculation at peak prices. The Canton Trust had got into trouble by inadequately controlled lending, on little or no security, mostly to small industrial enter- prises and it was officially estimated that 60 per cent of its advances were irrecoverable. Because of the magnitude of the deposits and

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the fact that the majority of the 114,000 depositors were small ones, an advance of $25 million was made from public funds after the courts had put the affairs of the bank into the hands of the Official Receiver. This enabled an immediate dividend of 25 per cent to be paid to depositors and other creditors. In the case of the Ming Tak Bank a similar advance of $10 million was made to reduce the interest charge on existing mortgages and finance the completion of half-built projects.

It was feared in Hong Kong that these events would harm the Colony's reputation overseas as a banking and business centre, but by mid-year it became apparent that no lasting harm had been done. Money was continuing to come in from South-East Asia and from elsewhere. In a sense the Colony had demonstrated its basic financial strength. This was, in fact, never doubted in the main financial centres overseas and one heartening feature was the offers of assistance received from banks abroad-offers which it was never necessary, in the event, to take up.

In Hong Kong itself, recovery both of confidence and from tem- porary dislocations was faster than had at first seemed likely. Deposits soon recovered their previous level and then continued to grow steadily, the percentage increase in the five months July-November being just under 7 per cent. At the same time credit has remained tight, not so much because of an abnormal shortage of funds to lend as because of an unusually high demand. While other economic activities continued to expand, the over-supply of flats built specula- tively for sale resulted in a substantial growth in the demand for finance from real estate developers who had been accustomed to turn over their capital rapidly. Additionally-particularly towards the end of the year-banks were prudently aiming at raising their liquidity, in anticipation of Chinese New Year, to rather higher levels than had been customary in recent years.

      Hong Kong's exports continued to grow at a very satisfactory pace. For the period January to October domestic exports were up by 13.5 per cent over the same period in 1964, and re-exports were up by 9.6 per cent. This was in spite of a substantial fall in exports to the United Kingdom due to the import surcharge imposed there in November 1964.

      The promotion of exports is of vital importance to Hong Kong. Important developments during the year included preliminary work

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in connexion with the establishment of an Export Credit Insurance Corporation, the appointment of a provisional Productivity Council to pave the way for a statutory Productivity Council and produc- tivity centre, and the appointment of a working committee on export promotion. A report on an export credit insurance scheme, made by Mr R. A. Freeman of the British Export Credits Guarantee Department, was tabled in the Legislative Council in May. The report envisaged a statutory autonomous corporation to operate the scheme, whose initial finance would be provided by the govern- ment. This proposal was accepted in principle and during the year recruitment to the Corporation's senior posts and drafting of the necessary legislation went ahead.

Following the recommendation of the working committee on productivity, whose report was tabled in the Legislative Council in November 1964, a 21-member provisional Productivity Council was appointed in March under the chairmanship of the Director of Commerce and Industry. The provisional Council includes representatives of employers' and workers' associations, together with experts from the academic world and the various government departments chiefly interested in productivity. It is envisaged that the provisional Council will be superseded by a statutory Council as soon as the necessary legislation has been passed. During the year the provisional Council was chiefly concerned with the drafting of legislation and with the initial steps needed to establish the productivity centre.

      At about the same time a 12-member working committee on export promotion was appointed, also under the chairmanship of the Director of Commerce and Industry. It includes representatives of those organizations chiefly concerned with the Colony's overseas trade. By its terms of reference the committee was required to review the present organizational structure for trade promotion in Hong Kong, to examine the methods employed by other countries in promoting trade, and to recommend whether a new framework is desirable to provide central direction for Hong Kong's export promotion programme. The committee held meetings throughout the year and its report, which is expected to contain a blueprint for a new export promotion organization, was awaited at the end of the year. In anticipation of the committee's report, a leading

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commercial banker was appointed in November to co-ordinate the Colony's export promotion activities.

      The centenary of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Cor- poration was more than a notable achievement by a powerful financial organization-it was a milestone in Hong Kong's own history. Founded at a time when China and the Far East were embarking on an entirely new way of life and thought, the bank spans an era in which currency has ranged from the silver shoe to the traveller's cheque. On more than one occasion the bank has been the key-stone of financial stability in its original sphere of activities, and so great has its success been that today its interests and financial connexions extend to every part of the world.

At a centenary dinner the Governor described the bank's history as one of service to Hong Kong. He added: 'On behalf of the people of Hong Kong I would like to thank the bank most warmly for all that it has done to ensure the economic growth and pros- perity of the Colony. Few financial institutions, operating by no means under a monopoly but indeed in an always highly competitive atmosphere, can have done so much for the area from which they drew their business. It is an example, if I may say so, of the ideal of responsible business and commercial activity at its best; an example of the proper recognition of the fact that the drawing of commercial profits devolves certain duties on the makers of those profits duties of restraint and respect for the rights and needs of the community at large. All these qualities the bank has certainly manifested throughout its history, a fact which is the basis of the esteem and respect in which it is held by the people of Hong Kong."

Typical of the way in which Hong Kong continues with its current commitments while at the same time casting about for the solution to new problems is the Plover Cove water scheme, where good progress was again made during the year. The scheme is literally changing the landscape of parts of the New Territories. Basically it consists of building a dam to seal off Plover Cove in Tolo Harbour and then pumping out the sea water to form a fresh water reservoir capable of holding 30,000 million gallons. The project involves much more than just the reservoir, for its ancillary works spread for many miles across the New Territories. Early in the year a 'fabridam' installed at Tai Po Tau was inflated for the first time. The 'fabridam' is a neoprene coated nylon tube

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11

     125 feet long attached to a concrete foundation extending across the bed of the Tai Po River between two side walls. It works like a giant tyre, filled half with water and half with air, and can be raised or deflated as conditions demand.

Twenty-two miles of cable were laid to enable four pumping stations at widely scattered points in the New Territories to be operated by remote control from the Sha Tin treatment works. The 'Biarritz', claimed to be the biggest mudgrab in the world, began digging a huge trench on the bed of Plover Cove to make a firm foundation for the dam. A 24-mile tunnel to carry water into the reservoir from Nam Chung and Ha Tsat Muk Kiu was holed through.

After the drought of 1963-4 the subject of water is never absent for very long from most people's minds and there was general satisfaction when it was announced that, in addition to the huge Plover Cove scheme, Hong Kong had begun receiving water from the East River under a new agreement with China. Under the agreement, the Colony will receive 15,000 million gallons annually compared with 5,000 million gallons received under an earlier agreement. Hong Kong will pay for the supply at the rate of $1.06 per 1,000 gallons.

      Two other projects that also will change the landscape in the New Territories were announced during the year. These were plans to establish two new cities at Sha Tin and Castle Peak, each with an ultimate population of one million. It is estimated that the total cost of engineering works for both schemes, if carried out as planned, will be in the order of $1,310 million. In view of this large outlay, the government will commit itself to expenditure only as the actual basic needs arise and each stage of development will be as limited and self-contained as practicable. The schemes involve the develop- ment, including reclamation, of 1,716 acres of land at Sha Tin and 1,041 acres at Castle Peak.

A subject which rightly continues to exercise inquiring minds both within and outside Hong Kong is the drug traffic and it is therefore particularly gratifying to be able to report that the first quarter of 1965 was the most successful period for the Narcotics Bureau since it was formed 10 years ago. More than 2,550 kilogrammes of dan- gerous drugs were seized. The quantity of opium seized during the

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REVIEW

period exceeded the total for any previous year. Officers of the Narcotics Bureau seized more than two tons of raw opium, mor- phine and morphine hydrochloride in a single case in the New Territories. This is believed to be the largest narcotics seizure of its kind in the world. The drugs were discovered in a consignment of bamboo poles which had been brought from Bangkok. In a night operation, Narcotics Bureau officers seized another large quantity of drugs which had been smuggled ashore at a beach on Hong Kong Island. The seizure comprised 525 lbs and 15.7 oz of opium, 6 lbs and 7.8 oz of morphine hydrochloride, and 38 lbs and 9.5 oz of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride. Close co-operation was main- tained between the Narcotics Bureau and the Central Bureau of Narcotics in Bangkok in connexion with these two large seizures. A government officer was appointed to give full-time attention to anti-narcotics work. He holds the post of Assistant Secretary for Chinese Affairs and his duties include those of secretary to the Narcotics Advisory Committee as well as liaison with all govern- ment departments and voluntary organizations to achieve greater co-ordination at all levels.

      As anyone who has recently seen Kowloon from high ground will know, the Colony's building programme to provide homes for its people continues at a faster pace than ever. The vista is one of housing estates and yet more housing estates. The question is, should they any longer be regarded as estates? One which was opened this year will have an ultimate population of 184,000, which is equiva- lent to a large town anywhere and which in many other parts of the world would be regarded as a substantial city. The estate is at Tsz Wan Shan and in opening it the Governor recalled how Hong Kong's resettlement programme began and gave a glimpse of what it is likely to become.

      'Eleven years ago', said Sir David, 'when the first multi-storey resettlement building was built and occupied, resettlement was regarded primarily as a form of emergency housing, to meet a passing need. Since those days it has become clear that the commit- ment is a continuing and, indeed, a growing one. The hundredth resettlement block was completed in November 1959, by which time the estates already held about 300,000 people. Now, there are 373 occupied blocks housing over 700,000 people.' (By the end of the year the population of all resettlement estates was 740,000.)

REVIEW

13

      The Governor continued: 'By 1970 we expect there will be up- wards of two million people living in resettlement accommodation and the experts in figures tell me that by 1974, if the government's 10-year resettlement technical planning target is fulfilled, over half the population of the Colony might be living in resettlement estates. In addition, of course, many tens of thousands of others will be occupying low-cost housing, or living in accommodation provided by the Housing Authority and the Housing Society.

'Since the first multi-storey block was built in 1954, there have been a number of changes in design and layout, each change pro- viding better facilities for the tenants. The first blocks were six storeys in height. We then built seven-storey blocks followed by eight-storey blocks and today we see the completion of the first two 16-storey blocks.'

The Governor stressed that it was not enough merely to provide living accommodation in resettlement estates. Residents also needed easy access to a means of livelihood and a whole range of facilities from hawker bazaars to welfare amenities. He added: 'I would like to pay a tribute to the enormous amount of work done by voluntary agencies in resettlement estates. A proportion of space in each estate has been reserved for allocation to voluntary agencies who, at their own expense, carry out a variety of useful activities. These include schools, libraries, milk bars, kindergartens, nurseries, boys' and girls' clubs, medical and dental clinics, and vocational training centres. Their work in this field fulfils a very definite need and I am glad to have this opportunity of saying what a debt we owe them for this rewarding and practical work.'

Last year's review dealt at length with the many and violent tropical storms experienced in the Colony. By comparison the weather in 1965 rarely deviated from the normal until tropical storm Agnes brought torrential rains to the Colony toward the end of September. Between 6 a.m. on 26th September and 3 p.m. on 28th September, a total of 16.28 inches of rain was recorded at the Royal Observatory. The rain continued almost non-stop and by noon on 1st October a total of 20.94 inches had been recorded. This was the heaviest rainfall due to any storm since 1926 when 23.51 inches were recorded between 16th and 21st July. All reservoirs overflowed and there were a number of landslides, but none caused serious damage. The total rainfall in September was 31.43 inches.

14

REVIEW

This was nearly three times the normal amount for any September and was, in fact, the second highest rainfall on record for this month.

For many years the need for a direct traffic link between Hong Kong Island and the mainland has been argued. The main question was whether to go over or under the harbour-to build a bridge or a tunnel. This question was answered during 1965 when a resolution was introduced into the Legislative Council to approve the grant of an exclusive franchise to the Victoria City Development Company to build a four-lane cross-harbour tunnel between Wan Chai and Hung Hom within five years. The government had announced in 1963 that it was prepared to enter into negotiations with the com- pany for a franchise provided that the company made a decision by 31st March, 1964, to proceed. Before this deadline the company submitted a scheme for a two-lane tunnel but, when this was shown to be inadequate, agreed to a new plan for a four-lane tunnel.

       In moving the resolution the Director of Public Works recalled that the first recorded proposal for a cross-harbour tunnel was made in 1902. In 1961, he said, the Victoria City Development Company had submitted very full reports and traffic analyses and after examining these at great length the government had come to the conclusion that while a bridge was unacceptable there was no objection to a tunnel. At the same time, he said, the question as to whether the scheme should be put to tender or not was considered. For seven years the government offer to consider such schemes had been open and no other scheme had been taken to a stage where there were any sponsors prepared to undertake it. Under these circumstances, with the advice of Executive Council, it had been decided in 1963 that the scheme should not be put to tender but that the government should be prepared to negotiate a franchise with the Victoria City Development Company. He said that the Public Works Department, in collaboration with the Victoria City Development Company and its consultants, had designed a com- prehensive system of high capacity roads incorporating not only connexions to the tunnel but also great increases in the capacities of road links between east and west, north and south, on both Hong Kong Island and the mainland. In a memorandum the Advisory Committee on Public Transport stated that the tunnel 'should bring considerable overall benefits to the Colony's public transport system.' The Legislative Council approved the resolution, with one member

REVIEW

15

abstaining on the grounds that a four-lane tunnel was insufficient and another voting against it on the grounds that the franchise had not been put out to tender. The franchise was subsequently accepted by the Victoria City Development Company.

      With so much happening in the urban areas it is perhaps easy to overlook the rural New Territories. There too, however, many of the old ways are giving place to the new and within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern. Paddy was formerly the most important crop, but with the increased demand for vegetables it has steadily given way to market gardening. The average return from rice cultivation has become lower than that from other types of farming and as a result the area of land under two-crop paddy decreased from 20,191 acres in 1954 to 12,050 acres in 1965. By contrast the total area under market gardens increased from 2,250 acres to over 8,000 acres. The land is intensively cultivated and as many as six to eight crops may be raised in a year. Inter- planting is commonly practised by growing long-term crops together with short-term ones and climbing types with the dwarf varieties. It is estimated that about half of Hong Kong's total vegetable require- ment is supplied from local production.

      This, then, was Hong Kong 1965: A community of nearly four million people drawn from many different parts of the world and social backgrounds, yet all intimately linked with the Colony's problems, its aspirations-and above all its achievements. Those who return to Hong Kong after an absence of two or three years remark with something approaching awe on the changes that they find; those returning after longer periods say they hardly recognize the places they once knew. They are talking, of course, of the out- ward things-the 20-storey hotels and office blocks, the housing estates, the spread of the urban areas into places where there was country quiet until only a few years ago. Casual visitors take away impressions of a maelstrom of energy and activity. They talk, with admiration occasionally tinged with envy, of all that is being achieved in Hong Kong, and in doing so they add a little more stature to the Colony's reputation as a place where all things are possible and, seemingly, no problem insoluble.

Those who stay longer soon begin, like the residents of Hong Kong, to take the outward signs of progress for granted. It is then that they first become aware of the essential element that makes such

16

REVIEW

progress possible-the element of confidence. It is confidence born of earlier successes won when the solution to one problem seemed only to open the door to a host of others. People who have experi- enced such times know, without being told, that nothing can stop them. In Hong Kong this self-confidence is reflected everywhere; in shop windows displaying consumer goods of every kind, in the dress of the people themselves, in the number of private cars on the roads. It enables Hong Kong to overcome with seeming ease problems that would have a far more profound effect on much larger territories.

At the same time there is no complacency. Plenty still remains to be done and the people of Hong Kong at all levels are the first to admit it. Having made this admission, they go about doing it, con- fident that their unique blend of hard work, compromise and alert open-mindedness is the best combination in this place at this time.

1965 IN REVIEW

麻麻

Work went ahead rapidly during the year on the flyover which will connect Nairn Road with Waterloo Road. The flyover, which is 1,681 feet long, will have a three- lane carriageway and will form part of a new road system linking Tsim Sha Tsui with Sha Tin through the Lion Rock Tunnel. It will be for vehicle traffic only.

HỒNG

The Hong Kong-Jesselton section of the SEACOM telephone cable was opened at the City Hall on March 31 by the Governor (sixth from left). British and Commonwealth representatives in the Colony made the first calls on the cable, which carries 80 channels. The cable will be extended to Sydney to join the worldwide network.

પર

How

The Combined Services Parade to mark the birthday of Her Majesty the Queen was held for the first time on Hong Kong Island. Previously the parade had been held in Kowloon but was moved to the So Kon Po Stadium on the island so that more people could see it under better conditions. All the 28,500 seats were filled.

M I

Latest addition to the fire fighting equipment at Kai Tak airport is a Yankee Walter tender (top) which sends out 5,000 gallons of foam a minute. At the Police Training School at Aberdeen (above) the second stage of redevelopment was com- pleted. The Marine Police brought two new 111-ft launches into service (below).

A new landmark is rising on the Kowloon waterfront in the form of an ocean terminal (below) estimated to cost $70 million. It will have berthing space for four ocean- -going liners, a shopping centre and its own car parks for 1,200 vehicles.

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The cycle of demolition and reconstruction is a familiar one in Hong Kong. Blake Pier (left) was demolished in May, after being in use 64 years, and replaced by a new pier. In August, Victoria city looked as shown above-with more changes on the way. The Mandarin Hotel and Prince's Building were joined by a bridge (below).

-

IN BLAKE MER

LILI

LION ROCK TUNNEL

Work went ahead during the year on laying the roadway and building the ceiling inside the Lion Rock Tunnel (above) which will connect Kowloon with the New Territories. Work also went ahead on resettlement projects and as the picture (right) shows, whole areas in Kowloon are now given over to estates-and to more people waiting for homes in yet more estates.

JEBER

門耳

   Over 2,100 delegates from nearly 40 countries came to Hong Kong in September for the 35th annual congress of the American Society of Travel Agents. The congress at- tracted more delegates than any previously held outside the United States and among entertainment staged for them were a Pacific Pageant (above) and a lion dance (below).

i

BRARIES

   After landing at Kai Tak Airport shortly after midnight on September 18, Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra and her husband crossed the harbour accompanied by the Governor, Sir David Trench, and Lady Trench. They are shown here stepping ashore at Queen's Pier. Despite the lateness of the hour, a large crowd waited to see them.

Following a Chinese dinner given at the Country Club by Unofficial Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, the Princess took her husband up to the Peak to show him the lights of Hong Kong- -a sight which impressed her when she last visited the Colony in 1961. The visit was Mr Ogilvy's first to Hong Kong.

   On Sunday, the second day of her visit, the Princess attended a special service at St John's Cathedral to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Battle of Britain. On her departure for Japan the following day, the Princess said: 'We are sorry to leave Hong Kong; we hope one day to come back together for a longer visit.'

2

Employment

     OF slightly more than 14 million people at work in Hong Kong, over 500,000 are engaged in manufacturing industries. This is the conclusion reached from a projection of figures recorded in the 1961 census. At that time, 1,211,999 persons were described as 'economically active' and 1,191,099 claimed to be working; of these, 57,400 were counted as employers and 123,861 were working on their own account.

      The general employment pattern in the 1961 census showed that over half of the working population was engaged in construc- tion, manufacturing, mining, quarrying and the utilities, about 22 per cent in various types of services, 11 per cent in commerce, 7 per cent in communications and 7 per cent in agriculture, forestry and fishing. Based on this pattern the projected employment figures at the end of 1965 were: Manufacturing 607,300; services 339,400; commerce 167,400; construction 127,900; agriculture, forestry and fishing 112,600; communications 111,100; public utilities 24,400; mining and quarrying 10,700. There are also some 21,300 in various other forms of employment, making a total of 1,522,100 employed.

      This projection, although an estimate, gives a broader picture than that available from actual statistics collected by the Labour Department, because these are confined to voluntary returns from factories and undertakings. As such they do not include out-workers, persons employed in cottage industries, the construction industry, agriculture and fishing, or those employed in unrecorded factories and undertakings. Neither do they include persons employed in commerce and the retail and catering trades. The returns show that the number of persons directly employed in the factories and industrial undertakings concerned reached a total of 370,738 in 1965, an increase of 20,564 over 1964. Those engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods accounted for a total of 154,605 and remained the largest section of the labour force. The plastic industry, in which

18

EMPLOYMENT

     a large number of out-workers are known to be employed, continued its expansion as the second largest employer.

      There still remains a shortage of industrial premises in some parts of the Colony although construction of industrial-type buildings -including flatted factory buildings continues, particularly in the San Po Kong, Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan industrial areas. The effect of this shortage is especially felt by small-scale manufacturers needing 5,000 square feet or less. The number of factories on record in the Labour Department at the end of the year was 9,002, many being small concerns. Of these, 5,560 were registered under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance. The tables at Appendix III show development in main industrial groups and selected industries.

Owing to rapid urbanization and development in the New Ter- ritories in recent years, farming and fishing no longer employ the majority of the population there. The 1961 census showed that about 30 per cent of the working population were employed in these industries compared with 30 per cent in manufacturing, 8 per cent in commerce and 20 per cent in the transport and service industries. Since then the proportion employed in agriculture has decreased as a result of changing conditions and the expansion of industry.

Apart from certain traditional trades in the main market towns and some pre-war textile factories in Tsuen Wan, industry in the New Territories is a recent development. In December 1965, the Labour Department had on record 784 factories in the New Ter- ritories with a labour force of 52,658. The bulk of the industrial population in the New Territories is concentrated in the emerging township of Tsuen Wan, which is designed to become a balanced community to include factories, housing, recreational facilities, services and other amenities. It already has many modern textile factories as well as factories producing metal, enamelware and plastics. There is also a government-owned flatted factory designed to meet the special requirements of small-scale silk weavers. Castle Peak, which is further along the coast, has now been selected as the site of another large self-contained city.

Traditional village industries still provide a certain amount of employment in the many old market towns of the New Territories. Examples are the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, bean-curd,

EMPLOYMENT

19

soya sauce and preserved fruits, the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime, brick manufacture, boat-building and repairing.

In the absence of comprehensive statistics, no accurate estimate can be made of unemployment in Hong Kong. At the time of the 1961 census some 16,000 persons between the ages of 15 and 64 described themselves as unemployed and about 5,000 claimed to be seeking their first jobs. On the other hand, surveys conducted by the Labour Department reveal that there are now many vacancies in industry, mostly in the garment, textile and plastics industries.

As many countries maintain strict control over the entry of foreign nationals, the scope for overseas employment of Hong Kong Chinese is limited. Moreover Hong Kong itself has a good labour market and, unless terms for overseas employment are particularly attractive, it is not easy to recruit workers. The prin- cipal sources of overseas employment are Sabah, Brunei and Sarawak, where skilled and semi-skilled workers are in great demand in the construction industry and the oilfields. Another outlet is the Nauru and Ocean Islands for which the British Phosphate Commissioners continue to recruit Hong Kong workers. Singapore continued to attract fishermen in 1965, and a number of enamel workers went to Ceylon and Ghana. Chinese restaurants in Britain and other countries provided employment for waiters and cooks at attractive wages. There are now about 2,000 Chinese restaurants in Britain employing some 30,000 Hong Kong workers, the majority of whom are from the New Territories. Remittances from Britain are now an important factor in the economy of many New Ter- ritories villages. During 1965, for example, postal and money orders to the value of $27,104,646 were cashed at New Territories post offices. In addition, money remitted through banks is likely to total as much again. Towards the end of the year measures to protect the interests of emigrant workers from Hong Kong were introduced by bringing into force the Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance, which had been enacted in the previous February. The new ordinance covers alien labour permit holders (but not British or Commonwealth holders of employment vouchers) going to Britain. During the year 1,416 contracts were approved, compared with 1,768 in 1964. In addition, 323 re-engagement con- tracts were approved.

20

EMPLOYMENT

Under the United Kingdom Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, a Hong Kong-born Chinese or a Commonwealth citizen able to prove British nationality and wishing to go to Britain to work must apply to the Ministry of Labour in Britain for a voucher before entry can be considered. The voucher, if granted, is dis- tributed through the Labour Department which, during 1965, distributed 404 vouchers. A Hong Kong Chinese Liaison Office, established to meet the growing need for assistance felt by Hong Kong workers in Britain, is now located at 58 Pall Mall, London SW1. Its function is to render all possible assistance to Chinese from Hong Kong who are working in Britain with regard to employ- ment, family problems, etc, and to establish contacts with the main centres of employment of Chinese in Britain.

      In August 1964, to meet a shortage of labour in the local market, the Labour Department set up an employment information service. During 1965, 1,168 people made use of the service. Lists of in- dustrial vacancies were also supplied to 17 voluntary agencies and 36 kaifong associations engaged in placement work.

It is reliably estimated that some 35,000 seamen of Chinese race, many of them resident in Hong Kong, find employment at sea in various trades. Many of these are, however, nationals of China. Further progress was made in improving the manner in which seamen are recruited in Hong Kong and by the end of the year arrangements were almost complete for setting up a seamen's recruiting office as part of the Marine Department.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the manufacturing industry are on daily rates of pay, although piece rates are also paid. While men and women receive the same rates of pay for piece work, the latter are generally paid less than men when engaged on a time basis. Wages may be calculated on an hourly, daily or monthly basis and are customarily paid weekly or twice monthly. During the year nearly all the public utility companies were presented with demands for wage increases by their workers either through the trade unions concerned or through the medium of ad hoc 'committees' set up by the unions. Most of these demands were settled by direct negotiation. Generally, an increase of approx- imately $30 a month in basic pay was granted, taking effect from

EMPLOYMENT

21

varying agreed dates. In some cases the wage increases were covered by written collective agreements.

      The range of daily wages for the manufacturing industry at the end of 1965 was: $9.00 to $27.00 for skilled workers; $5.50 to $20.00 for semi-skilled; and $4.40 to $11.00 for unskilled. Many employers provide their workers with free accommodation, sub- sidized meals or food allowances, good attendance bonuses and paid rest days as well as a Chinese New Year bonus of one month's

pay.

The wages of some lower paid government staff are related to a retail price index by means of a cost of living allowance based upon it. The index is calculated on the basis of a survey carried out in 1948. A base of 100 fixed for March 1947 is used, and the index normally shows month by month fluctuations reflecting, for example, the rise in commodity prices before Chinese New Year. During 1965 the index fluctuated between 125 and 132 with an average of 128. A new consumer price index was published, based on a household expenditure survey conducted by the Commerce and Industry Department. It will in due course replace the retail price index as an indicator of the effects of price changes on house- hold expenditure.

In June, a Salaries Commission appointed at the beginning of the year to consider the general level of salaries of the main groups of employees in the public service recommended an award of 121⁄2 per cent increase in substantive salary for the period 1st July 1963, to 31st August 1964, to replace an interim non-pensionable allowance and children's allowance granted in 1964. This award did not apply to minor staff whose wages and salaries had been treated separately. The recommendation was later accepted by the government. In the same month, the armed services and the Ministry of Public Building and Works granted their industrial employees a wage increase aimed at bringing wage levels broadly into line with minor staff wage levels in the government service following increases granted to such staff in December 1964. The Salaries Commission's final report was published on 29th September. This report recom- mended continuance of the 124 per cent award from 1st September 1964 to 31st March 1965, and thereafter, generally and with certain exceptions, a further increase of approximately 34 per cent. On 22nd December it was announced that the government had decided to

22

EMPLOYMENT

     make certain limited payments before Chinese New Year, 1966. These would be of two kinds. Labourers, semi-skilled labourers and artisans would receive advances of $25 a month for male staff and $15 a month for female staff, for each month of service between 1st April and 31st December 1965. These amounts would be con- tinued on in monthly paysheets until final decisions were taken on the Commission's recommendations. The rest of the service would receive a payment which was a continuation for a further seven months, up to the end of March 1965, of the award of the Com- mission's interim report. This was the 12 per cent increase over the levels set by the 1959 Salaries Commission. It was stated that no decision had been taken with regard to the levels of salaries and wages for the whole service recommended by the Commission to be effective from 1st April 1965.

      The Factory and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance is the basis for the control of hours and conditions of work in industry. There are no legal restrictions on hours of work for men, most of whom in industry work 10 hours a day or less. Government employees and those in concerns operating on Western lines work eight hours. Regulations made under the ordinance provide for maximum daily hours, limited overtime, weekly rest days and rest periods for women and young persons. The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance provides for six annual holidays to be given to workers in industrial establishments, and for sickness allowance up to 12 days a year.

      Young persons between the ages of 14 and 16 may work only eight hours a day, with a break of one hour after five hours con- tinuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground. Restrictions on the hours of work for women, introduced on 1st January 1959, have resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men employed in the same concerns. By the end of 1965, 138 cotton spinning and silk weaving mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts, cotton weaving mills were on either two or three shifts, and it was estimated that 30,832 men and 30,175 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry, but when working hours exceed eight a day, the rest period may be prolonged to as much as three

EMPLOYMENT

2333

hours. Except where continuous production demands a rotation of rest days, which are usually unpaid, Sunday is the most common rest day. Many male industrial workers do not have a rest day but it is customary to grant unpaid leave on request.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

An important development during the year was the establish- ment of an Industrial Training Advisory Committee to replace the Standing Committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training and to advise on operative (including apprenticeship) and technician training in industry. The Industrial Training Advisory Committee, which is under the chairmanship of the Commissioner of Labour, consists of eight official and 13 unofficial members. The unofficials are drawn equally from industrial and workers' organiza- tions (four each), together with a further five from institutions and societies which have a particular interest in industrial training. The committee, which met twice during 1965, concerns itself chiefly with co-ordination and advice on policy on all matters related to industrial training. It operates through a series of associated com- mittees established for particular industries or functions. By the end of the year the committee had decided, as a first step, to recommend the setting up of separate industrial committees to examine in detail all aspects of industrial training affecting six of Hong Kong's main industries. The government has accepted the principle that, with the advice of the Industrial Training Advisory Committee, the Labour Department should assume responsibility for promoting the training of operatives while the Education Department will retain respon- sibility for technician training. This, coupled with the rapid expan- sion and growth of industry, has made reorganization of the Labour Department necessary. Plans for reorganization and expansion were formulated and, in part, put into effect during the year.

The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Governor on labour and industrial relations policies. All labour legislation is initiated in the Labour Department, which also ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under International Labour Con- ventions are observed. The reorganization of the department provides for four divisions: Labour Relations and Development; Industry; Employment; Industrial Health.

24

EMPLOYMENT

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

With the exception of a small neutral and independent segment, workers' unions are either affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which bear allegiance to opposing political groups and which are registered as societies. Divided politically, and further separated by differences in dialect, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs, and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organizations.

The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 63 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills and public utilities, or are seafarers. A further 28 unions, nominally independent, are friendly with the federation and participate in its activities.

The other trade union federation, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathizes with the policies of the Taiwan authorities. Most of the members of its 61 affiliated unions and of the 36 nominally independent unions, which generally support the TUC, are employed in the catering and building trades. The TUC is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

      There are 51 independent unions, a number of which continued to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members.

      The Labour Department organized two courses of instruction for trade union members--one in trade union administration and one in trade union accounting. Ten trade union officials were issued with certificates on completion of the accounting course. Four local trade union officials attended the 12th Asian labour leadership institute held at the Asian Labour Education Centre of the University of the Philippines. Another trade union official and an officer of the Labour Department attended the Asian regional seminar sponsored by the International Labour Organization. One officer from the Labour Department attended an industrial relations course at the Ministry of Labour in London and another completed a similar course at the Labour College of Canada.

Taking disputes over wage demands into account, the conciliation section of the Labour Department dealt with 2,067 disputes, of

EMPLOYMENT

25

which 305 involved large wage claims. This compared with 222 in the previous year. There were a further 1,762 minor disputes compared with 1,639 in the previous year. Altogether there were seven strikes and one lockout, and the number of man-days lost in all disputes was 62,249 which represents a slight increase over 1964. The Registry of Trade Unions administers the Trade Union Registration Ordinance 1961, which came into operation on 1st April 1962, replacing earlier legislation. Matters relating to voluntary arbitration are covered by the Trade Disputes Ordinance. The Registrar deals with applications for registration by new trade unions and trade union federations, as well as any alterations to rules, changes of name, amalgamations or dissolutions of unions. The Registrar also has power to cancel the registration of a union in certain circumstances.

The 309 unions on the register at the end of 1965 consisted of 239 workers' unions with a total declared membership of 150,246, 54 organizations of merchants or employers with a declared member- ship of 6,471 and 16 mixed organizations with a total declared membership of 9,371.

LEGISLATION

The Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance No 8 of 1965, which was passed by the Legislative Council on 10th February 1965, seeks to give legislative effect to Hong Kong's obligations under certain International Labour Conventions concerning the recruitment of indigenous workers. It applies to contracts of em- ployment of manual workers (including personal and domestic servants) which, although entered into in Hong Kong, are to be performed, wholly or in part, outside the Colony. Subject to certain exceptions, all such contracts are required to be in writing and attested by the Commissioner of Labour.

The Employers and Servants (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 which came into effect on 12th March 1965, is designed to give legislative effect to Hong Kong's obligations under the Contracts of Employ- ment (Indigenous Workers) Convention by prohibiting contracts of service for a period of six months or more in the case of workers whose wages do not exceed $700 a month. The Employment of Young Persons and Children at Sea Ordinance, Chapter 58 (originally No 13 of 1932) was amended to bring the law into compliance with

26

EMPLOYMENT

the provisions of International Labour Convention No 7 which aims at preventing the exploitation of children at sea. In February, the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance 1965, and the Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Amendment) Ordinance 1965, were passed.

The Radiation (Control of Radioactive Substances) Regulations and the Radiation (Control of Irradiating Apparatus) Regulations became law on 1st July and effective from 1st October. Consequent upon the enactment of the Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance 1964, the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Notifica- tion of Occupational Diseases) Regulations 1965, and the Work- men's Compensation (Amendment) Regulations 1965, were made. The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance 1965, came into effect on 1st May 1965. It raises the maximum compensa- tion payable under the existing ordinance for death from $10,000 to $18,000, and for total incapacity from $14,000 to $24,000.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

       It is the chief function of the Industrial Health Division of the Labour Department to safeguard the health of workers in industry. Hazards to the health of workers are reported either by the factory inspectorate, by officers of the division or by statutory notifica- tion of occupational diseases. Control of working environment is achieved by environmental or biological monitoring and the estab- lishment of an industrial hygiene laboratory has greatly assisted this work. Environmental monitoring has included estimation of lead, sulphur dioxide, benzene, toluene, hydrogen sulphide and dust in the working atmosphere. Biological monitoring aims at finding out whether the health of specific groups of workers is endangered.

      A health visitor advises factory management and nurses on occupational hazards, and also keeps a close watch on cleanliness, sanitary and washing facilities, and general standards of hygiene in workplaces. Three other health visitors are engaged in case work on persons injured by occupational accidents. The medical centre of the Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation at Kwun Tong continues its important work in the treatment, training and place- ment of injured workers. In conjunction with the St John Ambulance

EMPLOYMENT

27

Association, first-aid classes were organized for industrial workers. The classes were begun in 1956 and since then 1,065 workers have obtained first-aid certificates. The need for first-aid rooms and clinics is now well recognized and an increasing number of firms are providing them.

3

Financial Structure

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies is still required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

      Hong Kong is financially self-supporting apart from the cost of its external defence. To this, also, it makes a substantial con- tribution. Since 1958 the Colony's contribution to defence expendi- ture has been £1 million year; in 1964 it was announced that an additional £6 million would be made available over the years up to 1970 as a contribution to the costs of army and air force building programmes in Hong Kong. Revenue from local sources meets the cost of all the Colony's works and services. The Legislative Council is the sole taxing and spending authority. Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies similar to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of the Colony excluding 'below the line' operations covering various funds.

       A small deficit was returned in the first financial year after the war. Since then, with the exception of 1959-60 when there was a deficit of some $45 million, substantial surpluses have been accumulated. Comparative figures for the past four years are shown in Appendix IX. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying economic conditions which the Colony has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement, particularly since it has taken place after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. In 1964-5 capital expenditure totalled nearly $547 million.

A vocational centre designed to train 1,000 students a year was opened at Kwun Tong in May by the Lutheran World Federation. Built with overseas and local contributions, and erected on land given by the Hong Kong Government, the centre offers courses designed to lead to employment and economic self-sufficiency.

12

OR

w

Most courses last a year and all are conducted in Can- tonese. Subjects taught include mechanical engineering (above), cooking (left), typing and book-keeping (below left) and building (below). Shorter courses are also run to train employees for the textile and garment industries.

ES

1:

Now that tourism is one of the leading industries in Hong Kong, the hotel and catering industries are constantly in need of trained staff. The centre includes a fully-furnished hotel bedroom (above) and a rooftop restaurant (below) for training. The centre advises trainees on their courses and later finds jobs for them.

LIC LIBR

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

29

The principal reason for these results, which appear so favourable, is that during the past 14 years exceptionally rapid increases in population have generated internal economic activity which has raised the yield of taxation and other sources of revenue sub- stantially although there has been no appreciable increase in their rates. Annual revenue expanded in those 14 years from $291.7 million to $1,518.3 million. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend was continuous. In expenditure there was inevitably a time-lag before the government could develop the public and social services necessary for the increased population. However, as these services were developed-and the rate of their development has gradually accelerated-the margin between re- current expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 50 per cent of the recurrent revenue, but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent with the consequence that in that year the surplus of revenue over expenditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure. An overall deficit of $45.3 million thus occurred. Subsequent budgets anticipated further and substantial deficits but statistics now available for the years 1960-1 to 1964-5 suggest that the economic strength and resilience of the Colony was under- estimated. At any rate during these years an upsurge in recurrent revenue, arising mainly from the very active trading conditions prevailing in the Colony, changed the anticipated financial picture. Recurrent expenditure continued at approximately the levels expected but absorbed a progressively smaller proportion of the recurrent revenue until by 1963-4 the proportion was down to 65 per cent. A reverse in this trend which occurred in 1964-5 raised the proportion to 67 per cent and this increase is likely to persist in the current year due to slightly less active trading conditions. At the same time capital expenditure, though rising substantially, was lower than originally forecast while capital revenue showed a marked increase up to 1963-4 due mainly to land sales. A setback, thought to be temporary, has since occurred in land sales revenue.

From the comparative statement in Appendix IX it will be seen that a deficit of $60 million is estimated for 1965-6. This indicates that it is anticipated that revenue will not be able to finance all the capital expenditure arising from the government's very heavy

30

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

programme of non-recurrent public works, which are mainly for more schools, medical facilities, housing, water supplies, roads and land development schemes. Again for 1965-6 the basis on which the deficit was estimated may prove to be pessimistic, but counter-balancing this are certain abnormal items of expenditure which were not anticipated (in particular more than $30 million which was advanced to the Official Receiver to assist in the liquida- tion of the banks which went into receivership after the banking crisis early in the year). It follows that the possibility exists that money will have to be raised in succeeding years by loans and additional taxation if essential capital development is not to be curbed.

       Revenue and expenditure for the last two years, with the estimates for this financial year, are detailed and compared in Appendices VI and VII. In 1964-5 the revenue of $1,518 million was $136 million more than the original estimate. The head showing the largest excess was internal revenue with $68 million (including $41 million on earnings and profits tax and $13 million on stamp duties). All the other recurrent heads recorded excesses but these were partly offset by a shortfall in land sales of $21 million. Expendi- ture for the year was $1,440 million against the estimate of $1,496 million, showing a saving of $56 million. The largest saving was $72 million under public works non-recurrent and the largest excess $12 million under education subventions. The estimates for this financial year anticipate significant increases over the 1964-5 results in revenue under water revenue (due mainly to an increase in the basic charge to equate charges more nearly to costs) and also under land sales. Present indications are, however, that revenue from land sales will not reach the 1964-5 total.

       At 31st March 1965 net available public assets were $961 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization Fund as a reserve against future deficits on current account. There was, in addition, a Development Loan Fund of $519 million, used to finance social and economic development projects of a self- liquidating nature (see Appendix XIII). The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes. At 31st March 1965 outstanding commitments from funds allocated exceeded liquid assets of $51 million by $178 million. According to normal government practice the statement of assets and liabilities excludes the public debt of

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

31

the Colony from the liabilities. The debt at 31st March 1965 was equivalent to approximately $22 per head of population. Indebted- ness decreased by $3.8 million during the year owing mainly to the repayment of $3.2 million of the United Kingdom's interest- free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport. This loan is repayable in 15 annual instalments; the first repayment was made on 1st October 1961. The Dollar Loan balance, which stood at $472,000 on 31st March 1965, was redeemed in July 1965. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $24 million on 31st March 1965. Details of Public Debt and Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are shown in Appendices X and XI.

EXCISE DUTIES

      There is no general tariff and only five groups of imported com- modities, namely alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol, are subject to import duty. Excise duties are levied on the same products when manufactured locally. All firms engaged in the import, export, manufacture, or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed.

The rates of duty are, in general, low. A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Commonwealth origin is at present levied at between 66 per cent and 89 per cent of the rate for non-Commonwealth liquor; locally-produced beer enjoys a further preferential margin over Commonwealth beer. Duty on all types of liquor ranges from $1.60 per gallon on locally brewed beer to $73 a gallon for liquors and spirits of non-Commonwealth origin.

      The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $2.50 a pound for Chinese prepared tobacco to $9.25 a pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted for unmanu- factured tobacco of Commonwealth origin and to cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth origin or manufacture.

The duties on motor spirits and other light or heavy oils are $1.50 and 10 cents a gallon respectively. The general rate of duty on diesel oils for road vehicles is $1 per gallon, although public omnibus operators and marine and industrial users pay much

32

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

reduced rates. The rates of duty on table waters and methyl alcohol are 48 cents and $7.50 per gallon respectively.

RATES

Rates are levied on the basis of the annual letting value of land or a building held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and part of the New Territories. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In the New Territories the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up-to-date. Revenue from rates has about doubled over the last five years. The estimate for 1965-6 is $192,800,000.

There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, chari- table and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments receive back the amount of rates paid in the form either of direct subventions or contributions toward rates.

INTERNAL REVENUE

      Income was first subjected to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 as a temporary war-time measure and no attempt was made to collect tax after the liberation of the Colony, although the ordin- ance was not repealed until 1947. However, a new source of revenue was by then essential and it was decided to impose a direct tax on earnings and profits as a permanent measure. Under the Inland Revenue Ordinance 1950, tax is charged only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside the Colony whether remitted here or not. The ordinance aims at simplicity and to this end charges tax generally at source and at a flat rate rather than in the hands of the eventual recipient on a sliding scale. Thus there is no need to ascertain the total income of each individual.

      Income and profits are grouped in four categories, each of which is subject to a separate tax, namely, Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. A fifth and aggregate tax known

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

33

as Personal Assessment is chargeable upon persons who so elect. In that case the individual's income otherwise chargeable to the four separate taxes is aggregated in a single sum which is reduced by personal allowances and charged on a sliding scale. The privilege of election is not available to non-residents.

The standard rate of tax has stood at 12 per cent since 1950. Business profits, interest received from loans and the interest element of purchased annuities are charged to tax at the full standard rate. However, where the profits of a non-corporate business are below $7,000 for any year, no tax is charged and tax chargeable on such business is restricted to one-half of the amount by which the profits exceed $7,000. Property tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building in the Colony with the exception of those situated in the New Territories and those wholly occupied by the owner as his residence. The standard rate is charged except for rent-controlled properties, on which it is charged at one-half the standard rate. Salaries Tax is charged on the total income from employment reduced by allowances which are at present: for the taxpayer, $7,000; for his wife, $7,000; for each of the first two children, $2,000; for each of the third to sixth children, $1,000; for each of the seventh to ninth, $500. This makes a maximum allowance for children of $9,500. Premiums paid for life insurance are allowed to an amount not exceeding one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. Tax is charged on a scale which begins at 24 per cent (one-fifth of the standard rate) on the first $5,000 of the net income and rises by 24 per cent on each subsequent $5,000 until, at $45,000, the maximum of 25 per cent (or twice the standard rate) is reached. The total Salaries Tax payable by any individual is restricted to an amount not exceeding the standard rate on his gross salary.

It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1965-6 will be $338 million.

Estate Duty generally follows the lines of the British tax of the same name. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong. The rates of duty range from 3 per cent on estates valued between $100,000 and $200,000 to 40 per cent on estates over $15 million. Yield for the year ending 31st March 1966 is estimated at $25 million.

34

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

Stamp Duty is modelled on the British pattern and fixed duties are charged on various documents. The lowest is 15 cents on bills - of lading and receipts, and the highest $20 on deeds. Ad valorem duty on various other documents ranges from 15 cents on $500 to $2 on $100. A special duty at the rate of 3 per cent is payable on the first conveyance of any parcel of land after September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty during the current financial year is $70 million.

Substantial revenue accrues from Entertainments, Dance Halls, Bets and Sweeps Taxes, and it is estimated they will yield $57.5 million during the current year. Entertainment Tax is charged on the price of admission to places of entertainment, the rate varying with the amount charged but averaging about 22 per cent. Certain types of entertainment given for charitable or educational purposes are taxed at a lower rate or may be exempt. Public Dance Halls Tax is a levy of 10 per cent on all dance halls charges. Bets and Sweeps Tax imposes 7 per cent on totalizator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

Every business carried on in the Colony, except one which is not carried on for the purpose of gain or one which is carried on by a charitable institution, must be registered and pay annually a registration fee of $25. Where the business is very small the Commissioner may exempt it from the fee. These fees are expected to yield approximately $2 million.

CURRENCY

When Hong Kong was founded in 1841, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade through- out the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar. By a proclamation of 1842, Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be legal tender in the Colony although government accounts were kept in Sterling until 1862. There were several un- successful attempts to change the monetary basis from silver to gold.

      A mint was set up in 1866 and produced a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar, but the new coin was unpopular and the mint closed down two years later. The machinery was later sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

35

An Order of the Queen in Council, dated 2nd February 1895, authorized the minting in India of a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar. In Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar although the latter still remained both legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The Sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

       In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first bank notes in the Colony, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation followed suit. Although not legal tender, these notes increasingly became the customary means of payment because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver. By 1890 they had become established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks-the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (now the Chartered Bank). By then the Oriental Bank had closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India had been reorganized. In 1911 this reorganized Mercantile Bank of India (now the Mercantile Bank Limited) was added to the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

      The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. The Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues in exchange for certificates of indebtedness. The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued and redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in Sterling and operates in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

36

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

At the same time the government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960, because of the heavy expense of keeping clean notes in circulation, a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a British florin was re-introduced. Stocks are sufficient to replace all notes issued but, although banks have been asked to withdraw all notes received in the course of business, many still remain unredeemed although few appear to be in active circulation. The dollar notes and coins are backed by security funds which maintain their assets partly in Sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents, and notes of the value of 1 cent.

      Under Regulation 7 of the Emergency (Bank Control) Regulations 1965, made on 9th February, Sterling was declared legal tender in the Colony, to any amount, at the rate of HK$16=£1. This regulation was made following a shortage of bank notes, which arose from runs on various banks early in February. It was sub- sequently revoked on 8th June.

Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately 1s 3d Sterling. Banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

      The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December 1965 was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins and notes

$ 1,628,780,555

$

15,698,487

$

45,176,972

$

50,162,042

The Colony has been a part of the Sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modi- fications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

In January, prior to the festival of Chinese New Year when it is customary for Chinese people in Hong Kong to make an

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

37

      annual settlement of debts, one of the small Chinese banks closed its doors owing to heavy withdrawals. This failure started a run on other Hong Kong Chinese banks. A second failure of a much larger bank occurred immediately after Chinese New Year, followed a few weeks later by the take-over-with government financial support of one of the largest local Chinese banks by a leading bank. The withdrawals due to Chinese New Year and the run on the Chinese banks caused a shortage of notes within the Colony and the government imposed a temporary limit of $100 a day on withdrawals of cash from personal accounts. The Bank of England made available Sterling notes to the extent of £20 million ($320 million) which were declared legal tender in the Colony but which it was not necessary to issue. The government subsequently provided considerable financial support, through the media of the two banks which act as its bankers, to those banks adversely affected by the run.

      The Banking Ordinance 1964, which was enacted on 1st December 1964, provides that banking business shall be transacted in the Colony only by a company licensed for that purpose. Each bank is required to have a minimum paid-up capital of $5 million, or the equivalent in foreign currency, and to build up published reserves of an amount equal to its paid-up capital. Each bank must also maintain a minimum level of specified liquid assets and there are certain restrictions on the classes of other assets it may hold. Provisions are included for the annual auditing of banks' accounts and the publication of certain information. Monthly returns are required from all banks. The Banking Ordinance makes provision for interim periods within which banks are to bring their affairs into line with the ordinance. The liquidity requirements thus came into operation on 1st June 1965, but some of the other requirements do not come into full effect until 1st December 1966. Monthly returns were submitted by all banks during the year.

      At the end of 1965 there were 74 incorporated banks in the Colony, of which 34 were incorporated in Hong Kong. A total of 301 banking offices were maintained. A total of 51 banks were authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Many of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are able to offer a very comprehensive service. Monthly clearings during

38

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE

the year averaged $3,717,042,880. The table at Appendix XIV illustrates the expansion of banking activities over the last 11 years. Total deposits were $7,251 million at 31st December 1965, and at the same date loans and advances to commerce and industry amounted to $5,038 million.

4

Industry and Trade

HONG KONG is now established as an industrial territory with an economy based on exports rather than on the domestic market. At the same time it remains basically a free port. The change from entrepôt status has taken place over the past 16 years, but industry is not, of course, entirely new to Hong Kong. By the turn of the century, as a natural extension of port activities, shipbuilding and shipbreaking industries had developed in Hong Kong. Some light industries were established before 1939. But industrial develop- ment on a significant scale did not take place until political changes in China, followed by the Korean war and consequent trade re- strictions, signalled the end of the entrepôt trade as a basis for the economy. The simultaneous arrival of refugees from the mainland brought in additional manpower and in some cases technical knowl- edge and capital. As a result, while the entrepôt trade declined there was an increase in the manufacture and export of cotton textiles- a development which proved to be the foundation for subsequent light industrial expansion.

United States regulations prohibiting the purchase of Chinese manufactured goods provided another stimulus to the manufacture of Chinese-type products in Hong Kong for the American market. Procedures designed by the Commerce and Industry Department, in association with the United States authorities, were introduced to prevent the substitution of Chinese goods. This drew the attention of manufacturers and exporters to the potentialities of the American market in those sectors not covered by the Foreign Assets Regula- tions, and within the scope of the Regulations to develop the market there for goods such as cotton clothing-never previously exported by China and which Hong Kong manufacturers and exporters might not otherwise have made efforts to develop.

Hong Kong's industrial economy derives therefore from various circumstances, few of which originally appeared favourable. But

40

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

with these circumstances-all of them outside Hong Kong's control, some of them fortuitous-must also be considered the political stability of the territory and its official policy of encouraging enter- prise. There has been a steadfast policy in Hong Kong of refusing to surrender to occasional protectionist pressure, or to demands for subsidies to industry, or to demands for retaliation against other countries' restrictive actions. Widespread skill in merchandising techniques inherited from the entrepôt era, plus highly developed banking, insurance and shipping systems have made this policy practicable and successful. For Hong Kong the only industries worth having are those whose products can be sold in the domestic market without protection, or which can be exported without subsidy. Hong Kong has therefore remained true to the traditions established when it was an entrepôt, with no tariffs and few restric- tions on the entry of goods from any quarter of the globe.

In matters affecting internal and external trade, the Director of Commerce and Industry is assisted by advice from the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. This is a body of unofficial senior repre- sentatives of commerce, industry, banking, etc nominated by the Governor, of which the director is chairman. It meets regularly once a month and on occasions more frequently. A more specialized board, the Cotton Advisory Board, first appointed in 1961, is consulted on matters affecting the cotton textile industry.

INDUSTRY

       The general facility with which industry may be established and conducted in Hong Kong has attracted investors. Most industrialists are Hong Kong residents of Chinese race, and the greater part of their capital resources are self-generated. In recent years, however, overseas interests-in particular American, Australian, British and Japanese have to an increasing extent entered into licensing arran- gements with Hong Kong firms and into other forms of industrial co-operation. The variety of goods produced in Hong Kong is now considerable. In general, while heavy industry such as shipbuilding and shipbreaking continues to be important, Hong Kong has become best known for the competitive price and range of its light industrial products and their rapidly improving quality.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND PRODUCTIVITY

41

The rapid expansion of industry in Hong Kong has created a demand for trained personnel at all levels. At managerial level the Hong Kong Management Association provides courses to suit the particular circumstances of Hong Kong covering general, office, personnel, financial, production and marketing management. The Technical College includes management studies in both full-time and part-time diploma courses in management subjects and work study, and offers courses in plant layout, materials handling, production planning and control, quality control, work study, preventive main- tenance and allied subjects for those engaged in production work. Courses are also offered for the training of industrial supervisors and estate managers, especially for building supervisors and building caretakers.

       Measures have also been taken to meet the pressing demand for skilled supervisors, artisans and operatives. They include the appointment of an industrial training advisory committee to assess and review the need for skilled craftsmen, production workers and technicians. To encourage the development of facilities for operative training within particular industries, the government is also prepared to make land available free of premium for suitable non-profit- making projects.

The introduction of new methods through industrial training programmes for both management and labour is to be co-ordinated and expanded by the establishment of a productivity centre under the direction of a Productivity Council. A provisional Productivity Council is already in being and includes representatives of official, management, labour, academic and professional interests, with an official chairman. The government has accepted, in principle, re- sponsibility for the provision of approximately $12.5 million to cover the first five years' expenditure. The centre, when fully developed, will provide training for specialists, managers and supervisors, a managerial consultancy service, technical assistance and a specialist library, and will facilitate liaison between local and overseas organi- zations.

Hong Kong is one of the 11 member countries of the Asian Productivity Organization, whose object is co-operation among Asian countries to raise productivity. Hong Kong was represented

42

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     at the Workshop Meeting of directors in Tokyo in March 1965 and again at the 6th Governing Body Meeting of the Asian Productivity Organization in New Delhi in December 1965. As in previous years a number of Hong Kong nominees have attended courses of different kinds in various Asian countries (mainly in Japan) and three seminars sponsored by the Asian Productivity Organization have been held in Hong Kong under the aegis of the Hong Kong Government and the Hong Kong Management Association.

TEXTILES

      The textile industry not only dominates Hong Kong's economy, accounting for 52 per cent of its domestic exports and employing 43 per cent of its industrial labour force, but is also a significant factor in international trade in textiles (see International Economic Rela- tions, below). In all sectors, the manufacture and processing of cotton goods predominate. The cotton spinning mills, operating some 728,000 spindles, are among the most up-to-date in the world. Cotton yarn counts range from 10's to 60's carded and combed, in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1965 was estimated at approximately 280 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weavers. In the piece- goods weaving section, which has 22,000 looms, grey cotton drill, canvas, shirting, poplins, ginghams and other bleached and dyed cloth and prints are the main items. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1965 was estimated to be approximately 600 million square yards. Much of this was exported as cloth, but there is an increasing tend- ency for garment manufacturers to use domestic materials.

The use of fibres other than cotton and new processes in the finishing and garment industries are assuming growing significance. Three leading textile concerns are producing polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose yarn for weaving into shirting and other fabrics for which there is now a more rapid growth in demand than for comparable cotton products. There was further development of the woollen and worsted spinning industry. Its production goes mostly to the domestic knitting industry, although some is woven into cloth. Other woven products include silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, tapes, military webbing, lace, mosquito netting, carpets and rugs. The dyeing, printing and finishing industry has concentrated on such developments as multi-colour screen and

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

43

roll printing, pre-shrinking by several processes under licence, and polymerizing for the production of drip-dry fabrics. Increasing attention is also being given to finishing of synthetic materials and a major new finishing plant specializing in the finishing of synthetic fabrics was opened at Kwai Chung in November 1965.

      The manufacture of garments remains the largest sector within the industry, employing 72,000 workers. A wide range and variety of clothing, from high fashion dresses to cotton singlets, is produced for export all over the world. Embroidered blouses, beaded or sequinned woollen cardigans, silk and brocade, and evening coats have worldwide popularity. Custom and mail order tailoring, princi- pally of men's suits, has rapidly developed in recent years into an important branch of industry. Knitting mills produce towels, tee- shirts, underwear and nightwear, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool and other fabrics. Production and export of knitted woollen and acrylic knitwear, especially for women, has shown phenomenal growth in recent years. From a total of $862 million in 1961, the value of exports of clothing has risen to $1,760 million in 1965, produced by some 1,100 factories.

OTHER LIGHT INDUSTRIES

In the ever-widening range of light industry the most prominent, after textiles, is the manufacture of plastic articles. Skill in the cutting of moulds and dies, together with the ability to meet short orders, have resulted in increased exports of a very wide variety of products. These include artificial flowers, toys and dolls, household ware, household furniture of polypropylene, and PVC sheeting and coated fabrics. The industry manufactured exports worth some $700 million during the year.

      There has been spectacular growth in the electronics industry. The manufacture or assembly of transistor radios began only in 1959, but since then exports of transistor radios have increased to reach a total of 5.7 million sets worth $118 million in 1965. The industry exports to 64 countries, but its principal markets are the United Kingdom and the United States. The manufacture of elec- tronic component parts has also made rapid progress. Silicon transistors and diodes, condensers and capacitors, transformers and resistors are now produced and exported. Other electronic products

44

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

include television sets and tuners, transceivers and computer memory

cores.

      While the plastics and electronics industries illustrate some of the factors behind Hong Kong's striking industrial development, light industries of many varieties have continued to make steady progress. They include the manufacture of air-conditioners, aluminiumware, clocks and watches, cordage, electrical appliances and equipment, enamelware, food and beverages, footwear, light metal products, optical equipment, paint, vacuum flasks, and furniture and furni- shings.

HEAVY INDUSTRIES

      Hong Kong shipyards are equipped to build ocean-going vessels of over 10,000 tons deadweight and also to construct and instal their engines. At the other end of the scale, pleasure-craft and utility vessels of all kinds including ocean-going yachts, vehicle and pas- senger ferries, sloops, cruisers, speedboats of wood and fibre glass, yawls and steel lighters are regularly produced for local use and for export. The traditional Chinese junk, slightly modified from the basic design used for many centuries, has also been exported as a comfortable and stable pleasure-craft.

Hong Kong has been among the world's leading shipbreaking centres for a number of years, although activity in the industry in recent years has not completely recovered from the 1962 depression. Much of the scrap obtained from shipbreaking operations is used in steel rolling mills which produce mild steel bars, window sections, angles and channels and other metal products used in building construction. The mills supply a large part of the requirements for the building industry, and in addition considerable quantities of rods and bars are shipped abroad, principally to South-East Asian countries. Several rolling mills produce brass and aluminium sheets and circles, most of which are used for the manufacture of consumer goods. The growth of the steel rolling industry highlights an im- portant feature of the present state of development of heavy industry. Hong Kong's separation from its principal markets is among the factors which have produced a concentration of resources on light industry, while heavy industry has developed only where a domestic market was available. Two relatively new industrial ventures illus- trate this point. The demands of the construction industry have

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

45

     resulted in the establishment of one factory to manufacture spiral welded pipes of all dimensions, and another to produce extruded aluminium fittings and sections. Both these developments are of potential significance for the future.

      In similar fashion, the expansion of light industry has stimulated the manufacture of machinery and parts. Built originally for domestic industry, Hong Kong-made machine tools are now exported to over 70 countries. Of particular importance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines, power presses, lathes and planing machines.

Aircraft engineering is another important industry; one large establishment provides maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines using Hong Kong Airport. Facilities are available for com- plete airframe and engine overhaul, and work has been received from 38 countries as far afield as Australia and Canada. The Colony also manufactures much of its requirement for cement, most of the raw materials being imported.

LAND FOR INDUSTRY

Government land development programmes include the zoning of land for industrial use. Large scale reclamation schemes are being carried out at several places. The most advanced was begun at Kwun Tong in 1955 and, by the end of 1965, 261 acres had been reclaimed. When completed the scheme will provide 641.3 acres, of which 153.9 acres are designed solely for industrial use. At the end of the year 343 factories were already operating, employing 30,500 workers or 8.3 per cent of Hong Kong's industrial work force.

A scheme of even greater importance is that at Kwai Chung, near the industrial town of Tsuen Wan, which will ultimately provide 6,130 acres of land. Of this, 986 acres will be for industrial develop- ment.

      In the development areas of Kwun Tong and Kwai Chung, purchasers of industrial land leases can pay by instalments over 20 years. Purchasers of industrial land elsewhere in the Colony can pay in four equal interest-free instalments, spread over two years. During 1965 there was less demand for land for industrial development and fewer sites were auctioned than in the previous year.

46

EXTERNAL TRADE

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The total value of Hong Kong's external trade in 1965, including imports, domestic exports and re-exports, amounted to $15,495 million, representing an increase of $1,160 million or 8 per cent over 1964. Imports rose moderately in value while domestic exports and re-exports continued to increase significantly, although at a reduced rate. The volume of Hong Kong trade as measured by cargo tonnage by all means of transport rose by 352,000 tons during the year. Trade statistics, including a breakdown by coun- tries and commodities and comparisons with previous years, are contained in Appendices XV to XXI.

      Imports in 1965 were valued at $8,965 million, an increase of 5 per cent. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, most of the Colony's foodstuffs have to be imported. Food was therefore the principal import representing 23 per cent of all imports and being worth $2,042 million, a slight increase of 1 per cent over the previous year. The chief food imports were live animals, rice, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish and fish preparations, meat and meat preparations, sugar and sugar preparations. Raw materials and semi-manufactured goods imported for use by industry included textile yarn and fabrics, raw cotton, base metals and plastic moulding materials. Capital goods such as machinery and transport equipment, and mineral fuels and lubri- cants were also imported in large quantities.

       The sources of imports are determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade relationships. China was the Colony's principal supplier, providing 26 per cent by value of all imports and 55 per cent of food imports. Imports from China also included textile yarn and fabrics, clothing, and base metals. The value of goods imported from China increased by 18 per cent compared with 1964. Imports from Japan, the second largest sup- plier, changed very little in value compared with the previous year, accounting for 17 per cent of imports from all sources. Of imports from Japan, 30 per cent were textile yarn fabrics; the rest were made up of base metals, electric apparatus and appliances, chemicals and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Imports from the United States decreased slightly from the previous year, while those from the United Kingdom showed a remarkable increase. The principal

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

47

imports from the United States were textile fibres, tobacco, machin- ery, fruits and vegetables and plastic materials. Imports from the United Kingdom consisted mainly of machinery, motor vehicles and textile products.

The value of domestic exports increased by 14 per cent to reach a new record annual total of $5,027 million. Products of the textile and garment manufacturing industries accounted for 52 per cent by value. Exports of plastic goods made up a further 15 per cent.

The direction of Hong Kong's export trade is influenced by such factors as the advantages of preference in Britain and several smaller Commonwealth markets, and economic conditions and commercial policies in overseas markets. During the year 51 per cent of all domestic exports went to two markets-the United States and the United Kingdom-in roughly a ratio of two to one. The United States, remaining the largest market, took 34 per cent by value and increased her purchases by $492 million or 40 per cent. The value of goods sent to the United Kingdom was $861 million (17 per cent of all domestic exports). This represented a decline of $108 million, or 11 per cent. The Federal Republic of Germany, which became the third largest market as a result of increasing exports of woollen knitwear, purchased Hong Kong manufactures worth $371 million during the year. Other growing markets of importance included Canada, Singapore, Australia and Japan, but domestic exports now go to practically every country in the world.

     The entrepôt trade has sustained its role in external trade. The value of re-exports in 1965 totalled $1,503 million, an increase of 11 per cent over the previous year. This was 23 per cent of the total combined value of exports of Hong Kong manufactures and re- exports of imported goods. Japan was the leading customer, with Singapore second. Indonesia, which showed a marked decrease in purchases during the year, took third place, followed by the United States and Formosa. The principal commodities in the re-export trade were gems and jewellery, textiles, medicinal and pharmaceu- tical products, fruits and vegetables.

TRADE PROMOTION

The increasing realization, both in commercial and industrial circles and by the government, that world markets were becoming

48

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

steadily more competitive for Hong Kong products resulted in a growing conviction that new measures were needed to make Hong Kong products better able to meet this competition. Proposals for a Productivity Council have been referred to above; plans for an export credit insurance corporation and an export development council were also under consideration during the year. A report on an export credit insurance scheme for Hong Kong by Mr R. A. Freeman, of the British Export Credits Guarantee Department, was tabled in the Legislative Council in May. The report envisages a statutory autonomous corporation to operate the scheme, the initial finance for which would be provided by the government. This proposal was accepted in principle and during the year re- cruitment for the senior posts in the proposed corporation went ahead and an appointment was made to the post of Commissioner. Work on the preparation of the necessary legislation also went ahead.

       In the field of export development, a working committee widely representative of all relative interests was appointed in March. Its purpose was to review the existing organizational structure for trade promotion, to examine methods employed by other countries and to report, by 1st January 1966, whether or not a new organi- zation was needed and-if so-what form this should take. The committee's appointment reflected a belief not only that an expanded programme of promotion was necessary, but also that the limited resources of staff and finance which were available could be used to better effect by central programming and pooling of services. The committee's report had been presented to the government, but not yet made public, at the end of the year. It was known, however, that the report recommended the establishment of a central council to direct export promotion activities, with an exe- cutive secretariat and adequate funds to finance an expanded programme. The chief executive designate of the proposed council was appointed in November.

During the year, while the working committee's report was under preparation, activities by the promotion agencies receiving public funds continued to be co-ordinated by the Commercial Public Relations Co-ordinating Committee. The agencies repre- sented on the Committee were the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries (whose

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

49

promotional activities were organized through the Public Relations Joint Committee), the Hong Kong Tourist Association, the Com- merce and Industry Department and the Information Services Department.

      The Commerce and Industry Department's programme of pro- motional activities for 1965 was based on the advice of the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. The programme started with the 43rd Milan International Samples Fair when Hong Kong opened a commercial information office as a follow-up to the Colony's participation on a larger scale in the previous year. At the 6th Tokyo International Trade Fair, which opened two days after the Milan Trade Fair, the Hong Kong stand featured a general display of Hong Kong merchandise and a special section featuring tourism arranged by the Hong Kong Tourist Association. In July, Hong Kong presented a display of products in the Bull Ring Shopping Centre in Birmingham. This was a joint project of the department, the Public Relations Joint Committee and the Hong Kong Tourist Association and was designed to show directly to the British shop- ping public the quality and diversity of Hong Kong products. To follow the display in Birmingham, five 'Hong Kong Fortnights' -in effect store displays were arranged in Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow, Bristol and London.

In June a five-member official trade mission visited Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The mission spent a month in these four countries meeting political and business leaders to make them aware of the range of Hong Kong products available and to assess the market potential. The lease of additional premises for the Hong Kong Government Office in London at 54-58 Pall Mall offered an opportunity to provide better facilities for the display of Hong Kong products. Plans were implemented during the year for the conversion of the new premises into a Trade and Information Centre consisting of a permanent prestige display of products, together with a trade and information office and display facilities for use by commercial and industrial interests. The last major project in the year's programme was the 3rd Sydney International Trade Fair in October. A particular feature of Hong Kong's par- ticipation was a series of fashion shows featuring Hong Kong garments which attracted widespread press comment.

50

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The Display Centre of Hong Kong Products in the City Hall was visited by 8,555 people during the year and enquiries recorded totalled 5,527 from overseas visitors and 4,915 from local visitors. Promotional publicity is also provided by the annual Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory, and the monthly Trade Bulletin, which are published by the Commerce and Industry Department. The Directory is a comprehensive guide to Hong Kong business in its economic and administrative setting. The Trade Bulletin describes Hong Kong's products in magazine form and each month features different aspects of the commercial and industrial scene. Both are distributed free overseas. Textiles Hong Kong, an illus- trated booklet in colour, was published during the year with the assistance of the Information Services Department. This gives a detailed description of many aspects of Hong Kong's textile in- dustry.

       The activities of the Public Relations Joint Committee were centred on the United States and Europe, with a new extension to East Africa. In America the committee arranged a series of sales promotions for Hong Kong products in five cities, in co- operation with the management of prominent department stores. In September, Hong Kong was a guest at the Swiss National Fair in Lausanne, where its pavilion was an outstanding feature of the fair. In keeping with its intention to foster new markets the com- mittee also accepted responsibility for the implementation of two of the recommendations of the Trade Mission to East and Central Africa. A trade representative was appointed in October with offices in the capital cities of each of the four countries visited by the mission, and a selling delegation visited the countries during November.

The 23rd annual exhibition of Hong Kong products, sponsored by the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, provided an oppor- tunity for visitors to see the products of 178 members of the Associa- tion. The exhibition area-400,000 square feet-permitted a larger number of visitors to move about freely and over 1.6 million people visited the exhibition.

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

      As the United Kingdom has acceded to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on behalf of Hong Kong, the Colony's exports

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

51

     attract most-favoured-nation tariff treatment in the majority of overseas markets and are thereby also protected from discriminatory import restrictions. Unfortunately, the number of exceptions to this rule is growing and in the past year difficulties have arisen with Nigeria, Austria, the Sudan, Irish Republic and South Africa, and further difficulties have arisen with France. These difficulties have been not only outside the normal GATT rules, but also not covered by the special arrangements for cotton textiles, which are mentioned below. In addition, certain special difficulties have arisen in the United States market connected with customs valuation and marking. In the United Kingdom, the special import surcharge imposed in October 1964 on all items other than foodstuffs and raw materials was maintained throughout the year, although the rate of levy was reduced from 15 per cent to 10 per cent in late April. The levy itself and the United Kingdom Government's future intentions had an unsettling effect on trade particularly as, compared with other countries, a much larger proportion of Hong Kong's exports was affected.

Although the year was one of intense activity in the sphere of multilateral commercial policy, inasmuch as agreement was reached for the modification of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade by the addition of a new part covering the special needs of less developed countries, and the establishment of the Trade and Development Board as the permanent organ of the triennial UN Conference on Trade and Development, few practical results are yet apparent. Although there appears to be, for instance, widespread support for the idea of assisting the exports of less developed countries by granting them preferential entry to the markets of the highly industrialized countries of Western Europe and North America, at the end of the year under review a general scheme had still to be worked out in detail. There appears to be, at present, a danger that a number of individual initiatives may be taken. following upon the application by the Australian Government for a GATT waiver to enable a limited scheme of selective preferences to be introduced for a specific list of less developed countries. Hong Kong has been included in this list, although the privilege of preferential entry is to be withheld from four items in respect of which Hong Kong is considered to be already sufficiently com- petitive in the Australian market. Progress in the Kennedy Round

52

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     of negotiations, covering both tariff and non-tariff barriers, was disappointing. This was largely due to the need for participating countries to engage in a rather protracted examination of the various lists of items excepted from the negotiations on the grounds of national economic interest. This was further complicated by the inability of the European Economic Commission to play an active part in the negotiations since their mandate was a limited one due to the internal political difficulties facing the Community.

      The negotiations with the United States Government for com- pensation under the terms of Article XXVIII of the General Agree- ment on Tariffs and Trade for the administrative adjustments to the US tariff schedule, which began in November 1964, were brought to a successful conclusion just before the end of the year. The compensation finally agreed upon included reductions in two tariff rates applicable to items in respect of which Hong Kong is a prin- cipal supplier in the American import market.

The importance of textile exports both as a factor in interna- tional trade and in Hong Kong's economy gives special significance to frequent international negotiations on the subject. Exports of cotton textiles to five countries--the United States, Canada, Italy, Norway and the Federal Republic of Germany-were under re- straint, to greater or lesser degree, during the year as a result of the invocation by Hong Kong's trading partners of the provisions of the GATT Long-Term Cotton Textile Arrangement. United States restrictions covered 37 categories comprising 94 per cent of the Colony's exports for the third year of the Arrangement (i.e. from 1st October 1964 to 30th September 1965). One more category was brought under restraint in the course of the year. At the request of the United States Government, negotiations for the 4th Long Term Year were postponed until after the Kennedy Round textile sector discussions and the major review of the Long Term Arrangement, so that in their negotiations with Hong Kong they might take account of any measures for liberalization that might be agreed at these two meetings. In the meantime the 5 per cent annual growth mandatory under the Arrangement was granted in all categories under restraint. In October, the American authorities expressed concern about the level of export authorizations in six additional categories and the issue of export authorizations was temporarily suspended pending the outcome of negotiations.

   Race day at Happy Valley-and every spin of the turnstiles means not just more money for the totalizator but also funds for medical, educational and charitable projects. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club donates all its profits-nearly $100 million since 1946-to projects designed to help the maximum number of people.

THE

T

י

The Jockey Club Polyclinic at Shau Kei Wan (left and above) was built at a cost of more than $2,250,000. It contains a large general outpatient department and dispensary, a chest clinic, X-ray department, a dental clinic and 24-bed maternity home. Accommodation is provided on the top floor for a doctor, nurses and midwives.

Hobbies

}

Facilities for the disabled of all ages are available at the Jockey Club Rehabilitation Centre in the Kowloon Hospital (above, above right and below). The centre, opened in 1963, cost over $950,000 and is a vital unit in enabling more emphasis to be placed on individual training for the disabled.

The very old have been remembered, too, and the Club donated $1 million for the Aberdeen Home for the Aged (above) which is run by the Little Sisters of the Poor. When opened the Home had accommodation for 160 aged people, but was designed so that this number could be increased to 400. Married couples are admitted.

Jockey Club money finances projects to help people of all ages in rehabilitation, education or leisure. Picture above shows another side of the work at the Kowloon Rehabilitation Centre. The secondary technical school (left) cost $1,730,000. Reclaiming Victoria Park and building swimming pool (below) cost over $4 million.

   Two floating clinics provided by the Jockey Club make medical facilities available to remote communities on the islands and along the coastline of the New Territories. The launch Chee Wan-whose name means 'charity afloat'-calls at a little fishing village (above) and soon patients stream aboard for treatment (below).

ī

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

53

      The Canadian Government again raised the question of an overall restraint on exports of all categories of fabrics for the 4th Long Term Year. This approach was rejected and subsequent con- sultations resulted in agreement to restrain exports of only seven further groups of cotton fabrics not previously subject to restraint. Restrictions on cotton nightwear exported to the Federal Republic of Germany remained in force with the minimum annual growth factor of 5 per cent being added to the previous year's level.

      At the request of the Italian Government, restraints on exports were introduced in March in five categories of fabrics. Hong Kong, however, had shipped only about 5 per cent of the quota set by the end of the year, and it was therefore agreed that the restraints should be discontinued in 1966.

Outside the Long-Term Cotton arrangement, Hong Kong's exports of cotton yarn, cotton piecegoods and clothing to Britain were limited under an undertaking-originally entered into in 1959, but revised in 1962 and extended to 31st December 1965-to an annual equivalent of 185 million square yards in terms of cloth and 6.3 million pounds of yarn. Within this overall quota there were four broad divisions, later subdivided into 34 product cate- gories. Exports under 19 of these categories were limited to specified maximum export levels in 1965. The undertaking provided for carry-over of un-utilized quota balance for shipment during the first six months of the subsequent year. The uncertainty arising from the import surcharge, coupled with slack trading con- ditions in Britain, resulted in only half of the 1965 quota being shipped by the beginning of October. The Board of Trade then announced that, in its view, the carry-over provision ceased to operate upon the expiry of the 1963-5 cotton undertaking. This announcement caused dismay in Hong Kong and the Governor flew to London to hold discussions with the Board of Trade. The Board of Trade refused to alter its stand. This denial of carry-over led to increased emphasis being placed in Hong Kong on produc- tion for Britain, in order to ship goods before the termination of the undertaking at the end of the year. In fact, the full quota was shipped in time-although this was only accomplished by some switch of trade from garments to piecegoods, which resulted in lower export earnings than would otherwise have been realized.

54

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      At the meeting of the GATT Cotton Textiles Committee in December, the United Kingdom presented its proposals for the regulation of cotton textile imports from developing countries for 1966-70. Imports from all these sources will be restricted to an overall 'global' quota with country quotas at existing levels set aside for traditional Commonwealth suppliers, such as Hong Kong and India and possibly-Pakistan.

In order to keep the trade moving until international discussion on the British proposals was completed, agreement was reached on an interim arrangement whereby 50 per cent of Hong Kong's country quota could be shipped without prejudice to the final post-1965 arrangements.

      Pressure during the year for restrictions in the textiles field was not confined to cotton textiles. By agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany exports of woollen knitwear from Hong Kong were regulated by a system of export authorizations. Under this, the Hong Kong Government guaranteed shippers the issue of export licences, when the goods were ready for shipment, during the six months' validity of the authorizations, and the Federal Government undertook to permit entry of goods so authorized. Towards the end of October the issue of further export authoriza- tions was temporarily suspended after consultation with the author- ities in Bonn, who had from time to time expressed concern at the rapid growth of this trade. Export authorizations for shipments on and after 1st January 1966 were issued as usual on application.

DOCUMENTATION OF EXPORTS

       Import and export licensing formalities have always been kept to a minimum consistent with Hong Kong's international obliga- tions and the spirit of free trade. Despite this, complex procedures have had to be established to ensure that Hong Kong's respon- sibilities in respect of restraints on cotton textile exports are met.

       With the growth in the export of Hong Kong products, certifica- tion of Hong Kong origin has also become increasingly important. Since Hong Kong has practically no raw materials, the origin of goods manufactured by its factories is established by the work carried out in transforming imported raw materials into entirely new products. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

55

the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce issue certificates of Hong Kong origin which are acceptable in varying degrees overseas. Many overseas authorities, however, require imports of Hong Kong products to be covered by certificates of origin issued by the Com- merce and Industry Department. During the year, exports of goods certified by the department to be of Hong Kong origin were valued at $1,269 million.

      The department also issues certificates to enable Hong Kong products to claim preferential rates of duty on entry into Britain and those Commonwealth territories which grant preference to Hong Kong. Commonwealth preference certificates indicate Com- monwealth or Hong Kong content in the goods covered and are issued against either specific undertakings to use certain Com- monwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements prepared by public accountants approved for the purpose. Exports to Com- monwealth territories including Britain covered by Commonwealth preference certificates were valued at $1,089 million.

      United States law prohibits the importation of goods presumed to originate from the People's Republic of China, North Korea or North Vietnam, unless evidence is produced to the contrary. As Hong Kong manufacturers produce and process a great variety of the same kind of goods, the department issues comprehensive certificates of origin as the evidence required to enable these goods to enter the United States, and keeps under continuous review the procedures to establish this evidence. During the year, goods valued at $779 million were exported to the United States and its dependencies under comprehensive certificates of origin.

ADMINISTRATION

The Commerce and Industry Department is concerned with all matters affecting trade and industry, except labour. It has four divisions which cover trade development, export promotion, textiles and certification, and controls. In addition there is a statistical branch.

The Development Division keeps a watch on measures adopted by overseas countries which may affect Hong Kong. It studies the

56

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      activities of international institutions concerned with trade, and collects, analyses and presents information on these matters for the benefit of merchants and manufacturers. The division also provides liaison between industry and other government departments, an- swers trade and industrial enquiries from overseas, and deals with specific industrial problems as and when they arise.

      The Export Promotion Division is responsible for executing the programme of trade promotional activities undertaken with public funds on the advice of the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. It administers a display centre in the Hong Kong City Hall, mediates in commercial disputes, and arranges for the reception of overseas trade missions and business visitors. The division publishes and distributes the annual Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory and the Trade Bulletin, and publishes or assists in the preparation of other trade promotional literature from time to time. During the year it was particularly concerned with the preparatory work required to set up the independent statutory organization to take over responsibility for export promotion referred to above.

The Textile and Certification Division is concerned with the calculation and allocation of quotas for markets restricted because of the operation of the Long-Term Cotton Textile Arrangement and for their control through export licensing. It operates certi- fication of origin and Commonwealth preference procedures. The establishment of a new industry inspection service was approved during the year. It will take over responsibility for enforcing trade controls and for inspecting factories and goods in connexion with the export of Hong Kong products under certification of origin and Commonwealth preference certificates.

The Controls Division deals with trade licences, other than for textiles, and with dutiable commodities. It administers the Pre- ventive Service, which is a uniformed and disciplined service with powers similar to those normally exercised by customs and excise services for the protection of revenue. The part played by the Preventive Service in the control of narcotics traffic is described in chapter 10. The Chief Preventive Officer commands a service of eight gazetted officers, 189 inspectors and 381 rank and file.

The Statistical Branch publishes monthly commodity-by-country trade statistics compiled from declarations filed with the department

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

57

by importers and exporters. The branch also provides general statistical services for other government departments.

      The Commerce and Industry Department is responsible for three overseas offices. The Hong Kong Government Office in London is situated at 54-58 Pall Mall, SW 1; the Hong Kong Government Trade Representative in Australia has his office in Kembla Building, Margaret Street, Sydney; and a newly established Hong Kong Government Office in Brussels is accommodated in Brittania House, 26 Rue Joseph II.

TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS

The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the oldest chamber, founded in 1861. The chamber now has a membership of over 1,200, representing all branches of commerce and industry. Membership is open to firms and persons of all races and nation- alities interested in the trade of Hong Kong. The chamber is repre- sented on a number of important government boards and commit- tees. It is an organizing member of the British National Committee of the International Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce.

Other chambers and associations include the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce, which takes an active part in local civic affairs, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong Ex- porters' Association and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce.

The Federation of Hong Kong Industries, established by ordinance in 1960, devotes its efforts towards promoting the interests of Hong Kong industry as a whole and its membership includes all industries, many nationalities, and enterprises big and small. The Federation plays an active role in export promotion, and in the year under review provided administrative and other services for many of the activities of the Public Relations Joint Committee, in conjunction with the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce. In the promotion of internationally accepted standards for locally manu- factured goods the Federation is responsible for a textile testing service, launched in consultation with the Retail Trading Standards Association in Britain, and is actively studying ways and means to promote the adoption of standards of other industrially advanced countries.

58

888

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 1,500 factories. Member firms own factories of all sizes and most sectors of the Colony's industries are represented in the Association. It has played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong.

BANKRUPTCIES AND LIQUIDATIONS

      As described in the preceding chapter, two of Hong Kong's Chinese banks failed early in the year. A receiving order was made in respect of one and a compulsory winding up order in respect of the other. There was some increase in business failures generally over recent levels-some connected with the bank failures, others not. During the year the court made 18 receiving orders, two orders for the administration in bankruptcy of the estates of deceased debtors, and eight orders for the compulsory winding up of com- panies (these figures compared with the extraordinarily low level of 10, one and nine respectively in 1964).

TRADE MARKS AND PATENTS

Trade Marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance 1954, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938, of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules 1954, and the prescribed forms may be obtained free of charge from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. During the year 2,134 applications for registration were received and 1,643 (including many submitted in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,431 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being://

406

...

308

France Switzerland

50

38

210

152

Australia Singapore

33

...

16

129

The Netherlands

14

Hong Kong

United States of America...

United Kingdom

...

West Germany

Japan

The total number of marks on the register at 31st December 1965 was 20,555.

      Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

59

Kong. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension of Hong Kong. A total of 271 patents were registered during the year, compared with 249 in 1964.

COMPANIES

       The Companies Registry keeps records of all companies incor- porated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corporations which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act 1929, of Great Britain. On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. In all, 1,256 new companies were incorporated during the year-183 less than the record total of 1,439 in 1964. This decrease was due to a recession in the real estate market, which resulted in a decrease from 419 to 140 in the number of real estate companies incorporated. The nominal capital of new companies registered during 1965 totalled $794,307,350, a decrease of 40.95 per cent over the corresponding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 28 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or more. At the end of the year there were 9,499 local companies on the register compared with 8,364 in 1964.

Companies incorporated outside Hong Kong are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in the Colony. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 51 foreign companies were registered and 25 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 570 foreign companies registered, compared with 544 in 1964. Usually for tax reasons, many foreign companies incorporate subsidiaries in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

       Local and foreign insurance companies which wish to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance Ordinance and the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance

60

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Companies Act 1958, in Great Britain, or-in the case of fire and marine insurance-by maintaining similar deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. There are altogether 207 insurance companies transacting such business in Hong Kong. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

      The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance 1958, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partnerships and money-lenders.

5

Primary Production

     IT is frequently and properly said that Hong Kong has no natural resources and that its people depend for their livelihood on selling the products of their manufacturing industries. The 1961 census showed just under 90,000 people as directly employed in farming and fishing, and another 10,000 in mining and quarrying. Yet little more than 5 per cent of Hong Kong is actually built up and Hong Kong's industrial explosion, however dramatic, has by no means overwhelmed the traditional life of the farmer and the fisherman. Indeed the vigour of the farming and fishing industries is best demonstrated by the way in which they too are adapting to changed conditions.

      The population influx of the nineteen fifties had its effect upon the countryside as well as the city. While the growth of the urban population created new demands for the produce of the farms, new people and new methods were moving in to meet them. There has been a steady reduction in the number of people growing rice on their own land and an increase in the number of recent immigrants renting land for intensive vegetable production or poultry farming. At the same time rice farmers have been encouraged to diversify by planting vegetables after the harvesting of a second rice crop. These trends, and parallel improvements in the fishing industry, are in line with government policy to stimulate the produc- tion of food where this is compatible with the best use of the resources of land or sea.

LAND UTILIZATION

      From a farmer's viewpoint all the readily cultivable land in Hong Kong is already being exploited and what is left, apart from land alienated to industrial and urban use, is marginal. Pressure comes on the land from two directions-the continued and steady demand for land for industry and housing, and the need to meet the growing needs of the rural community. It is important to remember that 79.1 per cent of the total area of the territory is marginal land,

62

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

in differing degrees of sub-grade character. The arable land and fish ponds already exploited comprise only 13.2 per cent of the total area and the expanding urban areas (the remaining 7.7 per cent) tend to encroach more directly on arable rather than on marginal land. It is unavoidable that fields will be lost to agriculture, or at least that agriculture in some areas will be confined to market gardens. This trend is, however, being offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

      The afforestation policy is to replace the woodlands which were largely stripped during the war, not only to safeguard water catch- ments and ensure soil conservation, but also to take advantage of the opportunities it affords to make best use of the land. There are many limiting factors to the extension of arable land, but they can be overcome in some areas and much more attention is now paid to the principles of multiple land use in order to exploit under- developed areas. The establishment of pure forests tends to be restricted to areas incapable of more intensive development.

There has been a continuing study of land use by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department since a survey in 1953. Much work has also been done by independent researchers. The general picture of land use today is indicated by the following table:

Approximate Percentage

Remarks

Includes roads and railways.

Class

area

(square miles)

of whole

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

30.9

7.7

(ii) Steep country

111.0

28.0

Rocky, precipitous hill- sides incapable of plant establishment.

(iii) Woodlands

23.2

5.8

Natural and established woodlands.

(iv) Grass and scrub lands

155.4

39.0

Natural grass and scrub.

(v) Eroded lands...

20.0

5.0

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable of re- generation.

(vi) Swamp and mangrove

lands

5.2

1.3

Capable of reclamation.

(vii) Fish Ponds

(viii) Arable

2.3

0.6

Fresh and brackish water fish farming.

50.3

:

:

12.6

Includes orchards and market gardens.

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63

POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

      The Agriculture and Fisheries Department concerns itself with optimum land utilization and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. It also deals with the fishermen on the waters of the territory and the administrative organization of co- operative societies of all types. The conservation of water and soil, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, is important. Afforestation is largely undertaken by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

      In seeking to increase production and improve the economic status of individual farmers, the Agriculture and Fisheries Depart- ment encourages diversified production to mitigate the effects of seasonal market 'gluts' and trade recessions. Loans are available to farmers through the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, started in 1955 by the government and two Hong Kong businessmen, Messrs Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie. The fund is administered by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, whose Director is the trustee and chairman of the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund Committee. Loans are also available for farmers through the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and through the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Associa- tion, a philanthropic organization also founded by the Kadoorie brothers, makes grants to members of the farming community who cannot find enough capital on their own. The general policy of the association is to help those who are prepared to help themselves and, although not a government-sponsored organization, it works closely with the Agriculture and Fisheries Department which offers technical assistance and advice to it and similar organizations concerned with the rural community.

      The major event of the year was the Colony Agricultural Show, the first since 1961, which was held at Sek Kong in the New Territories from 11th-17th December 1965. Over 200,000 people from all corners of the New Territories and from the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon attended the show. Competitive exhibits included all types of local agricultural products, livestock

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and farming equipment, all illustrating a common theme-greater productivity in agriculture through optimum land use'. Several commercial organizations and government departments serving the rural community participated in the show, which provided an opportunity to bring together the farmer and the townsman, the producer and consumer.

      In the rural education programme this year, some 642 farmers attended discussion groups led by professional and technical officers from the Agriculture and Fisheries Department. A restricted pro- gramme of formal training was also carried out in which more than 195 farmers and farmers' sons and daughters received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. Farmers also visited government experimental stations and farming projects.

       Within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern in Hong Kong. Paddy cultivation was formerly the most important aspect of agriculture in the New Territories but there is now a steady increase in market gardening, and pig and poultry production. Most of this has been at the expense of rice growing land but there is also some development of marginal land. In addition more than 35 per cent of the two-crop paddy land is now used for winter season catch crops. Most of this land formerly remained fallow during the winter season.

The area of land under permanent vegetable cultivation has increased from 2,250 acres in 1954 to 8,100 acres in 1965. Six to eight crops of vegetables are harvested annually from intensively cultivated land. The main crops are white cabbage, flowering cab- bage, turnip, leaf mustard, Chinese kale, Chinese lettuce, tomato, water spinach, string bean, watercress, cucumber and Chinese gourd. Other vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, and carrots are produced in great quantity during the cooler months and quality is excellent. This intensive production of vegetables takes place on both fertile and comparatively infertile land and is made possible by heavy dressings of manure. The traditional use of nightsoil is being replaced or supplemented by pig and poultry manure, peanut cake, duck feathers, bone meal and compost. The use of artificial fertilizers is increasing, usually in addition to organic manures. The widespread use of insecticides is an important feature of farming, as is the increasing use of selected crop varieties.

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      Sweet potatoes are grown both for human consumption (the tubers), and for pigfeed (the vines). Some 1,900 acres of drier lands are doubled cropped, chiefly for tubers, and a catch crop of sweet potatoes is also grown on over 1,400 acres following the second paddy harvest. With an average yield of three tons an acre for each crop, and an average market price of $250 a ton, this represents an annual value of over $3.5 million. About 850 acres of other field crops, such as peanut, millet, soy bean and sugar-cane are cultivated mainly for local consumption. Fruit pro- duction, although not yet substantial, is expanding and includes wong pei, lung ngan, lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, lychees and pineapple. Accurate statistics are not available, but approximately 36,000 hundredweights of assorted fruits, valued at over $3 million, were harvested during the year. There is a small but useful export trade in some fruit and field crops to overseas Chinese.

      Since 1954 the area of land under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,190 acres to 12,050 acres. A further 2,240 acres are used for one-crop paddy in brackish water. With a milling average of 68 per cent, the estimated crop was 14,150 metric tons of polished rice; at an average wholesale price of $55 a picul the crop was valued at $12,862,000. In a normal year the average yield of paddy from an acre of two-crop land is about 1.2 metric tons, but with seed of improved varieties, good irrigation and the use of fertilizers, production may reach 1.8 metric tons on average land, and over two metric tons on better soils. The first crop is sown into the nurseries in early March, transplanted in April and harvested in June and July. Second crop seedlings are nursed in June for planting out by the end of July and the crop is harvested during October and early November.

Farmers are making more use of varieties recommended by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department as resistant to 'blast', the disease of paddy caused by the fungus Piricularia Oryzae. The department also selects seeds within varieties and a limited amount of such improved seed is distributed to growers each year to be multiplied by them for further distribution. Traditionally the manurial treatment of rice consists of adding only very small dressings of dry animal manure, but the use of balanced artificial fertilizers is becoming increasingly important.

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VEGETABLE MARKETING ORGANIZATION

Vegetables produced in the New Territories for sale in the urban areas are sold through a marketing scheme which was set up in 1946 on the lines of the successful fish marketing scheme. The present Vegetable Marketing Organization operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing (the Director, Agriculture and Fisheries Department) who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property and use the assets of the organization for the development and encouragement of vegetable farming. It provides also for a Marketing Advisory Board composed of unofficials to assist the organization. The controls imposed by the ordinance, however, apply only to the New Territories and Kowloon area, for there is little vegetable cultiva- tion on Hong Kong Island.

      The organization has established depots in the main vegetable cultivation areas of the New Territories. From these depots, the majority of which are now operated by vegetable marketing co- operative societies, vegetables are collected daily by the organiza- tion's transport fleet and taken to the central wholesale market in Kowloon where two sales are held every day. The sales are con- ducted by the organization. A new wholesale vegetable market, constructed on a large reclaimed site in Cheung Sha Wan, was opened on 8th June by Mr Horace Kadoorie. The total construction cost was $2.9 million, of which $1.3 million came from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund. The balance was met from funds of the Vegetable Marketing Organization.

The organization is a non-profit-making concern and obtains its revenue from a 10 per cent commission on sales in the Cheung Sha Wan wholesale vegetable market. Vegetables are sold in the market by the organization but with considerable practical assist- ance given by the vegetable marketing co-operative societies which now handle 76 per cent of local production. Thirty per cent of this commission is therefore refunded to the marketing co-operative societies in recognition of the marketing responsibilities they assume in respect of their own produce. Sales are by negotiation rather than auction since up to 30,000 separate lots a day may be sold to nearly 3,000 buyers, making sales by auction impracticable.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

67

Despite unsettled weather conditions during the later part of the year there was an increase of 4 per cent in the quantity of vegetables marketed; the average annual wholesale price increased by 7 per cent. An increased quantity of imported vegetables also passed through the market.

FISH PONDS

Fish ponds are still increasing and now cover 1,600 acres, mostly along the Deep Bay coastline near Yuen Long. The most important species reared is grey mullet which requires water with a salinity above 0.1 per cent. Fry are found in local coastal waters in February and March, but the supply in 1965 was not sufficient to meet local requirements, only 1.9 million being collected in comparison with five million last year. Fry of four other important species-silver carp, grass carp, big head and mud carp-were obtained from China between May and August, about eight million being im- ported. Common carp and edible goldfish are bred locally and some 1,800,000 and 500,000 fry were raised respectively to meet trade requirements. Edible goldfish require fresh water (less than 0.4 per cent salinity), while common carp tolerate up to 1.0 per cent salinity. Total pond fish production for the year was estimated at 364 tons, valued at some $1.37 million, which represented about 1.4 per cent of the local consumption of pond fish. Fry of various species re-exported during the year totalled 5.7 million.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

Since there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal animals reared in the Colony for food; cattle are mainly used for draught purposes. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common. The Agriculture and Fisheries Department maintains the main herds of pure exotic strains-Berkshire, Mid-White, Large-White and Large- Black-and also herds of two Chinese strains for distribution to improve the Colony's pig stock, as well as for experimental purposes. A similar herd of good quality local Chinese strains, also for dis- tribution to farmers, is maintained by the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association on its farm at Paak Ngau Shek. Pig-keeping in the villages often follows traditional practice, but an overall im- provement in management is taking place as a result of extension

68

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

and advisory services. During the year the pig artificial insemination service was further expanded and over 4,083 sows were inseminated with a total conception rate of 88.8 per cent and a first service conception rate of 76.4 per cent. In 1965 320,000 pigs of local origin were slaughtered in local abattoirs, compared with some 440,000 in 1964. The figure represented more than 14 per cent of the total number of pigs slaughtered. The value of pig production during the year amounted to some $38.4 million.

      As part of the United States 'Food for Peace' programme, the United States Government has donated a substantial quantity of feed grain to assist Hong Kong's pig raising industry by providing feed at reduced prices, thereby allowing farmers to improve their methods of production and raise the quality of their stock. This scheme is being operated in Hong Kong by an organization called 'Operation Feedbag' Limited in close co-operation with the Agricul- ture and Fisheries Department and the New Territories Administra- tion. During the year, 'Operation Feedbag' concentrated its activities in the southern district of the New Territories and had commenced operations in the northern part of Tai Po district by the end of the year.

Many of the larger poultry farmers are now producing their own hatching eggs and this is important in helping to stabilize the industry, which produced $50 million worth of poultry this year. In the wetter areas ducks and geese are raised for home consumption and for export. The rearing of ducks and geese for the local market has become increasingly important in recent years and was worth about $7.5 million this year. Pigeon-keeping is a thriving industry and prices in 1965 averaged $8 for a pair of squabs. The total value of squabs marketed during the year was estimated at $3.2 million. The most popular types of table birds are the white or blue king crossed with the homer.

Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes and surplus stock is sold for slaughter. Chinese brown cattle are partic- ularly well suited to the local environment and management. The dairy cattle in Hong Kong are mainly Friesians and are kept in isolation on one large farm on Hong Kong Island and in smaller farm groups on the outskirts of Kowloon and in the New Terri- tories. All dairy animals are regularly tested and must pass the single intradermal (comparative) test for tuberculosis. During 1965,

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

69

production was about 13 million pounds of milk, valued at $1.20 a pound.

      The Colony continued to be free from rabies and rinderpest. The incidence of foot and mouth disease was not serious, though there were some 312 outbreaks of a mild type in both cattle and pigs. About 1,860 cattle and pigs were inoculated against foot and mouth disease types 'O' and 'A', 31,700 pigs against swine fever and some 8,920 cattle against rinderpest, with locally produced vaccine. In all, 21,100,000 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and doses of intra-nasal-drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease in poultry.

FORESTRY

      The Agriculture and Fisheries Department is responsible for forestry generally, and for the direct afforestation of water catchment areas, protection of vegetation on Crown lands, assistance to village forestry, and amenity planting in catchment areas. Hillsides are predominantly grass covered, with a thicker cover of shrubs in some places and patches of scrub forest in remoter and less accessible areas. Thickly-wooded areas also occur where the vegetation has been protected against cutting and fire, as on Hong Kong Island and around villages. Villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice, combined with the prevalent hill fires of the dry season, has brought about soil erosion in many parts of the Colony. Villagers often have forestry lots on the lower hill slopes, but the trees, mostly pine, are generally so scattered and lopped that they rarely alter the barren aspect of the land.

Government afforestation areas are mostly co-extensive with the water catchment areas. The main ones are the mountainous area from Tai Po in the east to Castle Peak in the west, the catchments of the Kowloon reservoirs, the Shek Pik reservoir catchment, and almost the whole of the Shap Long peninsula on Lantau Island. These areas total 29,000 acres. So far almost 12,220 acres have been planted. The main species is pine (Pinus massoniana), followed by Brisbane box (Tristania conferta). Experimental plots have been laid out with other species, some of which are now being planted more widely. Eucalyptus and American pinus species (P taeda and P elliottii), are among the most promising. The department maintains nurseries in the New Territories, most seedlings now being raised in polythene tubes, instead of in open nursery beds.

70

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

       Planting usually starts in spring and continues until June or July. Trees planted after July usually have too short a period to become well established before the onset of the dry season. Weather conditions during the first six months of 1965 were generally favour- able for tree planting, with the result that most of the planting work was done during this period and a total of 140 acres were planted for the year. Another 288 acres were replanted, mostly in plantations destroyed by fire in the previous year. There is a constant threat of fire during the dry season and careful precautions have to be taken with lookouts placed strategically on hills and connected by field telephone to control points where men, equipment and transport stand by.

FISHING

      Marine fish is one of Hong Kong's main primary products and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Commonwealth. The number of fishermen at Chinese New Year, 1964, (11th February) was estimated at some 76,000. The government's aim is to foster the development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish and to improve the economic status of those engaged in the industry. The department responsible for the welfare of the Colony's primary industries is the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, within which the Fisheries Service operates in four main divisions: extension; research; co-operation (including marketing and credit); and education.

The Seventh Fisheries Exhibition was held from 1st to 6th February at the Aberdeen Wholesale Fish Market and attracted some 215,000 people. The exhibition is held every three years and is designed to stimulate development and generally to emphasize the importance of the fishing community and the fleet. It also provides an opportunity to demonstrate the work of the Agriculture and Fisheries Department and the Fish Marketing Organization.

      Extension work includes investigations into and demonstrations of fishing methods, craft and fishing gear; the introduction of new fishing techniques; the promotion and sound development of a mechanization programme; the training of fishermen for certifi- cates of competency as masters and engineers; the instruction of local fishermen in navigation and certain duties in connection with the culture of pearls. A modified junk-type mechanized fishing

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

71

     vessel, the Yuen Ling, is used for general inshore demonstration work and to experiment with new equipment. Over-fishing and the conservation of fish resources are current problems and legis- lation provides for comprehensive protection measures, particularly against the use of explosives and toxic substances.

Modification of traditional junk design to meet modern require- ments is encouraged. A number of shrimp trawlers have been modified and several large Kwong Sun type deep-sea trawlers are now operating whose design includes radical departures from the usual junk layout. Some of the latest deep-sea pair trawlers are designed for easy conversion to single boat stern-otter trawling. A multi-purpose 66-foot stern otter trawler was completed in 1965 and, after a number of successful trials, commenced fishing with encouraging results. The trawler, which was financed with a loan from the Fisheries Development Loan Fund, was designed by the Fisheries Service and built under the supervision of its fishing master and craft technicians in a local boat-yard. The design of this trawler was received with interest by the Food and Agriculture Organization division responsible for the design of fishing vessels and was discussed in great detail at the Food and Agriculture Organization third technical meeting on fishing boat design held in Sweden. As a prototype stern otter trawler the new vessel has set high standards and may well cause significant changes in the present fleet with the addition of fishing vessels of this type.

The department administers the Fisheries Development Loan Fund, which is allotted specifically for the development of the Colony's middle and distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organization, which administers two other funds and investigates applications for loans from all three. Together they provide capital of over $8 million for the development of the industry.

The Fisheries Research Station is engaged in a programme of biological and oceanographic research in the South China Sea, using the 240-ton research trawler Cape St Mary. This year, in addition to the regular survey by otter trawl of known fishing grounds on the continental shelf between Formosa and Hainan Island, the vessel has used longlines to sample fish stocks at the edge of the shelf. An analysis of commercial fisheries statistics

72

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derived from the fleet has been initiated. Efforts to locate com- mercially exploitable stocks of Nephrops-'scampi'-in the South China Sea, following the earlier discovery of 'scampi' by the Cape St Mary, have continued, though an investigation of the potentially- rich grounds off the coast of Vietnam has had to be suspended. Acoustic and photographic surveys by deep sea camera were begun this year and several hundred photographs of the seabed and associated fauna have been obtained. In September the Cape St Mary embarked on the first of a regular series of oceanographic cruises in the northern part of the South China Sea, as the United Kingdom contribution to the Co-operative Study of the Kuroshio (CSK), a multi-ship, international expedition organized by the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission.

       The fishing fleet consists of nearly 9,400 fishing junks of various sizes and designs and six Japanese-type trawlers all of which are British registered. The fishing population consists chiefly of Tanka people, and the main fishing centres are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, and Castle Peak, Tai Po and Tolo Channel area, Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung, Tai O and Cheung Chau in the New Territories. Junks are built locally from imported timber, China fir being the most popular material though teak and yacal are also used in increasing quantities. Most of the fleet is owner-operated, while the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies. More and more vessels are being mechanized each year and the mechanized fleet now totals 6,363.

       Purse seiners, gill-netters, shrimp trawlers and other inshore vessels operate mainly to the south of the Colony inside the 20-fathom line. A number of the more adventurous owners of medium-size mechanized boats have commenced fishing around Taya Island about 220 miles south-west of Hong Kong. The larger junk-type trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their operations and now work mainly in 30-70 fathoms along the coast of Kwang- tung. Although a few of the larger mechanized boats are capable of fishing in the Gulf of Tonkin (some 500 miles away) the war in Vietnam does not encourage the use of these grounds. Some of the deep-sea vessels still depend on sail and their activities are severely curtailed during the typhoon season from June to October. The restrictions imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1958, requiring fishermen based on Hong Kong who sail in Chinese

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

73

inshore waters to land a quota of their catch in China, are still in force. Landings by the local fishing fleet in 1965 were generally good and wholesale prices improved. The activities of the fleet were, however, affected by a general shortage of crew as a result of an increasing number of fishermen seeking employment on shore.

       Oyster Farming. Edible oysters have been cultivated in the waters of the Colony for some 700 years. The principal area of cultivation is Deep Bay where 284 tons of fresh oyster meat, valued at approxi- mately $1,490,000, were produced from 6,060 acres along the New Territories' shores of the bay. Some of this was processed into dried meat or oyster juice and exported to markets overseas.

       Pearl Culture. Four commercial pearling companies operate on sites surveyed and licensed by the Agriculture and Fisheries Depart- ment. Three of the sites are in the Tolo Channel and Double Haven areas and one in Port Shelter. To assist research into the require- ments of this infant industry a small pearl culture research station has been constructed at Kat O in Mirs Bay which also investigates the possibility of introducing edible oysters obtained from Japan.

FISH MARKETING ORGANIZATION

      The present Fish Marketing Organization grew out of the steps taken to rehabilitate the fishing fleet at the end of the Pacific War. Interest-free loans and grants were made and a fish marketing scheme was introduced with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. From this beginning de- veloped the present non-government trading organization controlled by a civil servant, now the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries. The organization is a non-profit-making concern which finds its revenue and pays its expenses from a 6 per cent commission on all the sales in its wholesale markets. It operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance 1956, which provides among other things for a Fish Marketing Advisory Board composed of un- officials to assist the organization.

      The organization runs five wholesale fish markets at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon and Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. The con- struction of a new market of modern design at Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon started in 1965 and when completed will replace

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the now inadequate market at Yau Ma Tei. The new market is financed jointly by the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund and the Fish Marketing Organization. Two additional markets, both in the New Territories, are being planned for operation in 1966, one at Castle Peak and the other at Sai Kung. Six fish-collecting depots have been set up in other fishing centres and the organization provides sea and land transport from these to the wholesale markets. The depots also serve as liaison offices for the organization.

At the wholesale markets, fish is sorted and sold by public auction to licensed retailers. Fishermen may collect the proceeds from their sales directly the sale has taken place or, if asked to do so, the organization will send the money back to the depot which serves their areas. A further service is the transportation of fish to the buyers' establishment in the urban areas. There were no significant changes during 1965 in the quantities of fresh and salt or dried marine fish marketed, although wholesale prices showed an im- provement. The embargo on the importation of salt and dried fish from the Colony imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1950 remains in force and exporters seeking other outlets have met with little success in the face of increasing competition from other countries in the region.

      The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important services offered by the Fish Marketing Organization to local fisher- men. The organization's revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made loans totalling $19,916,016. Of this, some $17,260,072 had been repaid at the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was stabilized at $3 million in 1963. In 1957 the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere donated $31,000 to form a revolving loan fund for shrimp fishermen, which was increased to $92,400 by a further donation in 1962. This fund is administered by the organization and loans totalling $322,102 have been made; repayments total $280,075.

      A further important side to the organization's development programme is the provision of primary schooling facilities for the children of fishermen. Thirteen primary schools have been established by the organization and approximately 2,883 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools with a further 930 attending other schools (including secondary) on scholarships provided by

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

75

the organization. All Fish Marketing Organization schools have advisory committees composed of leaders of the fishing communities served by the schools. In recognition of the importance of vocational training, a secondary practical school has been built at Aberdeen. At this school fishermen's children are able to continue their general education beyond the primary level and at the same time receive instruction in vocational subjects geared to the requirements of a modern fishing industry. Adult education classes are also conducted in a number of fishing villages.

      The organization may one day be run by the fishermen themselves as a co-operative enterprise, but lack of education is a problem that only time can solve. As it is, the success of the organization has attracted worldwide interest and many overseas visitors and students come to study its operation.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

Since the appointment in 1950 of a Registrar of Co-operative Societies, the co-operative movement has made steady progress. It is being accepted by a growing number of people, particularly peasant farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. An important development has been the growth in the number of co-operative building societies, which are at present formed-with one exception-of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and established with funds loaned by the government. Another development of interest is the increasing appreciation by rural communities of the improvements they may make in their way of life by co-operation and the formation of 'better living societies'. Several of these societies have successfully completed water supply and housing schemes, as well as community centres for their members.

       A further source of credit to farmers who are members of co- operative societies is the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund. The fund is administered by the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries as Regis- trar of Co-operative Societies, and since its establishment in 1954 some 41,337 loans totalling $16.6 million have been issued. A large number of societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which are steadily growing in size and effectiveness. The best examples can be found in fishermen's co-operative societies, 63 of

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which operate revolving loan funds with a total capital of some $1.2 million and a turnover of $210,000 a year. Yet a further source of credit is the World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co- operative Societies with a capital of over $450,000. The fund is designed to provide loans for a wide variety of purposes of social or economic benefit to societies and their members. Up to the end of 1965 loans totalling $104,700 had been issued from this source.

During the year 13 societies were registered bringing the total on the register to 396. At present there are 15 different types of societies. A table showing the number of societies in being at 31st December 1965 with details of their membership, share capital, deposits and reserve funds will be found in Appendix XXIV.

MINING

      Iron ore, wolframite and graphite are mined underground, and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron ore con- centrate (magnetite) is exported to Japan, wolframite to the United States, graphite to Britain, the United States and Taiwan, and kaolin to Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. All the feldspar and quartz, and about 25 per cent of the kaolin, are consumed by local light industries. During 1965, the productive capacity of the Ma On Shan iron mine was increased by 40 per cent following installation of additional equipment in the grinding section of its ore-dressing plant. There was little interest in wolframite as the market price remained low, and only one mine at Needle Hill was in production during the year. Prospectors for graphite made no discoveries of any economic importance.

       The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance 1954. The Commissioner of Mines is empowered to issue prospecting and mining licences, and the Land Officer to issue mining leases. Prospecting licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years. Mining licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years, but may be extended further with the consent of the Governor. Mining leases are granted for periods up to a maximum of 21 years. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of 1965, there were three mining leases, 17 mining

衣脚

-1

TMEN

JAYCEES MOBILE LIBR

#1

    A mobile library operated by the Social Welfare Department takes books to villages in the New Territories where normal library facilities are not available. It is specially designed for country children and also provides light entertainment including film shows and games. The library now has more than 6,000 members.

嚴書館

1

!

Every day more than 700 books are loaned out; few are lost. The library, which also provides comics, stops for about an hour at five or six villages each day and most of the youngsters who join it are aged between eight and 14. During 1965 a new mobile library, twice the size of the one previously in service, was put on the road.

DESE

FONDS DE

UNITED

TED NATA

   The new mobile library was donated by the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce and UNICEF. It carries three times as many books as the original library and also has a film projector, a slide projector and a record player. In many of the villages it visits, every child has become a member and each visit is eagerly awaited.

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licences, and two prospecting licences valid for different areas throughout the territory. They were mainly controlled by individuals or small mining companies.

       The Superintendent of Mines grants mine-blasting certificates and examines export licences for minerals mined locally. He is respon- sible for assessing royalties on mineral sales, at a rate of 5 per cent of value, and for issuing demand notes for royalties, rents, premia, and fees for licences and leases. The Mines Department also inspects mining areas and surveys land affected by applications for licences.

6

Education

HONG KONG'S rapid industrial development has resulted in a continuing demand for building sites suitable for schools at a time when such sites are becoming increasingly difficult to find, especially in urban areas. To achieve the maximum use of school buildings, therefore, many are occupied continuously throughout the day and evening, each accommodating two day schools on a shift system between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., and serving in the evening as a night school, or for evening classes or as an adult recreation and training centre. By the end of September, enrolment in primary day and night schools was 627,621, which was 30,650 more than in 1964. Enrolment in all types of secondary schools had increased by 19,557 to 197,237. Altogether there were 914,311 pupils enrolled at all schools, colleges and education centres, 60,032 more than in 1964. Detailed figures are given in Appendix XXVI.

PATTERN OF EDUCATION

The report of a working party appointed by the government to advise on the recommendations of the 1963 Education Commis- sion was submitted in January. The working party, of which the majority of members were unofficials, gave detailed and com- prehensive consideration to the Colony's entire educational structure and held 45 meetings over a period of 12 months. A government white paper on education policy, outlining proposals and reser- vations concerning the Commission's recommendations, and in- corporating the working party report as an appendix, was sub- sequently tabled in the Legislative Council on 28th April 1965, and formally adopted with further modifications at a resumption of the debate on 30th June.

       The main features of the proposals, the implementation of which began later in the year, are:

To provide as rapidly as possible a subsidized primary school place for every child of the right age who seeks one;

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79

To bring on to the list of aided primary schools a number of non-profit-making private schools as well as private sessions of many existing subsidized schools;

To double the amount of money which the government con- tributes annually to the provision of free places in primary schools; to return to the age of six as the minimum age of admission to government and aided primary schools, and to introduce a new sixth year of basic education;

To provide government and aided secondary school places, or subsidized places in selected private schools, for 15 to 20 per cent of all primary school leavers, including a minimum of between 1,500 to 2,000 new subsidized places annually in private secondary schools;

To increase the standard tuition fees in government and aided secondary schools, and simultaneously to increase the rates of remission of fees;

To discontinue, eventually, Special Forms I and II for pupils completing their primary course, and to establish one-year or two-year courses in vocational training centres;

To standardize the length of full-time training for non-graduate teachers at two years, with facilities for a third year of special- ized training in certain subjects, and to lengthen part-time in-service courses by one year;

To introduce fees of $400 per annum for the two-year course in government teacher training colleges, with a scheme of interest-free loans to students of up to $1,200 per annum in addition to maintenance grants of up to $1,600 per annum; To introduce an 80 per cent capital grant for aided secondary schools approved by the government; and

To extend and quantify the amount of assistance to be given to private non-profit-making schools.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

      Most primary schools are Chinese, with Cantonese as the language of instruction. English is studied as a second language from the second year of the course. In September, the first stage began of a return to six years as the minimum age of admission in government

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     and aided schools. When the first pupils complete the five-year course which was introduced in 1963, a new sixth year of basic education-embracing as much as possible of the work now done in Form I of secondary schools--will be added. At the end of this additional year pupils will enter for the Secondary School Entrance Examination. Pupils who were enrolled in government and aided schools before 1963, and who are unable on completion of their six-year course to gain admission to a full secondary course, will continue to be offered a seventh year of education in Special Form I, provided they are under 14 years of age. Five government primary schools cater for children whose normal language is English.

      The total primary day school enrolment in September was 584,305, which is 97.2 per cent of the estimated number of children in the six-11 year inclusive age group. In addition, 43,316 pupils were attending primary night schools and special afternoon classes. Nevertheless, it is still possible for a child of primary school age to experience difficulty in finding a school place at fees which his parents can afford. This difficulty stems in part from the fact that many school places are occupied by overage children. Further expansion is therefore continuing, particularly in developing areas such as resettlement estates where the first annexe-type 24-classroom schools were completed during the year. It is likely that these will become standard in new resettlement estates.

      During the year, 46,395 new primary places were provided compared with 33,930 in the previous year.

      There are no government kindergarten schools, but there is an increasing demand for this type of education for children aged usually from four to seven. Kindergarten schools are registered with the Education Department and the enrolment increased from 39,642 in the previous year to 46,595 in September 1965.

      Twenty special schools cater for the blind, the deaf, the physically handicapped and the mentally handicapped. The special education section of the inspectorate provides training courses for teachers in these fields, gives advice to the schools on organization, curricula and teaching methods, and works in co-operation with voluntary bodies and other government departments in developing services and facilities for handicapped children. In September, there were 92 physically handicapped children enrolled in government primary schools.

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A braille printing press was donated by the people and government of the United States of America, and will be used initially to produce books in Cantonese braille. The Education Department will be responsible for the production of the books and the press will be operated by the Government Printer. Three experimental classes for slow-learning children were begun in September in government primary schools. A pre-school centre for testing deafness in young children was established later in the year.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

There are four types of secondary schools: Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, Chinese middle schools, secondary technical schools and one secondary modern school.

The 169 Anglo-Chinese grammar schools have 109,123 pupils. They offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong English School Certificate Examination. In- struction is in English and Chinese is taught as a second language. This type of secondary education is in demand because a good knowledge of spoken and written English is desirable for entry to the professions, government service and commerce. Successful school certificate candidates may enter the sixth form for two years to prepare themselves for entrance to the University of Hong Kong, or to the Chinese University of Hong Kong. They may also study for the GCE (University of London), at both ordinary and advanced levels. In addition there are 29,028 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

The 107 Chinese middle schools accommodate 45,334 pupils and offer a five-year course in the usual academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination. In- struction is in Chinese and English is taught as a second language. For those who pass the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination, higher education is available at the teacher training colleges and the Technical College. In addition, a number of Chinese middle schools opened matriculation classes in September to prepare students for entrance to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Secondary technical schools give a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Like the Anglo-Chinese

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grammar schools, they prepare their pupils for the English School Certificate Examination and suitable candidates can continue their studies either in Form VI or at the Technical College. There are six government and four subsidized secondary technical schools with an enrolment of 5,544 pupils. A total of 21 private technical schools, with an enrolment of 3,850 pupils, mainly give trade training. The conversion of all government secondary modern schools to secondary technical schools was completed at the end of July, but there are 1,791 pupils in a subsidized secondary modern school.

There has been a steady increase in the number of pupils enrolled in all types of secondary schools held in day sessions. In September there were 165,999 such students compared with 150,026 in the previous year. During the school year 12,680 new secondary places were provided in new school buildings.

HIGHER EDUCATION

      The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 with endowments which have since been increased and a grant of land from the government, which also makes substantial recurrent and non-recurrent grants. In 1964-5 the government made capital grants of $2,243,924 and recurrent grants of $13,722,638 towards a total recurrent expenditure of $18,484,000.

Faculties and enrolments are: arts, 1,011; science, 325; medicine, 481; engineering and architecture, 318. The Institute of Oriental Studies has 37 language students, the education diploma and certificate courses 57 students, and the social study courses 31 students. Of this total of 2,203 students, 197 are part-time. Another 20 are external and 734 are women. Most of the undergraduates are Hong Kong Chinese, but many other nationalities are represent- ed, particularly from South-East Asian countries.

In May, 4,161 candidates entered for ordinary and advanced level subjects in the university's matriculation examination, of whom 1,134 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry. A total of 585 undergraduate places were available for new students in the current academic year. The number of full-time teaching posts (including demonstratorships and tutorships) during the year 1965-6 was 274. In addition, the Language School of the Institute of Oriental

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Studies has 18 full-time instructors. All the university's degrees in professional subjects (medicine, architecture, and civil, electrical and mechanical engineering) are on the same professional footing as those of universities in Britain.

      In May, Professor Kenneth Robinson was appointed Vice- Chancellor in succession to Dr W. C. G. Knowles, who had agreed to serve temporarily pending a permanent appointment. Professor Robinson, who assumed his duties in October, formerly held the Chair of Commonwealth Affairs at the University of London, where he had also been Director of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies since 1957.

      The building of the Robert Black College, a hall of residence for visiting research scholars and post-graduate students, is nearing completion. It was announced in October that Mr G. B. Endacott, formerly senior lecturer in history, had been appointed Master of the College, which is expected to be ready for use in January 1966.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong was inaugurated in 1963 as a federal university in which the principal language of instruction is Chinese. It comprises New Asia College, Chung Chi College and United College. Physical planning of the new university has begun. It will be established at Ma Liu Shui in the New Territories where an extensive site has been reserved adjoining the present site of Chung Chi College. In due course the administration of the university, now accommodated in a city office, and the other two colleges will move out to this site.

The new university has few endowments or funds of its own, but at a Congregation held on 15th October the Vice-Chancellor, Dr Li Choh-ming, announced that the Ford Foundation had made a grant of $1,700,000 for developing research activities, and that the Shell Company of Hong Kong had given $200,000 for the endowment of post-graduate scholarships in the United Kingdom. The colleges are in receipt of certain other small endowments and grants from outside sources, but apart from tuition fees, which are at a comparatively low level, government grants provide the main source of income.

The Chinese University has at present three faculties and the total undergraduate enrolment is 1,871. The enrolment in each faculty is: arts, 639, science, 579; commerce and social science,

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653. At the post-graduate level there are 21 students in the School of Education and 21 students in the Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies and Research. In the matriculation examination held in the summer of 1965, a total of 3,584 candidates sat and 1,100 passed. The total number of first-year students in the current academic year is 517.

The Technical College has a total enrolment of 11,558 students in 77 courses, comprising 1,270 full-time students in 49 classes, 327 part-time day students in 18 classes and 9,961 evening students in 352 classes distributed in 22 centres. The college has seven depart- ments: building; surveying and structural engineering; commerce; electrical engineering; mechanical and production engineering; textile industries; navigation; and mathematics and science. These provide full-time courses leading to the college's own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the associate membership examinations of

       many British professional institutions, a number of which have granted exemption from certain parts of their examinations to students in the higher diploma courses. The academic standard required for entry to most full-time classes is a Hong Kong school certificate with passes in specified subjects. Applicants outnumber the places available by about eight to one. Instruction is in English for the majority of the courses.

The seven departments also provide part-time day and evening courses. These lead to college certificates and to City and Guilds of London Institute and other qualifications in a wide range of technical and commercial subjects, the former being at professional, technicians' and craftsmen's levels. A two-year part-time in-service course for training teachers of technical subjects is also offered. A new full-time course for marine engineers and four new part-time day release courses for civil engineering supporting staff, clerical staff, draughtsmen and industrial supervisors were started during the year. New evening courses include management studies, indus- trial safety, estate management, fire prevention and fire resisting con- structions, and continuation courses for technicians and craftsmen.

      Besides the higher and ordinary diploma courses, the electrical engineering department offers courses for first and second class radio officers, and courses in radar maintenance which give training to qualified seagoing officers and technicians. The department of textile industries began a wool course in 1965 and the mechanical

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and production engineering department operates a productivity centre. Since its inception in 1961, 22 productivity courses have been offered to over 350 managerial and supervisory staff from local factories representing some 15 different industries.

Local and overseas firms, organizations and individuals support the work of the college by generous donations of materials, equip- ment, scholarships, and funds for specific projects. Examples of equipment received during the year include a miniature crucible furnace, an automatic loom, a welding torch, textile machine winding units and fire service equipment. Gifts of books to the college library were made by a number of local booksellers, by the British Council and by the United States Information Service. Firms in Britain and Australia continue to offer practical training to students who have completed three-year higher diploma courses and 38 students took advantage of this training during the year.

+

EDUCATION OVERSEAS

The Hong Kong Students' Office in London is responsible for dealing with the placing of students in universities and other institutions of higher education in Britain. In co-operation with the British Council, it makes arrangements for students to be met and accommodated on arrival. The office also assists students in their educational and personal problems. There are 2,880 students in Britain following a wide range of courses (see Appendix XXVIII). The numbers of Hong Kong students known to have left for further studies in the United States, Canada and Australia are 981, 383 and 213 respectively.

The government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain under the control of a board of governors appointed by and respon- sible to the government. It accommodates some 80 students and serves as a focal point and meeting place for many more.

ADULT EDUCATION

Adult education is provided by the Education Department in the Evening Institute (enrolment 19,458), the Technical College Evening Department (9,961), the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies (252) and in 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres (42,666).

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      The Evening Institute offers different types of courses designed to make up education deficiencies and improve employment prospects. There are English classes ranging from elementary level to post- school certificate standards; teachers' classes for art, music, hand- work, woodwork, physical education and the teaching of English; post-primary extension classes providing an additional three-year training with a practical bias for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level; and secondary school classes leading to the two school certificate examinations. Rural literacy classes and general background education classes provide fundamental and elementary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. Practical background education classes give adults an opportunity to learn woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. A new middle school course for adults leading to the Chinese school certificate examination started in September. With the inception of this course there now exists for adults in Hong Kong a complete educational ladder leading from the literacy level up to post-secondary studies. The total number of classes is 727 in 70 locations in the rural and urban areas.

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers to holders of Chinese or English school certificates a three-year course in general arts, leading to a diploma issued by the Education Depart- ment. Subjects include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology, English language and literature. Most of the students are teachers in the day time.

Education and recreation are combined at the 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres, which provide a wide variety of recrea- tional, cultural and creative activities for developing a civic sense and personal fulfilment in communal activities. These range from music appreciation and physical education to group study of art, photography and dramatics. Civics talks are well attended and always arouse enthusiastic discussion.

       The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong provides about 200 courses for students. Some of the courses are conducted in Cantonese and Mandarin, though the majority are in English. Subjects vary from Oriental studies and a full range of liberal arts and language topics to economics, law and commercial subjects, and include a rapidly growing section

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of vocational and professional courses leading to a number of qualifications, including the LLB of London University.

      A Department of Extra-Mural Studies established during the year at the Chinese University of Hong Kong offers about 75 courses at present, the majority of which are conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin. In addition to the normal range of cultural, com- mercial and general interest topics, Chinese studies are specially featured, together with a category of subjects entitled 'East-West Understanding'.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER TRAINING

In March there were 25,643 full-time and part-time teachers employed in registered day schools, of whom 6,954 were university graduates and 11,792 trained non-graduates. Another 4,922 teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes, and 129 were in special schools. At the end of the 1964-5 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of schools was 28.5:1. School classes are planned to have a maximum of 45 pupils in primary classes and 40 in secondary classes.

Most teacher training is carried out by the Education Department's three colleges--Northcote Training College, Grantham Training College and Sir Robert Black Training College. The Sir Robert Black College, and to a lesser extent the Grantham Training College, provide primarily a full-time one-year course for students from secondary schools who may obtain a primary teacher's certificate after two years of satisfactory teaching. Instruction in these courses is in Chinese. Both colleges have now started full-time two-year courses for Chinese language students. At Northcote Training College there are two-year courses for both English language and Chinese language students. The two-year courses qualify teachers for upper primary and lower secondary classes. A special one-year course for diploma holders from the colleges which now form the Chinese University is designed mainly for training teachers for Chinese middle schools and Anglo-Chinese secondary schools. The English two-year course is recognized in Britain for employment as a qualified teacher.

      The colleges also organize in-service courses of training for un- qualified teachers. There are part-time evening courses, either in

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Chinese or in English, of two years duration. Successful students are awarded a certificate granting qualified teacher status.

Teacher training courses were formerly free of charge, but from the beginning of the academic year in 1965 new entrants to full-time courses were required to pay fees of $400 per annum in accordance with the policy laid down in the recent white paper on education. Students in full-time courses are permitted to apply for interest-free loans not exceeding $1,200 per annum and, in addition, maintenance grants of up to $1,600 per annum may be made to needy students. In September there were some 500 students in the two-year courses, 17 in the special one-year course, 397 in the one-year courses, and 1,256 in the in-service training courses.

      The Department of Education of the University of Hong Kong offers a one-year full-time and a two-year part-time course to graduates, leading to a diploma or certificate in education, in which 57 students are currently enrolled. A newly established School of Education of the Chinese University of Hong Kong offers a one-year full-time course to graduates, leading to a diploma in education. The first enrolment of students totalled 21.

EXAMINATIONS

       There are five local school examinations, three conducted by the Education Department, one by the University of Hong Kong and one by the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

      The Secondary School Entrance Examination is a competitive examination to select pupils for places in government and aided secondary schools and for subsidized places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to advise the Director on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate. Entrance from each school is limited to 60 per cent of its primary six pupils, but this percentage may be increased up to 100 per cent where justified by previous examination results. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

       The Hong Kong English School Certificate Examination is con- ducted by a syndicate of representatives from participating schools, the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong

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Kong and the Education Department. The University of Hong Kong and some overseas universities now recognize the pass with credit (grade three) in individual subjects as equivalent to ordinary level passes in the General Certificate of Education examinations. It is hoped that similar recognition may in due course be accorded by all overseas examining bodies.

The Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination, con- ducted by a syndicate of representatives of participating schools and the Education Department, is primarily intended as a test of general academic attainment in the Chinese middle school course. The requirements for the award of the certificate are similar to those for the English school certificate with the exception that Chinese is the compulsory subject instead of English. In 1965 the number of candidates increased from 3,004 to 7,085, mainly due to the convergence of the former six-year course of study in Chinese middle schools with the new five-year course. The number of participating schools increased from 57 to 70.

The University of Hong Kong conducts its own matriculation examination at advanced level, the standard of which is similar to that of the GCE advanced level examinations. The university conducted its last examination at ordinary level in 1965, and has announced that entry to the advanced level examination in 1966 will be restricted to candidates who have previously passed an approved qualifying examination.

      Entry to the matriculation examination of the Chinese University of Hong Kong is normally restricted to candidates who have com- pleted six years of secondary school education in an approved secondary school and who have gained passes in the required num- ber of subjects in an approved qualifying examination such as the English or Chinese school certificate examinations, or the Cambridge School Certificate Examination. Passes in at least five subjects, including Chinese and English languages, are normally required for entry to the university, and there are additional re- quirements for admission to various undergraduate courses.

The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examinations at standards com- parable with those in Britain. Of these examinations, the GCE

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examination is open to both school and private candidates who hold a school certificate of the required standard, and to private candidates of 25 years of age or over who are required to pass this examination as a pre-requisite to entering for a professional or university examination. London University degree examinations are also conducted annually in May and June. Appendix XXVII shows the more important examinations held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them.

MUSIC AND ART IN SCHOOLS

The Hong Kong Schools Music Association, which has a member- ship of 4,703, this year presented 12 concerts by local and visiting artists to its student members. The Annual Schools Musical Festival, held in March, attracted a record of 5,535 entries for over 300 classes, thus easily maintaining its place as the largest festival of its kind in the world.

The practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music were held from August until December. The number of entries rose to 3,872, preserving the Colony's distinction of having the second highest number of candidates throughout the 32 countries of the British Commonwealth served by the board. There were 1,395 candidates for the theory examinations and 35 for the practical and theory examinations of the Trinity College of Music. The major and grade examinations of the Royal Academy of Dancing attracted 29 and 278 entries respectively.

Two art competitions were arranged in connection with the agricultural show organized by the Agriculture and Fisheries Department, and one of the winning entries in the poster competi- tion was subsequently reproduced to help in general publicity. Paintings by Hong Kong school children are regularly sent overseas for exhibition in response to requests. During the year 50 paintings were sent to a 'Children's Art from the Commonwealth' exhibition, held at the Royal College of Art in London as part of the Com- monwealth Arts Festival. A larger collection was sent to the United States of America for display in a number of cities in connection with an export promotion drive sponsored jointly by the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries.

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UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

      A variety of research programmes were conducted by the Univer- sity of Hong Kong during the year and brief descriptions follow of those that have special relevance to the Colony.

      In the Faculty of Arts, the Department of Chinese and the Institute of Oriental Studies published research works including Volume V of the Journal of Oriental Studies (a double number for 1959-60), Historical Sources for the Study of the Hakkas, and works on Chinese classics and philosophers. In the Department of Economics and Political Science, research on Hong Kong's agriculture and housing situation was carried out in addition to projects undertaken about the China mainland covering national income, linear programming, education, youth, and politics.

      Through the Hong Kong Council for Educational Research, the Department of Education published the results of projects on educational developments and research having special reference to Hong Kong, the attainment and ability of Hong Kong primary IV pupils in selected schools, and the education of handicapped children. Other work included studies on failure in school, guidance and selection for university education, teaching of English as a foreign language, teaching of Chinese, and examining methods.

The Department of Geography and Geology continued projects on the structural fracturing and faulting revealed in the tunnel system of the Plover Cove Integrated Water Scheme in the New Territories, and the igneous rocks in Hong Kong, with special reference to felspar overgrowth in the granites and syenites. Other work included research on Tibet; a comparative study of a unique Chinese map drawn in the Ming dynasty and the lost first edition of Ricci's World Map; changing trends of the economic geography of China; recent industrial land use in Hong Kong; population changes and fluctuations in the New Territories; weathering profiles and rates of erosion; and major water projects in the New Territories with special reference to catchment areas and irrigation.

Research projects in the Department of History included those in the fields of Chinese, Japanese, and South-East Asian history, the main subjects being Chinese relations with Yunnan during the T'ang period; the State of Nanchao; British policy towards China between 1894 and 1902; Anglo-Japanese relations in the early

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part of the 20th-Century; modern Sino-Japanese relations; modern Chinese intellectual history; and aspects of South-East Asian history since 1870.

The Department of Modern Languages carried out research and published books and articles in two main fields-dialectology and the modern French and European novel. In the Department of Philosophy, research continued on the foundations of the social sciences and on problems of bi-lingualism. Studies on the sociology of the cinema and on the foundations of psychology were conducted, as were comparative studies in the psychology of personality.

      The Institute of Modern Asian Studies, established in 1960 to serve as a focus and centre of information for all work in the univer- sity in this field, continued its research on China's economic de- velopment with particular emphasis on external trade, foreign debt and economic aid to developing countries. In addition to Con- temporary China, the Institute brought out a quarterly journal, The China Mainland Review, which contains, in part, research findings of its staff members.

In the Faculty of Science, a survey of parasites on economic plants was begun in the Department of Botany, prior to research on the host-parasite relationships of plant diseases in the Colony. Research work in the Department of Chemistry included the chemistry of local plants, some aspects of textile chemistry, mech- anism studies in inorganic and organic chemistry, electro-chemistry, and X-ray structure determination. Nuclear chemistry facilities have also been set up.

      The Department of Physics extended its programme of research on the ionosphere by the measurement of the Faraday rotation of signals from earth satellites. An ionosonde station was built on the summit of Mount Davis and was in continuous operation from June. Research in the Department of Mathematics continued on the national income of Hong Kong and members of the staff assisted the government's special committee on higher education in its various research projects.

The Department of Zoology continued research along several lines including the form and function of endocrine glands of Hong Kong vertebrates; the dispersal, distribution, and evolution of insect species of Pacific oceanic islands; the form and function of

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bird proprioceptors; the histochemistry and physiology of insect secretory activity; and the ecology of Hong Kong mammals.

In the Faculty of Medicine, the Department of Anatomy was mainly concerned with the biology of the Chinese because of its basic importance to medicine, public health and education in this area. More than 15,000 normal Chinese children and young adults were carefully studied, ages ranging from birth to 25 years. Special attention was paid to the pattern of growth and development (sexual maturation, skeletal maturation, dental maturation, and the evolution of subcutaneous tissue); growth at adolescence; the factors that regulate and the factors that affect growth and develop- ment; and the physique and physical characteristics of young Chinese adults.

In the Department of Biochemistry, research on the effects of morphine on the hormonal control of metabolism revealed that morphine induces changes in hormonal mechanisms, that the drug assumes the role of a pseudohormone which participates in the adrenal complex of hormonal factors and thus gives rise to a state of physical dependence. In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, studies were continued on chemotherapy of tropho- blastic disease; quantitative assay of human chorionic gonadotrophin in trophoblastic disease; serum bilirubin assay in the newborn; lymphangiography in genital carcinoma; haemoglobin pattern in cases of hydrops foetalis; and the use of hypotensive drugs in toxaemia of pregnancy. In addition three new research projects were begun. The Department of Pathology continued research on disease of the liver and biliary passages common in Hong Kong, on bacteriological problems, and on kidney disease in childhood. Research projects in the Department of Physiology included the adaptation to changes in environmental temperature, metabolic changes in thiamine deficiency, toxic action of fish poison, heroin addiction, metabolic changes in pregnancy toxaemia, and the effect of diet on uterine function.

      The Department of Medicine continued its research in various diseases commonly encountered among the local Chinese popula- tion. The mechanism of hypoglycaemia in pyogenic infection and carcinoma of the liver was further elucidated. Erythropoietin was demonstrated in patients with carcinoma of the liver and eryth- rocytosis. An investigation into anaemias in pregnancy in Hong

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     Kong (made with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology) and studies on the incidence, biochemical and genetic charac- teristics of Cooley's anaemia and erythrocyte glucose-six-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were completed. The Paediatrics Unit continued its investigations on chromosomal abnormalities in con- genital anomalies and intersex. With the Department of Pathology it also conducted clinical and experimental studies on the nephrotic syndrome.

      Two projects in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery nearing completion at the end of the year were the blood supply of the femoral head throughout the healing process of fractures of the femoral neck, and the blood supply of the growing human spine and the sources of nourishment of the intervertebral disc. Other investigations included those into the blood supply of femoral head in the growing Chinese in relation to congenital dislocation of the hip and Perthes' disease, and the re-vascularization of bone grafts following anterior spinal fusion in dogs.

In the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, the Department of Architecture continued its comparative analyses into the problems of housing-particularly low-cost housing evolving new approaches in both planning and design. In the Department of Civil Engineering considerable use was made of an electronic digital computer for studies in the field of high building. Investigative work covered the influence of member stiffness on multi-storey framed structures and new methods for analysis and design of large foundation rafts. A start was made on constructing a 100-foot tall experimental building which will be used to measure the effects of typhoon- strength winds on tall buildings.

      The Department of Electrical Engineering carried out research on power systems. These included non-linear analysis of power net- works and system analysis using computational aids such as the digital computer and the AC network analyser. In addition work was done on the two-axis excitation of alternator and frequency- control servomechanisms in the BEAMA electrical machines laboratory; the effects of saturation on synchronous machine reactances; and the stability of control systems and effects of time delays on such control system performance. The Department of Mechanical Engineering made hydraulics models of two river

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streams in the New Territories for the government's hydrological survey and calibrated special measuring weirs.

     The Physical Education Unit carried out a pilot experiment on the effects of a time-tabled physical activity programme for first year undergraduates. Marked improvements in physical efficiency were noted at all levels. A study was also carried out to discover whether male undergraduates from families of low socio-economic status benefited more from an activity programme than those with high socio-economic status. Some evidence was produced showing that, as well as increasing in strength and endurance, these undergraduates gained markedly in weight.

     To promote research by the academic staff of the Chinese University of Hong Kong two institutes have been established- the Institute of Social Science and the Humanities, and the Institute of Science and Technology. Up to June 1965, grants were made under these institutes for the following projects: Application of Radioisotopes Tracer to Chemical Problems (Dr H. M. Chang); Energy Transfer Processes in Unimolecular Reactions, and Vibra- tional Energy Transfer between Gases (Dr Narl H. Chow); Inheri- tance of Ear Wax (Dr S. T. Chang); Culture of Volvariella Volvacea (Dr S. T. Chang and staff); Many Body Problem and Functional Analyses (Dr M. Kitamura); Nuclear Instrumentation (Mr L. S. Chuang); Plasma Diagnostics; Decomposition of B-Ketone Esters (Dr D. Chang); Kenetic Studies of Redox Reactions and Calion Exchange Equilibria (Mr Chi Hsu and Dr D. Chen); Cytochemical Studies of the Embryo Sac Development in Paspalum Orbiculare and Microsporogenesis in Asynaptic Maize (Dr C. Y. Chao); Studies of Hong Kong Flatfish (Mr S. C. Shen); Studies on Hong Kong Penicillia (Dr Y. S. Bau); Light Interactions in Dielectrics (Dr Hsu Baysung and Mr L. K. Su); Electronic Counter Circuits (Dr H. H. Ho); Estimation of Pb, Hg, and Cu in Urine (Dr Ma Lin, etc); Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution (Mr K. Y. Wan and Miss S. J. Yue); Electronics Instrumentation (Mr K. E. Chiang); A Study of Mencian Syntax (Prof Chou Fa-kao); Contemporary Chinese Social Studies-Indexing of source materials (Dr George Wong); Geography of Hong Kong (Prof Chen Cheng-siang); Teaching of History-supplementary to United States financial support (Prof N. E. Fehl).

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Early in 1965 an economic research unit was set up under the Institute of Social Science and the Humanities to carry on the study of supply and demand of agricultural products from the standpoint of Hong Kong. Operating under an agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture, the project will form part of an evaluation of long-term prospects for the supply of, and demand for, agricultural products throughout the world.

      In April 1965, under the auspices of the Institute, Sir Lindsay Ride embarked on a research project on the history of the Old Protestant Cemetery of Macau and the East India Company in South China during the period 1800-60.

7

Health

GENERALLY speaking the health of the population continued to be good during 1965 against a background of overcrowding. Unlike previous years there were no water restrictions and this may have partially accounted for the fact that for the first time since 1960 there was no case of cholera in the Colony. There was a steep rise in the notifications of, and deaths from, measles. This was largely due to an epidemic which occurred in the early part of the year. There was also a slight rise in the number of poliomyelitis

cases.

The number of traffic and industrial accidents requiring treatment in casualty departments and admission to hospital continued to rise. The mortality pattern showed fewer deaths from the com- municable diseases and more from diseases of later life, particularly neoplasms and cerebro-vascular accidents. Tuberculosis remained the most important health problem in the Colony, accounting for more sickness and deaths than all other communicable diseases combined.

     Following acceptance by the government in 1964 of a white paper on development of medical services in Hong Kong, the working party which prepared the white paper was reconstituted by the Governor as the Medical Development Plan Standing Committee. With the Director of Medical and Health Services as chairman, the committee comprises two nominated members of the Legislative Council and representatives of the Medical and Health Department and the Colonial Secretariat. The task of this committee is to keep the recommendations of the white paper under continuous review and to report its conclusions on all major matters to the government through the Medical Advisory Board. The first report of the committee was tabled in the Legislative Council in July 1965.

During the year the Sha Tin Clinic and Maternity Home, built with funds donated by the Government of the United States of

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America, was opened. In addition Kowloon Hospital, which had been undergoing renovation, started full-scale operation in its new role as a convalescent annex to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital. It also accommodates a tuberculosis and thoracic unit. Site formation was begun for a large general and infectious disease hospital in north-west Kowloon designed to meet the needs of this area and adjacent areas, which are expanding rapidly. The hospital is expected to be completed in 1972.

Live births again showed a decrease from the figure recorded in the previous year. A total of 102,195 live births were registered as against 108,519 in 1964 and the live birth rate fell from 29.4 to 27.0 per 1,000 of population. The crude death rate was 4.7 per 1,000 and there was a reproductive increase of 84,574 persons during the year. A table showing the principal statistics and rates over the years 1956-65 is at Appendix XXX.

The infant mortality rate showed a further fall to 23.7 per 1,000 live births, the neonatal mortality rate was 15.2 per 1,000 live births and the still-birth rate was 13.2 per 1,000 total births. There were only 34 maternal deaths and the maternal mortality rate was 0.33 per 1,000 total births.

ADMINISTRATION

     Statutory responsibility for administering the services which safeguard public health in Hong Kong rests with the Director of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Director of Urban Services, the Commissioner of Labour and the District Commissioner, New Territories. The Medical and Health Depart- ment provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease. In addition, doctors are seconded to the Urban Services Department, the industrial health section of the Labour Department, the CID and HM Prisons.

The estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department for the financial year 1965-6 is $106,044,500. To this should be added medical subventions to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Grantham Hospital, the Mission

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to Lepers Hong Kong Auxiliary, the Pok Oi Hospital and other organizations. These total $41,534,200. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department and medical subventions represents 8.62 per cent of the Colony's total estimated expenditure of $1,711,408,040. Estimated capital expenditure for the Medical and Health Department is $23,524,700.

There are five statutory bodies dealing with the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, and midwives. The Hong Kong Medical Council is responsible for the registration of medical practitioners and has disciplinary responsibilities under the Medical Registration Ordinance 1957; it is not an examining body. The Dental Council, Pharmacy Board, Nurses Board and Midwives Board all maintain registers, regulate training, hold examinations leading to registration or enrolment and have dis- ciplinary powers.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

      For the first time in five years there was no appearance of cholera in the Colony. In view of the continuing incidence of the disease in nearby countries, however, special preventive measures were taken throughout the year and strict quarantine restrictions were maintained in respect of various neighbouring countries declared infected. Bacteriological investigation was carried out of all specimens sent to government laboratories from cases of gastro- enteritis and there was daily sampling of nightsoil and routine sampling of seawater, well water and foodstuffs liable to be sources of transmission of the vibrio. All such samples proved to be negative and there was not a single isolation of the cholera organism. A mass immunization campaign against cholera started in April and by the end of the year a total of 1,603,875 inoculations had been given.

In spite of continuing satisfactory progress, tuberculosis remains Hong Kong's principal community health problem. Many thou- sands of unselected examinations carried out each year show that approximately 1 per cent to 2 per cent of the adult population is in need of treatment for the disease, with a smaller percentage of active tuberculosis occurring below the age of 15. There is ample evidence that tuberculosis in infancy and early childhood is now

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relatively rare by the standards prevailing 14 years ago, that the peak prevalence is in middle and later life and that the more intrac- table clinical problems occur mainly in males above the age of 45.

The mortality rate for tuberculosis has fallen from 208 per 100,000 in 1951 to 33.59 in 1965, and the change in age distribution has continued. In 1951 more than one-third of deaths occurred below the age of five, while today the proportion has fallen to 3.36 per cent. Above the age of 45 the proportion has risen from one-fifth to more than half, with a male preponderance of over two to one.

In the field of prevention, improved economic conditions are having some effect. However, while health education in the home, contact examinations, and X-ray surveys are proceeding, the prin- cipal specific measure aimed at tuberculosis prevention is the BCG vaccination campaign with emphasis on the vaccination of newborn babies. During the year 91.65 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 48 hours of birth. The vaccine is issued free to all doctors, midwives and hospitals. The School Health Service offers tuberculin testing and BCG vaccination where indicated to all school children. Toddlers attending maternal and child health centres are also tuberculin tested and vaccinated when necessary.

      The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort. The principal bodies participating are the Government Tuberculosis Service which maintains Colony-wide facilities for diagnosis and ambulatory chemotherapy-the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis As- sociation and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council. Certain other organizations, both charitable and private, also provide treatment facilities. Co-ordination between the many organizations involved is achieved through a Co-ordinating Committee for Treatment of Tuberculosis set up in March.

There are 1,860 beds available in the Colony specifically for the treatment of tuberculosis. Of these, 1,654 are in government assisted hospitals managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, the Tung Wah Hospitals Medical Committee and Caritas. The newly recondi- tioned Kowloon Hospital has 164 beds and the remaining 42 beds are in St John's Hospital on Cheung Chau Island. Both these are

Health Visitors go regularly to the most remote communities in the New Territories and at Sai Kung (above) Nurse Marina Tang prepares to set out by fast jet boat. Initially the biggest task is to win the confidence of the villagers and Nurse Tang does this (below) with easy-to-follow posters and talks on daily hygiene.

Like all Health Visitors, Nurse Tang had three years' training in one of Hong Kong's general hospitals. Then she did a further year as a student Health Visitor. In many villages the people still have an inbred distrust of both strangers and Western medicine and each Health Visitor has to find her own way of winning acceptance. In Nurse Tang's case it came when she rushed a child to hospital just in time to prevent it dying from tetanus. When she first started giving inoculations and vaccinations she often had to spend half an hour persuading parents they were not dangerous. Now most children have them as a matter of course.

The Health Visitor Service is completely free, and now that she is known and trusted in the villages Nurse Tang has no shortage of patients. Sometimes she sets up her 'clinic' in a village temple or school, but just as often the villagers stop her out in the fields and ask for advice. They know she can always help.

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government hospitals. A total of 2,230 patients were admitted to hospital for treatment during the year. Among patients who accept admission for treatment the level of co-operation is excellent and there are very few discharges against medical advice.

      The Government Tuberculosis Service operates full-time and part-time clinics in all areas where the distribution of the popula- tion warrants such activities. All diagnosis and treatment is free. There are five full-time chest clinics equipped with radiological facilities and treatment is available at these and at 16 subsidiary centres. Treatment sessions are held in the evenings at the five main centres for patients who cannot attend during the day. Medical social workers attached to the Tuberculosis Service maintain social histories and operate a tuberculosis assistance fund for those in need of financial or material aid while under treatment. Tuber- culosis workers undertake home visiting, health education, clinic duties and contact tracing. They also investigate the circumstances of those defaulting from treatment.

      During the year a total of 24,111 patients received continuous anti-tuberculous chemotherapy on an ambulatory basis at govern- ment clinics. Of these, 1,266 were on reserve anti-tuberculous drugs. A total of 1,224,557 attendances were recorded. Case finding by means of X-ray surveys is carried out by the government. There is an annual X-ray survey of all government servants and free surveys are carried out, on request, in schools and in industrial or com- mercial concerns. Certain conditions regarding sick leave and re-employment of proved cases are required of employers who wish to avail themselves of the survey facilities.

Most of the hospital treatment for cases referred from the Govern- ment Tuberculosis Service is undertaken in the non-profit-making Grantham Hospital operated by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association. The hospital has 613 beds, 576 of which are maintained by the government on a daily fee-paying basis.

      At the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Convalescent Home, with a total of 360 beds, some patients are admitted direct while others are admitted through the Government Tuberculosis Service. Treatment in these hospitals is free. Many beds are main- tained by organizations in Hong Kong and patients sponsored for these beds have a certain priority of admission. Both are staffed

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by the St Columban Order of Sisters and consultant services are supplied by the professorial units of the University of Hong Kong. An annual recurrent subvention is made by the government.

        The Anti-Tuberculosis Association also maintains at its head- quarters a BCG clinic, a follow-up clinic and a health education section. The policy of the association is formulated by a board and the hospitals are managed by the Grantham Hospital and Ruttonjee Sanatorium Management Boards respectively. Both hospitals offer approved training courses leading to the British Tuberculosis Association certificate in tuberculosis nursing.

       The Haven of Hope Sanatorium, managed by an executive com- mittee of the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, now has accommoda- tion for 240 tuberculosis cases. The government maintains 80 beds for the treatment of tuberculosis among villagers in the New Ter- ritories. The remainder of the beds are sponsored by voluntary and missionary bodies, which pay annual maintenance costs or guarantee the daily cost of maintenance of the patients they sponsor. In addition, there are two other units--one for rehabilitation prior to resettlement and the other an observation centre for child contacts who have a positive tuberculin test.

The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals maintains a varying number of beds for the treatment of more chronic forms of tuberculosis. Other institutions receiving support from the government which admit cases of tuberculous infection are the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Sandy Bay Convalescent Home, the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium and the Caritas Medical Centre.

       Venereal diseases are diagnosed and treated at free clinics maintained in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. Despite strict epidemiological control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and free ante-natal blood tests, the incidence of in- fectious syphilis continued to rise until 1964 when a fall in the numbers was recorded; this fall continued during 1965. Latent and late syphilis are steadily decreasing, while gonorrhoea has stayed at a comparatively unchanged level and the incidence of chancroid and lymphogranuloma remains very low.

       With the repeal of the Lepers Ordinance, leprosy became a notifiable infectious disease under the Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance from 1st June. Twenty outpatient sessions

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      are held weekly throughout the Colony solely for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy. In addition, sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with the dermatology and venereal disease clinics. Immigrants from China, many of whom show severe deformities, make up a large proportion of new cases appear- ing at clinics. Surgical appliances can be fitted to those with limb deformities. Prejudices against employment or rehabilitation of cured leprosy patients are gradually but steadily disappearing and widespread publicity is leading to a more humane and progressive approach to the problem by the community.

       The Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission to Lepers, with the aid of a government subvention, maintains 540 beds at the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium to which infectious cases are admitted voluntarily. In addition a small number of patients requiring surgical reconstructive operations are accepted.

       Malaria continues to be endemic but is restricted mainly to certain parts of the uncontrolled rural areas, the majority of cases during 1965 being reported from the Sai Kung District of the New Territories. The steady fall in the number of cases which has occurred over the last few years continued, only 143 notifications being recorded. The important carriers of malaria are Anopheles minimus, found breeding in hill stream seepages and irrigation ditches, and A. jeyporiensis var. candidiensis which breeds in rice. cultivation, fallow rice fields, pools in rice stubble and water flowing through grass. Other anopheline species found in the Colony play little or no part in malaria transmission. Plasmodium vivax is the predominant parasite responsible for the infection.

       Malaria control in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures consisting of draining and cleaning streams, ditching and oiling. Anti-malaria oil continued to be employed as the main larvicide but malathion, diazinon or BHC were used on a limited scale in areas where the application of oil was not suitable. These anti-larval operations against anopheline breeding afford protection to approximately 80 per cent of the population. None of the few cases appearing in the urban areas during the year could be attribut- ed to breakdown of these control measures. In the remainder of the New Territories where the background is essentially rural the adoption of either anti-larval or anti-adult measures is not feasible at present and chemoprophylaxis remains the main protection.

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      Diphtheria continued to occur mainly among children under 10 years of age. An immunization campaign has been in progress since 1959, interrupted only by the need for anti-poliomyelitis and cholera inoculation drives. House-to-house visits are conducted in resettlement estates and other crowded areas, and teams of inoculators visit squatters both on hillsides and on rooftops. Every effort is made to inform parents of the dangers of the disease and of facilities available for the protection of their children. As a result there has been a steady decrease in the incidence of the dis- ease from the high total of 2,087 cases in 1959. During the first three months of the year the incidence of diphtheria was somewhat higher than anticipated. However with the onset of cooler weather in October the usual sharp rise in the number of cases did not occur so that taking the year as a whole the annual incidence of the disease showed a further decrease. The case fatality rate rose from 5.4 per cent in 1964 to 6.4 per cent in 1965. Most deaths occur in non- immunized children who have advanced largyngeal or pulmonary complications due to delay in seeking proper medical attention.

      Typhoid fever showed a very considerable decrease compared with 1964 and preceding years. This disease is frequently associated with dirt and generally insanitary conditions, and its decrease is probably connected with the continuous water supply available throughout the year. Free inoculation is offered and the usual control measures are enforced with special attention to the detection of carriers among food handlers.

Poliomyelitis, which had shown a low incidence since a widespread immunization campaign using oral vaccine was carried out early in 1963, increased during the year. This increase was largely due to an outbreak of Type I infection which occurred mainly in the northern part of Kowloon and in Tsuen Wan during March, April and May. Approximately half of all children born receive anti-poliomyelitis vaccine at maternal and child health centres and general campaigns are held yearly in an attempt to immunize the remainder.

Measles is most prevalent during the cooler months and outbreaks normally occur in alternate years. Such an outbreak occurred during the winter months of 1964-5. There were 217 deaths recorded during the year and the high case fatality among notified cases reflects the incompleteness of notification. Mortality is mainly due to

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bronchopneumonia encountered too late for treatment to be

effective.

PORT HEALTH SERVICE

       The Port Health Service enforces the International Sanitary Regulations, as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance and Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases Regulations 1955. The service collects and distributes in- formation on notifiable diseases, provides inoculation and vaccina- tion facilities for travellers and transmits medical advice by radio to ships at sea. During the year special care was taken to prevent the spread of cholera from nearby infected areas and action was taken against those who attempted to enter Hong Kong from such areas without a valid international certificate against cholera.

A regular exchange of epidemiological information is maintained with the World Health Organization in Geneva, the Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila and with ports and airports in other countries. Passengers arriving by land, sea and air are medically examined as necessary and quarantine measures enforced against travellers from infected ports and airports.

The Port Health Service is responsible for sanitary control of the port and airport and these areas were kept free from Aedes aegypti throughout the year. There is regular supervision of the purity of water supplied by dock hydrants and water boats, and of the airport catering service. Ships are inspected to determine the extent of rat infestation and international deratting certificates issued. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and returns of rats destroyed and epidemio- logical examinations for plague are submitted weekly to the World Health Organization's international quarantine service.

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

       Hong Kong's maternal and child health services play an important role in maintaining health among infants and mothers, and there is increasing public understanding of the value of their facilities. Most babies are born in hospital maternity wards or in maternity homes (slightly more of them in the latter) and confinements at home attended by government or private midwives are less than 5 per cent of the total.

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       The Government Midwifery Service now has 28 district centres, two of which provide a domiciliary service. There are another 183 registered midwives practising privately in 104 maternity and nursing homes. Registered maternity homes are inspected regularly by the supervisor of midwives and her staff to ensure that conditions of registration are observed and that a sufficiently high standard is practised by registered midwives not working under the direct supervision of a doctor. Refresher courses are arranged by the government for private midwives.

        The Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 31 centres, 15 of which are full-time. Clinics are held for infants and toddlers, and for children between two and five years old. Ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also held at these centres. Whenever necessary, babies attending the clinics are visited at home and health visitors also go to the homes of new-born babies whose names appear in monthly birth returns. Health education forms a most important part of this work and includes practical demonstrations, talks, film shows and individual advice to mothers. Immunization against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and tuberculosis is offered at all centres.

The School Medical Service is operated by the School Medical Service Board, an independent body incorporated by ordinance, in conjunction with private medical practitioners, pharmacists and principals of schools. It offers a service whereby children attending schools registered with the Education Department receive medical treatment for the small sum of $7 a year. This per capita fee does not meet the cost of the service and the government contributes an equal sum, together with an additional $1 a head to cover admin- istrative expenses. At the end of the year 46,759 students attending schools were enrolled in the service and 250 private practitioners were participating.

The School Health Service, which has been in existence since 1927, continues as a government responsibility and is concerned with the sanitary condition of school premises, the control of com- municable diseases and the health education of children, teachers and parents.

MENTAL HEALTH

The Castle Peak Hospital for psychiatric patients, originally designed for 1,000 beds, was required to accommodate an average

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of some 1,360 patients during the year. Psychiatric cases from the whole Colony are admitted to the hospital, the great majority of them being voluntary patients. Outpatient treatment is available on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and in the New Territories, and day patients are also treated in the psychiatric centre on Hong Kong Island. A psychiatric observation unit is operated in Victoria Remand Prison and there is one ward for very low-grade mentally subnormal children in the Tung Wah Hospital.

The Shek Kwu Chau Rehabilitation Centre for drug addicts, operated by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts (SARDA), is situated on a small island near Cheung Chau and provides treatment on a voluntary basis for male drug addicts. Treatment during the period of acute withdrawal was previously undertaken at the Castle Peak Hospital, but with the opening of a withdrawal unit the centre now supervises this stage. It also assesses patients before admission, builds up their physical condition while at the centre and operates a comprehensive follow- up service after discharge.

HOSPITALS

      There are 13,176 hospital beds available in Hong Kong for all purposes (see Appendix XXXII). This figure includes maternity and nursing homes but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds, 11,146 are in government hospitals and institutions and in government-assisted hospitals, while the remain- ing 2,030 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the mentally ill and the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases, there are 9,450 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity. This gives a ratio of 2.48 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed capacities of the various hospitals, but in many cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used extensively whenever the need arises.

      The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the largest acute general hospital in the British Commonwealth, serves as the emergency hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories. Although the hospital appears as a single unit, it has been designed as two separate 13-storey 'ward-stacks' joined on the lower three floors by ad- ministrative areas. It accommodates 1,388 beds with all necessary

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ancillary and specialist services. The hospital also contains the Queen Elizabeth Jockey Club Institute of Radiology which in- corporates the most recent advances in radiotherapy and is un- doubtedly the most comprehensive centre in South-East Asia for 'the treatment of malignant diseases.

The renovation of Kowloon Hospital was completed during the year and it is now used mainly as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent care and rehabilitation. There are 500 beds of which 164, linked with thoracic surgery and pulmonary function units, are allocated to the care of patients suffering from tuberculosis and other diseases of the chest.

On Hong Kong Island the government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary, which performs the same functions for the island as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital does for Kowloon. This hospital is also the teaching hospital for the medical faculty of the University of Hong Kong. Extensive additions and alterations to the hospital are being undertaken and are expected to be com- pleted by 1967. The extensions comprise a six-storey professorial suite, a seven-storey block containing operating theatres and specialized services, a greatly expanded radio-diagnostic department, and new accommodation for nurses and for the nurses' training school. An additional 180 beds will also be made available.

Other government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialized purposes. Apart from the Castle Peak Hospital they include two infectious disease hospitals (one of which accommodates con- valescent patients from the two acute emergency hospitals), a maternity hospital of 200 beds where teaching of medical students and training of midwives is carried out, and a small hospital for the treatment of skin and venereal diseases in women and children. Two smaller general hospitals are maintained, one on Cheung Chau Island and the other on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also maintained in the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many government clinics and dispensaries.

The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is an entirely Chinese charitable organization founded 95 years ago and managed by a board of directors elected annually. It operates three general hospitals- the Tung Wah, the Tung Wah Eastern and the Kwong Wah. These

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hospitals, which receive a large government subvention, provide a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernized and expanded. The main item in the programme of modernization has been the re-development of the Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon into a modern general hospital' of some 1,500 beds. This re-development was completed during the year and the hospital was opened by the Governor on 23rd March.

      To meet the growing need for subsidiary beds for long-term patients the Tung Wah has undertaken two major projects. The first is the construction of a large infirmary at Wong Tai Sin and phase I of this project-built with the aid of a donation of $1,536,000 from the Australian World Refugee Year Fund and a government grant-provides 350 infirmary beds and was completed in September. Construction started during the year on phase II of this project and also on a second project which will contain 275 beds and which is designed, in part, to replace some existing but dilapidated accommodation at Sandy Bay.

       Another long-established Chinese charitable organization operates, with the assistance of a government subvention, the 118-bed Pok Oi Hospital near Yuen Long in the New Territories. A new outpatient department, replacing an old and unsatisfactory building, was opened in January and foundation work was completed for a new wing. This is designed ultimately for a seven-storey building but planned initially for three storeys which will provide improved and expanded facilities, especially for maternity and paediatric patients.

       There are also the hospitals operated by the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis Association and a number of general hospitals main- tained by missionary and other charitable organizations. Among those maintained by missionary organizations are the Caritas Medical Centre of 490 beds in the densely populated So Uk district, the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium which provides medical care and rehabilitation for 540 patients, and the Haven of Hope Sanatorium, which accommodates 240 patients and where a technical services block and rehabilitation centre were completed during the year. Several of these institutions receive substantial financial assistance from the government while others are supported in varying degrees by fees, voluntary donations and grants from missionary funds.

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In some cases, where a proportion of low-cost or free beds is main- tained and where any excess of income over expenditure is used for hospital development, land is granted without premium and rates are refunded through government subvention.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

       In government hospitals there are clinical specialists in anaes- thetics; chest surgery; dentistry; ear, nose and throat diseases; eye diseases, general medicine, general surgery, neurosurgery; obstetrics and gynaecology; orthopaedic surgery; psychiatry; pathology; radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy. There are also specialized clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene. The Malaria Bureau, the Government Chemist's laboratory and the forensic pathology laboratory also provide specialist services. The Govern- ment Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. There are blood banks at the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth hospitals and the Hong Kong Branch of the British Red Cross Society operates a blood collecting centre for the voluntary donation of blood. The Institute of Pathology carries out laboratory work for the blood banks. The Government Chemist is responsible for the work of an analytical laboratory which undertakes a wide range of investigations concerned with food, narcotics and medico-legal work as well as a considerable amount of non-medical investigation.

OUTPATIENT CLINICS

       To meet the increasing demand for treatment by modern Western medicine, the outpatient services provided by the government, by subsidized organizations and by private agencies are developing steadily. Many charitable and missionary clinics provide treatment either free or at a nominal cost. Numerous organizations, partic- ularly the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, continue to take an active interest in medical and health problems. A large number of outpatient clinics are supported by kaifong, district and clansmen's associations. Commercial concerns and trade unions also operate clinics for their members.

One new government clinic was opened at Sha Tin and the government now maintains 40 clinics for general outpatients.

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Specialist facilities are available in the major centres in the urban areas and, in the New Territories, the same facilities are provided by visiting teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. Mobile dis- pensaries and floating clinics take medical services to the more remote areas of the New Territories, especially the isolated villages on the eastern and western coasts. The flying doctor service which enables doctors and nurses to visit remote areas of the New Ter- ritories was temporarily interrupted during the year due to lack of helicopters, but was resumed in September.

       The Medical Clinics Ordinance, 1963, provides for the control of medical clinics in order to protect the public from exploitation in so-called charity clinics where the service provided is below an acceptable standard. Implementation of the ordinance, which was brought into effect in 1964, continued and by the end of the year 466 clinics had been registered. Throughout the year the clinics were regularly inspected and advice given to the unregistered doctors practising in them. In June an Advisory Committee on Clinics was appointed by the Governor to review the operation of the ordinance, particularly in respect of clinics registered with exemption, and to make recommendations for the future.

DENTAL SERVICES

       The government dental service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid government officers and their families, and offers a limited treatment programme for inpatients of government hospitals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The service also provides emergency treatment for the general public at certain clinics. There are 30 government dental clinics and a mobile unit serving the New Territories.

Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supply began in 1961 and most of the population now receives water which has been treated with sodium fluoride or sodium silico-fluoride. The rate of enrichment is 0.7 parts of fluoride per million in summer and 0.9 parts per million during winter. It is anticipated that this measure will bring about a marked reduction in the prevalence of dental caries, particularly among children, in the future.

Many voluntary bodies and welfare organizations, particularly the Hong Kong Dental Society and the St John Ambulance Brigade,

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maintain free or low-cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free. The Church World Service, the Lutheran World Service and Caritas operate fully equipped mobile dental clinics.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

      Based upon two full-time outpatient centres equipped with operating, investigation and treatment rooms, this service operates on a sessional basis in the urban areas and in the outlying districts of the New Territories. In 1953, 80 per cent of the blind population of the Colony had become blind before reaching the age of 10. With the application of modern drugs, special attention to the condition of avitaminosis and free treatment to those under 12 years, the position is now comparable with conditions in advanced countries with the onset of blindness in 80 per cent of cases occur- ring after the age of 50.

TRAINING

       The University of Hong Kong confers the degrees of MB, BS and these have been recognized for registration by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain; a panel for post- graduate medical education, consisting of university and govern- ment staff members, supervises this training. Due mainly to this programme over three-quarters of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department are now held by locally- recruited staff. Facilities at the university and at the Queen Mary Hospital are being expanded to increase the number of graduates from 50 to 80 a year.

       Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry but a government dental scholarship scheme each year enables a num- ber of students from Hong Kong to study dentistry overseas and ultimately to qualify as dental surgeons.

       There are three government hospital schools of nursing. Those at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Queen Mary Hospital are general schools, while that at the Castle Peak Hospital is a psychiatric nursing school. Training is in English at these schools but there are approved schools also at the Tung Wah hospitals,

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the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, in all of which the medium of instruction is Cantonese. Examinations are held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board and there is full reciprocity of registration between the Hong Kong Board and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales.

       Most female nurses on completion of their general nursing training take a midwifery course of one year, which qualifies them for entry to the examinations held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The course is conducted in English at government hospitals and in Cantonese at the other approved schools. For student midwives who are not registered nurses, a two-year course of training at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital (and to a limited extent at the other approved training schools) is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examinations. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given and full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is therefore not possible in present circumstances.

The examination board in Hong Kong of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the health visitor's certificate, the public health inspector's certificate and the tropical hygiene certificate. A course for the health visitor's certificate is conducted by the Medical and Health Department, while training for the public health inspector's certificate and the tropical hygiene certificate is carried out within the Urban Services Department.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

The Urban Council has statutory obligations in the urban area of the Colony for environmental sanitation and hygiene, the public health control of food, the enactment (subject to the approval of the Legislative Council) of by-laws relating to public health and hygiene, and their enforcement, and the maintenance of certain places of public recreation-principally parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches.

The Council derives its main powers from the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance 1960, and legislation is enforced through the Urban Services Department. The Director of Urban Services is directly responsible for similar public health measures

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in the New Territories. The department is organized into three main divisions, one dealing with cleansing, conservancy, cemeteries and crematoria, one with food and general hygiene, and the other with hawkers, markets, slaughterhouses and public amenities.

      The hygiene division is responsible for standards of environmental and food hygiene throughout the urban areas. The division also assists the Medical and Health Department in the control of in- fectious diseases including food-poisoning cases. Standards of domestic hygiene are controlled by a system of house-to-house inspections carried out at intervals varying from six months to one year depending on the type of premises. Anti-fly and anti- mosquito work is also the responsibility of the district health staff. Restaurants, food factories and other premises where food is handled are inspected at regular intervals. During 1965 special food hygiene squads were formed. Eight food inspectors are em- ployed on food inspection duties in Hong Kong and Kowloon, their work including inspection and sampling of both local and imported foods.

      Precautions against cholera continued throughout the year. Health education covers a wide field and is an integral part of the activities of all branches of the Medical and Health Department. A special health education section is active in the New Territories under the Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, stressing rural sanitation. During the year the health education section, under the direction of the Health Education Select Com- mittee of the Urban Council, again organized publicity campaigns on aspects of environmental hygiene. Food hygiene courses, pri- marily designed for staff of restaurants, were extended to other food handlers including caterers in school canteens and clubs.

As in previous years kaifong associations continued to co-operate in publicity as well as in immunization campaigns. Many of these associations run their own health committees and take a lively and practical interest in the health problems of their respective districts. The associations again combined to organize a health education exhibition, in which major health problems were em- phasized. A striking success during the year was the joint efforts of kaifong associations and government departments in 'Keep Your District Clean' campaigns. The pest control section of the Urban Services Department works primarily on the control of pests such

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as rats, mice, cockroaches, ants, fleas, bed-bugs, and biting midges. In the New Territories it also carries out measures for the control of flies and mosquitoes. The supervision of slaughterhouses, and also of shops and markets selling fresh food, provides another means of controlling health conditions. It is hoped that the difficulty of maintaining high standards in the present old and inadequate slaughterhouses will be relieved by two new abattoirs now being built. Street hawking is an integral part of the Hong Kong daily scene. There are 30,500 licensed hawkers engaged full or part-time in this trade and probably as many again who are unlicensed. While there is no denying that hawkers meet a public need, such numbers cause congestion and obstruction in narrow streets and give rise to health problems. The Urban Council, which is the authority for licensing and controlling hawkers, is gradually meeting these problems by concentrating hawkers in side streets and bazaar areas where the Hawker Control Force can be most effectively deployed. The sale of fresh meat, fish and poultry by hawkers is prohibited in the interests of public health and these commodities may be sold only by licensed shops or market stalls where hygienic standards can be maintained. The great majority of pedlar hawkers therefore sell vegetables and fruit.

Most districts have markets where the housewife can buy fresh meat, fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables under hygienic conditions. Many of these markets, however, are old and out-moded, making it difficult to maintain hygienic standards, and the Markets Select Committee of the Urban Council has embarked on a programme of market reconstruction. This runs parallel with its policy of providing new markets in areas where they are needed.

      The quantity of city garbage cleared daily in 1965 amounted to some 1,500 tons. This was carried from Hong Kong Island by barges to a coastal dump at Gin Drinker's Bay; from Kowloon the refuse was carried direct to the dump. Two large oil-fired incinerators, each with a capacity of 1,000 tons of refuse a day, were under construction on each side of harbour at the end of the year. Nearly 5,000 labourers were employed on street cleansing, the removal of refuse and nightsoil collection. Difficulty was experienced in recruiting labour for street cleansing and the first mechanized street sweeping vehicle was put into use.

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      The main emphasis during 1965 was in the fields of virology, cholera and tuberculosis. The virus laboratory continued research work on influenza and other respiratory viruses and it was shown that the para influenza virus was fairly common and that the re- spiratory syncytial virus was a frequent cause of respiratory infection in children under one year of age. There was a small outbreak of influenza A2 strain in the spring. Adeno-virus types 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 14 were also isolated from time to time. As yet arborvirus cannot be fully investigated, but a group specific test-the haemag- glutination-inhibition test can be carried out and preliminary results indicate that group B arborvirus may be fairly common in Hong Kong. Further studies were undertaken on serological response both to the continuing poliomyelitis vaccination campaign and to alternative schedules of administration of the vaccine.

       With cholera, research continued into the strains of vibrios isolated in previous years. Preliminary investigations were conducted to assess the possible value of phage typing. In spite of the absence of cholera this year, the isolation and typing of non-agglutinable vibrios from nightsoil continued.

       A controlled trial is being conducted jointly by the Hong Kong Tuberculosis Service and the Medical Research Council to assess the efficacy of Thiacetazone in the treatment of tuberculosis in Hong Kong. Also in the field of tuberculosis an investigation is being made into the state of tuberculin sensitivity at every age group to assess whether any modification is needed in the present BCG programme. In histopathology, histological typing of salivary gland tumours was started and the morphlogical changes of the pancreatic duct in pancreatic clonorchiasis were studied.

8

Land and Housing

ALL land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Nowadays, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories land are now normally granted for a period of 99 years less three days from 1st July 1898 and therefore terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

      Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the respon- sibility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon hills called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories cover most of the built-up part of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them are recorded with the Registrar General. The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

      The government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction; all land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. Land for special housing projects, for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools up to the full market value for public utilities, the latter being payable by instalments.

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To ensure that scarce land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee undertakes to develop up to a certain rateable value within a specified period. The amount he must spend depends on the location and the type of development allowed. In addition to the covenant new leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, to accord with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent.

       Certain relaxations of time limits on building development were announced in November 1965. These applied to developers owning land which was either the subject of an exclusion order made before 1st July or held from the government under conditions of sale or grant executed before 1st July, and on which development had not begun or had not been completed. These developers became eligible to apply for an extension of one year-free of either penalty or premium-of the time limit by which they were bound to begin or complete their approved development scheme, or to fulfil their building covenant. In deciding to make this concession the govern- ment took particular account of the very large number of exclusion orders made during 1963 and 1964. Many of these schemes, which might otherwise have been spread over a longer period, were obviously undertaken at that time to avoid new restrictions under the Building (Planning) Regulations which were announced in advance in 1962. It was also felt that the concession was appropriate at a time when, in certain categories of domestic and other premises, supply temporarily exceeded demand.

       Sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land in accordance with the terms of the lease obtains the right to do so and that the community receives the maximum return in cash. As the rent reserved in the lease is low, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable the government to obtain direct financial gain from any increase in the value of the land after it has been sold. For this reason the very large increase in land values in recent years has resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since most of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long leases.

In the earlier part of this century the leases of lots lying in the better residential districts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon often included restrictions on the type and height of buildings. These

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      restrictions have served their purpose well, but the demands of an increasing population now require more intensive development. It has therefore become the practice for these conditions to be modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which preserve the amenities of each district while allowing more intensive development. Modifications of this sort are subject to the payment of a premium.

In recent years groups of 75-year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early days, chiefly in Kowloon, have been expiring. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases. Premiums for the new leases may, subject to certain conditions, be paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over an agreed number of years, most lessees preferring the latter method. Terms announced in 1960 provide for a maximum of 21 annual instalments and interest of 10 per cent. On re-grant, the boundaries of these lots are adjusted to conform with street im- provement lines, etc, and where land is needed for major replanning schemes the leases will not be re-granted. In these latter cases the government has announced its intention to pay ex gratia com- pensation for buildings. For churches and temples already on non- renewable leases, new leases may be granted free of premium.

       An increasing number of 75-year renewable leases are also falling due for renewal. In these cases, under terms announced in 1963, the Crown lessee of an under-developed lot has two alternatives. He may renew either at a Crown rent based on the full rental value of the land without added lease covenants, or-if he is prepared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal at a lower Crown rent.

      With the increasing need to seek sites for major schemes in the New Territories, outline development plans have been prepared or are under preparation for building new towns and expanding existing market towns in those areas best suited to industry and high-density housing. These are Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Castle Peak, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po, Shek Wu Hui, and Junk Bay. However, most of these development areas contain a high proportion of leased agricultural land and there is not enough Crown land to serve public purposes. As development proceeds, Crown lessees are invited to surrender agricultural and village or rural building land in exchange for a re-grant of building land, with boundaries con- forming to the development layout. Within layout areas these

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     exchanges are normally negotiated on a foot-for-foot basis for building land surrendered, and a five feet for two feet basis for the agricultural land surrendered, with a premium payable equal to the difference in value between the land surrendered and that re-granted. This system has proved acceptable to landowners and has been further eased by the issue of letters entitling any landowner who voluntarily surrenders land at the time when it is required for a public purpose to a future grant of land when this becomes available. The current depression in the real estate market and general tightness of credit have, however, placed some strain on the system, but it is hoped that the position will improve when demand for building land catches up with supply and investors regain confidence.

LAND SALES

       There can be no doubt that the most important factor affecting the property market during 1965 was the tightness of credit facilities which persisted throughout the year. Purchasers found greater difficulties in obtaining mortgages and building finance, and con- sequently the demand for Crown land offered for sale by public auction was reduced. As a result, it was considered advisable to review the policy which had been adopted in the urban area over the last few years of offering land for sale by public auction in accordance with a pre-announced programme. It was decided, in view of the lack of demand for residential lots and the temporary shortage of industrial lots, that no programme of urban land sales should be published for the third quarter of the year and a press announcement was made to this effect. A programme of sales was published for the fourth quarter, but was restricted for the most part to industrial land which had again become available, although a few sites available for development by the erection of residential-commercial buildings were included. For the time being, land for purely residential development was to be offered for sale by auction only in the event of an application being made.

       The difficulties of financing development also resulted in fewer applications being received for the grant of modifications of leases and the re-grant of expiring 75-year (non-renewable) leases.

On 1st March 1965, the final date for tenders in respect of two parcels of land which formed the Naval Dockyard, it was found

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      that only one tender had been submitted, and this related solely to the portion of the Dockyard to the west of Kapok Drive. It was decided to reject this tender as being well below the estimated value of the land and to revise as soon as possible the layout of the area on more conventional lines, with the aim of selling in- dividual lots of a size in keeping with the location but with sale conditions likely to prove more attractive to developers.

       Sales in the New Territories during 1965 included four acres for industrial use, two acres for high-density residential and commercial use and 30 acres for schools, hospitals, welfare projects, public utility undertakings, workers' housing, low-density residential use and minor miscellaneous land uses.

       Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1964-5 totalled approx- imately $118,408,000, made up as follows: about $57,552,000 from 139 sales by public auction and tender; $4,903,000 from private treaty sales; $19,147,000 from modifications of lease conditions, extensions and exchanges; and $36,806,000 from re-grants of expired 75-year leases. Revenue from land transactions in the New Ter- ritories during the same period was $14,567,000. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant but may be occupied either on temporary annual permit or on short-term tenancy. The 1964-5 revenue from these types of tenure was $11,647,000 in the urban area and $1,258,000 in the New Territories; the latter figure includes modification of tenancy fees. As permanent development continues, it is necessary to cancel permits and the number in the urban area and in the more developed parts of the New Territories decreases year by year, although this does not apply to short-term tenancies.

SURVEYS

      All surveys in Hong Kong are plotted on the Colony grid which is a Cassini plane rectangular one with a false origin south-west of the Colony. Urban Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon are surveyed at the large scale of 1/600 (50 feet to one inch) because of the congested and crowded conditions in the built-up areas.

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To cope with development in the New Territories and pinpoint individual land holdings, a wide coverage of up-to-date survey sheets on a scale of 100 feet to one inch is being completed. Most of the Colony is being mapped from air photos by Hunting Surveys Limited, the Crown Lands and Survey Office providing ground control and field checks on photo plots. These surveys form the basis for plans at other scales for planning, land records and other purposes which are compiled from photographic reductions. In addition, a small-scale air survey is being carried out to form a basis for revising the 1:25,000 scale maps of the Colony.

TOWN PLANNING

Town planning in Hong Kong includes the development of new industrial townships, the re-development of out-of-date urban localities and the gradual expansion of the urban areas. The basic aim, therefore, is to provide a framework within which public and private development may progress together; to ensure that adequate provision is made for industry and housing, for open spaces, public buildings, communications and social services; and to control the use and stimulate the development of land.

Since 1953, plans have been prepared for 38 planning districts in the urban areas. In addition many large-scale layout plans have been drawn up covering small portions of the urban areas and the New Territories. These plans are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the re-development of private land, but have no statutory effect except where approved in accordance with the Town Plan- ning Ordinance.

The Town Planning Board consists of seven official and three unofficial members and operates under the Town Planning Ordin- ance. The board has, to date, published outline development and layout plans for 15 districts, 14 of which have been approved by the Governor in Council and one rejected. Approved plans cover the following areas: Aberdeen and Ap Lei Chau, North Point, Chai Wan, Yau Ma Tei, Hung Hom, Ma Tau Kok, Kwun Tong Chai Wan, Ngau Tau Kok, Fung Wong Village, Cha Kwo Ling, north- east Kowloon, Sha Tin, the central district of Victoria, and Tsuen Wan and district. Plans of Sha Tin and the central district of Victoria are at present under statutory revision. A draft plan for

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the development of Tsim Sha Tsui was made public in December and the board has been instructed to prepare plans of Castle Peak in the New Territories and Shau Kei Wan.

PRIVATE BUILDING

Completion of many more of the unusually large number of private building schemes initiated in 1963 continued during the year, with the result that the value of buildings certified for occu- pation was $979.1 million; this compares with $838.4 million in 1964. These figures do not, however, indicate the present state of the building industry, which can better be judged by the number of new building projects approved. It is interesting to note that in the four years immediately following the introduction of the Buildings Ordin- ance 1955, the figure for new projects remained stable at an average of 730 a year. Two quiet years followed, with a drop to 484 in 1959, rising again slightly to 564 in 1960. Then the tide suddenly turned and figures rose to 1,312 in 1961, 1,328 in 1962, and to an abnor- mally high peak of 2,578 in 1963. This sudden almost doubling of the figure in 1963 was due to developers submitting (and so ensuring the acceptance of) their proposals before the new and more restric- tive Building (Planning) Regulations took effect on 1st July 1963. In 1964 approvals dropped to 1,031, and this year to 859.

The cause of this year's drop in the number of new projects pro- posed can thus be attributed in part to the very high number of submissions in 1963-which included a great many schemes which would normally have been submitted a year or even two years later -and also to the subsequent completion of many of these schemes, which tended to saturate the property market. This latter factor eliminated the demand for, and attraction of, investment in real estate and resulted in a reluctance in financial circles to grant further building loans.

      In addition the provisions of the Buildings (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1964, had a considerable effect on proposals to re-develop the sites of old and dilapidated property. This legislation enabled the Building Authority to prohibit re-development where such work would endanger adjoining property. At the beginning of the year, 283 projects had been held up or affected and, although by the end of the year 221 of these had been started or re-started, over 100 other newly submitted projects were affected. The position was

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viewed with such concern at the end of 1962 that the existing official Working Party on Slum Clearance was augmented by the appoint- ment of three unofficial members and given as an additional term of reference the task of investigating this problem. The report of the working party was submitted in November and was still under consideration by the government at the end of the year.

The structure almost universally used in private building in Hong Kong continues to be reinforced concrete frame with floor slabs cast 'in-situ'. However steel framing is now being used to a greater extent than previously, particularly for prestige buildings in the central district of Hong Kong, and the most modern finishes and mechanical installations are fitted.

Despite the large number of new buildings erected during the past 10 years many old buildings of load-bearing brick wall and timber floor construction remain. Because of their age, coupled with neglect, over-crowding and the effects of typhoons and tropical rain- storms, the risk of sudden collapse is always present. The Building Authority carries out constant inspections of buildings which are suspect and during 1965 issued 279 closure orders for buildings which were either in imminent danger of collapse or had deterior- ated to such an extent as to create a grave risk to the safety of the occupants. In all, 17,408 people were involved and the way in which they were rehoused is described in the section of this chapter headed 'Squatter Clearances'.

The Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1965, which came into effect in August, amended several of the provisions of the principal ordinance. Its main effect, however, was to provide for the setting up of a panel of selected authorized architects who will serve on committees of review to hear appeals against decisions of the Build- ing Authority made under the powers conferred on him by the Buildings (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1964. Under this ordin- ance the Building Authority could either refuse to allow building works to proceed, or impose stringent and perhaps costly conditions before allowing them to proceed, if he considered there was danger to adjoining and other buildings. Although a committee of review will be able to overrule the Building Authority's decision this will not mean that he will no longer have any control over building works. Should the Building Authority consider at any time that a neighbouring building is endangered an order to cease work can be

Chinese New Year is Hong Kong's biggest celebration the one time of the year when all debts are supposed to be settled, when bonuses are paid, presents are given and there's a festive atmosphere that makes everyone want to spend, spend, spend. At New Year fairs, stuffed birds and palace lanterns-always on sale-sell readily.

1

Fairs to celebrate the New Year are held both on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. The fair (above) in Victoria Park, on the Island, attracts many thousands each day-and many more thousands after dark. Everything that goes to make for a Happy New Year is on sale, and on New Year's Eve business goes on till nearly dawn.

The Chinese orange trees on sale at New Year are supposed to bring luck, while the peach and plum blossom (left) is believed to be especially lucky if it blooms after being carried back home.

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issued, notwithstanding that work is proceeding as the result of a decision by a committee of review.

RESETTLEMENT

      Hong Kong's resettlement estates have attracted worldwide attention. Hundreds of thousands of people are being provided with housing by a low-cost building programme which, for speed and imagination, has few if any parallels. By the end of 1965 the Government of Hong Kong had become, through this programme, the direct landlord of about 815,000 people or 20 per cent of the population. An expanded building programme adopted in 1964 and reviewed annually aims at providing space for 900,000 adults by 1970. New blocks are being built at the rate of roughly one every seven days.

The resettlement programme was begun to cope with the housing problems created by a phenomenal growth in population in the years following the Second World War. Conventional housing was quite inadequate and many thousands of people-including large numbers of immigrants from China-made homes for themselves by building shelters or huts of any materials available on any piece of vacant land. These squatter settlements spread rapidly over the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. In many places there were colonies of squatters, some of 40,000 or more, living together in a closely packed mass, with their own shops and schools, and even factories and workshops. Sanitation was primitive or non- existent; there were frequent fires and a constant threat of epidemic disease. In addition, the presence of these squatters made it im- possible to solve the very problems to which they gave rise. The houses, schools and hospitals needed for the swollen population could not be built because the land required was often occupied by squatter shacks.

The first attempt to solve the squatter problem was made in 1948 when people occupying land in the centre of the city were moved to more outlying areas, which it was then thought would not need to be re-developed for some time. Later, 'approved resettlement areas' were established where dwellings were required to be built of stone or other fire-proof materials to an approved pattern. The disadvan- tage was that these areas reproduced many of the unsatisfactory features of the squatter settlements while the majority of squatters

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were too poor to be able to build or purchase the type of cottage required. This difficulty was partly overcome by the construction of cottages by welfare organizations which rented them to approved settlers, either direct or through the government, or accepted pay- ment for them by instalments. But the fundamental objection re- mained that this form of resettlement was uneconomic in both land and money and could not be used on a scale which would make any real impact on the squatter problem as a whole.

In 1954, after a disastrous squatter fire at Shek Kip Mei in which 53,000 people lost their homes, there was a drastic change in policy. A Resettlement Department was set up to co-ordinate the duties of squatter control and clearance which had previously been under- taken by several different departments. Government funds were then provided to build multi-storey accommodation blocks into which squatters could be resettled. These blocks, designed and built by the Public Works Department, were kept as simple as possible so that they could be put up quickly and let at rents which the squatters could afford.

       Basically each new building was in the form of an 'H' with com- munal washing and latrine facilities on each of the seven floors. Individual rooms varied in size from just under 100 square feet to just over 300 square feet, with the majority being of 120 square feet designed to house a family of four or five adults. Twenty-four square feet for an adult was taken as the minimum requirement for health. With minor modifications, though with an improved external appearance, 240 of these blocks (known as Mark I and II) had been built before the design was superseded in 1964.

To ensure that economical use was made of the available space, rooms were allocated according to the size of the family rather than the rent they could afford. Rents were fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimbursement of the capital cost of the building over 40 years (at 3 per cent per annum compound interest) plus an element for management, land and water costs. The rent of a stand- ard 120 square feet room was fixed at $14 a month. Electricity, if it was installed at a tenant's request, was at his own expense; com- munal lighting was provided by the government. Largely because of the increased cost of administration and water, rents for all Mark I and II rooms were (for the first time) raised during the year, the rent of a standard room going up from $14 a month to $18.

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        Not all resettlement accommodation is of the same uniform standard, because some families in squatter areas live in structures of a much higher standard than the average. To provide these people with better accommodation, self-contained flats with private balconies, kitchens, lavatories and showers have been constructed in a number of blocks. In urban estates, for example, the occupants pay a total monthly rental-including rates of $51.50 for such a flat of 240 square feet, or $74.75 for one of 360 square feet. H- blocks have also been modified to provide larger rooms on the ends of each floor with private balconies and their own water supply. These rooms in urban estates are let at a total monthly rental- including rates-of $56.50 or $53 to families cleared from better than average structures.

       In 1964 the original H-block was abandoned in favour of a new design of resettlement building. The new blocks, of either eight or 16 storeys and called respectively Mark III and Mark IV, differ fundamentally from the older blocks in that access to domestic rooms is from a central corridor on each floor instead of from external common balconies running along each side of the building. This new design makes it possible to provide each room with a private balcony. Other innovations include refuse chutes, the in- stallation of electrical power and light points in domestic rooms, and private lavatories in place of the former communal latrines and wash-houses. The 16-storey blocks are provided with lifts. The new blocks cost more to build but they are an advance upon providing only basic requirements. The monthly rent of a standard domestic room of 129 square feet in an urban Mark III block is $31.50, composed of $23 basic rent with elements for rating and water charges; a room of the same size in a Mark IV block costs $35. By the end of 1965, 53 blocks of both kinds, but mostly Mark III, had been built, bringing the total number administered by the Resettlement Department to 378, housing 740,000 people.

Despite the large population and the wide variety of rents now charged, the number of tenants failing to pay their rent is still extremely small. Of a total of $39,928,234 due in rents for the year, only about .02 per cent had to be written off as irrecoverable

arrears.

The resettlement estates are virtually townships (the population of Wong Tai Sin Estate, for instance, is now 87,952) and a wide

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range of community facilities must be provided. Ground-floor rooms are set aside to be let as shops or workshops to settlers who operated similar businesses in the clearance area. Shops are of various sizes. Those of 240 square feet in the Mark I and II estates are divided into four grades and are available at $200, $150, $115 or $80 a month rent according to locality. In the Mark III and IV estates the sizes vary again and, as with domestic rooms, rents are higher. The rents include rates and are subject to annual review. Some shop spaces are used by government departments and private welfare organizations as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops in Mark I and II blocks are put to use, most of them having been allocated to voluntary agencies who operate schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. In some of the Mark III blocks the top floors, suitably modified, are used for schools, while in estates incorporating Mark IV buildings separate six-storey annexes (each with 24 classrooms) are provided for school accommodation. There are community centres in some estates.

       Provision is also made for the small factories which always operate in squatter areas. To enable those resettled from such factories to continue earning a livelihood, multi-storey resettlement factory blocks have been built. With the passage of time it has also become necessary to recover, for more intensive development, land formerly occupied by factories on annual permits. These under- takings are generally more substantial than 'squatter' factories and workshops but, when their permits are cancelled, the owners often have difficulty in finding alternative accommodation. It has therefore been the practice for some years to offer resettlement also to the operators of such concerns when their permits are cancelled to enable the land which they occupy to be developed. Because of the need to use a simple design in order to keep construction costs, and therefore rents, as low as possible, a number of trades cannot be accommodated in the multi-storey factory blocks and conse- quently some factories can be resettled only if the owners are willing to change their trades.

      The factory blocks have industrial working space in units of 198 square feet in the older five-storey blocks, the first of which was completed in 1957, and 256 square feet in the latest seven-storey design. At the end of the year there were 16 resettlement flatted

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factories, containing a total of 1,282,902 square feet of net working space, mostly situated in or near existing resettlement estates. Rents are calculated to provide a return on capital within 21 years at 5 per cent per annum compound interest. They vary from $75 a month for a ground-floor unit to $45 a month for one on the fourth floor in the older factories, and from $140 on the ground- floor to $65 on the sixth floor in the new factories. All rents are inclusive of rates. In administering these factory tenancies, the Resettlement Department checks machinery and electrical and floor loading and, to secure satisfactory working conditions and safety from fire and other hazards, there is continuous liaison with the Labour and Fire Services Departments. A programme of installing additional rising mains and individual moulded circuit-breakers to factories was started during the year in order to catch up with the ever-increasing demands for electrical power.

       There still remain 14 of the old cottage resettlement areas in various parts of the urban area and New Territories, but the number of occupants tends to dwindle as clearance for development goes on and they are resettled in multi-storey accommodation. However, they still house 75,000 people. Several of the remaining cottage areas contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types, which are largely provided by voluntary agencies who continue to add generously to such facilities year by year.

SQUATTER CLEARANCES

      During the year 57,002 people were cleared and resettled from land required for development and 209 acres of land were thus freed. Due to the scarcity of land in the urban area it is becoming increasingly necessary to clear areas further afield to provide sites for new resettlement estates. A new estate is under construction at Yuen Long in the New Territories for squatters cleared locally.

       Reclamation schemes are reducing the number of sheltered anchorages and it has been found necessary to resettle boat squat- ters to relieve congestion. During the year 5,572 were resettled. The main aims are to preserve the maximum available space in typhoon shelters for fishing and other working craft and to reduce the serious health risk which static boats constitute.

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      Cultivators in the urban area who opened up their cultivation before October 1954, and who lost their land and livelihood through clearance for development, are given monetary compensation. During the year $681,570 was paid to cultivators against the clear- ance of 17.6 acres of cultivation.

New squatting is restricted as far as possible and periodical surveys are made to determine the number of squatters living in the urban areas and Tsuen Wan. A survey carried out in 1964 showed 488,984 squatters in the areas surveyed, including 65,317 on rooftops. All structures included in the survey will be tolerated until their clearance is required for development; any subsequently erected will be demolished as soon as they are discovered. During the year there were 16,995 demolitions of illegal untolerated struc- tures or extensions to tolerated ones. A total of 25,913 people were allocated sites on which to build temporary huts pending resettlement into estates. Of these, 4,292 were rooftop squatters from tenements demolished for redevelopment and 5,089 were tenants from dangerous buildings. At the same time, 23,161 in- habitants of these resite areas were resettled into estates.

      The increasing number of tenants evicted from dangerous pre-war buildings was one of the factors taken into account in a re-examina- tion of resettlement policy which took place in 1964. While the law already provided for compensation to be paid by landlords, tenants were not eligible for resettlement. The 'Review of Policies for Squatter Control, Resettlement and Low-Cost Housing', adopted by the Legislative Council as a guide to future policy, put the former tenants of dangerous pre-war buildings at the head of a priority list for resettlement. To avail themselves of this priority they pay a lump sum as an advance on their resettlement rent. This rent advance is returned to them in the form of a reduced rent over the first 10 years of their tenancy. In all, 10,186 people were resettled under this scheme during 1965, including 5,920 former tenants of demolished buildings already living in resite areas before the scheme came into effect.

The revised resettlement policy also gives priority for accom- modation to compassionate cases and victims of natural disasters, to squatters living in areas needed for re-development, tenants of over-crowded rooms in existing resettlement estates and to pave- ment dwellers. Associated with these changes are the new building

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programme and arrangements for those who do not have any priority for accommodation. Provision is made for homeless people, who are ineligible for resettlement, to erect their huts under licence in more remote areas where they will be free from disturbance for some years to come. The Resettlement Ordinance was amended during the year to give effect to the revised resettlement policy.

      The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettlement Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non- prohibited areas. In prohibited areas such as the margins of roads, development areas, and land exposed to flooding, no new domestic huts are allowed. In non-prohibited areas temporary structures may be built with a permit from the District Office. Outside Tsuen Wan there are as yet no completed resettlement estates in the New Territories, so when existing structures have to be cleared from areas required for road widening, water supply pipelines or other development, the occupants are normally given assistance in the form of building materials and rice to enable them to rebuild their huts on suitable sites elsewhere. An exception is Tsuen Wan where, during 1965, 25,702 persons cleared from areas required for development were resettled direct into local resettlement estates.

HOUSING

      Private enterprise has provided new accommodation for about two million people in Hong Kong during the past 10 years, a large number of them being families who have had to be re-housed as a result of old buildings being demolished. At the end of 1965 rated domestic accommodation in the urban areas (excluding resettlement estates) comprised 126,795 tenement floors, 31,444 small flats, 16,086 large flats, 977 houses and 27,961 low-cost housing units. Domestic accommodation predominates in many new building projects, but during 1965 the real estate market for this type of property was depressed, with the supply of certain types of flats, etc being temporarily in excess of demand. In March. 1965, there were 11,455 unoccupied domestic premises of all types compared with 8,055 in March 1964. However, these statistics must be viewed against the very high level of construction of such

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      properties in the past few years. To counteract the lack of interest by purchasers, there are now indications that real estate generally is taking on a new trend. More flats are available to rent instead of being for sale only, and special inducements are being offered to attract tenants.

The Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited, set up in 1964 by the government in conjunction with the Commonwealth Development Corporation and four of the leading banks in the Colony, began operations in August. The Agency's object is to make mortgage finance available at reasonable rates on a long-term basis to prospective owner-occupiers of new flats in the middle- income group. By the end of the year 33 blocks containing 2,767 flats had been approved by the Agency for loan purposes. In all, 101 applications for loans totalling $3.49 million had been received, and 93 applications had been approved for a total of $3.21 million. Apart from government housing programmes the Hong Kong Housing Authority, a statutory body created in 1954, provides the largest housing programme for people in need of low-cost housing. The Authority consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio, and certain other members appointed by the Governor. The ordinance constituting the Authority gives it wide powers relating to housing. It plans, constructs and manages its own estates, which are designed for those with family incomes ranging from $400 to $900 a month. Under this programme the Authority had housed 132,561 people in 22,086 flats in seven completed estates by the end of the year. In a new estate at Pok Fu Lam on Hong Kong Island, and in extensions to existing estates at Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, 7,898 flats to house a further 54,192 people are being built. The estate at Pok Fu Lam is the largest project so far undertaken by the Authority, covering an area of just over 24 acres. It will accommodate 51,392 people in 7,466 flats at a cost of $89,260,000. Four schools, kindergartens, a town centre with 16 shops and a market, medical and dental clinics, a post office, a public library, party rooms and other amenities are included. During the year approval was given for a new estate at Ping Shek, next to the existing estate at Choi Hung, and the site for this will become available in 1966.

The Authority's schemes already approved will provide housing for a total of 225,591 people in 35,366 flats at a capital cost of

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$350 million. Of this, $245 million will be provided by government loans and $105 million through self-financing. By the end of 1965 the Authority had spent over $203 million and its rent roll had reached $27 million. Sites for the Authority's estates are provided by the government at one-third the estimated market value. Rents are calculated on the basis of estimated working expenses and amortization of capital expenditure on buildings and land over 40 years at 5 per cent per annum compound interest. On this basis the Authority is required to balance its budget.

      Housing built by the Authority consists of multi-storey blocks of self-contained flats in large estates with provision for shops, clinics, schools and kindergartens. Playgrounds and other amenities are provided and a high standard of planning and construction is maintained. Rents for the Authority's flats range from $48 a month for a four-person flat to $139 a month for a 14-person flat. Selection of tenants is carried out on the basis of housing need and a points system is operated.

       In 1962 the Authority undertook, at the government's request, to manage all properties built under the government low-cost housing programme, which is designed to provide accommodation for people who earn less than $500 a month and who are living in insanitary or overcrowded conditions. As with the Authority's projects, these estates consist of multi-storey blocks of flats each containing a living-room, private balcony, cooking place and a water point. Whereas the Authority's flats have their own toilet and shower, however, low-cost flats share toilet facilities between two flats. Management of these properties is carried out by the Authority on a non-profit basis, the costs being paid by the govern- ment and rents credited to government funds. Rents range from $35 a month for a four-person room to $80 for a 10-person room.

       At the end of the year six low-cost housing estates, to provide accommodation for 67,261 people in 14,048 flats, were either fully completed or nearing completion. Work on two other estates had started. The original programme was to house 20,000 people a year, but this was considerably increased by a revised policy which laid down a new building programme for low-cost housing and resettlement. This programme provides for the construction of new accommodation for 170,000 adults over the next five years,

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     with a technical planning target to house 290,000 by 1974. The costs are estimated at $197 million and $353 million respectively.

       Maintenance and management of the Authority's estates and of the government low-cost housing estates is of a high standard, and includes rent collection and supervision by trained housing managers, maintenance officers and assistants. The staff of the Authority are all government servants working in the housing division of the Urban Services Department under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. The Authority reimburses all staff salaries to the govern- ment plus a percentage surcharge calculated to meet indirect staff costs such as pensions, housing and medical treatment.

       A number of voluntary organizations have built housing for lower and middle income groups during recent years. The largest of these is the Hong Kong Housing Society, a pioneer in the field of low-cost housing in the Colony. The Society has now housed 82,632 people in 13,353 flats on nine estates in different parts of the Colony. The rents of these flats are $37 a month for a small room with communal facilities, and a maximum of $165 a month for a larger room with adjoining kitchen, toilet and balcony. The estates are well laid out with playgrounds and gardens. The year was the busiest in the Society's history, with almost 5,000 new flats completed housing 30,944 people. Funds for the Society's schemes are normally provided by the government at low interest rates. The Society also operates a loan scheme under which firms lend money to cover the cost of constructing flats and in return are given a lease of accommodation for nominated employees. These loans are interest-free and are repayable over 20 years.

       Other voluntary organizations have made contributions. The Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation has recently completed five blocks at an estate at Tai Hang Sai, with 822 flats for 5,192 people. The Catholic Relief Services, in co-operation with Caritas- Hong Kong, has built 69 housing units at Sai Kung for fishermen's families. Industrial concerns frequently provide flats or dormitory- type accommodation for their employees, and some also provide housing. Since 1950 land has been made available by the government at one-third of its estimated value to encourage non-profit-making workers' housing projects.

The government helps its junior local staff by reserving for them 15 per cent of all domestic accommodation in government

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low-cost housing estates. Rents and other conditions of tenancy are the same as those for other members of the public. In 1952 a scheme was started to encourage local civil servants on the pension- able establishment to form co-operative building societies through which they could receive loans from the government to buy land and build flats. Under this scheme 205 societies with 4,101 members have received loans. Of these, 190 societies with 3,769 members have completed their buildings. The government has now reviewed the scheme. Further loans will be made to 60 groups which have already applied, but thereafter a new scheme will be introduced. Under this, the development of sites and the construction of multi- storey blocks of flats will be carried out by the government itself, thus ensuring the most economical and practical use of the funds available. Funds for the new scheme will become available in April 1966. Ten per cent of these funds will be reserved for building co-operatives organized on existing lines by groups of senior officers. The government also provides accommodation for its overseas staff and for many of its local staff, including police and fire service officers, nurses and resident staff on government installations.

In June 1965, an advisory Housing Board was appointed. The board, under the chairmanship of Mr K. A. Watson, an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, has a membership of four other unofficial members with housing or sociological experience and six official members concerned with housing matters. The board, which has a three-year term of office, is required to keep under review, and to report annually, progress in all types of housing construction; to assess present and future housing needs, not excluding ancillary social and employment facilities and the balance between types of housing; and to advise on co-ordination in execut- ing housing policies.

RENT CONTROL

Rent control, instituted by proclamation immediately after the war, was embodied in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance in 1947. This restricted rent by reference to pre-war figures and at the same time freed new and substantially reconstructed buildings from control. Thus, the broad distinction between controlled and uncon- trolled premises lies in whether they are pre-war or post-war build- ings. The 1947 ordinance allowed increases beyond standard rent

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of 30 per cent in the case of domestic premises and 45 per cent in the case of business premises. This figure of 45 per cent became 100 per cent in 1949; through further amending legislation in 1953, the 30 per cent rose to 55 per cent while the 100 per cent advanced in two stages to 150 per cent. These increases-55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises--still stand.

      Redevelopment of old buildings is covered by an important provision in the ordinance whereby premises may be excluded from its operation. This power rests with the Governor in Council and, in relation to particular premises, can be exercised only after a recommendation from a tenancy tribunal. Tribunals follow the criterion of public interest and award compensation to tenants based on the hardship which dispossession will cause them. Such compensation recommended by Tenancy Tribunals during 1965 totalled $18,825,592. This large sum must be viewed in relation to the enhanced value of the land resulting from the freedom to rebuild thus acquired. By comparison with the figure of $98,166,305 for 1964, however, it reflects a considerable falling off in the rate of development. This is further illustrated by the fact that in 1964 a total of 885 exclusion orders were made, but only 200 were made in 1965.

Since 1953 two tenancy inquiry bureaux have operated within the framework of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to help the machinery of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance work smoothly. The principal statutory duties placed on these bureaux are to provide tenancy tribunals with factual information whenever appli- cation is made by a landlord for exclusion from control, or by a tenant for reduction of rent. The bureaux also perform a wide range of extra-statutory duties connected with landlord and tenant legislation. The more significant among these is the satisfaction of a growing need for advice and information on their operation, and of informal mediation in disputes mostly between Chinese landlords and tenants, who by tradition prefer to avoid litigation. Apart from their mediatory and advisory services, the bureaux are responsible for the disbursement of ex gratia advances by the government of statutory compensation payable by landlords to occupants of pre-war dangerous buildings condemned and closed by the Building Authority. The scheme for such interest-free cash advances, which came into operation in November 1964, was

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      devised as an administrative measure to help tenants of dangerous buildings to face multiple difficulties incurred as a result of their being evicted from their homes and usual ways of living at very short or in cases of emergency-no prior notice. With their compensation tenants can build a hut in a resite area or use part of the money as a rent advance to obtain accommodation in a resettlement estate.

The Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance of 1952 gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants of new buildings who entered into verbal tenancy agreements often involving quite sub- stantial lump sum payments. In 1963, the three-year security under this ordinance was extended to five years for new tenancies com- mencing after 1st July 1963. Increases in rents in 1961 and in the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordinance, which came into force on 14th April 1962. Because many tenancies are monthly on a word of mouth basis, this ordinance (with certain exceptions) extended the period required for termination of domestic and business tenancies to six months' written notice. The ordinance was amended in October 1962 so that tenancies affected by it enjoyed general security of tenure up to 30th June 1963. Domestic tenancies were given further security of tenure for two years from 1st July 1963 following en- actment of the 1963 Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance, but for business premises general security of tenure-- apart from the obligatory six months' notice of termination ended on 30th June 1963.

The 1963 Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance deals with rent increase control rather than rent control and does not apply to initial lettings. Landlords and tenants are also free to agree to any increase in rent, but such agreements require endor- sement by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. No increase in rent is allowed, other than by agreement, in the two years follow- ing commencement of a tenancy or in the two years after an increase in rent. Where rent is increased, security of tenure for two years (subject to ordinary tenancy requirements being met) is assured. It had previously been the government's intention to renew this ordinance, which was due to expire on 30th June 1965, for a further two years. However, in view of the increased number of properties available for renting, together with a general lowering of rent

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levels, the decision was taken to extend the ordinance for a further one year only. On 21st December 1965, it was announced that the ordinance would expire on 30th June 1966. Under the ordin- ance, increases are generally limited to not more than 10 per cent of the existing rent except in the special circumstances of particular tenancies. Applications for certificates of increase are made to the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation who has wide powers under this ordinance, as well as the right to consult a rent increases advisory panel. During 1964-5 the Commissioner received some 2,862 applications of which 16 per cent were in respect of agreed increases, 67 per cent for increases in rent of not more than 10 per cent, and 6 per cent for increases exceeding 10 per cent.

LAND OFFICE

      The Land Office, which is a branch of the Registrar General's Department, is responsible for the registration of all instruments affecting land; the settling and registration of conditions of sale, grant and exchange of Crown land; the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases; the granting of mining leases; and for advising the government generally on matters relating to land.

       On 28th August 1965, a notable milestone was reached in the history of the Land Office when the 500,000th memorial was regis- tered since the system of land registration was introduced in 1844. The system is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Regis- tries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and also that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rent for any term not exceeding three years) shall be abso- lutely null and void as against any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable consideration. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it.

       Early in the year the sellers' market which had prevailed for many years in the real estate business came to a sudden end, and units in new buildings could no longer readily be sold before com- pletion. The changed conditions were reflected in the Land Office statistics for the year, though not perhaps fully, because there were

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already in the pipeline a large number of transactions arranged before the switch to a buyers' market took place. For this reason the number of instruments registered actually showed a small increase as compared with 1964, the total being 46,929 as against 46,740. However, there were marked decreases in the registrations of assignments of whole buildings or sites (756 against 1,357); mortgages (7,822 against 8,711); building mortgages (194 against 427); orders excluding premises from the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which is a necessary preliminary to redevelopment of most old buildings (230 against 868); and agreements for sale of flats and other units in multi-storey buildings (6,004 against 8,146). Searches, which must be made prior to every land transaction, also fell from 49,663 to 40,264. Compared with 1964 the grand total of considerations recorded in all instruments registered declined from $3,428,220,000 to $3,349,573,000.

        The volume of work in several other sections of the Land Office was also affected by the change in market conditions. The number of conditions of sale, grant, exchange, etc fell by 153 to 295. Consents granted to forward sales of flats in those cases where the conditions under which the land is held give the government the necessary power of control, fell by 234 to 107. On the other hand the number of Crown leases issued rose by 94 to 265. The number of modifications and deeds of variation of lease conditions-usually a prelude to multi-storey development-rose marginally by two and five respectively to 52 and 35. At the same time the number of lots re-entered by the Crown for breach of lease conditions rose from 12 to 30.

      At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners contained the names of over 110,200 people (an increase of 19,506 over the previous year), some owning several properties while others were merely co-owners of a small flat.

9

Social Welfare

A VERY important milestone was reached in May 1965 when the Legislative Council approved a white paper entitled 'Aims and Policy for Social Welfare in Hong Kong'. The first version of the white paper was laid on the Council table in November 1964 by the Colonial Secretary, who then invited the views and comments of the public in general and of the voluntary social welfare agencies in particular. There was a widespread response to this invitation and comments were received from many leading public bodies and agencies. The Hong Kong Council of Social Service undertook the task of collating the views of its member organizations, which number over 70. The press reflected public concern for the develop- ment of social welfare work in Hong Kong and 11 leading news- papers and three periodicals commented editorially or in special articles on the white paper.

       All these comments were studied with care-particularly the specific amendments proposed by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, most of which were accepted by the government in a paper tabled before the debate. On 12th May, six unofficial members spoke on the white paper and on the following day three of the official members replied for the government, after which the revised white paper was adopted. On both days the public gallery was full to overflowing a sign of the interest aroused in this important declaration of policy.

In his speech the Financial Secretary indicated that the govern- ment was prepared to devote serious study to the practicability of certain types of contributory social security schemes. The Colonial Secretary said that the Social Welfare Department, in consulta- tion with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and the Social Welfare Advisory Committee, would formulate more detailed plans to implement the approved policy.

       Another matter of considerable public interest during the year was the establishment of a Lotteries Fund, into which the net

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proceeds of government lotteries will be paid. The fund will be used on the advice of the Social Welfare Advisory Committee, princi- pally to promote capital projects which may be proposed for grants by voluntary organizations as part of their development plans, including special medical and educational projects. The initial major grants approved were of $1 million each. The first was for a research project under the joint auspices of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and the Social Welfare Department, in the form of a survey of urban family life in Hong Kong. The second was for a community centre to be run by the people of the growing town of Yuen Long in the New Territories. Later, two interest-free loans of $2 million each were approved for the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association and the Young Women's Christian Association. The Chinese YMCA will build a sports and youth centre, and the YWCA a combined youth centre and hostel. Grants totalling $600,000 were made to the British Red Cross Society, Hong Kong Branch, for equipping a special school for disabled children; to the Family Planning Association for a publicity cam- paign; to the Girl Guides Association for the construction of a new headquarters building; to the Hong Kong Council of Social Service for replacement of equipment used by members of its sub-committee on child feeding; and to the Medical and Health Department to aid physically handicapped people in using public transport.

       These grants and loans totalled over $6,500,000 from a fund which had grown, over four annual seasons, to nearly $10 million. Further schemes proposed by various organizations were being examined at the end of the year with a view to grants being made. The fund's income from government lotteries is expected to be in the neighbourhood of $3 million a year, depending on the number of lotteries that can be held and the periods available for selling tickets.

YOUTH WELFARE

      Hong Kong is not a single community in terms of accepted traditions and values. Its special social, economic and financial conditions place particularly heavy demands upon the welfare services and at the same time make it difficult for these demands to be fully met. Among the services provided by the govern- ment and voluntary agencies, youth services become increasingly

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important as young people in Hong Kong progressively broaden their horizons and expect much more varied opportunities for recreation and use of leisure time. The 'explosion of vitality' which has occurred among the younger generation elsewhere is beginning to affect life in Hong Kong, in forms both constructive and destructive.

The aim of the youth services is to provide the maximum oppor- tunity for young people to test their capabilities and their character in every conceivable direction which is not damaging or dangerous to the community. There is increasing emphasis on strenuous out- door recreation and sport-such as canoeing, climbing and expedi- tions and on energetic indoor activities such as Chinese boxing and judo, as well as on many other special interests and activities. Striking evidence of the efforts being made by youth organizations to meet current needs was provided by a successful youth festival organized in October at the City Hall by the Hong Kong Conference of Youth Organizations. It was the first of its kind ever held in Hong Kong and required the close collaboration of some 25 member organizations of the Conference and others. The festival was de- signed to make known the scope and variety of youth services in Hong Kong and the greatly enlarged opportunities offered to young people to spend their leisure in an enjoyable and constructive way. It included an exhibition of photographs, slides, live shows and demonstrations, ranging from a Chinese orchestra and choirs to plays, dances, tableaux and gymnastics.

      In a positive approach to youth problems, voluntary agencies and government departments work together both in urban and rural settings, as well as through community and social centres and in youth centres and clubs throughout the cities. A youth training and recreation centre run by the Social Welfare Department on the edge of fine walking country at Tsuen Wan in the New Territories, and a training camp established by the Federation of Youth Groups by the sea at Tai Mong Tsai, provide children and young people with admirable centres for outdoor recreation. In contrast, a youth centre was established by the Social Welfare Department during the year in the crowded Sham Shui Po district of Kowloon, where over 200 working youths, students and apprentices now meet every night for all kinds of indoor and outdoor activities. At summer camps and play centres, secondary school children were put in

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charge during the holidays of the recreation of groups of primary age children from crowded resettlement areas.

A great number of young people join the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme and are encouraged to use their own initiative and imagination in circumstances calling for independent thought and quick action. Every day 600 children find enjoyment in games organized by the Children's Playground Association in the War Memorial and Queen Elizabeth youth centres. This work can only be successfully carried out through the initiative of such organi- zations as the YMCA, YWCA, Scouts, Guides, Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, and the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, strongly supported by the department.

CHILD WELFARE

The need for day care services for young children of working mothers is still a long way from being met, and the department continues to encourage voluntary agencies to set up day nurseries. During the year 12 new nurseries and two play centres were opened. There was a total of 12,100 places in day care centres, compared with 9,500 in 1964.

Emphasis is laid on strengthening the family unit and helping to keep the family intact. Institutions are therefore now being used increasingly for short-term care only, the objective being the early return of children to their own families or their entry into new families through adoption. Residential homes for babies and children provide 2,800 places for orphans or children whose parents cannot care for them.

A children's reception centre run by the department cares for children who are found abandoned or wandering. Their special physical and psychological needs are investigated and their be- haviour and growth observed and recorded, as background to a plan for each child's future. Of 176 children who left the centre during the year, 11 were adopted into families, either in Hong Kong or overseas. The number of babies abandoned fell to 56, compared with over 200 six years ago and 91 in 1964. A total of 116 children were adopted in Hong Kong in 1965 under the Adoption Ordin- ance 1956, compared with 112 in 1964. Overseas adoptions totalled

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88 in 1965, compared with 114 in the previous year. In accordance with the Adoption Ordinance, an Adopted Children Register is maintained by the Registrar of Births and Deaths at the General Register Office. Altogether 123 adoptions have been registered since the first entry was made on 22nd July 1957.

      Other services such as sponsorship of school fees, cash grants, clothing and equipment are provided on an increased scale for needy children by a number of voluntary agencies. During the year more than 57,000 children benefited in this way.

WELFARE OF WOMEN AND GIRLS

       The ready opportunity for easy money in a community as cosmo- politan as Hong Kong, together with the pressures of overcrowding which tend to restrict life at home for older children, may leave young people-particularly girls and young women-vulnerable to exploitation and moral dangers which, in their immaturity and inexperience, they are not able to resist without the counsel and guidance of a social worker.

      Parents, and the young people themselves, are encouraged to discuss such problems with case workers of the women and girls section of the department as early as possible, so that girls may be guided back to a more acceptable way of life. An unmarried mother's most pressing need may be for accommodation and medical atten- tion, which the case worker is often able to arrange. In this way the girl's immediate anxiety is relieved and she is better able to act in a responsible way toward herself and her baby, and eventually to return to life in the community.

       Two vocational day training centres cater for about 200 girls who are taught various vocational skills and encouraged to discuss their difficulties within a group. In addition, institutional care and train- ing are offered by two voluntary institutions-Pelletier Hall and the Po Leung Kuk.

THE DISABLED

      In the spring, the ILO Asian Regional Adviser on Vocational Rehabilitation, Mr H. A. Jones, spent some time during an advisory mission in Hong Kong in considering problems of the disabled. A new vocational training centre for 1,000 was opened at Kwun Tong

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by the Lutheran World Service in the summer and admits a small number of disabled persons among its trainees. A small experimental settlement for paraplegics was set up at Kwun Tong resettlement estate in September, designed to meet the housing and vocational needs of some of these severely disabled people. The departmental rehabilitation centre at Aberdeen gave shelter and varied practical training to over 300 disabled of all classes. The total number of disabled persons registered with the Social Welfare Department increased from 12,200 to 13,355 during the year. The most striking increase was a rise of almost 20 per cent in the number of mental defectives, who now account for one-tenth of the total.

The Hong Kong Society for the Blind employs 135 workers in machine operation and other occupations at its factory. It also manages the Rotary Centre for the Blind, opened in June, which trains educated blind people in telephone switchboard operation and dictaphone typing. Two day centres care for mentally retarded children and about 60 reside at Aberdeen.

Voluntary homes have places for only some 2,000 old people and more accommodation is needed as the aged tend to fall increasingly out of family care. The government encourages expansion through grants of land on special terms and financial support for organi- zations willing to establish new homes on a sound footing.

PROBATION AND CORRECTION

Probation officers are responsible for supervising offenders on probation as well as for making social inquiries on behalf of the courts. At the end of the year there were 1,524 individuals on pro- bation, compared with 1,293 at the end of 1964.

The existing juvenile correctional institutions consist of a com- bined remand and probation home for 160 boys and a similar home for 50 girls-both in Kowloon-and a reformatory (or 'approved') school for 150 boys at Castle Peak in the New Territories. A pro- bation hostel, which is a new institution where the courts can order probationers to reside while at work, is now being built in an in- dustrial area, and a second reformatory school is being built on the outskirts of Kowloon.

      Valuable voluntary services are offered on the preventive and positive side by the Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys'

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Centres, which give residential training to those who need help in finding a niche in society or in overcoming difficulties of behaviour and relationship. During the year the Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society collaborated with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service in commissioning a research project on drug addiction in Hong Kong carried out by Dr M. G. Whisson, who published his findings in July. Constructive suggestions for amending the law relating to the treatment of juvenile offenders were made by a working party appointed by the Governor which reported in May.

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND EMERGENCY RELIEF

The aim of the relief section of the Social Welfare Department is to rehabilitate and restore the destitute and needy to full, or at least partial, economic independence. Cooked meals or dry rations are provided as an immediate measure of 'first aid' and efforts are then made to help each family to solve its difficulties, often by enlisting the aid and support of other departments or of one of a number of strong and resourceful voluntary agencies. The number of families receiving public assistance showed a slight increase during the year from 2,234 to 2,271. A number of voluntary agencies, including the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere, Catholic Relief Services, Church World Service, Lutheran World Service and the Seventh Day Adventist Welfare Service, operate supplementary feeding schemes.

In the aftermath of natural disasters, the Community Relief Trust Fund shares a great part of the load of providing immediate relief in the form of cash grants. Voluntary agencies such as the kaifong associations, the British Red Cross Society, the Salvation Army and many others give aid in the form of cash grants, blankets, new or used clothing, food parcels and cooking utensils.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

      Community centres run by the Social Welfare Department provide a variety of services including day care for pre-school children, vocational training for young people, social case work and libraries. All these services are a means towards the end of helping people increase their capacity to take the initiative in meeting their own social needs. Through community development

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work people from various walks of life are brought together in new relationships, groups and associations. They are stimulated to work in co-operation for the wider community and to look towards a better community for themselves and for their children. An increasing number of members in the groups are taking on leadership roles and accepting heavier responsibilities within and outside the community centres. This enables the staff of the centres to maintain regular contacts with people working and living in the surrounding areas with the object of making each centre increasingly a focal point for the local community.

       The fourth and last community centre to be built with World Refugee Year funds was approaching completion at the end of the year at Tai Hang Tung resettlement estate. To identify the needs of the area, which consists of three estates and a large squatter area, a practical sample survey of 1,235 families was conducted in July and is yielding valuable data for planning the work of the new centre.

TRAINING

       Training and skill are most necessary if effective social welfare services are to be provided. Following a recommendation by social work training consultants in 1963, a Chair of Social Studies was established at the University of Hong Kong but unfortunately still remains vacant. The Chinese University created a Chair of Social Work which was occupied by Dr Pauline Young as visiting professor but became vacant again in July. The Advisory Com- mittee on Social Work Training, which is concerned with the promotion and co-ordination of training for social workers in Hong Kong at all levels, appointed a sub-committee to survey the needs for trained social workers over the next seven years. Its report, published in November, should be valuable to the universities in forward planning. A total of 33 students completed social work courses at the two universities during the year and the report suggests that the need for trained social workers in the next few years will be about double this number. The Hong- kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation generously endowed five scholarships of $5,000 per annum at each university in celebration of its centenary; nine of these were awarded during the year. In all, 20 government bursaries for social studies were provided at

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each university. The Social Work Training Fund approved grants amounting to $199,258 in support of university courses, and granted $230,000 to seven individuals to take training courses locally or abroad.

The training unit of the Social Welfare Department continued its work for the staff of voluntary agencies and government depart- ments. During the year courses for day nursery workers were doubled in view of the rapid increase in nurseries. Altogether 133 welfare workers completed training. The training unit also assisted in conducting agency staff training programmes. The unit's establishment was doubled from three to six training officers, with the invaluable support of a further two-year grant from the United Nations Children's Fund.

      In October a short visit by Mr Henry Labouisse, recently appointed Executive Director of UNICEF, accompanied by the Regional Director Mr Brian Jones, gave an opportunity to express Hong Kong's appreciation of the key role played by the fund in supporting the establishment and expansion of the training unit and also in the development of children's day nurseries and youth work.

CONCLUSION

      At the end of the year a joint planning committee of the Social Welfare Department and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service was engaged in drafting a co-ordinated plan for the development of official and voluntary social welfare services over the next five years. The plan is likely to consist of over 20 chapters, covering all services and fields of work. Meanwhile, Professor Lady Williams, who recently retired from the Chair of Social Economics at the University of London, was invited by the government to advise whether a survey of social welfare services in Hong Kong would be feasible and valuable. Lady Williams, whose visit is financed by a grant from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, arrived shortly before Christmas and her findings are expected to be of special value in relation to planning.

      Hong Kong is exceptionally fortunate in having such a great range of voluntary welfare organizations, locally-based and inter- national, religious, secular and traditional. Their combined efforts

Each year nearly two thousand young city dwellers are offered the chance of a few days in the country at the Tsuen Wan Youth Recreation and Training Centre. Run by the Social Welfare Department, the centre is loaned free of charge to organized youth groups who use its camping gear for their own training programmes.

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Stress is placed on self-reliance, so each group provides its own leaders. The daily routine includes map reading and strenuous exercises such as rock climbing, but there's also time for relaxation. Campers cook their own meals to satisfy appetites sharpened by life in the open air.

   The centre, first of its kind to be established by the Social Welfare Department, can accommodate up to 50 campers at a time. Groups come from schools, voluntary welfare organizations or church clubs, and most stay between three days and a week. As campers learn to live the open air life, a great sense of comradeship develops.

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      make a massive contribution to the welfare of the community and it has been estimated that they have brought into Hong Kong donations and contributions amounting to some $40 million a year. The 75 member organizations of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service are shown at Appendix XLV. Two projects men- tioned in this chapter-the survey of urban family life and the development planning of social welfare services over the next five years are being embarked upon jointly by the Council of Social Service and the Social Welfare Department, and there are promising prospects for increasingly close practical collaboration between voluntary and official effort in the future.

10

Public Order

      HONG KONG is one of the most densely populated places in the world. There is a population increase in the region of 100,000 a year and from the viewpoint of the Hong Kong Police, one of the most important demographic features of the past five years has been the rapid growth of new industrial and residential areas on the perimeter of the older urban areas. There has been a tendency for population growth to level off in the crowded areas of Victoria and the Kowloon peninsula, while at the same time there have been big increases in population due to the construction of factory and resettlement estates at Chai Wan, Aberdeen and Pok Fu Lam on Hong Kong Island, and at Kwun Tong, Wong Tai Sin, Cheung Sha Wan and Tsuen Wan-Kwai Chung on the mainland.

      The police cannot afford to be left behind by this process of rapid development. It must expand and acquire the extra housing and equipment that are needed step-by-step with the creation of each newly populated area. Its well-established organization can never be static for very long and its structure has to be kept under constant review. As an example of this, it was decided during 1965 to split the Kowloon police district into two sub-districts with an overall commander responsible for major policy, but with each sub-district autonomous for the purposes of day-to-day administra- tion. The government's building programme gives the police high priority and during the year new divisional stations were opened at Kwun Tong, Mong Kok and Yuen Long. Marine police operational bases at Tai Po Kau and Tai Lam, and the second stage of the new Police Training School at Aberdeen, were also completed.

      The government authorized increased police allowances effective from 1st January and a new recruiting team was formed to attract suitable recruits. During the year the Police Training School was full to capacity and it is likely that recruitment will have to con- tinue at a high level for at least the next two years in order to keep pace with increasing operational commitments.

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       The largest section of the Hong Kong Police is the Uniformed Branch, which has a strength of 5,301 officers and men. The branch is deployed in three territorial districts-Hong Kong Island, Kow- loon, and the New Territories-with an Assistant Commissioner in charge of each. Its two routine functions are to maintain patrols and man report rooms in all police stations. It also provides an emergency unit in each district, which is available at immediate notice to deal with any incident requiring more manpower than beat constables in the area can provide. The emergency units also carry out mobile patrols in radio-equipped cars and answer '999' calls. The branch mans police posts at the frontier, patrols outlying villages, deals with the special crowd-control problems which occur at race meetings and football matches, controls and inspects licensed premises, supports the Hawker Control Force, and gives advice and assistance generally to the public. It is also trained to act if neces- sary as an internal security force.

The Special Branch is responsible for preventing and detecting subversive activities, and for supplying the intelligence necessary to maintain internal security.

       The Marine Police were given additional men and craft to deal with the large influx of illegal immigrants which took place in 1962 and since that time it has become clear that operations will have to continue permanently on at least the present level if adequate precautions against illegal immigration by sea are to be maintained. The Marine Police have therefore now been reorganized as a fourth uniformed branch district, and at the end of the year had a uniformed strength of 1,024 all ranks. The number of illegal im- migrants who succeeded in entering the Colony in 1965 remained at a relatively low level.

The police have 506 radio stations and 15 radar installations. The radio networks are planned on a district and divisional basis, and include communications and mobile land units, marine craft, foot patrols and helicopters. Over 500 vehicles of all types are in use by the police force.

CRIME

During 1965 there was a marked increase-particularly in Kowloon -in reported crimes involving robbery, demanding with menaces

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and larceny. A major part of the increase concerned petty thefts, and the increased number of reports was partly due to the opening of police stations in new industrial areas. The detection rate remained high and, at 72 per cent, compared favourably with figures in similar urban communities elsewhere. (Crime statistics are given in Appendix XXXVII.) A working party set up in November 1964 to report on crimes of violence by juveniles and young persons found few inade- quacies in law, but recommended certain minor amendments in- tended to provide for the adequate and constructive punishment and corrective training of young offenders.

Narcotics still pose one of Hong Kong's greatest social and crimi- nal problems. This was again illustrated in February when over two tons of opium and morphine valued at HK$4 million were seized by the Narcotics Bureau. It was the largest single seizure ever made by the bureau and possibly by any preventive agency anywhere in the world. During the year an Action Committee Against Narcotics was formed, composed of representatives from government depart- ments and voluntary organizations. It will co-ordinate executive action against narcotics between government departments and outside agencies. Apart from the large seizures already mentioned and two other considerable seizures during the year, it remained difficult to secure public co-operation and evidence against narcotics distribution syndicates. These are becoming more and more cleverly organized and their activities consequently more difficult to trace and combat.

       Constant vigilance by the Triad Societies Bureau again prevented any resurgence of triad activities during the year. The commercial crime and anti-corruption sections of the Criminal Investigation Department continued successful operations in their respective fields. All sections of the CID have at their disposal technical sections staffed by experienced specialists with the most up-to-date equipment including a forensic laboratory, ballistics office, identification bureau and criminal records office.

TRAFFIC

At the end of the year there were 89,617 vehicles on the Colony's roads which works out to 158.6 vehicles to every mile of road. The maintenance of reasonable traffic flow and the avoidance of

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congestion is the task of the Traffic Branch. Widespread building development and associated road works add to the difficulty created by sheer density of traffic. Highways must also be kept clear of obstruction by hawkers, shopkeepers and building contractors, and the prevention of jay-walking is a constant task. (Traffic statistics are given in Appendix XXXVI.)

       In order to maintain reasonable driving standards it has been necessary to resort to more prosecutions of offending drivers, as warnings issued to correct minor faults have not had the desired effect. A total of 119,005 offences were reported for prosecution in 1965, compared with 110,172 in 1964.

      With growing congestion, the real meaning of the traffic problem is being brought home to the people of Hong Kong in a more personal way. As in many other parts of the world, traffic is no longer able to move as freely as formerly and parking has become more difficult. To provide some measure of control, and to meet the demand for kerb-side parking, additional parking meters were installed during the year, bringing the total of metered parking spaces to 5,943.

      A total of 550 taxi licences were put out to public tender for the first time, and realized $21 million.

      The demand for driving tests continued to rise and in spite of an increase in testing staff it was not possible to reduce the waiting period by any appreciable amount. At the end of the year the government approved proposals to create a Commissioner for Trans- port who will take over from the Commissioner of Police his statu- tory responsibilities for vehicle licence driving tests, road-worthiness examinations and similar non-police functions (see chapter 13).

MANPOWER AND TRAINING

The strength of the regular police force at the end of the year (excluding women police) was: 118 gazetted officers; 781 junior officers; 8,705 non-commissioned officers and constables. There were 412 women police of all ranks. They work with the Uniformed Branch divisions in all three districts and are attached to all other specialist branches of the force.

      Probationary inspectors are recruited both locally and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries. Constables are

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recruited locally. Upon enlistment all ranks are given a 26 weeks course of initial training in the Police Training School at Aberdeen. The curriculum includes public relations, civics, the principles of law and legal procedures, court procedure, police and government regulations, drill, musketry, physical training, self-defence, riot drill, life-saving and first aid. The course is designed not only to train men in police duties, but also to broaden their general outlook and fit them for responsibility. Probationary inspectors recruited over- seas attend a course of instruction in Cantonese at the Government Language School. Constables are taught elementary English at the Police Training School.

       At the end of their initial training all ranks are posted to units where they carry out duties under supervision. Probationary inspec- tors return to the Police Training School for two weeks training during their second and third years of service. Inspectors also attend an advanced course during their sixth year of service. Constables return to the Police Training School for a two weeks course each year for the first four years of service and an advanced course during the sixth to 10th years of service.

       The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force supports and reinforces the regular police in emergencies of all kinds. Its strength of 2,026 -all volunteers-is made up of: 23 gazetted officers; 104 junior officers; 1,899 non-commissioned officers and police constables. It is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, assisted by the Commandant, who is an Auxiliary Assistant Commissioner.

       When mobilized the auxiliaries are completely integrated with the regular force and each of the nine auxiliary land divisions operates as part of its parent division. Auxiliary emergency units operate in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon districts in support of their regular colleagues, and marine auxiliaries assist in manning craft of the Marine Police. The duties of the force are varied. A helicopter observer squadron has no regular counterpart and the duties and training of this unit are carried out by auxiliary police personnel themselves, with the assistance of the Hong Kong Aux- iliary Air Force. The auxiliaries also supply staff officers and com- munications personnel at Colony, district and divisional head- quarters in emergencies. Newly recruited auxiliary constables are given basic part-time training in law, drill and weapons. Thereafter

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they are required to undertake 14 days annual training and a mini- mum of 60 hours instruction. During 1965 women police auxiliaries were recruited for the first time.

PRISONS

Hong Kong's penal system is probably as advanced as any in Asia and in most of its facets is abreast or ahead of penal reform programmes anywhere. Hard and constructive work carried out in mainly open conditions, coupled with a comprehensive and dynamic system of after-care, have produced a consistently low incidence of recidivism. Such recidivism as remains is largely con- fined to drug addicts and the chain of crime resulting from addiction. Offences centred around the narcotics problem remain the greatest single challenge to the Prison Service, although encourag- ing results have been achieved in the treatment centre at Tai Lam. Drug addicts serving medium terms of imprisonment are sent to Tai Lam for treatment, regardless of the nature of their offences, if the classification board considers they will benefit from it. The majority quickly respond to the treatment and the environment of the centre, which is run on open lines. The effects on the prisoner are rapid and dramatic. His addiction is quickly cured and there is an accompanying resurgence of physical well-being and improve- ment in physique.

       Tai Lam is one of eight institutions controlled by the Com- missioner of Prisons. The others are security prisons at Stanley, Victoria and Lai Chi Kok, an open prison at Chi Ma Wan, and training centres at Cape Collinson, Shek Pik and Stanley-the latter also containing a segregated remand section for boys. The average criminal population in all institutions is approximately 6,000, of whom some 3,500 are held in Stanley prison. The com- pletion next year of an open prison at Tong Fuk on Lantau Island, which will be the most modern in the Far East, will make it possible to reduce the population at Stanley to a more acceptable 2,200. The new prison will also bring the benefits of an open prison regime to more than half the total population of prisoners.

      The open prison system has a much greater potential for suc- cessfully rehabilitating prisoners than the closed system, and it considerably eases their successful re-integration into society. Work,

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      which may be carried out far from the institution, is always of a constructive kind such as forestry, drainage, building or road works. It gives the prisoners a pride of achievement and at the same time greatly benefits the areas where it is carried out.

The training centres, which take 490 boys between the ages of 14 and 21, are set in healthy rural surroundings and all are run on modern open lines. The daily tempo is brisk and the boys are fully occupied in studies, vocational and trade training, hobbies and sports. The value of this form of training, which is followed by statutory after-care, is illustrated by the fact that almost 75 per cent of those discharged are never reconvicted. Few, if any, overseas reformative systems for young delinquents can equal this figure.

Hong Kong has statutory after-care for all training centre inmates and voluntary after-care for drug addicts at Tai Lam. Case workers, who are serving members of the department, advise and assist the prisoner both during his sentence and on his release. The con- tinuity made possible by having after-care officers as integral members of the department's staff is of the utmost importance in the successful rehabilitation of discharged prisoners. The Dis- charged Prisoners' Aid Society, an independent body under an honorary committee, works closely with the department and takes an active part in the social rehabilitation of discharged prisoners. The society maintains four hostels and is planning a fifth to be opened early next year.

The Prisons Department has a disciplined staff of 25 gazetted officers and 913 subordinate officers and warders. They are sup- ported by 144 professional, executive and clerical grades and 65 auxiliary and minor staff.

FIRE SERVICES

The Hong Kong Fire and Ambulance Service has an establish- ment of 240 officers and 2,100 other ranks, excluding clerical and executive staff. Among those from overseas are officers from 59 fire brigades in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, so that collectively the service possesses a cross-section of fire engineering experts and knowledge unequalled elsewhere in the world. The title 'Fire and Ambulance Service' no longer wholly

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reflects the true nature of the work and responsibilities of the department. Fire fighting, fire prevention and ambulance duties are only two of the many demands it must now meet. It is called upon also to rescue and give succour to persons involved in traffic and industrial accidents, as well as those trapped in house collapses and landslides during rainstorms and typhoons. Of the 3,452 calls received by the service in 1965 (excluding ambulance calls), 17 per cent were to incidents at which lives were in peril but which did not involve fire. In Fire Service terminology, these calls are referred to as 'special service calls' and range from persons trapped in lifts to rockfalls burying many people. Some of the more regular calls in this category involve persons who have fallen into the sea, persons trapped in machinery, and major traffic accidents. To meet these demands it has been necessary to develop specialized search and rescue divisions composed of exceptionally fit and mentally agile personnel who show above normal technical aptitudes.

      On 24th August all available units from Kowloon and fireboats were sent to Yau Tong Bay, near Kwun Tong, when an American transport aircraft crashed shortly after taking off from Kai Tak. Fifty- eight men lost their lives, another died later in hospital, and 12 were rescued. The aircraft veered sharply to the left soon after becoming airborne and according to eye-witnesses one of its wings hit the water and broke off. The aircraft came down near the Kwun Tong reclamation, burst into flames and sank in 30 feet of water. Workers from a nearby barge and the reclamation site swam through wreck- age and burning fuel to bring the survivors ashore, and firemen remained at the scene 36 hours removing the casualties. Most of the men aboard the aircraft were Marines who had been on leave in Hong Kong.

       The rapid industrialization of the Colony has increased the problems of fire prevention and broadened the technological fields in which firemen must achieve a high standard of knowledge. There are many difficult problems, not the least being to persuade some factory managements to discriminate between tolerable fire safety elements and dangerous practices. On the whole, however, managements co-operate whole-heartedly with the Fire Prevention Bureau and show increasing enthusiasm for free and frank dis- cussion of the fire hazards which are concomitant to their businesses. Within the service, training programmes are being intensified and

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expanded to meet the growing technical sophistication of industry. A measure of the service's awareness of the need for higher tech- nical studies may be seen from the fact that the Hong Kong branch of the Institution of Fire Engineers is one of the largest in the Commonwealth with over 100 members, associate members, graduates and students.

       During the year the service was regrouped as follows: Fire Service Headquarters (containing specialist echelons of workshops, transport, supplies and technical staff), Mainland Command (consisting of Kowloon, New Kowloon, the New Territories and including the airport fire contingent), Hong Kong Command (taking in the whole of Hong Kong Island and all waters and islands of the Colony), and the Fire Prevention Bureau. The effect of this regrouping is that the two main geographical areas of the Colony are protected by their own independent and largely self- supporting fire brigades working to a common policy and standards set by Fire Service headquarters.

       The year was also notable in terms of international public rela- tions. In co-operation with the Government Information Services, the Commerce and Industry Department and the Hong Kong Government London Office, the Fire Service took part in the International Fire Conference and Exhibition at Olympia, London. Reports indicated that the Hong Kong stand was one of the out- standing exhibits and that the Fire Service's delegation (which included both overseas and local officers) created a most favourable impression in dealing with the hundreds of visitors to the stand, and also made a valuable contribution during the many discussions and lectures at the conference.

The professional element of the Fire Service is supported by an Auxiliary Fire Service consisting of some 793 volunteers who attend at a fire station several times a week for training and who are called upon as reinforcements during major fires and emergencies.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

       The Preventive Service of the Commerce and Industry Department is a disciplined force responsible for the anti-smuggling measures which are needed to protect the revenue derived from the five items which are dutiable in Hong Kong. It is also responsible for the

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excise controls required in respect of the manufacture or distribution of these dutiable items within the Colony.

The service is responsible for suppressing the illicit import and export of narcotics by land, sea and air, and approximately one- third of its total strength is engaged on this work. Liaison is main- tained with the Narcotics Bureau on all aspects of narcotics suppression. All vessels arriving in Hong Kong from ports where drugs are suspected of being smuggled are boarded and searched by Preventive Service officers. They remain on board many of these vessels while in Colony waters to prevent drugs being smuggled ashore.

       In 1965 a total of 728 ships were guarded throughout their stay in the harbour, 1,178 were searched, and 43 seizures were made of narcotics on ships. The estimated value of narcotics seized by the Preventive Service from all sources in 1965 was $622,652. At the airport the Preventive Service searches incoming aircraft, goods and baggage. Particular attention is paid to those which arrive from, or have passed in transit through, known sources of narcotics.

11

Immigration and Tourism

THE Immigration Department has now existed as an independent organization for over four years and the theme constantly running through all sections is more work, more documents and more travellers. The airport, Chinese and harbour sections carry most of the work load, but all sections are affected to some extent. The situation is complicated by the need to carry out extensive surveys of procedures and policies, the need to open new sub-offices, and continuing severe congestion in the headquarters office which is visited by about 2,000 people every day. The total recorded move- ment during 1965 was 4,218,297, consisting of 2,116,901 arrivals and 2,101,396 departures. This compares with a total of 3,387,170 in 1964. The main lines of movement were as usual between Hong Kong and China, and Hong Kong and Macau. Illegal immigration continued, although on a much diminished scale.

As always, the demand for travel documents fell mainly on the Chinese section. This was partly due to the fact that Hong Kong's own population is now travelling on an increasingly large scale and also to the fact that many hundreds of thousands of Chinese living overseas are applying to visit or live in Hong Kong. In August the necessity for re-entry visas on Hong Kong Certificates of Identity was abolished, considerably benefiting Hong Kong residents wishing to travel. Special arrangements were again made for children at school in China and Macau to visit their parents in Hong Kong during the Chinese New Year and summer holidays.

       The British and Commonwealth section continued to be busy throughout the year, largely because many more local residents are now eligible to hold British passports and are travelling a good deal. The department processes travel applications and deals with citizenship problems on behalf of all Commonwealth countries not otherwise represented in Hong Kong, and the number of visa applications for these territories also increased considerably during the year.

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In August the British Government tightened very considerably the regulations governing emigration to Britain for employment. As a result fewer Chinese are going to Britain to work, but this is offset by the very large number of dependents now joining hus- bands and fathers in Britain. The demand for naturalization also continues to increase.

       The aliens section experienced difficulty with persons who came to the Colony on tourist visas and then took up employment. Firm action was taken to discourage this trend. At the end of 1965 there were 13,442 alien residents registered in the Colony. The chief category was American citizens who numbered 3,932 followed by 1,853 Japanese, 751 Filipinos, and 534 Dutch. During the year 382 White Russian refugees entered the Colony from China and 654 left under the sponsorship of the United Nations for settlement in other countries. At the end of the year there were still 173 of these refugees in Hong Kong awaiting placement.

On 1st August the Director of Immigration assumed respon- sibility from the Commissioner of Police for immigration control on the Sino-British land border at Lo Wu. The transfer took place smoothly. The volume of traffic at the frontier is fairly steady, with about 1,000 people crossing over each way every day. During the year 456,681 people left Hong Kong for China, while 475,192 entered the Colony.

Despite a large increase in staff the harbour section had an extremely busy year, principally because of the vast increase in traffic between Hong Kong and Macau. There are now four steamers and nine hydrofoils on the Macau run and during the year they carried 1,169,790 passengers to Macau and brought 1,168,772 into Hong Kong. This was an increase of 33 per cent on the 1964 figures. It is interesting to note that more people travel between Hong Kong and Macau each year than cross the Atlantic by sea. During the year the harbour section cleared 6,205 ocean-going ships, 17,601 native craft and 17,047 Macau ferries, and processed a total of 1,199,910 arriving and 1,203,792 departing sea passengers. There is evidence that a number of stowaways are attempting to enter Hong Kong from certain neighbouring South-East Asian countries, and as a result special searches of ships from these ports are now being carried out.

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      During the year, 21,432 aircraft and 1,014,545 passengers were dealt with at Kai Tak by the airport section. This was an increase of 12 per cent in passenger traffic over the previous year.

      Radical changes in visa regulations were introduced in August when the Governor in Council approved proposals whereby nationals of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Por- tugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America are permitted to enter Hong Kong without visas for a stay of up to seven days. In addition, many other nationals are now permitted to transit Hong Kong without visas, whether by sea or air, if they do not stay for more than four days.

TOURISM

      Tourism in Hong Kong again made satisfactory progress during 1965 despite unforeseen difficulties which slowed down the extremely rapid growth of previous years. Growth between 1957 and 1965 showed an increase of 927 per cent. This is recognized as the fastest growth rate of any of the 94 member countries of the Inter- national Union of Official Travel Organizations. In 1965, 446,743 tourists visited Hong Kong. This was an increase of only 12.1 per cent over the previous year, compared with an increase of 23.3 per cent in 1964. This slow-down can be attributed to a number of causes which it is hoped are transitory and mainly of a temporary character, but which must be recognized and-if possible-remedied.

      There is every evidence that competition is becoming keener each year to win the foreign currency which tourism brings. This is particularly noticeable when the tourist industry in the Pacific and East Asian countries is compared with that in Europe. The disparity between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific air fares is placing an exceptionally heavy burden on Pacific tourist promotion and is creating a barrier which is losing the countries of Asia a vast amount of tourist revenue that would certainly accrue if fares were lower and facilities for charter aircraft made easier. The same is true of fares between Europe and the Far East.

      Although more American tourists visited Hong Kong during 1965, the percentage rate of growth decreased. This was possibly

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partly due to a powerful campaign now active in America to en- courage people to spend their holidays in their own country. It is also possible that some Americans preferred to spend their travel money visiting the New York Fair. Again, travel is a delicate and vulnerable industry and there is no doubt that international friction deterred many people-especially older ones from visiting the Orient in 1965.

During the year certain features of the tourist industry showed pronounced changes which will have an important impact on the future of Hong Kong's travel trade. The most important was the increase in visitors from Japan, who within the next three or four years will probably outnumber tourists from any other country. Every effort must be made to attract them to Hong Kong and particular attention will have to be given to creating an adequate supply of Japanese-speaking guides and interpreters.

It was also noticeable during the year that visitors were staying for shorter periods than formerly. This trend is causing concern and must be actively combated if a decrease in tourist revenue is to be avoided. In addition, it is recognized in all major tourist countries that the per capita spending power of the average visitor is now considerably less than formerly. This can be attributed partly to the fact that a great many more younger people now take their holidays overseas and this in turn has contributed to the remarkable increase in air traffic. Unfortunately the number of passengers arriving by sea during the year decreased and fewer cruise ships called.

The importance of facilitation in all its aspects cannot be over- emphasized. From a promotional point of view first impressions are very important and last impressions can determine whether a person will have a genuine desire to return. Fortunately, Hong Kong has a very good reputation for efficient handling of passengers and luggage, quick processing through health and immigration formalities, and a minimum of interference from the customs authorities. Transit and visa formalities were further simplified during the year and special arrangements introduced for groups of overseas Chinese visitors.

       Many improvements were made, and are being made, to hotels, restaurants, transportation services and other units of the 'visitor

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plant' which forms the basis of the tourist industry. The biggest single project is the Ocean Terminal, which will play a vital part in Hong Kong's travel industry when it opens next year. The Colony's hotels continue to give excellent service and maintain a very high standard of decor and comfort. The number of rooms decreased from 6,244 to 5,731, but this was due to demolition prior to recons- truction and it is expected that the figure will once again increase next year. Most of the leading hotels have developed shopping arcades in or adjacent to their buildings and the quality of mer- chandise available helps to maintain Hong Kong's worldwide reputation as a great international shopping centre.

       Everything possible is done to assist travel agents throughout the world who are generating travel business. It is necessary to produce the highest quality promotional material and in 1965 the Hong Kong Tourist Association distributed 790,515 leaflets, posters, etc through 7,084 channels in 96 countries. Most of this literature was printed in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Japanese, and it was difficult to meet the ever-increasing demands for more. In order to supplement this publicity, the Tourist Associa- tion took part in a considerable number of special display events in leading stores in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, the United States, and Canada.

       Due to the rapidly increasing importance of the Japanese market, the Tourist Association has made initial arrangements for repre- sentation both in offices and by public relations consultants in Tokyo and five other major cities in Japan. The Association has space in the Hong Kong Government London Office, in addition to its own offices in High Holborn. The Sydney office is now too small and new premises will have to be found in the near future. During the year an experimental arrangement was made for repre- sentation in Beirut. The Association's representation in the United States, based on San Francisco, was extremely successful during the year. However it is becoming increasingly urgent that the Association should have representation in New York so that the eastern seaboard can be properly covered.

During the year Hong Kong was the host country, or the venue, for a considerable number of conferences and conventions. These included the American Society of Travel Agents (2,112 delegates), the Sixth International Federation of Asian and Western Pacific

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Contractors' Associations, the Fourth Orient and South-East Asian Lions Convention, the Far East Division General Conference of Seventh Day Adventists, an IBM Convention, and a Chrysler Inter- national Sales Convention. It is probable that more meetings would have taken place in Hong Kong if accommodation for assemblies had been available. Unfortunately the maximum capacity of the concert hall in the City Hall is 1,500 and there is no catering establishment that can provide a banquet for more than 600 people at a sitting. From the travel industry point of view, the American Society of Travel Agents World Travel Congress was the highlight of the year. More travel agents than had ever before attended an ASTA conference made the long journey from all parts of the world to Hong Kong and voted it a complete success. One of the highlights was a 'Pageant of the Pacific' in which the Philippines, Korea, Thailand, Macau, Hawaii, New Zealand and Hong Kong took part. To maintain the momentum of Hong Kong's travel and tourist industry it is essential to plan for development and expansion, based on as much reliable data as can be obtained. During the year the Association completed three feasibility studies on the construction of an oceanarium, the construction and development of resort areas, and the construction and development of an exhibition and convention site. The feasibility study on resort areas recommended the development of the Sai Kung peninsula, southern Lantau Island, Castle Peak and the Tolo peninsula in three stages beginning in 1968. Facilities would include hotels, motels, marinas and golf courses. The feasibility study for an exhibition and convention site recommended a multi-purpose complex at Hung Hom to include a 7,000-seat auditorium, an arena and air- conditioned exhibition halls. The Association also started a survey in depth on the habits and spending of visitors and the effect of tourist revenue on the Hong Kong economy.

Shopping remains one of Hong Kong's main attractions and it is therefore very gratifying that the Hong Kong Management Association has decided to give detailed study to the many aspects of the retail trade. In order to do this a domestic retailing sub- committee has been formed with the Tourist Association as a member.

12

Public Works and Utilities

KONG KONG'S programme of public works-from the formation and reclamation of land, the building of resettlement estates, schools and hospitals to the construction of roads, sewers, piers and reser- voirs is the Colony's largest single financial commitment. Expendi- ture by the Public Works Department accounts for about 45 per cent of total annual government expenditure. In the estimates for the financial year 1965-6, expenditure on capital works is set at $562 million-an increase of $72 million over the previous financial year. More than $160 million of this sum is devoted to the provision of water supplies, including work on the giant Plover Cove scheme which is designed to almost treble the Colony's reservoir capacity by 1971. Some $143 million goes towards providing resettlement and government low-cost housing.

       Largely due to heavy rain in October 1964, it was possible to maintain a continuous water supply to the urban areas for the first time since the war. Indeed, the recovery from the drought of 1963-4, when water was restricted to a four-day cycle of three waterless days followed by one day with four hours supply, was no less dramatic than the drought itself. This recovery was assisted by the signing of a new agreement with the People's Council of Kwangtung under which a minimum of 15,000 million gallons of untreated water a year is supplied at the frontier at a cost of $1.06 per thousand gallons. The main advantage of the new agreement is that the agreed quantity is not restricted by weather conditions. In the first two months of 1965, 1,653 million gallons were received under the original agreement signed in 1960 and this, when added to that supplied under the new agreement, makes a total of 10,745 million gallons for the year.

Total water consumption for the year on full supply was 40,004 million gallons. Based on a projection of the 1961 census figure for population this indicates a daily per capita consumption of 29 gallons. The average daily consumption for the year was 109.5

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     million gallons, indicating an annual compound growth in water consumption of 7.5 per cent. These figures include industrial as well as domestic supplies, but largely exclude flushing demand for sanitary purposes which is generally met by independent wells or sea water provided by the government.

      To help cover the cost of the large capital works completed and in hand it was necessary during the year to raise the price of water. From 1st July water supplied for domestic and industrial uses was increased in price from $1 to $2 per thousand gallons; the price charged for water supplied to ocean-going ships and for building construction was raised from $3 to $5 per thousand gallons. A further factor which may check the growth in water consumption was a decision taken during 1965 to relax the restriction on the number of meters installed. This will make it possible for individual units in every new premises constructed to have a separate meter and will inevitably result in a considerable increase in the number of meters in service, which at the end of the year was 132,339.

      The Shek Pik scheme, which is now fully operational, is being extended by the Tung Chung scheme and at the end of the year was 80 per cent complete. Under the Tung Chung scheme additional catchwaters and tunnels are being constructed on the north side of Lantau Island from where water will gravitate through a tunnel under the main east-west mountain range of the island to Shek Pik Reservoir for storage. This increased yield requires the instal- lation of siphons on the Shek Pik spillway to increase the overflow capacity during periods of heavy rain.

The conversion of the Plover Cove sea inlet in Tolo Harbour to a storage reservoir will add 30,500 million gallons of usable water to the Colony's present storage capacity of 16,816 million gallons. The sealing of Plover Cove, to be completed in October 1966, will be achieved by building two smaller dams and a main dam 1 miles long which will have a maximum height of 130 feet, of which 90 feet will be below sea level. The yield will be partially derived from the northern and southern slopes of the Pat Sin Range, the former being brought in by catchwaters and tunnels. In addition, water from Kwangtung province and from the River Indus can be pumped through twin 54-inch diameter pipes to a focal point at Tai Po Tau, while stream flows intercepted between

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Sha Tin and Tai Po Tau will gravitate by eight miles of tunnel to the same point. The combined flows can then gravitate through a further six miles of tunnel to Tai Mei Tuk for storage in Plover Cove. A reservoir of 900 million gallons capacity has been completed at Sha Tin to provide a balance for the flood flows in the Sha Tin-Tai Po Tau tunnel. The hydraulic gradient of the tunnel can be reversed by automatically closing a gate at Tai Po Tau, thereby forcing the flow into the balancing reservoir for temporary storage.

The River Indus yield, while non-existent during the driest periods of the winter, can exceed 200 million gallons a day under summer flood flow conditions and a pumping station of this capacity is being provided on its banks. Provision was also completed for the integration into the Plover Cove scheme of the water from Kwangtung province and the River Indus at the rate of 20 million gallons a day by means of a 36-inch diameter pipeline from Sha Tin to the outlet of Shing Mun Reservoir. Extraction from Plover Cove will be by pumping at Tai Mei Tuk against the fall of the Tai Po Tau-Tai Mei Tuk tunnel, which was 75 per cent complete. At Tai Po Tau the extract-together with the water from China and the River Indus can be repumped against the fall of the Sha Tin-Tai Po Tau tunnel to the treatment works. These at present have a capacity of 80 million gallons a day, with site provision for extension to 160 million gallons a day. The treated water is pumped to service reservoirs through twin 48-inch and single 54-inch diameter mains laid below the two-lane road carriageway of the Lion Rock tunnel.

The Tai Po Tau pumps, the eight-mile Sha Tin-Tai Po Tau tunnel, the Sha Tin treatment works and pumps, two of the Lion Rock tunnel pipelines, and the 900 million gallon balancing reservoir were all brought into service on 1st March to take delivery of water from Kwangtung province at the rate of 62 million gallons a day. The yields to Tai Po Tau and the River Indus pumping stations are impounded by inflating dams of neoprene-coated nylon under compressed air and water pressure, while the natural yield to Tai Po Tau is increased by a similar dam at Tau Pass which reverses the flow of a stream. These dams, on which installation work was completed during the year, deflate during periods of excess flow, and thus reduce the risk of flooding in the surrounding countryside.

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The opportunity is being taken, with the increased resources at Tai Po Tau, to construct a six million gallons a day treatment plant, with site provision for extension to 24 million gallons a day. This will provide a treated water supply to the New Territories townships of Tai Po and Sheung Shui. Site excavation for a 24 million gallons a day plant was completed and the plant ordered. In order that the additional water resources available on the mainland may supplement the supply on Hong Kong Island, a further cross-harbour main of 42-inch diameter must be laid between Tai Wan and North Point. Preliminary investigations of the sea bed were completed during 1965 and an order placed for the pipes. To guard against a shortage of rain in any reservoir catchment area it is of the utmost importance that as wide a dis- tribution as possible be given to the vastly increased quantities of water which will be available on completion of the Plover Cove Reservoir. To this end, and also to assist in the distribution of water available from Shek Pik, 13 service reservoirs for underground storage of treated water are under construction. In addition seven such reservoirs were completed during the year, together with 28 miles of mains of 12-inch diameter and larger.

      The conservation of the Colony's fresh water resources by the use of sea water for sanitary and fire fighting purposes is receiving increasing attention. It requires the installation of foreshore pumping stations, pumping mains to reception reservoirs, repumping in some areas to meet the demand for water at higher levels, and a network of distribution mains. All material and equipment must be resistant to sea water; only pumps designed for the purpose can be used and steel mains must be lined with concrete or asbestos cement. Six pumping stations and three reservoirs were commissioned and 25 miles of mains were laid.

      Improvements were also carried out to the traditional irrigation systems of the New Territories and new works were constructed to improve supplies. During the year 9,700 feet of irrigation channels were lined with concrete to reduce seepage; 37,910 feet of new channel and 70 diversion dams were constructed.

      The quality of the water supplied throughout the Colony was maintained at the same high level as in previous years and the few sub-standard samples detected were traced to violations of the Waterworks Ordinance or to the carelessness of consumers.

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BUILDINGS

A general slowing down in the rate of building expansion in the Colony, which began early in the year, had the effect of slowing down the construction rate on a number of government building projects. Expenditure during the year amounted to approximately $17 million on government low-cost housing; $104 million on resettlement estates and factories; and $95 million on other building works. As in previous years the work was helped forward by private architects and quantity surveyors.

The programme of resettlement and government low-cost housing continued to progress during the year. In all, some 40 eight-storey and 16 16-storey resettlement blocks, providing domestic accom- modation for 118,000 people, were completed. Five 24-classroom resettlement estate schools for primary education, and five seven- storey flatted factories providing about 458,000 square feet of working area were also completed. Within the resettlement estates, shops, social welfare centres and estate offices were provided on the ground floors of domestic blocks. Top floor schools were also provided in some of the eight-storey blocks.

At the end of the year, a total of six eight-storey and 46 16-storey domestic blocks, 21 estate schools and five seven-storey factories were in course of construction at Tsz Wan Shan, Ham Tin, Shau Mau Ping, Shek Lei, Ngau Tau Kok, Yuen Long and Shek Pai Wan estates. In the government low-cost housing programme, the five remaining seven to 12-storey domestic blocks at Valley Road Estate and five 12 to 20-storey domestic blocks at Wong Tai Sin (East) Estate were completed, providing accommodation for some 18,800 people. In addition, 11 domestic blocks of 12 to 20 storeys were under construction at Ngau Tau Kok and Tsz Wan Shan at the end of the year.

On Hong Kong Island one secondary school, two primary schools, one secondary technical school, the Western District Magistracy, an Urban Services depot, 154 Marine Police rank and file quarters at Aberdeen, an office block in the former Naval Dockyard, 124 service flats in MacDonald Road and four blocks of senior staff quarters at Magazine Gap were all completed.

In Kowloon two secondary modern schools were converted to secondary technical schools and major alterations were carried

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out to Kowloon Hospital. A police station at Mong Kok and two additional buildings at Kai Tak Airport were also completed. At Yuen Long in the New Territories a clinic and maternity home, a police station, a district branch office and a post office were com- pleted. At Sha Tin a further clinic and maternity home were built. Marine Police operational bases were completed at Tai Lam Chung and Tai Po Kau, and police posts built at Peng Chau and Plover Cove.

       New buildings under construction at the end of the year included standard ambulance depots and fire stations at Shau Kei Wan, Kennedy Town, Tai Po, Morrison Hill and Nairn Road; quarters for the Preventive Service; new operating, professorial and quarters block at Queen Mary Hospital; a health centre at Yau Ma Tei; 721 police rank and file married quarters at Kennedy Town and 791 at Wong Tai Sin; Kowloon Central Post Office; Tong Fuk Prison; Tai Hang Tung Community Centre; and an extension to the Public Works Department depot at Caroline Hill.

Designs and detailed drawings or contract documents for some 70 larger schemes were also in hand at the end of the year. The major projects include a new 1,300-bed hospital at Lai Chi Kok; a new office block in the Murray Barracks area with some 200,000 square feet of working space; additional offices for police head- quarters with 128,000 square feet of working space; a training school for the Fire Services Department; a depot for the police training contingent; extensions to the Hong Kong Technical College; and additional wards at Castle Peak Mental Hospital.

DRAINAGE

      All the urban areas and the newly developing townships in the New Territories have waterborne sewerage systems in various stages of development. In many of the older urban areas the sewers were constructed 50 or more years ago and are no longer adequate to serve the large blocks of flats now being erected in place of older, smaller buildings. A comprehensive survey of the sewerage systems draining into the harbour has been completed and a programme of works has begun to develop all these sewerage systems to modern standards. It is intended that all sewage, after primary treatment, should be discharged by submarine outfall into the main tidal

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current where it is adequately dispersed. One treatment plant and outfall has been in use for a number of years, four outfalls are in partial operation, and planning is in hand for the construction of four further plants and outfalls.

In the New Territories sewerage systems are being constructed in the new towns now being developed and a preliminary investiga- tion has started into the sewage treatment facilities which will be required for some of the smaller inland centres of population in the northern New Territories. Progress has continued on a flood control scheme at Yuen Long and all works adjacent to the main town development area have been completed.

PORT WORKS

       On Hong Kong Island, work continued during the year on the central reclamation scheme. A new Blake Pier with a roof promenade was completed and the old one, built in 1901, was demolished. Its original cast iron structure will be used in a future public park in North Kowloon. Progress on a new pier for outlying ferry services and on a new government pier improved towards the end of the year. Construction of the remaining seawall between the Star Ferry piers and the Rumsey Street reclamation continued satisfactorily. The old King Shan Pier was demolished and reclamation contin- ued, but was limited by the amount of dumping material available.

At Wan Chai, work started on a new reclamation project covering some 90 acres. Filling of the area continued by public dumping and by depositing spoil obtained from various dredging works. Work started on two sections of seawall and a new passenger ferry pier to replace ferry service facilities which will eventually be absorbed in the reclamation. About six acres have so far been reclaimed.

On the south side of Hong Kong Island the first stage of a large development scheme at Aberdeen was completed. This stage com- prised the construction of a seawall, together with its contingent reclamation and a breakwater to provide a sheltered anchorage. A start was made on the second stage of the project by awarding a contract for the foundations of two breakwaters in Aberdeen channel. At Brick Hill, Wong Chuk Hang, also on the south side of the Island, construction of a pier and an access road to it was

    Villagers of Sam Mun Tsai prayed at their village tree shrine (above) when they left their homes in July to make way for the Plover Cove reservoir. The government built them a new village nearby. From the central control room at Sha Tin treatment works (below) water flow throughout the whole Plover Cove scheme will be controlled.

-0

1.

14

000

Model (above) shows how the Plover Cove integrated water scheme fits into the New Territories landscape. Bright red areas show where soil is being obtained for the dam that will block off the mouth of Plover Cove, yellow areas show where sand is being obtained, and black area is for dumping. Plover Cove is shown in panorama (above right). The 125 ft dam (below) at Tai Po Tau is known as a fabridam and is inflatable. It is made of nylon and, filled half with air and half with water, can be blown up or let down as needed to control the flow of water. Machine (right) sprays concrete on walls of supply tunnel leading to reservoir.

}ช

**

To make a firm foundation for the dam, a trench up to 50 ft deep is being dredged on the bed of Plover Cove. The 'Biarritz' (above) is equipped with the largest grabs of their kind in the world. The dam will be 14 miles long and will impound 30,000 million gallons of water. Cost of the Plover Cove integrated scheme is $550 million.

..

Each panel in the control wing at the Sha Tin treatment works (top) controls a filter bed. Jet disperser (above) reduces pressure of water drawn off from Shing Mun Reservoir. The Sha Tin treatment works (below) are situated in a valley near the northern end of the Lion Rock Tunnel. The works have been designed for an output of 160 million gallons a day.

The moving belt snaking over the hillside (above) carries rock and soil to barges, which transport it to the site of the Plover Cove dam. The pumping station under construction (below) will send surplus water from the Indus River for storage in Plover Cove.

Another huge project that is literally changing the face of the New Territories is the creation of a new city at Tsuen Wan (above) where ultimately there will be a population of 1,200,000. At nearby Kwai Chung (below) reclamation is going ahead rapidly to make 6,130 acres of new land. Nearly 1,000 acres will be for industry.

   People who left their homes to make way for development at Tsuen Wan have used their government compensation and loans to build three new villages (above). To keep pace with development at Tsuen Wan, the Housing Authority has built Fuk Loi Estate (below) where more than 18,000 people now live. The estate cost $20 million.

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173

      completed. This pier will be used by Marine Police launches super- vising Aberdeen harbour and neighbouring congested waters. On the east side of Hong Kong Island, filling by public dumping in the major reclamation scheme at Chai Wan continued. About 65 acres have been reclaimed out of a total of 171 acres. Two contracts were let for the first section of seawall fronting the reclamation.

      Construction of the Colony's first refuse disposal incinerator continued at Kennedy Town on Hong Kong Island, although some delays were experienced. The completed incinerator will consist of four units each with a capacity of 250 tons a day. Waste heat will be used to generate electricity and steam for an adjacent abattoir. Work continued on a pumphouse nearby, which will provide a cooling system for the incinerator and a salt water flushing supply for the western district. Construction started on a reinforced con- crete pier for cattle landing at the Kennedy Town abattoir adjoin- ing the incinerator, and a contract was let for an extension of the seawall and reclamation to the west of the incinerator. This reclamation, totalling about 34 acres, will provide land for a new sand depot to serve the western district. A further reclamation at Sandy Bay on the south-western side of the Island continued.

In Kowloon, foundation work on a seawall and breakwater at Sam Ka Tsuen was completed and construction of a 1,700-foot seawall and a 500-foot breakwater progressed well. Reclamation behind the seawall will provide about 19 acres for light industrial development and the breakwater will provide a sheltered anchorage for small craft. In Kowloon Bay, to the north-east of Kai Tak runway, progress continued on a 3,100-foot seawall. It will retain about 68 acres of reclaimed land. At Hung Hom the final stage of seawall neared completion. The total length of seawall in the project is 4,000 feet and the land thus reclaimed is planned for use in the construction of a new railway station and marshalling yards to replace the present facilities at Tsim Sha Tsui. The new land will also provide the Kowloon access to the cross-harbour tunnel.

      At Cheung Sha Wan, on the west side of Kowloon peninsula, a start was made on a further section of the seawall enclosing the reclamation there. A contract was let and work started on a new salt water pumphouse on the side of Kai Tak runway to serve air conditioning plant at the airport. Work also started on the

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      Colony's second refuse disposal incinerator at Lai Chi Kok. Pro- vision is being made for the waste heat from this incinerator to be used for desalinating sea water. A new government dockyard in the Yau Ma Tei area was begun by letting one contract for demoli- tion of the existing godowns on the site and another contract for three slipways and a pier.

       In the New Territories, dredging was completed in Tai O creek to provide a sheltered anchorage for the fishing fleet based on Lantau Island. Work started on a seawall at Ho Tung Lau, Sha Tin, to retain a reclamation which will provide a site for new rail- way workshops. The work comprises 2,000 feet of wall and a salt water pumphouse. Work also started on constructing a new pier at Waglan Island. Additional navigation beacons were built at Loo Foo Fat, Treasure Cove, Gau Tau and Cheung Chau Rock. Others at Wong Chuk Kok and Nga Ying Pai were started.

      The materials testing laboratory operated by the port works division of the Public Works Department carried out approximately 47,972 tests on various building materials. About 19,500 of them were for private firms.

LAND DEVELOPMENT

      Progress at the two new towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan- Kwai Chung included the formation of land totalling 135 acres. At Kwun Tong 70 acres were completed, including five acres of reclamation. The reclamation at Kwun Tong has now been com- pleted with the exception of a small area which cannot be filled until a salt water pumphouse has been removed and various as- sociated engineering works completed. Dumping in this part of the Colony has now been transferred to the adjacent Kowloon Bay, where 48 acres of land for industrial development were reclaimed. The number of established factories at Kwun Tong increased to 226 and the population rose to over 160,000. At Tsuen Wan Kwai Chung 65 acres of land were formed, of which 20 acres were re- claimed in contracts being carried out under the control of the consulting engineers. Four other contracts, which were under the control of the Public Works Department, produced a further 45 acres of formed hillside terraces. These are being used for the construction of resettlement and low-cost housing estates.

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       In Kowloon, site formation works for schools and medium- density housing at Ho Man Tin and high-class flats in the Lung Cheung Road area progressed satisfactorily. In all, 25 acres and five acres of land respectively were formed. Work started on forming 40 acres of land at Sam Ka Tsuen in North Kowloon to provide sites for the development of heavy industry and obnoxious trades. Preliminary planning began for the development of two new cities in the New Territories at Castle Peak and Sha Tin, and an engineer- ing report was prepared on the feasibility of developing Tsing Yi Island.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

      The Hongkong Electric Company Limited supplies electricity to the islands of Hong Kong and Lamma. The generating station, which is situated at North Point, has an installed capacity of 225 MW. A 120 MW extension is due for commissioning in the spring of 1966. During 1965 the maximum demand on the station was 184.9 MW, an increase over the previous year of 16 per cent.

      The transmission voltages of the company are 66 kV, 33 kV and 22 kV, with primary distribution at 11 kV and 6.6 kV. The company is at present changing the 6.6 kV system to 11 kV and when this is completed transmission at 22 kV will cease. Secondary distribution is at 346 volts three-phase and 200 volts single-phase, with the frequency stabilized at 50 cycles per second. All transmission and distribution is carried out by underground cables.

The amount of electricity generated during 1965 was 828.7 million kWh, an increase of 12.1 per cent over the previous year. The number of consumers increased by 9.7 per cent to 137,577 during 1965 and sales of electricity amounted to 729.7 million kWh. This was made up of 173.3 million kWh lighting; 5.4 million kWh public lighting; 172.3 million kWh bulk power; and 378.7 million kWh domestic and commercial power.

      Charges for electricity range from 28 cents to 15.4 cents per unit for lighting and 12 cents to 11.4 cents per unit for power. Special rates are quoted for the bulk supply of industrial power.

      The China Light and Power Company Limited supplies electricity to Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of other outlying islands. Demand for electricity has risen. rapidly over the years and in 1965 the peak load was 339 MW,

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which was 14.1 per cent more than in the previous year. The generat- ing station at Hok Yuen on Kowloon Bay has a capacity of 362.5 MW and a new 60 MW unit to be commissioned early in 1966 will bring the total capacity to 422 MW.

      At the beginning of 1965 the Peninsula Electric Power Company Limited was formed to provide additional generation facilities for the system operated by China Light and Power Company. The new company is owned 60. per cent by Esso and 40 per cent by China Light, capital being provided by the two partners in the same ratio. Hok Yuen 'C' station, which will provide a further 240 MW, is being built for the Peninsula Electric Power Company. At the same time plans are being made for a new power station on the south shore of Tsing Yi Island. This programme calls for six 120 MW sets, which will be installed as the load grows. Larger units may be added in later years when required.

China Light's main transmission system is at present operated mainly at 33 kV. A 66 kV system was inaugurated in September 1965 with the commissioning of a line from Hok Yuen to Sham Shui Po. In future, transmission will be largely at 132 kV. At 30th September 1965, the main network comprised 377.4 miles at 33 kV or higher, and 522.8 miles at 11-6.6 kV. The electricity supply in Kowloon and the New Territories is 50 cycle alternating current, normally 200 volts single-phase or 346 volts three-phase. Supply for bulk consumers is available at 11 kV and, for the time being, at 6.6 kV.

At 30th September 1965, there were 345,380 consumers, 19.7 per cent more than in the previous year. During the 12 months ended 30th September, 1,834.5 million kWh were generated, an increase of 15.9 per cent. A total of 1,613.1 million kWh were sold, comprising: 285.9 million kWh lighting; 8.7 million kWh public lighting; 621.7 million kWh ordinary power; 696.8 million kWh bulk supply.

Towards the end of 1964 the China Light and Power Company accepted a scheme of control, under which permitted profits are related to the net fixed assets employed, while incentives for pri- vate investment are maintained. At the same time, tariff reductions were provided for. An interim scale of charges came into force on 1st June 1965, the basic rates per kWh being: 29 cents for lighting; 13.6 cents for ordinary power; 11.5 cents for domestic cooking. Special rates apply to industrial bulk supply.

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      The Cheung Chau Electric Company Limited supplies electricity to the island of Cheung Chau, which contains some small industries and a population of fisherfolk who originally founded the company as a community project in 1913. Now operated by commercial in- terests, the company provides an electricity supply on a 50 cycle, three-phase, four-wire system of 200/346 volts for domestic, com- mercial and industrial purposes.

      The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited supplies gas to domestic, commercial and industrial customers on both sides of the harbour. Gas production is centred at Ma Tau Kok in Kowloon, and Hong Kong Island is supplied by means of underwater mains across the harbour. Town gas is available in all urban areas on the island and the mainland as well as in adjacent districts. It is also available in the industrial towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan. Liquefied petroleum gas (or bottled gas) is offered to customers who are unable to avail themselves of the normal town gas supply.

      To ensure that a satisfactory standard in gas installation work is maintained, the company itself controls this activity using the ser- vices of its own installation department. In addition to answering normal maintenance calls the company provides an emergency service throughout the 24 hours. Gas is sold on a thermal basis (1 therm 100,000 British thermal units) and the calorific value of a cubic foot of gas is 455 British thermal units. It should be noted however that in the industrial town of Tsuen Wan, where a new plant has been commissioned independent of the main works, the calorific value is 650 British thermal units per cubic foot.

      The gas tariff incorporates a standing charge which is dependent upon the size of meter installed. This standing charge includes the cost of the first three therms of gas consumed. The scale of charges is as follows:

HK$10.60 or $24.10

First 3 therms

Next 7 therms (up to Next 40 therms (up to

10 therms)

2.86 per therm

50 therms)

2.81

""

""

Next 75 therms (up to

125 therms)

2.74

""

Next 125 therms (up to

250 therms)

2.62

""

Next 250 therms (up to

500 therms)

2.51

Next 500 therms (up to 1,000 therms)

2.40

""

Consumption over 1,000 therms

2.30

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The company is prepared to consider special agreements on an individual basis for large industrial and commercial consumers.

The total quantity of gas sold in 1965 was 1,245 million cubic feet (5,677,012 therms) compared with 995 million cubic feet (4,528,126 therms) in 1964. The number of consumers rose from 19,208 to 21,219.

13

Communications

TODAY as always Hong Kong relies upon an efficient system of communications. When the Colony lived largely by entrepôt trade, its position on the China Coast was of the greatest importance. In the changing conditions of today, when the emphasis is on industrial production and exports, that position is still of vital importance.

The Port of Victoria is a fine natural harbour possessing all the facilities required by modern ship operators. Berths at government buoys and at private wharves and piers permit a continual flow of ocean and coastal shipping to pass through the port with a minimum of delay. Modern cargo handling equipment ensures the rapid turn-round vital to shipping economy. Chinese crews have an excellent reputation for hard work and ability, and may be engaged for an entire ship or for individual shipboard departments. All the ancillary services essential to the efficient day-to-day running of a ship can be readily provided by ship contractors, repairers and chandlers specializing in maintenance and painting, victualling, watering and refuelling.

The Director of Marine is responsible for the control of the ports of the Colony. The Marine Department co-operates closely with shipping and commercial interests through the Port Committee and the Port Executive Committee to ensure that port facilities and services keep pace with the ever-changing needs of Hong Kong and of the shipping companies. The Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 came into force in November.

Comprehensive navigational aids cover the harbour and ap- proaches, allowing entry to the port by day or by night in all weathers. Additions and alterations are under constant review by the Marine Department. The depth in the eastern approaches is 36 feet through Lei Yue Mun. In the west the depth is 28 feet through Sulphur Channel or south of Stonecutters Island. Although pilotage is not

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      compulsory, it is recommended owing to the density of traffic and the presence of reclamation and harbour works.

       Quarantine and immigration formalities are carried out at the eastern or western quarantine anchorages. Port health and im- migration launches are on duty from 6.30 a.m. to 11 p.m. in the eastern anchorage and from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the western anchorage. There is an inward night clearance scheme whereby agents, upon giving due notice to the departments concerned, can obtain inward clearance for freight ships arriving between 11 p.m. and 6.30 a.m. Radio pratique may also be granted in certain cases and this arrange- ment, apart from reducing the number of movements within the busy part of the harbour, is popular with shipping interests since it means that disembarkation and cargo work can begin immediately a ship is berthed. This is especially important to the operators of oil-tankers.

       Signal stations on Waglan Island and other points in the harbour and approaches are continuously manned. All movements are reported to the Port Control Office, where staff are available at all times to deal with emergencies and queries. The signal stations are in communication by radio-telephone with marine and port health launches, while police, immigration, fire services and preventive services have their own individual circuits. Vessels at buoys and wharves may hire radio-telephones commercially to link up with the public telephone services. As a precaution against fire in ships or waterfront premises, a fleet of fire-floats is manned by the Fire Services Department and in addition many government and commercial tugs are fitted with fire-fighting monitors.

       Port activity in 1965 again showed an increased movement of shipping, the volume of imports, exports and transhipment cargoes all remaining at a high level. Details of vessels entered and cleared during the year, together with figures of cargo loaded and dis- charged, are in Appendix XXXVIII, which also shows the number of passengers, including emigrants, who landed and embarked. Regular and frequent services are maintained by many well-known and old-established shipping lines, some 20 companies providing regular sailings to Europe and a similar number to the North American continent. There are also regular services to Australian, New Zealand, South African, South American and Asian Ports.

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     Frequent and fast services are maintained to Macau by ferries and hydrofoils.

      The Marine Department maintains 63 moorings for ocean-going vessels. Of these, 39 are classified as suitable for use by vessels up to 600 feet in length and 24 for vessels up to 450 feet in length. Under typhoon conditions 32 buoys are available for vessels up to 600 feet and seven for vessels up to 370 feet. Port improvement schemes continue to be implemented and an expansion scheme for the western harbour continued throughout the year. At the same time additional navigation aids were brought into operation. The year saw the near-completion of a central harbour scheme involving a new fairway, additional navigation aids, dredging, and the re-siting of government and naval moorings between Victoria Basin and North Point. Commercial wharves can accommodate vessels up to 750 feet with a draught up to 32 feet. Construction of a new ocean terminal continued throughout the year and in the meantime a temporary passenger terminal continued to function satisfactorily. Wharf and godown companies are estimated to have total storage of well over one million tons and can cater for the storage and transhipment of all types of refrigerated, dangerous and ordinary goods. During the year a modern multi-storey godown equipped for mechanical handling was completed at North Point and han- dling facilities were further improved by the addition of a new crane and other mechanical equipment on the Kowloon wharves.

      Most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage transported by lighter. Over 2,400 lighters and junks exist for this purpose, more than 800 of them being mechanically propelled. Mechanical lighters are particularly suitable for handling and transporting cargo, and the number of these craft is constantly increasing. Bunkering services are provided at four major oil wharves or by lighter. Fresh water supplies to shipping are readily available either at wharves or at buoys from water barges.

Officers of the Mercantile Marine Office supervise the engagement and discharge of seamen serving in British ships and also the crews of those ships whose countries have no consular representation in Hong Kong. Some 30,000 Hong Kong seamen are regularly employed in a sea-going capacity in ships under many different national flags. A planning unit for a new seamen's recruiting office was formed

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during the year and recruitment of suitable staff was begun while drafting continued of the necessary legislation.

A Port Welfare Committee ministers to the needs of crews of visiting ships and co-operates with religious and other organizations devoted to this work. The committee also administers the Merchant Navy Club in Kowloon. In 1965, $259,000, partly donated privately and partly from a government subvention, was made available for port welfare purposes.

      The dockyards were kept busy during the year with new con- struction, repair work and conversions. They also carried out the numerous surveys necessary for ships to retain their classifications or to conform under international maritime safety conventions with the laws of the country whose flag they fly. These called for the constant services of government marine surveyors and the surveyor representatives of Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Bureau Veritas, the American Bureau of Shipping and Det Norske Veritas. The largest ship ever built in Hong Kong, the China Navigation Company's Hunan, was launched by Taikoo Dockyard in October. The same dockyard carried out the conversion of a New Zealand ship, Maori, into a roll-on, roll-off car ferry. Considerable water- front extensions and covered berths were completed during the year by the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company. The Hong Kong Registry of Shipping now lists over 500 vessels under the British flag, totalling some 852,000 gross register tons. Of these, 143 ships are over 500 tons gross.

Vast numbers of small craft operate in the harbour and create special problems by their density. There are over 20,500 vessels in this category, more than 7,300 of them mechanized. It is mandatory for persons in charge of mechanized craft to possess a local cer- tificate of competency as master or engineer and during 1965 new measures to control the large numbers of pleasure craft now operating in Colony waters were introduced.

      A thriving trade continued with Macau and adjacent Chinese ports, cargoes being transported mainly by towed lighters or junks. Details of trade tonnage may be found in Appendix XXXVIII. A brisk internal trade is also carried on between the harbour area and outlying districts.

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Owing to the year's rise in freight rates, the number of unemployed ships laid up in Colony waters fell from 11 at the beginning of the year to five. The shipbreaking industry remained stable and 25 ships totalling 161,669 gross tons were broken up.

There were no serious typhoons during the year, but storm signals were hoisted on a number of occasions and heavy rains caused congestion in the port. A strike by stevedores in June caused considerable delays to shipping in port and careful planning was necessary to make berths available to arriving ships. Further congestion was experienced when typhoons affecting ports in Taiwan and Japan caused ships to arrive late in Hong Kong. Marine casualties during the year were light. Only one ship stranded in Colony waters and a few minor collisions occurred during the passage of typhoon Freda. Two ships arrived in port with fires in cargo holds that had broken out at sea. Both were extinguished by the Fire Services Department with a minimum of damage to the ships and cargoes. A serious fire broke out on a ship being broken up at Ngau Tau Kok and as it could not be extinguished immediately without a risk of capsizing the vessel, the fire was allowed to burn itself out.

CIVIL AVIATION

The development of civil aviation, which has brought Hong Kong to the world's doorstep in terms of travelling time, continues to make a significant contribution to the Colony's life and economy. Hong Kong Airport is situated on the north shore of Kowloon Bay, some four miles from the centre of Kowloon. The runway, 8,350 feet long and stressed to take aircraft up to 400,000 pounds, was brought into use in 1958. It is suitable for use by the most modern types of aircraft now flying or currently envisaged. The latest navigational and approach aids have been installed and these contribute greatly to the safety and regularity of air services to the Colony. Modern airport and approach lighting have made safe night operations possible in spite of the surrounding hills.

The terminal building, one of the most advanced in the Far East, came into use in November 1962, and was extended in 1964. It operates on a 'two level' system, arriving and departing pas- sengers being dealt with on different floors. The building includes

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shops, bars, a restaurant and a spacious observation platform offering a clear view of arriving and departing aircraft. Immediately in front of the terminal building is a parking apron for 11 large aircraft. Work has been started on an extension to the apron which will bring the total number of parking bays to 16. The apron hydrant refuelling system is controlled from a centralized fuel farm. Work on an extension to the freight building was started in January 1965, and was completed during the year. The additional storage space created will greatly facilitate the handling of air freight which is increasing significantly year by year.

      The Director of Civil Aviation supervises all aspects of civil aviation in the Colony and co-ordinates plans for its development. Full operational services are provided, including air traffic control, telecommunications, air sea rescue, airport fire service, aeronautical information service, aircraft registration and certification of air- worthiness, personnel licensing and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an aeronautical meteorological service.

      Although opportunities for private flying are somewhat limited, two flying clubs have good memberships. The Hong Kong Flying Club uses a Beechcraft Musketeer aircraft and the Aero Club of Hong Kong has an Auster Aiglet, a Cessna 172E and a Stinson L5. The Far East Flying Training School, established in 1934, offers full- time courses of training in aeronautical engineering and electronics. The Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited provides maintenance, overhaul and repair facilities at the airport for a wide range of aircraft, including the latest jet airliners. Their two hangars can accommodate the largest aircraft likely to operate into Hong Kong within the next decade.

      The Colony's own airline, Cathay Pacific Airways, offers services to India, Japan, Malaysia, Sabah, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Korea, using Convair 880 and Lockheed Electra aircraft. Some 180 scheduled services arrive each week at Hong Kong Airport, operated by 20 international airlines, in addition to numerous charter and non- scheduled flights. On average some 2,500 passengers pass through the airport every day.

The volume of air traffic continued to increase during the year

and passenger, freight and mail figures showed increases of 14.2 per cent, 38.5 per cent and 12.4 per cent respectively over the preceding year.

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KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

       The British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Lo Wu, where it joins the Chinese railway system. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains at the border between the Colony and China and walk the 300 yards separating the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads travel through without transhipment, however.

      There are 17 daily passenger trains each way on the British Section and an average of five goods trains each day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at weekends and public holidays, especially in winter. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin, which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon and the border station at Lo Wu is about one hour. The number of passenger journeys now exceeds eight million a year and the greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year was 85,310. This was on 5th April (the Ching Ming Festival) when many passen- gers went to visit their ancestors' graves in Wo Hop Shek Cemetery at Fanling and at Sandy Ridge, Lo Wu.

       Fares for third class travel are slightly higher than bus fares except between Kowloon and Sha Tin. Third class from Kowloon to Sha Tin, a distance of 7.14 miles, is 50 cents; children under 12 pay half fare. The second class fare is 50 per cent more than the third, and first class is double. Quarterly and monthly tickets at cheap rates are available for all stations.

       Rolling stock in the British Section consists of eight diesel-electric locomotives, one rail-bus, 70 passenger coaches and 198 goods wagons. A new terminal station at Hung Hom is being planned. Workshops for both heavy and light repairs are to be built in the New Territories on land now being reclaimed from the sea.

ROADS

       There are over 565 miles of road in the Colony maintained by the government. Of this total, some 197 miles are on Hong Kong Island, 160 miles in Kowloon and New Kowloon, and 208 miles in the New Territories. Traffic congestion has not yet reached the level ex- perienced in most major Western cities, but the growth in vehicle

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registration coupled with improved economic and social conditions within the Colony have necessitated a large road building and im- provement programme to meet ever increasing traffic demands. A total of $27.5 million was spent on major road projects and $15.2 million on road improvements and maintenance during the year.

On Hong Kong Island a 960-foot flyover along Harcourt Road was completed. This is the first stage of an improvement scheme linking the central district and mid-levels, and is part of a scheme to relieve congestion in the eastern approaches to the city. A start was made on the second stage comprising a flyover across Queen's Road East. The reconstruction of Connaught Road serving the main cargo-handling area in the western half of the city was completed.

      In Kowloon the final stage in the reconstruction of Nathan Road was started. This is the most congested section of this heavily used dual carriageway and extensive diversions and traffic control measures were necessary. Progress was maintained on a new link road between Tai Po Road and Castle Peak Road, near Lai Chi Kok Hospital. It is scheduled for completion in 1966 and should result in marked reduction in congestion in North Kowloon.

Construction of a flyover across the Argyle Street-Waterloo Road junction continued on schedule. This forms part of the main traffic route from Tsim Sha Tsui to the Lion Rock tunnel, which should be completed in 1966. The connecting link to Sha Tin on the other side of the Lion Rock tunnel was also under construction. Other roadworks in the New Territories were concentrated mainly in the areas of the satellite towns of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Yuen Long, and were planned to meet the requirements of building development.

      The application of traffic management techniques continued in an effort to make the best use of the existing road network. As the daily traffic load grows, this aspect becomes of increasing importance. The use of traffic lights to improve traffic operation on intersections has increased greatly during the past few years and in 1965 the first set of linked traffic signals were installed in Queen's Road and Chater Road.

      The planning of roads in Kowloon and Hong Kong to accom- modate the traffic generated by the proposed cross-harbour tunnel was one of the major items in hand during the year. The roads

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were successfully integrated into the design of the general network serving Hung Hom and Wan Chai, and detailed programming of their construction to meet the tunnel completion date was started.

       The Passenger Transport Survey Unit continued to collect data on the behaviour of traffic and transport in Hong Kong. Its activities intensified during the summer, when nearly 300 persons were engaged on a major interview-survey designed to establish the travel habits of the population of the urban areas by all types of transport. The survey was a complete success, due largely to the co-operation of the public and the enthusiasm of the staff carrying it out. The data collected amounted to several million individual pieces of informa- tion, which were processed by computer into suitable forms for use in all aspects of future planning. A large proportion of this data was handed to Mass Transit Consultants, a body of experts appointed by the government to define the long-term transportation needs of the Colony.

CAR PARKS AND METERED ZONES

A multi-storey car park in Middle Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, the first in Kowloon and the largest so far built by the government, was opened in January. A metered car parking area in Statue Square on Hong Kong Island was closed for redevelopment as a garden in September. To compensate for the loss of parking spaces there, a temporary car park was brought into use at Blake Pier with space for 148 vehicles. This brought the total number of car parks under the management of the Urban Council to four multi-storey car parks and four temporary car parks, with a combined capacity of 3,279 cars. Fees for parking remained unchanged. For multi-storey car parks the charges are calculated on an hourly basis with a minimum of $1 up to $7.20 for 24 hours on weekdays. At temporary car parks the fee is $1 for half a day or $2 for the whole day. A monthly parking pass, which is valid at both types of park, costs $60.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Public transport in Hong Kong, with the single exception of the railway, is operated by private enterprise, but the government retains powers designed to ensure efficient operation. There are five major public transport companies which operate under ordinances

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granting monopoly rights but requiring the provision of adequate services.

On Hong Kong Island two public transport companies have exclusive franchises to operate bus and tram services. In Kowloon and the New Territories another company has the exclusive bus franchise. Taxis are licensed for both urban areas and the New Territories. This year the government decided to open the way for new companies to enter the taxi business. Additional licences, which hitherto had been allocated on a quota system to existing companies, were put out to public tender. Hire cars and sightseeing coaches are also licensed and there is no restriction on the licensing of goods vehicles. Two large ferry companies have monopolies to operate services on specified routes across the harbour. Other minor cross- harbour services operate under licence.

      During the year 1,163 million people travelled on all public transport services. This was an increase of 7 per cent over 1964. Passengers on urban transport services, including bus services on both sides of the harbour, trams on Hong Kong Island, cross- harbour ferries and local passengers on the railway, totalled 1,073 million, an increase of 6 per cent. In the New Territories 90 million passengers were carried on buses, trains and ferries, an increase of 9 per cent. (See Appendix XXXVIII.)

       The Advisory Committee on Public Transport, formed in 1961, built up considerable experience and research material. It was thus able to make informed assessments of transport problems and to offer constructive advice to the government and the transport com- panies with regard to planning services to meet present and future needs. The committee was closely concerned with the work of the passenger transport survey and the mass transport feasibility study described above.

       On 1st December the Advisory Committee on Public Transport was dissolved and replaced by a new committee, the Transport Advisory Committee, which also absorbed the functions of the Traffic Advisory Committee. The chairman of the Advisory Com- mittee on Public Transport was appointed chairman of the new Transport Advisory Committee, which comprises 15 members. The official members are the heads of government departments most closely involved in the formation and execution of transport policies,

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while the unofficials are members of the public appointed in a per- sonal capacity. At the same time a new office, the Transport Office, was set up under a Commissioner for Transport. The office will serve as a secretariat to the Transport Advisory Committee and will act as a section of the Colonial Secretariat. It will also carry out executive functions concerned with studies of various transport matters. The Transport Office will receive complaints and sugges- tions from the public and submit these to the committee. It is intended that the Commissioner for Transport will assume respon- sibility for the licensing and testing of vehicles and drivers, and certain statutory responsibilities in respect of public transport services. At the end of the year the Commissioner was discussing take-over arrangements with the present authorities.

      Bus services in Kowloon and the New Territories are operated by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited. At the end of 1965, their fleet totalled 1,004 vehicles, comprising 530 double- deck buses and 474 single-deck buses, after the addition during the year of 100 buses. Mid-year passenger carrying capacity was 66,660 persons, an increase of 11.3 per cent. All double-deck buses are being equipped with power-operated doors and a connected system of warning bells.

      During the year 593.2 million passengers were carried and 45.67 million miles were covered by the company's buses, increases of 8.5 per cent and 13.1 per cent respectively over the previous year. At the end of the year, the company was operating a total of 64 routes (39 in Kowloon and 25 in the New Territories). With the additional new buses many existing services were also improved by increased frequencies and extended hours of service.

The construction of three-storey bus depots went ahead and by the end of the year two had been commissioned while

third was nearing completion. These depots, which will accommodate over 1,000 buses, are believed to be the first multi-storey double-decker bus depots in the world.

Bus services on Hong Kong Island are run by the China Motor Bus Company Limited which has 459 vehicles, comprising 378 single-deck and 81 double-deck buses. The total mid-year passenger carrying capacity of buses was 24,398 persons, an increase of 10.6

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per cent over 1964. In 1965 they carried 169.3 million passengers and covered 16.6 million miles, an increase of 7 per cent and 8.5 per cent respectively over 1964. Orders for 70 more buses were placed during the year. The company was operating a total of 31 routes at the end of the year including two holiday services and two special services on race days.

      Within the urban areas both bus companies charge two fares. The lower fare is 10 cents and the length of this stage is roughly one mile. Travel exceeding this distance within the urban area costs 20 cents for any distance, which may be up to seven miles. There is provision for school children's and other concessionary fares.

On the Island, Hong Kong Tramways Limited operate an electric tramway service over 19 miles of track running between Kennedy Town and Shau Kei Wan, with a branch line round the racecourse in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the city of Victoria. The tramcars are 34 feet gauge, 500 volts DC four-wheeled double- deckers. From a total fleet of 162 tramcars, the average daily service operated in 1965 was 154 at peak periods. This gave a car every two minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area the minimum frequency was a car every 30 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried was 181.8 million, a decrease of 0.7 million or 0.4 per cent on 1964. Farès are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route and are 20 cents first class and 10 cents third class, the maximum length of a route being 62 miles. The company also issues monthly, and concessionary tickets.

The Peak Tramways Company Limited runs a funicular railway service up the Peak. The present haulage system is the mining type and has been in use since 1925. The tramcars are drawn along the track by nearly two miles of steel cable and carried 2.9 million passengers during the year, an increase of 38 per cent. The tramway climbs up to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in two. It is reputed to be the steepest funicular railway in the world using a steel wire rope as its sole means of haulage.

Taxis are licensed for specific use on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon or the New Territories and conditions and fares vary with each area.

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Under a new tender system, 550 new licences (350 in Kowloon and 200 on Hong Kong Island) were issued during 1965. On Hong Kong Island fares are $1.50 for the first mile and 20 cents for every fifth of a mile or 25 cents for every quarter of a mile thereafter. The number of taxis at the end of the year was 885. In Kowloon the fare is $1 for the first mile and 20 cents for every quarter mile thereafter. At the end of the year 1,006 taxis were registered for Kowloon. Taxis licensed for the New Territories may transport passengers to any place in Kowloon, but may pick up passengers in Kowloon for destinations in the New Territories only at special taxi stands. They may not operate internally in Kowloon. There were 635 taxis licensed to operate in the New Territories, an increase of 9 per cent over 1964.

Public omnibuses operate certain transport services excluded from the monopolies of the major bus companies. These include coaches for sightseeing tours, those provided by hotels for their guests and those used for certain school-bus services. At the end of the year there were 125 public omnibuses licensed by the Commissioner of Police. Public cars operate under similar franchise and differ only in that they seat a maximum of nine passengers. At the end of the year there were 883 public cars licensed. No scale of fees is laid down for the hire of public cars or omnibuses.

FERRY SERVICES

The Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company Limited operates a fleet of 69 diesel-engined ferries of which 14 are vehicle ferries. The company maintains 11 ferry routes inside the harbour between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, of which three are vehicle ferry

routes.

The vehicle ferry routes consist of a combined passenger-vehicle link between the central district and Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon, a new route for vehicles only between North Point and Kowloon City introduced early in the year, and a double-decker vehicle ferry service between the central district and Yau Ma Tei which was converted from a single-decker service at the end of the year.

       Ferries to outlying districts call at Ma Wan, Castle Peak, Tung Chung, Sha Lo Wan and Tai O; Peng Chau, Silver Mine Bay, Chi Ma Wan and Cheung Chau; Tsing Yi Island and Tsuen Wan,

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and Sok Kwu Wan and Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island. There is also a service from Tai Po Kau to Tap Mun in Tolo Harbour.

      During 1965, 155.5 million passengers and 4.1 million vehicles were carried, an increase of 7.5 per cent and 12.2 per cent respec- tively over 1964. Vehicle ferry traffic has grown at the remarkable rate of 20 per cent a year since 1960.

      The company has a depot with three slipways and a building berth for the servicing and construction of ferries. Four new ferries came into service during the year. They were two new double-ended ferries each 146 feet in length overall and 27 feet in breadth moulded, with a carrying capacity of 734 persons, and two new passenger- vehicle ferries each 170 feet in length overall and 42 feet in breadth moulded, with a carrying capacity of 846 persons and 40 vehicles.

      The Star Ferry Company Limited is authorized by ordinance to run passenger ferry services across the harbour between Victoria City on Hong Kong Island and Tsim Sha Tsui on the southern tip of the Kowloon peninsula, and also between Victoria and Hung Hom on the eastern side of the peninsula. This latter service was introduced in June 1965. The company has 14 vessels in service with a total passenger carrying capacity of 7,858.

Star ferries run 21 hours a day between Victoria City and Tsim Sha Tsui until 3 a.m., and 18 hours a day between Victoria City and Hung Hom until midnight. During peak periods a ferry leaves from each side of the harbour every three minutes on the nine- minute journey between Victoria City and Tsim Sha Tsui, and every nine minutes on the 17-minute journey between Victoria City and Hung Hom. During 1965, 54.5 million passengers were carried, an increase of 8 per cent over 1964. On one day more than 184,000 people were carried.

CROSS-HARBOUR TUNNEL

      On 11th August 1965, the Legislative Council passed, by a majority vote, a resolution approving in principle the grant of a franchise to the Victoria City Development Company to construct and operate a tunnel across the harbour between Wan Chai and Hung Hom subject to certain conditions. The company is required to complete, by 1970, a tunnel between the Hung Hom reclamation,

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on the Kowloon side of the harbour, and the proposed Wan Chai reclamation on the Hong Kong Island side. The tunnel will contain four lanes for traffic and will be approximately 13 miles in length. The company is to construct the tunnel, while the approaches to it will be built by the Public Works Department. Vehicles using the tunnel will pay a toll.

The decision to go ahead with the tunnel gave final form to an idea which had been considered from time to time since 1902. In a preliminary planning report in 1948 the late Sir Patrick Abercrombie, the well known town planner, referred to the need for a cross-harbour road link. Six years later the government appointed a firm of consulting engineers to report on the project, and subsequently an inter-departmental working party-reporting on the implications concluded that the government should not itself build the necessary link. In 1956 the government accepted the recommendation of the working party and added that it was prepared to consider privately sponsored schemes, either for a bridge or a tunnel.

      In 1957 and again in 1959 the government agreed to delay develop- ment in a part of the Morrison Hill area on Hong Kong Island, where a bridge might have terminated, while investigations for a bridge went ahead. In 1961 the Victoria City Development Company submitted very full reports and traffic analyses of the scheme on which it had been working. These were examined at great length and in 1963 the government came to the conclusion that while a bridge was unacceptable a tunnel was unobjectionable. At the same time the question as to whether the scheme should be put to tender or not was considered. For seven years the government offer to consider such schemes had been open, but no other scheme had been taken to a stage where there were any sponsors prepared to pursue it. Under these circumstances the government decided in 1963 that the scheme should not be put to tender, but that a franchise with the Victoria City Development Company would be negotiated and that the sponsors should have up to 31st March, 1964, to decide whether to proceed. By the end of 1965 both government and private planning was well in hand to meet the anticipated require- ments of the draft legislation connected with the cross-harbour tunnel.

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      The latest figures show that the tunnel will have a length of 6,000 feet, a cross-section of two carriageways each 24 feet wide between kerbs, and a minimum height over carriageways of 16 feet. Its estimated carrying capacity is 60,000 vehicles a day. The estimated cost of the tunnel is $210 million, the estimated cost of approach works is $12 million, and the estimated cost of other road improvements accelerated by the tunnel is $40 million. The minimum depth of water over the tunnel will be 40 feet in the fairway.

POSTAL SERVICES

      The development of postal services continued in 1965, reflecting the needs of Hong Kong's growing population and of the expanding economy. Well over a hundred million letters, cards and packets are posted every year and a similar number delivered, while upwards of 1.3 million parcels are posted annually. (Postal statistics are given at Appendix XXXVIII.) Four new post offices were opened during the year, bringing the total to 44. In addition, two mobile post offices operate in the New Territories. Of the four new offices, one was established in a resettlement estate block at Chai Wan on Hong Kong Island, one in rented premises at Ham Tin Street, Tsuen Wan, one in a specially designed building at Kam Tin in the New Territories, and one in bank premises at Changsha Street in the busy commercial area of Mong Kok. Construction of the new Kowloon Central Post Office continued during the year and it is expected to be completed by the end of 1966. New Post Office piers were completed on the central reclamation on Hong Kong Island. They include facilities for loading and unloading mails from tenders by chain-conveyors.

      Two special postage stamp issues were made during the year. The first was to commemorate the centenary of the International Telecommunications Union, while the second honoured the United Nations International Co-operation Year. Each issue consisted of two stamps of 10 cents and $1.30 and they were placed on sale for three months. First day covers were issued on each occasion and heavy sales proved their popularity.

      Normal post office counter business such as the sale of stamps, handling of foreign parcels, registration of mail, and the sale of money orders, postal orders and wireless licences is carried out at

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most of the offices in the Colony. The inland parcel post service was re-introduced in April 1965. There are also a number of special postal services used mainly by business houses such as business reply, cash on delivery, private boxes, private bags and pre-paid postage services, including postage franking machines. There are two mail deliveries a day (excluding Sundays) in all but the most remote rural areas.

Direct communication is maintained with as many foreign post offices as possible and individual despatches are made whenever the volume of mail warrants it. The thousands of mail bags handled daily by the Post Office are conveyed to and from ships and across the harbour by launch. The train service between Kowloon and Lo Wu remains the main link for mails to and from the People's Republic of China. A considerable amount of transit mail was again received from various countries during the year for re-despatch to Indonesia and created storage problems while it was being held awaiting shipping.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

The Telecommunications Division of the Post Office licenses and inspects installations, investigates interference and monitors transmissions to ensure that they comply with the terms of licence. The division also acts as adviser to government departments on telecommunication matters.

The official opening on 31st March of the first stage of SEACOM (South-East Asia Commonwealth Cable) provided greatly improved telecommunication facilities between Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. SEACOM, which will later be incorporated in the world- wide cable network, offers a large number of channels which can be used for telegraph, telex, telephone, facsimile and voicecast purposes. Its superiority over wireless channels is particularly marked in the overseas telephone service. Because of the greater clarity of speech over SEACOM, coupled with the semi-automatic working introduced, the number of calls from Hong Kong to Singapore and Malaysia increased by 72.8 per cent within four weeks of its inauguration. During the year Cable and Wireless Limited also carried out improvements in their existing services, provided new facilities and extended working schedules to meet growing demands.

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       To cope with the increase in traffic, four direct telex circuits- Hong Kong-Tokyo, Hong Kong-Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong- Colombo and Hong Kong-Bangkok-were set up. New services were instituted with Port Moresby, Guam, Curacao, Ivory Coast, American Samoa and the USSR. The number of channels was increased on circuits to Sydney, Singapore and London. Sixty new subscribers were connected for international service.

      New international telephone services were instituted with Israel, Libya, Greece, Papua, New Guinea, Brunei, Angola, Cape Verde Islands, Mozambique, Principe, Azores, Madeira, Portuguese Guinea and St Thome. Working schedules to Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, USA, the United Kingdom and Europe were extended to 24 hours a day. Direct telegraph circuits were established with Cebu (Philippines), Kuala Lumpur and Jesselton. A phototelegraph service was opened with Paris.

      Leased circuits are mostly telegraph channels for international communication, to be used exclusively by the hirers. They are much more economical than telex or public telegraph in terms of transmission time available and during the year a number of channels were leased between Hong Kong and Japan. When the second stage of SEACOM opens, more channels will be available for this purpose and it is expected that increased telegraph correspondence will contribute significantly to the Colony's international trade.

      At Cape d'Aguilar on Hong Kong Island, 'A' station is being expanded and modernized. When completed the station will house 40 transmitters which will be mainly automatically tuned. They include the latest Marconi MST 7.5 Kw self-tuning high-frequency transmitters. The two stations at Cape d'Aguilar form the largest transmitting centre in the worldwide communications network of Cable and Wireless Limited and plans are in hand for the erection of a third station on the site.

       Telephone services throughout the Colony are provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited, a public company operating under a franchise from the government. In addition to internal services the company, in collaboration with Cable and Wireless Limited, provides telephone services to most overseas countries, as well as to ships moored in the harbour and at sea. The company's system is fully automatic and at 30th September

11.

الاز

A comprehensive system of navigational aids covers Hong Kong harbour and the approaches, allowing entry to the port by day or by night in all weathers. Waglan Lighthouse, situated on a small island some two miles off the coast of Hong Kong Island, covers the eastern approaches and is manned on a continuous basis.

INM

**

The Waglan light is one million candle- power and has a visibility of 21 miles. The lens, which was made in Sweden, is a four- panel reflecting prism and makes one revolution every minute. It is driven by an electric motor, with acetylene standby. The light is electric with gas standby. Together the lens and light weigh 11⁄2 tons.

:

   The lighthouse at Waglan was built by the Chinese Maritime Customs in 1893 and taken over by the Hong Kong Harbour Department on 1st January 1901, following the leasing of the New Territories. Attendant (below) signals inbound ship to iden- tify itself; this information is passed to Marine Department and ship's agents ashore.

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comprised 250,860 stations operating through 28 exchanges. The rental is on a flat rate basis of $350 a year for business lines and $235 a year for residential lines. There is a big demand for telephones and the company plans to double the system over each period of four years up to an estimated total of 1,200,000 lines.

In September 1964 the government appointed an Advisory Committee on Telephone Services to keep under review the opera- tion, improvement and expansion of telephone services and to examine complaints and suggestions from the public. The committee, which makes periodical reports to the Governor in Council, is under the chairmanship of an unofficial member of the Legislative Council and includes four other unofficial members, the Postmaster General and one other official member.

14

Press, Broadcasting and Cinema

THROUGHOUT 1965 the press in Hong Kong continued to grow in vigour and variety. The Colony now supports no less than 55 daily newspapers covering almost every shade of political opinion. Another 26 are published once or twice a week, and monthly publications now number 10. Some of the leading Chinese and English publications, including magazines, are listed at Appendix XXXIX. Newspaper circulations continue to rise at a steady rate and at the end of the year the overall circulation of the Chinese- language press was estimated to be about 1.5 million copies a day.

      An English-language evening paper, The Star, appeared for the first time on 15th March, bringing to four the total number of English-language dailies now published in Hong Kong. The others are the South China Morning Post and its afternoon companion, the China Mail, and the Hong Kong Tiger Standard. The South China Morning Post Limited also publishes the weekly Sunday Post-Herald.

      A notable feature of the Hong Kong newspaper scene in 1965 was the appearance of a number of trade magazines printed in English. These include the Hong Kong Manager, Asian Industry, Far East Medical Journal, Asian Textile Annual, Hong Kong Builder Directory, and the Far East Engineering and Equipment News. Other English-language periodicals published in Hong Kong for local and overseas readers include the Far Eastern Economic Review, the Far East Architect and Builder, and the Far East Engineer.

Both the Wah Kiu Yat Po ('Overseas Chinese Daily News') and the Kung Sheung Yat Po (Industrial and Commercial Daily News') celebrated their 40th anniversary during the year. Generally regarded as the Colony's leading 'middle of the road' Chinese newspapers are the Wah Kiu Yat Po, the Sing Tao Jih Pao and the Kung Sheung Yat Po, which are very comprehensive in their coverage of overseas and local news. Among new Chinese daily newspapers published during the year were the Echo Times, Good News Daily, South

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East Evening Post, World Evening Express, Happy News, Tsao Pao, and Kam Pao. A Chinese edition of the Reader's Digest began publication in March. This monthly, sold at HK$1.50 a copy, has a wide circulation both locally and overseas.

Chinese and English-language newspapers are represented in the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong which has 18 members. The Society, formed in 1954, is empowered to act in all matters affecting the interests of Hong Kong newspapers in general, or of the Society or its members in particular. Hong Kong remains the base of South-East Asian operations for all the important news agencies and many international magazines, newspapers, radio and television networks. International news agencies are represented by the Associated Press of America, the Agence France Presse (French News Agency), Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press) and United Press International.

Newsworthy events during the year included a run on a number of Chinese banks and the seizure of a large quantity of opium at a farm in the New Territories, both in February, a gun battle inside the South Kowloon Magistracy Building in June, a 'body in the trunk' murder case in July, the crash of an aircraft into Yau Tong Bay in August, Princess Alexandra's private visit to Hong Kong in September and the American Society of Travel Agents' Convention in the same month.

BROADCASTING

Transistor radios, which are on sale in Hong Kong at very low duty-free prices, have brought radio listening within the reach of virtually the entire population of the Colony during the past five years. Everyone, whether living in a crowded resettlement estate in the heart of Kowloon or in a tiny New Territories village, listens to the radio at some time every day. News bulletins in Chinese and English almost certainly draw the biggest consistent listener- ship, but light entertainment consisting of Chinese opera and Western music is now regarded as an almost indispensable back- ground to daily life. Two stations-Radio Hong Kong and Com- mercial Radio-transmit programmes in Chinese and English over the air, while a third-Rediffusion-broadcasts both sound and television programmes on a wired network.

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Radio Hong Kong is a government department and carries no advertising. It is the longest established radio station in the Colony and is, in fact, one of the oldest colonial broadcasting stations, having begun operations in 1928. It broadcasts both its Chinese and English programmes 17 hours a day on medium wave and on VHF/FM. The Chinese service is also carried on short wave, principally for the benefit of the fishing fleets. The medium wave transmitters are at Hung Hom in Kowloon and the FM mast is on the summit of Mount Gough. Since 1951 Radio Hong Kong's studios and engineering services have been housed in Mercury House, the Far Eastern headquarters of Cable and Wireless Limited, but plans are now in hand for a new station at Pok Fu Lam on Hong Kong Island.

The principal language of the Chinese programmes is Cantonese, although news bulletins and important announcements are also broadcast in Kuoyu, Chiuchow and Hakka. Educational material has become a feature of the Chinese service during recent years and these programmes, often related to specially issued textbooks, command considerable attention among student listeners. Three hours are set aside each day from Monday to Friday for educational programmes ranging from biology to poetry. Musical tastes among Chinese listeners range all the way from classical opera to modern Chinese and Western songs favoured by younger listeners. A 12-man Cantonese orchestra was formed during the year and in addition to giving weekly broadcasts is also available to accompany soloists.

      Regular news bulletins covering local, regional and world news are supplemented by relays of BBC services in Kuoyu and Can- tonese. A news magazine, 'Topical Events', is broadcast each weekday evening to give a background to local news. There is a big public for Radio Hong Kong's outside broadcasts, especially those from the race track and football matches. Outside broadcast teams also produce many special programmes for farmers and fishermen, and cover all the main Chinese festivals.

Radio Hong Kong's English programmes serve not only Europeans living in the Colony but also the growing number of English- speaking Chinese. The programmes include a high proportion of classical music and talks. Frequent discussion programmes are broadcast and current events are also covered in a daily news

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     magazine, 'Topics'. A twice-daily programme for tourists, "The Pearl in Your Hand', ran throughout the year. It is popular with both visitors and residents, and undoubtedly makes a valuable contribution to the tourist industry which is now one of Hong Kong's biggest sources of revenue. Daily 15-minute classes in Cantonese were re-started during the year and attracted a large following among expatriates of all nationalities wishing to learn the language.

      Commercial Radio. The Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Company Limited transmits one English and two Chinese services. During 1965 the English service devoted more time to locally produced programmes. In addition to nightly interview programmes, a weekly documentary programme of international news was pro- duced in the studios. The station also had its own correspondent in South Vietnam to send back a 30-minute tape each week including interviews from the battlefields.

      Active coverage was again given to local sports, including com- mentaries on all major matches. A drama group of staff members and contributors was formed and produced several plays, including some by local writers. The station also produced the Hong Kong part of the 'Pacific Pageant' for the American Society of Travel Agents' Convention, and co-ordinated the shows of the six visiting countries. Special music for the show was composed by a staff member. In addition to outside broadcasts from the City Hall there was an increase in the number of local artists broadcast, both from relays and from the studios. The percentage of spoken word programmes (including news) rose from 21 per cent to 25 per cent. The musical policy of the station is basically 'middle of the road' with special times set aside for popular and classical music.

The Chinese service continued to promote juvenile and adult education. Several series of lectures were broadcast, and the subjects covered included the secondary school entrance examination, English conversation (for which 10,000 copies of text books were given away free of charge), general economics, and public relations. There were many outside broadcasts, including the drawing of government lotteries, the Queen's birthday parade and the arrival and departure of HRH Princess Alexandra in September.

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     Rediffusion. Wired sound and television are supplied by Rediffu- sion (Hong Kong) Limited, a locally controlled subsidiary of the organization which operates in Britain and in many other Com- monwealth countries. The wired sound service is distributed to practically all the urban areas and to many outlying villages in the islands and New Territories by more than 1,000 miles of main trunk lines and another 3,000 miles of installation cabling. At the end of the year there were 35,000 subscribers to these sound services. Rental for a speaker is $10 a month, giving a choice of four programmes. The three Chinese programmes broadcast a total of 45 hours daily. The silver and gold networks each broad- casts 17 hours daily offering news, music and other programmes in a variety of dialects. The third Chinese programme broadcasts from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. daily and provides a comprehensive school programme in Cantonese. The English service broadcasts an all- music programme, with news bulletins in the morning and in the middle of the day. The service operates from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday to Friday, and from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturday and Sunday. Just under a quarter of Rediffusion sound programmes are commercially sponsored.

     Hong Kong was the first British Colony to operate a television service and the Rediffusion network now has two channels. By the end of 1965 there were 50,250 subscribers. The television services carry advertising, and a number of shows on both channels are commercially sponsored. The two channels provide some 75 hours of viewing each week. While both channels carry popular filmed shows from Britain and America, the Chinese programme in particular includes many live shows from fully equipped studios at Rediffusion House. In television, as in radio, outside broadcasts are playing their part in creating among viewers a greater under- standing of current events in the Colony and almost every day Rediffusion's cameras are out covering local news. The rental fee for a 23-inch television set is $50 a month and for a 19-inch set $45 a month inclusive of the receiver, programmes, licence and maintenance. These fees are reduced annually. Subscribers with their own receivers pay $25 a month to cover the programme fee, licence and maintenance. The network now reaches out from the urban areas to Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Clear Water Bay and Sha Tin in the New Territories, and further developments are under way.

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WIRELESS TELEVISION

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      The Television Ordinance, No 32 of 1964, became law in Novem- ber 1964 and the following month the Director of Information Services, ex officio, was appointed Television Authority to admin- ister the Television Ordinance in the event of a wireless television franchise being granted. The Television Authority is responsible for securing proper standards of broadcast television, particularly regarding the contents of programmes and technical efficiency of broadcasts. In this respect he will be assisted by an Advisory Board of five people. Codes of Practice, relating to programme, advertising and technical standards, were published early in February and in the same month the government invited applications by sealed tender for a licence to establish and operate a wireless television service in Hong Kong for 15 years subject to renewal at the expiry of each five-year period. The licence will carry with it an exclusive right to broadcast commercial wireless television for a period of five years from its commencement. Eight applications were made and a decision on the award of the wireless television franchise is expected to be reached early in 1966.

FILM INDUSTRY

Accurate figures for the purposes of comparison are hard to establish, but it may well be that Hong Kong is the world's largest film producing centre. The best figures available for any recent year show that Hong Kong film companies produced 310 feature films, compared with 271 made in India, 225 in Japan and 155 made by United States film companies. A variety of factors, including weather, may prevent Hong Kong remaining consistently in the lead, but it is obvious that the Colony holds a major position in the film world. Many productions are the work of small studios on low budgets, but the industry also has its moguls and its extra- vaganzas in full colour and wide screen, and these more ambitious productions have won many awards at film festivals in Asia.

Hong Kong continues to be a favourite location for film companies from abroad and during the year sequences for one major feature film and several documentaries were shot in the Colony. Producers now know that in Hong Kong they can find not only spectacular scenery and background but also the skilled technicians and modern services essential for sophisticated film work.

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GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

The task of the Government Information Services is to keep both the people of Hong Kong and people overseas accurately informed of the government's aims and achievements, and the department is linked by teleprinter to 34 newspapers, news agencies and radio stations.

The department is divided into three main divisions-administra- tion, press and publicity, the latter two being staffed by specialist, professional officers. The Press Division operates in two main sections-press and radio news. The press section channels in- formation to newspapers and deals with press enquiries generally, while the radio news section specializes in the preparation of world and local news bulletins for the Colony's three broadcasting and television stations. Ten radio news bulletins in English and eight in Chinese are prepared daily ranging in length from full 10-minute bulletins to one-minute summaries.

The Publicity Division has both local and overseas commitments, and consists of a number of separate but interlocking sections which produce magazine and newspaper feature articles, photo- graphs, newsreels, booklets and posters. Locally, the Division is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all government departments. The features section provides written material for a worldwide press syndication service and for most booklets and leaflets produced in the department. It also provides scripts and commentaries for documentary films and newsreels made by the film unit. As part of the Colony's campaign to sell more overseas, increased emphasis was placed during the year on features dealing with trade and economic subjects.

     In the publications field, the main project undertaken during the year was the preparation and production of a Port Handbook, designed to become standard equipment for mariners and others using the port of Hong Kong. Special booklets and leaflets were prepared for trade fairs overseas, and booklets with print orders of up to 100,000 were also produced to back up the Colony's worldwide export drive. The photographic section supplies all black and white and colour photographs for the department and also carries out many and varied photographic assignments for other government departments. During the year, 457 photographic

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assignments were carried out and a total of 23,974 black and white prints were produced, plus 3,037 colour transparencies.

Two major productions completed by the department's film unit in 1964 were both released in the United Kingdom in 1965. 'A Race Against People', which tells the story of Hong Kong's vast rehousing programme, received its pre-release in the West End of London at the Carlton Cinema, Haymarket. 'Made in Hong Kong', which portrays the Colony's emergence as a major manufacturing territory, was released at the 1,700-seat Leicester Square Theatre in London as a supporting feature. The unit also produced 20 newsreel and magazine items for distribution through the Central Office of Information, London.

The department's distribution section undertakes the distribution of all publicity material produced by the department; it also dis- tributes posters, literature and magazines received from Britain. The department's first mobile cinema was brought into service and 91 travelling film shows were organized during the year for audiences numbering more than 630,000 in multiple locations.

At the end of the year there were 86 cinemas in Hong Kong- five more than the previous year. Films for public exhibition within Hong Kong are subject to censorship in accordance with the law and must be viewed by the department's film censorship section, which has two theatres for this purpose. Films censored during the year totalled 2,932.

PUBLIC ENQUIRY SERVICE

The object of the Public Enquiry Service is to maintain a close link between the government and the people. Its primary business is to give the man in the street quick and clear guidance and explanation of the various services and functions performed by government departments, and to help him understand government rules and procedures, particularly when they affect him personally. It is also responsible for answering all non-technical enquiries about local storm warning signals. Once the local storm signal No 3 is hoisted, any member of the public can telephone an enquiry centre at any hour to find out the latest weather position and related topics, such as suspension of public transport services and postponement of public functions.

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On average the three enquiry centres in the central district, Wan Chai and Kowloon handled 13,358 enquiries a month in 1965, excluding 15,016 telephone enquiries resulting from the four typhoons that affected the Colony during the year. In its work and organization the Public Enquiry Service is somewhat similar to citizens' advice bureaux in other parts of the world and its emphasis is to give a sympathetic hearing, coupled with helpful advice and practical assistance. All centres have specially trained staff, each member speaking English, Cantonese and a number of other Chinese dialects. Results show that the service is a valuable instrument for improving the government's relations with the public.

15

The Armed Services and Auxiliary Services

THE British regular forces in Hong Kong are under the overall control of the Commander-in-Chief, Far East. The commanders of the three services generally work under their respective service commanders in Singapore, but in some respects the Commander British Forces Hong Kong co-ordinates service activities in the Colony as well as commanding the land forces. The units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are administered by the Hong Kong Government, but come under the command of the regular commander of the appropriate service for operations, and for training in their operational roles. The Army and Royal Navy both recruit a considerable number of local personnel. These serve in the Army within the Colony or, in the case of the Navy, aboard HM ships anywhere in the Far East.

      The Naval shore base, HMS Tamar, provides full maintenance facilities and support for the coastal minesweepers based per- manently in the Colony and also assists ships of the Far East Fleet which visit Hong Kong regularly for maintenance, and for leave and recreation. Land Forces Headquarters in Hong Kong is in Victoria Barracks. There are two subordinate formations-48 Gurkha Infantry Brigade Group, which is located in the New Territories, and Hong Kong and Kowloon Garrison, which con- sists of both operational and administrative units in Kowloon and on Hong Kong Island. Royal Air Force Station Kai Tak is a separate enclave alongside the civil airport, and uses the same runway and control facilities to operate both resident and visiting RAF aircraft. Radar and signals facilities are provided by the RAF for distant control of civil and military aircraft approaching the Colony.

      The assistance of the armed services is freely given whenever disasters or emergencies affect the Colony. During the year divers of the Royal Navy assisted in the recovery of bodies and wreckage from an aircraft which crashed near Kai Tak. An Army officer

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was awarded the Commendation for Gallantry of the Commander, Far East Land Forces, for his efforts to save four occupants of a car which crashed and overturned into the Beas River in the New Territories. A 500 lb bomb, uncovered during excavations at Pok Fu Lam, was removed and dumped into the sea by the Hong Kong Fortress Squadron, RE. British servicemen in Hong Kong also provide the biggest contribution to the local Red Cross blood bank. They are quick to answer all appeals and the annual average donation from service sources is in the region of 5,000 pints.

LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES

The Colony's auxiliary defence services consist of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Essential Services Corps and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (dealt with in chapter 10). All these services are paid for almost entirely from funds voted each year by the Legislative Council. Except for small administrative and training staffs they are manned entirely by volunteers who train in the evening or at the week-ends, and in some cases for up to 15 days at sea or at annual camps. Service in the auxiliary defence units is a considerable commitment for the individuals concerned and also for their employers, who are generally most co-operative in releasing members of their staff for these duties. Training obligations vary from service to service. The maximum is in those units whose members must every year attend at least 60 hours of instructional parades, six full days' training and a training period at camp. An allowance to cover out-of-pocket expenses is granted for attendance at instructional parades, while for a full day's training and for attending camp, officers and mem- bers receive a higher daily rate of pay.

The principal units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are the Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, the Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers), and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. Each major unit deals direct with the government and with the corre- sponding regular service.

The Hong Kong Volunteers were first raised for the protection of the Colony in 1854. In 1878 they were renamed the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps and in 1917 the Hong Kong Defence Corps. In 1920 the title was again changed to the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps. The Corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong,

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to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December 1941, and fought with the regular forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December 1941. In 1956 their action was vividly recalled when part of the old Colours of the Corps, which had been buried in December 1941 to avoid capture by the Japanese, was discovered by workmen excavating a building site on Garden Road. The officers who had hidden the Colours had died in captivity, leaving no record of where they might be found. The remnants of the old Colours were paraded at the annual review of the Defence Force in March 1958, and were afterwards laid up in St John's Cathedral. Decorations were conferred on 15 members of the Corps for their gallantry in battle and for later escapes from Japanese prison camps in Hong Kong, while 18 were mentioned in despatches.

After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1st March 1949, as the Hong Kong Defence Force. Two years later his late Majesty King George VI granted the title 'Royal' in recognition of the part played by the Force's forerunner, the Volunteer Defence Corps, in 1941. In March 1957 Her Majesty the Queen awarded the battle honour 'Hong Kong' to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, and this honour is now emblazoned on the Regimental Colour.

The Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve comprises some 40 officers and 160 men whose sea-going training is carried out in two inshore minesweepers. These ships, which are berthed in the Royal Naval Base, HMS Tamar, are on loan from the Royal Navy and are operated and maintained by the Hong Kong Government. There is also a small detachment of the Hong Kong Women's Naval Reserve.

The Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) now have the dual roles of a reconnaissance regiment and an internal security unit. The regiment operates in support of the regular Army and the roles it has been given take advantage of the volunteers' detailed knowledge of the Colony and its people. They are thus able to make their own special contribution to the Army's tasks in Hong Kong. The regiment consists of a headquarters squadron, three reconnaissance squadrons and an assault company; there is also a home guard company and a detachment of the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. The regiment is equipped with Landrovers, a number of Ferret scout cars and the latest weapons and radio sets.

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The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force continued to operate its Westland Widgeon helicopters and Auster observation aircraft in 1965, the latter being used mainly for pilot training. Early in the year one of the Widgeon helicopters was lost as the result of an accident during training and for some time afterwards the remaining helicopter was grounded. This unfortunately brought about a suspension of the 'flying doctor' services. In August, however, the delivery of two new Alouette helicopters made a full resumption of flying possible and the increased power and carrying capacity of the Alouette over the Widgeon give increased efficiency and reliability to the aero-medical services. Many government depart- ments used the new helicopters for flights to all parts of the Colony.

The major helicopter operation of 1965 was the rescue of 44 persons, and the ship's dog, from the freighter Nan An aground in Mirs Bay. The rescue was carried out in very bad weather condi- tions of low cloud, rain, very poor visibility and strong gusty winds which made helicopter flying extremely hazardous in close proximity to the cliffs.

ESSENTIAL SERVICES CORPS

The Essential Services Corps is split for administrative and practical purposes into four autonomous services-the units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Services and the Auxiliary Fire Service. The Corps proper consists of about 60 units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, water, com- munications, etc. during any emergency but particularly during civil disturbances involving curfews. Approximately half the units are formed from government departments and the other half from commercial organizations. The total strength is about 8,000. Each unit is principally staffed by persons of that service who have undertaken voluntarily to continue to serve under emergency conditions. When called out for service, members are subject to certain obligations but also become entitled to certain benefits and privileges such as pay, pension in case of death or injury, police powers and immunities, and identity documents to facilitate movement during curfews. Comprehensive plans for the operation of each unit have been prepared and co-ordinated with the police and military. The Commissioner, Essential Services Corps, who

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is a government servant, is responsible for maintaining these plans under the general direction of the Defence Secretary.

       The Auxiliary Medical Service is organized to provide first aid, reinforce government and private medical establishments, and provide an augmented ambulance service in any emergency. It is built around the Medical and Health Department, the St John Ambulance Brigade and other members of the medical and nursing professions, but many people with no previous training in nursing and first aid have also been enrolled and trained to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first aid workers in the field. The service has over 5,000 members. During the year, members were present to render assistance at a considerable number of local fires and

accidents.

       The Civil Aid Services are responsible for all civil defence func- tions not covered by other specialist emergency services. They have an active strength of 5,000 volunteers recruited from all walks of life and trained to be of the most practical use during conditions of emergency, the most frequent of which are typhoons, floods and house collapses. The service includes units trained in fire prevention and fire-fighting, civil defence, first aid, rescue and communications, and has its own despatch rider service. A training school is maintained at which full-time courses for officers, super- visors and specialists are conducted. All members train part-time, normally in the evening. Regular exercises are staged realistically in heavily populated areas and concentrate on dealing with the problems and hazards which dense population and a wide variety of building structures create. A number of volunteer members have recently been trained at the Civil Defence Staff College and Civil Defence schools in Britain, where they attained a high standard.

       The professional element of the Fire Service is supported by an Auxiliary Fire Service of some 800 volunteers who attend fire stations several times each week for training sessions, and who are called upon as reinforcements during major fires or widespread emergencies.

Apart from training to meet emergencies and assisting at major disasters, there are many instances every year of members of all the auxiliary services giving help and first aid, in an individual capacity, at all kinds of accidents and incidents.

16

Religion and Custom

A BRIEF account of religious practices in Hong Kong must embrace such diverse subjects as traditional Chinese beliefs, Taoism, the religious aspects of Confucian teaching, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and a kaleidoscope of Christian sects. In seeking one idiom to ex- press all this it is easy to be misled by the entirely different appear- ances of religious observance, particularly between the traditional Chinese practices and those of the Christian churches, and even to assume a relative lack of religion in Chinese life. It is true that Hong Kong's business centre may not have as many temples as there are Wren churches in the City of London, but there are likely to be at least as many signs of religion in the average Chinese home, or business, as in its Western counterpart. Almost every Chinese shop has its 'God Shelf' and many homes their ancestral shrines. Whether the devotion before such symbols is intense or perfunctory there is an unmistakably religious element in Chinese culture. It may find expression in traditional ancestral ceremonies encouraged by Confucius or through a wide variety of Taoist rituals.

There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out among the younger people. The Hong Kong Buddhist Association is their main organization in the Colony, although a Taoist Association has now also been formed.

     Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries and nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Because of their accessibility, hermitages at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and scenically pleasing parts of the

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New Territories. Thus the Buddhist Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is much visited at weekends and holidays.

Sightseers as well as devotees are attracted to other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries in the New Territories such as Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor, Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen and Sai Lam. At To Fung Shan, a hill in Sha Tin, there is a Christian study centre on Chinese religion and culture which engages in study and discussions of issues and problems in the Chinese religious world. The work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on there for many years. There is also a unique organization, the Hong Kong Red Swastika Society, which seeks to cultivate together under one roof Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. To meet the demand of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

      As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house and are named after one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may sometimes be found in the same temple. The subsidiary deities of one temple may, however, be the major ones of another. Almost all of them are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port. It is difficult to classify these deities according to religions or ways of life. Except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been traditionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protec- tress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War and the source of right- eousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau), and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors).

      Perhaps the oldest, and certainly one of the most popular, of Hong Kong's temples is the one dedicated to Tin Hau at Causeway Bay. Other Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to most

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fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun in Joss House Bay. Many of these Tin Hau temples are now some distance inland, as a result of reclamations made since they were originally established close to the shore.

Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road, which is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is equally famous. In recent years by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin in New Kowloon and the Che Kung temple in Sha Tin. In the New Territories, where traditional clan organization has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular life of the village. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also to be found in the New Territories, particularly among Hakka villagers.

     The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year, welcomed in Hong Kong in the traditional manner with a deafening barrage of firecrackers. It is a common belief that the mass discharge of firecrackers on this occasion will dispel evil spirits and bad luck, and usher in a happy new year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are also widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in the Spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among rela- tives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. This is also a time for refur- bishing family graves.

The fact that Chinese may follow one or the other of these ways, or may combine them without any feeling of incongruity, has often meant that Christianity with its exclusive claims has been politely

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ignored in the Chinese world; but it is nevertheless rooted deeply and growing rapidly in Hong Kong.

      Its roots go back indeed to the earliest days of the Colony. St John's Cathedral was founded in 1842, and established as a Cathedral by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. A rep- resentative of the London Missionary Society arrived at about the same time; several of the big Chinese churches are now within a few years of celebrating their centenary. Rapid growth continues. A statistical survey recently showed that the Protestant churches had increased their membership by 111 per cent in eight years. The movement into new estates and satellite towns is now being pursued with resolution and devotion.

      The year under review started with moving signs of increasing sympathy and understanding between the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches during the Week of Prayer for Church Unity. An innovation was a joint meeting for prayer and exposition of a passage from the Bible under the title "The Living Word'. A Bible exhibition was held in April at the City Hall and repeated at Kowloon Union Church. It was sponsored jointly by the Bible Societies on behalf of Protestants and by the Studium Biblicum on behalf of Roman Catholics, and aroused great interest.

      But the first impression of Hong Kong's church life might well be one of almost bewildering variety and energy rather than ordered unity. The contrasts are striking. Efforts to serve people in their need, through clinics, feeding programmes and social welfare centres, are balanced by efforts to deepen spiritual life. Typical of these are the annual 'Keswick' in English and the Pui-Ling meetings in Chinese, both held during the summer. The churches, already committed to educational work from primary to university level, are now re-thinking their contribution. During the year the Anglican Church opened two secondary modern schools in addition to others. In May the Lutheran World Federation opened a new vocational training centre at Kwun Tong designed to house 1,000 students and provide training in 13 trades.

The habit of co-operation is growing and is presented here in two groupings. These are the Chinese Christian Churches Union- already 40 years old-and the Hong Kong Christian Council, whose membership is by denomination. The Chinese Christian

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Churches Union now represents 81 member churches and offers regular opportunities for discussion and joint action. A new home for the aged at Sha Tin Pass Road, Wong Tai Sin, has continued to grow. The weekly newspaper on Christian news and comment is expanding its circulation. The Hong Kong Christian Council has a membership of 19 major church denominations and Christian organizations (such as the Salvation Army, the YMCA and the YWCA). It exists to bring the member bodies into closer association in Hong Kong and to strengthen links with the worldwide church. It is itself a member of the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism of the World Council of Churches, and a member of the East Asia Christian Conference. There was some development during the year on the Christian Council's two big projects, the Christian Centre and the United Christian Hospital.

     The major world denominations are represented in Hong Kong in the Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists, and Pentecostals, etc, with Congregational and Presbyterian effort con- tributed to the Church of Christ in China. Most of these are engag- ing in educational work to some extent, with the Anglicans taking the lead in numbers with over 45,000 primary students in their schools. Other groups working in Hong Kong include the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), which is con- ducting mission work here. There is also a Christian Science Church on the island. There are a small number of Russian Orthodox believers in the Colony, some of whom have their own church.

      The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong dates back to the beginning of the Colony. The first priests to arrive were chaplains serving the spiritual needs of British soldiers of the Catholic faith. On 22nd April 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Apostolic Prefecture of Hong Kong with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first prefect. Msgr Joset laid the foundations of the future by building a permanent church to replace a mat shed mission, establishing a seminary to train Chinese priests, and bringing in religious sisters- Congregation of St Paul de Chartres being the first-to start schools and welfare institutions.

      In 1867 the Prefecture of Hong Kong was entrusted by the Holy See to the Pontificial Institute of Foreign Missions (PIME), whose athefrs have worked in the Colony ever since. The first bishop,

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Msgr Timoleon Raimondi, was consecrated in 1874 when the prefecture was raised to an Apostolic Vicariat. He built St Joseph's Church on Garden Road and the present Cathedral on Caine Road, and brought to Hong Kong the La Salle Brothers, who established St Joseph's College in 1875.

Since the Second World War much rebuilding of church premises has taken place and new activities have been started. Among the latter is the Catholic Centre, which houses the Catholic Press Bureau, the Catholic Truth Society, the Catholic Club, a lending library, a book centre and a chapel. On 11th April 1946, the Vicariat of Hong Kong was raised to the status of a diocese by Pope Pius XII, with Msgr Henry Valtorta, PIME, as the first Diocesan Bishop. Bishop Valtorta was succeeded by Msgr Lawrence Bianchi, PIME, in 1951 and under his administration the Catholic population has risen from some 43,000 to 230,000 today. Over 90 per cent of them are Chinese, spread out in 24 parishes on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and in 14 rural districts of the New Territories. Church personnel engaged in pastoral, educational and welfare work in Hong Kong include 341 priests, 116 religious brothers and 754 religious sisters. Thirty-three religious orders and congregations and 30 nationalities are represented.

       Since the Second World War also the Catholic Church has notably expanded its educational and social activities. There are at present 202 Catholic primary and secondary schools with an aggregate enrolment of 150,000 pupils. In 1965, four new secondary schools, two of them with primary sections, were opened, while one school moved to new premises capable of accommodating more students. In 1958, the Catholic Church set up a Social Welfare Bureau (Caritas-Hong Kong) to meet the need for a central directing and planning body of Catholic charities. Today the Catholic Church operates six hospitals with a total of 1,305 beds and 30 clinics in various parts of the Colony, including one boat clinic that serves the fishermen of Aberdeen. In the social field, it runs four social centres, six vocational training centres, one youth holiday centre, three children's play centres, 16 day nurseries, four orphanages and 14 hostels and homes. Catholic charities are also responsible for 23 free kitchens and food processing and distribution centres. In 1965, the Caritas Medical Centre at the densely populated So Uk Tsuen area, Kowloon, opened a nurses' training school and

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started construction of a four-storey building for outpatients. The first stage of a multi-purpose social centre in Caine Road, Hong Kong, comprising a hostel for men and case work and adminis- trative offices, was completed in November 1965.

     Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at a synagogue in Robinson Road constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory of his mother Leah and it is therefore known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site. There are about 300 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, and the United States, as well as people born in Hong Kong.

There are about 5,000 followers of Islam in Hong Kong, most of them Chinese who have come to the Colony during the past 10 years. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly Pakistanis, Malaysians, Persians and people from neighbouring regions. They gather for prayers at the Shelley Street Mosque on Hong Kong Island and at the Nathan Road Mosque in Kowloon.

     The Shelley Street Mosque dates back to the early days of the Islamic faith in Hong Kong in the 1880's. The mosque in Kowloon was originally built for the use of Moslem troops in the former Indian Army and is situated on land at present within the boundaries of Whitfield Barracks. Two places have been set aside by the govern- ment as burial grounds for the Muslim community. One is at Happy Valley and the other at the new Cape Collinson Cemetery, Chai Wan. The latter contains a beautifully designed mosque built by the government.

A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various groups within the Muslim community, is the co-ordinating body of all religious affairs and is also responsible for the mosques and cemeteries. Much charitable work among the Muslim community is being done by a welfare committee set up in recent years by a group of public-spirited women.

The Hindu community numbers more than 3,500 and their religious and social activities centre round a temple in Happy Valley. The community has been associated with Hong Kong since earliest times and the temple itself is considered to be one of the

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     finest in the Far East. In addition to visits by Saints, Swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holy Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Deewali. The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple, which is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes open to all communities, and for the teaching of Hindi to the Indian community.

17

Recreation

Most of this book is a record of work, a story of people building and manufacturing and trading. This chapter is about those same people in their leisure time. The variety of Hong Kong's leisure pastimes, and the energy with which they are pursued, would suggest that Hong Kong people play as hard as they work. This is certainly true of one of their favourite pastimes-mahjong. In hundreds of back-streets, in shops and small businesses where family and em- ployees live and eat together, it seems that no sooner are the shutters drawn at the end of the day than the clatter of the mahjong tiles begins.

     Outdoors in Hong Kong, more and more young people are spending their leisure time in sports and recreation common to youth the world over. High on the list come swimming and walking, which account for the two biggest sporting events of the year. At the 53rd annual cross-harbour race this year a record 510 com- petitors leaped into the water at Kowloon Public Pier to swim the 1,600 yards to Queen's Pier on Hong Kong Island. A total of 356 competitors, including 16 women, toiled round 40 miles of island roads for the annual 'Walkathon' organized by a local newspaper group. The event was won for the fourth consecutive time by So Kam-tong, an Urban Services park attendant who represented the Colony at the Olympic Games in 1964. Two sisters, Chung Sau-chun and Chung Sau-fong, took the first two places in the women's section.

     Almost every sport and team game is played in Hong Kong, but by far the greatest following is for association football. Fans turn up 20,000 strong at the Government Stadium and 10,000 strong at the nearby South China Athletic Stadium for big matches. Football in Hong Kong has all the partisan fervour, and not a few of the troubles, of football anywhere. Hockey also is played with skill by people of all nationalities in Hong Kong, including women's teams. Many of those who shine in competitive sport

氣願

ONG

There has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in Hong Kong in recent years, mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Religious studies are conducted in a large number of monasteries and nunneries, one of the best known being the monastery at Ngong Ping on Lantau Island where 30 monks reside.

The monastery lies in the shelter of Lantau Peak, one of the Colony's highest landmarks, and is called Po Lin-Precious Lotus. Inside the main temple (left), the spiritual centre of the monastery, the monks gather several times a day for devotions. Even when working or at meals, the monks continue silent meditations.

The two-ton bell (above) is kept in its own

shrine and is struck every few seconds to 'serve as a link between earth and hell',

A monk meditates as he tends flowers (above). All monks spend much of their time reading scriptures (below) to beat of a wooden 'fish".

地平

山高

The monastery is reputed to have the best view in Hong Kong of the sunrise and each week-end in the summer months many hundreds of people-most of them young people stay overnight at Ngong Ping and arise at 3.30 a.m. to climb the nearby peak. As this picture shows, spectacular sunsets can also be seen at the monastery.

ན་

In the seclusion of their private quarters the monks spend many hours in silent meditation, the head monk sitting apart in the centre. In addition to the resident monks, many Buddhists make pilgrimages to the monastery lasting from a few days to several months. Non-Buddhists are always welcome and many spend a few days.

Holy inscriptions (above) were made by monks who founded the monastery 60 years ago. Tombs (below) contain sacred relics or scriptures.

JES

1

A warm week-end in Spring-and the first sight-seers make their way up the steep track that leads to the Po Lin Monastery. Some carry provisions, though vegeta- rian food is available at the monastery. Others carry bedding, for the beds in the monastery consist of planks. The views alone make the trek worthwhile.

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are members of privately run clubs whose only assistance from public funds consists of a short-term lease of land on special terms. But for the majority of people the opportunity to take part in sports which require special facilities depends on the provision of government amenities.

      The development and management of parks, playgrounds and other amenities in the urban area is vested in the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories, these functions are the responsibility of the Urban Services Department, working closely with the District Commis- sioner.

      Despite the intense competitive demands for land in the built-up areas, various sites were acquired during the year for development as public open space to provide more and better recreational facilities. The Urban Council now has under its administration 183 areas of parks, playgrounds and gardens covering 381.21 acres of land, together with two Olympic standard swimming pools and 12 public bathing beaches in the urban areas. They range from large areas such as the 57-acre Victoria Park and the 37-acre Kow- loon Tsai Park to numerous smaller playgrounds, gardens and amenity plots scattered throughout the urban area. Between them they provide recreational facilities which include 16 pitches for soccer, hockey and rugby; 37 mini-soccer pitches; 117 courts for basketball, volleyball and badminton; 22 tennis courts; two squash courts; two bowling greens; two running tracks; two bandstands; three model boat pools; a roller skating rink; 60 children's play- grounds and six children's libraries.

       Among the projects completed during the year were a 25-acre park at Lion Rock, a five-acre playground at Wang Tau Hom resettlement estate, a second playground at Tung Tau resettlement estate, and a garden at Bowen Road. Work was in progress at the end of the year on another 15 projects. In the New Territories, the Urban Services Department now administers 83 parks, play- grounds and gardens covering an area of 179.62 acres. A four-acre playground at Sha Tsui Road in Tsuen Wan was completed and opened by the District Commissioner in April and another 11 projects were completed during the year.

       Hong Kong's 30 public bathing beaches (12 in the urban areas and 18 in the New Territories) are extremely popular and it is

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estimated that they were visited by over two million people during the swimming season. Another 1,101,111 people used the two swim- ming pools, of whom 383,974 were children. In addition to regular life saving services provided by 164 life guards and 108 supporting staff of the Urban Services Department, honorary teams were provided at beaches and pools by the St John's Ambulance Brigade and the Hong Kong Life Guard Club.

To give the heavily built-up urban areas a touch of colour and brightness, and to provide more greenery and shade, the Urban Council carried on with its expanded amenity planting and floral display programmes. During the year, over 150,000 trees, flowers and shrubs were planted. A total of 40,000 square feet of floral displays, including hanging flower boxes, raised flower beds and concrete containers were arranged for the autumn and winter.

ENTERTAINMENT AND THE ARTS

      For many years the principal single entertainment for the people of Hong Kong has been the cinema, and until comparatively recently the performing and visual fine arts played an insignificant part. Today, while the cinema remains the most popular enter- tainment with ever-increasing box office receipts, live entertainment and visual art are an important and integral part of the Colony's cultural life. Concerts, plays, operas and art exhibitions are now a regular feature and almost always attract good attendances.

       The change began four years ago, when a new City Hall was opened with facilities which include a 1,500-seat concert hall con- vertible for theatrical performances, an intimate 470-seat theatre, an art gallery and several exhibition halls. Its two auditoria are available throughout the year to many local amateur groups and visiting artists, and as a result nearly every branch of music, drama and Chinese opera has prospered. There are regular public per- formances by the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra and many local choral groups and soloists, and during the year they gave a total of 119 concerts in the City Hall. In drama, three very active English amateur groups and many more Chinese dramatic groups, including both amateurs and professionals, together presented 39 productions with 120 performances.

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       Local impresarios have continued to make a valuable contribution to the cultural life of Hong Kong. During the year they brought in 40 overseas artists or groups for a total of 71 performances. These included such well-known names as Vladimir Ashkenazy, Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, The Sydney Symphony Orchestra, The Yale University Glee Club Choir, Ballet Africaine, Emlyn Williams and the New Shakespeare Company.

       Admission prices for concerts are said to be a major factor inhibiting a more rapid and general development of musical ap- preciation. The management of the City Hall has offered what appears to be a successful partial solution to this problem by presenting local artists at low admission prices with carefully selected programmes appealing to both the novice and the expert. These concerts, including the Sunday Afternoon Concerts presented in conjunction with Radio Hong Kong, and the new City Hall Popular Concerts series have been extremely well received. The admission fee has been kept at $1 and for most concerts the tickets were sold out within three or four days of being placed on sale.

The public's interest in fine art was sustained throughout the year both by exhibitions of all kinds and by a new and welcome development on the part of local companies, hotels, airlines and manufacturers who gave commissions to several local artists. These commissions resulted in an improvement in graphic art as well as in murals and decorations which now enhance many of Hong Kong's new buildings. In the City Hall Art Gallery, paintings of the 19th-Century dominated the year's programme with exhibitions of the work of the Cantonese artist Su Liu-peng and the English painter George Chinnery. The City Hall staff extended their activi- ties by sending the work of the Hong Kong sculptor Cheung Yee for exhibition at the Commonwealth Institute in London, and by making arrangements for a Hong Kong contribution to the Com- monwealth Arts Festival.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

The City Hall also houses important reference collections and a lending and reference library. The government collections of pic- torial material consist of the Ho Tung Collection, the Chater Collection, and the Law and Sayer Collections. They contain more

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than 700 items including paintings, prints, engravings and photo- graphs. They illustrate the growth and development of Hong Kong, and life in the Colony, Macau and the China Coast area during the 18th and 19th-Centuries. The limited space within the City Hall does not allow for the permanent display of all this material, but exhibitions under different titles and subjects are arranged from time to time.

       The Henry Yeung Collection of Chinese Ceramics forms the basis of the Museum's collection of Chinese antiquities. This collection comprises 166 pieces and consists of some fine grave pottery of the Han Dynasty, a series of early bronze mirrors, and outstanding pieces of Ming porcelain. The collection continued to grow throughout the year and a permanent display of early ceramics from Han to Sung Dynasty was mounted during the latter part of the year. To this display has been added loans received from the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and the Royal Ontario Museum in Canada.

LIBRARIES

       Hong Kong's public libraries, with headquarters at the City Hall, now possess a collection of approximately 196,000 items. About 75,000 books, of which one quarter are for children, are housed in the City Hall Library's lending departments, and consist of roughly equal numbers of books in Chinese and English. The lending department also contains a small music collection of about 1,500 items. The reference department at the City Hall houses some 18,000 volumes, together with the nuclei of map and picture collections; again about half the books are in Chinese. The re- maining 73,000 volumes at the City Hall Library are all in Chinese, mostly classics. Although many of these Chinese classics do not yet appear in the Library's catalogues, the work of cataloguing them is going ahead, and they are meanwhile being jacketed with traditional folders and are available on special request. The City Hall Library also possesses the complete National Library of Peking on 8,000 rolls of microfilm and microfilms of The Times from 1900 to 1958.

On 16th August the first branch library was opened in the centre of Kowloon. Like the City Hall Library it provides reading facilities for all ages and tastes. It had an initial stock of 25,000 volumes

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which had grown to over 30,000 at the end of the year. Two-thirds of them are in Chinese.

       The Colonial Secretariat library houses 9,292 volumes. These include many government publications, books written specially about Hong Kong-including publications by local authors-- reference books on such subjects as public administration, sociology, economics and political science, and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and the countries of South-East Asia. Apart from being a departmental reference library, it is a useful source for research workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available to members of the public.

BRITISH COUNCIL

        The British Council continued to make a valuable contribution to the cultural life of the Colony during 1965. In January the New Shakespeare Company visited Hong Kong on a Council-sponsored Far East tour, and Emlyn Williams also visited the Colony under the Council's auspices. Special matinee performances for 1,500 school students were arranged on each occasion. In co-operation with the City Hall art gallery two fine arts exhibitions were shown, and a full-size cast of Henry Moore's "Three Standing Figures' was presented to the City Hall by the Council. Assistance was given to government departments and to the two universities to enable senior staff members to visit British universities and other institutions, and to attend specialist courses in a wide variety of subjects. Ten British Council and Sino-British Fellowship Trust scholarships were awarded for post-graduate study in the United Kingdom. In the reverse direction, a number of specialists in various fields, from sport to science, visited the Colony from Britain at the invitation or with the assistance of the Council, the most eminent being Professor Dorothy Hodgkin, OM.

       Membership of the two British Council libraries in Hong Kong includes approximately 2,000 full-time students, most of whom are in post-secondary institutions. Over 80,000 books were borrowed from the libraries during the year and the reading rooms, which contain some 190 British periodicals, continued to be extremely well used by students and the general public. Some 1,500 British films on medical, scientific, technological and general subjects were

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borrowed. Music and speech records, tapes and small photographic displays were extensively used by local organizations, schools and university departments, and were regularly loaned together with films to 258 schools and post-secondary institutions. Presentations of books valued at $48,000 were made to the three colleges of the Chinese University, and to the Hong Kong Technical College. The Commonwealth University Interchange Scheme, which is administered by the Council, provided financial assistance to cover travel costs for three persons.

      An important part of the Council's work is to give advice and information to Hong Kong students who are leaving for higher studies in the United Kingdom. Nearly all such students visit the Council and 115 attended a special 'Introduction to Britain' course. Local cultural bodies received assistance of various kinds from the Council, notably the Royal Asiatic Society, the Stage Club, the Library Association, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic and Youth Orchestras.

18

Geography and Climate

THIS chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present a background against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report may be viewed.

The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37'N and longitudes 113°52' and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria, on Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon, on the mainland, stand on either side of the harbour, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony to within less than 24 hours of Britain, while the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

      The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles of which Hong Kong Island itself, together with a number of small adjacent islands, comprise 29 square miles. Kowloon and Stonecutters Island comprise another 33 square miles. The New Territories, which consist of part of the mainland and more than 230 islands, have a total area of 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

      Hong Kong is part of a series of intruded domes of granitic rocks which cover south-east China. There are only small areas of sedimentary rocks in the Colony. The age relationships of the major groups of rocks are associated with the intrusions and moun- tain building of the Jurassic, Laramide and Alpine revolutions. These intrusions made the conditions favourable for the formation of minerals of some importance. Galena, silver, wolframite, molyb- denite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, gold, sphalerite, graphite, fluorspar, quartz, beryl, felspar and kaolinite have all been found. The general structure of the region is that of a plunging

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      monocline which strikes north-east to south-west and is parallel in trend with the China coast. Its axis passes almost exactly through the centre of Hong Kong and is marked by a depression which is the Tolo Channel. The area consists of many rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. The general appearance is that of an upland terrain which the sea has invaded. The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations. Weathering is almost entirely caused by chemical action, helped by the alter- nation of wet and dry seasons. As a result decay to a laterized rock mantle is common, often to depths of more than 100 feet.

      The highest peaks and the most prominent ranges of hills are composed of either porphyries or volcanics. These are in contrast to the granite hills which generally occur at lower elevations but have well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The plains are all recent alluvial deposits. Erosion benches can be found marking former sea levels up to 400 feet or more, which demonstrate the rise and fall of the whole region within recent geological times. Borings in the harbour have revealed submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat deposits. The highest peaks, such as Lantau, Sunset and Tai Mo Shan, are all about 3,000 feet high and are composed of resistant, fine-grained crystalline rocks. By contrast the Kowloon Hills are composed of coarse-grained granite and have lower elevations, varying from 800 to 1,200 feet. The age of this granite has recently been determined by the Rubidium- Strontium method as approximately 134 million years. Thus it belongs to the Upper Jurassic (Portlandian) period.

       Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area has any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and super- phosphates. The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall regime of the area alone accounts for many of the water shortages. In 1963, for instance, the total rainfall was only 35.48 inches, compared with the yearly average of 85 inches. In order to husband and conserve water reserves it was necessary to apply

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restrictions on its use during dry seasons for some part of every year between 1934 and 1964. However, no such restrictions were necessary during 1965. A programme of reservoir construction has raised storage capacity to 15,858 million gallons and on 1st March 1965, Hong Kong began receiving water from the East River under a new agreement with China. Under this agreement, the Colony will receive 15,000 million gallons annually.

       Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double cropping rice zone of East Asia. Market garden cropping, including the cultivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is becoming increasingly important. Vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. During the last 10 years there has been a significant change in farming. The area of land under two-crop rice has decreased by about 60 per cent while intensive market gardening has increased approximately 31⁄2 times. The upland areas, which are predominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilization of these areas is principally through afforestation, vigorously pursued since 1945.

CLIMATE

      Although Hong Kong lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid-March, but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when the weather is generally dry and sunny with temperatures about 21°C to 24°C. After the New Year there is often more cloud and although rainfall remains slight it is often fairly persistent. Coastal fog and drizzle occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north- easterlies.

The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and although it can occur from mid-April until September, it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. Summer is the rainy season and is almost continuously hot and humid. The annual rainfall measured at the Royal Observatory has varied between

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35 inches (in 1963) and 120 inches (in 1889), but the mean value is 85 inches. On average the six dry months from October to March yield about 12 inches as compared with 73 inches spread over the six wet months. There is a marked diurnal variation of rainfall in summer, with a maximum in the morning, and there are appre- ciable differences in the rainfall in different parts of the Colony. The wettest areas are the mountainous regions around Tai Mo Shan and on Lantau Island.

The mean daily temperature ranges from about 14°C in February to over 28°C in July and the average for the year is 22°C. During the hottest month, July, the mean maximum temperature is 31°C but the summer temperature often exceeds 32°C. February is the coldest month with a mean minimum temperature of 13°C but the tem- perature can be expected to fall to 7°C in most years. Temperatures above 35°C or below 4°C are rarely recorded at the observatory although greater extremes occur in the New Territories. Ice occa- sionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually about 5°C higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to over seven hours in mid-July and late October.

Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November, but are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain.

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY

      The Royal Observatory provides all meteorological information in the Colony and also forms part of a worldwide network of meteorological services. Weather forecasts and information are supplied to the public, government departments, shipping, aviation and the armed forces by a central forecast office. Meteorological observations are made at the observatory in Kowloon, at the airport and at six other points throughout the Colony. Upper air

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soundings of the atmosphere are made at the radiosonde station at King's Park, where balloons carrying special reflectors are re- leased every six hours and tracked by windfinding radar. One balloon each day carries a radiosonde transmitter which transmits back the pressure, temperature and humidity at all levels through which the balloon ascends. Numerous rain-gauges are operated throughout the Colony by government employees and private individuals on behalf of the observatory.

      At the airport the pilots of all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are briefed and provided with written forecasts. Information is also exchanged with other centres, and radioed to aircraft in flight. Special weather bulletins are broadcast for shipping and local fishermen. About 60 ships are provided with instruments by the observatory and close liaison is maintained with all ships that visit Hong Kong to assist them to transmit regular and accurate weather observations.

       One of the most important functions of the central forecast office is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical depression, tropical storm or typhoon is located within the region bounded by latitudes 10°-30° north and longitudes 105°-125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly non-local warnings are issued. These provide information on the storm's intensity and expected development, the position and movement of its centre and the forecast position for 24 hours ahead. Reliable reports from ships and reconnaissance aircraft help to locate the storms accurately. When the Colony itself is threatened the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings together with announce- ments about necessary precautions are widely distributed and broadcast at frequent intervals. A new weather radar has recently been ordered for use in the storm warning service.

       Time signals originating at the observatory are sent out over Radio Hong Kong and included in special broadcasts for shipping. In order to improve the accuracy of these signals a new crystal controlled chronometer has been ordered to replace the synchronome pendulum clock that has been in use since 1950. The observatory operates 12 seismometers, distributes weekly and monthly reports and also takes part in the Pacific tidal wave warning service. Hong Kong lies some distance from the circum-Pacific seismic belt and

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      serious earthquakes are almost unknown. However in most years a few tremors are felt. During 1965 only one such tremor was felt by local residents, at 2.21 a.m. on 18th May. The epicentre of this earthquake was about 370 miles east of Hong Kong near the southern tip of Taiwan. The general level of atmospheric radioactivity in the Colony is monitored at King's Park. During 1965 new equipment enabled 'Gamma' as well as 'Beta' particles to be counted.

RESEARCH AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY

In connexion with the design of new reservoirs, various studies were undertaken during the year into the size, duration and in- tensity of the worst rainstorm theoretically possible in Hong Kong and also the probable frequency of lesser storms. Special equipment was designed and built by the observatory to test the reception of the automatic picture transmissions from the two meteorological satellites, Tiros 8 and Nimbus 1, as they passed over Hong Kong. In spite of considerable local radio interference some valuable pictures were obtained. International commitments involved re- search into the climatology of neighbouring sea areas and also the climate of East Asia, while other subjects investigated included tsunamis and the effects of atmospheric tides.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

       After the drought of 1963 and the exceptional number of typhoons of 1964, Hong Kong welcomed the return of comparatively normal weather in 1965. January and February were generally mild and sunny with very little rain. March was an exceptionally dry month. There was a pronounced cold surge on 7th March when the temperature dropped below 10°C for the first time in the year. There was less fog than usual although there were a few hours during 22nd-23rd March. The total rainfall during the first quarter amounted to only 1.53 inches compared with the normal amount of 5.94 inches.

April was unsettled with almost double the normal rainfall. There were strong monsoon winds on 11th April, and between 24th and 28th April fog and thunderstorms occurred almost simul- taneously. May was not as hot or humid as normal and the mean dew point was the lowest recorded in any May since 1887. There

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were a few thunderstorms on 10th and 16th, but the month's rainfall was well below normal. Tropical storm Babe developed over the China Sea on 1st June. It moved north-north-eastwards, passing about 70 miles south-east of Hong Kong at noon on 4th June. It then crossed the China coast near Swatow without causing any strong winds in Hong Kong. There was a spell of south-west mon- soon and there were some heavy showers, but the rainfall in June was also slightly below normal.

      The south-west monsoon persisted in early July, but on 6th July Freda formed as a tropical depression over the Pacific. It intensified and moved north-westwards across Luzon on 13th July and then changed direction and moved steadily west-north-westwards across the China Sea. It passed 135 miles south-south-west of Hong Kong at 4 a.m. on 15th July and there were easterly gales with maximum gusts of 61 knots at the Royal Observatory and 80 knots at Tate's Cairn. Two people were killed and 16 injured, but there was very little property damage. Freda passed inland near Haiphong early on 16th July. Tropical storm Gilda crossed the China Sea on 20th- 24th July and, although the centre was some 260 miles away, a violent squall line caused some very heavy rain in the Colony and gusts of 56 knots on 23rd July. Typhoon Harriet crossed Taiwan on 26th July but did not cause any strong winds in Hong Kong. In spite of the tropical cyclones the rainfall for July was also slightly below normal.

August was sunny and dry with temperatures above normal. The average relative humidity was the lowest ever recorded in August and the rainfall was less than half the normal amount. Late on 4th September, typhoon Rose passed about 130 miles south-south-west of Hong Kong heading towards the west-north-west. There were strong winds for a short while but very little rain. The next few typhoons all recurved well to the east of Hong Kong and while there was considerable damage in Japan the Colony was spared until tropical storm Agnes developed on 25th September.

      Agnes approached from the south-south-west and although there were no gales at the Observatory there was an exceptional amount of rain. A total of 12.81 inches of rain were recorded on 27th Sep- tember, which is the highest daily rainfall ever recorded in any September day since 1884. The rain persisted for several more days and the total rainfall during September (31.43 inches) is the second

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highest on record. (See Appendix XL for a comparison of Agnes with other storms.)

       October was notable for the fact that there were no typhoons or tropical storms anywhere in the China Sea and yet the rainfall in Hong Kong was considerably more than average. Warm humid weather lasted later than usual in the autumn and, despite a lack of sunshine, temperatures remained above normal during October, while November was the warmest on record. Tropical storm Elaine developed off the east coast of Vietnam on 8th November and moved in a northerly direction. There were strong winds and some unseasonable rainfall in Hong Kong on 10th-12th November, but the storm died out before it reached the China coast. The warm humid weather persisted during the first half of December but a vigorous cold front on 16th December brought a sharp drop in temperature. The lowest temperature of the year, 7.3°C, was recorded early on 18th December. There was a short spell of warmer weather with some fog on 23rd December, but another cold front on 24th December caused a further drop in temperature and weather re- mained generally cloudy and cold until the end of the year.

19

Population

THE total estimated population of the Colony at the end of 1965 was 3,823,200. About 98 per cent could be described as Chinese on the basis of language and place of origin. This estimate is based on a population census taken in 1961 and subsequently adjusted for births, deaths and migration.

The 1961 census showed the total population to be 3,133,131, including 3,483 transients. It had increased by more than 24 millions since the previous census in 1931. An unofficial count in 1941 for air raid precaution purposes put the population at about 1,600,000, but this had been reduced to less than 600,000 by the time the Colony was liberated in 1945. The population, however, grew rapidly with the end of hostilities and in September, 1949, an assess- ment of the population put the total at 1,857,000. During 1965, the population increased by 103,200 to reach the estimated total of 3,823,200. Of this increase, 84,574 was due to the excess of registered births over registered deaths, while 18,626 represented the estimated net balance of migration.

Urban population. At the time of the 1961 census, 33,140 persons, excluding transients, claimed to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong. Of these, 27,936 resided in the urban area. According to information provided by the Aliens' Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods of less than three months and children under 16 years old) the figure at the end of 1965 was 13,442. The largest groups were: American (3,932), Portuguese (1,977), Japanese (1,853), Filipino (751), Dutch (534), German (502), French (457), Italian (415).

      Approximately half the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most are Cantonese; the greater part of the immigrant population also originates from Kwangtung province. The urban Chinese population also includes a Fukien community and overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung and Fukien.

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       New Territories. Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo are the indigenous population of the New Territories. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. These people are different from each other in physical appearance, dress and customs. The usual village community consists of a single clan, but two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan, but as far as is known no intermarriage occurs between land and boat-dwellers.

      The Cantonese form the biggest community in the New Terri- tories. They occupy the best parts of the two principal plains in the north-western section of the New Territories and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest Cantonese villages--those of the Tang clan in the Yuen Long district-have a history of continuous settlement dating to the late eleventh century; others date back to the late thirteenth century.

The Hakka people (their name means 'strangers') began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or possibly even before. The latter were, however, the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are now always found upstream, along foothills, and generally on poorer land. The balance was later restored by heavy immigration, and relations between Hakka and Cantonese, which have endured periods of strife, are now peaceful. Intermarriage is not uncommon and the two groups share some villages. The Tanka people have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several generations. The influx of people into the New Territories from China in recent years has been so great that only in the Sai Kung district is the truly indigenous population still in the majority. The newcomers are mostly from Kwangtung province.

POPULATION

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BIRTHS AND DEATHS

The registration of births and deaths is compulsory. Facilities for registration are provided throughout the Colony including the outlying areas and islands, where births are registered at rural committee offices by district registrars who pay regular visits. Deaths are registered at local police stations. The General Register Office is situated at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central, Victoria, where all records of births and deaths are main- tained. An important amendment to the requirements was made during the year by the Births and Deaths Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1965, which as from 1st April extended the statutory period during which a birth should be registered from 14 to 42 days, the latter being the period allowed in Britain. The amending ordinance also increased the fees payable under the principal ordinance, some of which were the same as those originally laid down in 1872.

During the year 102,195 live births and 17,621 deaths were registered, compared with 108,519 and 18,113 respectively in 1964. These figures give a natural increase in population for 1965 of 84,574. Only 72 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry.

A birth which has not been registered within one year after the date of birth may be post-registered with the consent of the Registrar, and 3,615 such births were post-registered during the year. Most of these were adults and older children born in the New Territories, where facilities for registration were not available until 1932. The New Territories cases are dealt with by mobile registration teams, which for several years were booked up many months ahead, but which have now succeeded in eliminating the back-log of cases. There were also several hundred post-registrations of births in the urban areas, many being in respect of births in the war years when there was no registration of births.

MARRIAGES

      All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion

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to reduce this period in special circumstances, and the Governor has power to grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether, but this is done very rarely and then only in the most exceptional circumstances. Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at a marriage registry. During the year, 13,333 marriages were performed in the nine marriage registries and four sub-registries, and 1,558 at licensed places of worship. The total was 1,904 more than in 1964. All marriage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall.

      The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian cus- tomary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not require to be registered. No statistics of such marriages are therefore available, but it is thought that there are still as many unregistered marriages taking place each year as there are registered marriages. The position with respect to unregistered marriages has long been recognized as being very unsatisfactory, and the government has for some con- siderable time been considering what steps should be taken to remedy it.

20

Natural History

It is easy for a visitor to miss the delights of Hong Kong's country- side, so overpowering is the impact of its city life. Even residents can forget, under the pressure of their daily lives, that on their doorsteps lie peaceful farming areas, empty hills or quiet woodland walks. On Hong Kong Island a drive of 30 minutes is sufficient to reach the catchment area of the Tai Tam Reservoir, where there are many miles of interesting paths. Here, as in the much wider area of the New Territories which are within easy reach of Kowloon, there is a surprising abundance of wild life when one considers the encroachments of urbanization.

WILD LIFE

While certain species of wild mammals were formerly either rare residents or merely occasional visitors from across the Colony's borders, and no longer occur, several which remain today are seriously threatened by Hong Kong's rapid post-war development and population increase. Those which will probably never be found again in the Colony are the Dhole or Indian Wild Dog, Large Chinese Civet, Crab-eating Mongoose, Leopard, and South China Tiger. Although, for several weeks during the summer of 1965, there were reports of a tiger in the New Territories, repeated patrols by police and the use of live tethered bait by the army failed to locate any large feline. Species now rarely seen include the South China Red Fox, Chinese Pangolin or Scaly Anteater, Eastern Chinese Otter, Chinese Leopard Cat, and Wild Boar. Rhesus Monkeys are still found in the vicinity of Kowloon Reservoir in the New Territories, but those which inhabited woods in the Tai Tam area of Hong Kong Island are not known to have been seen during 1965.

The Barking Deer (Reeves' Muntjac) is not uncommon in the wooded hillsides on Hong Kong Island. Being largely nocturnal it is seldom seen, although its characteristic bark is familiar to

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residents of the Peak. Other indigenous mammals still to be found, though nowhere common, are the Chinese Ferret-Badger, Small Indian Civet, and Masked Palm Civet.

       Rodents deserving special mention are the Chinese or Crestless Himalayan Porcupine, the Large Bandicoot Rat, and an attractive little animal called the Eastern Spiny-haired Rat which is bright yellowish-brown above and pure white on the belly. All three are entirely 'wild' (non-domestic) species, occurring both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories. The insectivores are represented in Hong Kong by only two species--the well-known and compara- tively large House Shrew and the small Grey Shrew. About 17 species of bats have so far been found in the Colony, and there is little doubt that these unique flying mammals are represented locally by yet more species.

       Cetaceans so far known from within or near Hong Kong waters are the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale, the Pygmy Sperm Whale, the Black Finless Porpoise, and the Common Dolphin.

There is ample opportunity in Hong Kong for either serious study or simple enjoyment of the Colony's bird life. Including both resident and migratory birds, nearly 350 species in more than 60 different families have so far been recorded in the Colony. They provide considerable variety of form and occur in a wide range of habitats. Some of the families represented are those containing the Grebes, Bitterns and Herons, Ducks and Geese, Hawks and Eagles, Falcons, Crakes and Rails, Plovers and other waders, Snipe and Sandpipers, Gulls and Terns, Doves, Cuckoos, Owls, Nightjars, Swifts, Kingfishers, Swallows and Martins, Shrikes, Drongos, Starlings and Mynahs, Crows, Cuckoo-shrikes and Minivets, Bul- buls, Babblers, Flycatchers, Warblers, Thrushes, Pipits and Wag- tails, Finches and Buntings, and Sparrows and Munias.

       Birds of particular interest recorded in 1965 include a White- tailed Sea Eagle, a Horsfield's Goshawk, three Black-tailed Godwits, and a Crested Kingfisher. It is also interesting to note that nine species of terns were recorded during April, May, and June.

       Snakes, lizards, and frogs are all well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapins and turtles, the Common Indian Toad, and the Hong Kong Newt. There is a strong Indian element in this section of the local fauna, although several species are so far known only from Hong Kong. Most of the common

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241

snakes are harmless and death from snake-bite is extremely rare. Apart from certain rear-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are the Banded Krait, the Many-banded Krait, Macclelland's Coral Snake, the Chinese Cobra, the Hamad- ryad or King Cobra, the White-lipped Pit Viper (commonly called 'Bamboo Snake'), and the Mountain Pit Viper the latter being recorded in Hong Kong for the first time during 1965. The several species of sea snakes found in the waters around Hong Kong are all venomous, but fortunately do not attack bathers.

        The most attractive insects are the butterflies, of which almost 200 species belonging to nine families have been found in Hong Kong. The beautiful and predominantly tropical butterflies, popu- larly known as 'swallow-tails', are often seen on country walks. Of the many moths, two deserve special mention on account of their large size and attractive colouring. One, the magnificent Atlas Moth, has a wing-span of from seven to 10 inches, and is one of the largest moths in the world. The other is the Moon Moth, soft silvery green in colour, with a wing-span of from four to six inches and swallow-tailed wings.

Several species of cicadas are well known during spring and summer for the incessant song of the males in their brief adult stage. Very little is known about the immature nymphal stage of these remarkable insects, which spend years below the surface of the ground. A spectacularly large insect living in ponds is the Giant Water Bug, over three inches in length, which feeds on small fish, frogs and other aquatic creatures. Of the terrestrial molluscs, the Giant African Snail is a familiar crop pest commonly found among vegetation.

FLORA

      It is not possible to make any distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of neighbouring southern China. The prin- cipal trees in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor. A large number of others have been added since the area came under British administration, the most common being casuarina, eucalyptus and flamboyant. The traditional Chinese belief that the disposition of buildings, graves, trees, water and mountains may affect a person's fortune and destiny has done much to preserve fine groves of trees, mostly camphor, banyans and clumps of bamboo

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     around many farms and villages in the New Territories. Some of the mountain slopes, from a distance, seem bare of any plant covering except grass, but on closer observation it can be seen that the water courses are marked by narrow bands of low shrubby growth and scattered trees.

The principal locally-grown fruits include lychee, lung ngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. The Portuguese originally introduced the papaya, the pineapple, the custard apple and the guava from South America some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine on the other hand is a native of South China which was introduced to the West in the 17th-Century when the Portuguese transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control.

      The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. Alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters causes tropical plants to lie dormant during winter and encourages the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. As a result of this a genus tends to produce a greater wealth of flowers of large size in Hong Kong than it does in other equatorial countries.

Hong Kong is famous for its great variety of flowering plants, many of which are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. As might be expected most species flower during spring and early summer. Some are easy to place in their correct families-- for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like, and is related to, the camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers and star-shape fruits, and a Tutcheria with large camel- lia-like flowers, white tinged with gold bearing masses of tangerine orange stamens. This latter is a tall tree with glossy foliage, de- scribed as a distinct genus in 1908 in honour of W. J. Tutcher, for- mer Superintendent of the then Botanical and Forestry Department. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is reminiscent of the Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony. Of these the red one is extremely abundant, while another with large pale pink flowers is so rare that it is known

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243

     to exist only on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea, with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers borne in profusion on leafless branches.

The Bauhinia Blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

There are several species of camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia Hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct camellia was dis- covered in 1955 and named Camellia Granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee reservoir, bearing handsome white flowers 54 inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been distributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. The large orange-like fruits of Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, the wild kamquat and the winged fruits of the gardenia are orange in colour. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. Many berries are black with a bluish waxy cuticle, but probably the only true blue is that of the Dichroa, a well-known medicinal plant. Several species of Callicarpa and Dianella bear purplish fruits, while those of the Raphiolepis, the so-called Hong Kong Hawthorn, the wild

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jasmine and the wild persimmon are black. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

      There are several very poisonous plants which should be better known to the general public. These include two species of Strychnos which have very brightly coloured fruits resembling small oranges, a species of Strophanthus which has conspicuous fruits unmistakable because of their large size and horn-like shape, and a species of Gelsemium which is the most poisonous of local plants. The latter is a climber with dense terminal clusters of yellow flowers each about half an inch in diameter, blooming towards the end of the year. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid Gelsemidine, which is a spinal poison. It is said that as little as 12 grammes of leaf constitute a fatal dose and that death follows within few hours. It is sometimes used by country people to commit suicide. Wild edible fruits include a wild jack-fruit, Artocarpus, the fruit of the rose-myrtle, wild bananas and raspberries. Several species of per- simmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

       There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common Clematis of English hedge- rows, has five close relatives in Hong Kong. There are four wild violets but they are scentless, like the English dog violet. The English honey-suckle has five relatives whose Cantonese name is kam ngan fa (gold and silver flower) because of their change in colour from white to yellow.

More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded in the flora. Most of the epiphytic species possess small flowers which are not of particular interest to the horticulturist. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

       There is a fine wild iris, Iris speculatrix, further south than any other true iris. Its violet flower, from 24 to three inches in diameter, is tinged with bright orange and blooms from the middle of March

The Royal Observatory provides all meteorological information within the Colony. At King's Park (above) a radiosonde balloon is launched to investigate conditions in the upper atmosphere. The Observatory (left) was built in 1883 and is today an oasis of green on the Kowloon peninsula.

850 MB

700 MP

Forecasters (above) plot the most probable future track of a storm on a surface chart. The course of the storm will also be followed on the upper-air charts at rear. Weather reports are received from the masters of 60 ships. Sensitive instru- ments (right) make record- ings of rainfall, pressure, temperature and wind.

Information on approaching storms is given over the radio at frequent intervals, but visual signals still play an important part in the warning system. The No 1 signal (below) means that a tropical cyclone is centred within 400 nautical miles of Hong Kong. Other signals indicate winds up to 64 knots or more.

!!

At Kai Tak airport (above) a forecaster from the Observatory briefs a Royal Canadian Air Force crew on the weather to be expected along their route. Cable and Wireless staff at the Observatory (below) receive coded weather reports by radio. About 6,000 reports are received daily and plotted on the weather maps.

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245

to the end of April. A wild lily, Lilium brownii, appears in June with its trumpet flowers up to seven inches in length, white and sometimes purple-streaked. A wild Crinum with long sword-like leaves and bunches of white flowers is found by the sea, and also the Belamcanda, one of the iris family, with red-dotted orange-yellow flowers. The Chinese Bell-flower, Platycodon, is very widely dis- tributed in eastern Asia, being abundant as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Hong Kong. This lovely violet giant harebell is common on grassy slopes on the south side of Hong Kong Island. It is a perennial plant with thick fleshy root stock valued for me- dicinal purposes and was introduced into cultivation in England as far back as the 17th-Century.

In damp ravines may be found the chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, giant aroids, tree-ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides, English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong bracken, a Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea. Plants recorded for the first time in recent years were Gomphrena celosioides and Ambrosia maritima, found in Kowloon, and Andro- graphis paniculata and Cerastium triviale, found on Lantau Island. The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, has been added to considerably since that book was produced and at present over 29,000 specimens are preserved. Interest in local fauna and flora is fostered by The Hong Kong Natural History Society-founded in 1949 as The Hong Kong Biological Circle- whose aims are to . . . . facilitate and encourage the study of natural history in general and in particular that of the Colony of Hong Kong'. The activities of this society include both indoor meetings and field outings. Another society is the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, founded in 1957 for the study of local bird life. This society holds approximately 12 field outings each year.

        The Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance 1954, provides for the conservation of all wild birds and various mammals now rare or in danger of becoming rare. It also prohibits the trapping or poisoning of any bird or mammal, except rodents. Game birds may be shot only in season. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. Both game wardens

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and honorary game wardens are appointed by the Governor to assist in carrying out the provisions of this Ordinance. By regula- tions made under the Forestry Ordinance, special protection is also given to certain plants including camellias, enkianthus, mag- nolias, orchids, and azaleas.

21

History

Hong Kong-a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

     ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the nineteenth century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

      The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the Tang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the eleventh century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a

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prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

The maritime relations between China and the West were at first dominated by Arab and Near Eastern traders who formed a con- siderable community at Canton from the seventh century onwards, but Chinese traders also penetrated to the Indian Ocean from the eleventh century. The Portuguese formed the spear-head of European maritime contacts with China. Jorge Alvarez reached China by sea in 1513, the first European to do so; the earliest Portuguese traders followed in 1517 and 40 years later, in 1557, they established them- selves at Macau, partly in return for assistance in the suppression of piracy. For nearly 300 years, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of Chinese official opinion which was not interested in commercial or cultural contacts, Macau provided the one reliable point of contact between China and the West.

      The first Englishman to attempt to trade with China was John Weddell in 1637. He found Portuguese influence against him and tried to force his way up to Canton and not surprisingly his venture ended in complete failure. Later attempts were similarly unsuccessful, the first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese being the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699. The company sent ships to Canton each year thereafter, and in 1715 decided to establish permanent commercial relations and set up a 'factory', as it was known, outside the town. Attempts to extend the trade to Amoy, Ningpo and Tamsui failed and in 1757 trade with the West was confined to Canton by Imperial edict, and placed under the direct control of an Imperial official called the Hoppo. In addition, a guild of Chinese merchants called the Hong Merchants or Co-hong was given a monopoly of western trade by a similar edict in 1755. Many other European nations sent traders to Canton,

*The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public

park near the original site.

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but in the second half of the eighteenth century the British gradually secured a dominant share of the trade mainly as a result of growing control in India, and the lead in Sino-western relations therefore naturally fell to Britain.

       The trade was lucrative and yet there were grievances. Residence at Canton was confined to the trading season and hedged with personal restrictions which confined the traders to the factory area, denied them access to the city and placed them in the hands of the Co-hong in their dealings with officials for the fixing of prices and the levying of port dues. The westerners were regarded as bar- barian, yet there was mutual trust which enabled written commercial contracts to be dispensed with.

      The British made unavailing efforts to improve conditions at Canton by diplomatic means after appeals to the provincial officials there had failed. In 1793 Lord Macartney, fresh from his successful mission to Russia, was sent to Peking as ambassador, ostensibly to congratulate the Emperor, but chiefly to secure commercial concessions at Canton or else to acquire an island where the British could reside under their own law and government. He was hospitably received in Peking and created a favourable impression, but all his requests were refused. In 1816 a second embassy under Lord Amherst failed even more completely, Amherst being ordered to leave Peking without even seeing the Emperor.

       The East India Company held a monopoly of British trade with China, but in the late eighteenth century the company began to concentrate on the valuable tea trade. At the same time licensed private traders engaged in what was termed the 'country trade' between India and China. By acting as representatives of foreign states these private traders overcame the reluctance of the company to allow them to reside in Canton and Macau. Thus an enlarged British community developed, strongly favouring the new free trade ideas then being discussed in England and clamouring for the abolition of the East India Company's now nominal monopoly. Abolition was, in fact, effected by Parliamentary action in 1833.

      To replace the company's control, Lord Napier was sent out in 1834 as Chief Superintendent of Trade, with strict instructions to pursue a conciliatory policy towards the Chinese. But his position was weak, because he had no power to negotiate and no means of

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      controlling his compatriots. He went to Canton without seeking the required permit and tried to deal with the Canton officials direct, thus disobeying the rule that required all communications with the officials to be made through the Co-hong. After a few weeks of impasse Napier retired to Macau, a sick man, and died there 10 days later. Meanwhile official Chinese opinion was becom- ing alarmed over the financial and moral consequences of the increased popularity of opium smoking, which had led to opium becoming the staple of the trade with India despite a Chinese prohibition on its importation. After much debate among the Mandarin officials the Emperor appointed Lin Tse-hsu as Special Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. Lin took strong action and within a week of his arrival at Canton, in March 1839, he had surrounded the foreign factories with an armed force. He allowed no Europeans to leave, stopped supplies of food and water, and demanded the surrender of all opium for destruction. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents. But Elliot refused to allow anyone to sign the bond and, much to Lin's annoyance, all British trade was stopped until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

       Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by commer- cial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a settlement in relations between Britain and China. He demanded either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the

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     British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by enforcing measures against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and Keshen, a Manchu commissioner who had replaced Lin after his exile in disgrace, resulted in agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty the Convention of Chuenpi-on 20th January 1841. By it, Hong Kong was to be ceded. The island was formally occupied by a naval party on the 26th January 1841, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

      Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a "barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships . and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

2

      Pottinger visited Hong Kong Island during the winter of 1841-2 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's Road'. Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supple- mentary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 the Chinese were

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allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed, British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

      The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, probably malaria, decimated the Europeans and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, while build- ings in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000, with a further 2,000 living afloat. The first report on population in June 1845 gave the total as 23,817, of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

      At first the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium, as had been predicted, trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parlia- mentary Committee of Enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts that Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

       Shortly after Hong Kong's foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to south-east Asia and the countries bordering the Pacific. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco. In 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration of labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses connected with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing reasonable standards of food, space and medical atten- tion. This tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports, but Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

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The Tai Ping Rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting in thousands seeking refuge in the Colony. By 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated and is significant among the factors which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

The Treaties of Tientsin at the conclusion of the Second Anglo- Chinese War of 1856-8, gave Britain and France the privilege of diplomatic representation at Peking. However, the first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had served as Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong in 1844-5, was met by armed Chinese opposition at Taku Bar on his way to the Chinese capital. In the ensuing hostilities, Kowloon peninsula was occupied and used as a camp for the British forces and Sir Harry Parkes at Canton secured from the Viceroy there the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Con- vention of Peking, 1860, converted the lease into an outright cession.

The naval and military authorities claimed the whole of the newly acquired area and it was only after some four years of strenuous advocacy of the Colony's interests that the Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, was able to confine the Services to specified areas, subject to their right to occupy additional areas in case of military emergency. Under these circumstances the development of Kowloon as a residential area and commercial port was seriously hindered. Land values remained low and the necessary reclamations proceeded slowly because incentive was lacking. The development of Kowloon had to wait until population pressures of the twentieth century forced the pace.

       By the Convention of Peking of 1898, negotiated with China because of rivalry between the western powers over concessions in China and because of fear of French and Russian ambitions in the Far East following the alliance of these two powers in 1893, Hong Kong's boundaries were again extended by a 99-year lease of the mainland north of Kowloon, together with some 235 islands in the vicinity. This extension soon acquired the name New Territories. The British take-over in April 1899 met with some

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initial ill-organized armed opposition, but Sir Henry Blake based the administration on the maintenance of Chinese law and custom, in co-operation with village committees and headmen, and by extensive visits to the villages to explain his policy in person he was able to build up confidence. Steps were taken to improve economic conditions and check widespread malaria, so that the population has gradually increased from about 100,000 to nearly half a million as shown by the 1961 Census.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion in trade and population, and of consequent material and social improve- ments. The old traditional practice of European and Chinese com- munities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. Each pursued his own way of life largely independent of the other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education there could be little Chinese participation in government, western commerce or the professions. There have been, however, Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

       In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by missionary bodies, who have received grants or subsidies since 1873 and have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai, with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of its first graduates was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

Undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding in 1911 of the University of Hong Kong, which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis of its faculties of medicine and engineering. The University was made possible by the enthusiasm of Sir Frederick Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody

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who met the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the University has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking University in a Chinese environ- ment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and South- East Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community.

      The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials, but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle, and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected.' The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body representative of responsible Chinese opinion.

       The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies, the first government medical officer being appointed in 1847 to treat prisoners in the gaol and the police. He opened a small make- shift hospital the following year which served until 1859 when a government civil hospital was opened. This was destroyed by the 1874 typhoon and adjoining buildings had to be requisitioned. On this site now stand the modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital and the Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club Clinic. The Kowloon Govern- ment Hospital was opened in 1925 and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. Both these government hospitals have been eclipsed in size by the 1,338-bed Queen Elizabeth Hospital opened in Kowloon in 1963.

       The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building and Queen's Road approxi- mately follows the line of the original settlement. Expansion could

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only take place on the slopes of the Peak-as for example Stanley Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable area or by reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously over-crowded and insanitary. It was this which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

       As a result of complaints from the military about the sanitary condition of Hong Kong, Osbert Chadwick, a sanitary engineer, was sent out by the home government. A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883 to which nominated unofficials were added in 1886 and two elected representatives of the ratepayers in 1887. It could bring about little improvement because of Chinese opposition to western ideas of sanitation and to any interference with their way of life. There was also opposition to the cost of sanitary improve- ments on the part of the community, already burdened by a costly programme of public works and by defence expenditure at a time when the dollar was falling in value. The result of this neglect was an outbreak of the plague in 1894. Two Japanese doctors who came to investigate, Professor Vitasato and Dr Aoyama, claimed to be the first to isolate the plague bacillus and to demonstrate that it was carried by rats. Even then there was considerable opposition to house-cleansing and measures against rat-infestation, and annual visitations of the plague continued until about 1927. The Sanitary Board continued until 1935, when its functions were broadened and taken over by an Urban Council.

       The earliest reclamation was the filling of a small creek in 1851, to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land. The most important reclamation was that in the Central district, begun in 1890 and completed in 1904, which added Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclama- tions were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

Increasing urbanization led also to the problem of water, and the start of a century-long race between water supply and popula- tion demand. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugu- rated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung

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(1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

       The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first world war was followed by strong nationalist and anti- foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first world war to present her 'twenty one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

>

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of east and South-East Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On 8th December 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland,

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and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of the 18th- 19th December and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley while the Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating con- ditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organizing mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Terri- tories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on 1st May 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

       From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000, rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the Communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since

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then it has continued to rise. A census taken in 1961 showed a population figure of 3,133,131.

      Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied the growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the government has played, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. Low-cost housing schemes and multi-storied resettlement estates have called for a heavy investment of public funds; schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided on a scale unprecedented in the Colony's history. Despite the substantial progress made, however, the demand continues and is still far from being satisfied.

       Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. In Kowloon and Tsuen Wan particularly, industrialists have opened many large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export to all parts of the world. To meet the demand for land for industry and housing the government has continued to carry out many new reclamation schemes, principally in the Central district, Causeway Bay and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour. The investigation of new areas for develop- ment is constantly in hand. Impressive schemes to improve the water supply were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957, and at Shek Pik in 1963; a start has been made with the Plover Cove scheme which will treble the amount of water available. Following a period of unparalleled drought in 1963-4, an arrangement was made to purchase 15,000 million gallons of water annually from the East River in Kwangtung province.

       The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops, coupled with the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques, have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with trade promotion, and technical and vocational training.

      The government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network; more rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in the face of enlarged public transport services

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      and the big increase in the number of private cars. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. A new airport with a runway 8,340 feet long built on a promontory reaching out into Kowloon Bay and capable of meeting the needs of the biggest aircraft in service has been completed and is in full operation. A new $16 million terminal was opened in November 1962. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sight- seeing and shopping facilities, and night-time entertainment.

        Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Broadcasting, wired and wireless, has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment, and wired televi- sion supplements the many modern cinemas. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

       An increased, and ever increasing, tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life. But it is the growth of local industry, which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, that has been the most significant feature- after population growth-in the Colony's history in the post-war

years.

22

Constitution and Administration

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supple- mented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex officio and seven nominated members. The ex officio members are the Commander, British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secretary, and there is one nominated official member. The six unofficials at present include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important mat- ters. The responsibility for deciding which questions should come before the Council, and for taking action afterwards, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor in Council (i.e. Executive Council) is also given power under numerous ordinances to make subsidiary legis- lation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

      The same five ex officio members of the Executive Council also serve on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is also the President. In addition, there are seven other official members and 13 unofficial members nominated by the Governor who at present include nine Chinese members and one Indian member.

The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls

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finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance Committee, on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legis- lative Council is based on that of the House of Commons. The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils are given in Appendices XLI and XLII.

JUDICIARY

      Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Letters Patent, the Chief Justice, Senior Puisne Judge and Puisne Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent on instructions from the Sovereign given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State. District Judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by warrant or other instrument under the Public Seal. The qualifications of judges and district judges are prescribed by the Supreme Court and District Court Ordinances.

      The function of the judiciary is to try all public and private prosecutions and to determine civil disputes either between indi- viduals or between individuals and the government. The principle of English Constitutional Law, that in the performance of all judicial acts the judiciary is completely independent of the executive and legislative organs of the government, is followed in Hong Kong. It takes no part in the formulation of policy or in the enact- ment of the laws. Its function is to follow and apply the law, but in the interpretation of statutes and in applying decided cases, new case law is made.

      The principles of English Common Law and Equity and the Statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5th April 1843, except where they are inapplicable to local circumstances, are the foundation of Hong Kong's legal system. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain later enactments of the United Kingdom Parliament and by the ordinances and other enactments of the Hong Kong legislature. The Statute Laws of the Colony are consolidated and revised periodically. The current edition was published in 1951. A new edition is in course of preparation.

       The Courts of Justice in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistracy and the Tenancy Tribunal. The rapid changes in the social and economic structure

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263

      of the Colony and in the size and distribution of the population have necessitated the creation of additional courts. In 1965, the judiciary consisted of the Chief Justice and six puisne judges, seven district judges, 31 magistrates and the Tenancy Tribunal. District Judges sit in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Ter- ritories. Magistrates sit at Central, Causeway Bay and Western Magistracies on Hong Kong Island, and at South Kowloon, North Kowloon, Fanling, Tsuen Wan, Tsim Sha Tsui and Kwun Tong Magistracies on the mainland. In addition to the regular Magis- trates' Courts on either side of the harbour, there is also a Justice of the Peace Court each for the Island and the mainland which sit several afternoons a week. Whenever possible one of the two justices is a solicitor. The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance and the Demol- ished Buildings Ordinance and their work is described in chapter 8.

      Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences. In the case of indictable offences, however, their powers of punishment are re- stricted generally to a maximum of two years' imprisonment or a $2,000 fine for any one offence, unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may award some higher penalty. When trying two or three offences together, cumulative sentences of imprisonment imposed by them may not exceed three years. There was again a substantial increase in the number of cases dealt with by the magistrates during 1965.

      Magistrates hold preliminary inquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed to trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer various cases of a serious nature to the District Court on the appli- cation of the Attorney General. The civil jurisdiction of these courts is not extensive, but they exercise a limited jurisdiction in domestic matters chiefly under the Infants Custody Ordinance and Separation and Maintenance Orders Ordinance, and perform im- portant functions under a number of other ordinances, including the Magistrates (Coroners Powers) Ordinance.

       The District Court, established in 1953, took over the summary jurisdiction previously exercised by the Supreme Court and gave to the public a simpler and shorter method of bringing to trial civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter was under

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      $5,000. The large increase in the work of this court, particularly in Kowloon, reflects the Colony's industrial growth and population expansion. Trial in both civil and criminal proceedings in the District Court is by judge alone and there is a general limitation of five years on a District Judge's power to award a sentence of imprisonment. The District Court has also an appellate jurisdiction in stamp appeals, rating appeals and appeals from the Tenancy Tribunal.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the three Divisions of the English High Court-namely the Queen's Bench Division, the Chancery Division and the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division. In addition it exercises jurisdiction in lunacy, bankruptcy and company-winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in the courts for the years 1961-5 will be found in Appendix XLIII).

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court. It sits as occasion requires and is constituted of two or more judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction cor- responding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeal and the Divisional Court of the Queen's Bench Division. Final appeals from Hong Kong go to the Judicial Com- mittee of the Privy Council in London.

ADMINISTRATION

       Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the adminis- trative functions of the government are discharged by some 30 departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. A list of these departments is given in Appendix VII.

The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of depart- ments and makes, or transmits from the Governor, the Governor in Council, or the Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy and the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates

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265

the work of the local forces and acts as the main channel of com- munication between the government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on Chinese traditions and ways of life, and is also charged with special responsibilities for strengthening channels of direct communication between the government and Hong Kong's Chinese people at all levels. This is done largely by constant personal con- tacts, from departmental headquarters and five branch offices, with the men and women who are the elected or natural leaders in some three to four hundred Chinese societies. These range from Hong Kong's premier charitable organization, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, to some of the smaller clansmen's associations, and from the 600,000-strong Kaifong movement to close-knit Buddhist groups. In practice there is no aspect of the government's work on which Hong Kong people do not seek information, advice or help from the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. In addition, as a body corporate, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs administers, with the advice of predominantly Chinese committees, nine social service trust funds totalling $12 million in cash and securities, as well as most of Hong Kong's Chinese temples.

      Hong Kong's drive against narcotics is co-ordinated by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, with the help of a strongly constituted Narcotics Advisory Committee at policy level, and another and larger Action Committee Against Narcotics. The Action Committee effectively provides at operational level for the fullest exchange of opinions and information, and for a system of practical co-ordina- tion between nine executive branches of the government and seven voluntary organizations.

Particular responsibilities with regard to some of Hong Kong's housing problems come to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs through his participation in two housing organizations and the Urban Council, and through the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs' Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux. In practice these bureaux are primarily concerned with the rights and welfare of the tenants of any building which has to be condemned and of any rent-controlled premises which a landlord wishes to demolish.

266

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Other administrative functions include 'district office' work in New Kowloon and the rural areas of Hong Kong Island, inves- tigation into claims to British nationality or for naturalization, fireworks control, registration of newspapers, support for Chinese social welfare activities, Chinese cemeteries, confidential mediation in a variety of domestic, tenants' and other disputes, and the pro- vision of traditional 'go-between' facilities should there be any misunderstanding between another department and some section of the Chinese public over matters which are not purely professional or technical.

The Urban Council consists of 26 members-six ex officio members and 20 ordinary members of whom 10 are elected and 10 are appointed by the Governor. Of the ex officio members the Director of Urban Services Department sits as Chairman of the Council, and the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services as vice- chairman. The others include the Director of Public Works, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Social Welfare and the Commissioner for Resettlement. The former temporary ex officio appointment of the Commissioner for Resettlement was made per- manent in January 1965. With effect from 1st April 1965 the number of unofficial members was increased from 16 to 20 by the addition of two elected and two appointed members. The term of office of the ordinary members is four years. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by 17 select committees which meet at frequent intervals. Since the meeting of the Council in April 1965, all these committees have been chaired by unofficial members, and without exception the unofficial members are in the majority.

      The membership of the Urban Council is given at Appendix XLIV. The responsibilities of the Urban Council, which are carried out through the Urban Services Department, cover the fields of environmental hygiene, sanitation and public amenities in the urban areas. The Council is also the competent authority for the manage- ment of resettlement areas and estates.

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

       The New Territories are divided into four administrative districts, each under a District Officer who has a staff of between 100 and 180, depending on the size and complexity of the district. The Tai

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

267

Po District, with an area of 123 square miles and a population estimated at 220,000, covers the north-east of the New Territories with its District Office at Tai Po Market. The Yuen Long District, with an area of 86 square miles and a population of about 200,000, includes the large and heavily populated agricultural plain in the north-west and has its District Office at Ping Shan. A new office is under construction at Yuen Long. The Tsuen Wan District has an area of 26 square miles and a population of about 190,000 covering the new industrial complex of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Island, as well as Ma Wan Island and the north-eastern part of Lantau Island. Its District Office is accommodated in the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building in Tsuen Wan. The Sai Kung area east of Kai Tak Airport, the remainder of Lantau Island, Cheung Chau, Lamma Island and all the islands to the west and south of Hong Kong, covering some 130 square miles with a scattered population of about 65,000, are administered from the District Office South at Gascoigne Road, Kowloon.

The District Commissioner co-ordinates the overall administra- tion of the New Territories from an office in North Kowloon. He is assisted by a Deputy District Commissioner and a headquarters staff which, including the cadastral survey staff, totals 91. The District Officers are concerned with every aspect of government activity in their districts and act as the principal links between the government and the local inhabitants. Their responsibilities include arbitration in all kinds of village and personal disputes, including family matrimonial cases. They control the utilization and sale of Crown land and administer the grant of temporary structure permits. District Officers have an allocation of funds from the New Territories local public works vote, which pays for materials to help villagers improve irrigation and water supplies, build paths and small bridges and carry out a wide range of other minor works to improve the sanitation and the amenities of the villages.

      For local representation, each of the 625 villages in the New Territories has one or more Village Representatives, making a total of about 900. Villages are in turn grouped under Rural Committees, of which there are 27 covering the entire New Territories. Each Rural Committee has an executive committee which is elected by secret ballot every two years by all Village Representatives. The Rural Committees execute minor works and carry out certain tasks

268

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

on behalf of the government. They receive a small monthly sub- vention to cover routine expenses. Within its own area each Rural Committee acts as the spokesman for local public opinion, arbitrates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the New Territories Administration and the people.

The chairmen and vice-chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, together with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 Special Councillors elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum where leaders of New Territories opinion have gathered since it was constituted in 1926 and from which (except during the period from August 1958 to December 1959 when official recognition of the representative status of the Kuk was withdrawn because of internal dissension) the government has sought advice on New Territories affairs. Under the constitution established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance 1959, the Kuk also has an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice-chairmen of the Kuk through whom close and constant contact is maintained with the District Commissioner. A bye- election of the Heung Yee Kuk for an ordinary member was held in August 1965 under the supervision of the Deputy District Com- missioner as Returning Officer.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

On 1st April 1965, the establishment of the Public Service totalled 68,474, an increase of 4,681 over the previous year. The estimated expenditure on personal emoluments (including pensions) for the financial year 1965-6 is about $547.7 million, which accounts for approximately 54 per cent of the estimated recurrent expenditure or 32 per cent of the total estimated expenditure for the year. The Service has expanded very rapidly since 1949, when the total es- tablishment was about 17,500. The Establishment Sub-Committee of Finance Committee continued to examine all departmental re- quests for extra staff, to ensure that expansion of the Public Service is limited to posts which are essential, as opposed to simply desirable.

     To maintain contact with isolated communities on the smaller islands and in the New Territories, the Hong Kong Police regularly send out small patrols. Consist- ing normally of a corporal and up to three men, the patrols stay out two or three days. Patrol (above) sets out after being put ashore from a Marine Police launch.

An important function of each patrol is to establish friendly relations with the villagers. In many villages there are now few young men-they have moved either to the urban areas or abroad-and the patrols keep a special eye on old people living alone. For youngsters living in the villages the patrol visit is a big event.

The men on this patrol are members of the Marine Police. For them it is a popular duty. Led by their corporal (above) they carry basic rations and buy the rest of their food in the villages they visit. There is very little crime in the villages and usually each is visited every alternate month.

H

H

   Patrols usually sleep in the village school and make a dawn start (above). Most schools have a kitchen attached, so cooking is no problem. In the Sai Kung area (below) a patrol comes down from the hills after three days and is ferried back to a waiting Police launch. After one or two days leave, they will go out again.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

269

       The growth has been accompanied by a determined effort to fill as many posts as possible with local candidates, particularly in more senior grades which have in the past been staffed largely by overseas officers. Between 1964 and 1965 the percentage of administrative and professional posts filled by local officers increased from 46.3 per cent to 46.6 per cent. In 1960, it was 38.6 per cent. Over the Service as a whole, the percentage of overseas officers is 2.9 per cent.

      Training of local staff forms an important part of the programme and the Training and Examinations Unit has expanded its activities since its establishment in 1961. During the year ending 31st March 1965, the unit ran a total of 90 courses centrally, attended by 1,248 trainees. In addition, 148 local officers were sent overseas during the year to obtain professional qualifications and training.

The Public Services Commission continued to play a valuable part in maintaining standards in the Public Service, by advising on the qualifications to be prescribed for various posts and on the selection of candidates for appointment. In 1962 a Selection Board was set up in London to enable persons of Hong Kong origin studying in the United Kingdom to apply for posts in the Hong Kong Public Service. More recently, the board has dealt with advertisements for experienced professional officers from Hong Kong who were working in the United Kingdom. This is regarded as a practical way of ensuring that everything possible is done to fill vacancies with persons whose roots are in Hong Kong and who have had the benefit of overseas education or training. Where overseas staff has to be recruited, government's normal policy is to appoint them on contract terms, pensionable terms being offered only if suitable local candidates are unlikely to become available in the foreseeable future.

A Salaries Commission was appointed in the early part of the year, under the chairmanship of Sir Gordon Hadow, CMG, OBE. The terms of reference of the Commission required it to submit recommendations on the general level of salaries of the main groups of employees in the Public Service excluding the salaries of individual grades and posts, and also on certain other matters. The Commission was also required to submit, as a first requirement, an interim report in respect of appropriate substantive adjustments in the general level of salaries from 1st July 1963 to 31st August

270

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

1964, having regard inter alia to the 5 per cent interim award and 2 per cent children's allowance granted to the Public Service as from July 1963. The Commission assembled at the beginning of April and in June submitted its Interim Report which recommended the replacement of the interim award and children's allowance by a 12 per cent increase in salary. This recommendation was accepted. The Commission's main report, tabled in Legislative Council at the end of September, recommended that salaries should generally be increased by 16 per cent over 1959 levels, with effect from 1st April 1965. The Commission also recommended increases in wages for minor staff who had last received a substantive increase in Decem- ber 1964. No decisions had been taken by the end of the year on the Commission's recommendations.

       However, the government announced on 22nd December that it had been decided to make certain limited payments before Chinese New Year, 1966. These would be of two kinds. Labourers, semi- skilled labourers and artisans would receive an advance on the recommendations made in their case by the Commission. This advance would be calculated on the basis of $25 a month for male staff and $15 a month for female staff, for each month of service between 1st April and 31st December 1965. These amounts would be continued on in monthly paysheets until final decisions were taken on the Commission's recommendations.

The rest of the service would receive a payment which was a con- tinuation for a further seven months, up to the end of March 1965, of the award of the Commission's interim report. This was the 12 per cent increase over the levels set by the 1959 Salaries Commis- sion and replaced the temporary 5 per cent allowance and children's allowance.

Appendices

273

Appendix I

Weights and Measures

The weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

UNIT

EQUIVALENTS

Domestic

British

Metric

Length*

1 fan

0.146 in

3.715 mm

1 tsun (Chinese inch)...

10 fan

1.463 in

3.715 cm

1 chek (Chinese foot)...

10 tsun

14.625 in

37.15 cm

1 cheung

10 chek

4.063 yd

3.715 m

1 lei (Chinese mile)

706-745 yd

646-681 m

Area

1 dau chung

1 mow

...

Weight

1 fan

1 tsin or mace...

1 leung or tael...

:

:

1 kan or catty...

1 tam or picul...

:

806.7

sq yd

.6745 hec

1,008

sq yd

.8431 hec

0.013 oz

3.78

dg

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78

g

10 tsin

1.333 oz

37.8

g

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8

100 catty

133.333 lb

60.48

kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the chek (foot) is 14ğ in but the chek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14§ in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

274

Appendix

II

Legislation

Legislation

275

ORDINANCES

Airport Fees (Validation) Ordinance 1965

Appropriation (1965-6) Ordinance 1965

Bankruptcy (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Births and Deaths Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Charities (Land Acquisition) (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Colonial Treasurer Incorporation (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 Companies (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Contracts for Overseas Employment Ordinance 1965

Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Director of the Universities Service Centre Incorporation Ordinance 1965

District Court (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Employers and Servants (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Employment of Young Persons and Children at Sea (Amendment) Ordinance

1965

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Ferries (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Hawker Control Force (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Hong Kong Tourist Association (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Hotel Accommodation Tax Ordinance 1965

Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Inland Revenue (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Land Registration (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Lepers (Repeal) Ordinance 1965

Library Ordinance 1965

Limitation Ordinance 1965

Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Medical Clinics (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Miscellaneous Licences (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Protection of Women and Juveniles (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Radiation (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 Resettlement (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Revised Edition of the Laws Ordinance 1965

School Medical Service Board Incorporation (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 'Star' Ferry Company (Service) (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 Streets (Alteration) (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 Summary Offences (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Summer Time (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Supplementary Appropriation (1964-5) Ordinance 1965 Telephone (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Telephone (Amendment) (No 2) Ordinance 1965

Television (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Tenancy (Notice of Termination) (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (Amendment) Ordinance

1965

Urban Council (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Waterworks (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Widows and Orphans Pension (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

Widows and Orphans Pension (Clive Robert Carter) (Exemption) Ordinance

1965

Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection (Amendment) Ordinance 1965 Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance 1965

SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Adoption (Amendment) Rules 1965

Air Armament Practice (Amendment of Schedules) Order 1965

Births and Deaths Registration (Description of Causes of Death) Regulations

1965

Births Registration (Special Registers) (Amendment of Fifth Schedule)

Regulations 1965

Boilers and Pressure Receivers (Exemption) Order 1965

Building (Planning) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Cheung Chau Public Cemetery (Graves Removal) Order 1965

Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Rules 1965

Colouring Matter in Food (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Commonwealth Countries and Republic of Ireland (Immunities and Privileges)

(Amendment of Schedules) Order 1965

Consular Conventions (Kingdom of Belgium) Order 1965

Crown Rent (NT) (Revocation) Regulations 1965

Deaths Registration (Special Registers) (Amendment of Fourth Schedule)

Regulations 1965

Emergency (Bank Control) Regulations 1965

Emergency (Bank Control) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Emergency (Bank Control) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1965 Emergency (Bank Control) (Revocation) Order 1965

Excluded Ferries (Ma On Shan and Ho Tung Lau) (Amendment) Regulations

1965

276

Appendix

II-Contd

277

Legislation

Exemption from Interest Tax Order 1965

Exportation (Cotton Manufactures) (Amendment of Schedule) Order 1965 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Notification of Occupational Diseases)

Regulations 1965

Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Radiation) (Revocation) Special

Regulations 1965

Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) (Amendment) Regulations 1965 Food Business (Amendment) By-laws 1965

Food Business (New Territories) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) (Application to the Common-

wealth) Order 1965

Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) (Commonwealth) Order 1965 Frozen Confections (Amendment) By-laws 1965

General Chinese Charities Fund (Amendment) Directions 1965

Hawker Control Force Ordinance 1960 (Amendment of First Schedule)

Order 1965

Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company By-laws 1965

Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company (Services) Ordinance 1951-

Legislative Council Resolutions amending the Schedule Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Regulations 1965 Importation and Exportation (Strategic Commodities) Regulations 1965 Importation (Southern Rhodesia Tobacco) Regulations 1965

Imported Meat and Poultry (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Inland Revenue (Amendment of Third Schedule) Order 1965

Inland Revenue (Amendment) Rules 1965

Inland Revenue (Amendment) (No 2) Rules 1965

Magistrates Ordinance--Legislative Council Resolution amending the Third

Schedule

Merchant Shipping (Control of Ports) (Amendment) Regulations 1965 Merchant Shipping (Examinations) Rules 1965

Merchant Shipping (Fees) Regulations 1965

Merchant Shipping (Launches and Ferry Vessels) Regulations 1965

Merchant Shipping (Life Saving Appliances) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Miscellaneous Licences (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Miscellaneous Licences (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1965

Penicillin (and other Substances) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Pensionable Offices (Amendment) Order 1965

Pleasure Grounds (Amendment) By-laws 1965

Pleasure Grounds (Amendment) (No 2) By-laws 1965

Police Regulations (Discipline) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases (Declaration of Leprosy)

Notification 1965

Legislation

Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases (Hei Ling Chau) Isolation

Order 1965

Probate (Order of 1941) (Cancellation) Order 1965

Protection of Women and Juveniles (Places of Refuge) (Cancellation) Order

1965

Protection of Women and Juveniles (Places of Refuge) Order 1965

Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance 1960 (Amendment of First

Schedule) Order 1965

Public Health and Urban Services (Public Pleasure Grounds) Order 1965 Radiation (Control of Irradiating Apparatus) Regulations 1965 Radiation (Control of Radioactive Substances) Regulations 1965 Radiation Ordinance (Amendment of Schedule) Order 1965

Registrar (Exercise and Performance of Powers) Rules 1965

Registration of Persons (Cancellation of Registration and Identity Cards)

Orders 1965

Registration of Persons (Re-registration) Orders 1965 Resettlement (Amendment) Regulations 1965 Resettlement (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1965 Resettlement (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1965

Resettlement (Amendment) (No 4) Regulations 1965

Road Traffic (Construction and Use) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Road Traffic (Construction and Use) (Guy Arab Mark V Omnibuses Exemp-

tion) Order 1965

Stamp (Bank Authorization) Orders 1965

Statutes of the Chinese University of Hong Kong

Statutes of the University (Amendment) Statutes 1965

Students (Amendment) Rules 1965

Summary Offences (Licences and Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Summary Offences (Licences and Fees) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1965

Supreme Court (Costs) Rules 1965

Supreme Court Fees (Amendment) Rules 1965

Tallyclerks (Licensing) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Telecommunication (Exemption) Order 1965

Tong Fuk Prison Order 1965

*United Kingdom Forces (Jurisdiction of Colonial Courts) (Service Organiza-

tions) Order 1965

Urban Council (Election Petitions) Rules 1965

Urban Council Elections (Procedure) (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Ventilation (Amendment) By-laws 1965

Waterworks (Amendment) Regulations 1965

Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Regulations 1965

* Made under the United Kingdom Forces (Jurisdiction of Colonial Courts) Order 1965.

278

Appendix

Industrial undertakings and persons employed

United Nations

standard

industrial

classification

numbers

in main industrial groups

(Chapter 2:

III

Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

standard

industrial

Industry

279

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

United Nations

1964

1965

1964

1965

classification

Industrial undertakings

Persons

employed

numbers

1964

1965

1964

1965

12

Metal mining

2

2

528

550

24

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

14

Clay pits and quarrying

65

60

1,680

1,811

23

Manufacture of textiles

Cotton spinning

34

33

21,053 19,620

19

Non-metallic mining

7

7

42

22

20

Food manufacture...

467

487

9,652

9,627

Beverages

***

24

24

26

2,064

2,269

22

Tobacco manufacture

6

6

1,490

1,665

24

24

Wool spinning Cotton weaving

Finishing

Knitting

***

+

Cordage, rope and twine

Footwear and wearing apparel

7

7

2,049 2,492

252

245

28,227

29,820

162

184

5,533

6,169

398

462

23,312

26,157

24

28

503

485

23

Manufacture of textiles

1,094

1,197

Footwear except rubber footwear

63

81

1,806

86,855

90,725

Wearing apparel except footwear

945

1,043

58,361

1,292 60,986

Footwear and wearing apparel

1,065

1,184

61,409 63,880

Made-up textile goods except wearing

apparel

57

60 1,242 1,602

25

Manufacture of wood and cork

281

313 4,284

4,753

31

Chemicals and chemical products

26

Manufacture of furniture

251

272 3,951

3,858

Medicines

34

Cosmetics

6

27

Paper

145

169

2,656

2,817

Paints and lacquers

11

28

Printing and publishing

776

816

13,315

Matches

1

7321

823

946

166

128

859

857

265

14,897

252

34

Basic metal industries

29

Leather and leather products

:

25

30

293

412

30

Rubber products

181

182

9,440

8,797

35

Metal products

w w w w w

31

Chemicals and chemical products

118

116

3,502

3,576

32

Products of petroleum and coal

2

2

23

22

33

Non-metallic mineral products

98

101

2,501

2,584

Rolling mills

Tin cans

Enamelware Vacuum flasks

Electro-plating

Needles

:

24

24

21

2,066

1,688

56

53

1,155

1,013

19

7

106

118

6

34

Basic metal industries

130

135

3,902

3,417

Hurricane lamps

2

Hand torch cases

44

35

Metal products

1,013

1,144

32,763

31,887

Pressure stoves and lanterns

27

36

Manufacture of machinery

452

515

5,691

Wrist watch bands

76

27245

22 3,244

2,628

9 1,184

1,173

1,250

1,379

818

761

314

248

44 5,891

5,104

32 1,891 1,782

77

5,915

3,299

3,393

37

37

Electrical apparatus

Electrical apparatus

196

223

13,688 18,873

Hand torch bulbs

38

Transport equipment

123

132

14,286 16,377

Torch batteries

==

49

14

535

53 3,202

3,241

19 1,640

1,788

39

38

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries...

1,425

1,596

50,542 54,743

Transport equipment

Shipbuilding and repairing

29

30

9,287

11,260

51

Electricity and gas

61

Wholesale and retail trade

::

7

9

3,717 3,749

Shipbreaking

8

8

649

365

Aircraft repair

2

2

1,279

1,433

8

7

741

747

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

71

Transport

21

23

10,319

10,935

Artificial pearls

26

31

1,285

1,024

Buttons

32

72

Storage and warehousing...

21

24

4,304

4,812

Bakelite ware

28

33

33

914

779

33

1,211

1,142

73

Telephones...

1

1

2,845

3,069

84

Motion picture industry

11

10 1,243

1,546

85

Laundry and dry cleaning

200

213 2,448

2,403

71

Totals

8,215

9,002 350,174

370,738

Plastic ware Plastic flowers Fountain pens

Transport

Tramways

Motor buses

845

923

26,853

28,658

318

344

15,175

15,052

7

7

248

161

::

1

1

1,612

1,682

3

5 8,521

9,037

280

Appendix IV

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections, 1965

Applications received for registration

1,087

Registration certificates issued

1,111

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

7

Applications withdrawn

:

80

Factories closed and Registration Certificates surrendered

577

Places of employment registered at 31st December

5,560

*Factories 'recorded' at 31st December

3,442

...

Routine visits by inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health and

welfare provisions

29,421

Inspections in connection with industrial or occupational accidents

and workmen's compensation

1,599

Visits for wage and employment enquiries

7,846

Visits about employment of women and young persons

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

* Undertakings which cannot be registered, but are kept under observation because 15-19 workers or women and young persons employed, or for industrial health and safety

reasons.

..

...

22,857

9,341

Appendix V

(Chapter 2: Employment)

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1965

Persons involved

Deaths

Persons injured in registrable workplaces Deaths in registrable workplaces...

*Total accidents reported and investigated

(1964 total 9,853)

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1964 rate 15.46)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

(1964 rate 0.136)

:

:

:

:

:

:

9,859

147

5,161

30

9,859

14.32

0.083

* An accident involving two or more persons is recorded as a separate accident for each

person involved.

Appendix VI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue

281

1963-4

1964-5

1965-6

Head of Revenue

Actual

Estimated

Actual

Estimated

$

$

$

$

1. Duties

2. Rates

3. Internal Revenue

4.

Licences and Franchises

5.

Fines and Forfeitures

225,494,014 237,500,000 255,225,198 267,000,000

144,775,102 156,100,000 167,590,760 192,800,000

418,211,533 424,100,000 491,775,458 510,000,000

69,510,365 68,698,000 85,940,807 74,196,000

10,642,609 5,950,000 11,171,392

7,450,000

6.

Fees of Court or Office ...

112,018,598 93,190,500 105,414,567 107,561,000

7. Water Revenue

15,458,789 19,912,000 22,447,897 57,113,000

8.

Post Office

75,029,061 71,113,000

78,948,431 75,083,000

9. Kai Tak Airport and Air Services

10.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

11. Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc

18,874,000 21,254,138 20,034,000

10,771,123 9,823,000 12,616,043 11,919,000

107,481,791 112,216,000 126,502,483 130,735,000

1,189,392,985 1,217,476,500 1,378,887,174 1,453,891,000

12.

Land Sales

194,836,576 154,500,000 132,976,109 191,550,000

13.

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

14. World Refugee Year Grants

15. Contributions Towards Projects

302,667 1,568,200

1,914,031 3,513,000 1,239,115

7,425,063 4,638,000 3,825,443 4,275,000

1,358,984

168,000

1,475,000

Total Revenue

1,393,871,322 1,381,695,700 1,518,286,825 1,651,359,000

282

Expenditure

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

VII

Structure)

Expenditure

283

21.

Head of Expenditure

HE the Governor's Establishment

22. Agriculture and Fisheries

1963-4 Actual $

1964-5

1965-6

1963-4

1964-5

Estimated

Actual

Estimated $

Head of Expenditure

Actual

Estimated

Actual

1965-6 Estimated

$

509,165

583,900

642,253

673,500

51.

Department

52.

Police Force: Hong Kong Police Police Force: Auxiliary Police ...

Co-operative Development and

Fisheries Department

8,779,376 10,693,500

9,866,580 11,799,100

53. Post Office

54. Printing Department

222 222

23.

Audit Department

***

24.

Civil Aviation Department

25.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

26.

Commerce and Industry

Department

...

1,199,241

7,325,407

6,406,316 7,834,600

11,200,623 13,751,100

1,287,600 1,426,015 1,432,800 11,485,300 10,802,396 6,938,800

8,618,344 10,058,200

13,980,879 15,757,400

55. Prisons Department

56. Public Debt

27. Defence: Hong Kong Regiment

(The Volunteers)

1,827,954

2,797,000

2,018,701

2,152,700

57. Public Enquiry Service

58. Public Services Commission 59. Public Works Department 60. Public Works Recurrent

61. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Headquarters

RHKDF Headquarters

28. Defence: Hong Kong Royal

Naval Reserve

1,214,174

29. Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

496,698

1,077,800 1,036,869 1,232,000

540,100 497,060 572,000

62. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Buildings

63. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Civil Engineering

64. Public Works Non-recurrent:

Waterworks

$

90,539,840 102,443,200 1,177,041 1,502,000 40,217,588 43,749,800 5,159,226 6,662,400 14,259,491 15,544,300 5,896,930 5,888,940

334,222 47,593 61,853,967

75,854,596 85,743,800 1,297,821 1,453,300 37,126,120 40,989,300 4,651,356 5,416,000 12,258,573 13,767,600 5,905,243 5,900,310 226,511 355,300

39,938

42,600 51,351,811 60,568,400 41,145,372 52,486,000 52,021,336 76,570,100

37,774,205 45,793,000 40,962,131 39,445,900

211,942,072 231,999,100 192,791,596 247,311,300

86,391,314 111,427,000 91,517,859 114,094,200

$

$

348,100

53,500

75,357,500

30.

Defence: Essential Services

Corps and Directorate of Manpower

65.

Radio Hong Kong

159,962,783 173,658,000 165,178,675 161,678,800 3,594,891 4,408,600 4,612,353 3,288,500

122,104

31. Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service

32. Defence: Auxiliary Medical

512,826

187,900

579,100

138,423

503,057

192,200

66.

Rating and Valuation

Department

1,473,073

1,792,300

493,400

67. Registrar General's Department

2,690,288

3,152,600

1,870,676 3,289,513

2,169,800

4,269,900

Service ...

1,604,658

33. Defence: Civil Aid Services

1,747,397

1,459,300

2,155,900

1,303,776 1,560,500

1,954,972 2,105,800

68. Registry of Trade Unions

272,540

281,400

308,296

293,800

69.

Resettlement Department

14,257,317

19,932,400

19,722,741

27,285,900

70.

Royal Observatory

2,474,776

34.

Defence: Registration of

Persons Office..

1,557,332

1,713,400 1,705,499 1,749,800

71.

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs...

2,900,500 1,524,085 1,691,900

2,981,021 3,857,400 1,901,079 2,128,900

35.

Defence: Miscellaneous

72.

Social Welfare Department

Measures

36.

Education Department

37. Fire Services Department

38. Immigration Department

39. Information Services Department

2,321,468

40. Inland Revenue Department

4,793,207

41. Judiciary

5,181,827

42. Kowloon-Canton Railway

4,868,250

43. Labour Department: Labour

Division

2,102,578

44. Labour Department: Mines

Division

227,331

45.

Legal Department

46.

Marine Department

47. Medical and Health Department

48.

Miscellaneous Services ...

49.

New Territories Administration

50.

Pensions

...

24,560,706 24,833,300 24,620,605 49,393,500 59,015,386 68,649,500 69,298,801 76,609,200 14,455,910 17,520,100 16,846,877 21,998,000 2,609,557 3,344,800 3,303,710 4,533,000 3,007,000 2,841,745 3,438,600 5,538,300 5,847,791 6,762,200 6,019,400 6,879,080 8,083,300 5,255,900 5,679,960 8,226,000

2,723,100 2,692,080 3,146,500

307,800 320,632 324,600 1,640,788 1,891,500 2,155,638 2,475,900 17,739,188 18,769,800 17,367,908 25,178,500 76,893,619 93,400,300 94,525,377 106,044,500 21,597,596 22,744,200 24,968,724 42,103,700 8,452,977 9,715,900 9,915,423 11,001,000 25,316,449 27,433,000 28,868,353 29,982,000

73.

Stores Department

74.

Subventions: Education

79.

Urban Services Department

and Urban Council 80. Urban Services Department:

City Hall

84. World Refugee Year Schemes

Total ...

75. Subventions: Medical

76. Subventions: Social Welfare

77. Subventions: Miscellaneous

78. Treasury

81. Urban Services Department:

Housing Division 82. Urban Services Department:

New Territories Division

83. Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

7,168,871 9,056,000 8,084,568 10,720,800 23,848,618 20,973,700 22,218,414 25,428,900 108,721,402 123,286,500 135,305,291 151,832,900 27,764,694 32,418,400 32,577,159 41,534,200 4,329,171 5,693,500 5,274,588 6,135,500 5,840,511 9,395,800 8,438,235 12,442,500 3,047,486 3,521,600 3,858,160 3,896,900

35,844,313 42,323,200 42,757,868 51,055,800

1,441,417 2,012,500 1,796,342 2,838,500

2,872,992 4,980,600 4,483,397 6,739,200

3,638,943 4,946,500 4,525,263 6,233,400

1,293,013,211 1,489,668,110 1,436,589,987 1,708,821,540

302,907 1,582,700 2,056,723 4,781,700

1,295,372,841 1,496,032,510 1,440,523,324 1,711,408,040

1,362,638 182,700 2,570,699 2,403,800

284

LIABILITIES

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Statement of Assets and

VIII

Structure)

Liabilities as at 31st March 1965

ASSETS

285

DEPOSITS:

Contributions towards building Projects

CASH:

$ 11,983,731.57

In Hand: Treasury

Control of Publications

Government Servants

920,000.00

2,280,684.85

Other Government Departments

Crown Agents (£905.12.11)

$ 3,586,626.21

99,162.88

14,490.33

$ 3,700,279.42

Miscellaneous

45,526,769.97

At Bank: Treasury

87,702,805.16

Public Works Department-Private Works Account

6,537,891.93

Other Government Departments

2,523,972.29

Water Deposits

18,599,761.77

Joint Consolidated Fund (£1,184,000.0.0)...

85,848,840.09

Other Administrations

75,076.23

FIXED DEPOSITS

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

SUSPENSE-Kowloon-Canton Railway

SPECIAL FUNDS:

:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

10,906.76 $ 85,934,823.08

:

IMPRESTS

31,247.95

90,226,777,45

18,944,000.00

112,871,056.87

401,650,000.00

$514,521,056.87

432,992.26

445,832.21

138,024,760.94

SPECIAL FUNDS:

World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co-operative Societies-

Fixed Deposits

420,000.00

INVESTMENTS:

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE:

Balance 1st April 1964

761,689,575.61

Add Surplus from 1st April 1964 to 31st March 1965

77,763,500.82

839,453,076.43

On account of Surplus Balances:

Federation of Malaya 44% Stock 1964-74 (M$4,802,500.00)...

Federation of Malaya 4% Stock 1965-75 (M$6,182,025.00)

Hong Kong Government 34% Dollar Loan 1940

Sterling Investments (£31,304,996.9.1)

Less Depreciation on Investments

16,532,214.93 822,920,861.50

CURRENT ACCOUNT-Postmaster General

Notes:

Total

$1,047,357,525.68

ADVANCES:

Personal

Miscellaneous...

Other Administrations

British Technical Assistance Fund

8,964,666.67

11,539,780.00

265,000.00

500,879,943.27

521,649,389.94

3,170,418.15

$5,756,470.13

526,257.09

6,282,727.22

827,363.57

53,577.67

7,163,668.46

Total

$1,047,357,525.68

Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal value of at a nominal value of 500 Yen per share in Helm Brothers

$100 per share in Associated Properties Limited and 1,470 shares Limited (Yokohama).

286

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

IX

Structure)

and Capital Income and Expenditure

287

Recurrent

Actual 1961-2

Actual 1962-3 $

Actual 1963-4 $

Actual 1964-5 $

Estimate 1965-6 $

Recurrent Revenue

911,129,114 1,006,022,192 1,155,635,124 1,342,304,614 1,418,763,000

Personal Emoluments

Pensions

Actual 1961-2 $

309,258,443

Actual

Actual

Actual

Estimate 1962-3

1963-4

1964-5

1965-6 $

$

$

$

335,587,787 378,174,802 457,280,738 517,719,300

911,129,114 1,006,022,192 1,155,635,124 1,342,304,614 1,418,763,000

Recurrent Subventions

Public Works Recurrent

Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (Excluding Unallocated Stores)

...

22,958,456 24,272,863 25,316,449 28,868,353 29,982,000

108,330,597 120,834,568 131,522,685 149,012,715 147,002,800

98,250,294 115,655,765 130,140,557 159,404,094 182,275,300

40,210,444 45,302,744 41,145,372 52,021,336 76,570,100

45,542,617

624,550,851

Transfer to Capital Revenue 209,335,620

Surplus

41,206,638 44,861,790 47,183,934 56,984,140

682,860,365 751,161,655 893,771,170 1,010,533,640

183,373,342 305,974,988 370,769,943 408,229,360

77,242,643 139,788,485 98,498,481 77,763,506

911,129,114 1,006,022,192 1,155,635,124 1,342,304,614 1,418,763,000

Capital

Estate Duty

...

16,779,914 24,574,425

Excess Stamp Duty (3%

on Assignments)

7,794,738

22,545,650 24,722,076 25,000,000

8,220,129 10,857,891

Departmental Special

Expenditure

11,682,926 10,000,000

Private Contributions

towards Government Schemes

Capital Subventions

Public Debt (excluding

interest)

19,579,838 26,921,480 16,567,751 18,837,738 60,785,900

15,244,649 14,822,931 16,515,221 22,191,179 29,669,800

4,251,000

4,252,000

4,252,000

4,252,000

4,252,000

...

Loan Repayments

Land Sales

523,511 4,360,755 7,425,063

80,000 1,683,793

354,319

90,274,650 208,101,944 194,836,577

3,825,442

177,559

132,976,109

4,275,000

128,000

191,550,000

Public Works Non-

recurrent ...

281,560,376

378,096,090

496,070,374

490,450,261 562,530,200

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

485,737

109,119

302,907

1,362,638

182,700

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

World Refugee Year Grants

309,197

3,556,756

46,233

302,667 1,358,984

55,113 1,914,031 1,239,115

119,318,766 247,042,392 238,236,198 175,982,211

168,000

1,475,000

232,596,000

Miscellaneous Capital

Expenditure

2,093,787

4,656,917

2,949,755

4,050,325 36,150,000

World Refugee Year

Schemes

3,556,756

87,429

2,056,723

2,570,699

2,403,800

Contribution from

Recurrent Revenue

209,335,620 183,373,342 305,974,988 370,769,943

408,229,360

Unallocated Stores

Accounts...

1,882,243

1,469,768

5,496,455

3,037,314

4,900,000

Deficit

60,049,040

328,654,386 430,415,734 544,211,186 546,752,154

700,874,400

328,654,386

430,415,734

544,211,186 546,752,154 700,874,400

288

Appendix X

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Public Debt of the Colony at 31st March 1965

3% Dollar Loan 1940

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

Colonial Development and Welfare Fund Loan

:

:

:

$

472,000.00

46,666,000.00

35,200,000.00

189,600.00

82,527,600.00

Appendix XI

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Colonial Development and Welfare

       Details of locally administered schemes in progress during 1965 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme Number

Title

Share of approved expenditure

Estimated Expenditure

up to

31st December 1965

CD & W

Maximum grant available

Total

CD & W Share

£

%

£

£

D 3271

Construction of New Library and

Students' Union at the University of Hong Kong

200,000

78

256,575

200,000

(max)

D 4115

Aeronautical Telecommunications

21,200

32

52

41,319

21,200

(max)

D 4745

Construction of New Pre-clinical

Building for the University of Hong Kong

78,125

28

305,000

78,125

(max)

D 4909

Construction of 48 Staff Flats for the University of Hong Kong

20,000

9

355,000

20,000

(max)

D 5250

Kowloon Wholesale Fish and

Vegetable Markets

140,000

51.85 270,000

140,000

(approx)

(max)

D 5365

Extension to University Hall for University of Hong Kong...

101,875

62

2,300

1,426

D 5366

Purchase of equipment for Marine

Physics research at the University

of Hong Kong

...

12,500

100

12,500

12,500

D 5639

Erection of a Medical Library and

Student Centre for the University

of Hong Kong

10,000

13.3

81,000

10,000

(max)

£583,700

£1,323,694

£483,251

Appendix XII

(Chapter 3: Financial Structure)

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees

289

1962-3

1963-4

1964-5

Actual

Actual

Actual

1965-6 Estimate

Revenue

Revenue

Revenue

$

$

$

$

58,320,916 65,227,152 75,816,340 85,000,000

1. Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils ...

2. Import Duty on Intoxicating Liquor 30,445,330 38,791,778 48,220,843 52,000,000

3. Import Duty on Liquor other than

Intoxicating Liquor...

1,233,560 1,688,717 2,325,429 1,800,000

4. Import Duty on Tobacco

84,993,497

93,314,242 101,184,068 100,000,000

5. Duty on locally manufactured Liquor

19,941,607

21,058,029 21,350,355 22,000,000

6. Duty on Table Waters

5,009,435 5,414,096 6,328,163 6,200,000

199,944,345 225,494,014 255,225,198 267,000,000

Licence Fees under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

1. Hydrocarbon Oils

2. Liquor

3. Tobacco

60,967

112,219

195,887

200,000

1,422,981 2,061,073 2,582,541 2,840,000

463,834

603,550

785,935

830,000

1,947,782 2,776,842 3,564,363

3,870,000

Miscellaneous Fees (Commerce and Industry)

1. Denaturing

446,929

499,982

453,113

410,000

2. Factory Inspection and Supervision ...

30,116

27,624

57,417

33,700

3. Anti-narcotic smuggling guards

7,584

12,468

10,234

10,000

4.

Bonded Warehouse supervision

118,930

234,621

363,741

379,600

603,559

774,695

884,505

833,300

290

291

Allocation

Funds $

DETAILS

LOAN PROJECTS

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Statement of Approved

XIII

Structure)

Loan Fund

Projects and Loans Made

Total Expenditure to 31.3.65 $

Total Repayments to 31.3.65 $

Balances at 31.3.65

$

of

I- Housing Loans:

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans

...

5.

1. Housing Authority*

2. Hong Kong Housing Society:

Completed Schemes

(b) Shau Kei Wan Scheme I:

(i) Stage A

(ii) Stage B

Shau Kei Wan Scheme II:

(i) Stage A

(ii) Stage B

Aberdeen Scheme

(d) Healthy Village Scheme Extension

(e) Kwun Tong Scheme Extension

(ƒ) Tsuen Wan Scheme II

(g) Tsuen Wan Scheme III...

(h) Unallocated

Kwun Tong Scheme 2nd Extension

(j) Ma Tau Chung Scheme

(k) Kennedy Town Scheme

3. Local Government Officers

Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation, Limited

6. Hong Kong Building and Loan Agency Limited:

(a) Share capital

(b) Initial Loan Fund

230,000,000

35,018,214

8,250,000

174,864,669.25

35,018,212.04

174,864,669.25

2,198,605.71

32,819,606.33

8,250,000.00

104,149.50

8,145,850.50

8,250,000

8,250,000.00

8,250,000.00

4,000,000

4,000,000.00

200,000.00

3,800,000.00

4,000,000

4,000,000.00

4,000,000.00

6,500,000

6,500,000.00

4,484.00

6,495,516.00

7,000,000

7,000,000.00

4,828.92

6,995,171.08

9,000,000

8,000,000.00

8,000,000.00

6,500,000

6,500,000.00

26,904.00

6,473,096.00

9,000,000

9,000,000.00

9,000,000.00

10,000,000

10,500,000 15,000,000

10,500,000.00

10,500,000.00

5,000,000.00

5,000,000.00

184,000,000 210,000 10,000,000

121,346,026.89

600,000

210,000.00 7,000,000.00

90,000.00

11,822,872.94 133,122.86

109,523,153.95

76,877.14

7,000,000,00

90,000.00

15,400,000

573,228,214

II - Educational Loans

III Medical Loans:

1. The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

2. The Mother Superioress of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

110,000,000

:

415,528,908.18

51,682,006.20

14,494,967.93

13,665,361.86

401,033,940.25

38,016,644.34

3,750,000

3,750,000.00

694,450.00

2,000,000

2,000,000.00

428,365.34

3,055,550.00 1,571,634.66

5,750,000

5,750,000.00

1,122,815.34

4,627,184.66

IV

-

Miscellaneous Loans:

1. Hong Kong Football Club

2. South China Athletic Association

3. Kowloon-Canton Railway Athletic and Social Club:

550,000

550,000.00

337,378.31

600,000

600,000.00

269,209.02

212,621.69 330,790.98

(a) First Loan

11,092

11,092.00

11,092.00

(b) Second Loan

3,438

3,437.50

3,437.50

4.

Good Shepherd Sisters

121,844

121,843.15

120,000.00

5.

Operation Feedbag

1,000,000

675,000.00

6.

Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited:

Ocean Terminal

22,400,000

11,578,400.00

1,843.15 675,000.00

11,578,400.00

24,686,374

13,539,772.65

741,116.83

12,798,655.82

VI - Fisheries Loans*

5,000,000

718,664,588

2,790,308.00

2,790,308.00

489,290,995.03

30,024,261.96

459,266,733.07

V-

Reclamations:

Loan Projects Total

OTHER PROJECTS

1. Kwun Tong Reclamation Stages I and II

Grand Total

8,313,000

726,977,588

8,291,562.04

497,582,557.07

30,024,261.96

8,291,562.04

467,558,295.11

* These loans constitute revolving funds and are

therefore shown net after the deduction of repayments.

292

LIABILITIES

Appendix

(Chapter 3: Financial

Development

Balance Sheet as at

XIII-Contd

Structure)

Loan Fund

31st March 1965

:

Kwun Tong Reclamation: Cost

Loan Projects:

Housing Loans Educational Loans Medical Loans

Miscellaneous Loans

Fisheries Loans

Investments

Fixed Deposits

ASSETS

:

:

Cash:

214,037.80 $518,919,037.64

Crown Agents (£882.18.2) At Bank

Joint Consolidated Fund (£424,000.0.0)

$518,919,037.64

Fund Account:

Balance as at 1st April 1964 (including proceeds of land sales,

Kwun Tong Reclamation, $75,977,796.15)

$339,906,458.63

10,319,874.38

Proceeds of Land Sales, Kwun Tong Reclamation, 1st April 1964

to 31st March 1965

Revenue Account

168,478,666.83

518,704,999.84

Add:

Appreciation on Investments

293

$401,033,940.25

38,016,644.34 4,627,184.66 12,798,655.82

2,790,308.00

$ 8,291,562.04

459,266,733.07

8,396,474.66

20,000,000.00

Notes: Government holds 6,000 shares in The Hong Kong per share of which $15 per share has been paid up,

Building and Loan Agency Ltd, of a nominal value of $100 as a result of expenditure from the Development Loan Fund.

Summary of Receipts and

Payments for 1964-5

1. Receipts:

Loan repayments

Interest on Loans

Interest on Investments and Balances

Interest on Land sales premia

Land sales premia, Kwun Tong Reclamation

Proceeds of Former Enemy Property

Transfer from Exchange Fund Surplus

LESS

:

2. Payments:

Loans

Interest paid

Kwun Tong Reclamation-expenditure

Realization of Investments

3. Surplus

:

14,126.53 16,166,141.34 6,784,000.00

22,964,267,87

$518,919,037.64

$ 7,535,193.19

15,711,374.79

2,307,996.16

1,346,588.13

10,319,874.38

89.41

150,000,000.00

$187,221,116.06

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

T

:

75,628,179.14

873,264.59

2,324.72

14,117.07

76,517,885.52

$110,703,230.54

294

Appendix

(Chapter 3:

Currency and

Currency in Circulation

XIV

Financial Structure)

Banking Statistics

and Bank Deposits

295

Date

Number of reporting banks

Notes and coins in circulation (HK$ million)

Deposits (HK$ million)

Index of Deposits

31st December 1955-100

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

Total

Demand

Time

Savings

31.12.1955

34

771.7

1,137

852

152

133

100

100

100

100

31.12.1956

34

783.3

1,267

928

173

166

111

109

114

125

31.12.1957

35

812.6

1,412

955

267

190

124

112

176

143

31.12.1958

36

827.6

1,583

988

351

244

139

116

231

183

31.12.1959

41

896.2

2,056

1,205

482

369

181

141

317

277

31.12.1960

47

984.0

2,682

1,393

752

537

236

163

495

404

31.12.1961

59

1,026.7

3,367

1,470

1,234

663

296

173

812

498

31.12.1962

63

1,123.7

4,311

1,664

1,768

879

379

195

1,163

661

31.12.1963

31.12.1964

31.12.1965

:

:

:

5*

67

1,229.8

5,425

1,997

2,283

1,145

477

234

1,502

861

69

1,399.5

6,568

2,237

2,810

1,521

578

263

1,849

1,144

78

1,739.8

7,251

2,532

3,099

1,620

638

297

2,039

1,218

Date

Number of reporting banks

Cash (i.e. legal tender notes and

coins in hand) (HK$ million)

Banking

NET balances with other banks (including Head

Offices or Branches outside Hong Kong)

& other short term claims (HK$ million)

Assets

Index of Loans

Loans and Advances (HK$ million)

Investments (HK$ million)

and Advances 31st December 1955-100

'Liquidity Ratio' (i.e. cash and net balances with other banks expressed as

percentage of total deposits)

31.12.1955

31.12.1956

31.12.1957

31.12.1958

31.12.1959

31.12.1960

:

+3

34

144

12.7%

459

40.4%

632

55.6%

96

96

8.4%

100

53.3%

34

97

7.7%

541

42.7%

769

60.7%

98

7.7%

122

50.4%

35

118

8.4%

578

40.9%

865

61.3%

101

7.2%

137

49.3%

:

36

84

5.3%

730

46.1%

919

58.1%

121

7.6%

145

51.4%

41

86

4.2%

775

37.7%

1,373

66.8%

133

6.5%

217

41.9%

47

136

5.1%

930

34.6%

1,720

64.1%

166

6.2%

272

39.7%

31.12.1961

31.12.1962

31.12.1963

31.12.1964

31.12.1965

59

114

3.4%

1,041

30.9%

2,334

69.3%

232

6.9%

369

34.3%

63

162

3.8%

1,482

34.4%

2,849

66.1%

191

4.4%

451

38.1%

67

210

3.7%

1,831

33.8%

3,642

67.1%

187

3.4%

576

37.5%

69

238

3.6%

1,577

24.0%

4,586

69.8%

271

4.1%

726

27.6%

78

221

3.0%

2,133

29.4%

5,038

69.5%

527

7.3%

797

32.5%

Figures in Italics=

percentage of total deposits.

Note:

The average level of liquidity of all incorporated banks during December 1965, measured in

accordance with the provisions of the Banking Ordinance 1964, amounted to 43.8 of deposit liabilities.

296

297

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

XV

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International

Trade Classification :

1963, 1964 and 1965

1963

Food

Live animals

Meat and meat preparations

Dairy products and eggs

Fish and fish preparations

Fruits and vegetables

$

IMPORTS

1964 $

1965

$

1963 $

EXPORTS 1964 $

1965 $

1963 $

RE-EXPORTS 1964

$

1965

$

314,065,119

377,095,759

442,710,357

570

4,408,440

3,922,600

2,254,576

89,732,917

135,313,655

160,441,915

1,919,513

2,023,536

1,847,225

3,188,018

5,750,739

3,600,627

168,293,125

184,505,366

186,760,009

248,523

216,414

232,366

8,834,516

11,380,120

9,844,883

127,087,028

180,627,518

176,579,884

44,737,916

Cereals and cereal preparations

34,055,905

44,905,498

25,365,535

33,361,306

29,297,017

444,827,997

431,240,932

398,312,162

20,230,033

20,798,018

18,877,833

34,575,599

304,444,372

52,320,972

33,326,714

340,664,539

402,060,834

24,065,207

24,486,974

25,249,698

72,572,815

56,300,267

87,307,653

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

159,992,661

186,648,962

100,195,858

35,855,327

48,940,889

17,552,982

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures

74,094,830

79,186,938

26,148,683

thereof

58,205,705

101,559,553

96,796,313

Feeding stuff for

1,346,980

1,164,860

animals (not including

1,177,688

25,325,027

66,026,010

74,763,528

unmilled cereals)

28,905,501

25,137,297

24,513,498

2,195,843

2,402,593

Miscellaneous food preparations

2,684,960

4,203,157

2,650,339

3,491,160

38,310,521

49,701,221

53,534,612

25,671,470

26,340,656

22,545,770

7,343,742

9,501,044

8,164,983

1,733,864,946

2,012,494,802

2,041,905,442

156,270,812

160,429,845

135,074,590

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

259,911,679

320,400,335

278,199,824

48,573,014

59,768,110

72,002,860

2,341,805

2,437,295

1,981,850

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

6,861,010

122,732,159

129,917,989

5,201,905

5,905,851

139,647,783

57,974,590

56,137,535

64,488,635

5,736,138

5,250,025

6,463,648

171,305,173

189,686,099

211,650,643

60,316,395

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

58,574,830

66,470,485

12,597,148

10,451,930

12,369,499

Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

5,884,571

9,330,836

9,193,072

2,214,889

2,565,159

1,931,676

3,252,253

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

39,204,907

6,806,340

7,779,102

31,124,319

24,697,080

19,587,220

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

32,042,352

15,426,204

24,910,162

34,997,277

24,415,277

22,940

16,500

2,006,365

Wood, lumber and cork

86,572,775

83,033,727

27,214,474

10,031,383

65,029,750

3,920,863

4,460,130

5,315,892

Pulp and waste paper

5,374,727

1,327,295

7,796,174

8,480,651

1,006,101

765,250

1,875,848

3,371,329

5,959,721

1,214,747

Textile fibres and waste

1,340,134

502,776,619

1,729,693

564,436,018

563,307,221

10,651,101

11,458,250

12,024,980

Crude fertilizers and crude minerals, excluding

19,744,978

18,579,091

12,945,102

coal, petroleum and precious stones

12,306,597

14,118,698

17,598,487

1,786,734

1,291,068

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

1,378,547

2,106,199

2,614,343

3,694,317

15,569,082

22,272,153

36,182,792

51,031,205

59,124,498

58,586,855

248,859

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible,

214,430

2,027,563

not elsewhere specified...

124,399,654

146,269,642

182,437,731

13,520,781

20,156,936

23,013,118

73,593,969

820,083,852

906,588,771

923,626,660

85,024,361

102,427,370

108,227,289

127,129,317

80,147,330

160,138,520

84,421,483

156,019,456

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Coal, coke and briquettes

15,716,884

15,298,847

6,900

31,737

Petroleum and petroleum products

Gas, natural and manufactured

261,455,153

245,026,281

273,534,773

1,231,993

2,481,420

11,306

13,527,029

548,033 19,132,005 107,162

364,043

Electric energy

27,847,668 218,014

261,455,153

261,975,158

291,315,040

11,306

6,900

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Animal oils and fats

Fixed vegetable oils and fats

Animal and vegetable oils and fats, processed,

63,434,764

885,460 69,511,256

957,014

62,511,971

4,071,436

and waxes of animal or vegetable origin

1,149,525

1,641,064

80,522 3,771,827

8,806

63,434,764

71,546,241

65,110,049

4,071,436

3,861,155

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

96,563,836

104,302,725

103,380,602

3,734,571

2,866,465

2 Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal,

petroleum and natural gas

31,737

164,192 4,015,178

7,460

4,186,830

3,084,435

13,527,029

19,787,200

28,429,725

16,904,365

29,636 10,889,510

180,200 14,140,018

394,709

344,693

16,904,365

11,313,855

14,664,911

941,786

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

68,480,624

4Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

108,514,610

871,790 81,000,810 105,615,855

1,004,300

15,080,688

14,805

14,546,941

16,998,969

74,339,149

65,619

17,713,095

18,393,761

18,590,596

27,368,111

142,563,323

16,615,756

17,292,671

17,986,474

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet,

93,502,046

30,855,504 70,762,889

33,963,615 112,522,924

polishing and cleansing preparations

55,602,407

66,473,247

72,112,329

5,990,107

6,348,847

7,162,742

11,724,119

Fertilizers, manufactured

28,399,622

2,328,982

2,818,891

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

27,646,773

17,828,297

25,362,014

1,386,845

1,013,464

13,201,879 63,101 16,143,157

15,181,775 8,842

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and

24,043,547

artificial resins

215,074,054

260,444,857

220,641,337

8,032,869

3,967,462

5,358,827

Chemical materials and products, not elsewhere

36,114,202

20,456,502

22,662,529

specified

31,502,190

27,146,724

1,377,390

1,523,417

9,249,931

10,949,662

573,576,939

670,368,753

669,368,669

52,086,398

51,633,441

54,719,955

211,450,744

175,279,904

236,397,482

298

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere

specified, and dressed furs

XV-Contd

and Trade)

Trade Classification :

and Divisions of the Standard International

1963, 1964 and 1965

1963

IMPORTS 1964

$

$

1965 $

1963 $

EXPORTS 1964

1965

1963

RE-EXPORTS 1964

1965

$

$

$

$

$

299

...

29,833,535

32,574,220

26,797,221

1,615,834

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified Wood and cork manufactures (excluding

furniture)

23,835,007

31,881,954

33,069,760

1,183,828

1,562,568 988,035

4,724,427

2,495,340

4,665,252

4,433,554

1,360,653

2,010,291

4,007,338

2,028,562

37,798,722

39,007,790

47,287,455

13,933,577

11,707,401

11,762,962

1,776,420

2,509,687

2,447,708

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related

products

166,855,515

203,989,756

203,319,074

10,095,191

8,705,588

7,875,487

18,075,072

19,439,394

13,982,558

1,141,381,563

1,403,060,637 1,279,688,796

648,329,921

706,738,472

834,485,574

141,355,780

203,886,283

219,740,797

Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not else-

where specified

496,101,568

404,523,260

599,540,609

33,442,170

34,116,427

36,438,655

140,933,528

135,331,153

238,247,643

Iron and steel

260,556,110

308,581,920

348,368,138

29,667,236

31,205,539

40,382,023

7,486,280

13,839,814

16,301,051

Non-ferrous metals

83,945,967

135,972,913

112,459,744

6,019,916

11,241,911

9,606,528

20,304,746

41,046,889

31,153,138

Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified

82,600,495

118,064,829

116,693,401

140,909,531

145,902,491

157,378,185

5,774,923

20,162,353

15,889,793

2,322,908,482

2,677,657,279 2,767,224,198

885,197,204

952,168,432

1,104,014,494

340,212,380

444,888,163

544,224,804

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

344,309,680

424,442,710

468,112,864

20,992,965

24,421,292

27,060,207

23,325,634

31,922,044

34,679,982

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliances

344,602,170

409,349,791

505,408,528

152,654,234

186,305,551

293,244,890

19,498,468

23,439,825

18,146,268

Transport equipment

166,194,442

190,512,569

203,244,243

22,368,526

14,855,417

23,497,156

12,057,822

16,638,942

18,728,770

855,106,292

1,024,305,070 1,176,765,635

196,015,725

225,582,260

343,802,253

54,881,924

72,000,811

71,555,020

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures

and fittings

25,414,324

26,652,384

30,829,335

75,458,846

94,772,491

111,527,217

995,504

1,295,194

Furniture and fixtures

11,109,759

16,098,411

21,458,525

41,401,351

39,806,423

44,908,552

1,429,336

1,083,964

928,923 1,461,681

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

5,971,210

10,561,993

11,896,460

29,136,086

38,715,522

46,471,298

205,607

490,842

703,427

Clothing

116,538,218

179,858,404

218,431,647

1,382,875,445

1,619,692,385

1,772,636,676

12,103,472

Footwear

23,020,032

40,712,936

42,885,929

146,334,064

174,593,580

152,720,401

652,870

21,981,260 1,182,905

28,466,933

1,175,124

Professional, scientific and controlling instru-

ments; photographic and optical goods, watches and clocks

209,546,346

221,201,688

250,133,477

29,511,742

24,224,278

38,571,752

52,172,823

49,560,637

62,692,776

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not else-

where specified

199,158,747

218,318,753

590,758,636

713,404,569

220,787,720

796,423,093

668,549,229

2,373,266,763

864,866,724 1,024,131,224

2,856,671,403 3,190,967,120

40,634,097

48,793,459

51,768,765

108,193,709

124,388,261

147,197,629

Commodities and transactions not classified according

to kind and transactions in gold and coin Commodities and transactions not classified

according to kind

---

19,444,471

Transactions in gold and current coin

245,111,500

22,529,885 156,079,364

21,443,513 309,472,473

18,771,237

16,264,443

19,306,045

Current notes

84,137,772

348,693,743

*

178,609,249

330,915,986

18,771,237

16,264,443

19,306,045

15,386,705 244,565,840 15,281,233

275,233,778

17,302,841 156,829,500

*

13,704,297 298,806,615

*

174,132,341

312,510,912

GRAND TOTAL

7,741,187,980 8,706,635,991

9,274,305,415

3,831,031,637

4,427,620,079

5,026,800,798

1,420,042,073

1,512,781,320

1,801,569,262

*Not classified

in 1964 and 1965.

300

Appendix XVI

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

Imports Exports Re-exports Total trade

1965 1964

Cargo Tonnages

Appendix XVII

1965

$ million

1964

$ million

% increase or decrease

8,965

8,551

5,027

4,428

1,503

1,356

15,495

14,335

+ 5% +14% +11% + 8%

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Commodity Pattern

1965 total value $8,965 million

      Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Food

      Machinery and transport equipment Crude materials, inedible, except fuels Miscellaneous manufactured articles Chemicals

12.1 million tons

11.7 million tons

% of total imports in 1965 31% 23

139

10° 9

1965

1964

0

% increase or decrease

$ million

$ million

Iron and steel

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

2,767

2,678

1,280

1,403

...

600

405

348

309

203

204

117

118

Non-ferrous metals

Food

Live animals, chiefly for food

Fruits and vegetables

Cereals and cereal preparations

112

136

2,042

2,012

443

377

402

341

398

431

Dairy products and eggs

Fish and fish preparations.

Meat and meat preparations

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

Machinery and transport equipment

Electric machinery

Non-electric machinery

Transport equipment

187

185

177

181

160

135

100

187

1,177

1,024

505

409

468

424

203

191

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

924

907

Textile fibres

563

564

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible..

182

146

Wood, lumber and cork

65

83

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

36

22

Miscellaneous manufactured articles ...

796

713

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

250

221

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

221

218

Clothing

218

180

Footwear

43

41

Chemicals

669

670

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

221

260

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

143

106

Chemical elements and compounds

103

104

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

74

81

Essential oil and perfume materials

72

66

+1÷+||| +++│+1+1 +++++1+1++ ++++ 11+11+

3%

9

+ 48 +131

0.3

17%

1%

18°

89

15

+ 23

+10% 7%

+ 2%

0.2

+25°

22%

+ 62%

+ 12%

+ 13%

1% + 21%

+ 5%

0.1%

15

+35°

1

8

Appendix XVIII

(Chapter 4: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1965 total value $8,965 million

% of total imports in 1965

301

By country

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of total imports in

1965

China

26%

British Commonwealth

21%

Japan

17%

Asia

56%

USA

11%

Western Europe (including

United Kingdom)

22%

United Kingdom

11%

North America

12%

Federal Republic of Germany...

3%

1965

1964

% increase

or decrease

$ million

$ million

China

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Live animals, chiefly for food Fruits and vegetables

Clothing

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Fish and fish preparations...

Cereals and cereal preparations

2,322

1,970

+ 18%

420

402

+ 4%

392

308

+ 28%

205

159

+ 29%

139

87

+ 61%

130

94

+ 39%

116

107

+ 9%

108

118

-

8%

Meat and meat preparations

107

80

+ 34%

Dairy products and eggs

99

94

+ 5%

Japan

1,551

1,549

+ 0.1%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

472

541

-

13%

Iron and steel

165

153

+ 8%

Electric machinery

157

155

+ 1%

Non-electric machinery

102

91

+12%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

67

73

9%

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial

resins

65

46

...

...

+ 42%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

61

58

+ 7%

USA

994

983

+ 1%

Textile fibres

115

109

+ 5%

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

92

85

+ 9%

Electric machinery .

88

36

Non-electric machinery

86

98

Fruits and vegetables

73

75

+143%

12% 3%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

66

35

+ 88%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

66

49

+ 33%

United Kingdom

962

838

***

+ 15%

Electric machinery

186

153

+ 22%

Non-electric machinery

139

82

+ 69%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

107

115

8%

Transport equipment

97

90

+ 8%

Federal Republic of Germany

276

Non-electric machinery

Transport equipment

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials Electric machinery .....

25228

247

+ 12%

48

+ 6%

19

+ 32%

17

+ 31%

22

+ 5%

302

303

Commodity Pattern

1965 total value $5,027 million

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Industry

Domestic

XIX

and Trade)

Exports

% of all exports in

% of all

By country

exports in

1965

Principal Markets

1965 total value $5,027 million

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of all

exports in

1965

1965

USA

34%

British Commonwealth

35%

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Electric machinery

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

Footwear

35%

United Kingdom

17%

North America

37%

20%

Federal Republic of Germany

7%

Western Europe (including

17%

Singapore

3%

United Kingdom)

33%

Canada

3%

Asia

14%

6%

...

Australia

3%

Africa

6%

3%

3%

Japan

Thailand Netherlands

3%

2%

2%

1965

1964

% increase

or decrease

1965

1964

% increase

or decrease

$ million $ million

$ million

$ million

USA

1,719

1,227

+ 40%

Clothing

1,773

1,620

+ 9%

...

Clothing

624

432

+ 44°

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers, knit

or made of knitted fabrics

468

337

+ 39%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Electric machinery

599

479

+ 25

181

73

+149

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit

Shirts, other than knitted

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

other than knitted

Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

Gloves and mittens of all materials

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not embroidered,

women's wear

Shirts, knit or made of knitted fabrics

Children's outergarments, other than knitted

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Plastic toys and dolls

Plastic coated rattan articles (not furniture)

Wigs, false beards, hair pads, etc.

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Cotton grey sheeting

Cotton yarn

Cotton towels, not dish towels, not embroidered Cotton grey drills

Cotton poplin and broadcloth, other than grey

Cotton grey twill and sateen

Cotton Shirting, other than grey

Electric machinery

Transistor radio

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

Household utensils of iron and steel, enamelled

Footwear

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles... Plastic footwear

Other

Cigarettes

Electric torches

Iron and steel bars and rounds

Prawns and shrimps, fresh or frozen

264

247

+ 7%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

138

111

+ 24

United Kingdom

861

968

11%

1,024

...

:

ཀླིR ee༅ སྒྱུ སྐêee སྱཱ8ཨིཊvv 8སཽ ཧྲིག ཀྲིན

225

209

+ 8%

82

+ 21%

Clothing

333

447

25%

126

26%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

246

203

+21

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

118

124

5

Footwear

60

86

76

62

+ 23%

30%

75

64

+ 18%

Electric machinery :::

42

50

16%

94

27%

Federal Republic of Germany..

371

294

+ 26%

Clothing

293

241

+21%

865

+ 18%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

20

12

+68

243

+ 32%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

15

14

+ 7%

266

271

78

35

72

2%

+123% +741%

Sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting

fixtures and fittings Footwear

Singapore

143

707

+ 18%

52

44

18 MONACO

+99

+25%

72

29

+ 22%

Canada

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

135

36

+ 22%

34

+ 27%

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

25

+ 64%

186

+ 57%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Australia

134

+ 34%

146

48

+ 8%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s. Clothing

10%

Japan

133

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

175

---

13%

Fish and fish preparations...

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

62

48

+ 7% 30%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Thailand

Iron and steel

62

51

38

32

70825

54

+ 14%

48

+7%

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Netherland

29

+ 29

Clothing

FE GAANO KRAL HANA MENEE 277 17

11

+ 95%

11

152

33

32

27

116

49

39

16

113

59

32

18

40

27

16

15

99

31

86

47

* REAR LOR- godt geard 223 55

+ 24%

6% 18% +10

4

11%

33

16

17% + 15% + 17% 3%

+ 19%

50

+ 19%

20

12

31

+ 24

+ 28

+ 12%

17% +33% + 10

28%

+ 8% 30% + 6%

+ 51% + 55%

24

+ 37%

304

Commodity Pattern

1965 total value $1,503 million

Appendix XX

(Chapter 4: Industry Re-exports

% of all re-exports in

and Trade)

Principal Markets

1965 total value $1,503 million

305

1965

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Food

Chemicals

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels Miscellaneous manufactured articles Machinery and transport equipment

36%

19%

16%

By country

Japan Singapore Indonesia

% of all re-exports in

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of all re-exports in

1965

1965

17%

British Commonwealth

30%

14%

Asia

72%

10%

Western Europe (including

10%

10%

USA

Formosa... Macau

6%

United Kingdom)

11%

5%

North America

7%

5%

4%

Australasia

4%

Malaya

4%

China

4%

1965

1964

% increase or decrease

United Kingdom

3%

$ million $ million

1965

1964

% increase

or decrease

...

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Non-ferrous metals...

Iron and steel

544

445

+ 22%

$ million $ million

238

135

+ 76%

Japan

255

199

+ 28%

220

204

+ 8%

31

41

24%

16

14

+ 18%

Non-metallic mineral manufactures Medicinal and pharmaceutical products Fruits and vegetables

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.

16

20

21%

Singapore

***

Food

278

320

***

- 13%

Fruits and vegetables

87

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

75

Cereals and cereal preparations

33

Fish and fish preparations ...

29

Sugar, sugar preparations and honey

26

Chemicals

236

175

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products ..

113

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

34

Explosives and pyrotechnic products

24

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

23

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

156

160

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

84

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

25

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed Textile fibres

10

13

Miscellaneous manufactured articles ...

147

124

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic and

optical goods, watches and clocks

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s.

Clothing

28

Machinery and transport equipment

Non-electric machinery

Transport equipment

Electric machinery

*** 23

63

52

72

35

19

18

KUNMA BEZ NA 892 2222

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof Fruits and vegetables

56

+ 55%

66

+ 13%

52

36%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

:

33

12%

79

67%

+ 35%

USA

71

+ 59%

31

+ 10%

16

+ 49%

20

+ 11%

3%

80

+ 5%

15

+ 61%

27

63%

...

19

- 30%

+ 18%

Malaya

50

+ 26%

49

+ 6%

22

+ 30%

72

- 0.6%

32

+ 9%

17

+ 13%

23

- 23%

Indonesia

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles Cereals and cereal preparations

Non-metallic mineral manufactures Explosives and pyrotechnic products

Formosa

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products ...

Plastic materials, regenerated cellulose and artificial resins

Macau

***

Petroleum and petroleum products

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Fruits and Vegetables

Cereals and cereal preparations

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

China

...

Textile yarn, fabrics and made-up articles

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

United Kingdom

Non-metallic mineral manufactures

Non-ferrous metals

146

**** *** 2 ** ** H Bonn *0* 2

41

7909 8222

+ 43%

207

- 2 3 4 com tot morn

32

23

206

188

38

32

+ 10% + 73% + 51% + 7%

14

+ 58%

- 30%

91

9%

34

54%

46

+ 85%

33

+ 80% + 63%

+129 +144 +19

111

55

+∞a in∞∞

64

9

4

63

-

5%

6

+ 10%

+ 41%

+ 3%

47

+ 15%

8

+ 93%

9

11%

55

15%

8

+183%

29

62°

+ 26%

+ 23% + 30% + 21% 3%

+ 2% + 16% +71%

1+1

306

Appendix XXI

(Chapter 4: Industry

and Trade)

Direction

of Trade

Exports

for the Colony's exports were as follows:

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past two years:

Domestic

The principal markets during the past two years

307

Re-exports

The principal markets for the Colony's re-exports during the past two years were as follows:

1964

$

1965

$

1964 $

1965

1964

1965

$

$

$

China

Japan

USA

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany...

Thailand

Singapore

Australia...

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

Formosa ...

Italy

Belgium and Luxembourg

Netherlands

Pakistan

Brazil

Canada

South Africa

Indonesia

Israel

France

Tanganyika

Macau

India

49,813,803

South Korea

56,973,253

1,969,979,114 2,321,783,640

1,549,335,852 1,550,862,786

983,014,577 994,323,764

838,275,696 961,612,996

246,783,166 275,634,045

267,389,360 238,739,492

253,979,931 237,737,560

229,482,597 198,855,775

173,827,933 187,631,284

178,466,248 153,924,647

164,915,880 151,846,209

95,312,680 144,925,707

137,076,405 122,672,194

177,360,029 114,860,943

72,926,044 99,636,219

118,502,603 92,217,642

71,617,369 89,057,510

71,325,020 88,999,557

32,694,917 82,156,670

71,538,919 72,854,053

52,091,622 64,722,839

51,005,628 56,658,535

54,081,276

50,326,214

USA

United Kingdom

Federal Republic of Germany... Singapore

Canada

Australia...

Japan

Thailand

Netherlands

Sweden

1,227,243,953 1,718,832,477 968,430,484 860,676,636 294,147,065 370,664,003 151,631,117 142,948,791 115,895,828 135,100,194

112,508,611 133,907,729 118,489,922 132,960,132 91,026,987 98,653,587

57,170,348 86,165,663 77,972,859 84,831,762

Japan

Singapore

Indonesia

USA

Formosa

199,064,565 255,475,605

188,033,815 206,005,726

207,144,243 145,640,156

46,490,854 85,882,234

54,628,535 69,085,199

Macau

64,131,024

65,356,680

Malaysia (Malaya)

63,118,441

59,856,843

China

46,707,913

53,850,002

United Kingdom

55,023,697

46,982,156

Malaysia (Malaya)

108,778,733

82,807,138

Belgium and Luxembourg

19,795,609

46,219,452

Malaysia (Sabah)

New Zealand

South Africa

Nigeria

Italy

58,655,787 72,116,658 58,113,212 71,509,084 56,393,195 70,753,291

Thailand ...

35,793,518

38,983,365

Philippines

40,250,196 37,972,138

Australia...

27,993,530 36,618,993

Indonesia

Denmark and Greenland

Saudi Arabia and Yemen

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

Aden

Philippines Norway

***

Belgium and Luxembourg

US Oceania

Panama

France

Cambodia

Iran

Sweden

Uganda

Other Countries...

Total

52,225,148 46,679,607

40,184,610 45,661,891

41,330,514 36,516,128

28,370,158 26,740,398

474,757,551 403,113,361

8,550,556,627 8,964,832,942

Macau

50,039,771 50,085,507 41,527,219 42,483,062 53,135,804 40,725,098

36,843,703 36,773,408 17,864,480 28,531,237 23,685,211 26,409,909 24,805,511 26,120,555

24,191,368 25,660,954 24,508,745 25,000,327

19,275,242 23,942,462

24,918,274 23,845,682

21,945,260 21,975,211 17,646,710 21,013,041 25,291,280 19,858,308

South Korea

21,701,486 31,865,548

South Vietnam

14,199,163

26,641,962

Israel

9,060,775

24,572,481

Cambodia

22,944,810

23,347,996

Federal Republic of Germany...

8,833,071

20,576,406

Italy

20,969,538

19,447,419

Canada

12,304,880

18,019,532

US Oceania

17,675,513

16,512,717

Malaysia (Sabah)

Pakistan

15,618,679

13,196,226

...

8,595,850

10,325,479

Malaysia (Sarawak)

14,563,943

10,119,324

Switzerland and Liechtenstein...

7,494,037

8,757,650

Venezuela

Nigeria ...

4,104,578

7,898,722

24,236,759

19,848,310

Papua and New Guinea

Kuwait

18,750,440

19,672,430

Netherlands

4,255,607

7,808,218

15,924,600

18,562,053

Other Countries...

466,571,601 494,366,099

Burma

Other Countries...

10,097,153

7,605,755

115,356,797 108,138,663

Total

4,427,620,079 5,026,800,798

Total

:

1,355,951,820 1,502,762,647

308

Countries

New Zealand

India

Canada

Australia

Pakistan

Britain

Ceylon

Appendix XXII

Overseas Representation

Commonwealth Countries

Foreign Countries

Represented by

Commissioner

Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Senior Trade Commissioner

Trade Commissioner

Trade Commissioner

Honorary Trade Commissioner

Countries

Represented by

Netherlands

Consul-General

Norway

Consul-General

Cambodia

Dominican Republic

Consul-General

Consul-General

Italy

Switzerland

Japan

Indonesia

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Peru

Consul-General

Brazil

Consul-General

United Arab Republic and Iraq

Consul-General

Austria

Consul-General

United States of America

Consul-General

Germany

Consul-General

Korea

Consul-General

Panama

Consul-General

Thailand

Consul-General

Philippines

Consul-General

Belgium

Consul-General

Argentina

Consul-General

France

Consul-General

Portugal

Vietnam

Cuba

Consul-General

Consul-General

Consul-General

Uruguay

Consul-General

Venezuela

Consul

Sweden

Laos

Greece

El Salvador

Guatemala

Burma

Consul

Consul

Finland

Nicaragua

Israel

Denmark

Bolivia

Honduras

Monaco

Ecuador

Lebanon

Spain

Republic of South Africa

Honorary Consul-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Vice-Consul Trade Commissioner

Note 1 The consular representatives of Finland, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident

in London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong.

Note 2 In addition, Austria, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

Appendix XXIII

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Marketing Organization Statistics

Fisheries Products sold through Wholesale Markets Quantities and Values

309

Piculs

Tons

Value $

854,340

50,854

65,125,145

939,179

55,904

66,154,395

965,279

57,457

64,895,976

859,203

51,143

58,441,541

889,099

53,085

63,422,927

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Fresh Fish

Salt/Dried Fish

$0.78

$0.52

.69

.62

.67

.59

.67

.76

.70

.85

Vegetables sold through Marketing Organization

Locally-produced

Piculs

Tons

Value $

1961

1,540,101

91,673

39,928,132

1962

1,589,320

94,602

34,834,157

1963

1,458,134

86,794

32,406,615

1964

1,169,834

69,633

30,667,851

1965

1,220,965

72,676

34,454,322

Imported

1961

120,499

7,172

2,057,876

1962

158,354

9,426

2,577,997

1963

165,454

9,848

3,114,946

1964

216,556

12,890

4,894,974

1965

253,743

15,104

5,414,239

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

Locally Produced

Imported

1961 1962

$0.26

$0.17

.22

.16

1963

.22

.19

1964

...

.26

.22

1965

.28

.21

310

Appendix XXIV

(Chapter 5: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

as at 31st December 1965

Type of Society

Member-

No

Paid-up share

Loans

Loans*

Reserve

ship

capital

granted

repaid

Deposits

Fund

$

$

$

$

$

Agricultural Credit

13

409

20,460

113,647 104,951

14,166 14,662

Apartment Owners'

1

79

3,950

Better Living ...

15

945 19,660

Building

207

4,162

1,303,700

10,000 14,020

5,145,901† 4,007,493

40,433 5,769

274,170

Credit & Consumers...

9

2,203

15,725

70,757

Federations

6

122 12,750

95,100

38,752

49,476

Fish Pond

1

118

590

2,000

Fishermen's Credit &

Housing

2

104

540

50,123

59,193

44,052

3,634

Fishermen's Credit &

Marketing

2

28

300

Fishermen's Credit

54

1,494

26,710

104,392

3,157,933

25,392 17,091 7,921

2,648,696 1,170,129 104,877

Fishermen's Thrift &

Loan

5

159

Irrigation

2

124

Pig Raising

43

1,977

2,165

1,255

113,985

152,731

194,933

101,611 13,873

1,030,248

1,004,032 59,466 93,892

Salaried Workers'

7

873

Thrift & Loan

Vegetable Marketing... 29

Total ...

396 22,196 1,633,123 10,873,877 9,200,646 1,709,731 850,671

6,243 357,544

9,399 105,090 656,258

362,425 141,163 37,299

738,759 121,620 174,341

*Including repayment of loans issued during previous years.

† Loans made by Treasury direct.

Appendix XXV

Production of Minerals 1965

Mineral

Feldspar

Iron ore 56% Fe ...

Kaolin

Quartz

Wolframite 65% WO3

::

Production in long tons

Value in $

1,119.39

131,954.81

39,179

5,937,967

4,711.67

654,922

1,908.51

34,353

5.76

66,793

Government

Grant

Appendix XXVI

(Chapter 6: Education)

Categories of Schools

Number of Schools

Total Enrolment

(As at September 1965) (As at September 1965)

311

Number of Teachers (As at March 1965)

4,906

129

131,170

22

20,721

856

Subsidized

559

294,669

8,264

Private

1,559

463,543

16,345

Special Afternoon

Classes

3,171

194

Special Education

12

1,037

129

2,281

914,311

30,694

Kindergarten

Primary ...

Secondary

Post-Secondary

Adult Education

Special Education

Enrolments

(Figures are shown as at 30th September 1965, with the previous year's figures in brackets)

:

:

Enrolment

46,595

( 39,642)

627,621

(596,971)

197,237

(177,680)

6,693

(5,926)

35,128

( 32,969)

1,037

(1,091)

914,311 (854,279)

Number of Schools and

Extensions

Primary

New Buildings, Classrooms and Places

1st October 1964- 30th September 1965

Increase in Number of Places

Secondary

Increase in Number

of Classrooms

Secondary

Primary

Government

4

57

44

5,130

1,720

Aided

53

389

107

25,200

4,280

Private

16

293

172

16,065

6,680

73

739

323

46,395

12,680

312

Appendix XXVII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Educational Statistics

Overseas Examinations 1965

Examinations

Number of Entries

1963

1964

1965

General Certificate of Education Examination (June) London Chamber of Commerce Examinations Pitman's Shorthand Examinations...

4,935

5,825

6,546

4,103

4,425

5,167

435

434

505

Pitman's Typewriting (Intermediate) Examination University of London External Degree Examinations Institute of Book-keepers Examination

23

21

32

49

63

89

...

80

58

20*

Chartered Institute of Secretaries Examination

72

96

43*

Association of International Accountants Examination

225

271

154*

Association of Certified & Corporate Accountants Examination

122

103

72*

Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers Examination...

6

12

Institute of Fire Engineers Examination

40

51

40

Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English Examination

45

54

36*

Cambridge Lower Certificate in English Examination

57

61

20*

College of Preceptors Examination

3

8

6

Gemmological Association Examination

3

3

British Institute of Management Examination

1

2

British Federation of Master Printers Examination

12

8

Society of Engineers (Graduateship) Examination

2

6

London School of Economics Examination

1

National Gregg Shorthand Examination ...

53

7

021351 |

British Association of Accountants & Auditors Examination Institute of Export Examination

1

2

1

1

       Swinburne Technical College Diploma Examination University of Melbourne Matriculation English Examination Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Examination

1

1

2

3

1

1

Total

10,271

11,517

12,746*

* As at 30th September 1965.

New Awards made by Government during 1965

Number

Total Value

Type

Tenable at

Awarded ($ per annum)

University of Hong Kong

20

41,900

Government Scholarships

Chinese University of Hong Kong

17

29,600

University of Hong Kong

78

Government Bursaries

{Chinese University of Hong Kong

218,850

50

81,300

Government Teaching

University of Hong Kong

5

7,500

Bursaries for Diploma in Education Course

Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools

345

159,900

Maintenance Grants

Interest-free Loans

Teacher Training Colleges

557

507,330

Teacher Training Colleges

706

847,200

Total

1,778 1,893,580

Note: In addition to the above, recurrent awards totalling approximately $950,000 were

granted by Government during 1965, making a total of over $2,840,000.

313

Appendix XXVIII

(Chapter 6: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Further Studies in the United Kingdom in September 1965

Number of Hong Kong students arriving in the United Kingdom:

1960-1

1961-2

1962-3

1963-4

1964-5

:

:

:

:

434

479

568

750

889

Distribution by courses of Hong Kong students in the United Kingdom:

}

Arts

Architecture

Education

Economics

Course

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Total

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Commerce

Engineering Accountancy Dentistry. Medicine

GCE

Law

Science

Textiles

Secretarial

Social Science

Meteorology

Music

Nursing Others

Schoolchildren

Total

September 1964

September

1965

26

31

43

35

33

48

13

20

25

28

237

327

25

38

4

1

113

160

357

559

100

126

80

84

9

9

35

49

10

12

3

31

34

417

522

302

236

1,863

2,319

398

561

2,261

2,880

:

:

:

:

:..

:

:

:

:

:

:

314

Appendix XXIX

(Chapter 6: Education)

Actual Expenditure on Education

1st August 1964-31st July 1965

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal Emoluments

(2) Other Charges

...

(3) Maintenance and Repairs of School Buildings (Public Works Department)

Total $

$ 62,449,384

9,470,151

1,350,600

73,270,135

(B) Capital Expenditure:

(1) Equipment and Furniture for

Government Schools and Headquarters $

178,114

(2) New School Buildings, including

Furniture and Equipment (Public Works Department)

5,047,236

5,225,350

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(D) Grants to University of Hong Kong:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(E) Grants to Chinese University of Hong Kong:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

$106,119,739

7,777,559 113,897,298 ·

...

$ 13,455,816

4,589,798 18,045,614

$ 13,552,721

3,169,523

16,722,244

$227,160,641

(F) Expenditure by other Departments:

(1) Medical and Health Department

(2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(3) Agriculture and Fisheries Department ...

$ 1,793,544

299,612

218,381

$ 2,311,537

Appendix XXX

(Chapter 7: Health)

Vital Statistics-Hong Kong

1956-1965

315

BIRTHS

DEATHS

Crude

live

Crude Infant death mortality

Neo-natal Maternal mortality mortality

Estimated

Regis-

birth

Regis-

rate

rate

rate

tered

Year

mid-year population

rate

tered

(per (per 1,000

(per 1,000

live

births

(per 1,000

deaths

1,000

live

live

popula-

popula-

births)

births)

rate (per 1,000 total births)

tion)

tion)

1956

2,440,000

96,746 39.7

19,295

7.9

60.9

24.2

0.90

1957

2,583,000

97,834

37.9

19,365

7.5

55.6

23.8

1.06

1958

2,748,000 106,624 38.8

20,554

7.5

54.3

23.4

0.85

1959

2,857,000 104,579 36.6

20,250

7.1

48.3

21.3

0.73

1960

2,981,000

110,667 37.1

19,146

6.4

41.5

20.9

0.49

1961

3,177,700

108,726 34.2

18,738

5.9

37.7

21.0

0.45

1962

3,400,300

111,905 32.8

20,324

5.9

36.9

21.2

0.48

1963

3,592,100

115,263

32.1 19,748

5.5

32.9

18.9

0.29

1964

3,692,200

108,519 29.4 18,113

4.9

26.4

16.6

0.38

1965

3,804,300

102,195 27.0 17,621

4.7

23.7

15.2

0.33

Tuberculosis Statistics

TB death

Estimated

Year

mid-year population

rate (per 100,000 population)

% TB deaths

under 5

years

% TB deaths of total deaths

Total number of TB beds

Under treatment Government

clinics

1954

2,277,000

126.3

31.2

14.9

971

3,624

1964

3,692,200

39.03

4.09

7.9

1,728

24,606

1965

3,804,300

33.59

3.36

7.25

1,860

24,111

316

Appendix XXXI

(Chapter 7: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths 1961-1965

1961

1962

1963

1964

Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

Cases Deaths

1965 Cases Deaths

130

15

11

1

115

4

34

4

Cholera

Amoebic

dysentery

215

12

195

9

241

12

209

21

173

16

Bacillary

dysentery

(including

unspecified

dysentery)

742

8

795

13

802

3

680

8

537

4

Cerebro-spinal

meningitis

36

26

50

35

50

24

24

38

19

19

9

Chickenpox

498

7

707

5

1,199

3

718

1

1,552

Diphtheria

-

1,334

109

1,022

102

871

888

86

699

38

581

37

Enteric fever

(typhoid and

para-typhoid)

742

24

826

21

1,038

28

882

20

20

658

14

*Leprosy

102

Malaria

812

1

794

377

1

180

1

143

1

Measles

1,727 435

2,317 326

3,416 405 1,218

73

5,459

217

Ophthalmia

neonatorum

250

310

240

232

215

I

Poliomyelitis

184

39

363

52

32

53

4

37

3

140

17

Puerperal fever

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

3

2

29

19

Scarlet fever

12,584 1,907 14,263 1,881 13,031 1,762 12,557 1,441

18

1

12

12

9,927 1,278

Tuberculosis

Typhus (mite-

borne)

1

1

4

2

Whooping

cough

47

1

98

www.cam

61

106

339

Total ...

19,333

2,586 21,773 2,447 21,515 2,334 17,603 1,630 19,862 1,595

*Influenza

6,223 39 6,374

39 4,433 22 2,473 16

896

21

Remarks: * Notifiable since June 1965.

† Voluntary notifications.

The above table omits rabies, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the year.

317

Appendix XXXII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong

Institutions

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

Queen Mary

A. Hospitals

Queen Elizabeth

Kowloon

Castle Peak ..

-1965

Kong-

Number of Hospital beds

632 1,388

500

1,119

Yuen Long

Sai Ying Pun

Tsan Yuk

Lai Chi Kok

Wan Chai

St John

South Lantau

4 Prison Hospitals

B. Dispensaries

Aberdeen

Eastern

Anne Black

Kennedy Town

Shau Kei Wan Stanley

Hung Hom

Kwun Tong Health Centre Li Po Chun Health Centre Robert Black Health Centre Wang Tau Hom

Tai Po

Sha Tau Kok

88

200

492

30

100

15

205

4,769

27

24

11

5

26

6

14

20

26

26

24

27

7

7

Shek Wu Hui

29

     Ho Tung Sai Kung

Tai O

San Hui

13

7

19

8

Sha Tin

Silver Mine Bay

North Lamma

24

6

Kwong Wah

Ruttonjee Sanatorium

Maurine Grantham

Peng Chau

Kam Tin

GOVERNMENT-ASSISTED HOSPITALS

Tung Wah

Tung Wah Eastern

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Grantham

26

6

7

7

402

853(a)

338

1,850(b)

305

360

621

Pok Oi

118

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium

540

Haven of Hope TB Sanatorium

240

Sandy Bay Convalescent Home

100

Maryknoll Mission

80

Hong Kong Society of Rehabilitation Medical Rehabilitation Centre... Caritas Medical Centre

80

490

5,975

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

316

Precious Blood

106

St Teresa's

275

Canossa

200

St Paul's

190

Fanling

Hong Kong Central

Matilda and War Memorial

Children's Convalescent Home, Cheung Chau

Baptist Hospital

Evangel Medical Centre

Adventist Sanatorium

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

120

52

54

30

52

50

66

1,511

449

PRIVATE NURSING HOMES

GRAND TOTAL

(a) Including 180 beds in Sandy Bay Infirmary. (b) Including 350 beds in Wong Tai Sin Infirmary.

70 13,176

318

Appendix XXXIII

(Chapter 7: Health)

Professional Medical Personnel

Registered Medical Practitioners (including 346 Government Medical Officers) Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

Government Medical Officers (including 34 seconded to Tung Wah Group, etc)

1,391

110

527

Registered Dentists

--

430

Government Pharmacists

---

Government Dental Surgeons

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

56

119

23

1,795

Government Nurses

...

1,167

Registered Male Nurses (excluding Government Male Nurses)

25

Government Male Nurses

154

+

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) ..

1,614

Government Midwives

Government Male Nurses (Psychiatric)

Government Female Nurses (Psychiatric)

180

63

32

Students or Probationers in Training

as at 31st December 1965

Length 1st

of Course Year

Number who

2nd 3rd 4th year year year

5th

year

successfully completed

training during year

Probationer Assistant

(Diagnostic)

4

00

8

Radiographer

(Therapy)

4

3 4

7

6

4

12

3

2

Probationer Assistant Physiotherapist

4

10

-

Student Dispenser

4

11

12

21

3

-

2

50 50 2

Student Laboratory Assistant

4

3

4

Student Medical Laboratory Technician

4

16

14

Student Male Nurse

4

18

34 30 10

10

Student Nurse

4

112

172

159 116

93

Student Male Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

9

13

20

12

Student Nurse (Psychiatry)

3

4

5

9

6

Student Midwife (Registered Nurse)

1

94

99

Student Midwife (Non-Registered Nurse)

2

30

25

30

Student Health Visitor

10

11

Anti-Tuberculosis Worker

1

7

7

Medical Social Worker

1

14

2

Student Assistant Orthopaedic Appliance

Technician

2

1

A. Population

Appendix XXXIV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Resettlement Estate Statistics

Cottage Areas (one storey

319

1st January 1965 31st December 1965

buildings)...

74,734

74,928

Multi-storey Estates (6- 7- and

8-storey buildings)

626,865

740,165

701,599

815,093

B. Premises of various types on 31st December 1965

(The numbers on 31st December 1964 are shown in brackets)

Domestic cottages and huts

Cottage Areas Multi-storey Estates

11,650 (12,420)

Self-contained flats...

End bay flats

Domestic rooms

Shops of various kinds

Restaurants (general and light

refreshment)

Workshops

Factories

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Schools

Clinics and Welfare Centres

469 ( 469)

2,293 (2,293)

131,966 (115,203)

354 (361)

5,634 ( 4,547)

6 (

6)

465 (

395)

59 (

57)

1,222 ( 1,085)

26 (

31)

1,299 ( 981)

34 (

33)

239 (

226)

40 (

39)

166 (

141)

320

Appendix XXXV

(Chapter 8: Land and Housing)

Housing Provided in 1965

Private, in categories of rated dwellings

tenement floors

flats and units

14,145

5,842

Government quarters

Government low-cost housing

Resettlement (53 new blocks) Co-operative societies

Housing Society

Housing Authority

...

:

Domestic accommodation

:

:

1,028 units

2,617 flats

16,763 units

304 flats

4,925 flats

862 flats

Premiums received on sales of Crown Land from 1851 to 1964-5

      The system of disposing of leasehold land by public auction for a premium began in 1851 in accordance with the Secretary of State's Despatch No 222 of 2nd January 1851. Where premiums are payable by instalments, only the amounts actually received have been included in the annual totals.

Period

1851 - 1860

1861 - 1870

1871 - 1880

***

1881 - 1890

1891

1900

...

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

1901 - 1910

1911 - 1920

-

1921 - 1930

...

...

1931 - 1941 (25.12.41) 1946-7 1955-6 (10 years)

1956-7 - 1960-1 (5 years)

1961

1962 (1 year)

1962 1963 (1 year)

1963

1964

-

- 1964 (1 year) - 1965 (1 year)

...

...

...

Grand Total ...

:

Total

$

262,839.00

477,908.14

125,097.53

856,160.12

2,501,053.65 2,839,324.49

2,715,724.38

17,053,140.35

12,936,727.68

67,617,711.64

177,375,655.35

107,225,301.38

:

234,402,780.18

207,157,985.13 143,295,983.24

$976,843,392.26

Appendix XXXVI

(Chapter 10: Public Order)

Traffic

Comparative figures for the last six years are as below:

Accidents

Fatal

Serious injury

Slight injury ...

Damage only

Total

:

:

:

:

321

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

183

207

270

265

263

268

1,709 1,820 2,238

2,248 2,581

2,624

5,201 5,215 5,782 6,437

6,348

5,975

7,605

7,664 7,587 5,264

2,626 2,331

14,698

14,906

15,877 14,214 11,818

11,198

Numbers of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964 1965

Number of registered vehicles

47,232 54,152 61,482 71,415 83,091 89,617*

Number of licensed drivers

118,310 120,418 130,512 144,667 160,152 176,340

Provisional (Learner) licences issued

20,375 26,344 20,848 24,310 38,810 31,393

Driving tests conducted

73,621 59,509 75,404 67,369 97,088 110,594+

* This number does not include 806 rickshaws, and 734 pedal tricycles.

† This number includes written test, the number of practical tests conducted is 66,459.

322

Appendix

XXXVII

(Chapter 10:

Public Order)

Serious Crime & Narcotics

Offences in 1965

323

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Reported

Prosecuted

Crime

1965

1964

1965

Crime

Under

16 years

16 years

and over

Against Public Order

Perjury

Escape and Rescue

Unlawful Society

Other Offences against Lawful

Authority

224

228

:

22029

24

69

40

པལྱཡ༔ སཾ

25

14

121

132

4

203

Forgery and Coinage

Bribery and Corruption

52

4

45

Conspiracy

246

224

Other Serious Crime ...

24

35

Total

Total

585

479

25

628

Serious Narcotics Offences

***

Abortion

Rape and Indecent Assault

Other Sexual Offences ...

Total

Murder and Manslaughter

Attempted Murder

Serious Assaults

Kidnapping

Criminal Intimidation ...

Other Offences against the Person

233

163

17

80

Grand Total

Number of Cases

Number of Persons

Reported

Prosecuted

1965

1964

Under

16 years

16 years

and over

425

156

1

84

32

27

31

Possession of Arms and Ammunition

24

1

18

13

67

Breach of Deportation

23

58

21

315

2

110

748

593

6

331

298

395

6

329

20,007 16,112

1,644

7,947

1965

222222

109

95

55

(Percentages of Serious Crime detected: 1964-68.1%; 1965-72.0%).

:

:

342

258

17

135

NARCOTICS OFFENCES

33

42

1223

26

5

7

1

*Manufacturing Dangerous Drugs

3

5

8

905

941

74

743

*Importing Dangerous Drugs

16

38

11

3

1

*Dealing in Dangerous Drugs

245

267

6

268

2

2

4

*Possession of Large Quantities of

Dangerous Drugs

34

85

42

:

15

27

12

102

112

-

19

Opium

Possession of Opium ...

1,599

1,277

895

Total

:

1,069

1,134

76

806

Possession of Equipment

517

344

101

Keeping a divan

99

125

94

Robbery with Firearms

Smoking Opium

2,930

3,878

2,731

Other Robberies

380

230

98

194

Other Opium Offences

25

12

1

Demanding with Menaces

287

177

30

78

Heroin

Burglary and Breaking Offences

1,158

1,040

36

361

Possession of Heroin ...

8,245

8,998

16

6,599

Larceny from Person

1,388

944

136

544

Possession of Equipment

173

116

38

Other Larcenies

10,169

8,303

1,101

2,779

Keeping a divan

3

11

3

Embezzlement and Fraudulent

Smoking Heroin

2,241

2,094

Conversion

552

259

5

75

Other Heroin offences

32

44

2,041

7

Fraud and False Pretences

828

588

6

245

Receiving Stolen Property

113

121

20

54

Other Dangerous Drugs

Possession

2,162

2,856

Malicious Injuries to Property

207

252

20

117

Smoking

10

9

208 8

Unlawful Possession

305

388

26

242

Other Offences

7

2

Possession of Unlawful Instrument

548

338

17

88

Loitering and Trespass

1,030

613

19

941

Total

18,341

20,161

24 13,055

Total

16,965 13,253 1,514

5,718

* These offences are classified as Serious Crime and are therefore also shown under Serious

Narcotics Offences.

324

Vessels entered Tonnage entered Passengers landed Cargo tons landed

Vessels cleared

Tonnage cleared

Passengers embarked

Cargo tons loaded

Marine

Ocean-

325

Appendix

(Chapter 13: Communication

for the year ending

XXXVIII

Communications) Statistics

31st December 1965

Passenger Journeys by Public Transport: Annual

Traffics by Undertakings (Millions)

River

Junks

Mechanized vessels under

going

steamers

60 tons

6,385

20,268,277 33,038 7,079,736

8,588 2,950,710

12,557 2,000,933

5,534 300,499

1959

1960

1961

1,152,799

1962

6,376 20,150,358

6,193 8,600

34,995* 2,268,791

2,955,472 1,145,360 9,857

1,734,117 15,556 2,007,142

203,088

1963

5,546 301,148

1964

1965

Total KMB 721.334 322.077 809.448 380.712 106.288 175.332 101.984 890.709 435.515 120.120 180.585 106.765 974.770 481.569 134.196 189.000 117.228 1,032.576 515.172 143.026 190.920 126.990 1,090.197 546.579 158.209 182.454 144.611 1,162.712 593.223 169,256 181.767 155.499

CMB 87.180

HKT 172.763

HYF

SFC

KCR

97.186

37.041

5.087

39.384

5.748

41.864

5.860

46.630

6.147

49.196

7.272

50.462

7.882

54.491

8.476

151,104

2,983

Annual Traffics by Geographical Areas (Millions)

* Includes 2,976 Emigrants.

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section

Length of line

Passengers carried

Passenger kilometres

Freight carried (metric tons)

Total revenue

Net operating revenue

Capital expenditure

Main line 22 miles

Total length of line-35 miles

1965

9,345,625

181,524,838

$14,906,496.85

$ 7,261,482.96

1964 8,758,494 168,374,329

670,441.89 $12,656,128.80

Passenger Aircraft

Passengers

Freight (kilos)

Mail (kilos)

$

Air Traffic

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

Urban

HK Total

Area Island 721.334 689.944 259.943 298.352 131.649 31.390 809.448 772.756 281.620 353.155 137.981 36.692 890.709 840,066 300.705 394.500 144.861 50.643 974.770 913.101 323.196 430.678 159.227 61.669 1,032.576 961.483 333.946 456.698 170.839 71.093 1,090.197 1,007.697 340.663 478.123 188.911 82.500 1,162.712 1,072.987 351.023 518.926 203.038 89.725

Kowloon

Cross New Harbour Territories

Annual Traffics by Geographical Areas

869,958.70

(Index Numbers: Base 1959-100)

Urban

HK

$ 5,436,669.84

Total

Kowloon

Area

Island

Cross

New Harbour Territories

900,785.79

$ 1,159,228.53

1959

100

100

100

100

100

100

1960

112

112

108

118

105

117

1961

123

122

116

132

110

161

1962

135

132

124

144

121

196

1963

143

139

128

153

130

226

In

10,047 449,117 3,847,381 941,760

Out

1964

151

146

131

160

144

263

10,048 445,125 10,411,108

1965

161

156

135

174

154

286

Postal Traffic

1,285,664

Number of post offices

Total revenue

...

Value of remittance business (money orders and postal orders issued

and paid)

Wireless licences issued

Tons of mail despatched by air

Bags conveyed by Kowloon-Canton Railway

1964

1965

40

44

$78 m

$84 m

$53 m

$59 m

142,181

162,878

1,131 485,335

1,250

490,068

Vehicles

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on the 31st December 1965 was 89,617. This represented an overall increase of 7,929 over 1964. There is now a density of 158.6 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Private cars (including 29 on Lantau Island) ..

Motor cycles (including scooters and four on Lantau Island)

Taxis

Buses

Goods vehicles (including 74 on Lantau Island)

Dual purpose vehicles (Private car/Goods vehicle) Public cars

Crown vehicles

Rickshaws

Tricycles

Trailers

Total

:

54,272

Telegraph and Radio Traffic

9,771

2,526

Telegrams accepted for transmission

1964 1,206,520

1965

1,202,138

1,572

Telegrams delivered

1,455,416

1,454,930

15,035

Telegrams handled in transit

739,108

760,738

1,756

Telex calls-Outward minutes

Telex calls-Inward minutes

366,256

427,391

411,805

497,805

883

Telex calls-Relayed minutes

74,441

132,305

2,199

Overseas Radiotelephone calls--Outward minutes

626,056

935,654

806

Overseas Radiotelephone calls-Inward minutes

825,337

1,111,207

Radio Pictures-Transmitted

169

139

734

Radio Pictures-Received

8,660

14,852

53

Harbourphone calls

416,161

517,348

Press Broadcasts and Reception Services-Number of hours

31,842

34,647

89,617

Meteorological Broadcasts and Reception Services-Number of hours Inland Telegrams

78,560

79,917

6,444

7,144

326

Appendix XXXIX

(Chapter 14: Press, Broadcasting and Cinema) Leading Newspapers and Magazines

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Daily

South China Morning Post

Monthly

Trade Bulletin

Hong Kong Tiger Standard

(including Sundays)

China Mail

The Star

(including Sundays)

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Far Eastern Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

Asia Magazine

Far East Architect and Builder Far East Engineering and

Equipment News

Far East Medical Journal Asian Industry

Young Hong Kong

CHINESE LANGUAGE

Daily (Morning Papers)

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

Alternate Days

Tien Wen Tai

(Observatory Review)

Fai Po (Express)

Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao (Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Po

Chiu Yin Pao

Sin Sang Yat Po (Gentlemen Daily News)

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Ching Po Daily

Tin Tin Yat Po

Ming Tang Yat Po

Ming Pao

Hong Kong Daily News Wah Sing Pao

Universal Daily News

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao (New Evening Post)

Chun Pao (Truth Daily)

New Life Evening Post

Seng Weng Evening News

Cheng Wu Pao

Hong Kong Evening News

Nam Wah Man Pao

World Evening Express

Weekly

Kung Kao Pao

Tung Fung (East Pictorial) Châu Mut Pao

(Week-end News) Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom) Chinese Student Weekly Economic Bulletin Asia Weekly

Every 10 days

Kar Ting Sang Wood

(Home Life Journal)

Fortnightly

Children's Paradise

Monthly

Cosmorama Magazine Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial) Sing Tao Pictorial

Woman Today

327

Appendix XL

(Chapter 18: Geography and Climate)

Comparison of the Rainfall associated with the 15 Wettest Storms in Hong Kong

Period 'A'

while the storm

was within 300 miles of

Hong Kong

Rainfall during Period 'A' and

three days after 'Á'

Name of Storm

Rainfall during Period 'A'

Rainfall during Period 'A' and one day after 'A'

mm

inches

mm

inches

mm

inches

Nil

Nil

21.5

0.85

353.0

13.90

11th-12th

May 1891

1st-3rd

302.1

11.89

321.4

12.65

327.0

12.87

October 1893

3rd-6th

428.4

16.87

428.7

16.88

428.7

16.88

October 1894

23rd-29th

446.5

17.58

446.5

17.58

473.2

18.63

August 1904

18th-20th

320.7

12.63

323.1

12.72

324.1

12.76

October 1909

27th-30th

187.0

7.36

393.0

15.47

419.1

16.50

June 1910

1st-3rd

494.9

19.48

522.8 20.58 562.0

22.13

June 1916

18th-20th

320.9

12.63

327.0

12.87 328.7

12.94

July 1920

26th-28th

99.6

3.92

289.7

11.41

405.7

15.97

August 1923

16th-18th

34.8

1.37

568.8 22.39

597.0

23.50

July 1926

10th-15th

300.6

11.83

305.9

12.04

306.1

12.05

June 1952

12th-15th

282.2

11.11

320.0

12.60

415.2

16.35

September 1952

5th-9th

Mary

427.3

16.82 427.5

16.83

430.1

16.93

June 1960

10th-13th

Dot

331.5

13.05

331.6

13.06

331.6

13.06

October 1964

25th-27th

Agnes

397.5

15.65

413.5

16.28

527.4

20.76

September 1965

328

Type of appointment

Ex officio

Appendix XLI

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Executive Council

Names of members

Remarks

on 1st January 1966

Type of appointment

Names of members

Remarks

on 1st January 1966

329

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency Lieutenant-General

Sir Denis Stuart Scott O'CONNOR, KBE, CB

(Commander British Forces)

Brigadier Thomas HADDON, CBE, Senior Military Officer, appointed during the absence of the Commander British Forces from 20th to 23rd January and from 5th to 10th April 1965.

Brigadier Peter Chambre HINDE, DSO, Senior Military Officer, appointed during the absence of the Commander British Forces from 20th August to 20th September 1965.

The Honourable Michael David Irving Mr Edmund Brinsley TEESDALE, CMG,

GASS, CMG

(Colonial Secretary)

The Honourable Maurice HEENAN,

CMG, QC

(Attorney General)

The Honourable John Crichton

MCDOUALL, CMG

(Secretary for Chinese Affairs)

The Honourable John James

COWPERTHWAITE, CMG, OBE (Financial Secretary)

MC relinquished the appointment of Colonial Secretary on 29th March 1965, on proceeding on leave prior to retirement.

Mr M. D. I. GASS, CMG, appointed Colonial Secretary with effect from 2nd September and assumed office on 4th September 1965.

Mr Geoffrey Cadzow

HAMILTON,

appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 29th March to 3rd September 1965.

Mr Denys Tudor Emil Roberts, OBE, QC, appointed to act as Attorney General from 21st August to 4th September 1965.

Mr David Whinfield Barclay BARON, appointed to act as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 15th July to 25th August 1965.

Nominated

"

""

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:-Contd

The Honourable David Ronald

HOLMES, CBE, MC, ED (Director of Commerce and Industry)

Succeeded Mr Patrick Cardinall Mason SEDGWICK, CMG on 1st July 1965.

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Dr the Honourable Alberto Maria

RODRIGUES, CBE, ED

The Honourable Richard Charles LEE,

CBE

The Honourable KWAN Cho-yiu, CBE

The Honourable John Douglas

CLAGUE, CBE, MC, TD

The Honourable FUNG Ping-fan, CBE

Mr Dhun Jehangir RUTTONJEE, CBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Dr RODRIGUES from 22nd May to 1st August 1965.

Mr KAN Yuet-keung, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr LEE from 13th May to 12th June 1965.

Mr KAN Yuet-keung, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr KWAN from 21st July to 15th August 1965.

Mr George Ronald Ross, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 10th July to 22nd September 1965.

The Honourable Sidney Samuel

GORDON, OBE

Succeeded Mr William Charles Goddard

KNOWLES, CBE, on 1st July 1965.

Mr John Anthony Holt SAUNDERS, DSO, MC, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr GORDON from 1st to 30th July 1965.

330

Type of appointment

Appendix

(Chapter 22: Constitution

Legislative

XLII

and Administration)

Council

Names of members

Remarks

on 1st January 1966

PRESIDENT:

Ex officio

**

""

"

Nominated

""

His Excellency the Governor,

Sir David Clive Crosbie TRENCH, KCMG, MC

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency Lieutenant-General

Sir Denis Stuart Scott O'CONNOR, KBE, CB

(Commander British Forces)

The Honourable Michael David

Irving GASS, CMG (Colonial Secretary)

The Honourable Maurice HEENAN,

CMG, QC

(Attorney General)

The Honourable John Crichton

MCDOUALL, CMG

(Secretary for Chinese Affairs)

The Honourable John James

COWPERTHWAITE, CMG, OBE (Financial Secretary)

The Honourable Kenneth Strathmore

KINGHORN

(Director of Urban Services)

The Honourable Alec Michael John

WRIGHT

(Director of Public Works)

Dr the Honourable TENG Pin-hui, OBE

(Director of Medical and Health

Services)

Brigadier Thomas HADDON, CBE, Senior Military Officer, appointed during the absence of the Commander British Forces from 20th to 23rd January and from 5th to 10th April 1965.

Brigadier Peter Chambre HINDE, DSO, Senior Military Officer, appointed during the absence of the Commander British Forces from 20th August to 20th September 1965.

Mr Edmund Brinsley TEESDALE, CMG,

MC relinquished the appointment of Colonial Secretary on 29th March 1965, on proceeding on leave prior to retirement.

Mr M. D. I. GASS, CMG, appointed Colonial Secretary with effect from 2nd September and assumed office on 4th September 1965.

Mr Geoffrey Cadzow HAMILTON, appointed to act as Colonial Secretary from 29th March to 3rd September 1965.

Mr Denys Tudor Emil ROBERTS, OBE, QC, appointed to act as Attorney General from 21st August to 4th September 1965.

Mr David Whinfield Barclay BARON, appointed to act as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 15th July to 25th August 1965.

Type of appointment

Names of members

Remarks

on 1st January 1966

Nominated

""

""

331

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:-Contd

The Honourable William David GREGG

(Director of Education)

The Honourable David Ronald HOLMES,

CBE, MC, ED

(Director of Commerce and Industry)

The Honourable John Philip ASERAPPA

(District Commissioner, New

Territories)

The Honourable Robert Marshall

HETHERINGTON, DFC

(Commissioner of Labour)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable Dhun Jehangir

RUTTONJEE, CBE

The Honourable KWAN Cho-yiu, CBE

Succeeded Mr James Tinker WAKEFIELD

on 8th January 1965.

Succeeded Mr Patrick Cardinall Mason

SEDGWICK, CMG on 1st July 1965.

"

""

The Honourable KAN Yuet-keung, OBE

""

The Honourable Sidney Samuel

GORDON, OBE

""

""

""

The Honourable Li Fook-shu, OBE

The Honourable FUNG Hon-chu, OBE

The Honourable TANG Ping-yuan

The Honourable TSE Yu-chuen, OBE

The Honourable Kenneth Albert

WATSON, OBE

The Honourable Woo Pak-chuen, OBE

"

The Honourable George Ronald Ross

The Honourable SZETO Wai

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Sien-bing

Dr CHUNG Sze-yuen, appointed provi- sionally during the absence of Mr FUNG from 28th July to October 1965.

Mrs Ellen Li Shu-pui, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TANG from 12th June to 14th July and from 31st August to October 1965.

Mrs Ellen Li Shu-pui, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr WATSON from 16th July to 29th August 1965.

Mr

James DICKSON LEACH, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr Ross from 16th April to 28th May 1965.

Succeeded Mr Richard Charles LEE,

CBE on 13th June 1965.

Succeeded Mr FUNG Ping-fan, CBE on

24th June 1965.

332

Appendix XLIII

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal 1961-5

Supreme Court

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

Civil appeals

27

33

46

40

78

Criminal appeal

419

453

488

575

585

Original jurisdiction

943

1,271

1,351

1,605

2,917

Miscellaneous proceedings

354

449

445

514

522

Adoptions

176

176

139

125

89

Divorce

63

67

58

71

82

-

Criminal sessions

73

57

61

53

65

Admiralty jurisdiction

8

29

20

37

14

Probate grants

604

720

930

890

939

Lunacy

12

14

1

3

2

Bankruptcy

14

9

17

15

44

Company winding-up

8

9

12

15

19

Total

2,701

3,287

3,568

3,943

5,356

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

323

242

245

205

216

Civil jurisdiction

6,921

8,870

8,239

7,726

10,962

Workmen's Compensation

169

159

142

226

214

Distress for rent ...

827

809

789

679

1,119

Total

8,240

10,080

9,424

8,836

12,511

Tenancy Tribunal

Ordinary cases

891

917

846

746

796

Exemption cases

561

592

1,036

495

83

Demolished Building cases

260

272

Total

1,452

1,509

1,882

1,501

1,151

Work in the Magistracies for the Years 1961-5

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

Total number of summary matters (charges, summonses and appli-

cations, etc)

124,920

159,141 237,325

292,347

361,811

Total number of adult defendants...

121,206

150,486

239,692

281,189

338,666

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

113,075

143,231

226,575

270,002

322,516

Total number of juvenile defendants

3,378

4,561

5,075

9,829

16,281

Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

3,094

4,383

4,988

9,760

16,127

Total number of charge sheets

issued

...

40,994

53,709

86,012

118,183

145,277

Total number of summonses issued

74,619

95,430

142,918

162,662

184,221

Total number of miscellaneous

proceedings issued

3,887

3,662

5,434

5,838

5,204

Appendix XLIV

(Chapter 22: Constitution and Administration)

Urban Council

Type of appointment

Names of members on 1st January 1966

Remarks

333

Ex officio

Elected

CHAIRMAN:

The Honourable Kenneth Strathmore

KINGHORN

(Director of Urban Services)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Dr Anthony Henry Reginald Coombes,

MBE

(Deputy Director of Medical and

  Health Services, Vice-Chairman) The Honourable John Crichton

MCDOUALL, CMG

(Secretary for Chinese Affairs)

The Honourable Alec Michael John

WRIGHT

(Director of Public Works)

Mr David Whinfield Barclay BARON

(Director of Social Welfare) Mr James Tinker WAKEFIELD

(Commissioner for Resettlement)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr Brook Anthony BERNACCHI, OBE,

QC

Dr Raymond Harry Shoon LEE, OBE

Dr Herbert William WYILE acted as Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services from 1st July 1965 to 22nd December 1965.

Mr David Whinfield Barclay BARON acted as Secretary for Chinese Affairs from 15th July 1965 to 25th August

1965.

Appointed on 10th March 1965 vice Mr Dermont Campbell Barty, OBE.

""

""

Mr Li Yiu-bor, OBE

>>

Dr Woo Pak-foo, OBE

Mr Hilton CHEONG-LEEN

99

","

Dr Alison Mary Spencer BELL

>>

Mr CHEUNG Wing-in

Mrs Elsie ELLIOTT

""

Mr Solomon RAFEEK, BEM

""

Mr Henry Hu Hung-lick

Elected on 1st April 1965.

Nominated Mr Arnaldo de Oliveira SALES, OBE

Mr John Louis MARDEN

The Honourable FUNG Hon-chu, OBE

The Honourable Wilfred WONG

Elected on 1st April 1965.

Sien-bing

Mr Wilson WANG Tze-sum

Mr Lo Kwee-seong

Mrs Ellen Li Shu-pui, OBE

Mr Daniel LAM See-hin

Mr Rogerio Hyndman LOBO

Mr Hugh Moss Gerald FORSGATE

Appointed on 1st April 1965. Appointed on 1st April 1965.

Appointed on 1st April 1965 vice the Honourable Kenneth Albert WATSON, OBE, resigned.

334

Appendix XLV

(Chapter 9: Social Welfare)

Hong Kong Council of Social Service

Member Agencies

American Friends' Service Committee

Hong Kong Red Cross

American Women's Association of Hong Kong Hong Kong Red Swastika Society

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

Boy Scouts Association

British Commonwealth Save the Children

Fund

CARE Inc Hong Kong Mission

Caritas Hong Kong

Catholic Relief Services-National Catholic

Welfare Conference

Catholic Women's League

Causeway Bay Kaifong Welfare Advancement

Association

Children's Meals Society

Children's Playground Association

Chinese Young Men's Christian Association

Christian Children's Fund, Inc

Christian Family Service Centre

Church of Christ in China

Church World Service

Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind

The Endeavourers

Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

Foster Parents' Plan, Inc

Girl Guides' Association

Heep Hong Club

Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

Hong Kong Catholic Social Welfare

Conference

Hong Kong Cheshire Home

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club

Hong Kong Christian Welfare and Relief

Council

Hong Kong Council of Women

Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society Hong Kong Family Welfare Society

Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups Hong Kong Housing Society Hong Kong Indian Welfare Society

Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce Hong Kong Juvenile Care Centre

Hong Kong School for the Deaf

Hong Kong Sea School

Hong Kong Social Workers' Association Hong Kong Society for the Blind

Hong Kong Society for the Protection of

Children

Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation

Hong Kong University Social Service Group

International Rescue Committee, Inc

International Social Service

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council

Lutheran World Service

Maryknoll Sisters Catholic Welfare Centre

Mennonite Central Committee

Mental Health Association of Hong Kong

Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief

Methodist Women's Association of Hong Kong

Misereor Social Aid Fund

Mission to Lepers Hong Kong Auxiliary

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief

Po Leung Kuk

Project Concern, Inc

Rennie's Mill Student Aid Project

Resettlement Estates Loan Association

The Salvation Army

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug

Addicts

Society of Boys' Centres

Society for the Relief of Disabled Children

Society of St Vincent de Paul

St James' Settlement

St John Ambulance Association and Brigade

Street Sleepers' Shelter Society

Toc H Men's and Women's Association

Tung Lin Kok Yuen

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals

World Council of Churches

Young Women's Christian Association

Index

<

J

      Abercrombie, Sir Patrick, 193 Aberdeen, 247

development scheme, 172 Rehabilitation Centre, 145 Accidents, industrial, 26, 97, 280 Accommodation, 131

Index

Action Committee against Narcotics,

265

Administration, Government, 264-8 Adoption, 143

Advisory Committee on Telephone

Services, 197

Aero Club of Hong Kong, 184 Agricultural Show, 63

Agriculture, 61-76

policy and administration, 63-5

Air crash, 157

Air traffic, 162

Aircraft engineering, 45

Airport, 31, 183, 184, 231, 260

Alexandra, HRH Princess, Frontis-

piece, between pages 16-7

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Hospital, 102, 113

Aliens, 161, 235

Ambulance service, 156

American Society of Travel Agents,

164, 165

Amherst, Lord, 249

Anglican church, 216

Anglo-Chinese War, 250, 253

Appeal Courts, 264

Animal industries, 67

Apprentices, 84

Armed Services, 207-8

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 58 Baptist Church and hospital, 216 Bathhouses, 114

Bathing and beaches, 221-2 Bauhinia Blakeana, 243 BCG vaccine, 100

Bets and Sweeps Tax, 34 Bianchi, Msgr Lawrence, 217 Birds, 240

Birth and death registration, 237 Birth rate, 98

Black, Sir Robert, College, 87 Blake, Sir Henry, 243, 254

Blake Pier, 172

Blood banks, 110

Board of Trade, 53

Bogue, The Treaty of, 251

Books, 224-5

Botanic Gardens, 245

Botany, 245

Boy Scouts and Girl Guides

Association, 143

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association,

143

British-

Council, 225-6

Phosphate Commission, 19

Red Cross Society, 110, 141, 146 Broadcasting, 199-203

Commercial, 201-2

Government, 200

Bruce, Sir Frederick, 253

Buddhism, 212

Art collections, 223-4

Art in schools, 90

Arts, the, 222-3

Asian Productivity Organization, 41

Assets and liabilities, 30, 31, 284-5 ASTA Convention, 164

Athletics, 220-2

Attorney General, 263

Auxiliary Defence Services, 208-11 Auxiliary Fire Service, 158, 210 Auxiliary Medical Service, 210 Aviation, 183-4

Banking, 5-8, 36-8

Commission, 37 Commissioner, 6 Legislation, 37

Banknotes, 6, 36

Building,

Authority, 123

construction, 123-5

development, 118

Government, 170

legislation, 123

plans for, 123

Buildings (Amendment) Ordinance,

123, 124

Buoys, 181

Bursaries, 4-5, 83, 147 Bus services, 189-90 Business registration, 34 Butterflies and moths, 241

Cable and Wireless Ltd, 195 Canton Trust and Commercial Bank,

5, 6, 7

Cantonese, 235-6

Cape St Mary, the, 71

338

Car parks, multi-storey, and metered

zones, 187

CARE (Co-operative for American

Relief Everywhere, Inc), 146

Cargo storage, 181

Cargo tonnages, 46 Caritas, 109, 217

Caritas Medical Centre, 217 Castle Peak, 11, 119

Castle Peak Hospital, 106, 107 Cathay Pacific Airways, 184 Catholic Centre, 217

hospitals, 217

    Relief Services, 134, 146 Truth Society, 217

Cattle, 68

Cemeteries and Crematoria, 218,

266

Census, 235, 259

Central District Re-development,

122

Certificates of Origin, 54

Chai Wan, 122, 194

Chartered Bank, 6, 35

Chemist, Government, 110

Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 177

Chi Ma Wan Prison, 155

Child welfare, 143

Children, abandoned, 143 Children's Reception Centre, 143

China Light and Power Co Ltd, 175 China Mail, 198

      China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 189-90 Chinese Affairs, Secretary for, 255,

265

Chinese General Chamber of

Commerce, 57

Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

50, 58

Chinese Middle Schools, 81

Civil-

Aid Services, 210-1

Aviation, 183-4

Defence, 208, 211

Service, 264

Clan land, 247

Clansmen's associations, 268

Cleansing, 113-5

Climate, 229-30

Clinics, 110

Clinics, floating, 111

Coinage, 34-6

Collections, Government, 223-4

Colonial Development and Welfare, 31 Colonial Secretariat, 264

Colonial Secretary, 264

Commerce and Industry Department,

55-7

Commerce, Industry, Finance

Directory, 50

Commercial public relations, 48, 50

Commercial Radio, 201

Commercial wharves, 181

Commissioner for Transport, 189

Commissioner of Rating and

Valuation, 138

Commonwealth Cable System, 195

Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 161

Commonwealth Preference, 55

Communicable diseases, 99

Communications, 179-97

Community centres, 146

Community Relief Trust Fund, 146

Companies Registry, 59

Concerts, 223

Confucius, 212

Constitution, 261-70

Consular corps, 308

Consumer Price Index, 21 Convention of Peking, 253

Chinese New Year, 214, between pages Co-operative Societies, 75

124-5

Chinese Opera, 222

Chinese People's Republic, 11, 24, 39, 46, 55, 72, 160, 161, 166, 182, 185, 227

Chinese University, 83, 226 Ching Ming, 185, 214

Cholera, 99

Christians, 215-8

Christian Scientists, 216 Christian Study Centre, 216 Chuenpi, Convention of, 251 Chung Chi College, 83 Chung Yeung Festival, 214 Church of Christ in China, 216 Churches, 216

Cinemas, 205

City Hall, 222-3

Co-ordinating Committee for

Treatment of Tuberculosis, 100 Cottage resettlement, 126, 129 Cotton Textiles, 42-3, 52 Courts, 262-4 Crime, 151

Crops, 64-6

Cross-harbour race, 220

Cross-harbour tunnel, 14, 186, 192-4 Crown land, 120, 121, 267

Crown leases, 117-20

Currency, 34

Customary marriages, 238

Dance Halls Tax, 34 Day nurseries, 143 Deaf, schools for, 80 Death rate, 98

339

Deaths, 237

Deer, Barking, 239, 240 Defence, 207-11

Defence expenditure, 28, 282

Defence (Finance) Regulations, 36 Delinquency, 141, 143, 152 Dental Council, 99

Dental services, 111, 112 Development Loan Fund, 30 Diphtheria, 104 Disabled, the, 144

Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society,

146

Diseases, 99-105

     Display Centre of HK Products, 50 District Courts, 262, 263

District health work, 106, between

pages 100-1

Diversification of industry, 40, 43-5 Divorce, 263

Dockyard development scheme, 120,

121

Doctors, 112, 318

Dollar coins, 36

Domestic exports, 9, 42, 46, 47-50,

297, 299, 302-3, 306

Dragon Boat Festival, 214

Drainage, 171

Drama, 222-3

Driving licences, 152, 153, 189

Drug addiction, 11, 12, 107 (see

Narcotics)

Ducks and geese, 68

Education, (Contd)

School Health Service, 106 School Medical Service, 106 secondary, 81

white paper, 3, 78-9 Educational broadcasting, 200-2 Electricity, 175-7 Elliot, Capt C., 250 Emergency (Bank Control)

Regulations, 36 Emigration, 161 Employment, 17-27

holidays with pay, 22 information service, 20 migration for, 19-20, 161 New Territories, 18 safety, health and welfare, 26 strikes, 25

wages and conditions of, 20 working hours, 22

Entertainment, 222-3 Entertainment Tax, 34

Entrepôt trade, 46-7, 297, 299, 304-5,

307

Essential Services Corps, 208-10 Estate Duty, 33

Evening institutes, 85

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 85

Examinations, external, 84, 89, 90 Exchange control, 36

Exchange Fund, 35

Excise duties, 31

Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme, Executive Council, 261, 328-9

143

Dutiable Commodities, 31-2

Duties and licence fees, revenue, 281 duties, Excise, 31

Earnings and Profits Tax, 32-3

Earthquakes, 232

East India Company, 249

East River, 229, 259

Education, 78-96

adult, 85

endowments, 4-5, 83, 147 examinations, 88 Expenditure on, 282, 283 extra-mural studies, 86 higher, 82

music and art, 90

number of schools and pupils,

78-85, 311

overseas, 85, 226

primary, 79

recreation centres, 85

research into, 91

scholarships and bursaries, 4-5,

83, 147

Expenditure and revenue, 30, 281, 282,

283

Export Credit Insurance Corporation,

9, 48

Export promotion, 9, 47-50

Exports, 9, 42, 46, 47-50, 297, 299,

302-3, 306

External trade, 46-7

Extra-mural studies, 86-7

Factories and industrial undertakings,

18, 22, 278-9

Factory registration and inspection,

17, 26, 280

Far East Flying Training School, 184 Far Eastern Economic Review, 198 Farming, 61-2, 64, 69

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

57

Federation of Youth Groups, 142 Ferries, 191-2

Festivals, Chinese, 214, between pages

124-5

Film censorship, 205 Film industry, 203

340

Films, Government, 205 Finance, education, 282, 283 Finance, health, 98, 282, 283 Finances, public, 28-31, 281-94

Fire boats, 157

Fire prevention, 157

Fire Services, 156-8 Fish, 70-6

fry, 67

marine, 70

Marketing Advisory Board, 73

Marketing Organization, 73 ponds, 67

salt-dried, 72

Fisherfolk, training and education of,

74 Fisheries,

administration, 63

Development Loan Fund, 71 Exhibition, 70

research station, 71

Fishing, 70

Fishing fleet, 72

Flatted factories, 128, 129

     Flora, 241-6 Flouridation, 111 Flyovers, 186

Food inspection, 113-5 Foot and mouth disease, 69 Football, 220

Forces, local, 208-11 Ford Foundation, 83

Foreign Assets Control Regulations

(US), 39

Forestry, 69

Fruit, 65

Fukien, 235

Full Court, 264

Funicular railway, 190

Garbage, 115

      Garment industry, 43 Gas, 177-8

GATT, 50-4

      General health, 97-8 Geography, 227-9 Geology, 227-9

Germany, Federal Republic, 52 Governor in Council, 261 Government Chemist, 110 Grantham College, 87

Grantham Hospital, 101, 102

Hadow, Sir Gordon, 269 Hakka, 91, 236

Hang Seng Bank, 7

Harbour facilities, 179-83

Haven of Hope Sanatorium, 102, 109 Hawker Control Force, 115, 151

Hawkers, 115

Health, 97-116

dental services, 111

education, 114-5

environmental, 113

industrial, 26, 27 inspectors, 113-5

Mental, 106

ophthalmic service, 112

out-patient services, 110 specialist services, 110 statistics, 315-318 training, 112-3

visitor service, between pages

100-1

Heavy industries, 44-5

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium, 103 Helicopters, 210

Herbarium, Government, 245 Heroin, 323 (see Narcotics) Heung Yee Kuk, 268

Hindu Community, 218, 219 Hire cars, 191 History, 247-60 Hockey, 220 Hoklo, 236

Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering

Co Ltd, 184

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis

Association, 100-2, 109

Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force,

208, 210

Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission

to Lepers, 103

Hong Kong Biological Circle, 245 Hong Kong Bird Watching Society,

245

Hong Kong Buddhist Association,

212

Hong Kong Building and Loan

Agency, 132

Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd,

177-8

Hong Kong Christian Council, 216 Hong Kong College of Medicine, 254 Hong Kong Commercial

Broadcasting Co, 201

Hong Kong Conference of Youth

Organizations, 142

Hong Kong Council for Educational

Research, 91

Hong Kong Council of Social

Service, 140, 146, 149, 334 Hong Kong Dental Society, 111 Hong Kong Exporters' Association, 57 Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 24

Hong Kong Federation of Youth

Groups, 143

341

Hong Kong Flying Club, 184 Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 57

Hong Kong Government Office,

London, 49

Hong Kong Government Trade

        Representative, Sydney, 57 Hong Kong House, London, 85 Hong Kong Housing Society, 134 Hong Kong Junior Chamber of

Commerce, 57

Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 24

Hong Kong Life Guard Club, 222 Hong Kong Management

       Association, 41, 165 Hong Kong Medical Council, 99 Hong Kong Regiment, 208-9 Hong Kong Registry of Shipping, 182 Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, 208 Hong Kong Sanatorium and

Hospital, 113

Hong Kong Settlers' Housing

Corporation, 134

Hong Kong Society for the Blind, 145 Hong Kong Taoist Society, 212 Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd, 196 Hong Kong Tiger Standard, 198 Hong Kong Tourist Association,

162-5

Hong Kong Tramways, Ltd, 190 Hong Kong Women's Naval

Reserve, 209

Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 175 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, 4, 6, 7, 10, 147 Hongkong and Whampoa Dock Co

Ltd, 182

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co

Ltd, 191-2

Hospitals, 107-10, 317 Hotels, 164

Hotung Collection, 223 Hotung, Eric, Trust, 4

      Household expenditure survey, 21 Housing, 131-5

Authority, 132-4 Board, 135 co-operatives, 134-5 low-cost scheme, 133 mortgage scheme, 132 rents, 126-8, 132

HRH Princess Alexandra,

Frontispiece, between pages 16-7

Hunan, the, 182 Hung Hom, 192 Hydrofoils, 161

Hygiene, environmental and food,

114-5

Immigration, 160-2

illegal, 151, 160

Imports, 46, 296, 298, 300, 301, 306 Incinerators, 114, 115, 173 Income Tax, 32-3, 281

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 57 Indus River, 167 Industrial-

accidents, 26, 97, 280 employment, 17, 18 health, 26

land, 45

relations, 24-5

safety, 26

Training Advisory Committee, 23 training and productivity, 41 undertakings, 22, 23

welfare, 26, 27

Industry and trade, 39-60 Infant mortality, 98

Information Services Department,

204-5

Inland Revenue, 32-4

Institute of Modern Asian Studies, 92 Institute of Pathology, 110 Insurance, 59-60 Interest Tax, 32

Internal Public Transport, 187-92 Internal revenue, 32-4

International Confederation of Free

Trade Unions, 24

International Cotton Textile

Arrangement, 52

International economic relations, 50 International Sanitary Regulations,

105

International Telephone Services, 196 International Trade Negotiations,

50-4

Iron ore, 76

Islamic community, 218

Japanese occupation, 258 Jewish community, 218 Joseph Trust Fund, 63, 75 Judiciary, 262-4

Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, 100 Junk building, 44

Junks, 181

Justice, Courts of, 262-4

Juvenile Care Centre, 145

Juvenile Crime, 142, 152

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 63

Kai Fong Welfare Associations, 114,

265

Kindergarten schools, 143 Kowloon, 253

342

     Kowloon-Canton Railway, 185 Kowloon Hospital, 98, 108, 255 Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

189

Kowloon Tsai Park, 221 Kung Sheung Yat Po, 198 Kuoyu, 200

Kwai Chung, 45, 174, 186 Kwangtung, 227, 247 Kwong Wah Hospital, 108 Kwun Tong, 45, 174

Labour-

administration, 23

disputes and stoppages, 24 hours of work, 22 legislation, 25

     Lai Chi Kok Hospital, 171 Land, 117-22

administration, 117

agricultural, 61-3

arable, 64-6

area, 62

auctions, 117

Crown, 117-121

development, 119, 174

for industry, 45

Lo Wu, 185, 195 ·

Loans, 71, 74, 75-6, 310

Local Forces, 208-11

London Missionary Society, 215, 254 London Office, Hong Kong

Government, 57

Long Term Cotton Textile

Arrangement, 50-4 Lotteries Fund, 140 Lugard, Sir Frederick, 254 Lunacy, Official Solicitor in, 264 Lutheran Church, 216

Lutheran Training Centre, 144,

between pages 28-9

Lutheran World Service and

Federation, 145, 146

Ma On Shan, 76

Macartney, Lord, 249

Macau, 160, 161, 224, 227, 248, 258

Macau Ferries, 161

Made in Hong Kong, 205

Magazines, 198, 326

Mahjong, 220

Magistracies, 262, 263

Malaria, 103

Mammals, 239-40

Office (Registrar General), 138-9 Marine Communications, 179-80,

revenue, 121, 320

sales, 117, 120

surveys, 121

tenure, 119

transactions, private, 123-5 utilization, 61

Landlord and Tenant Ordinance,

135-8

Language teaching, 154

Law courts, 262-4

Law enforcement, 150-5

Law practice, 262

Leases, Crown, 117-21 Legislation, 274-7

Legislative Council, 261, 330-1

Lei Cheng Uk, Tomb, 247 Lei Yue Mun, 179, 258

Lepers, Mission to, 103

Leprosy, 102, 103

Letters Patent, 262

Li Choh-ming, Professor, 83

Libraries, 224-5, between pages 76-7

Light industries, 43

Lighters, 181

Lighthouses, 180, between pages

196-7

Lin Tse-hsu, 250

Lion Rock Park, 221

Lion Rock Tunnel, 168, 186 Liquidations, 58 Livestock, 67-9

between pages 196-7

Marine Department, 179-83

Marine fauna, 240

Marine police, 151

Market gardening, 64-5 Marketing, 66-7, 73-5 Marriages, 237-8

Mass Transit Consultants, 187 Materials Testing Laboratory, 174 Maternal and child health, 105-6 Matriculation, 81, 82

Measles, 104

Measures and weights, 273

Medical-

and Health Department, 97-116 Clinics Ordinance, 111 Development Plan Standing

Committee, 97

finance, 98-9, 282

personnel, 318

research, 116

specialist services, 110

training, 112-3

visitor service, between pages

100-1

Mental health, 106 Mercantile Bank, 35

Mercantile Marine Office, 181 Merchant Navy Club, 182

Merchant Shipping (Amendment)

Ordinance, 179

343

Meteorological research, 232,

Meteorology, 230-2

Midwives, 106

Methodist Church, 216

Mid-Autumn Festival, 214

Middle schools, 81

Milan Trade Fair, 49

Milk, 68

Minerals, 76, 310

Ngau Tau Kok, 122

Ngong Ping Monastery, 213, between

pages 220-1

Nimbus 1 satellite, 232

North Point, 122

Northcote Training College, 87

Migration for employment, 19-20, 161 Note Security Funds, 35

Mines Department, 76-7

Ming Tak Bank, 5, 7

Mining, 76-7

Mohammedanism, 218

Monasteries, 218, between pages

220-1 Monkeys, 239

Moral welfare, 144 Mormons Church, 216

Mortgage loan scheme, 132

Moths, 241 Museum, 224 Music, 90, 222-3

Muslim community, 218

Nanking, Treaty of, 251 Napier, Lord, 249

Narcotics, 11-2, 107, 155, 265, 322-3

Narcotics Advisory Committee, 265 National Library of Peking, 224 Natural history, 239-46

Naval Dockyard, 102

Navigation, 179-80

Neonatal mortality, 98

Nethersole Hospital, 102, 113

New Asia College, 83

New Kowloon, 117

New Territories-

Administration, 266-8 beaches, 221

employment, 18

health services, 103, 110-1,

114-5, between pages 100-1

Heung Yee Kuk, 268

irrigation systems, 169 land tenure, 117-120 land utilization, 61-2

libraries, between pages 76-7 parks and playgrounds, 221 population, 236

public works, 170, 171, 174 squatters, 129-31

taxis, 191

New Year Festival, 214, between

pages 124-5

News agencies, 199

Newspapers, 198-9, 326

Newspaper Society of Hong Kong,

199

Nurses, 112-3, between pages 100-1 Nurses Board, 99, 113

Nylon dams, 10, 168

Occupational accidents, 26, 280 Occupational diseases, 26 Occupations, 17, 279

Ocean Terminal, 164 Official Receiver, 58 Old schedule lots, 119 Opera, 222

Opium, 250, 323 (see also Narcotics) Oriental Bank, 35

Overseas representation, 308

Oyster farming, 73

Pacific Area Travel Association, 164 Pacific Tidal Warning Service, 231 Paddy, 64-5

Palmerston, Lord, 247, 250

Parcel post, 195

Parkes, Sir Harry, 253 Parking, 187

Parks and playgrounds, 221-2 Passenger Transport Survey Unit,

187

Patents, 58-9

Pathology, Institute of, 110

Peak Tramways, 190, 256

Pearl culture, 73

Peking, Convention of, 253

Pelletier Hall, 144

Peninsula Electric Power Co Ltd,

176

Personal Assessment, 33

Pest control, 114-5

Pharmacy Board, 99

Physically handicapped, 144-5

Pigeons, 68

Pig-raising, 67

Pilotage, 179-80

Pirates, 247

Plague, 105, 256 Planning, 122-3

Plasticware, 43

Playgrounds, 221

Plays, 222

Plover Cove Scheme, 10, 167-9,

between pages 172-3 Po Leung Kuk, 144 Poisonous plants, 244 Pok Oi Hospital, 99

344

Police, 150-5, between pages 268-9

anti-illegal immigration, 151 Auxiliaries, 154, 208

CID, 151-2

communications and transport,

151

crime, 151

manpower and training, 153 Marine, 151

Special Branch, 151 Traffic Branch, 152-3 Uniformed Branch, 151 Women, 153 Poliomyelitis, 104 Political Adviser, 265 Pond fish production, 67 Population, 235-8

New Territories, 236 non-Chinese aliens, 235 urban, 235 Port, 179-183

Control Office, 180

Executive Committee, 179 Handbook, 204 health, 105

Welfare Committee, 182 works, 172

Postal Services, 194-5

Post-secondary colleges, 83

Post-secondary education, 82-5

Pottinger, Sir Henry, 251 Poultry, 68

Presbyterian Church, 216 Press, 198-9, 326 Preventive Service, 158 Primary education, 3, 79-81 Primary production, 61-77 Princess Alexandra, Frontispiece,

between pages 16-7 Prisons, 155-6

Private buildings, 123, 259 Privy Council, 264 Probation, 145-6

Productivity Council, 9, 41 Profits Tax, 32 Property Tax, 32

Prophylactic inoculations, 99, 104-5

Protection of fauna and flora, 245 Protestant churches, 215-6 Public Enquiry Service, 205-6

Public-

assistance, 146

assets, 30

debt, 30

health administration, 98-9

latrines and bathhouses, 114

order, 150-9

roads, 185-7

road transport services, 187-91

Public (Contd)

Service, 268-70

Services Commission, 269

transport, 187-92

utilities, 175

works, 166

Works Department, 166-75 Publicity, local and overseas, 204-5

Quarantine, 180

Quarrying, 76-7

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 107, 112,

255

Queen Mary Hospital, 108, 112, 255

Rabies, 69

Race Against People, 205 Radio, Commercial, 201 Radio Hong Kong, 200-1 Radio news, 204

Radioactivity, measurements, 232 Radiography, 110

Radiotherapy, 110

Railway, 185

Rainfall, 229-30

Rates, 32

Rating and Valuation Commissioner,

137

Rats, 115

Reader's Digest, 199

Reclamations, 172, 174

Records, 58-60, 120-1, 237-8

Recreation, 220-6

Red Cross, 110, 141, 146

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd, 202 Re-exports, 46, 297, 299, 304-5, 307 Refugees, 39, 255 (see also immigration,

illegal)

Refuse collections, 115

Registered and recorded factories, 17,

18, 280

Registrar of Co-operative Societies, 75 Registrar General, 58-60, 120-1, 237-8 Registration, companies, 59-60 Registry of Trade Unions, 25 Rehabilitation Loan, 31 Rehabilitation of handicapped

persons, 144-5 Religion, 212-9 Rent controls, 135-8 Reptiles, 240-1

Rescue service, 157-8 Research,

Chinese University, 95-6 fisheries, 70-2

medical and health, 116

meteorology, 232

tourist, 165

University of Hong Kong, 91-5

Reservoirs, 166-9

storage capacity, 167 Resettlement, 12, 125-9 boat squatters, 129 cottage areas, 125 cultivators, 130

flatted factories, 128 rents, 127

shops and workshops, 128 squatter problem, 125, 129-31 statistics, 319

Residential densities, 126-7 Resort areas, 165

Restaurant work in Britain, 19, 161 Retail Price Index, 21

Revenue and expenditure, 30, 281-3 Revenue Equalization Fund, 30 Review of 1965, 1-16 Rice, 64-5

      Ride, Sir Lindsay, 96 Rinderpest, 69 Road safety, 153

Road transport services, 187-91 Roads, 185-6

Robinson, Sir Hercules, 253 Robinson, Professor Kenneth, 83 Rodent control, 114-5

Roman Catholic Cathedral, 217

Church, 216-8

schools, 217

Royal Air Force, 207

Royal Asiatic Society, 226

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force,

207-8

Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, 110,

between pages 52-3

Royal Instructions, 261

Royal Navy, 207

Royal Observatory, 230-4, between

pages 244-5

Rural Committees, 267-8

      Russian Orthodox Church, 216 Ruttonjee Sanatorium, 101

Sai Ying Pun Clinic, 255 Salaries Commission, 21, 269-70 Salaries Tax, 32

Salt fish, 70-3

Salvation Army, 216

Sandy Bay Convalescent Home,

102

Sanitary services, 113-5

Scavenging, 115

Scholarships and bursaries, 4-5, 83,

147

School(s)-

Anglo-Chinese grammar, 81 blind for, 80 categories, 311

School(s)-(Contd)

Chinese middle, 81 crippled for, 80

deaf for, 80

evening, 85-6

fishermen's children, 74 Government, 80-1 grant, 79, 81 health service, 106 kindergarten, 80

Medical Service, 106

Music Association festival, 90 number of schools and pupils,

78, 311 primary, 79-81 private, 81

secondary, 81-2

secondary modern, 81-2

special, 80

subsidized, 79

technical, 81, 84-5

Sculpture, 224

Sea terminal, 164 SEACOM, 195

Seamen, recruiting, 181-2

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, 136,

255, 265

Seismology, 232

Seventh Day Adventist Welfare

Service, 146 Sewerage, 171 Sha Tin, 97

Sha Tin, new city, 11 Shek Kip Mei, 126 Shek Kwu Chau, 107 Shek Pik, 167, 259 Shipbreaking, 44, 183

Shipbuilding and repairing, 44, 182 Shipping, 180

Silver currency, 34-6 Sing Tao newspapers, 198 Slaughterhouses, 115 Slum clearance, 124 Snakes, 240-1

So Kam-tong, 220

Social Welfare, 140-9

Advisory Committee, 140 Statement of Aims and Policy, 2,

140

training, 147-8

youth camp, between pages 148-9

Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation

of Drug Addicts, 107

Society of Boys' Centres, 146

Soil, 61-2, 227-9

Sound Broadcasting, 199-202 South China Morning Post, 198 Special Branch, 151

Specialist health services, 110

345

346

Sports and recreation, 220-2 Squatters, 129-31

     St Columban Order of Sisters, 102 St John Ambulance Associations and

Brigade, 26

St John's Cathedral, 215 St John's Hospital, 100 Stage Club, 226 Stamp duty, 34 Standards, testing, 57 Stanley Prison, 155 'Star' Ferry, 192 'Star' newspaper, 198 Steel rolling mills, 44 Sterling, 6, 35, 37 Stevedores' strike, 183 Stonecutters Island, 253 Street cleansing, 115 Strikes, 25, 183

      Students in Britain, 85, 313 Sulphur Channel, 179 Sun Yat-sen, 254 Sung Wong Toi, 248 Supreme Court, 262, 264 Survey, air, 122 Sweeps Tax, 34 Swimming, 220 Swimming pool, 221 Swine, 67-8

Sydney Trade Fair, 49

Tai Lam Prison, 155 Tai Ping Rebellion, 253 Tai Po, 267

Tang clan, 247

Tanka, 236

Taoism, 212

Taxation, 32-4

Taxis, 188, 190-1

Teachers and teacher training, 87-8

Technical-

   College, 84-5, 226 education, 81

Telecommunications, 195-7

Telephones, 196-7

Television, 202

Authority, 203

Ordinance, 203

Wireless, 203

Telex, 196

Temperatures, 230 Temples, 213-4

     Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux, 136 Tenancy Tribunals, 136, 262-3 Tennis, 221

Textiles, 42-3

        to Britain, 53-4 Textile testing service, 57 Theatre, 222-3

Tientsin, Treaties of, 253 Tiger hunt, 239

Tin Hau, 213,

Tiros 8 satellite, 232 Tobacco, 31

Tokyo Trade Fair, 49 Tong Fuk Prison, 155 Topography, 227-9 Tourism, 162-5 Town planning, 122 Town Planning Board, 122 Trade-

administration, 55-7

and Industry Advisory Board,

40, 49

and industrial organizations,

57-8

Bulletin, 50, 56

Commissioners, 308

external, 46-7

fairs and exhibitions, 49 international, 50-5

Marks and Patents Registries,

58-9 missions, 49

promotion, 47-50

restrictions, 50-5

statistics, 42-3, 46-7, 296-307

Trade union leadership courses, 24

Trade unions, 24-5

Traffic, 152-3, 189 Traffic accidents, 153, Training-

health, 112-3 overseas, 85 rural, 64

teachers, 87-8

321

Unit (Civil Service), 269

Tramways, 190

Transistor radios, 43, 199

Transport, 187-92

Transport Advisory Committee, 188

Transport Office, 189

Travel documents, 160 Treaties of Tientsin, 253

Treaty of Nanking, 251 Treaty Ports, 252

Tree planting, 69-70, 222

Trench, Sir David, 6, 10, 12

Triad societies, 152

Tropical Storm Agnes, 13, 233

Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, 113, 255

Tsim Sha Tsui, 123, 186

Tsuen Wan, 174, 186, 194, 267, between

pages 172-3

Tuberculosis, 99-102

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 102,

108, 214, 264

Typhoid, 104

347

Typhoon Freda, 183, 233 Typhoons and tropical storms, 233-4

Unemployment, 19 United College, 83 United Nations, 161

United States, 39, 43, 46, 47, 50,

51-2, 55

University, Chinese, 4, 5, 83-4, 95 University of Hong Kong, 4, 82-3,

91-5, 254

Urban-

Council, 113-5, 221-2, 266, 333 population, 235

Services, 113-5, 221-2

Utilities, public, 175-8

Vegetable(s)

Co-operatives, 75

cultivation, 64

Marketing Organization, 66-7

production, 64-5, 229

Vegetation, 62, 241-6

Vehicle ferries, 192

Vehicles and drivers' licences, 153,

189, 321

Venereal diseases, 102

Victoria-

Central District, 122

Park, 221

Wages, 20-2

Waglan Island, 180, between pages

196-7

Wah Kiu Yat Po, 198 'Walkathon', 220 Wan Chai, 187, 193 Water, 11, 166-9

consumption, 166 from China, 11, 166 purity, 169 Weather, 232-4

Weather forecasts, 230, between pages

244-5

Weddell, John, 248

Weights and measures, 273

Welfare of women and girls, 144

Whales, 240

Whisson, Dr M. G., 146

Whitfield Barracks, 218

Wild life, 239-41

Williams, Professor Lady, 148

Wireless television, 203

Working hours, 22-3

Workmen's compensation, 26

World Council of Churches, 216

World Refugee Year Loan Fund, 76

X-ray examinations, 100

Yau Ma Tei, 122

City Development Company, 14, Year's weather, 232-4

192-3

Visas, 162

Vital statistics, 315

Vocational training, 144

Voluntary agencies, 142-3, 145, 148,

334

Volunteers, The, 208-9

Year in review, 1-16

YMCA, YWCA, 143, 216

Youth welfare, 141-3, between pages

148-9

Yuen Long, 228, 267

Zoology, 92

HONG KONG BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Bibliography which previously appeared in this Report is now available as a separate publication at HK$1.00 per copy. It is obtainable from the Printing Department, 81-115 Java Road, North Point, and the Government Publications Centre, Star Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong.

Printed and Published by S. Young, Government Printer, at the Government Press Java Road, Hong Kong, February 1966

PLAN

OF VICTORIA

& KOWLOON SHOWING DISTRICT

NAMES

- CHI KOK

Ku

STONECUTTERS ISLAND

KENNEDY

TOWN

DISTRICT

HONG

, SO UK

SHA TIN, PASS ROAD

LUNG

CHEUNG

ROA

AREA

SHEK KIP MEI

CHEMSHA WAN

SAI YING PUN

MID LEVELS

MOUNT DAVIS

DRAWN BY CL &

S. O. 1963

POK FU LAM

SHAM SHUI PO

WONG TAI SIN

DIAMOND HILL

NGAU CHI WAN

(AREA)

(AREA)

TOUR

1

SAN PO KONG

KOWLOON TONG

KOWLOON

CITY

H. K. AIRPORT

MONG KOK

HO MAN TIN

TAU KOK

YAU MA TEI

CENTRAL DISTRICT

KING'S PARK

HG HOM

TSIM SHA TSUI

VICTORIA

WAN CHAI

PEAR

NC P

HAPPY VALLEY

ARBOUR

¡CAUSEWAY BAY

KOWLOON

BAY

RUNWAY

NORTH POINT

JORDAN VALLEY

NGAU TAU

KWUN TONG

KOK

QUARRY BAY

ICA

SHAU KEI WAN

YAU TONG

CHAI WAN

RIES

Approximate boundaries only are shown on this plan. Colours used have no significance other than to define the districts.

Crown Copyright Reserved

70

一九六五年